WorldWideScience

Sample records for revisited science policy

  1. Speaking truth to power revisited: science, policy and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, D. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Magdeburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Gewaesserforschung; Krueck, C. [VDI-Technologiezentrum Physikalische Technologien, Duesseldorf (Germany). Abt. Zukuenftige Technologien

    2000-07-01

    The issue of climate change from the perspectives of climate change scientists and climate policy makers is discussed using results from two survey questionnaires. Emphasis is given to the German context. Included is the self assessment of the state of the art of the climate sciences and the importance assigned to different sources of information by policy makers. Conclusions indicate that policy makers rely on a number of sources other than the direct results of science, and have assigned a greater sense of urgency to the issue of climate change than have scientists. (orig.) [German] Auf Grundlage der Ergebnisse zweier Fragebogenaktionen wird diskutiert, wie sich die Problematik von Klimaveraenderungen aus der Perspektive von Klimaforschern und aus der Perspektive von mit Klimapolitik befassten Entscheidungstraegern darstellt. Die Betonung liegt auf den Verhaeltnissen in Deutschland. Eingeschlossen ist eine Einschaetzung des aktuellen Standes der Klimaforschung durch die Wissenschaftler selbst sowie der Bedeutung, welche von politischen Entscheidungstraegern verschiedenen Informationsquellen beigemessen wird. Es zeigt sich, dass sich politische Entscheidungstraeger auf zahlreiche Informationsquellen verlassen, die nur indirekt die Resultate der Klimaforschung wiedergeben und, dass dieser Personenkreis das Problem der Klimaveraenderungen als draengender ansieht als die Wissenschaftler selbst. (orig.)

  2. Environmental policy performance revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2012-01-01

    . On the basis of the typology, a hypothesis on their ability to expand green markets is generated and tested in a comparative analysis of the performance of organic food policies in Denmark, Sweden, the UK and the US, focusing on their impact on organic consumption. Our analysis demonstrates that cross......Studies of environmental policy performance tend to concentrate on the impact of particular policy institutions or of single policy instruments. However, environmental policies most often consist of a package of policy instruments. Further, these studies pay no or very little attention to policy...... instruments directed at the demand side of the market. Therefore this article develops a policy typology for government intervention aimed at creating green markets. The typology distinguishes between four types of policy based on the balance between the supply-side and demand-side policy instruments...

  3. The neglected heart of science policy (revisited): Balancing knowledge and action in an age of science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parris, A. S.; Ferguson, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    In the U.S., the need for effective scientist-decision maker engagement is explicitly endorsed at the highest levels of national science policy-making, including the annual research and development priorities memo of the Executive Office for fiscal year 2017. The call from the Executive Office formalizes a long-standing recognition, among a minority of scientists and practitioners, that the public value of research activities may be enhanced through engagement between scientists and decision makers. However, engagement is often embedded in research efforts, despite the fact that the ability to foster relationships and improve knowledge exchange has progressed primarily through boundary spanning efforts. Consequently, sound practice for engagement is not adequately considered in the design of new institutions, programs, and career development tracks. This gap illustrates a lack of formal learning in science policy and is critical because engagement and, specifically, co-production of knowledge are proving effective in adapting to global change. We examined over 10 different case studies spanning urban planning, natural resource management, and water management. In each case, deliberate strategies were employed to encourage decision maker-scientist engagement, including the formation of new organizations, innovative design of research projects, and training and education for professionals to participate in engagement efforts. Individual cases reveal several outcomes, including but not limited to: increased awareness of risk; information that enabled adaptation or resilience choices; exchange between decision makers from different sectors leading to more coordinated responses to natural resource impacts; and mediation for responsible use of science. Collectively, the body of evidence suggests that engagement may be most important not necessarily in reconciling supply and demand for science, but rebalancing knowledge and action in an age of science and technology.

  4. Malaysian Affordability Housing Policies Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Diwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Housing has always been a significant aspiration of family expression and distinctly priciest investment by household. It plays a momentous role in the country’s economy and so central to the societal well-being that is emplaced in the United Nation Universal declaration of Human rights. Yet in developed and developing world alike, cities struggle to provide decent housing for lower and middle income population. The provision of affordable housing is a major policy concern around the world with Malaysia being no exception; rising income hardly keep pace with price hike of housing unit and housing interventions has majorly concentrated on demand side leading to a non-responsive supply sector. Therefore, this paper highlights affordable housing issues pertaining Malaysia. It formulates Malaysian Map of affordability and conducts an evaluation of global housing schemes to better identify policy priorities for Malaysia. It’s significant to harmonize supply and demand side factors in the housing market to ensure that housing supply fits the needs of citizens based on the location, price and target group. In case of Malaysia supply oriented initiative are of urgency in short and medium run. This must be supported by long term demand side schemes in parallel. Convergence of these two factors is essential for a balanced equilibrium and obtaining affordability.

  5. Management of science policy, sociology of science policy and economics of science policy

    CERN Document Server

    Ruivo, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    'Management of science policy, sociology of science policy and economics of science policy' is a theoretical essay on the scientific foundation of science policy (formulation, implementation, instruments and procedures). It can be also used as a textbook.

  6. Science and Technology Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baark, Erik

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the status of science and technology in Mongolia, and discusses the policy issues which have emerged with the transition to market economy in recent years.......This paper examines the status of science and technology in Mongolia, and discusses the policy issues which have emerged with the transition to market economy in recent years....

  7. Science policy up close

    CERN Document Server

    Marburger, John H

    2015-01-01

    In a career that included tenures as president of Stony Brook University, director of Brookhaven National Laboratory, and science advisor to President George W. Bush, John Marburger (1941 2011) found himself on the front line of battles that pulled science ever deeper into the political arena. From nuclear power to global warming and stem cell research, science controversies, he discovered, are never just about science. Science Policy Up Close" presents Marburger s reflections on the challenges science administrators face in the twenty-first century. In each phase of public service Marburger came into contact with a new dimension of science policy. The Shoreham Commission exposed him to the problem of handling a volatile public controversy over nuclear power. The Superconducting Super Collider episode gave him insights into the collision between government requirements and scientists expectations and feelings of entitlement. The Directorship of Brookhaven taught him how to talk to the public about the risks ...

  8. Science, Society and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. S.; Teich, A. H.

    2010-12-01

    Apart from the journals they produce, scientific societies play an important role in communicating scientific findings and norms to the broader society. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) includes among its goals to promote and defend the integrity of science and its use; provide a voice for science on societal issues; promote the responsible use of science in public policy; and increase public engagement with science and technology. AAAS websites and programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/wwc/book.htm) and ScienceCareers.org (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org), provide tools for scientists to become more directly engaged in effectively communicating their findings and involved in the policy process. Education programs work to build the next generation of scientists and a science-literate public. To bridge the current communication gap between scientists, the public and policymakers, AAAS, like other scientific societies, maintains policy and outreach programs with limited budgets and staff. AAAS works to engage policymakers and provide scientific underpinning to key issues through congressional briefings, meetings, policy briefs, and media outreach. AAAS responds to challenges to accepted scientific findings and processes through op-eds, letters to government officials, resolutions, and Board statements. Some of these initiatives occur on a local level in partnership with local civic leaders, whose endorsement makes them more powerful. On a national scale, they assure that the voice of science is included in the debate. The changing media landscape presents opportunities and challenges for future AAAS endeavors.

  9. Science policy and diplomacy in UNESCO 1955-1975

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper; Christensen, Ivan Lind

    . In a seminal article Martha Finnemore has demonstrated that UNESCO from the mid-1950s pushed for the establishment of national science policy units in UNESCO member states. This often happened against the expressed priorities of member states that did not regard science policy units as an indispensable part......Science diplomacy has become increasingly important in inter-state relations during the last decades and historians are only now beginning to explore its historical roots. This work-in-progress paper is a contribution to the history of international science relations and science diplomacy...... of their state apparatus or imagined the science policy unite in a different manner. Finnemore thus showed how UNESCO served as a supplier of norms in international science relations. In this paper we revisit UNESCO Science policy program from the perspective of the member states - the recipients of UNESCO...

  10. Environmental policies in a differentiated oligopoly revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Kenji [School of Economics, Kwansei Gakuin Univ., Uegahara 1-1-155, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 662-8501 (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    Constructing a model of polluting oligopoly with product differentiation, we consider how product differentiation, together with the presence and absence of free entry, affects optimal pollution tax/subsidy policies. The sign of the short- and long-run optimal pollution taxes are highly sensitive to the parameter measuring product differentiation as well as the presence of free entry. How they are affected by a change in product differentiation, which is not addressed in the existing literature, is also made clear. (author)

  11. Nicotine Reduction Revisited: Science and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Perkins, Kenneth A.; LeSage, Mark G.; Ashley, David L.; Henningfield, Jack E.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Backinger, Cathy; Zeller, Mitch

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of nicotine levels in cigarettes and other tobacco products is now possible with the passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA) in 2009 giving the U.S. Food and Drug Administration authority to regulate tobacco products, and with Articles 9-11 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.[1-2] Both regulatory approaches allow establishing product standards for tobacco constituents, including nicotine. The FSPTCA does not allow nicotine levels to be decreased to zero, although FDA has the authority to reduce nicotine yields to very low, presumably non-addicting levels. The proposal to reduce levels of nicotine to a level that is non-addicting was originally suggested in 1994.[3] Reduction of nicotine in tobacco products could potentially have a profound impact on reducing tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. To examine this issue, two meetings were convened in the United States with non-tobacco-industry scientists of varied disciplines, tobacco control policy-makers and representatives of government agencies. This article provides an overview of the current science in the area of reduced nicotine content cigarettes and key conclusions and recommendations for research and policy that emerged from the deliberations of the meeting members. PMID:20876072

  12. Updating energy security and environmental policy: Energy security theories revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskuryakova, L

    2018-06-18

    The energy security theories are based on the premises of sufficient and reliable supply of fossil fuels at affordable prices in centralized supply systems. Policy-makers and company chief executives develop energy security strategies based on the energy security theories and definitions that dominate in the research and policy discourse. It is therefore of utmost importance that scientists revisit these theories in line with the latest changes in the energy industry: the rapid advancement of renewables and smart grid, decentralization of energy systems, new environmental and climate challenges. The study examines the classic energy security concepts (neorealism, neoliberalism, constructivism and international political economy) and assesses if energy technology changes are taken into consideration. This is done through integrative literature review, comparative analysis, identification of 'international relations' and 'energy' research discourse with the use of big data, and case studies of Germany, China, and Russia. The paper offers suggestions for revision of energy security concepts through integration of future technology considerations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bridging Science and Policy: The AGU Science Policy Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, E. R.; Uhlenbrock, K.; Landau, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, science has become inextricably linked to the political process. As such, it is more important now than ever for science to forge a better relationship with politics, for the health of both science and society. To help meet this need, the American Geophysical Union (AGU) strives to engage its members, shape policy, and inform society about the excitement of Earth and space science and its role in developing solutions for the sustainability of the planet. In June 2013, AGU held its second annual Science Policy Conference in Washington, D.C. The goal of the conference is to provide a new forum for diverse discussions and viewpoints on the challenges and opportunities of science policy, with a focus on applications of Earth and space science that serve local, national, and international communities. The meeting brought together more than 300 scientists, policy makers, industry professionals, members of the press, and other stakeholders to discuss the topics concerning the Arctic, climate change, oceans, energy, technology and infrastructure, and natural hazards science as they relate to challenges impacting society. Sessions such as 'The Water-Energy Nexus,' 'Potential for Megadisasters,' 'The Changing Ocean and Impacts on Human Health,' and 'Drowning and Drought: Agricultural Impacts of Climate Change' are examples of some of the intriguing and timely science policy issues addressed at the conference. The findings from the conference were used to develop a summary report. The report highlights key facts and figures to be used as a resource in discussions with policy makers and other stakeholders regarding the conference topics. This presentation will discuss the goals and outcomes of the conference and how the event represents one of the many ways AGU is approaching its 'Science and Society' priority objective as part of the Union's strategic plan; namely by increasing the effectiveness and recognition of AGU among policy makers as an authoritative

  14. My Summer with Science Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Marissa

    This past summer I interned at the American Institute of Physics and helped research and write articles for the FYI Science Policy Bulletin. FYI is an objective digest of science policy developments in Washington, D.C. that impact the greater physical sciences community. Over the course of the summer, I independently attended, analyzed, and reported on a variety of science, technology, and funding related events including congressional hearings, government agency advisory committee meetings, and scientific society events. I wrote and co-wrote three articles on basic energy research legislation, the National Institute of Standards and Technology improvement act, and the National Science Foundation's big ideas for future investment. I had the opportunity to examine some challenging questions such as what is the role of government in funding applied research? How should science priorities be set? What is the right balance of funding across different agencies and programs? I learned about how science policy is a two-way street: science is used to inform policy decisions and policy is made to fund and regulate the conduct of science. I will conclude with how my summer working with FYI showed me the importance of science advocacy, being informed, and voting. Society of Physics Students.

  15. Inaugural AGU Science Policy Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenbrock, Kristan

    2012-01-01

    AGU will present its inaugural Science Policy Conference, 30 April to 3 May 2012, at the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center, located in downtown Washington, D. C. This conference will bring together leading scientists, policy makers, industry professionals, press, and other stakeholders to discuss natural hazards, natural resources, oceans, and Arctic science and the role these sciences play in serving communities. To bridge the science and policy fields, AGU plans to host this conference every 2 years and focus on the applications of Earth and space sciences to serve local and national communities. "Our nation faces a myriad of challenges such as the sustainability of our natural resources, current and future energy needs, and the ability to mitigate and adapt to natural and manmade hazards," said Michael McPhaden, president of AGU. "It is essential that policies to address these challenges be built on a solid foundation of credible scientific knowledge."

  16. Science and technology policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Who is responsible for environmental and technological policy in Denmark? And how are those "policy-makers" made accountable to the public for their decisions?   This report attempts to answer these important questions by presenting the Danish contribution to the EU-funded project, Analysing Public...

  17. Science and Policy

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.

    that it is essential to reflect the thinking of senior-level scien- tists and technologists on the broader policies of scientific management in the country, a group of 22 senior scientists and heads of specialized divisions of major national institutes... health, cyber security, wildlife management, environment, renewable energy, foreign policy, and primary and higher education. For the ensuing century and even be- yond, S&T would be the leading element in spearheading the mental, psychologi- cal...

  18. Southeastern Science Policy Colloquium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, F.

    1995-06-22

    This conference covers four main topics: (1) Southeastern Labor Market and its Impact on Corporate/Industry Development; (2) New Issues for Science and Technology in the Year 2000 and Beyond; (3) The Role of Academia in Developing the Labor Force of the Southeast; and (4) K-12 Education: Challenges for the 21st Century.

  19. Environmental science-policy interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamelarczyk, Kewin Bach Friis

    + (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation and enhancement of forest carbon stocks) process and the phenomenon of deforestation in Zambia as research examples. The research was carried out from mid 2008 and to mid 2013 and applies a mixed methods research design. Fieldwork was carried out...... to science? This PhD thesis contributes to answering this questions; however it does this by questioning the conceptions of science that contribute to political decision-making and by exploring the relationship between scientific knowledge, other types of knowledge and policy. This PhD study employs the REDD...... in future REDD+ design and implementation. To curtail potential negative consequences of the identified mode of science-policy interaction in Zambia, the study concludes by making a number of proposals. The proposals are generic in nature and may be found relevant in environmental policy processes outside...

  20. Science, Technology, and Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke; Borrás, Susana

    2005-01-01

    This chapter is about what governments have done and could do to promote the production, diffusion, and use of scientific and technical knowledge in order to realize national objectives. We begin the chapter with "story-telling" based on sketchy historical facts. The aim of  the two stories...... is to illustrate that innovation policy covers a wide set of issues that have been on the agenda far back in history while still remaining important today. We move on to sketch the history of innovation policy, splitting it up into the three ideal types: science, technology, and innovation policy. We use OECD...

  1. Science communication in policy making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coumou, Hilde; van der Werf Kulichova, Z.; Wehrmann, C.

    2014-01-01

    Policy making regarding application of agricultural biotechnology has been controversial. This study investigates what determines the motivation of European biotech scientists to actively participate in policy making. To do this, a conceptual framework was developed based on the Theory of Planned...... Behavior. The framework was operationalized in semi-structured interviews with 17 European biotech scientists to collect data about their motivation to involve in GMO policy making. The results of this qualitative study suggest that the attitude of the scientists towards active participation in policy...... making is dependent on their view of the way science and decision making relate to each other. The respondents who are currently active in policy making seem to be driven by commitment to the public good. However, many respondents feel social pressure from environmental NGOs to withdraw from engagement...

  2. Science Policy: Behind the Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Travis

    2011-04-01

    I served nine weeks as an intern in the House of Representatives Committee on Science and Technology. For the majority of the summer I served in the Research and Science Education Subcommittee, researching, among other things, cyber-enabled learning, cybersecurity, and alternate energy costs. I learned a great deal about the workings of the American government and how to contribute to a professional office environment. During these nine weeks, my personal communication skills were greatly improved. My internship was created and funded by the John and Jane Mather Foundation for the Arts and Sciences, and as the only merit-based science committee intern, I felt a great responsibility to prove my worth in the Committee. It is important to have scientists involved in the policy of our government in order to keep our nation on a progressive track, and to preserve current scientific discoveries for posterity. Immersed in government and science policy, I feel very learned and prepared to participate in these fields.

  3. Report explores Congress' science policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard

    Scientists interested in understanding how Congress develops science policy would find it useful to read a recent report by the Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government. “Science, Technology and Congress: Analysis and Advice from the Congressional Support Agencies” contains revealing insights about the often hard-pressed system that Congress uses to analyze science and technology issues.“Congress is on the front line of many battles over the directions of science and technology,” says the 70-page report. “The quality of congressional decisions on these issues often depends on the quality and usefulness of information and analysis made available to Congress.” The report describes the overwhelming amount of information received by members of Congress, few of whom have “substantial training or experience” in science and technology. Making this information understandable and useful is the role of the Office of Technology Assessment, the Congressional Research Service, the General Accounting Office, and the Congressional Budget Office.

  4. Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, Silke; Meyer, Verena; Pakura, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    were captured when they described entrepreneurs. Therefore, this paper aims to revisit gender role stereotypes among young adults. Design/methodology/approach: To measure stereotyping, participants were asked to describe entrepreneurs in general and either women or men in general. The Schein......Purpose: Entrepreneurship is shaped by a male norm, which has been widely demonstrated in qualitative studies. The authors strive to complement these methods by a quantitative approach. First, gender role stereotypes were measured in entrepreneurship. Second, the explicit notions of participants......: The images of men and entrepreneurs show a high and significant congruence (r = 0.803), mostly in those adjectives that are untypical for men and entrepreneurs. The congruence of women and entrepreneurs was low (r = 0.152) and insignificant. Contrary to the participants’ beliefs, their explicit notions did...

  5. Science, Policy, and Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, D.

    2006-12-01

    These are intense times at the convergence between science and public policy. Because issues like climate change, stem cell research and environmental protection are being contested in choppy political water, political interests are being deployed to challenge science and researchers, and also to generate pseudo- scientific claims made in the interest of particular policy ends. In a number of cases reported in Science, administration officials have silenced their own employees, or withheld data selectively from draft reports. Added to that challenge to integrity, there is a new statutory environment that adds some complexity of its own. Beginning with the Data Quality Act, more familiarly the "Shelby Amendment," research results with significant economic impacts through regulation are now available through the Freedom of Information Act. Its successor, the Data Quality Act -- which opens a route of challenge to information released by government or gathered by others and used in advice or regulation has exposed scientists not only to having their primary data reanalyzed for the purposes of others, but to charges of research misconduct. These influences have made journal peer review more challenging in several ways, and I will outline some case examples.

  6. Ecological caring-Revisiting the original ideas of caring science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Helena; Ranheim, Albertine; Dahlberg, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this empirically grounded philosophical paper is to explore the notion of holistic care with the intention to expand it into a notion of ecological care and in such a way revisit the original ideas of caring science. The philosophical analysis, driven by lifeworld theory and especially Merleau-Ponty's philosophy, is firmly rooted in contemporary clinical care. We used interview data from patients in a study at an anthroposophic clinic in Sweden, which forms part of an ecological community with, for example, ecological agriculture. The empirical study is analysed according to reflective lifeworld research. Starting from the fact that illness can be defined as a loss of homelikeness in the body and in the familiar world, our findings illustrate how ecological care helps the patient to once again find one's place in a world that is characterized by interconnectedness. The task of ecological care is thus not only to see the patient within a world of relationships but to help the patient find his/her place again, to understand himself/herself and the world anew . Ecological care is not only about fighting an illness, but also recognizes a patient from inside a world that s/he is affected by and affects, that s/he is understood and understands from. Such care tries to restore this connection by making possible the rhythmical movement as well as the space in-between activity and rest, between being cared for and actively involving oneself in one's recovery and between closing oneself off from the world and once again going out into it.

  7. Ecological caring—Revisiting the original ideas of caring science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Dahlberg

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this empirically grounded philosophical paper is to explore the notion of holistic care with the intention to expand it into a notion of ecological care and in such a way revisit the original ideas of caring science. The philosophical analysis, driven by lifeworld theory and especially Merleau-Ponty's philosophy, is firmly rooted in contemporary clinical care. We used interview data from patients in a study at an anthroposophic clinic in Sweden, which forms part of an ecological community with, for example, ecological agriculture. The empirical study is analysed according to reflective lifeworld research. Starting from the fact that illness can be defined as a loss of homelikeness in the body and in the familiar world, our findings illustrate how ecological care helps the patient to once again find one's place in a world that is characterized by interconnectedness. The task of ecological care is thus not only to see the patient within a world of relationships but to help the patient find his/her place again, to understand himself/herself and the world anew. Ecological care is not only about fighting an illness, but also recognizes a patient from inside a world that s/he is affected by and affects, that s/he is understood and understands from. Such care tries to restore this connection by making possible the rhythmical movement as well as the space in-between activity and rest, between being cared for and actively involving oneself in one's recovery and between closing oneself off from the world and once again going out into it.

  8. Ecological caring—Revisiting the original ideas of caring science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Helena; Ranheim, Albertine; Dahlberg, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this empirically grounded philosophical paper is to explore the notion of holistic care with the intention to expand it into a notion of ecological care and in such a way revisit the original ideas of caring science. The philosophical analysis, driven by lifeworld theory and especially Merleau-Ponty's philosophy, is firmly rooted in contemporary clinical care. We used interview data from patients in a study at an anthroposophic clinic in Sweden, which forms part of an ecological community with, for example, ecological agriculture. The empirical study is analysed according to reflective lifeworld research. Starting from the fact that illness can be defined as a loss of homelikeness in the body and in the familiar world, our findings illustrate how ecological care helps the patient to once again find one's place in a world that is characterized by interconnectedness. The task of ecological care is thus not only to see the patient within a world of relationships but to help the patient find his/her place again, to understand himself/herself and the world anew. Ecological care is not only about fighting an illness, but also recognizes a patient from inside a world that s/he is affected by and affects, that s/he is understood and understands from. Such care tries to restore this connection by making possible the rhythmical movement as well as the space in-between activity and rest, between being cared for and actively involving oneself in one's recovery and between closing oneself off from the world and once again going out into it. PMID:27914196

  9. Carbon Leakage Revisited : Unilateral Climate Policy with Directed Technical Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Maria, C.; van der Werf, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    The increase in carbondioxide emissions by some countries in reaction to an emission reduction by countries with climate policy (carbon leakage) is seen as a serious threat to unilateral climate policy.Using a two-country model where only one of the countries enforces an exogenous cap on emissions,

  10. Commentary on "Distributed Revisiting: An Analytic for Retention of Coherent Science Learning"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The article, "Distributed Revisiting: An Analytic for Retention of Coherent Science Learning" is an interesting study that operates at the intersection of learning theory and learning analytics. The authors observe that the relationship between learning theory and research in the learning analytics field is constrained by several…

  11. France and Germany nuclear energy policies revisited: A veblenian appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petit Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear energy policy should have been a major area of cooperation for France and Germany, playing a lead role in the energy policy of the EU. Yet they have retained different options, especially regarding nuclear energy while the EU energy policy remained very indicative. These two “coordinated economies” should have been able to cooperate more closely on this issue. While the reasons for this difference in behavior have much to do with the specificities of the nuclear energy, they are more precisely related to the continuously rising level of security requirements, a learning process in which the magnitude of risks and time lengths appeared, even before Fukushima, to go beyond rational boundaries on which cooperation (as well as market ventures could be based. This raises the issue in the present state of the technologies of the possibility of an international governance of this nuclear industry.

  12. Carbon leakage revisited. Unilateral climate policy under directed technical change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria, Corrado Di; Van derWerf, E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the consequences of unilateral climate policy in the presence of directed technical change. We develop a dynamic two-country model in which two otherwise identical countries differ in their environmental policy: one of the countries enforces a (binding) cap on emissions while the other does not. Focusing on carbon leakage, we show how, compared with a 'traditional' endogenous growth model, directed technical change will always lead to lower emissions in the unconstrained country. When clean and dirty goods are good substitutes, it may even be induced to reduce its emissions below the optimum level when both countries are unconstrained, so leakage is negative

  13. Clean energy: Revisiting the challenges of industrial policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Adele C.; Nivola, Pietro S.; Schultze, Charles L.

    2012-01-01

    Large public investments in clean energy technology arguably constitute an industrial policy. One rationale points to market failures that have not been corrected by other policies, most notably greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on oil. Another inspiration for clean energy policy reflects economic arguments of the 1980s. It suggests strategic government investments would increase U.S. firms' market share of a growing industry and thus help American firms and workers. This paper examines the reasoning for clean energy policy and concludes that: •While a case can be made that subsidizing clean energy might help address market failures, the case may be narrower than some assert, and turning theory into sound practice is no simple feat. •An appropriate price on greenhouse gases is an essential precondition to ensuring efficient incentives to develop and deploy cost-effective emissions-abating technologies. However, efficient prices alone are unlikely to generate efficient levels of basic research and development by private firms. •Government investments in clean energy are unlikely to produce net increases in employment in the long run, in part because pushing home-grown technologies at taxpayers' expense offers no guarantee that the eventual products ultimately would not be manufactured somewhere else. •Spending on clean energy technologies is not well suited to fiscal stimulus. The authors recommend that: •Federal energy spending should invest in technologies with the lowest expected cost of abatement and highest probability of market penetration. •Funding decisions ought to be insulated – as much as possible – from rent-seeking by interest groups, purely political distortions, and the parochial preferences of legislators. - Highlights: ► Clean energy technology policy may be less justifiable than many assert, and doing it well is hard. ► The government should appropriately price greenhouse gas emissions and fund technology R and D.

  14. Global change research: Science and policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayner, S.

    1993-05-01

    This report characterizes certain aspects of the Global Change Research Program of the US Government, and its relevance to the short and medium term needs of policy makers in the public and private sectors. It addresses some of the difficulties inherent in the science and policy interface on the issues of global change. Finally, this report offers some proposals for improving the science for policy process in the context of global environmental change

  15. Hormesis in Regulatory risk assessment - Science and Science Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, George

    2011-01-01

    This brief commentary will argue that whether hormesis is considered in regulatory risk assessment is a matter less of science than of science policy. I will first discuss the distinction between science and science policy and their roles in regulatory risk assessment. Then I will focus on factors that influence science policy, especially as it relates to the conduct of risk assessments to inform regulatory decisions, with a focus on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The key questions will then be how does hormesis interact with current concepts of science and science policy for risk assessment? Finally, I look ahead to factors that may increase, or decrease, the likelihood of hormesis being incorporated into regulatory risk assessment.

  16. Driving Behaviour and Sustainable Mobility—Policies and Approaches Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Keyvanfar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is receiving increasing attention in recent years. The transportation sector contributes substantially to increased fuel consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, and poor air quality, which imposes a serious respiratory health hazard. Road transport has made a significant contribution to this effect. Consequently, many countries have attempted to mitigate climate change using various strategies. This study analysed and compared the number of policies and other approaches necessary to achieve reduced fuel consumption and carbon emission. Frequency aggregation indicates that the mitigation policies associated with driving behaviours adopted to curtail this consumption and decrease hazardous emissions, as well as a safety enhancement. Furthermore, car-sharing/carpooling was the least investigated approach to establish its influence on mitigation of climate change. Additionally, the influence of such driving behaviours as acceleration/deceleration and the compliance to speed limits on each approach was discussed. Other driving behaviours, such as gear shifting, compliance to traffic laws, choice of route, and idling and braking style, were also discussed. Likewise, the influence of aggression, anxiety, and motivation on driving behaviour of motorists was highlighted. The research determined that driving behaviours can lead to new adaptive driving behaviours and, thus, cause a significant decrease of vehicle fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.

  17. 1993 in review: Science policy developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard M.; Mockler, Susan Bucci

    Looking back over 1993, here are some of the major policy developments affecting the geophysical sciences community:JANUARY: John Gibbons confirmed as Office of Science and Technology Policy director and President Clinton's science advisor… Walter Massey resigns as National Science Foundation director… Hazel O'Leary becomes Department of Energy secretary … House Science, Space and Technology Committee is reorganized, reducing its six subcommittees to five… NSF's Division of Polar Programs elevated to the Office of Polar Programs, now a part of the Office of the Director… Bruce Babbitt confirmed as Secretary of the Interior.

  18. Revisiting climate change adaptation through proactive policy designing and institutional mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish K. Chaturvedi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a foremost challenge for agricultural productivity. The vulnerability is predominantly located in tropical regions with marginal farmers of developing countries. Enhancement of the adaptive capacity to climate change could be possible through revisiting the policy options with institutional reforms for adapting to the climate risks and sustaining the resilience in India. Innovative win-win approaches with key policy framework include innovative institutions, technologies, management systems and necessary financing mechanisms. Areas for utmost importance comprise agricultural research, irrigation, information technologies, market support, rural roads and extension services. Support from stakeholders to ensure effective adaptation/ mitigation strategy implementation and to provide financial support for addressing climate change issue is very essential. Along with these principles, a strong public-private partnership with successful institutional mechanisms may lead to the formulation of climate change adaptation strategies.

  19. Multi-national knowledge strategies, policy and the upgrading process of regions: Revisiting the automotive industry in Ostrava and Shanghai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijl, E. van; Carvalho, L.; Winden, W. van; Jacobs, W.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper revisits how and why new multinational knowledge-based strategies and multi-level governmental policies influence the upgrading process of regions in developing economies. Automotive multinationals traditionally exploited local asset conditions, but it is shown that they have also been

  20. African Journal of Political Science: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The AJPS is published by the African Association of Political Science (AAPS), with the aim of providing a platform for African perspectives on issues of politics, economy and society in Africa. It is published 2 times a year - in June and December, and targeted at the social science community, policy-makers, and university ...

  1. Exploring the science-policy interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Justine

    2010-04-30

    The sacking of David Nutt from his position as Chair of a UK government science advisory council has thrown the interface between science and policy into sharp relief. Justine Davies takes a look behind the scenes. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Science policy in changing times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, M.R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Like many scientists who were born right after World War II and who have learned a lot about physics, physical sciences, and biology from some of the incredible discoveries that were made in the defense laboratories, I have always been fascinated with Los Alamos. One of the marvelous opportunities that my job in Washington presented was to get to know a good deal more about the physical science world and the Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, particularly Los Alamos since the Manhattan Project

  3. African Health Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Provide a high quality journal in which health and policy and other ... and publication in the region including alternative means of health care financing, the ... by the African Health Journals Partnership Project that is funded by the US National ...

  4. Science for Tobacco Control Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantine Vardavas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent adoption of the Tobacco Products Directive is a unique opportunity to enhance the regulation of tobacco products in the European Union. In this presentation a brief overview of the development of an EU common reporting format for submission of data on ingredients contained in tobacco and related products will be presented, as an example of European tobacco regulatory science.

  5. Circulation policies in health science libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, C; Coker, N C

    1970-10-01

    There is general agreement that library policies have considerable influence on the use of libraries. Medical school (health science) libraries of this country were surveyed as to their policies in respect to whether faculty and student use were regulated by a single policy, circulation regulations, hours library was accessible to users, accessibility of reserve material, interlibrary loan, policy on overdue material, and exit control. THE LIBRARIES WERE THEN DIVIDED INTO THREE GROUPS, HIGH, MIDDLE, AND LOW ACCORDING TO THE FOLLOWING CHARACTERISTICS: size of student body, size of faculty, size of holdings, size of library staff, annual budget, and annual circulation. Our findings would indicate that schools falling in a high category based upon these criteria tend to be more restrictive in their policies and to have different regulations for faculty and students than do schools in the low category.These findings warrant further study.

  6. East African Journal of Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access Policy. This journal provides immediate open access to its content, upon registration, on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. Creative Commons License East African Journal of Sciences by Haramaya University is licensed under a ...

  7. Xenotransplantation: science, ethics, and public policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Xenograft, Transplantation Institute; Institute of Medicine

    ... Division of Health Sciences Policy Division of Health Care Services INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1996 Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, authoritative the typesetting-specific created from the as publication files other XML and from this of recomp...

  8. Horton Revisited: African Traditional Thought and Western Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the years Robin Horton has argued for what he refers to as the 'continuity thesis' according to which there are theoretical similarities between African traditional thought and modern Western science. Horton's thesis stands in contrast to the standard Western anthropological appraisal of traditional African thought.

  9. Gap between science and media revisited: scientists as public communicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Hans Peter

    2013-08-20

    The present article presents an up-to-date account of the current media relations of scientists, based on a comprehensive analysis of relevant surveys. The evidence suggests that most scientists consider visibility in the media important and responding to journalists a professional duty--an attitude that is reinforced by universities and other science organizations. Scientific communities continue to regulate media contacts with their members by certain norms that compete with the motivating and regulating influences of public information departments. Most scientists assume a two-arena model with a gap between the arenas of internal scientific and public communication. They want to meet the public in the public arena, not in the arena of internal scientific communication. Despite obvious changes in science and in the media system, the orientations of scientists toward the media, as well as the patterns of interaction with journalists, have their roots in the early 1980s. Although there is more influence on public communication from the science organizations and more emphasis on strategic considerations today, the available data do not indicate abrupt changes in communication practices or in the relevant beliefs and attitudes of scientists in the past 30 y. Changes in the science-media interface may be expected from the ongoing structural transformation of the public communication system. However, as yet, there is little evidence of an erosion of the dominant orientation toward the public and public communication within the younger generation of scientists.

  10. Climate policies for road transport revisited (II): Closing the policy gap with cap-and-trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flachsland, Christian; Brunner, Steffen; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Creutzig, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Current policies in the road transport sector fail to deliver consistent and efficient incentives for greenhouse gas abatement (see companion article by ). Market-based instruments such as cap-and-trade systems close this policy gap and complement traditional policies that are required where specific market failures arise. Even in presence of strong existing non-market policies, cap-and-trade delivers additional abatement and efficiency by incentivizing demand side abatement options. This paper analyzes generic design options and economic impacts of including the European road transport sector into the EU ETS. Suitable points of regulation are up- and midstream in the fuel chain to ensure effectiveness (cover all emissions and avoid double-counting), efficiency (incentivize all abatement options) and low transaction costs. Based on year 2020 marginal abatement cost curves from different models and current EU climate policy objectives we show that in contrast to conventional wisdom, road transport inclusion would not change the EU ETS allowance price. Hence, industrial carbon leakage induced by adding road transport to the EU ETS may be less important than previously estimated. - Research highlights: → We analyze the rationale, design and economic impacts of including road transportation into GHG cap-and-trade systems. → Suitable points of regulation are up- and mid-stream. → Including European road transport into the EU ETS by 2020 would not change the EU allowance price.

  11. Gap between science and media revisited: Scientists as public communicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Hans Peter

    2013-01-01

    The present article presents an up-to-date account of the current media relations of scientists, based on a comprehensive analysis of relevant surveys. The evidence suggests that most scientists consider visibility in the media important and responding to journalists a professional duty—an attitude that is reinforced by universities and other science organizations. Scientific communities continue to regulate media contacts with their members by certain norms that compete with the motivating and regulating influences of public information departments. Most scientists assume a two-arena model with a gap between the arenas of internal scientific and public communication. They want to meet the public in the public arena, not in the arena of internal scientific communication. Despite obvious changes in science and in the media system, the orientations of scientists toward the media, as well as the patterns of interaction with journalists, have their roots in the early 1980s. Although there is more influence on public communication from the science organizations and more emphasis on strategic considerations today, the available data do not indicate abrupt changes in communication practices or in the relevant beliefs and attitudes of scientists in the past 30 y. Changes in the science–media interface may be expected from the ongoing structural transformation of the public communication system. However, as yet, there is little evidence of an erosion of the dominant orientation toward the public and public communication within the younger generation of scientists. PMID:23940312

  12. Design Science Research For Personal Knowledge Management System Development - Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schmitt

    2016-11-01

    Thirdly, the development process and resulting prototype are verified against accepted general design science research (DSR guidelines. DSR aims at creating innovative IT artifacts (that extend human and social capabilities and meet desired outcomes and at validating design processes (as evidence of their relevance, utility, rigor, resonance, and publishability. Together with the incorporated references to around thirty prior publications covering technical and methodological details, a kind of ‘Long Discussion Case’ emerges aiming to potentially assist IT researchers and entrepreneurs engaged in similar projects.

  13. Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology: Editorial Policies ... Science and Technology (EJST) publishes high quality original research articles, reviews, short communications, ... Professor Afework Bekele, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.

  14. Climate Change Science,Technology & Policy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Climate Change Science,Technology & Policy · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Millions at Risk from Parry et al., 2001 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Climate Change · Is the global warming in the 20th century due to the increase in radiation emitted by the sun? Frohlich C, Lean J. 1998; ...

  15. Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Research Organization

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce financement contribuera à renforcer le rôle de la Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Research Organization (STIPRO) en tant qu'organisme crédible de recherche sur les politiques publiques en Tanzanie, en améliorant sa capacité à fournir des recherches de qualité supérieure, influentes et utiles en matière de ...

  16. 45 CFR 650.2 - National Science Foundation patent policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National Science Foundation patent policy. 650.2... FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.2 National Science Foundation patent policy. As authorized by the National Science... adopted the following statement of NSF patent policy. (a) In accordance with the Bayh-Dole Act and the...

  17. Revisiting Mediation in the Social and Behavioral Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio José Figueredo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The process of mediation is of critical importance to the social and behavioral sciences and to evolutionary social psychology in particular. As with the concept of evolutionary adaptation, however, one can argue that causal mediation is in need of explicit theoretical justification and empirical support. Mainstream evolutionary social psychology proposes, for example, that organisms are “adaptation executers”, and not “fitness maximizers”. The execution of adaptations is triggered by fitness-relevant ecological contingencies at both ultimate and proximate levels of analysis. This logic is essentially equivalent to what methodologists refer to as the process of mediation; the adaptations to be executed (or not, depending upon the prevailing environmental circumstances causally mediate the effects of the ecological contingencies upon the fitness outcomes. Thus, the process of mediation can be generally conceptualized as a causal chain of events leading to a given outcome or set of outcomes. If a predictor variable operates through an intervening variable to affect a criterion variable, then mediation is said to exist. Nevertheless, it does not appear that some psychologists (particularly evolutionary-social psychologists are sufficiently well-versed in the fundamental logic and quantitative methodology of establishing causal mediation to support such claims. In the current paper, we set out to review the ways researchers support their use of mediation statements and also propose critical considerations on this front. We start with more conventional methods for testing mediation, discuss variants of the conventional approach, discuss the limitations of such methods as we see them, and end with our preferred mediation approach. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v4i1.17761

  18. Public values and public failure in US science policy

    OpenAIRE

    Barry Bozeman; Daniel Sarewitz

    2005-01-01

    Domestic science policy in the United States is linked inextricably to economic thinking. We seek to develop a practical analytical framework that confronts the manifest problems of economic valuing for science and technology activities. We argue that pervasive use of market valuation, market-failure assumptions and economic metaphors shapes the structure of science policy in undesirable ways. In particular, reliance on economic reasoning tends to shift the discourse about science policy away...

  19. NAPAP: A lesson in science, policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, M.

    1993-01-01

    Perplexing environmental questions, such as acid rain and global warming, cry out for policy solutions based upon solid scientific evidence. Scientists and politicians agree on this but have trouble finding an effective way to do it. Milton Russell of the University of Tennessee and Oak Ridge National Laboratory describes a major, but only partially successful, effort that he believes contains valuable lessons for scientists and policy makers in the future. It is the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), launched in 1980 to generate the latest scientific evidence to guide national debate on clean-air legislation. The program open-quotes created an unprecedented body of scientific research on an environmental issue of the first order,close quotes Russell says. Yet, he admits, its influence was virtually nil on the legislation that ultimately emerged on the subject. Russell blames this lack of influence on NAPAP's failure to provide adequate assessment of its research findings, its failure to communicate the results on a timely and effective basis, and on open-quotes political forces that sought legislation rather than a full explication of issues.close quotes Out of the experience, Russell finds lessons for the future: open-quotes First, if the scientific finding are to have an impact on policy, assessment must become a priority as important as scientific research. Second, for projects designed to help decision makers, scientific research must be considered a resource, not an end product. Third, timely, lucid communication must be an essential element of the project, not a marginal activity.close quotes NAPAP, Russell concludes, open-quotes proved a long-term scientific success and a short-term policy disappointment.close quotes Then he warns, open-quotes Future science programs ignore the NAPAP experience at their own risk.close quotes

  20. Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science (MEJS) is a free access e-journal ... related to Earth Science, Physical Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Biological Sciences and ... materials, information related to conferences and any other relevant topics.

  1. Tanzania Journal of Science: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Science (TJS), is professional, peer reviewed journal, published in ... Optics, Thin films, Zoography, Military sciences, Biological sciences, Biodiversity, ... animal and veterinary sciences, Geology, Agricultural Sciences, Cytology, ... available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.

  2. AGU Public Affairs: How to Get Involved in Science Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, E. A.; Hankin, E. R.; Uhlenbrock, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    AGU Public Affairs offers many ways for its members to get involved in science policy at different levels of participation, whether you would love to spend a year working as a resident science expert in a congressional office in Washington, D.C., or would rather simply receive email alerts about Earth and space science policy news. How you can get involved: Sign up for AGU Science Policy Alerts to receive the most relevant Earth and space science policy information delivered to your email inbox. Participate in one of AGU's Congressional Visits Days to speak with your legislators about important science issues. Attend the next AGU Science Policy Conference in spring 2013. Participate in events happening on Capitol Hill, and watch video of past events. Learn about AGU Embassy Lectures, where countries come together to discuss important Earth and space science topics. Learn how you can comment on AGU Position Statements. Apply to be an AGU Congressional Science Fellow, where you can work in a congressional office for one year and serve as a resident science expert, or to be an AGU Public Affairs Intern, where you can work in the field of science policy for three months. The AGU Public Affairs Team will highlight ways members can be involved as well as provide information on how the team is working to shape policy and inform society about the excitement of AGU science.

  3. Navigating the science-policy spectrum: Opportunities to work on policies related to your research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licker, R.; Ekwurzel, B.; Goldman, G. T.; DeLonge, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Many scientists conduct research with direct policy relevance, whether it be producing sea-level projections that are taken-up by local decision-makers, or developing new agricultural technologies. All scientists are affected by policies made by their respective local, regional, and federal governments. For example, budgets affect the grant resources available to conduct research and policies on visas influence the accessibility of new positions for foreign scientists. As a result, many scientists would like to engage with the policy domain, and either bring their science to bear on new policies that are in the works (science-for-policy) or inform policies on the scientific research enterprise (policy-for-science). Some scientists prefer to engage and be neutral to the policy outcome, serving primarily as an information resource. Many may choose to also advocate for a particular outcome based on their expertise and experience. Research shows that policy decisions benefit greatly from the input of scientific experts. We explore the spectrum between informing policies in a "non-prescriptive" manner to working on policies in an advocacy space. We highlight tips for successful engagement along this spectrum. Finally, we review current science-for-policy and policy-for-science issues of relevance to the geophysical sciences.

  4. Bioplastics science from a policy vantage point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, Jim C; Bartsev, Alexandre; Ritchie, Rachael J; Baucher, Marie-Ange; Guy, K

    2013-09-25

    Society is fundamentally ambivalent to the use of plastics. On the one hand, plastics are uniquely flexible materials that have seen them occupy a huge range of functions, from simple packing materials to complex engineering components. On the other hand, their durability has raised concerns about their end-of-life disposal. When that disposal route is landfill, their invulnerability to microbial decomposition, combined with relatively low density and high bulk, means that plastics will occupy increasing amounts of landfill space in a world where available suitable landfill sites is shrinking. The search for biodegradable plastics and their introduction to the marketplace would appear to be a suitable amelioration strategy for such a problem. And yet the uptake of biodegradable plastics has been slow. The term biodegradable itself has entered public controversy, with accidental and intended misuse of the term; the intended misuse has led to accusations and instances of 'greenwashing'. For this and other reasons standards for biodegradability and compostability testing of plastics have been sought. An environmental dilemma with more far-reaching implications is climate change. The need for rapid and deep greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions cuts is one of the drivers for the resurgence of industrial biotechnology generally, and the search for bio-based plastics more specifically. Bio-based has come to mean plastics based on renewable resources, but this need not necessarily imply biodegradability. If the primary purpose is GHG emissions savings, then once again plastics durability can be a virtue, if the end-of-life solution can be energy recovery during incineration or recycling. The pattern of production is shifting from the true biodegradable plastics to the bio-based plastics, and that trend is likely to persist into the future. This paper looks at aspects of the science of biodegradable and bio-based plastics from the perspective of policy advisers and makers. It is

  5. Capacity building in nutrition science: revisiting the curricula for medical professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaria-Ghalili, Rose Ann; Edwards, Marilyn; Friedman, Gerald; Jaferi, Azra; Kohlmeier, Martin; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Lenders, Carine; Palmer, Carole; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2013-12-01

    The current nutrition education curricula for students in U.S. medical schools, and schools of other health professions, such as nursing and oral health, do not provide enough opportunity to gain knowledge of the interactions among micro- and macronutrients, their role in maintaining optimal body functions, factors that interfere with these interactions, or, importantly, how to integrate this knowledge into medical practice. There is a need to better prepare healthcare professionals for identifying nutrition risk and managing hospitalized patients, especially those with chronic conditions, using an interprofessional, team-based approach. A major goal of this report is to revisit current nutrition training programs for physicians and other healthcare professionals in order to explore opportunities for providing healthcare providers with the essential tools of preventative and therapeutic nutrition intervention strategies. The issues addressed include whether a consensus exists on how to integrate basic and applied nutrition into the general healthcare professional curriculum, and if so, at which stages of training and at what depth should these integrations occur; how nutrition education is dealt with and achieved throughout all the health professions; and whether current nutrition education models are sufficient. To help address these issues, the report will review current nutrition education practices-their strengths and weaknesses-as well as evaluate promising new initiatives, and offer proposals for new directions for nutrition education training of future generation of medical practitioners. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Science Policy Research Unit annual report 1984/1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The report covers the principal research programmes of the Unit, and also describes its graduate and undergraduate teaching, (listing subjects of postgraduate research) and library services. A list of 1984 published papers and staff is presented. The principle research programmes include: the setting up of the Designated Research Centre on Science, Technology and Energy Policy in British Economic Development; policy for technology and industrial innovation in industrialised countries; energy economics, technology and policy (with a sub-section on coal); European science and industrial policy; science policy and research evaluation; technical change and employment opportunities in the UK economy; new technology, manpower and skills; technology and social change; science and technology policy in developing countries; military technology and arms limitation. Short-term projects and consultancy are also covered.

  7. Heisenberg and the framework of science policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, C.

    2002-01-01

    In the decades after 1945, new structures were created for science policy in the Federal Republic. To the establishment of the postwar framework Heisenberg contributed as much as any other figure. This was true even though, on the whole, he took no great pleasure in the venture, nor was he always particularly adept at it. His conceptions revolved around certain key notions: autonomy and centralization, elite advisory bodies and relationships of trust, modernization and international standards. These show up at many levels of his activity, from the Max Planck Society to national and international advisory committees to the Humboldt Foundation itself. His opinions were shaped by encounters in the Federal Republic, but they also grew out of his experience of the Third Reich. At a moment like the present, when the postwar settlement is under review, it is interesting to reflect on the inherited system: on the extent to which it reflects the situation of the postwar decades and the intuitions of those who, like Heisenberg, created it. (orig.)

  8. The Superconducting Supercollider and US Science Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marburger, John H.

    2014-06-01

    Reasons for the Superconducting Supercollider's (SSC's) termination include significant changes in the attitude of the government towards large scientific projects originating with management reforms introduced decades earlier. In the 1980s, the government insisted on inclusion of elements of these reforms in the SSC's management contract, including increased demands for accountability, additional liability for contractors, and sanctions for infractions. The SSC's planners could not have opted out of the reforms, which were by then becoming part of all large publicly funded projects. Once these reforms were in place, management mistakes in the SSC's planning and construction became highly visible, leading to termination of the machine. This episode contains two key lessons about science policy. One is that the momentum of the government's management reforms was unstoppable, and its impact on large scientific facilities and projects could not be reversed. The other is that specific measures such as cost and schedule-tracking systems to provide measures of program performance and impact were also inevitable; large scientific projects needed new parameters of accountability and transparency in what can be called the Principle of Assurance.

  9. Mind the Gap: Integrating Science and Policy Cultures and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, S. M.; Simon, I.

    2015-12-01

    A 2014 survey conducted by the Pew Research Center asked members of the American Association for the Advancement of Science about their support for active engagement in public policy debates. The survey found that 87% of the respondents supported scientists taking an active role in public policy debates about science and technology (S&T), but most believed that regulations related to areas like land use and clean air and water are not guided by the best science. Despite the demand for actionable scientific information by policy makers, these survey results underscore the gap that exists between the scientific and the public policy communities. There are fundamental differences that exist between the perspectives of these two groups, even within Federal S&T agencies that are required to balance the perspectives of the science and policy communities in order to fulfill their agency mission. In support of an ongoing agency effort to strengthen communication and interaction among staff, we led a Federal S&T agency office through an examination and comparison of goals, processes, external drivers, decision making, and timelines within their organization. This workshop activity provided an opportunity to identify the interdependence of science and policy, as well as the challenges to developing effective science-based policy solutions. The workshop featured strategies for achieving balanced science policy outcomes using examples from a range of Federal S&T agencies. The examples presented during the workshop illustrated best practices for more effective communication and interaction to resolve complex science policy issues. The workshop culminated with a group activity designed to give participants the opportunity to identify the challenges and apply best practices to real world science policy problems. Workshop examples and outcomes will be presented along with lessons learned from this agency engagement activity.

  10. Revisiting the neuro-turn in the humanities and natural sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Budtz Pedersen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last twenty years there has been an unprecedented advance in neuroscience, infields such as pharmacology, neurology and behavioural genetics. A growing number of ethicists, legal scholars and philosophers have begun to analyse the implications of these advances; from the use off MRI scanning to the way in which scientific disciplines are organised in order to deliver techno-economic innovation. Drawing on recent contributions in philosophy of science and science policy studies I arguethat much like the optimism surrounding the benefit of advances in pharmaco genomics and gene therapy, there is a risk of overstating the real impact and explanatory power of advances in the neurosciences.

  11. Plans of mice and men: from bench science to science policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ian D

    2011-09-01

    The transition from bench science to science policy is not always a smooth one, and my journey stretched as far as the unemployment line to the hallowed halls of the U.S. Capitol. While earning my doctorate in microbiology, I found myself more interested in my political activities than my experiments. Thus, my science policy career aspirations were born from merging my love of science with my interest in policy and politics. After receiving my doctorate, I accepted the Henry Luce Scholarship, which allowed me to live in South Korea for 1 year and delve into the field of science policy research. This introduction into science policy occurred at the South Korean think tank called the Science and Technology Policy Institute (STEPI). During that year, I used textbooks, colleagues, and hands-on research projects as my educational introduction into the social science of science and technology decision-making. However, upon returning to the United States during one of the worst job markets in nearly 80 years, securing a position in science policy proved to be very difficult, and I was unemployed for five months. Ultimately, it took more than a year from the end of the Luce Scholarship to obtain my next science policy position with the American Society for Microbiology Congressional Fellowship. This fellowship gave me the opportunity to work as the science and public health advisor to U.S. Senator Harry Reid. While there were significant challenges during my transition from the laboratory to science policy, those challenges made me tougher, more appreciative, and more prepared to move from working at the bench to working in the field of science policy. Copyright © 2011.

  12. Global Journal of Geological Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Global Journal of Geological Sciences is aimed at promoting research in all areas of geological Sciences including Petrology, Mineralogy, geophysics, hydrogeology, Engineering geology, Petroleum geology, Palaeontology, environmental geology, Economic geology, etc.

  13. A Collaboratively-Derived Science-Policy Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, William J.; Bellingan, Laura; Bellingham, Jim R.; Blackstock, Jason J.; Bloomfield, Robert M.; Bravo, Michael; Cadman, Victoria M.; Cleevely, David D.; Clements, Andy; Cohen, Anthony S.; Cope, David R.; Daemmrich, Arthur A.; Devecchi, Cristina; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Denegri, Simon; Doubleday, Robert; Dusic, Nicholas R.; Evans, Robert J.; Feng, Wai Y.; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Harris, Paul; Hartley, Sue E.; Hester, Alison J.; Holmes, John; Hughes, Alan; Hulme, Mike; Irwin, Colin; Jennings, Richard C.; Kass, Gary S.; Littlejohns, Peter; Marteau, Theresa M.; McKee, Glenn; Millstone, Erik P.; Nuttall, William J.; Owens, Susan; Parker, Miles M.; Pearson, Sarah; Petts, Judith; Ploszek, Richard; Pullin, Andrew S.; Reid, Graeme; Richards, Keith S.; Robinson, John G.; Shaxson, Louise; Sierra, Leonor; Smith, Beck G.; Spiegelhalter, David J.; Stilgoe, Jack; Stirling, Andy; Tyler, Christopher P.; Winickoff, David E.; Zimmern, Ron L.

    2012-01-01

    The need for policy makers to understand science and for scientists to understand policy processes is widely recognised. However, the science-policy relationship is sometimes difficult and occasionally dysfunctional; it is also increasingly visible, because it must deal with contentious issues, or itself becomes a matter of public controversy, or both. We suggest that identifying key unanswered questions on the relationship between science and policy will catalyse and focus research in this field. To identify these questions, a collaborative procedure was employed with 52 participants selected to cover a wide range of experience in both science and policy, including people from government, non-governmental organisations, academia and industry. These participants consulted with colleagues and submitted 239 questions. An initial round of voting was followed by a workshop in which 40 of the most important questions were identified by further discussion and voting. The resulting list includes questions about the effectiveness of science-based decision-making structures; the nature and legitimacy of expertise; the consequences of changes such as increasing transparency; choices among different sources of evidence; the implications of new means of characterising and representing uncertainties; and ways in which policy and political processes affect what counts as authoritative evidence. We expect this exercise to identify important theoretical questions and to help improve the mutual understanding and effectiveness of those working at the interface of science and policy. PMID:22427809

  14. African Journal of Neurological Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences (AJNS) is owned and controlled by the Pan African Association of Neurological Sciences (PAANS). The AJNS's aim is to publish scientific papers of any aspects of Neurological Sciences. AJNS is published quarterly. Articles submitted exclusively to the AJNS are accepted if neither ...

  15. Constructivist learning at the science-policy interface: tsunami science informing disaster policy in West Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, J.; Dewi, P. R.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Sieh, K. E.

    2012-12-01

    Science communication often falls short when it is based on the blank-slate assumption that if we can just get the message right, then the information will be received and understood as intended. In contrast, constructivist learning theory and practice suggest that we all actively construct our knowledge from a variety of information sources and through particular, novel associations with our prior knowledge. This constructed knowledge can be quite different from any of its original sources, such as a particular science communication. Successful communication requires carefully examining how people construct their knowledge of the topic of interest. Examples from our outreach work to connect hazard-science research with disaster-risk reduction practice in West Sumatra illustrate the mismatch between expert and stakeholder/public mental models of the characteristics of tsunamigenic earthquakes. There are incorrect conceptions that seawater always withdraws before a tsunami, and that a tsunami can be produced by an earthquake only if the epicenter is located at the ocean trench. These incorrect conceptions arise from generalizations based on recent, local earthquake experiences, as well as from unintended consequences of science outreach, science education, and, in one case, the way that tsunami modelling is graphically presented in scientific journals. We directly address these incorrect conceptions in our discussions with government officials and others; as a result, the local disaster-management agency has changed its policies to reflect an increased understanding of the hazard. This outreach success would not have been possible without eliciting the prior knowledge of our audiences through dialogue.

  16. Strengthening Science-based Environmental Policy Development in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Science-based Environmental Policy Development in Burma's Democratic ... IDRC is providing funding to Simon Fraser University to support a network of ... The project will also encourage and assist in the creation of a business ...

  17. Climate Change: Science and Policy in the Arctic Climate Change: Science and Policy in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigras, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    It is an accepted fact that the Earth’s climate is warming. Recent research has demonstrated the direct links between the Arctic regions and the rest of the planet. We have become more aware that these regions are feeling the effects of global climate change more intensely than anywhere else on Earth -- and that they are fast becoming the new frontiers for resources and political disputes. This paper examines some of the potential climate change impacts in the Arctic and how the science of climate change can be used to develop policies that will help mitigate some of these impacts. Despite the growing body of research we do not yet completely understand the potential consequences of climate change in the Arctic. Climate models predict significant changes and impacts on the northern physical environment and renewable resources, and on the communities and societies that depend on them. Policies developed and implemented as a result of the research findings will be designed to help mitigate some of the more serious consequences. Given the importance of cost in making policy decisions, the financial implications of different scenarios will need to be considered. The Arctic Ocean Basin is a complex and diverse environment shared by five Arctic states. Cooperation among the states surrounding the Arctic Ocean is often difficult, as each country has its own political and social agenda. Northerners and indigenous peoples should be engaged and able to influence the direction of northern adaptation policies. Along with climate change, the Arctic environment and Arctic residents face many other challenges, among them safe resource development. Resource development in the Arctic has always been a controversial issue, seen by some as a solution to high unemployment and by others as an unacceptably disruptive and destructive force. Its inherent risks need to be considered: there are needs for adaptation, for management frameworks, for addressing cumulative effects, and for

  18. Social Science Research Findings and Educational Policy Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven I. Miller

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to raise several distinctions regarding the presumed relationship of social science research findings to social policy making. The distinctions are made using Glymour's critique of the Bell Curve. An argument is made that (1 social science models and research findings are largely irrelevant to the actual concerns of policy makers and (2 what is relevant, but overlooked by Glymour, is how ideological factors mediate the process. The forms that ideological mediation may take are indicated.

  19. Science, Policy, and Rationality in a Partisan Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Science plays an essential role in public policy by outlining the factual foundations of policy decisions. Political partisans, however, often use science the way drunkards use lampposts: for support rather than illumination. Thus science can become a political football, with partisans dismissing or misrepresenting scientific findings that conflict with their political views. Presenting and defending science in a highly charged political environment is therefore challenging. Here I argue that scientists can most effectively speak out, not as activists supporting particular political causes, but instead as advocates for a fundamentally rational public discourse, one that starts from the facts - not from whatever one might choose to believe - and then explores how society should respond. Recognizing the distinction between facts and values, and respecting their different roles in the policy process, are essential not only for the future of science, but also for the future of democratic institutions in the broadest sense.

  20. Patron Behavior Policies in the Public Library: "Kreimer v. Morristown" Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiszler, Robert W.

    1998-01-01

    The case of an indigent library patron recovering a judgment against a public library is used as a backdrop for discussing patron behavior policies in the public library. Highlights include First Amendment rights, the public library as an expressive forum, government rules, policy lessons from the case, and acceptable policies. (AEF)

  1. The Limitations of Quantitative Social Science for Informing Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrim, John; de Vries, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative social science (QSS) has the potential to make an important contribution to public policy. However it also has a number of limitations. The aim of this paper is to explain these limitations to a non-specialist audience and to identify a number of ways in which QSS research could be improved to better inform public policy.

  2. The Greenhouse Effect: Science and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stephen H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses many of the scientific questions surrounding the greenhouse effect debate and the issue of plausible responses. Discussion includes topics concerning projecting emissions and greenhouse gas concentrations, estimating global climatic response, economic, social, and political impacts, and policy responses. (RT)

  3. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences (Niger. J. Physiol. Sci.) is a biannual publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria. It covers diverse areas of research in physiological sciences, publishing reviews in current research areas and original laboratory and clinical research in physiological ...

  4. Science and Technology Policy in Colombia: A Comparative Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correa-Restrepo, Juan Santiago; Tejada-Gomez, Maria Alejandra; Cayon-Fallon, Edgardo; Ordonez Matamoros, Hector Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to assess the current situation of the science and technology system in Colombia from a comparative perspective of quality indicators in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). We analyze the development of the science and technology policy in Colombia form a

  5. A dual justification for science-based policy-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz

    2014-01-01

    Science-based policy-making has grown ever more important in recent years, in parallel with the dramatic increase in the complexity and uncertainty of the ways in which science and technology interact with society and economy at the national, regional and global level. Installing a proper framewo...

  6. Public ecology: an environmental science and policy for global society

    Science.gov (United States)

    David P. Robertson; R. Bruce Hull

    2003-01-01

    Public ecology exists at the interface of science and policy. Public ecology is an approach to environmental inquiry and decision making that does not expect scientific knowledge to be perfect or complete. Rather, public ecology requires that science be produced in collaboration with a wide variety of stakeholders in order to construct a body of knowledge that will...

  7. Diversity and equity in science education research, policy, and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Okhee

    2010-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-field analysis of current trends in the research, policy, and practice of science education. It offers valuable insights into why gaps in science achievement among racial, ethnic, cultural, linguistic, and socioeconomic groups persist, and points toward practical means of narrowing or eliminating these gaps. Lee and Buxton examine instructional practices, science-curriculum materials, assessment, teacher education, school organization, and home-school connections.

  8. The Utility of a Physics Education in Science Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Drew

    2016-03-01

    In order for regulators to create successful policies on technical issues, ranging from environmental protection to distribution of national Grant money, the scientific community must play an integral role in the legislative process. Through a summer-long internship with the Science, Space, and Technology Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives, I have learned that skills developed while pursuing an undergraduate degree in physics are very valuable in the policy realm. My physics education provided me the necessary tools to bridge the goals of the scientific and political communities. The need for effective comprehension and communication of technical subjects provides an important opportunity for individuals with physics degrees to make substantial contributions to government policy. Science policy should be encouraged as one of the many career pathways for physics students. Society of Physics Students, John and Jane Mather Foundation for Science and the Arts.

  9. United States Science Policy: from Conceptions to Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V I Konnov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the organizational structure of the U.S. scientific community, examining the V. Bush report Science: the Endless Frontier (1945 as its conceptual basis, which remains the cornerstone of the American science policy. The authors point out decentralization as the key trait of this structure, which reveals itself in the absence of a unitary centre with a mission to formulate and implement science policy and high level of dissemination of self-government practices supported by a wide range of government agencies. This configuration determines the special position, occupied by the universities as universal research establishments possessing flexibility in cooperation with state agencies and private sector.

  10. Science Outside the Lab: Helping Graduate Students in Science and Engineering Understand the Complexities of Science Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Michael J; Reifschneider, Kiera; Bennett, Ira; Wetmore, Jameson M

    2017-06-01

    Helping scientists and engineers challenge received assumptions about how science, engineering, and society relate is a critical cornerstone for macroethics education. Scientific and engineering research are frequently framed as first steps of a value-free linear model that inexorably leads to societal benefit. Social studies of science and assessments of scientific and engineering research speak to the need for a more critical approach to the noble intentions underlying these assumptions. "Science Outside the Lab" is a program designed to help early-career scientists and engineers understand the complexities of science and engineering policy. Assessment of the program entailed a pre-, post-, and 1 year follow up survey to gauge student perspectives on relationships between science and society, as well as a pre-post concept map exercise to elicit student conceptualizations of science policy. Students leave Science Outside the Lab with greater humility about the role of scientific expertise in science and engineering policy; greater skepticism toward linear notions of scientific advances benefiting society; a deeper, more nuanced understanding of the actors involved in shaping science policy; and a continued appreciation of the contributions of science and engineering to society. The study presents an efficacious program that helps scientists and engineers make inroads into macroethical debates, reframe the ways in which they think about values of science and engineering in society, and more thoughtfully engage with critical mediators of science and society relationships: policy makers and policy processes.

  11. Uncertainty as Information: Narrowing the Science-policy Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Bradshaw

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Conflict and indecision are hallmarks of environmental policy formulation. Some argue that the requisite information and certainty fall short of scientific standards for decision making; others argue that science is not the issue and that indecisiveness reflects a lack of political willpower. One of the most difficult aspects of translating science into policy is scientific uncertainty. Whereas scientists are familiar with uncertainty and complexity, the public and policy makers often seek certainty and deterministic solutions. We assert that environmental policy is most effective if scientific uncertainty is incorporated into a rigorous decision-theoretic framework as knowledge, not ignorance. The policies that best utilize scientific findings are defined here as those that accommodate the full scope of scientifically based predictions.

  12. African Crop Science Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Crop Science Journal was established with the primary objective of ... and all those concerned with agricultural development issues in the region. .... as possible, the editors avoid appointing reviewers from the country of origin of ...

  13. Climate Change: Science and Policy Implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leggett, Jane A

    2007-01-01

    .... Science indicates that the Earth s global average temperature is now approaching, or possibly has passed, the warmest experienced since human civilizations began to flourish about 12,000 years ago...

  14. Water policy: Science versus political realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Mark A.

    2017-11-01

    Debate rages over which water bodies in the US are protected under federal law by the Clean Water Act. Science shows that isolated wetlands and headwater systems provide essential downstream services, but convincing politicians is another matter.

  15. Innovation in Citizen Science – Perspectives on Science-Policy Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Hecker

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Citizen science is growing as a field of research with contributions from diverse disciplines, promoting innovation in science, society, and policy. Inter- and transdisciplinary discussions and critical analyses are needed to use the current momentum to evaluate, demonstrate, and build on the advances that have been made in the past few years. This paper synthesizes results of discussions at the first international citizen science conference of the European Citizen Science Association (ECSA in 2016 in Berlin, Germany, and distills major points of the discourse into key recommendations. To enhance innovation in science, citizen science needs to clearly demonstrate its scientific benefit, branch out across disciplines, and foster active networking and new formats of collaboration, including true co-design with participants. For fostering policy advances, it is important to embrace opportunities for policy-relevant monitoring and policy development and to work with science funders to find adequate avenues and evaluation tools to support citizen science. From a society angle it is crucial to engage with societal actors in various formats that suit participants and to evaluate two-way learning outcomes as well as to develop the transformative role of science communication. We hope that these key perspectives will promote citizen science progress at the science-society-policy interface.

  16. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Science & Technology Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-23

    Krasnoyarsk Science Center and about its institute’s developments, and in particular about reversable magneto -optic discs created in the Institute of...for beam therapy , a prize in the amount of 10,000 rubles. 12. Doctor of Technical Sciences N.A. Iofis, chief of a laboratory of a design bureau, A.S

  17. The 'Arc of Prosperity' Revisited: Homelessness Policy Change in North Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobel Anderson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares continuity and change in homelessness policy in Ireland, Scotland and Norway with a particular focus on the period of post-crisis austerity measures (2008–2016. The analytical approach draws on institutional theory and the notion of path dependency, which has rarely been applied to comparative homelessness research. The paper compares welfare and housing systems in the three countries prior to presenting a detailed analysis of the conceptualisation and measurement of homelessness; the institutions which address homelessness; and the evidence of change in the post-2008 period. The analysis demonstrates that challenges remain in comparing the nature of homelessness and policy responses across nation states, even where they have a number of similar characteristics, and despite some EU influence towards homelessness policy convergence. Similarly, national-level homelessness policy change could not be interpreted as entirely a result of the external shock of the 2008 general financial crisis, as existing national policy goals and programmes were also influential. Overall, embedded national frameworks and institutions were resilient, but sufficiently flexible to deliver longer term policy shifts in response to the changing nature of the homelessness problem and national policy goals. Institutionalism and path dependency were found to be useful in developing the comparative analysis of homelessness policy change and could be fruitfully applied in future longitudinal, empirical research across a wider range of countries.

  18. Social Science Research and School Diversity Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sheneka M.; McDermott, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    For decades, policy makers, advocates, and researchers have been engaged in efforts to make educational opportunity more equal for students from different racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. A great deal of research has been conducted on their efforts; however, there is some disagreement on the extent to which the research has been…

  19. Science Policies as principal-agent games; Institutionalization and path dependency in the relation between government and science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, Barend

    1998-01-01

    National science policies seem to converge in policing the double-edged problem of how to get policy and industry interested in the conduct of science and how to get science interested in the problems of policy and industry. However, similarity in the labels of institutes and instruments for science

  20. National innovation policy and public science in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lyn

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, I have positioned myself with Kean Birch and explored some of the political-economic actors/actants of policy suites implicated in the biotechnologies and bioeconomy. In particular, I have considered Australia's recent National Innovation and Science Agenda and allied documents and entities (that is, Innovation and Science Australia, the National Science Statement and the 2016 National Research Infrastructure Roadmap) as one of the National Innovation Strategies in place now in OECD countries and beyond. In overview, these policy suites utilise the same high knowledge creation/low translation and commericalisation arguments as elsewhere to press for particular ideologically based `improvements' to public science. Mapping the terrain of these entities has revealed the innovation, biotechnology and bioeconomy policy space to be inordinately complex and challenging to navigate. Reviewing Australia's position enables the type of comparative work that contributes to a closer understanding of the largely neoliberal global economic imperatives shaping contemporaneity. Moreover, while these policy suites attempt to constitute and circulate particular visions of science education, their complex nature mitigates against science teachers/educators grappling with their implications.

  1. Revisiting Bank Pricing Policies in Brazil: evidence from loan and deposit markets

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo S. Alencar

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the micro and macroeconomic determinants of interest rates in the Brazilian banking market. The results suggest that banks fully adjust their loan interest rates to a change in the monetary policy rate, but we also observe a rigid short-term response for some loan product categories. The study confirms that pricing policies can vary substantially depending on the market. For example, microeconomic factors did not seem to be a major determinant of retail loan rates, but th...

  2. Science Under Attack Public Policy, Science Education, and the Emperor's New Clothes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    The popular debate about the teaching of intelligent design in public schools is but one quandary for scientists and policy makers. Given recent developments which have worked to breed a general distrust of science, it is evident that researchers and politicians alike should be wary of using popular opinion as a guide for policy and pedagogy when it comes to science in public education. Dr. Krauss will qualify this complex issue and will address how educators, policy makers and scientists can work effectively to prevent public misconceptions of science.

  3. Science Under Attack! Public Policy, Science Education, and the Emperor's New Clothes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Lawrence (Case Western Reserve University)

    2005-12-05

    The popular debate about the teaching of intelligent design in public schools is but one quandary for scientists and policy makers. Given recent developments which have worked to breed a general distrust of science, it is evident that researchers and politicians alike should be wary of using popular opinion as a guide for policy and pedagogy when it comes to science in public education. Dr. Krauss will qualify this complex issue and will address how educators, policy makers and scientists can work effectively to prevent public misconceptions of science.

  4. Science policy through stimulating scholarly output. Reanalyzing the Australian case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Besselaar, P.; Heyman, U.; Sandström, U.

    2016-07-01

    There is a long standing debate about perverse effects of performance indicators. A main target is science policy using stimulation of output as instrument. The criticism is to a large extent based on a study of the Australian science policy in the early 1990s. Linda Butler studied the effects and argued that the effect was an growth of output, but also a decrease of average quality of the output. These results have been cited many times. In this paper we reanalyze this case and show that the analysis of Butler was wrong: the new Australian science policy did not only increase the output of the system, but also the quality went up. We discuss the implications. (Author)

  5. Science Education & Advocacy: Tools to Support Better Education Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Christine; Cunningham, B.; Hehn, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Education is strongly affected by federal and local policies, such as testing requirements and program funding, and many scientists and science teachers are increasingly interested in becoming more engaged with the policy process. To address this need, I worked with the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT) --- a professional membership society of scientists and science teachers that is dedicated to enhancing the understanding and appreciation of physics through teaching --- to create advocacy tools for its members to use, including one-page leave-behinds, guides for meeting with policymakers, and strategies for framing issues. In addition, I developed a general tutorial to aid AAPT members in developing effective advocacy strategies to support better education policies. This work was done through the Society for Physics Students (SPS) Internship program, which provides a range of opportunities for undergraduates, including research, education and public outreach, and public policy. In this presentation, I summarize these new advocacy tools and their application to astronomy education issues.

  6. The case for policy-relevant conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, David C

    2015-06-01

    Drawing on the "evidence-based" (Sutherland et al. 2013) versus "evidence-informed" debate (Adams & Sandbrook 2013), which has become prominent in conservation science, I argue that science can be influential if it holds a dual reference (Lentsch & Weingart 2011) that contributes to the needs of policy makers whilst maintaining technical rigor. In line with such a strategy, conservation scientists are increasingly recognizing the usefulness of constructing narratives through which to enhance the influence of their evidence (Leslie et al. 2013; Lawton & Rudd 2014). Yet telling stories alone is rarely enough to influence policy; instead, these narratives must be policy relevant. To ensure that evidence is persuasive alongside other factors in a complex policy-making process, conservation scientists could follow 2 steps: reframe within salient political contexts and engage more productively in boundary work, which is defined as the ways in which scientists "construct, negotiate, and defend the boundary between science and policy" (Owens et al. 2006:640). These will both improve the chances of evidence-informed conservation policy. © 2015 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Clinical science: prospects, payment and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raslavicus, P A

    1999-01-01

    The last several decades of this century have witnessed significant changes in health care financing and delivery. Similar changes have occurred within laboratory medicine. While government involvement has been principally in insurance and the control of costs through regulation, the demise of the Clinton Health Plan ushered in an era of deregulation and market competition. In this environment, clinical science and clinical scientists have a new challenge: to prove their worth by establishing methods in which their services and tests are more clinically efficient than competing approaches.

  8. Science policy events at the 2012 AGU Fall Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Erik

    2012-10-01

    Are you interested in the intersection of science and policy, looking to make an impact on Capitol Hill, or concerned about the increasing number of attacks against scientists and their academic freedom? AGU Public Affairs offers many events at the 2012 Fall Meeting to assist member involvement in political processes and inform scientists of their rights and options should their research come under legal fire. Learn how you can share your science with policy makers to help inform policy at two luncheon events at the Fall Meeting. If you have ever considered working as a science expert for a member of Congress or reporting science in a mass media outlet, then you should attend the first luncheon, How to be a Congressional Science Fellow or Mass Media Fellow. The event will feature current AGU Congressional Science Fellows detailing their experiences working in Congress as well as past AGU Mass Media Fellows sharing their stories of reporting for a news organization. The luncheon will be held on Tuesday, 4 December, from 12:30 to 1:30 P.M. at the Marriott Hotel, in room Golden Gate B. In addition, current and former fellows will be available for one-on-one interactions at the AGU Marketplace from 3:30 to 4:30 P.M. on Tuesday, 4 December, through Thursday, 6 December.

  9. Bringing science to the policy table

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    “They shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks. Nation shall not lift up sword against nation. Neither shall they learn war anymore." So says Isaiah 2:4, as transcribed on the famous wall in Ralph Bunche park, just the other side of 1st Avenue from the UN’s New York headquarters, where we held a celebration of our 60th anniversary year on Monday 20 October. I used the quotation in my opening address, since it is such a perfect fit to the theme of 60 years of science for peace and development.   The event was organised with the United Nations Economic and Social Council, ECOSOC, in the framework of CERN’s observer status at the UN, and although focused on CERN, its aim was broader. Presentations used CERN as an example to bring out the vital importance of science in general to the themes of peace and development. The event was presided over by Martin Sajdik, President of ECOSOC, and we were privileged to have presentat...

  10. Revisiting the impacts of oil price increases on monetary policy implementation in the largest oil importers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurtac Yildirim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to test the impacts of oil price increases on monetary policy implementation in the largest oil importers. For that purpose, we estimate structural vector error correction (SVEC models to show the impacts of oil price increases on industrial production, consumer prices and immediate interest rates which are the elements of Taylor rule for the four largest oil importers (the USA, the EU, China and Japan. Our results indicate that oil price increases transmit to output and inflation and lead to fluctuations in industrial production, consumer prices and immediate interest rates which in turn influence the monetary policy stance in the following periods. The basic conclusion of research is that the channels through which oil prices affect output, inflation and interest rates should be identified by the monetary policy authorities of the USA, the EU, China and Japan. We also emphasize the importance of the determination of the optimal monetary policy framework to eliminate the negative consequences of oil price increases.

  11. Moving from Separate, to Equal, to Equitable Schooling: Revisiting School Desegregation Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Ezella

    2011-01-01

    For over a century after the 1896 "Plessy v. Ferguson" decision, researchers have been grappling with how to effectively implement educational reform policies to provide students with an equal education in American schools. This literature review examines previous school desegregation cases and school desegregation plans to investigate…

  12. Revisiting Educational Equity and Quality in China through Confucianism, Policy, Research, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Guanglun Michael; Zheng, Xinrong; Jia, Ning; Li, Xiaohua; Wang, Shaoyi; Chen, Yanchuan; He, Ying; May, Lyn; Carter, Merilyn; Dooley, Karen; Berwick, Adon; Sobyra, Angela; Diezmann, Carmel

    2013-01-01

    The promotion of educational equity and improvement of educational quality in China are contextualised in tenets of Confucianism and policy directives, inspiring educational research and practice. In this paper, we first explore the historical and cultural roots of educational equity and quality through Confucianism and elaborate on the current…

  13. Perspectives on bay-delta science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Michael; Dettinger, Michael; Norgaard, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The State of Bay–Delta Science 2008 highlighted seven emerging perspectives on science and management of the Delta. These perspectives had important effects on policy and legislation concerning management of the Delta ecosystem and water exports. From the collection of papers that make up the State of Bay–Delta Science 2016, we derive another seven perspectives that augment those published in 2008. The new perspectives address nutrient and contaminant concentrations in Delta waters, the failure of the Delta food web to support native species, the role of multiple stressors in driving species toward extinction, and the emerging importance of extreme events in driving change in the ecosystem and the water supply. The scientific advances that underpin these new perspectives were made possible by new measurement and analytic tools. We briefly discuss some of these, including miniaturized acoustic fish tags, sensors for monitoring of water quality, analytic techniques for disaggregating complex contaminant mixtures, remote sensing to assess levee vulnerability, and multidimensional hydrodynamic modeling. Despite these new tools and scientific insights, species conservation objectives for the Delta are not being met. We believe that this lack of progress stems in part from the fact that science and policy do not incorporate sufficiently long-term perspectives. Looking forward half a century was central to the Delta Visioning process, but science and policy have not embraced this conceptual breadth. We are also concerned that protection and enhancement of the unique cultural, recreational, natural resource, and agricultural values of the Delta as an evolving place, as required by the Delta Reform Act, has received no critical study and analysis. Adopting wider and longer science and policy perspectives immediately encourages recognition of the need for evaluation, analysis, and public discourse on novel conservation approaches. These longer and wider perspectives

  14. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Science & Technology Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-28

    of Sciences. He is known for his very precise, unique research conducted on the Chinese silkworm [ Bombyx mori L.\\. He is indisputable one of the most... Origin and Role in Evolution of Natural Parthenogenesis in Higher Vertebrates." The research of the author showed for the first time that unisexual...populations. These data indicate their origin from one or several females. The high fixed heterozygosity of parthenospecies, which was established

  15. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Science & Technology Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-19

    Methods for Surgical Treatment of Dis- eases of the Pancreas ." Recommended by the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences All-Union Scientific Cen- ter for...is created, circles of uni- versal guilt disperse in the muddy water of the "case." And every cast of the investigative drag net pulls out a new...oper, did not have the right to give the preparation to the surgeons.... Guilt had been proved, but I admit: this information made me feel uneasy

  16. Science and climate policy: A history lesson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrick, C.N.

    1992-01-01

    As a nation, the authors are engaged in a great deal of soul searching about the consequences of possible global climate change, aware that the authors must make choices but unsure when to make them or what they should be. Contrary to popular belief, this is not the first time that the nation will have to make major policy decisions based on the possibility of human-induced climate change. More than 100 years ago, the US government encouraged wide-scale settlement and development of the West, partly because of a scientifically grounded belief that early Western pioneers had caused the climate to become moister. Today, the US Global Climate Research Program has embarked on the task of resolving the many scientific uncertainties. As Powell learned a century ago, however, such information is critical but not sufficient to determining how a nation might respond to risk. If global climate research and assessment are to be driven by social relevance rather than scientific curiosity, these studies must reflect sociocultural as well as physical factors

  17. Europe edges closer to an integrated science policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Schiermeier, Q

    2000-01-01

    At a meeting in Luxembourg last week, the research ministers of the 15 member states of the EU fixed a schedule for changes intended to forge closer links between the science activities and policies pursued by individual member states (1 page).

  18. Science to Policy: Many Roads to Travel (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, S. C.; McCaughey, J.

    2013-12-01

    Transferring scientific discoveries to policies and their implementation is not a narrow, one-way road. The complexities of policy-making are not normally within the purview of either scientists or science educators and communicators. Politics, bureaucracy, economics, culture, religion, and local knowledge are a few areas that help determine how policies are made. These factors are compounded by differences in cultures among scientists, educators/communicators, and governments. To complicate this further, bodies of knowledge which could be brought to bear upon improved policies and implementation lie within different disciplines, e.g. natural sciences, disaster risk reduction, development, psychology, social science, communications, education and more. In a scientific research institution, we have found many potential paths to help transfer knowledge back and forth between scientists and decision-makers. Some of these paths are short with an end in sight. Others are longer, and the destination can't be seen. Some of these paths include a) education and discussion with various government agencies, b) educating students who will return to various agencies and educational institutions in their home countries, c) sharing scientific knowledge with research colleagues, d) consulting, e) working with NGOs, and media, f) working with colleagues in other fields, e.g. development, risk, regional consortia. Recognizing and transferring knowledge among different disciplines, learning the needs of various players, finding the most productive paths, and thinking about varying time frames are important in prioritizing the transference of science into action.

  19. Improving the Science-Policy Interface of Biodiversity Research Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neßhöver, C.; Timaeus, J.; Wittmer, H.; Krieg, A.; Geamana, N.; Van den Hove, S.; Young, J.; Watt, A.

    2013-01-01

    Against the background of a continuing biodiversity loss there is a strong need to improve the interfaces between science and policy. Many approaches for such interfaces exist, the most recent being the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). A less prominent

  20. Science and policy characteristics of the Paris Agreement temperature goal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleussner, Carl Friedrich; Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Lissner, Tabea; Licker, Rachel; Fischer, Erich M.; Knutti, Reto; Levermann, Anders; Frieler, Katja; Hare, William

    2016-01-01

    The Paris Agreement sets a long-term temperature goal of holding the global average temperature increase to well below 2 °C, and pursuing efforts to limit this to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. Here, we present an overview of science and policy aspects related to this goal and analyse the

  1. National Innovation Policy and Public Science in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lyn

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, I have positioned myself with Kean Birch and explored some of the political-economic actors/actants of policy suites implicated in the biotechnologies and bioeconomy. In particular, I have considered Australia's recent National Innovation and Science Agenda and allied documents and entities (that is, Innovation and Science…

  2. Translating Nutrition Science into Policy as Witness and Actor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sustained effort to witness and participate in the targeted translation of nutritional science and policy forms the structure of this narrative. The memoir starts with an early career-directing experience with nutrition and cholera and proceeds with a long thread of interest in folic acid malabs...

  3. Revisiting the Underclass Debate: Contemporary Applications to Immigrants and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Abigail E.; Cabaniss, Emily R.; Teixeira-Poit, Stephanie M.

    2012-01-01

    The "underclass" concept pervades social science research on poverty, racial relations, and more recently, immigration. In this article, we elaborate and extend Massey's critique of the underclass concept by briefly reviewing the history of this concept and emphasizing its contemporary application to immigrants and undocumented workers. We also…

  4. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Science & Technology Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-31

    information science, and found money for a children’s rehabilitation center and a children’s outpa- tient clinic; it purchased medicines for the victims...Yu.V. Muravyev, S.K. Sokolov, A.P. Alyabyev. "The Development of New Methods and Systems of the Therapy of Rheumatic Diseases." Recommended by...Institute of Irrigated Horticulture . 24. Ye.A. Osipova, M.P. Mingova, G.A. Loginova, Ye.S. Sharova, V.V. Prilepov. "The Development of the Nevskiy

  5. Adding Entrepreneurship to India’s Science, Technology & Innovation Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragini Chaurasia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Science, Technology & Innovation Policy (STIP is an important policy instrument particularly in the developing countries. India also has recognized the role of science, technology and innovation in development as early as 1958 but still trails behind its peer Brazil, China and the Asian tiger Singapore. Considering strong correlation between research and development investment and growth based on existing studies, this paper brings forth the present situation of India in investment and its influence on the performance of the economy vis-à-vis the three countries. This paper studies the STIP 2013 in detail and reports the contribution of the Department of Science and Technology in India. The main conclusion of this paper is the recommendation for incorporation of “entrepreneurship” in STIP based on global best practices, which can be achieved by government’s involvement as a venture capitalist to seed and support innovations, increasing transparency and incorporating entrepreneurial curriculum.

  6. Uncertainty in macroeconomic policy-making: art or science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikman, David; Barrett, Philip; Kapadia, Sujit; King, Mervyn; Proudman, James; Taylor, Tim; de Weymarn, Iain; Yates, Tony

    2011-12-13

    Uncertainty is pervasive in economic policy-making. Modern economies share similarities with other complex systems in their unpredictability. But economic systems also differ from those in the natural sciences because outcomes are affected by the state of beliefs of the systems' participants. The dynamics of beliefs and how they interact with economic outcomes can be rich and unpredictable. This paper relates these ideas to the recent crisis, which has reminded us that we need a financial system that is resilient in the face of the unpredictable and extreme. It also highlights how such uncertainty puts a premium on sound communication strategies by policy-makers. This creates challenges in informing others about the uncertainties in the economy, and how policy is set in the face of those uncertainties. We show how the Bank of England tries to deal with some of these challenges in its communications about monetary policy.

  7. Fort Collins Science Center- Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch : Integrating social, behavioral, economic and biological sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Fort Collins Science Center's Policy Analysis and Science Assistance (PASA) Branch is a team of approximately 22 scientists, technicians, and graduate student researchers. PASA provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and biological analyses in the context of human-natural resource interactions. Resource planners, managers, and policymakers in the U.S. Departments of the Interior (DOI) and Agriculture (USDA), State and local agencies, as well as international agencies use information from PASA studies to make informed natural resource management and policy decisions. PASA scientists' primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to advance performance in policy relevant research areas. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context, involve difficult to access populations, require knowledge of both natural/biological science in addition to social science, and require the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these difficult contexts, PASA researchers apply traditional and state-of-the-art social science methods drawing from the fields of sociology, demography, economics, political science, communications, social-psychology, and applied industrial organization psychology. Social science methods work in concert with our rangeland/agricultural management, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of PASA's research is to enhance natural resource management, agency functions, policies, and decision-making. Our research is organized into four broad areas of study.

  8. Revisiting support policies for RES-E adulthood: Towards market compatible schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntington, Samuel C.; Rodilla, Pablo; Herrero, Ignacio; Batlle, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The past two decades of growth in renewable energy sources of electricity (RES-E) have been largely driven by out-of-market support policies. These schemes were designed to drive deployment on the basis of specific subsidies sustained in time to allow for the larger costs as well as to limit investor risk. While these policies have proven to be effective, the way they have been designed to date has led to costly market distortions that are becoming more difficult to ignore as penetrations reach unpreceded levels. In the context of this growing concern, we provide a critical analysis of the design elements of RES-E support schemes, focusing on how they affect this trade-off between promoting and efficiently integrating RES-E. The emphasis is on the structure of the incentive payment, which in the end turns to be the cornerstone for an efficient integration. We conclude that, while needed, a well-designed and further developed capacity-based support mechanism complemented with ex-post compensations defined for reference benchmark plants, such as the mechanism currently implemented in Spain, is an alternative with good properties if the major goal is truly market integration. The approach is robust to future developments in technology cost, performance and market penetration of RES-E. - Highlights: • Market distortions due to RES support mechanisms are becoming difficult to ignore. • This paper provides a critical analysis of the design elements of RES support schemes. • The emphasis is on the structure of the incentive, key for an efficient integration. • We argue in favor of a further developed capacity-based support mechanism. • The incentive should be combined with the design of a set of reference plants.

  9. Quality in environmental science for policy: assessing uncertainty as a component of policy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maxim, L.; van der Sluijs, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The sheer number of attempts to define and classify uncertainty reveals an awareness of its importance in environmental science for policy, though the nature of uncertainty is often misunderstood. The interdisciplinary field of uncertainty analysis is unstable; there are currently several incomplete

  10. Small Town Science Policy: Bringing Our Expertise Back Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, K. W.

    2017-12-01

    Questions of science policy are more and more in the news, whether it is in regards to our nation's role in international agreements (Paris Climate Accords), the disbursement of limited research budgets, or a hundred other national issues. Influencing these decisions is a difficult, frustrating, and often ineffective endeavor. Where we can have a greater impact is by effecting change locally, either through interactions with and education of local elected officials or direct involvement in the political process. Advocating for scientifically sound policy at this level takes a different set of communication skills, but can ultimately reach a wider audience and have tangible effects.

  11. New Public Management, science policy and the orchestration of university research – academic science the loser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aant Elzinga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In many countries - during the past three decades - there has been increasing alignment of public administration with neoliberal modes of governance driven by processes of globalization and privatization. Key is New Public Management (NPM as an instrument for applying private sector or market-based techniques to public services. The paper concerns the implications and impact of these developments as they relate to the university sector where we are seeing an influx of bibliometrics to assess performativity with measures that are frequently far from adequate. These changes are related to the broader context of a globalized privatization doctrine of science policy that has gained currency in many countries. The analysis presented here probes and discusses a nexus between NPM, bibliometric performance audits, and a new paradigm in science policy. As such the paper seeks to fill an important gap in science policy studies and the literature on New Public Management more generally. It summarizes various characteristics associated with NPM, and expl icates the connection with methods of research evaluation now being introduced in academic ins titutions . It also takes up varying responses evoked within academe by the use of bibliometrics and current methods of ranking of tertiary educational institutions. Apart from gaining a better understanding of significant changes in the higher educational and research landscapes or disciplines and the interplay of these with broader economic and political trends in society at large, the aim of the paper is also to stimulate discussion and debate on current priorities, perceptions and policies governing knowledge production. Keywords: New Public management; research policy; transdisciplinarity; postnormal science; Audit Society Agencification; Accountingization; peer review evaluation Disciplines:Public Management and Governance; Management Studies and Research Management. Science Policy; Science Studies

  12. Modelling electricity demand in Ghana revisited: The role of policy regime changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adom, Philip Kofi; Bekoe, William

    2013-01-01

    As policy regime changes, demand elasticities are unlikely to be constant since individuals change how they form their expectations, and this will change the estimated decision rules. In this paper, the time-varying nature of electricity demand elasticities prior to and post the economic reform period in Ghana is analysed using the FM-OLS. Three different sample periods -pre-reform, post-reform, and full-period- was used in the analysis. The result from the full-sample period revealed that in the long-run electricity demand is significantly affected by industry efficiency, industry value added, and real per capita GDP. Urbanization rate, however, has no significant effect. The pre-reform estimate showed lower income, output, and urbanization elasticities but higher industry energy efficiency elasticity relative to the post-reform period. This suggests that technological change in the pre-reform period has been energy saving whilst technological change in the post reform period has been energy consuming. The result further showed evidence of changing structure of the economy from the more energy intensive sector to the less energy intensive sector after the reform. Government should renew her effort in promoting energy saving technologies in the industrial sector and adjust the industrial structure to encourage the expansion of low energy intensive industries or high technology efficient industries. - Highlights: • The study investigates time-varying nature of demand elasticities prior to 1983 and after 1983. • Result shows differences in demand elasticities prior to and post the reform. • Pre-reform period is characterised with energy saving technology. • Post-reform period is characterised with energy consuming technology. • The post-reform result reveals evidence of gradual structural shift in the economy

  13. Global Phosphorus Fertilizer Market and National Policies: A Case Study Revisiting the 2008 Price Peak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Khabarov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The commodity market super-cycle and food price crisis have been associated with rampant food insecurity and the Arab spring. A multitude of factors were identified as culprits for excessive volatility on the commodity markets. However, as it regards fertilizers, a clear attribution of market drivers explaining the emergence of extreme price events is still missing. In this paper, we provide a quantitative assessment of the price spike of the global phosphorus fertilizer market in 2008 focusing on diammonium phosphate (DAP. We find that fertilizer market policies in India, the largest global importer of phosphorus fertilizers and phosphate rock, turned out to be a major contributor to the global price spike. India doubled its import of P-fertilizer in 2008 at a time when prices doubled. The analysis of a wide set of factors pertinent to the 2008 price spike in phosphorus fertilizer market leads us to the discovery of a price spike magnification and triggering mechanisms. We find that the price spike was magnified on the one hand by protective trade measures of fertilizer suppliers leading to a 19% drop in global phosphate fertilizer export. On the other hand, the Indian fertilizer subsidy scheme led to farmers not adjusting their demand for fertilizer. The triggering mechanism appeared to be the Indian production outage of P-fertilizer resulting in the additional import demand for DAP in size of about 20% of annual global supply. The main conclusion is that these three factors have jointly caused the spike, underscoring the need for ex ante improvements in fertilizer market regulation on both national and international levels.

  14. Perspectives on Bay–Delta Science and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Healey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss4art6The State of Bay–Delta Science 2008 highlighted seven emerging perspectives on science and management of the Delta. These perspectives had important effects on policy and legislation concerning management of the Delta ecosystem and water exports. From the collection of papers that make up the State of Bay–Delta Science 2016, we derive another seven perspectives that augment those published in 2008. The new perspectives address nutrient and contaminant concentrations in Delta waters, the failure of the Delta food web to support native species, the role of multiple stressors in driving species toward extinction, and the emerging importance of extreme events in driving change in the ecosystem and the water supply. The scientific advances that underpin these new perspectives were made possible by new measurement and analytic tools. We briefly discuss some of these, including miniaturized acoustic fish tags, sensors for monitoring of water quality, analytic techniques for disaggregating complex contaminant mixtures, remote sensing to assess levee vulnerability, and multidimensional hydrodynamic modeling. Despite these new tools and scientific insights, species conservation objectives for the Delta are not being met. We believe that this lack of progress stems in part from the fact that science and policy do not incorporate sufficiently long-term perspectives. Looking forward half a century was central to the Delta Visioning process, but science and policy have not embraced this conceptual breadth. We are also concerned that protection and enhancement of the unique cultural, recreational, natural resource, and agricultural values of the Delta as an evolving place, as required by the Delta Reform Act, has received no critical study and analysis. Adopting wider and longer science and policy perspectives immediately encourages recognition of the need for evaluation, analysis, and public discourse on

  15. Japanese policy on science and technology for the global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, M.

    1994-01-01

    The current state of Japanese science and technology policy is discussed within the framework of overall global environmental policy. Principles of Japanese environmental policy include participation in international schemes for conservation of the global environment, promotion of Japanese research on the global environment, development and diffusion of technologies contributing to conservation of the global environment, contribution to conservation of the environment in developing countries, and maintenance of economic and social activities in Japan at an environmentally beneficial level. The Japanese environmental budget includes expenditures for earth observation and monitoring by satellite, energy-related research and development, and control of greenhouse gas emissions. The proportion of overall Japanese research and development (R ampersand D) expenditures which were spent on the global environment was about 2% in 1991. Of governmental research expenditures, ca 22% involve the global environment; however, some part of the expenditures on energy R ampersand D and on earth observation satellite R ampersand D are also environment-related. 5 figs

  16. Science, Technology and Natural Resources Policy: Overcoming Congressional Gridlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    The current status of Science, Technology and Natural Resources (STNR) policy in the United States provides an ideal context to examine the influence of committee seniority within the public policy process. Exemplars of the Policy Entrepreneur have been individuals in leadership positions, whether executive or legislative. The role of junior committee members in shaping policy innovation is less well understood, and is frequently masked either in cross-sectional research designs or in case studies. The House Natural Resources committee seniority patterns are compared to the House of Representatives Chamber data from 1975 to 2015. This expanse of congressional time captures both the policy innovation of the Class of 1974 who helped transform the public lands by pursuing a preservation agenda, along with the contemporaneous gridlock caused by disagreements about reducing the size of the federal government, a policy agenda championed and sustained by the Class of 1994. Several types of political actors have served as policy entrepreneurs, President Kennedy and Secretary of Interior Udall shepherding the Wilderness Act of 1964 from the Executive branch, or in the 111th Congress Committee chairmen Senator Christopher Dodd and Representative Barney Frank, having announced their retirements, spent their final Congress shaping the consensus that produced the Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010. A less studied policy phenomenon relies on "packing the committee" to outvote the leadership. This tactic can be used by the party leadership to overcome recalcitrant senior committee members, as was the case for Democrats in the House Interior and Insular Affairs Committee shift to preservation in the 1970s, or the tactic can be employed from the grassroots, as may be happening in the case of the House Natural Resources Committee in the 114th Congress. A policy making process analog to rivers is more appropriate than a mechanistic model. As there are multiple

  17. The Pedagogical Roots of the History of Science: Revisiting the Vision of James Bryant Conant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Christopher

    2016-06-01

    This essay examines the rise and fall of Harvard president James Bryant Conant's postwar vision for history of science-based general science education. As well as developing the foundations of Conant's vision, it considers the tension between Conant's science pedagogy-centered view of the history of science and the claims of George Sarton and I. B. Cohen that the field was a distinct discipline. It relates these themes to Conant's unease with the like-minded theorists Thomas Kuhn and Michael Polanyi and concludes by examining Conant's anticipation of later science studies approaches and reflecting on his place in the history of the history of science.

  18. Guidelines for Using Movement Science to Inform Biodiversity Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Philip S.; Lentini, Pia E.; Alacs, Erika; Bau, Sana; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Burns, Emma L.; Driscoll, Don A.; Guja, Lydia K.; Kujala, Heini; Lahoz-Monfort, José J.; Mortelliti, Alessio; Nathan, Ran; Rowe, Ross; Smith, Annabel L.

    2015-10-01

    Substantial advances have been made in our understanding of the movement of species, including processes such as dispersal and migration. This knowledge has the potential to improve decisions about biodiversity policy and management, but it can be difficult for decision makers to readily access and integrate the growing body of movement science. This is, in part, due to a lack of synthesis of information that is sufficiently contextualized for a policy audience. Here, we identify key species movement concepts, including mechanisms, types, and moderators of movement, and review their relevance to (1) national biodiversity policies and strategies, (2) reserve planning and management, (3) threatened species protection and recovery, (4) impact and risk assessments, and (5) the prioritization of restoration actions. Based on the review, and considering recent developments in movement ecology, we provide a new framework that draws links between aspects of movement knowledge that are likely the most relevant to each biodiversity policy category. Our framework also shows that there is substantial opportunity for collaboration between researchers and government decision makers in the use of movement science to promote positive biodiversity outcomes.

  19. Guidelines for Using Movement Science to Inform Biodiversity Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Philip S; Lentini, Pia E; Alacs, Erika; Bau, Sana; Buckley, Yvonne M; Burns, Emma L; Driscoll, Don A; Guja, Lydia K; Kujala, Heini; Lahoz-Monfort, José J; Mortelliti, Alessio; Nathan, Ran; Rowe, Ross; Smith, Annabel L

    2015-10-01

    Substantial advances have been made in our understanding of the movement of species, including processes such as dispersal and migration. This knowledge has the potential to improve decisions about biodiversity policy and management, but it can be difficult for decision makers to readily access and integrate the growing body of movement science. This is, in part, due to a lack of synthesis of information that is sufficiently contextualized for a policy audience. Here, we identify key species movement concepts, including mechanisms, types, and moderators of movement, and review their relevance to (1) national biodiversity policies and strategies, (2) reserve planning and management, (3) threatened species protection and recovery, (4) impact and risk assessments, and (5) the prioritization of restoration actions. Based on the review, and considering recent developments in movement ecology, we provide a new framework that draws links between aspects of movement knowledge that are likely the most relevant to each biodiversity policy category. Our framework also shows that there is substantial opportunity for collaboration between researchers and government decision makers in the use of movement science to promote positive biodiversity outcomes.

  20. Changing the Future of Obesity: Science, Policy and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gortmaker, Steven L; Swinburn, Boyd; Levy, David; Carter, Rob; Mabry, Patricia L.; Finegood, Diane; Huang, Terry; Marsh, Tim; Moodie, Marj

    2011-01-01

    The global obesity epidemic has been on the rise for four decades, yet sustained prevention efforts have barely begun. An emerging science using quantitative models has provided key insights into the dynamics of this epidemic, and made it possible to combine different pieces of evidence and calculate the impact of behaviors, interventions and policies at multiple levels – from person to population. Forecasts indicate large effects of high levels of obesity on future population health and economic outcomes. Energy gap models have quantified the relationships of changes in energy intake and expenditure to weight change, and documented the dominant role of increasing intake on obesity prevalence. The empirical evidence base for effective interventions is limited but growing. Several cost-effective policies are identified that governments should prioritize for implementation. Systems science provides a framework for organizing the complexity of forces driving the obesity epidemic and has important implications for policy-makers. Multiple players (including governments, international organizations, the private sector, and civil society) need to contribute complementary actions in a coordinated approach. Priority actions include policies to improve the food and built environments, cross-cutting actions (such as leadership, health-in-all policies, and monitoring), and much greater funding for prevention programs. Increased investment in population obesity monitoring would improve the accuracy of forecasts and evaluations. Embedding actions within existing systems in both health and non-health sectors (trade, agriculture, transport, urban planning, development) can greatly increase impact and sustainability. We call for a sustained worldwide effort to monitor, prevent and control obesity. PMID:21872752

  1. What the Heck is Science Policy and Who Really Does It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatten, Amy

    2006-04-01

    The objective of this discussion is to provide graduate students and others with insights regarding careers in science policy--how a scientific graduate degree can lead to opportunities beyond the laboratory, combining scientific expertise with diverse interests such as business, international affairs and national security. The topics covered will include: 1) an overview of the U.S. Government bodies and other stakeholders involved in science policy development; 2) case studies to exemplify the ``process'' of science policy formulation; and 3) where/how one might explore a career in science policy. The speaker served from 1999-2004 with White House Office of Science and Technology Policy.

  2. Providing policy-relevant information for greenhouse gas management: Perspectives from science and technology policy research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilling, L.

    2009-12-01

    will discuss some of the key elements of successful interactions between science and policy, as well as some specifics for the carbon management context. I will draw on case studies of previous monitoring efforts developed for policy and illustrate some of the key elements to be considered as well as lessons learned. The paper will also examine how the carbon context may be different from other contexts we have encountered in the past. Finally, I will conclude with some implications for structuring decision support science policies within the U.S. Global Change Research Program and other related programs.

  3. Uncertainty in biodiversity science, policy and management: a conceptual overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrjö Haila

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The protection of biodiversity is a complex societal, political and ultimately practical imperative of current global society. The imperative builds upon scientific knowledge on human dependence on the life-support systems of the Earth. This paper aims at introducing main types of uncertainty inherent in biodiversity science, policy and management, as an introduction to a companion paper summarizing practical experiences of scientists and scholars (Haila et al. 2014. Uncertainty is a cluster concept: the actual nature of uncertainty is inherently context-bound. We use semantic space as a conceptual device to identify key dimensions of uncertainty in the context of biodiversity protection; these relate to [i] data; [ii] proxies; [iii] concepts; [iv] policy and management; and [v] normative goals. Semantic space offers an analytic perspective for drawing critical distinctions between types of uncertainty, identifying fruitful resonances that help to cope with the uncertainties, and building up collaboration between different specialists to support mutual social learning.

  4. Science and Security Policy: The Case of Advanced Pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, E. D.

    2007-01-01

    The revolution in biotechnology presents unprecedented opportunities and dangers for the health and well being of mankind. Today, one can plausibly imagine the eradication of many historic diseases. One can also envisage the creation of new diseases that would endanger a substantial proportion of the entire human species. As powerful applications for biotechnology research are identified, appropriate arrangements for managing their extraordinary consequences will inevitably become necessary. This presentation will explore recent efforts to balance science and security policy in the area of advanced biotechnology research. Key developments on the dual-use issue will be discussed, together with a variety of governance options aimed at mitigating the risk from such research. (author)

  5. Integrated assessment, water resources, and science-policy communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, E.G.R.; Akhtar, M.K.; McBean, G.A.; Simonovic, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional climate change modeling neglects the role of feedbacks between different components of society-biosphere-climate system. Yet, such interconnections are critical. This paper describes an alternative, Integrated Assessment (IA) model that focuses on feedbacks not only within individual elements of the society-biosphere-climate system, but also on their interconnections. The model replicates the relevant dynamics of nine components of the society-biosphere- climate system at the sectoral, or single-component, level: climate, carbon cycle, hydrological cycle, water demand, water quality, population, land use, energy and economy. The paper discusses the role of the model in science-policy dialogue. (author)

  6. Science Based Policies: How Can Scientist Communicate their Points Across?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnakat, A. C.

    2002-01-01

    With the complexity of environmental problems faced today, both scientists and policymakers are striving to combine policy and administration with the physical and natural sciences in order to mitigate and prevent environmental degradation. Nevertheless, communicating science to policymakers has been difficult due to many barriers. Even though scientists and policymakers share the blame in the miscommunication. This paper will provide recommendations targeted to the scientific arena. Establishing guidelines for the cooperation of scientists and policymakers can be an unattainable goal due to the complexity and diversity of political policymaking and environmental issues. However, the recommendations provided in this paper are simple enough to be followed by a wide variety of audiences and institutions in the scientific fields. This will aid when trying to fill the gap that has prevented the enhancement of scientific policymaking strategies, which decide on the critical issue s such as the disposal, transportation and production of hazardous waste

  7. Time for Change? Climate Science Reconsidered: Report of the UCL Policy Commission on Communicating Climate Science, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Rapley, C. G.; De Meyer, K.; Carney, J.; Clarke, R.; Howarth, C.; Smith, N.; Stilgoe, J.; Youngs, S.; Brierley, C.; Haugvaldstad, A.; Lotto, B.; Michie, S.; Shipworth, M.; Tuckett, D.

    2014-01-01

    The UCL Policy Commission on the Communication of Climate Science, chaired by Professor Chris Rapley comprises a cross-disciplinary project group of researchers from psychology, neuroscience, science and technology studies, earth sciences and energy research. The Commission examined the challenges faced in communicating climate science effectively to policy-makers and the public, and the role of climate scientists in communication. / The Commission explored the role of climate scientists in c...

  8. Building smart cannabis policy from the science up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Susan R B; Howlett, Katia D; Baler, Ruben D

    2017-04-01

    Social attitudes and cultural norms around the issue of substance abuse are shifting rapidly around the world, leading to complex and unpredictable consequences. On the positive side, efforts to more intensely disseminate the scientific evidence for the many connections between chronic substance use and the emergence of measurable and discrete brain dysfunctions, has ushered in an evolving climate of acceptance and a new era of improved access to more effective interventions, at least in the United States. On the negative side, there has been a steady erosion in the public perception of the harms associated with the use of popular drugs, especially cannabis. This worrisome trend has sprouted at the convergence of several forces that have combined, more or less fortuitously, to effectively change long-standing policies away from prohibition and toward decriminalization or legalization. These forces include the outsized popularity of the cannabis plant among recreational users, the unflagging campaign by corporate lobbyists and patient advocates to mainstream its medicinal use, and the honest realization in some quarters of the deleterious impact of the drug war and its draconian cannabis laws, in particular, on society's most vulnerable populations. Updating drug policies is a desirable goal, and significant changes may indeed be warranted. However, there is a real concern when policy changes are hurriedly implemented without the required input from the medical, scientific, or policy research communities. Regardless of how well intentioned, such initiatives are bound to magnify the potential for unintended adverse consequences in the form of far ranging health and social costs. To minimize this risk, science must be front and center in this important policy debate. Here, we review the state of the science on cannabis and cannabinoid health effects, both adverse and therapeutic. We focus on the prevalence of use in different populations, the mechanisms by which

  9. Reducing air pollution in Europe : a study of boundaries between science and policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinstra, W.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores the communication process between science and policy actors in assessment processes in the field of air quality policy inEurope. It focuses on the boundaries between science and policy and on the processes that shape assessments. It uses a

  10. A Review of Patti Lather's "Engaging Science Policy from the Side of the Messy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Sue V.

    2011-01-01

    In "Engaging Science Policy from the Side of the Messy," Patti Lather explores the relationship between science and policy. In this review Rosser explores how Lather argues for the use of all forms of research to make policy that is democratic, complex and messy.

  11. Introduction of a Science Policy Course at the University of Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S.; Parsons, D.

    2012-12-01

    In modern society, science and policy are two processes that have a symbiotic relationship to each other; wherein policy dictates the direction of science while science shapes the future of policy. Although the policy side is often ignored in scientific environments, the rate of scientific advancement is heavily influenced by policy. Science policy is very different from the conduct of science itself and future scientists need to be aware of the issues and factors that dictate the present and future direction of science. Based on the intricate relationship between science and policy, it is essential to introduce an overview of the policy process to future scientists and decision makers. In the context of climate change, policy implications are extensive and critical owing to their large socio-economic impacts. Hence, knowledge of the policy process is even more relevant to earth scientists. In this regard, the proposal to start an introductory course in science policy is currently being discussed in the department of Meteorology at the University of Oklahoma. If such a course is approved, an interactive graduate level class will be introduced for students pursuing a career in science. Such a course will be cross- disciplinary and will be offered to a wide audience across the university. Since the American Meteorological Society's (AMS) Summer Policy Colloquium has been a very successful program in educating scientists about the policy process, a format similar to the colloquium may be adopted. The primary topics will include the understanding of policy fundamentals, effective communication, ethics and integrity in the conduct of scientific research, executive leadership in science and the responsibilities of a scientific leader, impact of science on globalization and international diplomacy, etc. The AMS policy program office will be consulted to help design the course curriculum. An overview of the steps involved in introducing the class will be presented at the

  12. Climate adaptation policy, science and practice - Lessons for communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Johanna

    2017-04-01

    In climate change adaptation research, policy, and practice, institutional culture produces distinct conceptualizations of adaptation, which in turn affect how adaptation work is undertaken. This study examines institutional culture as the four domains of norms, values, knowledge, and beliefs that are held by adaptation scientists, policy- and decision-makers, and practitioners in Western Canada. Based on 31 semi-structured interviews, this article traces the ways in which these four domains interact, intersect, converge, and diverge among scientists, policy- and decision-makers, and practitioners. By exploring the knowledge, backgrounds, goals, approaches, assumptions, and behaviours of people working in adaptation, these interviews map the ways in which institutional culture shapes adaptation work being carried out by local, provincial, and federal governments, nongovernmental organizations, and an international community of scientists (including Canadian scientists). Findings suggest that institutional culture both limits and enables adaptation actions for these actors in important ways, significantly influencing how climate change adaptation is being planned for, and carried out on the ground. As a result, this paper asserts that there is an urgent need to better understand the role that institutional culture plays in order to advance climate change adaptation, both now and in the future. Important lessons for communicating about climate science, climate impacts and adaptation will be presented.

  13. Wetlands in a changing climate: Science, policy and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moomaw, William R.; Chmura, G.L.; Davies, Gillian T.; Finlayson, Max; Middleton, Beth A.; Natali, Sue M.; Perry, James; Roulet, Nigel; Sutton-Grier, Ariana

    2018-01-01

    Part 1 of this review synthesizes recent research on status and climate vulnerability of freshwater and saltwater wetlands, and their contribution to addressing climate change (carbon cycle, adaptation, resilience). Peatlands and vegetated coastal wetlands are among the most carbon rich sinks on the planet sequestering approximately as much carbon as do global forest ecosystems. Estimates of the consequences of rising temperature on current wetland carbon storage and future carbon sequestration potential are summarized. We also demonstrate the need to prevent drying of wetlands and thawing of permafrost by disturbances and rising temperatures to protect wetland carbon stores and climate adaptation/resiliency ecosystem services. Preventing further wetland loss is found to be important in limiting future emissions to meet climate goals, but is seldom considered. In Part 2, the paper explores the policy and management realm from international to national, subnational and local levels to identify strategies and policies reflecting an integrated understanding of both wetland and climate change science. Specific recommendations are made to capture synergies between wetlands and carbon cycle management, adaptation and resiliency to further enable researchers, policy makers and practitioners to protect wetland carbon and climate adaptation/resiliency ecosystem services.

  14. Revisiting the "American Social Science" – Mapping the Geography of International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Marcus

    2015-01-01

    International Relations (IR) knows itself as an American social science. The paper first traces how the self-image as a uniquely dividing and American social science was established in the postwar period and is reproduced to this day. Second, it employs bibliometric methods to challenge this image....... It confirms the dominance of Americans in a comprehensive sample of IR journals, but in contrast to previous studies, the paper also compares IR to other disciplines only to find that it is actually one of the least American social sciences. It further studies the geography of IR over time and finds that IR...... has become less American since the 1960s—mainly because Anglo-Saxon and European countries account for a larger share of IR production. The final part uses novel visualization tools to map the geographical network structures of authorship and coauthorship in the discipline’s leading journals...

  15. Expressions of agency within complex policy structures: science teachers' experiences of education policy reforms in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Jim; Lidar, Malena; Lundqvist, Eva; Östman, Leif

    2018-03-01

    We explore the experiences of school science teachers as they enact three linked national curriculum and assessment policy reforms in Sweden. Our goal is to understand teachers' differing responses to these reforms. A sample of 13 teachers engaged in 2 interviews over a 6-9-month period. Interviews included exploration of professional background and school context, perceptions of the aims of the policy reforms and experiences of working with these reforms in the classroom. Analysis was guided by an individual-oriented sociocultural perspective on professional agency. Here teaching is conceptualised as an ongoing interplay between teachers' knowledge, skills and personal goals, and the characteristics of the social, institutional and policy settings in which they work. Our analysis shows that navigating the ensuing continuities and contradictions results in many different expressions of teacher agency, e.g. loss of autonomy and trust, pushing back, subversion, transfer of authority, and creative tensions. Typically, an individual teacher's enactment of these reforms involved several of these expressions of agency. We demonstrate that the sociocultural perspective provides insights into teachers' responses to education policy reform likely to be missed by studies that focus largely on individual teacher knowledge/beliefs about reform or skills in 'implementing' reform practices.

  16. Inside and Outside the Policy Consensus: Science in a Time of Policy Upheaval in Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2011-12-01

    A public policy consensus in the United States typically lasts fifty years, an epoch in politics. During periods of relative stability, Constitutional provisions protect the status quo and Congressional procedures favor incremental changes. The consensus breaks down when elections bring members into the institutions with fundamentally different assumptions about the purpose of government. The ensuing policy upheaval brings change that is likely to be transformational with the new policy resembling little of what existed before. The important determinants of potential for policy upheaval and subsequent innovation are the magnitude of the electoral victory, committee specialization and seniority of the members remaining in Congress. The late 19th century policy arc that created the USGS and other rationally based government agencies used scientists to depoliticize important development decisions - e.g. where and when to build irrigation projects or research facilities. The country flourished through the 20th century as politicians of both parties agreed to keep science as a neutral advisor to their decision process. This consensus began to fray after WWII when nuclear physicists, among others, questioned DOD nuclear weapons development plans; the Sierra Club challenged dams on the Colorado River; and tragic mistakes such as thalidomide and DES became well known. Science became vulnerable to politicization as the prior consensus was dismantled incrementally election by election. The late 20th century saw increasingly small majority party margins and divided government became a regular election result instead of a rarity. Divided government lasted for one election cycle before party realignments in 1860, 1896 and 1934. Coincident with the recurring periods of divided government since 1980 without a recognizable realignment was a transformation in the view of science from "collaborator" to "enemy" in the policy process. Geosciences have been caught in the legislative

  17. Quality in environmental science for policy: Assessing uncertainty as a component of policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxim, Laura; Sluijs, Jeroen P. van der

    2011-01-01

    The sheer number of attempts to define and classify uncertainty reveals an awareness of its importance in environmental science for policy, though the nature of uncertainty is often misunderstood. The interdisciplinary field of uncertainty analysis is unstable; there are currently several incomplete notions of uncertainty leading to different and incompatible uncertainty classifications. One of the most salient shortcomings of present-day practice is that most of these classifications focus on quantifying uncertainty while ignoring the qualitative aspects that tend to be decisive in the interface between science and policy. Consequently, the current practices of uncertainty analysis contribute to increasing the perceived precision of scientific knowledge, but do not adequately address its lack of socio-political relevance. The 'positivistic' uncertainty analysis models (like those that dominate the fields of climate change modelling and nuclear or chemical risk assessment) have little social relevance, as they do not influence negotiations between stakeholders. From the perspective of the science-policy interface, the current practices of uncertainty analysis are incomplete and incorrectly focused. We argue that although scientific knowledge produced and used in a context of political decision-making embodies traditional scientific characteristics, it also holds additional properties linked to its influence on social, political, and economic relations. Therefore, the significance of uncertainty cannot be assessed based on quality criteria that refer to the scientific content only; uncertainty must also include quality criteria specific to the properties and roles of this scientific knowledge within political, social, and economic contexts and processes. We propose a conceptual framework designed to account for such substantive, contextual, and procedural criteria of knowledge quality. At the same time, the proposed framework includes and synthesizes the various

  18. Science Policy in Spain: National Programs and Public Perception of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica M. Novikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the organization and financing of the Spanish state policy in the field of scientific and technological research and innovation, its institutional basic and the legal and regulatory framework, as well as analyzes the problem of Spanish public opinion on research and work of scientists. The author uses the methods of texts analysis, interviews and expert assessments. First, the author examines the legislative framework of scientific and technical policy of the Kingdom of Spain, the theoretical basis of its development and implementation Then, we study the institutional characteristics of scientific policy in the country, in particular the principal organs of coordination, financing and implementation, including their functional powers. Finally, we investigate the Spanish people perception of the science as a whole, the introduction of new technologies and the sources of material support to scientific research. In conclusion, the past 10years have seen active steps of the Spanish authorities improve the legislation in the field of science in order to ensure the effective implementation of innovation and enhance the overall competitiveness of the country in the international arena. An important finding was also positive changes in the public attitude towards science and the intensification of the dialogue between the scientific community and the public.

  19. A Bridge Too Far - Revisited: Reframing Bruer's Neuroeducation Argument for Modern Science of Learning Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Jared C; Donoghue, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    In Education and the Brain: A Bridge Too Far, John Bruer argues that, although current neuroscientific findings must filter through cognitive psychology in order to be applicable to the classroom, with increased knowledge the neuroscience/education bridge can someday be built. Here, we suggest that translation cannot be understood as a single process: rather, we demonstrate that at least four different 'bridges' can conceivably be built between these two fields. Following this, we demonstrate that, far from being a matter of information lack, a prescriptive neuroscience/education bridge (the one most relevant to Bruer's argument) is a practical and philosophical impossibility due to incommensurability between non-adjacent compositional levels-of-organization: a limitation inherent in all sciences. After defining this concept in the context of biology, we apply this concept to the learning sciences and demonstrate why all brain research must be behaviorally translated before prescriptive educational applicability can be elucidated. We conclude by exploring examples of how explicating different forms of translation and adopting a levels-of-organization framework can be used to contextualize and beneficially guide research and practice across all learning sciences.

  20. Citizen Science - What's policy got to do with it? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, L.

    2013-12-01

    Sensing capabilities, computing power, and data storage have grown rapidly and become increasingly ubiquitous. In 2012, the number of smartphones worldwide topped one billion, and it is expected to double by 2015. A growing segment of the population now has the ability to collect and share information instantly. Social media and crowdsourcing platforms help to amplify and focus online information sharing and collaboration. We have seen exiting uses of these new tools and approaches to foster broad public participation in scientific research, from classifying galaxies and collecting environmental data to collectively solving the structure of an AIDS-related enzyme through a protein-folding game. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), for example, is using social media and crowdsourcing to learn more about earthquakes. These techniques provide inexpensive and rapid data to augment and extend the capabilities provided by traditional monitoring techniques. A new report by the Wilson Center, Transforming Earthquake Detection and Science Through Citizen Seismology, describes these groundbreaking citizen science projects. These efforts include the Tweet Earthquake Dispatch, which uses an algorithm to provide seismologists with initial alerts of earthquakes felt around the globe via Twitter in less than two minutes. The report also examines the Quake Catcher Network, which equips the public with low-cost sensors to collect information on seismic activity, as well as Did You Feel It, which uses the Internet to survey individuals about their experiences in earthquakes, including location and extent of the damage. Projects like these, however, do not happen overnight. Citizen-based science projects at the federal level must navigate a web of practical, legal and policy considerations to make them a reality. Projects must take into account the limitations of the Privacy Act, advising people on how the information they contribute might be used and respecting fair information

  1. The case for policy-relevant conservation science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, David C

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the “evidence-based” (Sutherland et al. 2013) versus “evidence-informed” debate (Adams & Sandbrook 2013), which has become prominent in conservation science, I argue that science can be influential if it holds a dual reference (Lentsch & Weingart 2011) that contributes to the needs of policy makers whilst maintaining technical rigor. In line with such a strategy, conservation scientists are increasingly recognizing the usefulness of constructing narratives through which to enhance the influence of their evidence (Leslie et al. 2013; Lawton & Rudd 2014). Yet telling stories alone is rarely enough to influence policy; instead, these narratives must be policy relevant. To ensure that evidence is persuasive alongside other factors in a complex policy-making process, conservation scientists could follow 2 steps: reframe within salient political contexts and engage more productively in boundary work, which is defined as the ways in which scientists “construct, negotiate, and defend the boundary between science and policy” (Owens et al. 2006:640). These will both improve the chances of evidence-informed conservation policy. El Caso para la Ciencia de la Conservación con Relevancia Política Resumen A partir del debate “con base en evidencia” (Sutherland et al. 2013) versus “informado con evidencia” (Adams & Sandbrook 2013), debate que se ha vuelto prominente en la ciencia de la conservación, argumento que la ciencia puede ser influyente si mantiene una referencia dual (Lentsch & Weingart 2011) que contribuya a las necesidades de quienes hacen la política a la vez que mantiene un rigor técnico. En línea con dicha estrategia, los científicos de la conservación cada vez reconocen más la utilidad de construir narrativas con las cuales pueden mejorar la influencia de sus evidencias (Leslie et al. 2013; Lawton & Rudd 2014). Sin embargo, sólo contar historias rara vez es suficiente para influir sobre la política; en su lugar, estas

  2. On formally integrating science and policy: walking the walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, James D.; Johnson, Fred A.; Williams, Byron K.; Boomer, G. Scott

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of science to the development and implementation of policy is typically neither direct nor transparent.  In 1995, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) made a decision that was unprecedented in natural resource management, turning to an unused and unproven decision process to carry out trust responsibilities mandated by an international treaty.  The decision process was adopted for the establishment of annual sport hunting regulations for the most economically important duck population in North America, the 6 to 11 million mallards Anas platyrhynchos breeding in the mid-continent region of north-central United States and central Canada.  The key idea underlying the adopted decision process was to formally embed within it a scientific process designed to reduce uncertainty (learn) and thus make better decisions in the future.  The scientific process entails use of models to develop predictions of competing hypotheses about system response to the selected action at each decision point.  These prediction not only are used to select the optimal management action, but also are compared with the subsequent estimates of system state variables, providing evidence for modifying degrees of confidence in, and hence relative influence of, these models at the next decision point.  Science and learning in one step are formally and directly incorporated into the next decision, contrasting with the usual ad hoc and indirect use of scientific results in policy development and decision-making.  Application of this approach over the last 20 years has led to a substantial reduction in uncertainty, as well as to an increase in transparency and defensibility of annual decisions and a decrease in the contentiousness of the decision process.  As resource managers are faced with increased uncertainty associated with various components of global change, this approach provides a roadmap for the future scientific management of natural resources.  

  3. Putting science at the heart of European policy

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    One year ago, the incoming European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker shocked the scientific world by scrapping the post of Chief Scientific Advisor. This week, the Commission made amends by launching a well-considered Scientific Advisory Mechanism (SAM) that not only puts science back at the heart of policy, but does so in a much more structured and robust way than conferring such responsibility on a single individual.     The SAM has two independent strands: an advisory group of seven scientists, and funding through the Horizon 2020 programme for national academies and learned societies to network and collaborate on policy issues. Both are backed up by a secretariat at Commission headquarters in Brussels. When Mr Juncker scrapped the role of Chief Scientific Advisor, it was against a backdrop of sometimes vitriolic attacks on the incumbent, Anne Glover, due to her outspoken views on GMOs. Mr Juncker’s move was seen by some as simply giving in to a powerful lob...

  4. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, areas of Laboratory Science, Technology, Mathematical Sciences, Microbiology, Physics, Medical Sciences and Zoology form part of the contents ... BUSINESS/CIRCULATION EDITOR ... Environment, Bayero University, Kano, Nigerian.

  5. National Policies and strategies on science and technology for development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayob, A

    1979-01-01

    Malaysia's economy continues to be dependent upon the primary producing sectors, based on the exploitation or use of her natural resources. At this Malaysia is the world's largest exporter of natural rubber, tin, tropical hardwoods and palm oil. There is still wide scope for developing new application of science and technology in the rubber industry, and the scope remains even wider in other agricultural sectors. In order to accelerate development in the traditional agricultural sector, that is, those related to food production, the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) was established in 1970 to undertake research in the development of crops other than rubber. Progress has been relatively slow in the development of agriculture. In forestry much work needs to be done in the application of science and technology to forest management, logging, timber utilization, silviculture and the related field of forest regeneration, tree breeding, forest protection and soil conservation. Further development of the mining sector calls for the application of new technology both in prospecting for new sources of minerals and in exploitation. Development of off-shore technology will become increasingly important. Although a major sector in resources development is energy, there is, as yet, no energy policy. Structural diversification is recognized as a basic need for the economic development of Malaysia. Malaysia will have a great demand for trained scientific and technological personnel.

  6. Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biomedical Engineering Biotechnology in relation to Medicine Clinical Sciences Dental Sciences Environment and Health Health Economics and Management Health Information Management Hygiene and Health Education Legal Aspects of Healthcare Medical Education Nursing Sciences Pharmaceutical Sciences

  7. Closing the quality gap: revisiting the state of the science (vol. 2: the patient-centered medical home).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John W; Jackson, George L; Powers, Benjamin J; Chatterjee, Ranee; Bettger, Janet Prvu; Kemper, Alex R; Hasselblad, Vic; Dolor, Rowena J; Irvine, R Julian; Heidenfelder, Brooke L; Kendrick, Amy S; Gray, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES As part of the Closing the Quality Gap: Revisiting the State of the Science series of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), this systematic review sought to identify completed and ongoing evaluations of the comprehensive patient-centered medical home (PCMH), summarize current evidence for this model, and identify evidence gaps. DATA SOURCES We searched PubMed®, CINAHL®, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for published English-language studies, and a wide variety of databases and Web resources to identify ongoing or recently completed studies. REVIEW METHODS Two investigators per study screened abstracts and full-text articles for inclusion, abstracted data, and performed quality ratings and evidence grading. Our functional definition of PCMH was based on the definition used by AHRQ. We included studies that explicitly claimed to be evaluating PCMH and those that did not but which met our functional definition. RESULTS Seventeen studies with comparison groups evaluated the effects of PCMH (Key Question [KQ] 1). Older adults in the United States were the most commonly studied population (8 of 17 studies). PCMH interventions had a small positive impact on patient experiences (including patient-perceived care coordination) and small to moderate positive effects on preventive care services (moderate strength of evidence [SOE]). Staff experiences were also improved by a small to moderate degree (low SOE). There were too few studies to estimate effects on clinical or most economic outcomes. Twenty-one of 27 studies reported approaches that addressed all 7 major PCMH components (KQ 2), including team-based care, sustained partnership, reorganized care or structural changes to care, enhanced access, coordinated care, comprehensive care, and a systems-based approach to quality. A total of 51 strategies were used to address the 7 major PCMH components. Twenty-two of 27 studies reported information on financial systems used to

  8. The double helix revisited: a paradox of science and a paradigm of human behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argüelles, Juan Carlos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the modern history of Science, few breakthroughs have caused an impact comparative to the Double Helix, the three-dimensional structure of DNA proposed by Watson & Crick in 1953, an event whose 50th anniversary was widely celebrated in the non-specialist media, three years ago. Although the discovery had little transcendence at the time, it has unquestionably been of great importance ever since. The Double Helix has underlined the true biological value of nucleic acids compared with proteins, demonstrating that genes are not amorphous entities but have a specific chemical composition and adopt an ordered spatial folding pattern. Elucidation of this key configuration made it possible to establish a direct relationship between the structure and the function of macromolecules, a relationship which is not so clear in the case of proteins. During these last fifty years much has been written and argued about the circumstances surrounding the discovery and about the behaviour and attitudes of many of the protagonists. Besides Watson & Crick, other scientists, whose contribution has not been adequately recognised, played an important part in solving the Double Helix mystery. This article contains some ethical and scientific reflections which revise some of these essential contributions and throws light on the role played in history by these comparatively «unknown soldiers» of science. The Double Helix story is undoubtedly a manifestation of the human side of science and many scientists believe that the available evidence taken as a whole permits an alternative story to be written.

    En la desarrollo histórico de la Ciencia moderna, pocos descubrimientos han causado un impacto comparativo a las repercusiones de la Doble Hélice, la estructura tridimensional del ADN, propuesta por Watson y Crick en 1953. El 50º aniversario de aquel evento fue ampliamente celebrado hace tres años, incluso por los medios no especializados en informaci

  9. A Blended Learning Module in Statistics for Computer Science and Engineering Students Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Andersson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching a statistics course for undergraduate computer science students can be very challenging: As statistics teachers we are usually faced with problems ranging from a complete disinterest in the subject to lack of basic knowledge in mathematics and anxiety for failing the exam, since statistics has the reputation of having high failure rates. In our case, we additionally struggle with difficulties in the timing of the lectures as well as often occurring absence of the students due to spare-time jobs or a long traveling time to the university. This paper reveals how these issues can be addressed by the introduction of a blended learning module in statistics. In the following, we describe an e-learning development process used to implement time- and location-independent learning in statistics. The study focuses on a six-step-approach for developing the blended learning module. In addition, the teaching framework for the blended module is presented, including suggestions for increasing the interest in learning the course. Furthermore, the first experimental in-class usage, including evaluation of the students’ expectations, has been completed and the outcome is discussed.

  10. Fisheries policy, research and the social sciences in Europe: Challenges for the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Symes, D.; Hoefnagel, E.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite evidence of a broadening of the science base for European fisheries policy with the incorporation of an ecosystem approach and increasing use of economic modelling, the contribution of the social sciences to policy related research remains less conspicuous. Progress has occurred in the

  11. On the Science-Policy Bridge: Do Spatial Heat Vulnerability Assessment Studies Influence Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Wolf

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Human vulnerability to heat varies at a range of spatial scales, especially within cities where there can be noticeable intra-urban differences in heat risk factors. Mapping and visualizing intra-urban heat vulnerability offers opportunities for presenting information to support decision-making. For example the visualization of the spatial variation of heat vulnerability has the potential to enable local governments to identify hot spots of vulnerability and allocate resources and increase assistance to people in areas of greatest need. Recently there has been a proliferation of heat vulnerability mapping studies, all of which, to varying degrees, justify the process of vulnerability mapping in a policy context. However, to date, there has not been a systematic review of the extent to which the results of vulnerability mapping studies have been applied in decision-making. Accordingly we undertook a comprehensive review of 37 recently published papers that use geospatial techniques for assessing human vulnerability to heat. In addition, we conducted an anonymous survey of the lead authors of the 37 papers in order to establish the level of interaction between the researchers as science information producers and local authorities as information users. Both paper review and author survey results show that heat vulnerability mapping has been used in an attempt to communicate policy recommendations, raise awareness and induce institutional networking and learning, but has not as yet had a substantive influence on policymaking or preventive action.

  12. On the Science-Policy Bridge: Do Spatial Heat Vulnerability Assessment Studies Influence Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Tanja; Chuang, Wen-Ching; McGregor, Glenn

    2015-10-23

    Human vulnerability to heat varies at a range of spatial scales, especially within cities where there can be noticeable intra-urban differences in heat risk factors. Mapping and visualizing intra-urban heat vulnerability offers opportunities for presenting information to support decision-making. For example the visualization of the spatial variation of heat vulnerability has the potential to enable local governments to identify hot spots of vulnerability and allocate resources and increase assistance to people in areas of greatest need. Recently there has been a proliferation of heat vulnerability mapping studies, all of which, to varying degrees, justify the process of vulnerability mapping in a policy context. However, to date, there has not been a systematic review of the extent to which the results of vulnerability mapping studies have been applied in decision-making. Accordingly we undertook a comprehensive review of 37 recently published papers that use geospatial techniques for assessing human vulnerability to heat. In addition, we conducted an anonymous survey of the lead authors of the 37 papers in order to establish the level of interaction between the researchers as science information producers and local authorities as information users. Both paper review and author survey results show that heat vulnerability mapping has been used in an attempt to communicate policy recommendations, raise awareness and induce institutional networking and learning, but has not as yet had a substantive influence on policymaking or preventive action.

  13. White paper on science and technology, 1999. New development in science and technology policy: responding to national and societal needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This white paper presents various considerations on present important issues on Japanese science and technology by focusing on what is demanded of Japan's science and technology policy in responding to these national and social needs. This papers concern policy measures intended to promote science and technology, and has been submitted to the hundred forty-second session of the Diet, pursuant to Article 8 of the Science and Technology Basic Law (Law No. 130), enacted in 1995. Part 1 and Part 2 of this report discuss the trends in a wide range of scientific and technical activities to help understanding the policy measures implemented to promote science and technology, which are then discussed in Part 3. The title of Part 1 is new development in science and technology policy: responding to national and societal needs. In this part, what sort of efforts is needed in the world of today, where science and technology are engines for social and economic revolution was examined in order for science and technology to better meet national and societal needs. In Part 2, current status of science and technology in Japan and other nations in the areas pertaining to science and technology were examined using various data as to the scientific and technical activities in Japan. This information will then be used for a more in-depth analysis of the trends in Japan's research activities. Part 3 provides a summary of the Science and Technology Basic Plan that was determined in July 1996 based on the Science and Technology Basic Law. It continues with a discussion of the policies that were implemented in FY1998 for the promotion of science and technology, in line with this basic plan. (M.N.)

  14. Governing Methods: Policy Innovation Labs, Design and Data Science in the Digital Governance of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Policy innovation labs are emerging knowledge actors and technical experts in the governing of education. The article offers a historical and conceptual account of the organisational form of the policy innovation lab. Policy innovation labs are characterised by specific methods and techniques of design, data science, and digitisation in public…

  15. Designing and implementing science-based methane policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, F.

    2017-12-01

    The phenomenal growth in shale gas production across the U.S. has significantly improved the energy security and economic prospects of the country. Natural gas is a "versatile" fuel that has application in every major end-use sector of the economy, both as a fuel and a feedstock. Natural gas has also played a significant role in reducing CO2 emissions from the power sector by displacing more carbon intensive fossil fuels. However, emissions of natural gas (predominantly methane) from the wellhead to the burner tip can erode this environmental benefit. Preserving the many benefits of America's natural gas resources requires smart, science-based policies to optimize the energy delivery efficiency of the natural gas supply chain and ensure that natural gas remains a key pillar in our transition to a low-carbon economy. Southwestern Energy (SWN) is the third largest natural gas producer in the United States. Over the last several years, SWN has participated in a number of scientific studies with regulatory agencies, academia and non-governmental entities that have led to over a dozen peer-reviewed papers on methane emissions from oil and gas operations. This presentation will review how our participation in these studies has informed our internal policies and procedures, as well as our external programs, including the ONE Future coalition (ONE Future). In particular, the presentation will highlight the impact of such studies on our Leak Detection and Repair (LDAR) program, designing new methane research and on the ONE Future initiatives - all with the focus of improving the delivery efficiency of oil and gas operations. Our experience supports continued research in the detection and mitigation of methane emissions, with emphasis on longer duration characterization of methane emissions from oil and gas facilities and further development of cost-effective methane detection and mitigation techniques. We conclude from our scientific and operational experiences that a

  16. Developing science policy capacity at the state government level: Planning a science and technology policy fellowship program for Colorado and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckenmiller, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    There is growing recognition of the potential to advance science policy capacity within state legislatures, where there is most often a shortage of professional backgrounds in the natural sciences, technology, engineering, and medicine. Developing such capacity at the state level should be considered a vital component of any comprehensive national scale strategy to strengthen science informed governance. Toward this goal, the Center for Science and Technology Policy Research at the University of Colorado Boulder is leading a strategic planning process for a Science and Technology Policy Fellowship Program within the Colorado state legislature and executive branch agencies. The intended program will place PhD-level scientists and engineers in one-year placements with decision-makers to provide an in-house resource for targeted policy-relevant research. Fellows will learn the intricacies of the state policymaking process, be exposed to opportunities for science to inform decisions, and develop a deeper understanding of key science and technology topics in Colorado, including water resources, wildfire management, and energy. The program's ultimate goals are to help foster a decision-making arena informed by evidence-based information, to develop new leaders adept at bridging science and policymaking realms, and to foster governance that champions the role of science in society. Parallel to efforts in Colorado, groups from nine other states are preparing similar plans, providing opportunities to share approaches across states and to set the stage for increased science and technology input to state legislative agendas nationwide. Importantly, highly successful and sustainable models exist; the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) has implemented a federally based fellowship program for over 43 years and the California Council for Science and Technology (CCST) has directed a fellowship program for their state's legislature since 2009. AAAS and CCST

  17. The Grand Challenges Discourse: Transforming Identity Work in Science and Science Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldewey, David

    2018-01-01

    This article analyzes the concept of "grand challenges" as part of a shift in how scientists and policymakers frame and communicate their respective agendas. The history of the grand challenges discourse helps to understand how identity work in science and science policy has been transformed in recent decades. Furthermore, the question is raised whether this discourse is only an indicator, or also a factor in this transformation. Building on conceptual history and historical semantics, the two parts of the article reconstruct two discursive shifts. First, the observation that in scientific communication references to "problems" are increasingly substituted by references to "challenges" indicates a broader cultural trend of how attitudes towards what is problematic have shifted in the last decades. Second, as the grand challenges discourse is rooted in the sphere of sports and competition, it introduces a specific new set of societal values and practices into the spheres of science and technology. The article concludes that this process can be characterized as the sportification of science, which contributes to self-mobilization and, ultimately, to self-optimization of the participating scientists, engineers, and policymakers.

  18. Bridging the gap between science and policy: an international survey of scientists and policy makers in China and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bernard C K; Li, Liping; Lu, Yaogui; Zhang, Li R; Zhu, Yao; Pak, Anita W P; Chen, Yue; Little, Julian

    2016-02-06

    Bridging the gap between science and policy is an important task in evidence-informed policy making. The objective of this study is to prioritize ways to bridge the gap. The study was based on an online survey of high-ranking scientists and policy makers who have a senior position in universities and governments in the health sector in China and Canada. The sampling frame comprised of universities with schools of public health and medicine and various levels of government in health and public health. Participants included university presidents and professors, and government deputy ministers, directors general and directors working in the health field. Fourteen strategies were presented to the participants for ranking as current ways and ideal ways in the future to bridge the gap between science and policy. Over a 3-month survey period, there were 121 participants in China and 86 in Canada with response rates of 30.0 and 15.9 %, respectively. The top strategies selected by respondents included focus on policy (conducting research that focuses on policy questions), science-policy forums, and policy briefs, both as current ways and ideal ways to bridge the gap between science and policy. Conferences were considered a priority strategy as a current way, but not an ideal way in the future. Canadian participants were more in favor of using information technology (web-based portals and email updates) than their Chinese counterparts. Among Canadian participants, two strategies that were ranked low as current ways (collaboration in study design and collaboration in analysis) became a priority as ideal ways. This could signal a change in thinking in shifting the focus from the "back end" or "downstream" (knowledge dissemination) of the knowledge transfer process to the "front end" or "upstream" (knowledge generation). Our international study has confirmed a number of previously reported priority strategies to bridge the gap between science and policy. More importantly, our

  19. Health Policy and Management: in praise of political science. Comment on "On Health Policy and Management (HPAM): mind the theory-policy-practice gap".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, David J

    2015-03-12

    Health systems have entered a third era embracing whole systems thinking and posing complex policy and management challenges. Understanding how such systems work and agreeing what needs to be put in place to enable them to undergo effective and sustainable change are more pressing issues than ever for policy-makers. The theory-policy-practice-gap and its four dimensions, as articulated by Chinitz and Rodwin, is acknowledged. It is suggested that insights derived from political science can both enrich our understanding of the gap and suggest what changes are needed to tackle the complex challenges facing health systems. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  20. Private sector involvement in science and innovation policy-making in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Annamária Inzelt

    2008-01-01

    The overall thrust of this paper is that policy learning is enhanced by the participation of private business. It is assumed that business involvement would suggest abundant opportunities for policy learning and transfer. The empirical part of this paper investigates private sector involvement in science, technology and innovation (STI) policy-making in a transition economy (Hungary). Private sector involvement in Hungarian STI policy-making is investigated in terms of the stages and types of...

  1. Twixt Pragmatism and Idealism: British Approaches to the Balkan Policy Revisited (the late 19th/early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O I Aganson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to define how home debates on international issues influence a state's foreign policy. This task was undertaken on the pattern of Britain's policy in the Balkans in the late 19th/early 20th century. The author examines the role played by the radicals (left-wing liberals in formulating Britain's approaches to the Eastern question. It is stated that the interaction between the Foreign Office and the radicals rendered British policy in the Balkans more flexible.

  2. Science Granting Councils: An Exploration of Policies and Practices ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    New Cyber Policy Centres for the Global South. IDRC is pleased to announce the results of its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South. View moreNew Cyber Policy Centres for the Global South ...

  3. Understanding and managing trust at the climate science-policy interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Justine; Howden, Mark; Cvitanovic, Christopher; Colvin, R. M.

    2018-01-01

    Climate change effects are accelerating, making the need for appropriate actions informed by sound climate knowledge ever more pressing. A strong climate science-policy relationship facilitates the effective integration of climate knowledge into local, national and global policy processes, increases society's responsiveness to a changing climate, and aligns research activity to policy needs. This complex science-policy relationship requires trust between climate science `producers' and `users', but our understanding of trust at this interface remains largely uncritical. To assist climate scientists and policymakers, this Perspective provides insights into how trust develops and operates at the interface of climate science and policy, and examines the extent to which trust can manage — or even create — risk at this interface.

  4. Beyond Sputnik U.S. science policy in the twenty-first century

    CERN Document Server

    Neal, Homer A; McCormick, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Science and technology are responsible for almost every advance in our modern quality of life. Yet science isn't just about laboratories, telescopes and particle accelerators. Public policy exerts a huge impact on how the scientific community conducts its work. Beyond Sputnik is a comprehensive survey of the field for use as an introductory textbook in courses and a reference guide for legislators, scientists, journalists, and advocates seeking to understand the science policy-making process. Detailed case studies---on topics from cloning and stem cell research to homeland security and science education---offer readers the opportunity to study real instances of policymaking at work. Authors and experts Homer A. Neal, Tobin L. Smith, and Jennifer B. McCormick propose practical ways to implement sound public policy in science and technology and highlight how these policies will guide the results of scientific discovery for years to come.

  5. The science-policy interface: Perceptions and strategies of the Iberian 'new water culture' expert community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanie J. Bukowski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a normative consensus that science should contribute to decision-making in environmental policy, given that science provides a means of understanding natural systems, human impacts upon them, and the consequences of those impacts for human systems. Despite this general agreement, however, the means through which science is transmitted into policy is contested. This paper envisions several of the competing characterisations of the science-policy interface as a continuum with the endpoints of 'fortress science' and 'co-production', and applies this continuum in an empirical analysis of the transboundary expert community promoting a 'new water culture' on the Iberian Peninsula. In engaging directly with members of this community, the paper finds that these characterisations are better seen as strategies among which scientists and their communities may choose and over which they may disagree. These trade-offs and disagreements in turn have implications for policy impact.

  6. [The role of science in policy making--EuSANH-ISA project, framework for science advice for health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciara, Dorota; Piotrowicz, Maria; Bielska-Lasota, Magdalena; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2012-01-01

    Governments and other authorities (including MPs) should be well informed on issues of science and technology. This is particularly important in the era of evidence-based practice. This implies the need to get expert advice. The process by which scientific knowledge is transmitted, along with proposals how to solve the problem, is called science advice. The main aim of the article is to discuss the issue of science advice--definitions, interaction between science and policymaking, and its position in contemporary policies. The second aim is to present European Science Advisory Network for Health (EuSANH), EuSANH-ISA project, and framework for science advice for health which was developed by participants. Furthermore, the role of civil society in decision-making process and science advice is also discussed. Interaction between scientists and policy-makers are described in terms of science-push approach (technocratic model), policy-pull (decisionistic) and simultaneous push-pull approach (pragmatic). The position of science advice is described in historical perspective from the 50s, especially in the last two decades. Description relies to USA, Canada and UK. Principles of scientific advice to government (Government Office for Science, UK) are quoted. Some important documents related to science advice in EU and UN are mentioned. EuSANH network is described as well as EuSANH-ISA project, with its objectives and outcomes. According to findings of this project, the process of science advice for health should follow some steps: framing the issue to be covered; planning entire process leading to the conclusion; drafting the report; reviewing the report and revision; publishing report and assessing the impact on policy.

  7. Challenges to Science and Technology Development Policy in the European Integration Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Novytsky

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on presentday aspects of Ukraine’s science and technology development policy in light of international phenomena and integration reali ties observed across the European continent. The author examines unique traits and practical challenges charac terizing an expansion of Ukraine — EU scientific and technological cooperation with the aim of improving the efficiency of Ukraine’s national economy and optimizing its international dimension. Special attention is paid to problems of adapting Ukraine’s technological policy to European standards, and relevant specific proposals are formulated. The article maintains that today’s advances in informa tion technology and the openness of national economies as a systemdeterminant factor of models of international cooperation broaden the scope of information technolo gies. Since telecommunications and other hitech sectors are vibrantly evolving not only in highly industrialized states but also in East European and other emerging mar ket economies, a key challenge for Ukraine appears to be lending better efficiency and productivity to its na tional policy of introducing information technologies into its socioeconomic sphere. The article provides insight into the international ex perience of the creation of technoparks and demonstrates the necessity of applying such innovation techniques of economic development to Ukraine.

  8. Green Science: Revisiting Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling…

  9. Science and design revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per; Kroes, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Robert Farrell and Cliff Hooker published a paper in Design Studies, arguing against the conventional science–design distinction. Finding their position highly controversial, we opposed it in a paper of our own, to which Farrell and Hooker have now responded with a defence of their view...

  10. Memoranda about Implementation of the Cancer Guidelines and Accompanying Supplemental Guidance - Science Policy Council Cancer Guidelines Implementation Workgroup Communication I and II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memoranda from the Chair of EPA's Science Policy Council to the Science Policy Council and the Science Policy Council Steering Committee regarding Implementation of the Cancer Guidelines and Accompanying Supplemental Guidance.

  11. An overview of the United States government's space and science policy-making process

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    A brief overview of the basic elements of the US space and science policy-making apparatus will be presented, focussing on insights into the interactions among the principal organizations, policy-making bodies and individual participants and their respective impact on policy outcomes. Several specific examples will be provided to illustrate the points made, and in the conclusion there will be some observations on current events in the US that may shape the outcome for the near-term future of US space and science policy in several areas.

  12. Lakatos Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    Revisits and reviews Imre Lakatos' ideas on "Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes." Suggests that Lakatos' framework offers an insightful way of looking at the relationship between theory and research that is relevant not only for evaluating research programs in theoretical physics, but in the social…

  13. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences is a biannual journal ... S.A. Isezuo, College of Health Sciences, UsmanuDanfodiyo University, Sokoto, ... of Mathematics, Statistics Unit, UsmanuDanfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria. 7.

  14. Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana): Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) ... from original research whether pure or applied in the various aspects of academic ... University Books & Publications Committee, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST)

  15. The Policy of Inactivity: Doing Gender-Blind Science Policy in the Czech Republic 2005–2010

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tenglerová, Hana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2014), s. 78-107 ISSN 1802-4866 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LE12003 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : gender equality * science policy * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography http://www.cejpp.eu/index.php/ojs/article/view/133

  16. Moderation of Policy-Making? : Science and Technology Policy Evaluation Beyond Impact Measurement—the Case of Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, Stefan

    1998-01-01

    In the field of science and technology policies, for the most part, evaluation procedures are utilized as a way of measuring the scientific and technological quality or the socio-economic impacts of publicly funded research. Beyond this practice, could evaluation procedures be used as a medium for

  17. 78 FR 12369 - United States Government Policy for Institutional Oversight of Life Sciences Dual Use Research of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Oversight of Life Sciences Dual Use Research of Concern AGENCY: Office of Science and Technology Policy... comments on the proposed United States Government Policy for Institutional Oversight of Life Sciences Dual... requirements for certain categories of life sciences research at institutions that accept Federal funding for...

  18. Ten years of democracy: Translating policy into practice in mathematics and science education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kgabo Masehela

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a 10-year (1994 – 2004 review of the state of mathematics and physical science education (SME in South Africa with respect to participation and performance, and its relationship with policy implementation.

  19. Acidification as an example of the link between science and policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, G.J.R.; Marseille, H.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes the development of acidification policy in the Netherlands as an example of the link between science and policy. In particular the paper examines how scientific information was translated into policy and the treatment of uncertainties. Aspects covered include: the research programme Dutch Priority Programme in Acidification; deposition objectives; emission reduction objectives; and ozone. The original National Environmental Policy Plan was seen as not strong enough by the new Dutch government which annouced the National Environmental Policy Plan 'Plus'. This reduced the time limits for emission reduction objectives for SO 2 and NO x . 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Integrating science, economics and law into policy: The case of carbon sequestration in climate change policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Kenneth

    in carbon sinks. Consequently, the private sector will increase the rate of return required for participation, increasing the cost of this option. Carbon sequestration can still be a major factor in a national carbon emission abatement program. However, because of the interplay of science, economics and law, the most commonly prescribed environmental policy instruments--marketable allowance and taxes--have little or no direct role to play in the implementation process.

  1. Stealth and Natural Disasters: Science, Policy and Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    Geophysicists, earth scientists, and other natural scientists play a key role in studying disasters, and are challenged to convey the science to the public and policy makers (including government and business). I have found it useful to introduce the concept of two general types of disasters to these audiences: natural and stealth. Natural disasters are geological phenomena over which we humans have some, but relatively little, control. Earthquakes, tsunamis, floods and volcanic eruptions are the most familiar examples, but exogenous events such as meteorite impacts, solar flares, and supernovae are also possibly disruptive. Natural disasters typically have an abrupt onset, cause immediate major change, are familiar from the historic record, and get much media and public attention. They cannot be prevented, but preplanning can ameliorate their effects. Natural disasters are increasingly amplified by us (humans), and we are increasingly affected by them due to our expanding presence on the planet. Less familiar disasters are unfolding in the near-term, but they are not happening in the minds of most people. They are approaching us stealthily, and for this reason I propose that we call them stealth disasters. They differ from natural disasters in several important ways: stealth disasters are primarily caused by, or driven by, the interaction of humans with complex cycles of processes on the planet. Examples are: fresh water shortages and contamination, soil degradation and loss, climate changes, ocean degradation. The onset of stealth disasters is incremental rather than abrupt. They may not unfold significantly during the course of one term of political office, but they are unfolding in our lifetime. We as individuals may or may not escape their consequences, but they will affect our children and grandchildren. If humans are familiar with stealth disasters at all, it is from a relatively local experience, e.g., flooding of the Mississippi or the Dust Bowl in the U

  2. Never the twain shall meet?--a comparison of implementation science and policy implementation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Per; Ståhl, Christian; Roback, Kerstin; Cairney, Paul

    2013-06-10

    Many of society's health problems require research-based knowledge acted on by healthcare practitioners together with implementation of political measures from governmental agencies. However, there has been limited knowledge exchange between implementation science and policy implementation research, which has been conducted since the early 1970s. Based on a narrative review of selective literature on implementation science and policy implementation research, the aim of this paper is to describe the characteristics of policy implementation research, analyze key similarities and differences between this field and implementation science, and discuss how knowledge assembled in policy implementation research could inform implementation science. Following a brief overview of policy implementation research, several aspects of the two fields were described and compared: the purpose and origins of the research; the characteristics of the research; the development and use of theory; determinants of change (independent variables); and the impact of implementation (dependent variables). The comparative analysis showed that there are many similarities between the two fields, yet there are also profound differences. Still, important learning may be derived from several aspects of policy implementation research, including issues related to the influence of the context of implementation and the values and norms of the implementers (the healthcare practitioners) on implementation processes. Relevant research on various associated policy topics, including The Advocacy Coalition Framework, Governance Theory, and Institutional Theory, may also contribute to improved understanding of the difficulties of implementing evidence in healthcare. Implementation science is at a relatively early stage of development, and advancement of the field would benefit from accounting for knowledge beyond the parameters of the immediate implementation science literature. There are many common issues in

  3. Never the twain shall meet? - a comparison of implementation science and policy implementation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Many of society’s health problems require research-based knowledge acted on by healthcare practitioners together with implementation of political measures from governmental agencies. However, there has been limited knowledge exchange between implementation science and policy implementation research, which has been conducted since the early 1970s. Based on a narrative review of selective literature on implementation science and policy implementation research, the aim of this paper is to describe the characteristics of policy implementation research, analyze key similarities and differences between this field and implementation science, and discuss how knowledge assembled in policy implementation research could inform implementation science. Discussion Following a brief overview of policy implementation research, several aspects of the two fields were described and compared: the purpose and origins of the research; the characteristics of the research; the development and use of theory; determinants of change (independent variables); and the impact of implementation (dependent variables). The comparative analysis showed that there are many similarities between the two fields, yet there are also profound differences. Still, important learning may be derived from several aspects of policy implementation research, including issues related to the influence of the context of implementation and the values and norms of the implementers (the healthcare practitioners) on implementation processes. Relevant research on various associated policy topics, including The Advocacy Coalition Framework, Governance Theory, and Institutional Theory, may also contribute to improved understanding of the difficulties of implementing evidence in healthcare. Implementation science is at a relatively early stage of development, and advancement of the field would benefit from accounting for knowledge beyond the parameters of the immediate implementation science literature. Summary

  4. Landslides in Flanders (Belgium): Where science meets public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Eeckhaut, M.; Poesen, J.; Vandekerckhove, L.

    2009-04-01

    landslide inventory map and landslide susceptibility map and (5) practical information on the application of both maps for landslide risk reduction through prevention and remediation is available at (http://www.lne.be/themas/bodem/grondverschuiving/grondverschuiving). Equally important, however, are the digital landslide inventory map and landslide susceptibility map which can be consulted at ‘The geographical database of Flanders' (http://dov.vlaanderen.be). This database enables persons to easily combine the landslide inventory and landslide susceptibility maps with topographical and lithological maps allowing them to check the susceptibility to landslides throughout the Flemish Ardennes. For each landslide on the landslide inventory map, there is a corresponding file containing specific information on this landslide. After a simple mouse click on a mapped landslide, the file belonging to this landslide pops up. Finally, guidelines for assessing the impact of planned interventions (e.g. construction of buildings, roads, …) on landsliding can be consulted at (http://www.mervlaanderen.be/uploads/b332.pdf). Thus, we present here an example of how ‘Science meets policy'. The created susceptibility map is an important tool for improving land use planning, and in particular for zoning the susceptibility classes with very high, high and moderate landslide susceptibility where prevention measures are needed and human interference should be limited. The on-line availability of all project documentation opens perspectives for managing landslide-affected areas through both top-down and bottom-up initiatives.

  5. The policy chicken and the science egg. Has applied ecology failed the transgenic crops debate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A J

    2014-12-01

    Ecology has a long history of research relevant to and impacting on real-world issues. Nonetheless problems of communication remain between policy-makers and scientists because they tend to work at different levels of generality (policy deals with broad issues, science prefers specific questions), and complexity (policy-makers want simple answers, ecologists tend to offer multi-factorial solutions) and to different timescales (policy-makers want answers tomorrow, ecologists always seem to want more time). These differences are not unique to the debate about the cultivation of transgenic crops. Research on gene flow is used to illustrate how science and policy are intimately bound together in a value-laden, iterative and messy process unlike that characterised by the 'encounter problem-do science-make policy' model. It also demonstrates how the gap between science and policy is often characterised by value-laden language. Scientists involved in ERA for transgenic crops may find their engagement with policy- and decision-makers clouded by misunderstanding about what one should expect from the other. Not the least of these, that science can define harm, is explored in a discussion of the U.K. Farm Scale Evaluations of herbicide-tolerant GM crops. The varied responses to these extensive trials highlight the problems of linking specific scientific experiments with broad policy objectives. The problems of applied ecology in the transgenic crops debate are not unique but may differ from other areas of environmental policy in the intense politicisation of the debate, the emphasis on assessment of risk and the particularly broad policy objectives.

  6. The need for a formalised system of Quality Control for environmental policy-science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, Piers; Ridd, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Research science used to inform public policy decisions, herein defined as "Policy-Science", is rarely subjected to rigorous checking, testing and replication. Studies of biomedical and other sciences indicate that a considerable fraction of published peer-reviewed scientific literature, perhaps half, has significant flaws. To demonstrate the potential failings of the present approaches to scientific Quality Control (QC), we describe examples of science associated with perceived threats to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. There appears a serious risk of efforts to improve the health of the GBR being directed inefficiently and/or away from the more serious threats. We suggest the need for a new organisation to undertake quality reviews and audits of important scientific results that underpin government spending decisions on the environment. Logically, such a body could also examine policy science in other key areas where governments rely heavily upon scientific results, such as education, health and criminology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Beyond the lab: observations on the process by which science successfully informs management and policy decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, S.

    2012-12-01

    Scientific findings inform management decisions and policy products through various ways, these include: synthesis reports, white papers, in-person and web-based seminars (webinars), communication from specialized staff, and seminal peer-reviewed journal articles. Scientists are often told that if they want their science to inform management decisions and policy products that they must: clearly and simply articulate discreet pieces of scientific information and avoid attaching advocacy messages to the science; however, solely relying on these tenants does not ensure that scientific products will infuse the realms of management and policy. The process by which science successfully informs management decisions and policy products rarely begins at the time the results come out of the lab, but rather, before the research is carried out. Having an understanding of the political climate, management needs, agency research agendas, and funding limitations, as well as developing a working relationship with the intended managers and policy makers are key elements to developing the kind of science results and products that often make an impact in the management and policy world. In my presentation I will provide case-studies from California (USA) to highlight the type of coastal, ocean and climate science that has been successful in informing management decisions and policy documents, as well as provide a state-level agency perspective on the process by which this occurs.

  8. Revisiting policy on chronic HCV treatment under the Thai Universal Health Coverage: An economic evaluation and budget impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavipapong, Waranya; Anothaisintawee, Thunyarat; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2018-01-01

    Thailand is encountering challenges to introduce the high-cost sofosbuvir for chronic hepatitis C treatment as part of the Universal Health Care's benefit package. This study was conducted in respond to policy demand from the Thai government to assess the value for money and budget impact of introducing sofosbuvir-based regimens in the tax-based health insurance scheme. The Markov model was constructed to assess costs and benefits of the four treatment options that include: (i) current practice-peginterferon alfa (PEG) and ribavirin (RBV) for 24 weeks in genotype 3 and 48 weeks for other genotypes; (ii) Sofosbuvir plus peginterferon alfa and ribavirin (SOF+PEG-RBV) for 12 weeks; (iii) Sofosbuvir and daclatasvir (SOF+DCV) for 12 weeks; (iv) Sofosbuvir and ledipasvir (SOF+LDV) for 12 weeks for non-3 genotypes and SOF+PEG-RBV for 12 weeks for genotype 3 infection. Given that policy options (ii) and (iii) are for pan-genotypic infection, the cost of genotype testing was applied only for policy options (i) and (iv). Results reveal that all sofosbuvir-based regimens had greater quality adjusted life years (QALY) gains compared with the current treatment, therefore associated with lower lifetime costs and more favourable health outcomes. Additionally, among the three regimens of sofosbuvir, SOF+PEG-RBV for genotype 3 and SOF+LDV for non-3 genotype are the most cost-effective treatment option with the threshold of 160,000 THB per QALY gained. The results of this study had been used in policy discussion which resulted in the recent inclusion of SOF+PEG-RBV for genotype 3 and SOF+LDV for non-3 genotype in the Thailand's benefit package.

  9. Integrating science and policy in natural resource management: lessons and opportunities from North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger N. Clark; Errol E. Meidinger

    1998-01-01

    Relations between science and policy concerning many issues (e.g., health, energy, natural resources) have been changing worldwide. Public pressure to resolve such complex and often controversial issues has resulted in policymakers and policy implementers seeking better knowledge on which to base their decisions. As a result, scientists have become more actively...

  10. Getting the message across biodiversity science and policy interfaces: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierenburg, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    This contribution analyses the difficulties of biodiversity policy-making and the role of science. It addresses biodiversity scientists' struggles to communicate the value of biodiversity to policy-makers, and the tensions between producing policyrelevant research and being perceived as too

  11. Book Review: "The Honest Broker: Making Sense of Science in Policy and Politics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Honest Broker is a must-read for any scientist with even a modest interest in environmental policy or politics, and I recommend it especially to scientists unfamiliar with the continuing controversy over how scientists misuse science in environmental policy and politics. The ...

  12. Congruence between National Policy for Science and Humanities Enrolment Ratio and Labour Market Demand in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Goski; Alabi, Joshua; Mohammed, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The paper undertook a snapshot of the demand for various academic programmes on the labour market and compared this with national policy norms for enrolment in public universities in Ghana. The objective was to ascertain whether national higher education enrolments are responsive to the national policy target of 60:40 (Sciences : Humanities) or…

  13. (Un)taming Citizen SciencePolicies, Practices, People

    OpenAIRE

    Van Oudheusden, Michiel; Van Hoyweghen, Ine

    2017-01-01

    We are presently witnessing a global explosion of citizen science initiatives covering a wide range of topics, from counting hummingbirds to actively researching new medical treatments, to the use of smartphones to measuring radioactivity in the environment. European policymakers and societal stakeholders hail citizen science as a means of (re)building trust in science, which may in turn lead to “more democratic research based on evidence and informed decision-making” and more responsible inn...

  14. Health Policy and Management: In Praise of Political Science; Comment on “On Health Policy and Management (HPAM: Mind the Theory-Policy Practice Gap”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Hunter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Health systems have entered a third era embracing whole systems thinking and posing complex policy and management challenges. Understanding how such systems work and agreeing what needs to be put in place to enable them to undergo effective and sustainable change are more pressing issues than ever for policy-makers. The theory-policy-practice-gap and its four dimensions, as articulated by Chinitz and Rodwin, is acknowledged. It is suggested that insights derived from political science can both enrich our understanding of the gap and suggest what changes are needed to tackle the complex challenges facing health systems.

  15. Identifying the science and technology dimensions of emerging public policy issues through horizon scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J; Bellingham, Jim R; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H Charles J; Good, David A; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J; Guilliams, Tim T; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A; Lueshi, Leila M; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P; Watkinson, Andrew R; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K A; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security.

  16. Identifying the Science and Technology Dimensions of Emerging Public Policy Issues through Horizon Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J.; Bellingham, Jim R.; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C.; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D.; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A.; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Good, David A.; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J.; Guilliams, Tim T.; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C.; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A.; Lueshi, Leila M.; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J.; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A.; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P.; Watkinson, Andrew R.; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K. A.; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique [1]. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security. PMID:24879444

  17. Identifying the science and technology dimensions of emerging public policy issues through horizon scanning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles Parker

    Full Text Available Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security.

  18. Negotiated complexity in ecostystem services science and policy making

    OpenAIRE

    Keune, Hans; Dendoncker, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Its a long way from scientific knowledge to concrete policy action. Along the way many decisions have to be made. A lot of these decisions relate to setting priorities. With regard to policy uptake of scientific knowledge on ecosystem services, the need for an integrated decision-making framework is crucial. Framing complexity is a crucial aspect of any ecosystem services approach: How do we deal with ecological and social complexity? The complexity to be taken into account and the ...

  19. Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Journal of Medical and Biomedical Science publishes original, novel, peer-reviewed reports that pertain to medical and allied health sciences; confirmatory reports of previously described phenomena that either contain a novel finding or are of such magnitude to enhance the field; as well as laboratory or ...

  20. Science, Technology and Innovation: Concepts, Theory and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Zehra Taşkın; Güleda Doğan

    2016-01-01

    This study is a review of the book entitled “Science, Technology and Innovation: Concepts, Theory and Policy”. In the converging world, the book is an important contribution not only for the field of economy, but also information science which includes information-economy concepts.

  1. The Disappearing Fourth Wall: John Marburger, Science Policy, and the SSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crease, Robert

    2015-04-01

    John H. Marburger (1941-2011) was a skilled science administrator who had a fresh and unique approach to science policy and science leadership. His posthumously published book Science Policy up Close contains recollections of key science policy episodes in which he participated or observed closely. One was the administration of the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC); Marburger was Chairman of the Universities Research Association, the group charged with managing the SSC, from 1988-1994. Many accounts of the SSC saga attribute its demise to a combination of transitory factors: poor management, rising cost estimates, the collapse of the Soviet Union and thus of the Cold War threat, complaints by ``small science'' that the SSC's ``big science'' was consuming their budget, Congress's desire to cut spending, unwarranted contract regulations imposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) in response to environmental lapses at nuclear weapons laboratories, and so forth. Marburger tells a subtler story whose implications for science policy are more significant and far-reaching. The story involves changes in the attitude of the government towards large scientific projects that reach back to management reforms introduced by the administration of Presidents Johnson, Nixon, and Carter in the 1960s and 1970s. This experience impressed Marburger with the inevitability of public oversight of large scientific projects, and with the need for planners of such projects to establish and make public a cost and schedule tracking system that would model the project's progress and expenditures.

  2. 76 FR 5391 - Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB), February...

  3. Science Education and Test-Based Accountability: Reviewing Their Relationship and Exploring Implications for Future Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kevin J. B.

    2012-01-01

    Assuming that quality science education plays a role in economic growth within a country, it becomes important to understand how education policy might influence science education teaching and learning. This integrative research review draws on Cooper's methodology (Cooper, 1982; Cooper & Hedges, 2009) to synthesize empirical findings on the…

  4. Math and Science Teachers: Recruiting and Retaining California's Workforce. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    EdSource, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Middle and high school math and science teachers provide the foundation for education in the growing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields. They are crucial to California's efforts to remain competitive in a global economy. This policy brief looks at the shortage and challenges involved in recruiting and retaining fully prepared…

  5. Sensemaking Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Robin; Cornelissen, Joep

    2014-01-01

    We critique and extend theory on organizational sensemaking around three themes. First, we investigate sense arising non-productively and so beyond any instrumental relationship with things; second, we consider how sense is experienced through mood as well as our cognitive skills of manipulation ...... research by revisiting Weick’s seminal reading of Norman Maclean’s book surrounding the tragic events of a 1949 forest fire at Mann Gulch, USA....

  6. Policies of industrial market and science and technology: the case of Brazilian nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.G. de.

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between policies and the definition of a national program of nuclear energy, is considered. The case under study is the Brazilian one. It is shown that an overall evaluation of market, industry and science and technology is mandatory for the definition of a nuclear energy program, and serious fault and hesitation, leading to contradiction and failure, have their roots in a basic lack of definition in policies. The evolution of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program will probably remain at a mediocre level until a definition at the level of policy-making in marketing, industry and science and technology is firmly pursued and maintained. (Author) [pt

  7. Health policy--why research it and how: health political science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Clavier, Carole; Breton, Eric

    2014-09-23

    The establishment of policy is key to the implementation of actions for health. We review the nature of policy and the definition and directions of health policy. In doing so, we explicitly cast a health political science gaze on setting parameters for researching policy change for health. A brief overview of core theories of the policy process for health promotion is presented, and illustrated with empirical evidence. The key arguments are that (a) policy is not an intervention, but drives intervention development and implementation; (b) understanding policy processes and their pertinent theories is pivotal for the potential to influence policy change; (c) those theories and associated empirical work need to recognise the wicked, multi-level, and incremental nature of elements in the process; and, therefore, (d) the public health, health promotion, and education research toolbox should more explicitly embrace health political science insights. The rigorous application of insights from and theories of the policy process will enhance our understanding of not just how, but also why health policy is structured and implemented the way it is.

  8. Information visualisation for science and policy: engaging users and avoiding bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerny, Greg J; Chen, Min; Freeman, Robin; Gavaghan, David; Meyer, Miriah; Rowland, Francis; Spiegelhalter, David J; Stefaner, Moritz; Tessarolo, Geizi; Hortal, Joaquin

    2014-03-01

    Visualisations and graphics are fundamental to studying complex subject matter. However, beyond acknowledging this value, scientists and science-policy programmes rarely consider how visualisations can enable discovery, create engaging and robust reporting, or support online resources. Producing accessible and unbiased visualisations from complicated, uncertain data requires expertise and knowledge from science, policy, computing, and design. However, visualisation is rarely found in our scientific training, organisations, or collaborations. As new policy programmes develop [e.g., the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES)], we need information visualisation to permeate increasingly both the work of scientists and science policy. The alternative is increased potential for missed discoveries, miscommunications, and, at worst, creating a bias towards the research that is easiest to display. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Policy makers ignoring science and scientists ignoring policy: the medical ethical challenges of heroin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Small Dan

    2006-05-01

    out, is it acceptable to require patients who have been successfully treated with heroin in Canada, to be forced to move back to less effective treatments (treatments that failed to be efficacious in the past? This essay discusses this dilemma and places it in the broader context of ethics, science, and health policy. It makes the case for continuation of the current successful patients in heroin treatment and the institution of heroin treatment to all Canadian patients living with active addictions who qualify.

  10. Public health policy research: making the case for a political science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Nicole F; Clavier, Carole

    2011-03-01

    The past few years have seen the emergence of claims that the political determinants of health do not get due consideration and a growing demand for better insights into public policy analysis in the health research field. Several public health and health promotion researchers are calling for better training and a stronger research culture in health policy. The development of these studies tends to be more advanced in health promotion than in other areas of public health research, but researchers are still commonly caught in a naïve, idealistic and narrow view of public policy. This article argues that the political science discipline has developed a specific approach to public policy analysis that can help to open up unexplored levers of influence for public health research and practice and that can contribute to a better understanding of public policy as a determinant of health. It describes and critiques the public health model of policy analysis, analyzes political science's specific approach to public policy analysis, and discusses how the politics of research provides opportunities and barriers to the integration of political science's distinctive contributions to policy analysis in health promotion.

  11. Journal of the Ghana Science Association: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... technology. However, in addition to the conference papers, other original articles, reviews and short communications are invited from authors. ... Published three times a year. ... Victoria Dzogbefia, College of Science, KNUST, Kumasi Prof.

  12. Soviet Union goes to Sussex for advice on science policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Brown, P

    1990-01-01

    Two state officials from the Soviet Union came to the SPRU, Sussex University, to learn about methods for forecasting trends in science and technology and ways of establishing priorities for basic scientific research (1/2 page).

  13. South African Journal of Animal Science: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Papers dealing with production aspects of animal products and sociological aspects of ... that they are scientific by nature and have been carried out in a systematic way. ... Our mission is to advance animal science and promote viable animal ...

  14. A Decade of Reform: Science and Technology Policy in China ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The State Science and Technology Commission (People's Republic of China), IDRC ... In 1995, and at the request of the Chinese government, Canada's International Development Research Centre ( IDRC ) assembled a ... Related content ...

  15. Improved Management of Water and Natural Resources Requires Open, Cognizant, Adaptive Science and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, P. D.; Voinov, A. A.; Shapiro, C. D.; Jenni, K. E.

    2017-12-01

    Water issues impact the availability and use of other natural resources as well as environmental conditions. In an increasingly populated hyper-connected world, water issues are increasingly "wicked problems": complex problems with high uncertainties and no independent observers. Water is essential to life, and life affects water quality and availability. Scientists, managers, decision-makers, and the greater public all have a stake in improving the management of water resources. In turn, they are part of the systems that they are studying, deciding on, affecting, or trying to improve. Governance of water issues requires greater accessibility, traceability, and accountability (ATA) in science and policy. Water-related studies and decision-making need transdisciplinary science, inclusive participatory processes, and consideration and acceptance of multiple perspectives. Biases, Beliefs, Heuristics, and Values (BBHV) shape much of our perceptions and knowledge, and inevitably, affect both science and policy. Understanding the role of BBHV is critical to (1) understanding individual and group judgments and choices, (2) recognizing potential differences between societal "wants" and societal "needs", and (3) identifying "winners" and "losers" of policy decisions. Societal acceptance of proposed policies and actions can be fostered by enhancing participatory processes and by providing greater ATA in science, in policy, and in development of the laws, rules, and traditions that constrain decision-making. An adaptive science-infused governance framework is proposed that seeks greater cognizance of the role of BBHV in shaping science and policy choices and decisions, and that also seeks "Open Traceable Accountable Policy" to complement "Open Science". We discuss the limitations of the governance that we suggest, as well as tools and approaches to help implementation.

  16. The Normality of EU Sport Policy Studies: Disciplinary Locus in Political Science, Sport Science or Elsewhere?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Kornbeck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Normality of EU Sport Policy Studies: Disciplinary Locus in Political Science, Sport Science or Elsewhere? Mainstream European integration research has shown that research on the EU tends to follow the conjunctures of European integration itself. This realisation has led to some debate on which branch of political science – international relations or government – or indeed other academic disciplines is/are the most appropriate locus for such research. The paper takes these debates one step further by looking at the occurrence of ‘EU & sport’ studies within the wider field of EU studies. The main material used comes from the ECLAS database. Findings lead to a discussion of whether ‘EU & sport’ studies should rather be for EU specialists or for sport specialists and a plea for disciplinary normalisation whereby sport science would need to get more directly involved (without necessarily overwriting political science. Some ideas are added regarding the need for a mapping of Central & Eastern European scholarship. Normalita politických studií EU v oblasti sportu: místo v oborech politologie, sportovních vědách či jinde? Hlavní integrační proudy v evropském výzkumu dokumentují, že výzkum v EU má tendenci zkoumat evropskou integraci jako takovou. Toto poznání vedlo k diskusi, v kterém oboru politologie – mezinárodní vztahy či vláda – nebo i v jiných akademických disciplínách je nejvhodnější místo pro takový výzkum. Stať se pokouší posunout tyto diskuse o krok dále tím, že studie o „EU a sportu“ se posuzují v širším záběru EU studií. Hlavní informační zdroje pocházejí z databáze ECLAS. Naše zjištění vedou k diskusi o problematice „EU a sportu“ v tom smyslu, zda by tyto studie měly být spíše určeny odborníkům EU, nebo sportovním specialistům. Důležitá je otázka disciplinární začlenění této problematiky, s širším zapojením sportovních věd (aniž by

  17. Science and technology policy for the 1980s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Four reports analyze the problems of innovation policy. They discuss interactions between scientific and technological development and economic and social progress. They also discuss international cooperation. They see scientific and technological resources as vital to meeting present economic challenges. 112 references, 3 figures, 10 tables.

  18. Atmospheric effects of aviation. Bringing together science, technology and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesoky, H L; Friedl, R R [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Sustained growth of the aviation industry could be threatened by environmental concerns. But collaboration of scientists, technologists and policy makers is helping to assess potential problems, and to consider appropriate measures for control of aircraft emissions. The structure of that collaboration is discussed along with status of the scientific assessments. (author) 15 refs.

  19. Mapping and modelling ecosystem services for science, policy and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burkhard, B.; Crossman, N.; Nedkov, S.; Petz, K.; Alkemade, R.

    2013-01-01

    Ecosystem services are a significant research and policy topic and there are many modelling and mapping approaches aimed at understanding the stocks, demands and flows of ecosystem services on different spatial and temporal scales. The integration of geo-biophysical processes and structure

  20. Atmospheric effects of aviation. Bringing together science, technology and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesoky, H.L.; Friedl, R.R. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Sustained growth of the aviation industry could be threatened by environmental concerns. But collaboration of scientists, technologists and policy makers is helping to assess potential problems, and to consider appropriate measures for control of aircraft emissions. The structure of that collaboration is discussed along with status of the scientific assessments. (author) 15 refs.

  1. Beyond the usual suspects: using political science to enhance public health policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafard, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    That public health policy and practice should be evidence based is a seemingly uncontroversial claim. Yet governments and citizens routinely reject the best available evidence and prefer policies that reflect other considerations and concerns. The most common explanations of this paradox emphasise scientific disagreement, the power of 'politics', or the belief that scientists and policymakers live in two separate communities that do not communicate. However, another explanation may lie in the limits of the very notion of evidence-based policy making. In fact, the social science discipline of political science offers a rich body of theory and empirical evidence to explain the apparent gap between evidence and policy. This essay introduces this literature with a particular emphasis on a recent book by Katherine Smith, Beyond evidence-based policy in public health: the interplay of ideas. As the title suggests, Smith argues that what matters for public health policy is less scientific evidence and much more a more complex set of ideas. Based on detailed case studies of UK tobacco and health inequality policy, Smith offers a richly textured alternative account of what matters for policy making. This excellent book is part of a small but growing body of political science research on public health policy that draws on contemporary theories of policy change and governance more generally. This essay provides a window on this research, describes some examples, but emphasises that public health scholars and practitioners too often retain a narrow if not naive view of the policy-making process. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Aligning science and policy to achieve evolutionarily enlightened conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Carly N; Sgrò, Carla M

    2017-06-01

    There is increasing recognition among conservation scientists that long-term conservation outcomes could be improved through better integration of evolutionary theory into management practices. Despite concerns that the importance of key concepts emerging from evolutionary theory (i.e., evolutionary principles and processes) are not being recognized by managers, there has been little effort to determine the level of integration of evolutionary theory into conservation policy and practice. We assessed conservation policy at 3 scales (international, national, and provincial) on 3 continents to quantify the degree to which key evolutionary concepts, such as genetic diversity and gene flow, are being incorporated into conservation practice. We also evaluated the availability of clear guidance within the applied evolutionary biology literature as to how managers can change their management practices to achieve better conservation outcomes. Despite widespread recognition of the importance of maintaining genetic diversity, conservation policies provide little guidance about how this can be achieved in practice and other relevant evolutionary concepts, such as inbreeding depression, are mentioned rarely. In some cases the poor integration of evolutionary concepts into management reflects a lack of decision-support tools in the literature. Where these tools are available, such as risk-assessment frameworks, they are not being adopted by conservation policy makers, suggesting that the availability of a strong evidence base is not the only barrier to evolutionarily enlightened management. We believe there is a clear need for more engagement by evolutionary biologists with policy makers to develop practical guidelines that will help managers make changes to conservation practice. There is also an urgent need for more research to better understand the barriers to and opportunities for incorporating evolutionary theory into conservation practice. © 2016 Society for Conservation

  3. Citizen science and natural resource governance: program design for vernal pool policy innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridie McGreavy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Effective natural resource policy depends on knowing what is needed to sustain a resource and building the capacity to identify, develop, and implement flexible policies. This retrospective case study applies resilience concepts to a 16-year citizen science program and vernal pool regulatory development process in Maine, USA. We describe how citizen science improved adaptive capacities for innovative and effective policies to regulate vernal pools. We identified two core program elements that allowed people to act within narrow windows of opportunity for policy transformation, including (1 the simultaneous generation of useful, credible scientific knowledge and construction of networks among diverse institutions, and (2 the formation of diverse leadership that promoted individual and collective abilities to identify problems and propose policy solutions. If citizen science program leaders want to promote social-ecological systems resilience and natural resource policies as outcomes, we recommend they create a system for internal project evaluation, publish scientific studies using citizen science data, pursue resources for program sustainability, and plan for leadership diversity and informal networks to foster adaptive governance.

  4. Science and technology planning in LDCs: major policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wionczek, M S

    1979-05-01

    Science in the less-developed countries (LDCs) should be underplanned rather than overplanned. Furthermore, the planning should be directed to the outer fringes of the scientific endeavor and to its infrastructure and not to the substance of scientific research itself. Planning of applied research and technological development in the LDC is another story. It cannot be done without entering into the substantive problems of applied research and technological development. Attempts to set the broad overall national targets for science and technology (S and T) expenditures -in terms of the proportion of the (GNP) or the per capita income- which do not consider the science and technology system's financial and human resources absorption capacity, are useless. 8 references.

  5. The use of social science knowledge in implementing the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    This study investigates the use of social science knowledge by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), a division of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in implementing the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The use of social science is examined both generally and in relation to a body of knowledge most relevant to the program, the social science risk literature. The study is restricted to the use by headquarters staff in relation to the largest repository and Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) projects. The literature on knowledge utilization and the Sabatier framework on knowledge use and policy learning provide the theoretical framework for the study. The research adopts a multistrategy approach, collecting data from two sources: (1) program documents, policy guidance, and meeting records; and (2) interviews with OCRWM officials. The constructs knowledge and use are conceptualized in different ways, each of which forms the basis for a different analytic approach. The research findings showed a very limited use of social science, more especially by the first repository program. Two reasons are advanced. First, the agency has viewed social science knowledge through technical lens and has applied an approach suited to technical problems to its structuring of waste management policy problems. Second, the degree of societal conflict over nuclear power and nuclear waste has prevented a constructive dialogue among the parties and thus reduced the possibility of policy learning

  6. Contextual assessment in science education: Background, issues, and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Stephen

    2006-09-01

    Contemporary assessment practices in science education have undergone significant changes in recent decades. The basis for these changes and the resulting new assessment practices are the subject of this two-part paper. Part 1 considers the basis of assessment that, more than 25 years ago, was driven by the assumptions of decomposability and decontextualization of knowledge, resulting in a low-inference testing system, often described as traditional. This assessment model was replaced not on account of direct criticism, but rather on account of a larger revolution - the change from behavioral to cognitive psychology, developments in the philosophy of science, and the rise of constructivism. Most notably, the study of the active cognitive processes of the individual resulted in a major emphasis on context in learning and assessment. These changes gave rise to the development of various contextual assessment methodologies in science education, for example, concept mapping assessment, performance assessment, and portfolio assessment. In Part 2, the literature relating to the assessment methods identified in Part 1 is reviewed, revealing that there is not much research that supports their validity and reliability. However, encouraging new work on selected-response tests is forming the basis for reconsideration of past criticisms of this technique. Despite the major developments in contextual assessment methodologies in science education, two important questions remain unanswered, namely, whether grades can be considered as genuine numeric quantities and whether the individual student is the appropriate unit of assessment in public accountability. Given these issues and the requirement for science assessment to satisfy the goals of the individual, the classroom, and the society, tentative recommendations are put forward addressing these parallel needs in the assessment of science learning.

  7. Understanding Standards and Assessment Policy in Science Education: Relating and Exploring Variations in Policy Implementation by Districts and Teachers in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kevin John Boyett

    Current literature shows that many science teachers view policies of standards-based and test-based accountability as conflicting with research-based instruction in science education. With societal goals of improving scientific literacy and using science to spur economic growth, improving science education policy becomes especially important. To understand perceived influences of science education policy, this study looked at three questions: 1) How do teachers perceive state science standards and assessment and their influence on curriculum and instruction? 2) How do these policy perspectives vary by district and teacher level demographic and contextual differences? 3) How do district leaders' interpretations of and efforts within these policy realms relate to teachers' perceptions of the policies? To answer these questions, this study used a stratified sample of 53 districts across Wisconsin, with 343 middle school science teachers responding to an online survey; science instructional leaders from each district were also interviewed. Survey results were analyzed using multiple regression modeling, with models generally predicting 8-14% of variance in teacher perceptions. Open-ended survey and interview responses were analyzed using a constant comparative approach. Results suggested that many teachers saw state testing as limiting use of hands-on pedagogy, while standards were seen more positively. Teachers generally held similar views of the degree of influence of standards and testing regardless of their experience, background in science, credentials, or grade level taught. District SES, size and past WKCE scores had some limited correlations to teachers' views of policy, but teachers' perceptions of district policies and leadership consistently had the largest correlation to their views. District leadership views of these state policies correlated with teachers' views. Implications and future research directions are provided. Keywords: science education, policy

  8. Science Policy and STS from Other Epistemic Places

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Garforth, L.; Stöckelová, Tereza

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 37 (2012), s. 226-240 ISSN 0162-2439 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP403/09/P203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : epistemology * research policies * governance Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 2.406, year: 2012 http://sth.sagepub.com/content/early/2011/08/28/0162243911417137

  9. Bibliometric mapping as a science policy and research management tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noyons, Everard Christiaan Marie

    1999-01-01

    Bibliometric maps of science are landscapes of scientific research fields created by quantitative analysis of bibliographic data. In such maps the 'cities' are, for instance, research topics. Topics with a strong cognitive relation are in each other's vicinity and topics with a weak relation are

  10. State and Perspectives of Research in Bulgaria: Problems and Weacknesses in Science Policy [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Toshev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current status of the Bulgarian research sector is analyzed. There are alarming trends both in the system of higher education as well as in the research organizations; some of them are listed. The main problems and weaknesses of the educational and research policy in Bulgaria are under the critic. Phenomena as mcdonaldization of higher education, mass higher education, integration processes in science of XXth century, the transition from the normal to post-normal science, appearance and development of surrogate science, increasing the number of marginal scientific sources, are considered in details. The basic normative science documents are considered and their weak features are exhibited.

  11. Advancing research collaborations among agencies through the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee: A necessary step for linking science to policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaValley, M.; Starkweather, S.; Bowden, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic is changing rapidly as average temperatures rise. As an Arctic nation, the United States is directly affected by these changes. It is imperative that these changes be understood to make effective policy decisions. Since the research needs of the Arctic are large and wide-ranging, most Federal agencies fund some aspect of Arctic research. As a result, the U.S. government regularly works to coordinate Federal Arctic research in order to reduce duplication of effort and costs, and to enhance the research's system perspective. The government's Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC) accomplishes this coordination through its policy-driven five-year Arctic Research Plans and collaboration teams (CTs), which are research topic-oriented teams tasked with implementing the plans. The policies put forth by IARPC thus inform science, however IARPC has been less successful of making these science outcomes part of an iterative decision making process. IARPC's mandate to facilitate coordinated research through information sharing communities can be viewed a prerequisite step in the science-to- decision making process. Research collaborations and the communities of practice facilitated by IARPC allow scientists to connect with a wider community of scientists and stakeholders and, in turn, the larger issues in need of policy solutions. These connections help to create a pathway through which research may increasingly reflect policy goals and inform decisions. IARPC has been growing into a more useful model for the science-to-decision making interface since the publication of its Arctic Research Plan FY2017-2021, and it is useful to evaluate how and why IARPC is progressing in this realm. To understand the challenges facing interagency research collaboration and the progress IARPC has made, the Chukchi Beaufort and Communities CTs, were evaluated as case studies. From the case studies, several recommendations for enhancing collaborations across Federal

  12. Integrating Mercury Science and Policy in the Marine Context: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Kathleen F.; Evers, David C.; Warner, Kimberly A.; King, Susannah L.; Selin, Noelle E.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant and presents policy challenges at local, regional, and global scales. Mercury poses risks to the health of people, fish, and wildlife exposed to elevated levels of mercury, most commonly from the consumption of methylmercury in marine and estuarine fish. The patchwork of current mercury abatement efforts limits the effectiveness of national and multi-national policies. This paper provides an overview of the major policy challenges and opportunities related to mercury in coastal and marine environments, and highlights science and policy linkages of the past several decades. The U.S. policy examples explored here point to the need for a full life cycle approach to mercury policy with a focus on source reduction and increased attention to: (1) the transboundary movement of mercury in air, water, and biota; (2) the coordination of policy efforts across multiple environmental media; (3) the cross-cutting issues related to pollutant interactions, mitigation of legacy sources, and adaptation to elevated mercury via improved communication efforts; and (4) the integration of recent research on human and ecological health effects into benefits analyses for regulatory purposes. Stronger science and policy integration will benefit national and international efforts to prevent, control, and minimize exposure to methylmercury. PMID:22901766

  13. ENGAGING SCIENCE STUDENTS WITH HANDHELD TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS BY RE-VISITING THE THAYER METHOD OF TEACHING AND LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Paredes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic chemistry instructors integrate handheld technology and applications into course lecture and lab to engage students with tools and techniques students use in the modern world. This technology and applications enable instructors to re-visit the Thayer Method of teaching and learning to create an updated method that works with 21st century students. The Thayer Method is based on the premise that students are willing and capable of making substantial preparation before coming to class and lab in order to maximize efficiency of student-instructor contact time. During this student preparation phase, we engage students with handheld technology and content applications including smart phone viewable course administrative materials; “flashcards” containing basic organic chemistry nomenclature, molecular structures, and chemical reactions; mini-lectures prepared using the Smart Board Airliner Interactive Tablet for upcoming class periods and laboratory technique videos demonstrating tasks they will perform as part of laboratory experimentation. Coupled with a student friendly course text, these handheld applications enable substantial student preparation before class and lab. The method, in conjunction with handheld technology and applications, has been used with positive results in our organic chemistry courses.

  14. Public science policy and administration. [cooperation of government industry, foundations, and educational institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, A. H. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    Science, the overwhelming concern of our time, is no longer a matter of private research and development but one of public policy and administration, in which government, industry, foundations, and educational institutions must all work together as never before. Few other single tasks are of such decisive importance to the collective and individual welfare of American citizens as the formulation of public science policy and the administration of scientific programs. Eleven national authorities of varied background in science, education, and government administration contribute their experience and their judgment in an effort to deal with the major aspects of the subject. Their focus is on the meeting of actual problems; they consider the decision making process in both public and public-private organizations. Topics are grouped in three general categories: personnel needs and resources, organizational problems and techniques, and the administrative role in policy leadership.

  15. A New Framework for Science and Technology Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanDevender, J.P.

    1999-03-04

    The usual divisions of science and technology into pure research applied research, development, demonstration, and production creates impediments for moving knowledge into socially useful products and services. This failing has been previously discussed without concrete suggestions of how to improve the situation. In the proposed framework the divisive and artificial distinctions of basic and applied are softened, and the complementary and somewhat overlapping roles of universities, corporations, and federal labs are clarified to enable robust partnerships. As a collegial group of scientists and technologists from industry, university, and government agencies and their national laboratories, we have worked together to clarify this framework. We offer the results in hopes of improving the results from investments in science and technology and thereby helping strengthen the social contract between the public and private investors and the scientists-technologists.

  16. Science and Technology Policy: Issues for the 109th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Also involved are the Departments of Justice, Commerce, Energy, and Agriculture , the National Science Foundation, the Environmental Protection Agency... Agriculture (USDA) similar authority to develop a list of biological agents and toxins that may pose a severe threat to crops and livestock and to...advancement requires new embryonic stem cell lines. The Bush Administration established the President’s Council on Bioethics in November 2001 to consider

  17. Environmental issues in Sweden 1973 1989: Science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwgren, Marianne; Segrell, Björn

    1991-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the environmental agenda in Sweden during the last two decades. A content analysis was made of all articles in a Swedish journal, Miljö-Aktuellt. Further, to elucidate the evolutionary process of problem formulation and reformulation, two cases were investigated, dealing with the impact of plant nutrients and mercury on surface water quality. The transport of heavy metals is an essential component of the ecological process and problem of acidification, and similarly, plant nutrients are part of the concept of eutrophication. Two concepts, the research cycle and the policy cycle, are tentatively applied to the conceptualizations of acidification and eutrophication. Additional data for the latter part of the study is supplied from parliamentary motions during 1973 1989. The substance/media focus of the 1970s was connected to a point-source abatement strategy, which mainly aimed at removing negative effects at a local level. The development of a national preventive strategy is traced in problem formulations related to “processes” going on in the technosphere: wastes, noise, energy production, traffic, and toxic substances. This period lasted from the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s, and the need for improved resource management as a means to control environmental problems has been a generally accepted idea. However, this does not mean that measures actually taken are sufficient in a material balance perspective. Further, in the 1980s there was a strong emphasis upon processes in the ecosphere. This focus also implies source-related policies. To a certain extent, the remedies are within the scope of national capabilities, but the international dimension is becoming increasingly important. Scientific proofs of resource and environment degradation are essential to induce political action and to stimulate international cooperation. From this study, however, it is not possible to assess the existence of any particular policy

  18. Open Access Policies of Research Funders: The Case Study of the Austrian Science Fund (FWF)

    OpenAIRE

    Tonto, Yaşar; Doğan, Güleda; Al, Umut; Madran, Orçun

    2015-01-01

    The Austrian Science Fund (FWF) is the main funder for basic research in Austria. FWF has been instrumental in promoting Open Access in Austria and elsewhere and possesses a strong Open Access policy for the research it funds. This case study presents FWF as a good practice of an effective funder policy on account of its comprehensive strategy and multi-faceted approach for implementing and supporting it.

  19. Promoting Science-Policy Education on Global Environmental Issues: The Mercury Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selin, N. E.; Stokes, L. C.; Susskind, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    We present initial results from a project focusing on teaching science and engineering students about global environmental policy, funded by a NSF CAREER grant. Despite decades of growing global concern about issues such as ozone depletion, climate change, and toxic chemicals, linking science to policy is a continuing challenge, and few science students receive formal training for effective participation in global negotiations. The focus of the educational activity presented here is the development of a freely-available, interactive teaching tool in the form of a role-play simulation, called "The Mercury Game" (http://mit.edu/mercurygame). The simulation requires players to consider scientific information on an emerging global issue, mercury pollution, and collectively decide whether global policy action is appropriate and what the scope of such action might entail. Playing the game helps participants to explore the consequences of representing scientific uncertainty in various ways in a policy context. The game focuses on the credibility of various sources of technical information, strategies for representing risk and uncertainty, and the balance between scientific and political considerations. It also requires the players to grapple with political considerations, particularly the dynamic between the global "North" (the developed world) and the global "South" (the developing world) at the heart of most political conflicts. Simulation outcomes from running the simulation at two scientific conferences and as part of a graduate-level course on global environmental science and policy will be presented.

  20. Nudging all over the world:Assessing the Impacts of the Behavioural Sciences on Public Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehead, Mark; Jones, Rhys; Howell, Rachel; Lilley, Rachel; Pykett, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This report is the first of its kind. It provides a global overview of the emerging influence of the behavioural sciences (and nudging practices) on the design and implementation of public policy. While previous research (see Ly and Soman 2013) has reported on the influence of the behavioural sciences (such as behavioural economics, behavioural psychology, and neuroscience) on the activities of governments in different places around the world, none has provided a systematic global survey. Ref...

  1. Policy implications of greenhouse warming: Mitigation, adaptation, and the science base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book discusses the policy implications of greenhouse warming by examining three major areas: general summary of information about the greenhouse effect leading to a framework for policy; the science basis for the greenhouse effect; mitigation of greenhouse warming. Each section contains 9-13 chapters on specific subjects including the following: overview of greenhouse gases; policy implications; internations considerations; climate records and models; sea levels; temperature rise estimation; energy management at several levels; nonenergy emission reduction; human populations; deforestation. Conclusions are summarized at the end of each section

  2. Codifying collegiality: recent developments in data sharing policy in the life sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Pham-Kanter

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, there have been significant changes in data sharing policies and in the data sharing environment faced by life science researchers. Using data from a 2013 survey of over 1600 life science researchers, we analyze the effects of sharing policies of funding agencies and journals. We also examine the effects of new sharing infrastructure and tools (i.e., third party repositories and online supplements. We find that recently enacted data sharing policies and new sharing infrastructure and tools have had a sizable effect on encouraging data sharing. In particular, third party repositories and online supplements as well as data sharing requirements of funding agencies, particularly the NIH and the National Human Genome Research Institute, were perceived by scientists to have had a large effect on facilitating data sharing. In addition, we found a high degree of compliance with these new policies, although noncompliance resulted in few formal or informal sanctions. Despite the overall effectiveness of data sharing policies, some significant gaps remain: about one third of grant reviewers placed no weight on data sharing plans in their reviews, and a similar percentage ignored the requirements of material transfer agreements. These patterns suggest that although most of these new policies have been effective, there is still room for policy improvement.

  3. Open Data in Biomedical Science: Policy Drivers and Recent ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's progress in implementing the open data initiatives first outlined in the 2009 Presidential memorandum on open government and more specifically regarding publications and data from publications in the 2013 Holdren memorandum. The presentation outlines the major points in both memorandums regarding open data, presents several (but not exhaustive) EPA initiatives on open data, some of which occurred will before both policy memorandums. The presentation concludes by outlining the initiatives to ensure public access to all EPA publications through PubMed Central and all publication-associated data through the Environmental Data Gateway and Data.gov. The purpose of this presentation is to present EPA's progress in implementing the open data initiatives first outlined in the 2009 Presidential memorandum on open government and more specifically regarding publications and data from publications in the 2013 Holdren memorandum.

  4. Redefining ecological ethics: science, policy, and philosophy at Cape Horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodeman, Robert

    2008-12-01

    In the twentieth century, philosophy (especially within the United States) embraced the notion of disciplinary expertise: philosophical research consists of working with and writing for other philosophers. Projects that involve non-philosophers earn the deprecating title of "applied" philosophy. The University of North Texas (UNT) doctoral program in philosophy exemplifies the possibility of a new model for philosophy, where graduate students are trained in academic philosophy and in how to work with scientists, engineers, and policy makers. This "field" (rather than "applied") approach emphasizes the inter- and transdisciplinary nature of the philosophical enterprise where theory and practice dialectically inform one another. UNT's field station in philosophy at Cape Horn, Patagonia, Chile is one site for developing this ongoing experiment in the theory and practice of interdisciplinary philosophic research and education.

  5. Open science: policy implications for the evolving phenomenon of user-led scientific innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Stodden

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available From contributions of astronomy data and DNA sequences to disease treatment research, scientific activity by non-scientists is a real and emergent phenomenon, and raising policy questions. This involvement in science can be understood as an issue of access to publications, code, and data that facilitates public engagement in the research process, thus appropriate policy to support the associated welfare enhancing benefits is essential. Current legal barriers to citizen participation can be alleviated by scientists’ use of the “Reproducible Research Standard,” thus making the literature, data, and code associated with scientific results accessible. The enterprise of science is undergoing deep and fundamental changes, particularly in how scientists obtain results and share their work: the promise of open research dissemination held by the Internet is gradually being fulfilled by scientists. Contributions to science from beyond the ivory tower are forcing a rethinking of traditional models of knowledge generation, evaluation, and communication. The notion of a scientific “peer” is blurred with the advent of lay contributions to science raising questions regarding the concepts of peer-review and recognition. New collaborative models are emerging around both open scientific software and the generation of scientific discoveries that bear a similarity to open innovation models in other settings. Public engagement in science can be understood as an issue of access to knowledge for public involvement in the research process, facilitated by appropriate policy to support the welfare enhancing benefits deriving from citizen-science.

  6. The Rise and Demise of the International Council for Science Policy Studies (ICSPS) as a Cold War Bridging Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzinga, Aant

    2012-01-01

    When the journal "Minerva" was founded in 1962, science and higher educational issues were high on the agenda, lending impetus to the interdisciplinary field of "Science Studies" "qua" "Science Policy Studies." As government expenditures for promoting various branches of science increased dramatically on…

  7. A view of the tip of the iceberg: revisiting conceptual continuities and their implications for science learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bryan A.; Kloser, Matt

    2009-12-01

    We respond to Hwang and Kim and Yeo's critiques of the conceptual continuity framework in science education. First, we address the criticism that their analysis fails to recognize the situated perspective of learning by denying the dichotomy of the formal and informal knowledge as a starting point in the learning process. Second, we address the critique that students' descriptions fail to meet the "gold standard" of science education—alignment with an authoritative source and generalizability—by highlighting some student-expert congruence that could serve as the foundation for future learning. Third, we address the critique that a conceptual continuity framework could lead to less rigorous science education goals by arguing that the ultimate goals do not change, but rather that if the pathways that lead to the goals' achievement could recognize existing lexical continuities' science teaching may become more efficient. In sum, we argue that a conceptual continuities framework provides an asset, not deficit lexical perspective from which science teacher educators and science educators can begin to address and build complete science understandings.

  8. Cumulative Environmental Impacts: Science and Policy to Protect Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Gina M; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Zeise, Lauren; Faust, John B

    2016-01-01

    Many communities are located near multiple sources of pollution, including current and former industrial sites, major roadways, and agricultural operations. Populations in such locations are predominantly low-income, with a large percentage of minorities and non-English speakers. These communities face challenges that can affect the health of their residents, including limited access to health care, a shortage of grocery stores, poor housing quality, and a lack of parks and open spaces. Environmental exposures may interact with social stressors, thereby worsening health outcomes. Age, genetic characteristics, and preexisting health conditions increase the risk of adverse health effects from exposure to pollutants. There are existing approaches for characterizing cumulative exposures, cumulative risks, and cumulative health impacts. Although such approaches have merit, they also have significant constraints. New developments in exposure monitoring, mapping, toxicology, and epidemiology, especially when informed by community participation, have the potential to advance the science on cumulative impacts and to improve decision making.

  9. Integrating science, policy and stakeholder perspectives for water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Emily; Allan, Andrew; Whitehead, Paul; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Lazzar, Attila; Lim, Michelle; Munsur Rahman, Md.

    2015-04-01

    Successful management of water resources requires an integrated approach considering the complex relationships between different biophysical processes, governance frameworks and socio-economic factors. The Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) Deltas project has developed a range of socio-economic scenarios using a participatory approach, and applied these across different biophysical models as well as an integrated environmental, socio-economic model of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Delta. This work demonstrates a novel approach through the consideration of multiple ecosystem services and related socio-economic factors in the development of scenarios; the application of these to multiple models at multiple scales; and the participatory approach to improve project outcomes and engage national level stakeholders and policy makers. Scenarios can assist in planning for an uncertain future through exploring plausible alternatives. To adequately assess the potential impacts of future changes and management strategies on water resources, the wider biophysical, socio-economic and governance context needs to be considered. A series of stakeholder workshops have been held in Bangladesh to identify issues of main concern relating to the GBM Delta; to iteratively develop scenario narratives for business as usual, less sustainable, and more sustainable development pathways; and to translate these qualitative scenarios into a quantitative form suitable for analysis. The combined impact of these scenarios and climate change on water quantity and quality within the GBM Basin are demonstrated. Results suggest that climate change is likely to impact on both peak and low flows to a greater extent than most socio-economic changes. However, the diversion of water from the Ganges and Brahmaputra has the potential to significantly impact on water availability in Bangladesh depending on the timing and quantity of diversions. Both climate change and socio

  10. A rethink of how policy and social science approach changing individuals' actions on greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, William; Middlemiss, Lucie

    2012-01-01

    Social scientists from all areas are developing theories and testing practical approaches to change individuals' actions to lower greenhouse gas emissions. In the UK context, policy-makers, local authorities, companies and organisations are using these theories to invest resources to change individual's actions. The problem is that social scientists are delivering fragmented science based on narrow disciplinary views and those using this science are cherry picking whatever theory suits their agenda. We argue that with substantial GHG emission reduction targets to be achieved, a multidisciplinary application and view of social science are urgently needed.

  11. Opinion: Endogenizing culture in sustainability science research and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Marcellus M.; Sanderson, Matthew R.; Mather, Martha E.; Daniels, Melinda D.; Bergtold, Jason S.; Aistrup, Joseph; Heier Stamm, Jessica L.; Haukos, David A.; Douglas-Mankin, Kyle; Sheshukov, Aleksey Y.; Lopez-Carr, David

    2015-01-01

    Integrating the analysis of natural and social systems to achieve sustainability has been an international scientific goal for years (1, 2). However, full integration has proven challenging, especially in regard to the role of culture (3), which is often missing from the complex sustainability equation. To enact policies and practices that can achieve sustainability, researchers and policymakers must do a better job of accounting for culture, difficult though this task may be.The concept of culture is complex, with hundreds of definitions that for years have generated disagreement among social scientists (4). Understood at the most basic level, culture constitutes shared values, beliefs, and norms through which people “see,” interpret, or give meaning to ideas, actions, and environments. Culture is often used synonymously with “worldviews” or “cosmologies” (5, 6) to explain the patterned ways of assigning meanings and interpretations among individuals within groups. Used in this way, culture has been found to have only limited empirical support as an explanation of human risk perception (7, 8) and environmentalism (9).

  12. Building Political Participation: The Role of Family Policy and Political Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Emily

    2017-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined the long-term associations between two kinds of politics courses--required political science courses and required family policy courses--and the political participation, knowledge, skill, efficacy, and politically engaged identity of child and family studies alumni. Two special cases were examined: those who…

  13. Opportunity from Crisis: A Common Agenda for Higher Education and Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Merle; Hellström, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes a plea for the construction of a common agenda for higher education and science, technology and innovation (STI) policy research. The public higher education and research sector in all countries is currently in the grip of several challenges arising from increased accountability, internationalization and in some cases dwindling…

  14. Integrating Science and Technology into a Policy of Lifelong Education in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urevbu, Andrew O.

    1985-01-01

    Examines Nigeria's National Policy on Education guidelines, specifically focusing on science and technological education. Discusses the development of vocational and technical schools, transfer of technology, and the role of research institutes. Recommendations are made concerning academic survival skills, respect for manual skills, improved…

  15. Sustainability science: accounting for nonlinear dynamics in policy and social-ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resilience is an emergent property of complex systems. Understanding resilience is critical for sustainability science, as linked social-ecological systems and the policy process that governs them are characterized by non-linear dynamics. Non-linear dynamics in these systems mean...

  16. A Framework for a Future Swedish Policy for Research and Development in Information Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofstrom, Mats; And Others

    Prepared to stimulate discussion on how to design a Swedish policy in information science and technology, this report presents the state-of-the-art of this field as it pertains to the dissemination of scientific information and outlines a program for future research and development. The review portion examines systems for current information…

  17. Screening Mammography: Science, Policy and Politics–The Good, the Bad and the Ugly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana Petitti, MD, MPH, FACPM, an epidemiologic expert on women's health and evidence based medicine, with posts as vice chair and spokesperson for the U.S. Preventive Service Task Force, presented "Screening Mammography: Science, Policy and Politics–The Good, the Bad and the Ugly." 

  18. Recycling of consumer waste: A behavioural science approach to environmental protection policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    1994-01-01

    Evaluations of programs whose purpose is to increase recycling in Denmark through changing consumer waste handling practices are reviewed on the results discussed in a behavioural science framework Denmark is one of the fastest-moving European cou with regard to policies targeting consumer waste...

  19. Towards a Framework for Analysing Interactions between Social Science and Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Sarah; Murphy, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between social science and environmental policy have become increasingly important over the past 25 years. There has, however, been little analysis of the roles that social scientists adopt and the contributions they make. In this paper we begin the process, offering tentative answers to two key questions: in relation to environmental…

  20. Discussing dialogue: perspectives on the value of science dialogue events that do not inform policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; McCallie, Ellen; Simonsson, Elin

    2009-01-01

    deliberately draw on different literatures and seek to make use of practitioner expertise within our discussion, in order to display several perspectives on the value of non-policy dialogue on science as sites of symmetrical individual or small-scale learning --rather than institutional learning......--through social processes...

  1. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: When Science, Medicine, Public Policy, and Laws Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Kenneth R.; Hewitt, Brenda G.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, alcohol has been used for different purposes including as a part of religious observances, as a food, at times as a medicine and its well-known use as a beverage. Until relatively recently these purposes have not changed and have at times been at odds with one another, resulting in collisions among policies and practices in science,…

  2. Science communication in regenerative medicine: Implications for the role of academic society and science policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuma Shineha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to understand the hurdles, motivation, and other issues affecting scientists' active participation in science communication to bridge the gap between science and society. This study analyzed 1115 responses of Japanese scientists regarding their attitudes toward science communication through a questionnaire focusing on the field of stem cell and regenerative medicine. As a result, we found that scientists face systemic issues such as lack of funding, time, opportunities, and evaluation systems for science communication. At the same time, there is a disparity of attitudes toward media discourse between scientists and the public.

  3. Becoming allies: Combining social science and technological perspectives to improve energy research and policy making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, Rick; Moezzi, Mithra

    2002-07-01

    Within the energy research community, social sciences tends to be viewed fairly narrowly, often as simply a marketing tool to change the behavior of consumers and decision makers, and to ''attack market barriers''. As we see it, social sciences, which draws on sociology, psychology, political science, business administration, and other academic disciplines, is capable of far more. A social science perspective can re-align questions in ways that can lead to the development of technologies and technology policy that are much stronger and potentially more successful than they would be otherwise. In most energy policies governing commercial buildings, the prevailing R and D directives are firmly rooted in a technology framework, one that is generally more quantitative and evaluative than that fostered by the social sciences. To illustrate how social science thinking would approach the goal of achieving high energy performance in the commercial building sector, they focus on the US Department of Energy's Roadmap for commercial buildings (DOE 2000) as a starting point. By ''deconstructing'' the four strategies provided by the Roadmap, they set the stage for proposing a closer partnership between advocates of technology-based and social science-based approaches.

  4. Risk, science and policy: definitional struggles, information management, the media and BSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D

    1999-11-01

    This article examines the role of definitional struggles in the science policy interface using the example of the cattle disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or mad cow disease in the UK. A central contention is that an explicit focus on definition illuminates the processes by which scientific judgements are made, promoted, communicated, assessed and judged and gives an improved picture of policy making. Neglected areas such as the role of secrecy, public relations and the mass media in the science-policy interface are brought into sharper focus as an intrinsic part of the wider operation of definitional struggles. The focus on definitional struggles also sheds light on some current work on risk in social theory. It is argued that the neglect of questions of agency which are central to definitional struggles has led to some theorists presenting risks as inevitable concomitants of technological and cultural developments leaving them in the grip of political quietism.

  5. NATO Advanced Research Institute on the Application of Systems Science to Energy Policy Planning

    CERN Document Server

    Cherniavsky, E; Laughton, M; Ruff, L

    1981-01-01

    The Advanced Research Institute (ARI) on "The Application of Systems Science to Energy Policy Planning" was held under the auspices of the NATO Special Programme Panel on Systems Science in collaboration with the National Center for Analysis of Energy Sys­ tems, Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA, as a part of the NATO Science Committee's continuous effort to promote the advancement of science through international cooperation. Advanced Research Institutes are sponsored by the NATO Science Committee for the purposes of bringing together senior scientists to seek consensus on an assessment of the present state of knowl­ edge on a specific topic and to make recommendations for future research directions. Meetings are structured to encourage inten­ sive group discussion. Invitees are carefully selected so that the group as a whole will contain the experience and expertise neces­ sary to make the conclusions valid and significant. A final report is published presenting the various viewpoints and conclusions....

  6. Policy for Robust Space-based Earth Science, Technology and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Escobar, Vanessa Marie; Aschbacher, Josef; Milagro-Pérez, Maria Pilar; Doorn, Bradley; Macauley, Molly K.; Friedl, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing technology has contributed to the transformation of multiple earth science domains, putting space observations at the forefront of innovation in earth science. With new satellite missions being launched every year, new types of earth science data are being incorporated into science models and decision-making systems in a broad array of organizations. Policy guidance can influence the degree to which user needs influence mission design and when, and ensure that satellite missions serve both the scientific and user communities without becoming unfocused and overly expensive. By considering the needs of the user community early on in the mission-design process, agencies can ensure that satellites meet the needs of multiple constituencies. This paper describes the mission development process in NASA and ESA and compares and contrasts the successes and challenges faced by these agencies as they try to balance science and applications within their missions.

  7. Space Life Sciences at NASA: Spaceflight Health Policy and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; House, Nancy G.

    2006-01-01

    In January 2005, the President proposed a new initiative, the Vision for Space Exploration. To accomplish the goals within the vision for space exploration, physicians and researchers at Johnson Space Center are establishing spaceflight health standards. These standards include fitness for duty criteria (FFD), permissible exposure limits (PELs), and permissible outcome limits (POLs). POLs delineate an acceptable maximum decrement or change in a physiological or behavioral parameter, as the result of exposure to the space environment. For example cardiovascular fitness for duty standards might be a measurable clinical parameter minimum that allows successful performance of all required duties. An example of a permissible exposure limit for radiation might be the quantifiable limit of exposure over a given length of time (e.g. life time radiation exposure). An example of a permissible outcome limit might be the length of microgravity exposure that would minimize bone loss. The purpose of spaceflight health standards is to promote operational and vehicle design requirements, aid in medical decision making during space missions, and guide the development of countermeasures. Standards will be based on scientific and clinical evidence including research findings, lessons learned from previous space missions, studies conducted in space analog environments, current standards of medical practices, risk management data, and expert recommendations. To focus the research community on the needs for exploration missions, NASA has developed the Bioastronautics Roadmap. The Bioastronautics Roadmap, NASA's approach to identification of risks to human space flight, revised baseline was released in February 2005. This document was reviewed by the Institute of Medicine in November 2004 and the final report was received in October 2005. The roadmap defines the most important research and operational needs that will be used to set policy, standards (define acceptable risk), and

  8. Misinformation in eating disorder communications: Implications for science communication policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Benjamin

    Though eating disorders are a serious public health threat, misinformation about these potentially deadly diseases is widespread. This study examines eating disorder information from a wide variety of sources including medical journals, news reports, and popular social activist authors. Examples of misinformation were identified, and three aspects of eating disorders (prevalence, mortality, and etiology) were chosen as key indicators of scientific illiteracy about those illnesses. A case study approach was then adopted to trace examples of misinformation to their original sources whenever possible. A dozen examples include best-selling books, national eating disorder information clearinghouses; the news media; documentary feature films; and a PBS television Nova documentary program. The results provide an overview of the ways in which valid information becomes flawed, including poor journalism, lack of fact-checking, plagiarism, and typographical errors. Less obvious---and perhaps even more important---much of the misinformation results from scientific research being co-opted to promote specific sociopolitical agendas. These results highlight a significant gap in science communication between researchers, the medical community, and the public regarding these diseases, and recommendations to address the problem are offered.

  9. The endangered species act: science, policy, and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Michael J

    2009-04-01

    The Endangered Species Act of 1973 is one of the nation's most significant and most controversial environmental laws. Over three-and-a-half decades, it has profoundly influenced both private and federal agency behavior. As the scope of that influence has come to be recognized, a law that is ostensibly to be guided by science has inevitably become entangled in politics. The generality of many of the law's key provisions has produced continuing uncertainty and conflict over some basic issues. Among these are what species or other taxa are potentially subject to the Act's protections, what the extent of those protections is, and whether the Act's ultimate goal of recovery is one that is being effectively achieved. New challenges face the administrators of this law, including that of incorporating climate change considerations into the decisions made under the Act, and responding to the information made available by recent advances in genetics. This paper provides a brief overview of the Endangered Species Act's history and its key provisions, and a more in-depth look at some of the current and recurrent controversies that have attended its implementation.

  10. Prospects for Policy Advances in Science and Technology in the Gulf Arab States: "The Role for International Partnerships"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, David P.; Moran, George W.; Siddiqi, Afreen; Richardson, Joshua E.; Anadon, Laura D.; Narayanamurti, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) policies in the Gulf Arab States are as diverse as the individual economies and political processes that characterize its member states. During the past decade, a number of expert review groups have argued that science and technology policy needs to be reformed and revitalized in the Gulf…

  11. National evaluation of policies on individual financial conflicts of interest in Canadian academic health science centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexchin, Joel; Sekeres, Melanie; Gold, Jennifer; Ferris, Lorraine E; Kalkar, Sunila R; Wu, Wei; Van Laethem, Marleen; Chan, An-Wen; Moher, David; Maskalyk, M James; Taback, Nathan; Rochon, Paula A

    2008-11-01

    Conflicts of interest (COI) in research are an important emerging topic of investigation and are frequently cited as a serious threat to the integrity of human participant research. To study financial conflicts of interest (FCOI) policies for individual investigators working in Canadian academic health centers. Survey instrument containing 61 items related to FCOI. All Canadian academic health science centers (universities with faculties of medicine, faculties of medicine and teaching hospitals) were requested to provide their three primary FCOI policies. Number of all centers and teaching hospitals with policies addressing each of the 61 items related to FCOI. Only one item was addressed by all 74 centers. Thirteen items were present in fewer than 25% of centers. Fewer than one-quarter of hospitals required researchers to disclose FCOI to research participants. The role of research ethics boards (REBs) in hospitals was marginal. Asking centers to identify only three policies may not have inclusively identified all FCOI policies in use. Additionally, policies at other levels might apply. For instance, all institutions receiving federal grant money must comply with the Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans. Canadian centers within the same level (for instance, teaching hospitals) differ significantly in the areas that their policies address and these policies differ widely in their coverage. Presently, no single policy in any Canadian center informs researchers about the broad range of individual FCOI issues. Canadian investigators need to understand the environment surrounding FCOI, be able to access and follow the relevant policies and be confident that they can avoid entering into a FCOI.

  12. Applying gene flow science to environmental policy needs: a boundary work perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Caroline E; Alexander, Laurie C

    2016-08-01

    One application of gene flow science is the policy arena. In this article, we describe two examples in which the topic of gene flow has entered into the U.S. national environmental policymaking process: regulation of genetically engineered crops and clarification of the jurisdictional scope of the Clean Water Act. We summarize both current scientific understanding and the legal context within which gene flow science has relevance. We also discuss the process by which scientific knowledge has been synthesized and communicated to decision-makers in these two contexts utilizing the concept of 'boundary work'. Boundary organizations, the work they engage in to bridge the worlds of science, policy, and practice, and the boundary objects they produce to translate scientific knowledge existed in both examples. However, the specific activities and attributes of the objects produced varied based on the needs of the decision-makers. We close with suggestions for how scientists can contribute to or engage in boundary work with policymakers.

  13. Revisiting the silence of Asian immigrant students: The negotiation of Korean immigrant students' identities in science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Minjung

    This dissertation is a study about Korean immigrant students' identities, including academic identities related to science learning and identities along various social dimensions. I explore how Korean immigrant students participate in science classrooms and how they enact and negotiate their identities in their classroom discursive participation. My dissertation is motivated by the increasing attention in educational research to the intersectionality between science learning and various dimensions of identities (e.g., gender, race, ethnicity, social networks) and a dearth of such research addressing Asian immigrant students. Asian immigrant students are stereotyped as quiet and successful learners, particularly in science and mathematics classes, and their success is often explained by cultural differences. I confront this static and oversimplified notion of cultural differences and Asians' academic success and examine the intersectionality between science learning and identities of Asian immigrant students, with the specific case of Korean immigrants. Drawing upon cultural historical and sociolinguistic perspectives of identity, I propose a theoretical framework that underscores multiple levels of contexts (macro level, meso level, personal, and micro level contexts) in understanding and analyzing students' identities. Based on a year-long ethnographic study in two high school Advanced Placement Biology classes in a public high school, I present the meso level contexts of the focal school and biology classes, and in-depth analyses of three focal students. The findings illustrate: (1) how meso level contexts play a critical role in these students' identities and science classroom participation, (2) how the meso level contexts are reinterpreted and have different meanings to different students depending on their personal contexts, and (3) how students negotiated their positions to achieve certain identity goals. I discuss the implications of the findings for the

  14. The pathways of high school science teachers and policy efforts to alter the pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, Tim

    2012-03-01

    There is currently much interest in improving the quality of science education in K-12 schools and encouraging more students, particularly minorities and women, to pursue careers in STEM fields. Two interrelated issues are at the forefront: the quality of science teachers and the supply of science teachers. Education research in general finds that the single most important school-based factor affecting student achievement is teacher quality. While there is little evidence that teacher credentials matter for student achievement in the lower grades, there is at least some evidence that content knowledge is an important determinant of teacher quality in middle and secondary schools. However, little is known about the pre-service preparation of high school science teachers and how the training of science teachers affects their performance in the classroom. While there are many efforts underway to increase the supply of science teachers, little is known about the supply of science teachers from different pathways and the factors that lead science teachers to leave the profession. In this presentation I discuss recent work on the supply of teachers from alternative pathways, focusing on high school science teachers. I also summarize the literature on teacher quality and attrition, emphasizing the current state of knowledge on secondary school teachers. Finally, I present current policy initiatives and discuss the likelihood of their success given current research findings.

  15. Optimal climate change: economics and climate science policy histories (from heuristic to normative).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randalls, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Historical accounts of climate change science and policy have reflected rather infrequently upon the debates, discussions, and policy advice proffered by economists in the 1980s. While there are many forms of economic analysis, this article focuses upon cost-benefit analysis, especially as adopted in the work of William Nordhaus. The article addresses the way in which climate change economics subtly altered debates about climate policy from the late 1970s through the 1990s. These debates are often technical and complex, but the argument in this article is that the development of a philosophy of climate change as an issue for cost-benefit analysis has had consequences for how climate policy is made today.

  16. Remembered Experiences and Revisit Intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnes, Stuart; Mattsson, Jan; Sørensen, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Tourism is an experience-intensive sector in which customers seek and pay for experiences above everything else. Remembering past tourism experiences is also crucial for an understanding of the present, including the predicted behaviours of visitors to tourist destinations. We adopt a longitudinal...... approach to memory data collection from psychological science, which has the potential to contribute to our understanding of tourist behaviour. In this study, we examine the impact of remembered tourist experiences in a safari park. In particular, using matched survey data collected longitudinally and PLS...... path modelling, we examine the impact of positive affect tourist experiences on the development of revisit intentions. We find that longer-term remembered experiences have the strongest impact on revisit intentions, more so than predicted or immediate memory after an event. We also find that remembered...

  17. Forest Science and forest policy in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East: Building Bridges to a sustainable future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Guldin; Niels Elers Koch; John A. Parrotta; Christian Gamborg; Bo J. Thorsen

    2004-01-01

    Making forest policies that help bridge from the current situation to a sustainable future requires sound scientific information. Too often, scientific information is available, yet policy makers do not use it. At a workshop in Denmark, attendees reviewed case studies where forest science influenced forest policies and identified six major reasons for success. Three...

  18. Scientific knowledge and environmental policy. Why science needs values. Environmental essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carolan, M.S. [Department of Sociology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins (United States)

    2006-12-15

    While the term 'science' is evoked with immense frequency in the political arena, it continues to be misunderstood. Perhaps the most repeated example of this - particularly when dealing with environmental policy and regulatory issues - is when science is called upon to provide the unattainable: namely, proof. What is scientific knowledge and, more importantly, what is it capable of providing us? These questions must be answered - by policymakers, politicians, the public, and scientists themselves - if we hope to ever resolve today's environmental controversies in a just and equitable way. This paper begins by critically examining the concepts of uncertainty and proof as they apply to science. Discussion then turns to the issue of values in science. This is to speak of the normative decisions that are made routinely in the environmental sciences (but often without them being recognized as such). To conclude, insights are gleaned from the preceding sections to help us understand how science should be utilized and conducted, particularly as it applies to environmental policy.

  19. The young and the policy: contributions of school of social sciences for socialization policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ingrassia Pereira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The challenges that the youth faces in a globalized world are enormous, and they expose it to achievements and stresses that are materialized during the scholar period, especially in High School, which is an era of transitions to the adult life and to the active citizenship. Therefore, politics should be rather than taught, lived and studied in school, due to the possibilities improved by the mandatory presence of Social Sciences in the curriculum of high school, and discuss the space of the student movement today to understand the political mediations that are in play. Objectively, this paper focuses on the set of beliefs, norms and values that promote political socialization of high school students from a private school located in Porto Alegre. Through a self-administrated questionnaire, it was possible to observe a scenario that ranges from apathy to disbelief, while the involvement in alternative spaces is increasing, such as volunteering and NGOs.

  20. Linking the Unitary Paradigm to Policy through a Synthesis of Caring Science and Integrative Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koithan, Mary S; Kreitzer, Mary Jo; Watson, Jean

    2017-07-01

    The principles of integrative nursing and caring science align with the unitary paradigm in a way that can inform and shape nursing knowledge, patient care delivery across populations and settings, and new healthcare policy. The proposed policies may transform the healthcare system in a way that supports nursing praxis and honors the discipline's unitary paradigm. This call to action provides a distinct and hopeful vision of a healthcare system that is accessible, equitable, safe, patient-centered, and affordable. In these challenging times, it is the unitary paradigm and nursing wisdom that offer a clear path forward.

  1. Global forces and local currents in Argentina's science policy crossroads: restricted access or open knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Javier Etchichury

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the tensions between two competing approaches to scientific policy in Argentina. The traditional vision favors autonomous research. The neoliberal conception fosters the link between science and markets. In the past few years, a neodevelopmentalist current also tries to stress relevance of scientific research. Finally, the article describes how the Open Access movement has entered the debate. The World Bank intervention and the human rights dimension of the question are discussed in depth. The article introduces the notion of open knowledge as a guiding criterion to design a human-rights based scientific policy.

  2. A Bridge Too Far – Revisited: Reframing Bruer’s Neuroeducation Argument for Modern Science of Learning Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Jared C.; Donoghue, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    In Education and the Brain: A Bridge Too Far, John Bruer argues that, although current neuroscientific findings must filter through cognitive psychology in order to be applicable to the classroom, with increased knowledge the neuroscience/education bridge can someday be built. Here, we suggest that translation cannot be understood as a single process: rather, we demonstrate that at least four different ‘bridges’ can conceivably be built between these two fields. Following this, we demonstrate that, far from being a matter of information lack, a prescriptive neuroscience/education bridge (the one most relevant to Bruer’s argument) is a practical and philosophical impossibility due to incommensurability between non-adjacent compositional levels-of-organization: a limitation inherent in all sciences. After defining this concept in the context of biology, we apply this concept to the learning sciences and demonstrate why all brain research must be behaviorally translated before prescriptive educational applicability can be elucidated. We conclude by exploring examples of how explicating different forms of translation and adopting a levels-of-organization framework can be used to contextualize and beneficially guide research and practice across all learning sciences. PMID:27014173

  3. A Bridge Too Far – Revisited: Reframing Bruer’s Neuroeducation Argument for Modern Science of Learning Practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Cooney Horvath

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Education and the Brain: A Bridge Too Far, John Bruer argues that, although current neuroscientific findings must filter through cognitive psychology in order to be applicable to the classroom, with increased knowledge the neuroscience/education bridge may someday be built. Here, we suggest that translation cannot be understood as a single process: rather, we demonstrate that at least 4 different ‘bridges’ can conceivably be built between these two fields. Following this, we demonstrate that, far from being a matter of information lack, a prescriptive neuroscience/education bridge (the one most relevant to Bruer’s argument is a practical and philosophical impossibility due to incommensurability between non-adjacent compositional levels-of-organization: a limitation inherent in all sciences. After defining this concept in the context of biology, we apply this concept to the learning sciences and demonstrate why all brain research must be behaviorally translated before prescriptive educational applicability can be elucidated. We conclude by exploring examples of how explicating different forms of translation and adopting a levels-of-organization framework can be used to contextualize and beneficially guide research and practice across all learning sciences.

  4. Participation as Post-Fordist Politics: Demos, New Labour, and Science Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, British science policy has seen a significant shift ‘from deficit to dialogue’ in conceptualizing the relationship between science and the public. Academics in the interdisciplinary field of Science and Technology Studies (STS) have been influential as advocates of the new public engagement agenda. However, this participatory agenda has deeper roots in the political ideology of the Third Way. A framing of participation as a politics suited to post-Fordist conditions was put forward in the magazine Marxism Today in the late 1980s, developed in the Demos thinktank in the 1990s, and influenced policy of the New Labour government. The encouragement of public participation and deliberation in relation to science and technology has been part of a broader implementation of participatory mechanisms under New Labour. This participatory program has been explicitly oriented toward producing forms of social consciousness and activity seen as essential to a viable knowledge economy and consumer society. STS arguments for public engagement in science have gained influence insofar as they have intersected with the Third Way politics of post-Fordism. PMID:21258426

  5. Researchers must be aware of their roles at the interface of ecosystem services science and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzat, Emilie; Arpin, Isabelle; Brunet, Lucas; Colloff, Matthew J; Turkelboom, Francis; Lavorel, Sandra

    2018-02-01

    Scientists working on ecosystem service (ES) science are engaged in a mission-driven discipline. They can contribute to science-policy interfaces where knowledge is co-produced and used. How scientists engage with the governance arena to mobilise their knowledge remains a matter of personal choice, influenced by individual values. ES science cannot be considered neutral and a discussion of the values that shape it forms an important part of the sustainability dialogue. We propose a simple decision tree to help ES scientists identify their role and the purpose of the knowledge they produce. We characterise six idealised scientific postures spanning possible roles at the science-policy interface (pure scientist, science arbiter-guarantor, issue advocate-guardian, officer, honest broker and stealth issue advocate) and illustrate them with feedbacks from interviews. We encourage ES scientists to conduct a reflexive exploration of their attitudes regarding knowledge production and use, with the intention of progressing toward a higher recognition of the political and ethical importance of ES assessments.

  6. Getting from Here to There: The Roles of Policy Makers and Principals in Increasing Science Teacher Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ji; Gerard, Libby; Bowyer, Jane

    2010-04-01

    In this study we investigate how federal and state policy makers, and school principals are working to improve science teacher quality. Interviews, focused discussions, and policy documents serve as the primary data source. Findings suggest that both policy makers and principals prioritize increasing incentives for teachers entering the science teaching profession, providing professional development for new teachers, and using students’ data to evaluate and improve instruction. Differences between the two leadership groups emerged in terms of the grain size and practicality of their concerns. Our findings indicate that the complexity of educational challenges to improve science teacher quality call for the co-construction of policy by multiple constituent groups including school principals, federal and state policy makers, and science education researchers.

  7. Mapping and sequencing the human genome: Science, ethics, and public policy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, J.D.

    1993-03-31

    Development of Mapping and Sequencing the Human Genome: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy followed the standard process of curriculum development at the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS), the process is described. The production of this module was a collaborative effort between BSCS and the American Medical Association (AMA). Appendix A contains a copy of the module. Copies of reports sent to the Department of Energy (DOE) during the development process are contained in Appendix B; all reports should be on file at DOE. Appendix B also contains copies of status reports submitted to the BSCS Board of Directors.

  8. Meeting the global demand of sports safety: the intersection of science and policy in sports safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, Toomas; Finch, Caroline F; Goulet, Claude; Noakes, Tim; Yammine, Kaissar

    2008-01-01

    Sports and physical activity are transforming, and being transformed by, the societies in which they are practised. From the perspectives of both competitive and non-competitive sports, the complexity of their integration into today's society has led to neither sports federations nor governments being able to manage the safety problem alone. In other words, these agencies, whilst promoting sport and physical activity, deliver policy and practices in an uncoordinated way that largely ignores the need for a concurrent overall policy for sports safety. This article reviews and analyses the possibility of developing an overall sports safety policy from a global viewpoint. Firstly, we describe the role of sports in today's societies and the context within which much sport is delivered. We then discuss global issues related to injury prevention and safety in sports, with practical relevance to this important sector, including an analysis of critical policy issues necessary for the future development of the area and significant safety gains for all. We argue that there is a need to establish the sports injury problem as a critical component of general global health policy agendas, and to introduce sports safety as a mandatory component of all sustainable sports organizations. We conclude that the establishment of an explicit intersection between science and policy making is necessary for the future development of sports and the necessary safety gains required for all participants around the world. The Safe Sports International safety promotion programme is outlined as an example of an international organization active within this arena.

  9. 11th National Conference on Science, Policy, and the Environment: Our Changing Oceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Saundry

    2012-04-17

    On January 19-21, 2011, The National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) successfully convened its 11th National Conference on Science, Policy and the Environment: Our Changing Oceans in Washington, DC at the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center. Over 1,247 participants attended the conference, representing federal, state and local governments, university and colleges across the US, civil society organizations, the business community, and international entities. In addition, the conference was webcast to an audience across several states. The conference provided a forum to examine the profound changes our ocean will undergo over the next 25-50 years and share various perspectives on the new research, tools, and policy initiatives to protect and sustain our ocean. Conference highlights and recommendations are available to the public on NCSE's conference website, www.OurChangingOceans.org.

  10. Crafting interactivity for stakeholder engagement: transforming assumptions about communication in science and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakhus, Mark

    2011-11-01

    The International Radiation Protection Association's guiding principles for stakeholder engagement focus on fostering, facilitating, and enabling interaction among stakeholders that is inclusive and fosters competent decision making. Implicit in these standards is a call to cultivate knowledge and competence in designing communication for stakeholder engagement among radiation protection professionals. Communication as design is an approach to risk communication in science and policy that differs from, yet complements, the more well-known communication practices of informing and persuading. Design focuses on the recurring practical problem faced by professionals in making communication possible among stakeholders where it has otherwise been difficult, impossible, or even unimagined. The knowledge and competence associated with design involves principles for crafting interactivity across a variety of mediated and non-mediated encounters among stakeholders. Risk communication can be improved by cultivating expertise in scalable communication design that embraces the demands of involvement without abandoning the need for competence in science and policy communication.

  11. New institutional mechanisms to bridge the information gap between climate science and public policy decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, W.; Gulledge, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Many decision makers lack actionable scientific information needed to prepare for future challenges associated with climate change. Although the scope and quality of available scientific information has increased dramatically in recent years, this information does not always reach - or is not presented in a form that is useful to - decision makers who need it. The producer (i.e. scientists) community tends to be stovepiped, even though consumers (i.e. decision makers) often need interdisciplinary science and analysis. Consumers, who may also be stovepiped in various agencies or subject areas, may lack familiarity with or access to these separate communities, as well as the tools or time to navigate scientific information and disciplines. Closing the communication gap between these communities could be facilitated by institutionalizing processes designed for this purpose. We recommend a variety of mainstreaming policies within the consumer community, as well as mechanisms to generate a strong demand signal that will resonate more strongly with the producer community. We also recommend institutional reforms and methods of incentivizing policy-oriented scientific analysis within the producer community. Our recommendations focus on improving information flow to national security and foreign policy decision makers, but many are relevant to public policy writ large. Recommendations for Producers 1. The scientific community should formally encourage collaborations between natural and social scientists and reward publications in interdisciplinary outlets Incentives could include research funding and honorary awards recognizing service to public policy. 2. Academic merit review should reward research grants and publications targeted at interdisciplinary and/or policy-oriented audiences. Reforms of merit review may require new policies and engaged institutional leadership. Recommendations for Consumers 1. Congress should amend Title VI of the National Defense Education Act

  12. Knowledge Cluster Formation as a Science Policy in Malaysia: Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Hans-Dieter Evers; ZEF University of Bonn; Solvay Gerke; Centre for Development Research, University of Bonn

    2015-01-01

    Regional science policy aims to create productive knowledge clusters, which are central places within an epistemic landscape of knowledge production and dissemination. These so-called K-clusters are said to have the organisational capability to drive innovations and create new industries. Many governments have used cluster formation as one of their development strategies. This paper looks at Malaysia's path towards a knowledge-based economy and offers some evidence on the current state of kno...

  13. The marketing of dissolvable tobacco: social science and public policy research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Brian G; Kim, Annice E; Tessman, Greta K; MacMonegle, Anna J; Choiniere, Conrad J; Evans, Sarah E; Johnson, Robin D

    2012-01-01

    The latest generation of smokeless tobacco products encompasses a wide range of offerings, including what is commonly referred to as dissolvable tobacco. Designed to deliver nicotine upon dissolving or disintegrating in a user's mouth, dissolvable tobacco products currently appear in various United States markets as strips, orbs, sticks, and lozenges. The emergence of these new products poses distinct opportunities and challenges for social and behavioral science and public health research and raises important public policy questions.

  14. Sustainability Science: Sustainable Energy for Mobility and Its Use in Policy Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Orecchini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s sustainability has clearly become the challenge of the 21st century. In a process toward a sustainable society it is crucial that different stakeholders start collaboration and exchange ideas with technicians and academics. To finalize the policy decisions on important issues such as energy sustainability, collaboration between policy makers, academia and the private sector is important. This work intends to give Italian policy makers concrete advice and solutions to develop energy systems for mobility. The analysis proceeds from the context of Sustainability Science, a new science, which has emerged as one of the most important disciplines of international scientific research. Using a new approach, trans-disciplinary and integrated, this research is oriented to study and understand the complexity of the interactions between economy, society and nature. This broad approach permits proposing concrete solutions to complex problems locally and globally. We propose a scheme of definition of Sustainability Energy, defining five pillars of reference, and we redefine the energy systems for mobility in the context of Sustainability Science. In this paper, we start from the idea that we are living in a crucial passage, we are moving from the era of petroleum to the era of energy vectors. Energy systems, including mobility, should be redefined within this new approach.

  15. Science education policy for emergency, conflict, and post-conflict: An analysis of trends and implications for the science education program in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udongo, Betty Pacutho

    This study analyzes the impact of armed conflicts on the development of education policy and particularly science education program in Uganda. Since independence from the British colonial rule, Uganda has experienced a series of armed conflicts, with the most devastating being the 21 years of conflict in Northern Uganda. The research study was guided by the following questions: (1) What is the level of government funding towards improving science education program in Uganda? (2) Have recent initiatives, such as free Primary and Secondary education, compulsory science, and 75% sponsorship for science-based courses, had a measurable impact on the proportion of students from the conflict-affected regions who enter tertiary institutions to pursue science and technology programs? (3) To what extent do the Ugandan Education Policy and, in particular, the Science Education Policy effectively address the educational needs of students affected by armed conflicts? The study employed a mixed method design where both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed. Quantitative data were obtained from a comprehensive search of policy documents and content analysis of literature on education policy, science education programs, and impact of conflicts on educational delivery. Qualitative data were obtained from surveys and interviews distributed to policy makers, central government and the local government officials, teachers, and students from the war-ravaged Northern Uganda. Analysis of policy documents and respondents' views revealed that Uganda does not have a science education policy, and the present education policy does not fully address the educational needs of students studying in conflict-affected regions. It was further observed that fewer students from the conflict-affected regions qualify for government scholarship to study science courses in higher institutions of learning. The study recommended the following policy interventions: (a) affirmative

  16. Science, policy, and stakeholders: developing a consensus science plan for Amchitka Island, Aleutians, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Kosson, David S; Powers, Charles W; Friedlander, Barry; Eichelberger, John; Barnes, David; Duffy, Lawrence K; Jewett, Stephen C; Volz, Conrad D

    2005-05-01

    With the ending of the Cold War, the US Department of Energy is responsible for the remediation of radioactive waste and disposal of land no longer needed for nuclear material production or related national security missions. The task of characterizing the hazards and risks from radionuclides is necessary for assuring the protection of health of humans and the environment. This is a particularly daunting task for those sites that had underground testing of nuclear weapons, where the radioactive contamination is currently inaccessible. Herein we report on the development of a Science Plan to characterize the physical and biological marine environment around Amchitka Island in the Aleutian chain of Alaska, where three underground nuclear tests were conducted (1965-1971). Information on the ecology, geology, and current radionuclide levels in biota, water, and sediment is necessary for evaluating possible current contamination and to serve as a baseline for developing a plan to ensure human and ecosystem health in perpetuity. Other information required includes identifying the location of the salt water/fresh water interface where migration to the ocean might occur in the future and determining groundwater recharge balances, as well as assessing other physical/geological features of Amchitka near the test sites. The Science Plan is needed to address the confusing and conflicting information available to the public about radionuclide risks from underground nuclear blasts in the late 1960s and early 1970s, as well as the potential for volcanic or seismic activity to disrupt shot cavities or accelerate migration of radionuclides into the sea. Developing a Science Plan involved agreement among regulators and other stakeholders, assignment of the task to the Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, and development of a consensus Science Plan that dealt with contentious scientific issues. Involvement of the regulators (State of Alaska), resource

  17. The role of advisory organizations in ionizing radiation protection science and policy: A proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, Kenneth L.

    2003-01-01

    Funding for radiation protection science and policy has been in decline for more than a decade. Agencies that set policies and standards for radiation protection depend on external expert groups for advice, and unless the funding situation is stabilized, the ability of these advisory organizations to provide timely advice will be compromised. This paper examines the history of radiation protection policy in the United States, reviews the funding patterns of international and national radiation protection advisory bodies, and suggests recommendations for assuring that radiological and radiation protection science remains an important part of the nation's public health policy agenda. Five major advisory organizations are the focus of this paper--ICRP, ICRU, NCRP, National Research Council BEIR Committees, and UNSCEAR. The recommendations developed in this paper address the following issues: (1) the need to coordinate activities among national and international advisory bodies in order to minimize overlap of work scope and ensure comprehensive coverage of major radiation protection issues; (2) the need to reevaluate activities and operations of advisory groups in the context of an ever-changing radiation protection landscape; and (3) the need to establish the NCRP as the major federal advisory organization for radiation protection in the United States and to stabilize funding through Congressional appropriations

  18. Equity in Elementary Science Education: A Study of Institutional and Policy Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Kathryn N.

    Despite recognition that the foundation for interest in science is laid down at the elementary level (Tai, et al., 2006), in the last ten years elementary science instruction time has declined in K-6 schooling (Center on Education Policy, 2007). A lack of access to excellent science education is exacerbated for low-income students, prompting significant questions regarding inequities within the science education pipeline (Maulucci, 2010). The critical factors needed to address these inequities include teacher preparation, access to resources, and instructional leadership, as well as a supportive policy and institutional milieu. However, although the former three have been studied extensively, the role of policy and institutions in creating the conditions for equity in science education are little understood despite their likely significant role (Lemke, 2001). This mixed methods study addressed this gap by examining the role the policy and institutional milieu play in constraining or supporting equitable elementary science education. Institutional theory provides the framework for understanding how various institutional logics and regulatory pressures permeate schools and districts across contexts, influencing science education implementation (Scott, 2014). Two distinct approaches were used to first quantitatively examine the predictors of differentiation in elementary science education instructional time and methods, and second qualitatively analyze the nature and process by which these mechanisms exert influence. Data for the first two papers was derived from a case study of a purposively sampled district, including surveys of 200 teachers and embedded case studies of four schools. Analysis consisted of multi-level models of teacher attributes and school and policy factors in predicting differential distribution of science education instructional time and methods (Raudenbush & Bryk, 2002). Data for the third paper arose out of a series of principal, administrator

  19. Framing the ecosystem concept through a longitudinal study of developments in science and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggestam, Filip

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines how scientific literature and policy documents frame the ecosystem concept and how these frames have shaped scientific dialogue and policy making over time. This was achieved by developing a frame typology, as a basis for organizing relevant value expressions, to assess how different frames have altered perspectives of the ecosystem concept. The frame typology and analysis is based on a semi-grounded and longitudinal document analysis of scientific literature and policy documents using the ecosystem concept. Despite changing discourses and public priorities (e.g., cultural constructs of biodiversity) both science and policy documents are characterized by stable value systems that have not changed substantially since the 1930s. These value systems were defined based on ethical principles that delineate 6 core frames: humans first, dual systems, eco-science, eco-holism, animals first, and multicentrism. Specific crises (e.g., climate change) and cross-disciplinary uptake and re-uptake of, for example, the ecosystem services concept, have brought new perspectives to the forefront of public discourse. These developments triggered changes in the core frames that, rather than being value based, are based on how the ecosystem is conceptualized under fixed value systems and over time. Fourteen subframes were developed to reflect these longitudinal changes. There are as such clear framing effects in both scientific literature and in policy. Ecosystem research is for instance often characterized by unstated value judgments even though the scientific community does not make these explicit. In contrast, policy documents are characterized by clear value expressions but are principally management driven and human centered. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Ways of knowing: realism, non-realism, nominalism and a typology revisited with a counter perspective for nursing science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Bernard M; Cutting, Roger L

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we reconsider the context of Barbara Carper's alternative ways of knowing, a prominent discourse in modern nursing theory in North America. We explore this relative to the concepts of realism, non-realism and nominalism, and investigate the philosophical divisions behind the original typology, particularly in relationship to modern scientific enquiry. We examine forms of knowledge relative to realist and nominalist positions and make an argument ad absurdum against relativistic interpretations of knowledge using the example of Borge's Chinese Emporium of Benevolent Knowledge. We propose a contentious postpositivist practical classification for nursing knowledge that demonstrates and supports the idea that knowledge has both individual and subjective components. This classification supports the practical application of nursing knowledge within the paradigm of realist postpositivist science. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Practices influenced by policy? An exploration of newly hired science teachers at sites in South Africa and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navy, S. L.; Luft, J. A.; Toerien, R.; Hewson, P. W.

    2018-05-01

    In many parts of the world, newly hired science teachers' practices are developing in a complex policy environment. However, little is known about how newly hired science teachers' practices are enacted throughout a cycle of instruction and how these practices can be influenced by macro-, meso-, and micro-policies. Knowing how policies impact practice can result in better policies or better support for certain policies in order to enhance the instruction of newly hired teachers. This comparative study investigated how 12 newly hired science teachers at sites in South Africa (SA) and the United States (US) progressed through an instructional cycle of planning, teaching, and reflection. The qualitative data were analysed through beginning teacher competency frameworks, the cycle of instruction, and institutional theory. Data analysis revealed prevailing areas of practice and connections to levels of policy within the instructional cycle phases. There were some differences between the SA and US teachers and among first-, second-, and third-year teachers. More importantly, this study indicates that newly hired teachers are susceptible to micro-policies and are progressively developing their practice. It also shows the importance of meso-level connectors. It suggests that teacher educators and policy makers must consider how to prepare and support newly hired science teachers to achieve the shared global visions of science teaching.

  2. Social and Economic Analysis Branch: integrating policy, social, economic, and natural science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Rudy; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Fort Collins Science Center's Social and Economic Analysis Branch provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and natural science in the context of human–natural resource interactions. Our research provides scientific understanding and support for the management and conservation of our natural resources in support of multiple agency missions. We focus on meeting the scientific needs of the Department of the Interior natural resource management bureaus in addition to fostering partnerships with other Federal and State managers to protect, restore, and enhance our environment. The Social and Economic Analysis Branch has an interdisciplinary group of scientists whose primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to support the development of skills in natural resource management activities. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context and require knowledge of both natural and social sciences, along with the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these challenging contexts, Social and Economic Analysis Branch researchers apply a wide variety of social science concepts and methods which complement our rangeland/agricultural, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of the Social and Economic Analysis Branch's research is to enhance natural-resource management, agency functions, policies, and decisionmaking.

  3. Nordea Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    The financial service company Nordea was formed as a merger of several independent Nordic banks in 2000. Over the years, international business and management scholars have taken a great interest in studying Nordea and its language policy decisions, including the predecessor MeritaNordbanken. Thi......The financial service company Nordea was formed as a merger of several independent Nordic banks in 2000. Over the years, international business and management scholars have taken a great interest in studying Nordea and its language policy decisions, including the predecessor Merita...... played a key role in the development of the company’s formal language policy as it exists today. The language policy furthermore reflects the company’s economic geography, need for local responsiveness and regulatory compliance, while accommodating employees’ language skills and language needs...... in relation to global strategic activities, in addition to language policy pressures emanating from the company’s high degree of corporate governance and post-merger corporate culture. The case of Nordea therefore illustrates that language needs may arise from both company-external and company...

  4. Workfare revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eleveld, A.; Paz-Fuchs, A.

    2016-01-01

    The difficult task facing national court judges in assessing the proportionality of mandatory retirement measures in age discrimination cases should not be underestimated. Such assessments often require judges to immerse themselves in history, science, economics, sociology and even psychology in

  5. The Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute at Texas A&M University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Gariazzo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute (NSSPI is a multidisciplinary organization at Texas A&M University and was the first U.S. academic institution focused on technical graduate education, research, and service related to the safeguarding of nuclear materials and the reduction of nuclear threats. NSSPI employs science, engineering, and policy expertise to: (1 conduct research and development to help detect, prevent, and reverse nuclear and radiological proliferation and guard against nuclear terrorism; (2 educate the next generation of nuclear security and nuclear nonproliferation leaders; (3 analyze the interrelationships between policy and technology in the field of nuclear security; and (4 serve as a public resource for knowledge and skills to reduce nuclear threats. Since 2006, over 31 Doctoral and 73 Master degrees were awarded through NSSPI-sponsored research. Forty-one of those degrees are Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering with a specialization in Nuclear Nonproliferation and 16 were Doctorate of Philosophy degrees with a specific focus on nuclear nonproliferation. Over 200 students from both technical and policy backgrounds have taken classes provided by NSSPI at Texas A&M. The model for creating safeguards and security experts, which has in large part been replicated worldwide, was established at Texas A&M by NSSPI faculty and staff. In addition to conventional classroom lectures, NSSPI faculty have provided practical experiences; advised students on valuable research projects that have contributed substantially to the overall nuclear nonproliferation, safeguards and security arenas; and engaged several similar academic and research institutes around the world in activities and research for the benefit of Texas A&M students. NSSPI has had an enormous impact on the nuclear nonproliferation workforce (across the international community in the past 8 years, and this paper is an attempt to summarize the activities

  6. Social science and the public agenda: reflections on the relation of knowledge to policy in the United States and abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilensky, H L

    1997-10-01

    It is tempting to oversell the practical value of applied research. A hard look at the effects of U.S. social science on public policy in areas such as active labor market policies (training, job creation, placement, etc.), crime prevention, fiscal policy, poverty reduction, and health care reform suggests an inverse relationship between social science consensus and policy and budgetary decisions. Fragmented and decentralized political economies (e.g., the United States) foster policy segmentation and isolated, short-run single-issue research--often politicized and misleading. More corporatist democracies (such as Sweden, Norway, Austria, and Germany) evidence a tighter relation between knowledge and power in which a wider range of issues is connected, longer-range effects are sometimes considered, and research is more often actually used for planning and implementation. Even in less hospitable societies, however, social science does make its way in the long run. Favorable conditions and examples are discussed.

  7. Panel session: Part 1, In flux -- Science Policy and the social structure of Big Laboratories, 1964--1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westfall, C. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)]|[CEBAF, Newport News, VA (United States)]|[Fermilab History Collaboration, Batavia, IL (United States)

    1993-09-01

    This report discusses the in flux of science policy and the social structure of big laboratories during the period of 1964 to 1979 and some sociological consequences of high energy physicists` development of the standard model during the same period.

  8. Implementation science approaches for integrating eHealth research into practice and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Russell E; Phillips, Siobhan M; Sanchez, Michael A

    2014-07-01

    To summarize key issues in the eHealth field from an implementation science perspective and to highlight illustrative processes, examples and key directions to help more rapidly integrate research, policy and practice. We present background on implementation science models and emerging principles; discuss implications for eHealth research; provide examples of practical designs, measures and exemplar studies that address key implementation science issues; and make recommendations for ways to more rapidly develop and test eHealth interventions as well as future research, policy and practice. The pace of eHealth research has generally not kept up with technological advances, and many of our designs, methods and funding mechanisms are incapable of providing the types of rapid and relevant information needed. Although there has been substantial eHealth research conducted with positive short-term results, several key implementation and dissemination issues such as representativeness, cost, unintended consequences, impact on health inequities, and sustainability have not been addressed or reported. Examples of studies in several of these areas are summarized to demonstrate this is possible. eHealth research that is intended to translate into policy and practice should be more contextual, report more on setting factors, employ more responsive and pragmatic designs and report results more transparently on issues important to potential adopting patients, clinicians and organizational decision makers. We outline an alternative development and assessment model, summarize implementation science findings that can help focus attention, and call for different types of more rapid and relevant research and funding mechanisms. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. "Media, politics and science policy: MS and evidence from the CCSVI Trenches".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullman, Daryl; Zarzeczny, Amy; Picard, André

    2013-02-12

    In 2009, Dr. Paolo Zamboni proposed chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) as a possible cause of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although his theory and the associated treatment ("liberation therapy") received little more than passing interest in the international scientific and medical communities, his ideas became the source of tremendous public and political tension in Canada. The story moved rapidly from mainstream media to social networking sites. CCSVI and liberation therapy swiftly garnered support among patients and triggered remarkable and relentless advocacy efforts. Policy makers have responded in a variety of ways to the public's call for action. We present three different perspectives on this evolving story, that of a health journalist who played a key role in the media coverage of this issue, that of a health law and policy scholar who has closely observed the unfolding public policy developments across the country, and that of a medical ethicist who sits on an expert panel convened by the MS Society of Canada and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research to assess the evidence as it emerges. This story raises important questions about resource allocation and priority setting in scientific research and science policy. The growing power of social media represents a new level of citizen engagement and advocacy, and emphasizes the importance of open debate about the basis on which such policy choices are made. It also highlights the different ways evidence may be understood, valued and utilized by various stakeholders and further emphasizes calls to improve science communication so as to support balanced and informed decision-making.

  10. Closing the quality gap: revisiting the state of the science (vol. 3: quality improvement interventions to address health disparities).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPheeters, Melissa L; Kripalani, Sunil; Peterson, Neeraja B; Idowu, Rachel T; Jerome, Rebecca N; Potter, Shannon A; Andrews, Jeffrey C

    2012-08-01

    This review evaluates the effectiveness of quality improvement (QI) strategies in reducing disparities in health and health care. We identified papers published in English between 1983 and 2011 from the MEDLINE® database, the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Web of Science Social Science Index, and PsycINFO. All abstracts and full-text articles were dually reviewed. Studies were eligible if they reported data on effectiveness of QI interventions on processes or health outcomes in the United States such that the impact on a health disparity could be measured. The review focused on the following clinical conditions: breast cancer, colorectal cancer, diabetes, heart failure, hypertension, coronary artery disease, asthma, major depressive disorder, cystic fibrosis, pneumonia, pregnancy, and end-stage renal disease. It assessed health disparities associated with race or ethnicity, socioeconomic status, insurance status, sexual orientation, health literacy/numeracy, and language barrier. We evaluated the risk of bias of individual studies and the overall strength of the body of evidence based on risk of bias, consistency, directness, and precision. Nineteen papers, representing 14 primary research studies, met criteria for inclusion. All but one of the studies incorporated multiple components into their QI approach. Patient education was part of most interventions (12 of 14), although the specific approach differed substantially across the studies. Ten of the studies incorporated self-management; this would include, for example, teaching individuals with diabetes to check their blood sugar regularly. Most (8 of 14) included some sort of provider education, which may have focused on the clinical issue or on raising awareness about disparities affecting the target population. Studies evaluated the effect of these strategies on disparities in the prevention or treatment of breast or colorectal cancer, cardiovascular disease, depression, or

  11. Museums as brokers of participation: how visitors view the emerging role of European science centres and museums in policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bandelli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Science centres and museums in Europe traditionally offer opportunities for public participation, such as dialogues, debates and workshops. In recent years, starting with the support of grants from the European Commission, the purpose of these initiatives is increasingly more connected with the policy making processes where science centres play a role as brokers between the public and other stakeholders. This article begins an investigation on how these two levels of participation – the participation of museums in policy, and the participation of visitors in museums – are related in seven European science centres and museums. The results suggest that science centres and museums are regarded by their visitors as potential platforms to facilitate public participation in policy, especially in countries where the general infrastructure for public participation in science is weak.

  12. Education and Policy in Soil Science: The U.S. Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpley, Andrew; van Es, Harold; Dick, Richard; Bergfeld, Ellen; Anderson, Karl; Chapman, Susan; Fisk, Susan

    2017-04-01

    The Soil Science Society of America (SSSA), founded in 1936, fosters the transfer of knowledge and practices to sustain soils globally, and now serves 6,000 members worldwide. It is also home to over 1,000 certified professionals dedicated to advancing the field of soil science. The Society provides information about soils in relation to crop production, environmental quality, ecosystem sustainability, bioremediation, waste management, recycling, and wise land use. We provide high-impact research publications, educational programs, certifications, and science-policy initiatives, which will be described in more detail in this presentation. The need for soil science education to a wider audience and development and promotion of soils-based policy initiatives, has increased in the last decade with recognition of the role soils play in sustaining life, population well-being at the nexus of food, energy, and water security. To address these needs, SSSA has two general public outreach sites online: www.soils.org/discover-soils and https://soilsmatter.wordpress.com/, reaching over a half-million viewers per year, as well as social media platforms. We are dedicated to increasing interest and awareness of soil science among K-12 teachers and their students, and working to integrate more information on soil science into the science curriculum of schools over multiple grade levels. For instance, we have a website dedicated to children (http://www.soils4kids.org/), which describes fun games to play with soil, suggestions for science-fair experiments, and opens their minds to careers in soil science. Another site (http://www.soils4teachers.org/) is dedicated to the needs of school teachers, providing ready resources for the classroom. Society members have even authored books ("Soil! Get the Inside Scoop" for one) to get children aged 9 to 12, excited about the living world of soil. In keeping with the times, a blog called "Soils Matter" is hosted by Society staff and now has

  13. "Towards a Europe of Knowledge and Innovation", the EIROforum paper on science policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Brussels, April 20, 2005 - Today Europe's seven major intergovernmental research organisations, working together in the EIROforum partnership, presented their comprehensive paper on science policy, "Towards a Europe of Knowledge and Innovation", in the presence of the European Commissioner for Science and Research, Mr. Janez Potocnik and the Luxembourg Minister for Culture, Higher Education, Employment and Research, Mr. François Biltgen. Luxembourg currently holds the presidency of the European Union. ESO PR Photo 11/05 ESO PR Photo 11/05 EIROforum Paper on Science Policy Presentation [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 475 pix - 176k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 950 pix - 505k] [Full Res - JPEG: 2023 x 2402 pix - 2.1M] Five years ago, at the meeting of the European Council in Lisbon, the creation of a European Research Area (ERA) was proposed as a means to achieve the ambitious targets necessary to develop a leading, knowledge-based economy in Europe. The ERA intends to make a single market for European research, bringing together scientists from all member states. The EIROforum partners operate some of the largest research infrastructures in the world, possess unique and long-standing expertise in the organisation of pan-European research, bring expert knowledge to discussions about new large facilities in Europe, provide a model for the ERA, and offer their experience and active engagement in creating a true European Research Area. The EIROforum paper on science policy describes their collective vision on the future of European scientific research in order to support the Lisbon Process by working, alongside the Commission, for the implementation of the European Research Area. In combination with the individual success and expertise of each of the EIROforum partners, this provides a strong boost to European Research and thus to the Lisbon Goals of developing a knowledge-based economy. "As the borders of the European Union expand there is a fundamental role for the EIROforum

  14. Science, technology and innovation policies for development the Latin American experience

    CERN Document Server

    Dutrénit, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the implementation of science, technology and innovation (STI) policy in eight Latin American countries and the different paths these policies have taken. It provides empirical evidence to examine the extent to which STI policies are contributing to the development of the region, as well as to the solution of market failures and the stimulus of the region’s innovation systems. Since the pioneering work of Solow (1957), it has been recognized that innovation is critical for economic growth both in developed and in less-developed countries. Unfortunately Latin America lags behind world trends, and although over the last 20 years the region has established a more stable and certain macroeconomic regime, it is also clear that these changes have not been enough to trigger a process of innovation and productivity to catch-up. Against this rather grim scenario there is some optimism emerging throughout the region. After many years of inaction the region has begun to invest in science, technology...

  15. From 'knowledge use' to 'boundary work': sketch of an emerging new research programme for science/policy interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Robertus; in 't Veld, Roeland J.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter is about a new agenda for inquiry into the relationships between science and public policy. So far, most research has conceptualised this relationship in terms of knowledge utilisation and downstream impact on the policy process. However, this leads to over-instrumentalisation and

  16. 75 FR 20843 - Notice of Workshop To Discuss Policy-Relevant Science to Inform EPA's Integrated Plan for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... Policy-Relevant Science to Inform EPA's Integrated Plan for the Review of the Lead National Ambient Air.... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is announcing that a workshop entitled, ``Workshop to Discuss Policy... workshop will be open to attendance by interested public observers on a first-come, first-served basis up...

  17. The power of science economic research and European decision-making : the case of energy and environment policies

    CERN Document Server

    Rossetti di Valdalbero, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    This book highlights the interaction between science and politics and between research in economics and European Union policy-making. It focuses on the use of Quantitative tools, Top-down and Bottom-up models in up-stream European decision-making process through five EU policy case studies: energy taxation, climate change, energy efficiency, renewable energy, and internalisation of external costs.

  18. Mussels and Yachts in Loch Fyne, Scotland: a Case Study of the Science-Policy Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Tett

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We report an application of the Science and Policy Integration for Coastal System Assessment (SPICOSA Systems Approach Framework (SAF to Loch Fyne, a fjord in western Scotland. The issue was the potential for conflict between shellfish aquaculture and recreational use for yachting. This was investigated by building an ecological-economic model to simulate: (1 release of modern anti-fouling compounds by recreational boats; (2 dilution of these in the upper layers of the loch by exchange with the sea; (3 their effects on photosynthesis by phytoplankton; (4 the role of phytoplankton (along with non-algal particulate matter in providing food for mussels; (5 the growth of seeded mussels to harvest, determining (6 the cash input to farms, offset by their costs and allowing (7 the farm revenue to be compared with that from marinas used to berth the yachts. It was concluded from simulations that no noticeable effect on mussel harvest would occur (from this route for any likely number of yachts berthed in the loch. The application took place in consultation with a local environmental forum and a small reference group of public officials; we reflect on it in the context of a 3-component schema for the science-policy interface and changes in the culture of UK science.

  19. A Right to Disclose: LGBTQ Youth Representation in Data, Science, and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snapp, Shannon D; Russell, Stephen T; Arredondo, Mariella; Skiba, Russell

    2016-01-01

    There has been growing attention to sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) in child and adolescent development, public discourse, and research. A strong tension is clear: The right for participation, and thus representation in data, science, and policy, is often understood as conflicting with the right for protection, that is, safety from disclosure of a marginalized orientation or identity. Both participation and protection rights are also closely tied to young people's rights to privacy (or lack thereof). We review recent scholarship on SOGI in developmental sciences in light of this tension. We focus on schooling as a salient developmental context for all youth, a place that is historically unsafe for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth, and a context where researchers have identified gaps of knowledge as well as strategies for improvement. Our review focuses on the politics and processes of SOGI inclusion in education data collection efforts in the United States, an area where SOGI data collection is scarce in comparison to other systems of care, such as health. We suggest that one solution to the dilemma would be that youth have the right to disclose their SOGI information to whom and when they choose. We offer strategies on how to hold these tensions in balance and move toward SOGI-inclusive research and data collection so that LGBTQ youth can be represented in data, science, and policy. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Senator Fred Harris's National Social Science Foundation proposal: Reconsidering federal science policy, natural science-social science relations, and American liberalism during the 1960s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovey, Mark

    2012-03-01

    During the 1960s, a growing contingent of left-leaning voices claimed that the social sciences suffered mistreatment and undue constraints within the natural science-dominated federal science establishment. According to these critics, the entrenched scientific pecking order in Washington had an unreasonable commitment to the unity of the sciences, which reinforced unacceptable inequalities between the social and the natural sciences. The most important political figure who advanced this critique, together with a substantial legislative proposal for reform, was the Oklahoma Democratic Senator Fred Harris. Yet histories of science and social science have told us surprisingly little about Harris. Moreover, existing accounts of his effort to create a National Social Science Foundation have misunderstood crucial features of this story. This essay argues that Harris's NSSF proposal developed into a robust, historically unique, and increasingly critical liberal challenge to the post-World War II federal science establishment's treatment of the social sciences as "second-class citizens."

  1. The social and political lives of zoonotic disease models: narratives, science and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Melissa; Scoones, Ian

    2013-07-01

    Zoonotic diseases currently pose both major health threats and complex scientific and policy challenges, to which modelling is increasingly called to respond. In this article we argue that the challenges are best met by combining multiple models and modelling approaches that elucidate the various epidemiological, ecological and social processes at work. These models should not be understood as neutral science informing policy in a linear manner, but as having social and political lives: social, cultural and political norms and values that shape their development and which they carry and project. We develop and illustrate this argument in relation to the cases of H5N1 avian influenza and Ebola, exploring for each the range of modelling approaches deployed and the ways they have been co-constructed with a particular politics of policy. Addressing the complex, uncertain dynamics of zoonotic disease requires such social and political lives to be made explicit in approaches that aim at triangulation rather than integration, and plural and conditional rather than singular forms of policy advice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Protecting national parks from air pollution effects: Making sausage from science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Blett, Tamara; Malm, William C.; Alexander, Ruth; Doremus, Holly

    2016-01-01

    The story of air pollution research, policy development, and management in national parks is a fascinating blend of cultural change, vision, interdisciplinary and interagency collaboration, and science-policy-management-stakeholder collaborations. Unable to ignore the loss of iconic vistas from regional haze and loss of fish from acid rain in the 1980s, the National Park Service (NPS) embraced an obligation to protect resources from threats originating outside park boundaries. Upholding the Organic Act requirement for parks to remain "unimpaired" for the enjoyment of future generations, and using the Clean Air Act statement that NPS has an “affirmative responsibility” to protect park resources, NPS has supported, and effectively used, research as a means to protect lands, waters, and vistas from a mostly unseen threat. Using visibility and atmospheric nitrogen deposition as examples, we will illustrate some success stories where NPS led the way to benefit not only parks, but the Nation.

  3. Priority questions for the science, policy and practice of cultural landscapes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Morcillo, Monica; Bieling, Claudia; Bürgi, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    that the research question that addressed the issue of how to secure sustainable cultural landscapes where they are not economically profitable was the most important, with high level of agreement among all stakeholders. Alignment among the three groups was generally high; being higher between Ps–Ss and Ps–PMs than......The design of effective responses to safeguard cultural landscape values in Europe needs collaborative action among the stakeholders involved. Despite considerable progress triggered by the European Landscape Convention (ELC) and other initiatives to link landscape science, policy and practice......-like process with the research community in this field. In a second phase, the questions were prioritized by three stakeholder groups: scientists (Ss), policy-makers (PMs) and practitioners (Ps). The importance ranks and the similarity between groups’ priorities were calculated and analyzed. Results: We found...

  4. Training Multidisciplinary Scholars in Science Policy for Careers in Academia, Private Sector, and Public Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Regardless of a graduate student's ultimate career ambitions, it is becoming increasingly important to either develop skills to successfully transition into non-academic careers or to be able to understand the societal benefits of basic and applied research programs. In this talk I will provide my prospective -- from working in academia, the Federal government, and as an independent consultant -- about the training that we need for graduate students to navigate the jungle gym of career opportunities available (or not available) after they graduate. In particular, I will speak to the need for science policy training, in which scientific and coordination skills are put to use to help support societal decisions. I will assert that, to effectively train graduate students, it is necessary to provide experiences in multidisciplinary, policy-relevant scholarship to build marketable skills critical for a student's professional development.

  5. A RWMAC commentary on the Science Policy Research Unit Report: UK Nuclear Decommissioning Policy: time for decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-04-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee (RWMAC) is an independent body which advises the Secretaries of State for the Environment, Scotland and Wales, on civil radioactive waste management issues. Chapter 4 of the RWMAC's Twelfth Annual Report discussed nuclear power plant decommissioning strategy. One of the RWMAC's conclusions was that the concept of financial provisioning for power station decommissioning liabilities, which might be passed on to society several generations into the future, deserved further study. A specification for such a study was duly written (Annex 2) and, following consideration of tendered responses, the Science Policy Research Unit (SPRU) at Sussex University, was contracted to carry out the work. The SPRU report stands as a SPRU analysis of the subject. This separate short RWMAC report, which is being released at the same time as the SPRU report, presents the RWMAC's own commentary on the SPRU study. The RWMAC has identified five main issues which should be addressed when deciding on a nuclear plant decommissioning strategy. These are: the technical approach to decommissioning, the basis of financial provisions, treatment of risk, segregation of management of funds, and the need for a wider environmental view. (author)

  6. A RWMAC commentary on the Science Policy Research Unit report: UK nuclear decommissioning policy: time for decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    Chapter 4 of the RWMAC's Twelfth Annual Report discussed nuclear power plant decommissioning strategy. One of the RWMAC's conclusions was that the concept of financial provisioning for power station decommissioning liabilities, which might be passed on to society several generations into the future, deserved further study. A specification for such a study was duly written (Annex 2) and, following consideration of tendered responses, the Science Policy Research Unit (SPRU) at Sussex University, was contracted to carry out the work. The SPRU report stands as a SPRU analysis of the subject. This separate short RWMAC report, which is being released at the same time as the SPRU report, presents the RWMAC's own commentary on the SPRU study. The RWMAC has identified five main issues which should be addressed when deciding on a nuclear plant decommissioning strategy. These are: the technical approach to decommissioning, the basis of financial provisions, treatment of risk, segregation of management of funds, and the need for a wider environmental view. These issues are addressed in this RWMAC report. (author)

  7. The Science-Policy Link: Stakeholder Reactions to the Uncertainties of Future Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plag, H.; Bye, B.

    2011-12-01

    Policy makers and stakeholders in the coastal zone are equally challenged by the risk of an anticipated rise of coastal Local Sea Level (LSL) as a consequence of future global warming. Many low-lying and often densely populated coastal areas are under risk of increased inundation. More than 40% of the global population is living in or near the coastal zone and this fraction is steadily increasing. A rise in LSL will increase the vulnerability of coastal infrastructure and population dramatically, with potentially devastating consequences for the global economy, society, and environment. Policy makers are faced with a trade-off between imposing today the often very high costs of coastal protection and adaptation upon national economies and leaving the costs of potential major disasters to future generations. They are in need of actionable information that provides guidance for the development of coastal zones resilient to future sea level changes. Part of this actionable information comes from risk and vulnerability assessments, which require information on future LSL changes as input. In most cases, a deterministic approach has been applied based on predictions of the plausible range of future LSL trajectories as input. However, there is little consensus in the scientific community on how these trajectories should be determined, and what the boundaries of the plausible range are. Over the last few years, many publications in Science, Nature and other peer-reviewed scientific journals have revealed a broad range of possible futures and significant epistemic uncertainties and gaps concerning LSL changes. Based on the somewhat diffuse science input, policy and decision makers have made rather different choices for mitigation and adaptation in cases such as Venice, The Netherlands, New York City, and the San Francisco Bay area. Replacing the deterministic, prediction-based approach with a statistical one that fully accounts for the uncertainties and epistemic gaps

  8. Enriching science, practice, and policy relevant to school psychology around the globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Shane R

    2016-03-01

    This editorial provides a brief synthesis of the past, present, and future of School Psychology Quarterly, highlighting important contributions as an international resource to enrich, invigorate, enhance, and advance science, practice, and policy relevant to school psychology around the globe. Information herein highlights (a) the value of high quality and timely reviews, (b) publishing manuscripts that address a breadth of important topics relevant to school psychology, and (c) the structure and contributions of the special topic sections featured in School Psychology Quarterly. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Policies for fostering health science, technology and innovation in Brazil and the role of clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenório, Marge; Mello, Guilherme Arantes; Viana, Ana Luiza D'Ávila

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight a number of underlying issues that may be useful for a comprehensive review of the management of Health-Related Science, Technology and Innovation policies (ST&I/H), and its strategies and priorities. It is an analytical study supported by an extensive review of the technical and journalistic literature, clippings, legislation and federal government directives. The results show that the Healthcare Production Complex undeniably and increasingly needs science to maintain itself. One may infer that a framework of institutional milestones is being built in Brazil, to strengthen, guide and encourage Research and Development, and that clinical research creates scientific knowledge to address public healthcare issues by generating new inputs or enhancing existing techniques, processes and technologies that will be produced, marketed and used in the different segments, thus feeding the Healthcare Productive Complex.

  10. Involvement of the European Confederation of the Soil Science Societies in soil protection policy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    The European Confederation of the Soil Science Societies (ECSSS) was founded not only to organize the Eurosoil congress, but also to continuously support and promote the soil causes in the European area. A work is in progress to define the best way to achieve this goal, with integrating voices of the European structures and networks, and the national societies. One of the major objectives is to develop a modern approach of soil protection, including leading experimentations shared with all the members, and active lobbying. Such an approach requires the buildup of an efficient interface with policy makers, stake holders, engineering and science, which should be concretized in a new the dimension of the Eurosoil congress. This communication will sketch the on-going work, with reviewing the perspectives, conditions, strengths, questions and difficulties identified.

  11. The Vital Role of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy in the New Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-14

    scientist or engineer to serve as Science Advisor and Assistant to the President for S&T. Once in office, the President should nominate her or him for the... Nominate four OSTP Associate Directors (ADs), with advice from the Science Advisor , as soon as possible and determine the focus and structure of...Technology Policy (OSTP) and, specifically, on advice from the President’s Science Advisor . The presidential transition is a critical period for ensuring S

  12. Revisiting the Vulnerability Ethos in Cross-Sectoral Transition Policies and Practices for Young People in the Era of Marketisation of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunila, Kristiina; Ikävalko, Elina; Kurki, Tuuli; Mertanen, Katariina; Mikkola, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The ethos of vulnerability has come to play an increasingly central role in shaping cross-sectoral transition policies and practices related to young people outside of education and working life. Yet the wider effects of this ethos in policies and practices are still rarely analysed. In this article, we draw our data from five separate studies.…

  13. The Heritage of Earth Science Applications in Policy, Business, and Management of Natural Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, M.

    2012-12-01

    From the first hand-held cameras on the Gemini space missions to present day satellite instruments, Earth observations have enhanced the management of natural resources including water, land, and air. Applications include the development of new methodology (for example, developing and testing algorithms or demonstrating how data can be used) and the direct use of data in decisionmaking and policy implementation. Using well-defined bibliographic search indices to systematically survey a broad social science literature, this project enables identification of a host of well-documented, practical and direct applications of Earth science data in resource management. This literature has not previously been well surveyed, aggregated, or analyzed for the heritage of lessons learned in practical application of Earth science data. In the absence of such a survey, the usefulness of Earth science data is underestimated and the factors that make people want to use -- and able to use -- the data are poorly understood. The project extends and updates previous analysis of social science applications of Landsat data to show their contemporary, direct use in new policy, business, and management activities and decisionmaking. The previous surveys (for example, Blumberg and Jacobson 1997; National Research Council 1998) find that the earliest attempts to use data are almost exclusively testing of methodology rather than direct use in resource management. Examples of methodology prototyping include Green et al. (1997) who demonstrate use of remote sensing to detect and monitor changes in land cover and use, Cowen et al. (1995) who demonstrate design and integration of GIS for environmental applications, Hutchinson (1991) who shows uses of data for famine early warning, and Brondizio et al. (1996) who show the link of thematic mapper data with botanical data. Blumberg and Jacobson (in Acevedo et al. 1996) show use of data in a study of urban development in the San Francisco Bay and the

  14. Management for Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak Suppression: Does Relevant Science Support Current Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L. Six

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While the use of timber harvests is generally accepted as an effective approach to controlling bark beetles during outbreaks, in reality there has been a dearth of monitoring to assess outcomes, and failures are often not reported. Additionally, few studies have focused on how these treatments affect forest structure and function over the long term, or our forests’ ability to adapt to climate change. Despite this, there is a widespread belief in the policy arena that timber harvesting is an effective and necessary tool to address beetle infestations. That belief has led to numerous proposals for, and enactment of, significant changes in federal environmental laws to encourage more timber harvests for beetle control. In this review, we use mountain pine beetle as an exemplar to critically evaluate the state of science behind the use of timber harvest treatments for bark beetle suppression during outbreaks. It is our hope that this review will stimulate research to fill important gaps and to help guide the development of policy and management firmly based in science, and thus, more likely to aid in forest conservation, reduce financial waste, and bolster public trust in public agency decision-making and practice.

  15. Understanding Australian policies on public health using social and political science theories: reflections from an Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Fran; Graycar, Adam; Delany-Crowe, Toni; de Leeuw, Evelyne; Bacchi, Carol; Popay, Jennie; Orchard, Lionel; Colebatch, Hal; Friel, Sharon; MacDougall, Colin; Harris, Elizabeth; Lawless, Angela; McDermott, Dennis; Fisher, Matthew; Harris, Patrick; Phillips, Clare; Fitzgerald, Jane

    2018-04-19

    There is strong, and growing, evidence documenting health inequities across the world. However, most governments do not prioritize policies to encourage action on the social determinants of health and health equity. Furthermore, despite evidence concerning the benefits of joined-up, intersectoral policy to promote health and health equity, it is rare for such policy approaches to be applied systematically. To examine the usefulness of political and social science theory in understanding the reasons for this disjuncture between evidence and practice, researchers and public servants gathered in Adelaide for an Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia (ASSA) Workshop. This paper draws together the learnings that emerged from the Workshop, including key messages about the usefulness of various theories as well as insights drawn from policy practice. Discussions during the Workshop highlighted that applying multiple theories is particularly helpful in directing attention to, and understanding, the influence of all stages of the policy process; from the construction and framing of policy problems, to the implementation of policy and evaluation of outcomes, including those outcomes that may be unintended. In addition, the Workshop emphasized the value of collaborations among public health researchers, political and social scientists and public servants to open up critical discussion about the intersections between theory, research evidence and practice. Such critique is vital to render visible the processes through which particular sources of knowledge may be privileged over others and to examine how political and bureaucratic environments shape policy proposals and implementation action.

  16. Marketization Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Lindholst, Andrej Christian

    2016-01-01

    out; Benchmarking and yardstick competition; and Public-Private collaboration. On the basis of the review of the seven articles, it is found that all elements in all marketization models are firmly embedded but also under dynamic change within public service delivery systems. The review also......Purpose: The purpose of this introduction article to the IJPSM special issue on marketization is to clarify the conceptual foundations of marketization as a phenomenon within the public sector and to gauge current marketization trends on the basis of the seven articles in the special issue. Design....../methodology/approach: Conceptual clarification and cross-cutting review of seven articles analysing marketization in six countries in three policy areas at the level of local government. Findings: Four ideal-type models are deduced: Quasi-markets, involving both provider competition and free choice for users; Classic contracting...

  17. Science and environmental policy-making : bias-proofing the assessment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKitrick, R.

    2005-01-01

    Politicians and policy-makers appeal to the concept of peer-reviewed research as a foundation for decision-making. However, peer review does not typically guarantee that data and methods are open to scrutiny or that results are reproducible. This paper argued that additional checks and balances are needed for scientific assessment reports when they are being used to justify major policy investments. The need for such mechanisms was examined with reference to the debate in climate change, which allowed the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to downplay fundamental scientific uncertainties in research in order to claim that the 1990s were the warmest decade of the millennium. Two mechanisms were proposed to address biases in expert assessment panels. The creation of a scientific audit or permanent agency was recommended that would act independently of assessment panels to identify key studies influencing panel decisions to ensure that data are publicly available and that statistical methods are fully described and correctly implemented. The creation of a counterweight panel was also advised, which would then be convened to prepare the strongest possible counter argument to the conclusions of an assessment panel. It was concluded that, given the far-reaching implications of policy decisions that are based on expert assessments, audits and counterweight panels should be integrated into the process by which science is used to guide decision-making. 17 refs., 4 figs

  18. Energy, environment, and policy choices: Summer institutes for science and social studies educators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marek, E.A.; Chiodo, J.J.; Gerber, B.L.

    1997-06-01

    The Center for Energy Education (CEE) is a partnership linking the University of Oklahoma, Close Up Foundation and Department of Energy. Based upon the theme of energy, environment and public policy, the CEE`s main purposes are to: (1) educate teachers on energy sources, environmental issues and decisionmaking choices regarding public policy; (2) develop interdisciplinary curricula that are interactive in nature (see attachments); (3) disseminate energy education curricula; (4) serve as a resource center for a wide variety of energy education materials; (5) provide a national support system for teachers in energy education; and (6) conduct research in energy education. The CEE conducted its first two-week experimentially-based program for educators during the summer of 1993. Beginning at the University of Oklahoma, 57 teachers from across the country examined concepts and issues related to energy and environment, and how the interdependence of energy and environment significantly influences daily life. During the second week of the institute, participants went to Washington, D.C. to examine the processes used by government officials to make critical decisions involving interrelationships among energy, environment and public policy. Similar institutes were conducted during the summers of 1994 and 1995 resulting in nearly 160 science and social studies educators who had participated in the CEE programs. Collectively the participants represented 36 states, the Pacific Territories, Puerto Rico, and Japan.

  19. International cryospheric science capacity building and its role in policy and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A. M.; Armstrong, R. L.; Armstrong, B. R.; Barrett, A. P.; Brodzik, M. J.; Fetterer, F. M.; Fluri, J. L.; Hill, A. F.; Kayastha, R. B.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Khan, A. L.; Miller, H. A.; Minbaeva, C.; Racoviteanu, A.; Raup, B. H.; Rittger, K.

    2017-12-01

    The USAID-funded Contribution to High Asia Runoff from Ice and Snow (CHARIS) project has operated since 2012 with dual goals of research and capacity building. The scientific goal is to quantify snowmelt and ice melt and is tackled in tandem with capacity building activities for partner institutions in eight countries across High Asia. We held project workshops covering topics such as snow and glacier melt modeling, remote sensing of snow and ice, hydrochemistry-based hydrograph separation, and data management. CHARIS also facilitated the start of the first glacier mass balance program in Afghanistan, the first water chemistry laboratory in Bhutan, and supported eight students from four countries in earning Masters of Science by Research in Glaciology degrees from Kathmandu University. Capacity building outcomes are tracked through surveys and interviews with project partners. This feedback, both quantitative and qualitative, improves our understanding of how skills fostered by CHARIS are translated into different workplace contexts and in different political settings. Through this feedback, we document how CHARIS collaborations promote analytical skill development and provide the benefit of improved communication among colleagues across borders in a region where resource management requires a trans-boundary approach. Additionally, we are gathering feedback from partners on ways their hydrology and glaciology research is translated to the policy and management realms. Partners anecdotally report a range of policy relationships, especially with respect to management strategies for water intensive developments such as hydropower and mining. Here we present findings from these surveys, which will guide future development-oriented, science-driven resource management projects. Such endeavors must be tailored to large regional differences in expertise, capacities, policy settings, and research infrastructures, and CHARIS demonstrates ways this can be done effectively.

  20. The Montreal Protocol treaty and its illuminating history of science-policy decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, hailed as one of the most effective environmental treaties of all time, has a thirty year history of science-policy decision-making. The partnership between Parties to the Montreal Protocol and its technical assessment panels serve as a basis for understanding successes and evaluating stumbles of global environmental decision-making. Real-world environmental treaty negotiations can be highly time-sensitive, politically motivated, and resource constrained thus scientists and policymakers alike are often unable to confront the uncertainties associated with the multitude of choices. The science-policy relationship built within the framework of the Montreal Protocol has helped constrain uncertainty and inform policy decisions but has also highlighted the limitations of the use of scientific understanding in political decision-making. This talk will describe the evolution of the scientist-policymaker relationship over the history of the Montreal Protocol. Examples will illustrate how the Montreal Protocol's technical panels inform decisions of the country governments and will characterize different approaches pursued by different countries with a particular focus on the recently adopted Kigali Amendment. In addition, this talk will take a deeper dive with an analysis of the historic technical panel assessments on estimating financial resources necessary to enable compliance to the Montreal Protocol compared to the political financial decisions made through the Protocol's Multilateral Fund replenishment negotiation process. Finally, this talk will describe the useful lessons and challenges from these interactions and how they may be applicable in other environmental management frameworks across multiple scales under changing climatic conditions.

  1. Transdisciplinary synthesis for ecosystem science, policy and management: The Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, A J J; Thackway, R; Specht, A; Beggs, P J; Brisbane, S; Burns, E L; Byrne, M; Capon, S J; Casanova, M T; Clarke, P A; Davies, J M; Dovers, S; Dwyer, R G; Ens, E; Fisher, D O; Flanigan, M; Garnier, E; Guru, S M; Kilminster, K; Locke, J; Mac Nally, R; McMahon, K M; Mitchell, P J; Pierson, J C; Rodgers, E M; Russell-Smith, J; Udy, J; Waycott, M

    2015-11-15

    Mitigating the environmental effects of global population growth, climatic change and increasing socio-ecological complexity is a daunting challenge. To tackle this requires synthesis: the integration of disparate information to generate novel insights from heterogeneous, complex situations where there are diverse perspectives. Since 1995, a structured approach to inter-, multi- and trans-disciplinary(1) collaboration around big science questions has been supported through synthesis centres around the world. These centres are finding an expanding role due to ever-accumulating data and the need for more and better opportunities to develop transdisciplinary and holistic approaches to solve real-world problems. The Australian Centre for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (ACEAS ) has been the pioneering ecosystem science synthesis centre in the Southern Hemisphere. Such centres provide analysis and synthesis opportunities for time-pressed scientists, policy-makers and managers. They provide the scientific and organisational environs for virtual and face-to-face engagement, impetus for integration, data and methodological support, and innovative ways to deliver synthesis products. We detail the contribution, role and value of synthesis using ACEAS to exemplify the capacity for synthesis centres to facilitate trans-organisational, transdisciplinary synthesis. We compare ACEAS to other international synthesis centres, and describe how it facilitated project teams and its objective of linking natural resource science to policy to management. Scientists and managers were brought together to actively collaborate in multi-institutional, cross-sectoral and transdisciplinary research on contemporary ecological problems. The teams analysed, integrated and synthesised existing data to co-develop solution-oriented publications and management recommendations that might otherwise not have been produced. We identify key outcomes of some ACEAS working groups which used synthesis to

  2. Science-policy interplay: Air quality management in the Pearl River Delta region and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liuju; Louie, Peter K. K.; Zheng, Junyu; Yuan, Zibing; Yue, Dingli; Ho, Josephine W. K.; Lau, Alexis K. H.

    2013-09-01

    The information provided by the scientific studies and control measures implemented in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of China reveals that tremendous progress has been made in the understanding of regional air pollution issues and the deployment of mitigation measures for alleviating these problems. Given the unparalleled rapid economic growth in the PRD over the past two decades, such progress was only made possible by strong, science-based support and the partnerships between government and research institutions in the region and overseas. Researchers from these partnership programs and related studies have deployed cutting-edge expertise and experience in various crucial mainland China and mainland China/Hong Kong-level projects. China recognizes the importance of protecting the environment and cleaning up the air in the pursuit of sustainable growth and economic development. To avoid falling into a cycle of event-driven clean-up efforts, China has recently taken a major step and updated the national ambient air quality standards. Clearly, China is implementing an increasing number of evidence-based policies to address air pollution problems. Thus, to bring a fresh impetus at a national level, the PRD must maintain and augment the Hong Kong-mainland collaborative momentum, inducing a "whole-China" effort to clean up air pollution. To strengthen the science-based support system and ensure continuous and concerted effort in implementing the regional multi-pollutant control strategy, there must be an overarching and integral Hong Kong-Guangdong science consortium framework supporting the formulation of regional policy and control measures built on common goals under the "one country, two systems" principle. The "PRD Approach" of the air quality management regime reflected regional cooperative efforts in synchronous air pollutant control, catalyzed the crucial role of information disclosure and subtly transformed the air quality management approach to overcome

  3. Oxidative phosphorylation revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nath, Sunil; Villadsen, John

    2015-01-01

    The fundamentals of oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation are revisited. New experimental data on the involvement of succinate and malate anions respectively in oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation are presented. These new data offer a novel molecular mechanistic...

  4. Science and alcohol policy: a case study of the EU Strategy on Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Rebecca; Anderson, Peter

    2011-03-01

    To describe the extent to which the content of the European Commission's Communication on alcohol reflects public health-based scientific evidence. Document retrieval and content analysis. European Union. Background documents leading up to the European Commission's Communication on alcohol, the Communication itself and implementation actions following the Communication. Documents were read and analyzed for evidence-based alcohol policy content. Although the Communication acknowledges and supports existing interventions which have high evidence for effectiveness, such as enforcing blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limits for drivers, it extensively promotes other interventions which have been shown to be ineffective; for example, recommending education and persuasion strategies as a measure across all its five priority areas. Measures to influence price are mentioned only once in relation to sales in drinking venues limiting two-for-one drinks offers. Measures to control physical availability are mentioned infrequently. The Communication reflects the science, in that it acknowledges the significance of alcohol as a social and health determinant in Europe. However, it places more emphasis on policy actions with less evidence for effectiveness than on those with strong evidence. It also focuses its efforts more on mapping member state actions and coordinating knowledge exchange than on providing concrete recommendations for action or developing Europe-wide policy measures. This may be a compromise between the rights of Member States to develop national policy and legislation and the obligation of the European Union as a collaborative body to protect health. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the European Union's roots as a trading block emphasizes collaboration with industry stakeholders and this influences the ability to prioritize health over trade considerations. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Applying Science: opportunities to inform disease management policy with cooperative research within a One Health framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason K. Blackburn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the current saiga antelope die off in Kazakhstan each represent very real and difficult to manage public or veterinary health crises. They also illustrate the importance of stable and funded surveillance and sound policy for intervention or disease control. While these two events highlight extreme cases of infectious disease (Ebola or (possible environmental exposure (saiga, diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, tularemia, and plague are all zoonoses that pose risks and present surveillance challenges at the wildlife-livestock-human interfaces. These four diseases are also considered important actors in the threat of biological terror activities and have a long history as legacy biowarfare pathogens. This paper reviews recent studies done cooperatively between American and institutions within nations of the Former Soviet Union (FSU focused on spatiotemporal, epidemiological, and ecological patterns of these four zoonoses. We examine recent studies and discuss the possible ways in which techniques, including ecological niche modeling, disease risk modeling, and spatio-temporal cluster analysis, can inform disease surveillance, control efforts and impact policy. Our focus is to posit ways to apply science to disease management policy and actual management or mitigation practices. Across these examples, we illustrate the value of cooperative studies that bring together modern geospatial and epidemiological analyses to improve our understanding of the distribution of pathogens and diseases in livestock, wildlife, and humans. For example, ecological niche modeling can provide national level maps of pathogen distributions for surveillance planning, while space-time models can identify the timing and location of significant outbreak events for defining active control strategies. We advocate for the need to bring the results and the researchers from cooperative studies into the meeting rooms where policy is

  6. Quasi-experimental Methods in Empirical Regional Science and Policy Analysis – Is there a Scope for Application?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo; Paloyo, Alfredo R.; Alecke, Björn

    Applied econometrics has recently emphasized the identification of causal parameters for policy analysis. This revolution has yet to fully propagate to the field of regional science. We examine the scope for application of the matching approach – part of the modern applied econometrics toolkit...... – in regional science and highlight special features of regional data that make such an application difficult. In particular, our analysis of the effect of regional subsidies on labor-productivity growth in Germany indicates that such policies are effective, but only up to a certain maximum treatment intensity...... to be interpreted with some caution. The matching approach nevertheless can be of great value for regional policy analysis and should be the subject of future research efforts in the field of empirical regional science....

  7. ACADEMIC GENEALOGIES WITH RESPECT TO NARRATIVE IN HUMAN AND SOCIAL SCIENCES AND THEIR IMPLICATION FOR PUBLIC POLICIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Taiki; Nakano, Takeshi; Hatori, Tsuyoshi

    In human and society science, narrative is regarded as an important issue to understand dynamic actions of human being and society. Therefore, narrative is also expected to be important for public policies that try to improve dynamic actions of human being and society. In th is study, we review academic genealogies with respect to narratives including western philosophy, hermeneutics, historical science, historical philosophy, literary criticism, clinical psychology and sociology, narrative psychology and folklore. Then we discuss how narrative can be pragmatically applied for public policies.

  8. Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs/Policies and Interpretation of Research Evidence (INSPIRE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raiten, Daniel J; Sakr Ashour, Fayrouz A; Ross, A Catharine

    2015-01-01

    of the bidirectional relations between nutritional status and the development and function of the immune and inflammatory response and 2) the specific impact of the inflammatory response on the selection, use, and interpretation of nutrient biomarkers. The goal of the Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs......; and 5) the presentation of new approaches to the study of these relations. Each WG was tasked with synthesizing a summary of the evidence for each of these topics and delineating the remaining gaps in our knowledge. This review consists of a summary of the INSPIRE workshop and the WG deliberations......./Policies and Interpretation of Research Evidence (INSPIRE) is to provide guidance for those users represented by the global food and nutrition enterprise. These include researchers (bench and clinical), clinicians providing care/treatment, those developing and evaluating programs/interventions at scale, and those responsible...

  9. Hale and Hearty Policies: How Psychological Science Can Create and Maintain Healthy Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Alexander J; Gollwitzer, Peter M; Grant, Adam M; Neal, David T; Sheeran, Paschal; Wood, Wendy

    2015-11-01

    Strategies are needed to ensure that the U.S. Government meets its goals for improving the health of the nation (e.g., Healthy People 2020). To date, progress toward these goals has been undermined by a set of discernible challenges: People lack sufficient motivation, they frequently fail to translate healthy intentions into action, their efforts are undermined by the persistence of prior unhealthy habits, and they have considerable difficulty maintaining new healthy patterns of behavior. Guided by advances in psychological science, we provide innovative, evidence-based policies that address each of these challenges and, if implemented, will enhance people's ability to create and maintain healthy behavioral practices. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. The effects of school policies and practices on eighth-grade science achievement: A multilevel analysis of TIMSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Carol Ann Mary

    Identifying the relative importance of both alterable school policies and fairly stable contextual factors as they relate to middle level science achievement, a domain of identified national concern, requires simultaneous investigation of multilevel predictors (i.e., student level and school level) specific to the grade level and academic subject area. The school level factors are predictors associated with both the school (e.g., average socioeconomic status, tracking, and instructional time) and the classroom (e.g., average academic press of peers, teacher collaboration, and instructional strategies). The current study assessed the effects of school policies, practices, and contextual factors on the science achievement of eighth grade students. These influences were considered to be both additive (i.e., influencing the mean achievement in a school after controlling for student characteristics) and interactive (i.e., affecting the relationships between student background characteristics and individual achievement). To account for the nested structure of predictors and cross level interactions among predictors, a multilevel model for middle level science achievement was estimated using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) with data collected from eighth grade students, science teachers, and administrators in 1995 as part of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). The major findings of this research suggest that although average eighth grade science achievement in a school was primarily associated with the contextual characteristics of the classroom and the school (e.g., average socioeconomic status and average academic press), both the academic differentiating influence of prior achievement and the social differentiating influence of parental education on the science achievement of eighth grade students were related not only to contextual characteristics of the classroom and the school, but also to the instructional policies of the classroom

  11. From Citizen Science to Policy Development on the Coral Reefs of Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. James C. Crabbe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the application of citizen science to help generation of scientific data and capacity-building, and so underpin scientific ideas and policy development in the area of coral reef management, on the coral reefs of Jamaica. From 2000 to 2008, ninety Earthwatch volunteers were trained in coral reef data acquisition and analysis and made over 6,000 measurements on fringing reef sites along the north coast of Jamaica. Their work showed that while recruitment of small corals is returning after the major bleaching event of 2005, larger corals are not necessarily so resilient and so need careful management if the reefs are to survive such major extreme events. These findings were used in the development of an action plan for Jamaican coral reefs, presented to the Jamaican National Environmental Protection Agency. It was agreed that a number of themes and tactics need to be implemented in order to facilitate coral reef conservation in the Caribbean. The use of volunteers and citizen scientists from both developed and developing countries can help in forging links which can assist in data collection and analysis and, ultimately, in ecosystem management and policy development.

  12. Connecting science, policy, and implementation for landscape-scale habitat connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Jedediah F; Paxton, Midori; Nagulendran, Kangayatkarasu; Balamurugan, G; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Reynolds, Glen; Jain, Anuj; Hon, Jason

    2016-10-01

    We examined the links between the science and policy of habitat corridors to better understand how corridors can be implemented effectively. As a case study, we focused on a suite of landscape-scale connectivity plans in tropical and subtropical Asia (Malaysia, Singapore, and Bhutan). The process of corridor designation may be more efficient if the scientific determination of optimal corridor locations and arrangement is synchronized in time with political buy-in and establishment of policies to create corridors. Land tenure and the intactness of existing habitat in the region are also important to consider because optimal connectivity strategies may be very different if there are few, versus many, political jurisdictions (including commercial and traditional land tenures) and intact versus degraded habitat between patches. Novel financing mechanisms for corridors include bed taxes, payments for ecosystem services, and strategic forest certifications. Gaps in knowledge of effective corridor design include an understanding of how corridors, particularly those managed by local communities, can be protected from degradation and unsustainable hunting. There is a critical need for quantitative, data-driven models that can be used to prioritize potential corridors or multicorridor networks based on their relative contributions to long-term metacommunity persistence. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. The science, policy and practice of nature-based solutions: An interdisciplinary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesshöver, Carsten; Assmuth, Timo; Irvine, Katherine N; Rusch, Graciela M; Waylen, Kerry A; Delbaere, Ben; Haase, Dagmar; Jones-Walters, Lawrence; Keune, Hans; Kovacs, Eszter; Krauze, Kinga; Külvik, Mart; Rey, Freddy; van Dijk, Jiska; Vistad, Odd Inge; Wilkinson, Mark E; Wittmer, Heidi

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we reflect on the implications for science, policy and practice of the recently introduced concept of Nature-Based Solutions (NBS), with a focus on the European context. First, we analyse NBS in relation to similar concepts, and reflect on its relationship to sustainability as an overarching framework. From this, we derive a set of questions to be addressed and propose a general framework for how these might be addressed in NBS projects by funders, researchers, policy-makers and practitioners. We conclude that: To realise their full potential, NBS must be developed by including the experience of all relevant stakeholders such that 'solutions' contribute to achieving all dimensions of sustainability. As NBS are developed, we must also moderate the expectations placed on them since the precedent provided by other initiatives whose aim was to manage nature sustainably demonstrates that we should not expect NBS to be cheap and easy, at least not in the short-term. Copyright © 2016 British Geological Survey, NERC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Climate change science and the development of environment/energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabo, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    For the past decade climate research in the US has focused on long-term-understanding of earth systems rather than addressing the more immediate information needs of decision makers, such as information on impacts and solutions. During the Bush Administration, the primary objective was to determine if there was a problem, with little emphasis on developing information on what to do about the issue. The Clinton Administration is trying to refocus research to assist more effectively in decision making. This reevaluation is part of the post-Cold War shift toward funding federal research based more explicitly on the relevancy to societal needs. The Joint Climate Project to Address Decision Makers' Uncertainties was sponsored by EPRI, DOE, DOI, EPA, USDA, and USFS to assess what information is most relevant for decision making and how research could address those needs. The results of this stakeholders' needs assessment are being used to help reorient the federal program. Decision makers' priorities include greater emphasis on impacts and responses. More work is required in the ecological and social sciences to provide information for policy making. Researchers periodically need to provide interim information and policy-relevant assessments while continuing to improve long-term scientific understanding

  15. Knowledge Cluster Formation as a Science Policy in Malaysia: Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Dieter Evers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional science policy aims to create productive knowledge clusters, which are central places within an epistemic landscape of knowledge production and dissemination. These so-called K-clusters are said to have the organisational capability to drive innovations and create new industries. Many governments have used cluster formation as one of their development strategies. This paper looks at Malaysia’s path towards a knowledge-based economy and offers some evidence on the current state of knowledge cluster formation in that country. If the formation of a knowledge cluster has been the government policy, what has been the result? Is there an epistemic landscape of knowledge clusters? Has the main knowledge cluster really materialised? Data collected from websites, directories, government publications and expert interviews have enabled us to construct the epistemic landscape of Peninsular Malaysia, and Penang in particular. We identify and describe several knowledge clusters with a high density of knowledge producing institutions and their knowledge workers. An analysis of the knowledge output, measured in terms of scientific publications, patents and trademarks, shows that knowledge clusters have indeed been productive – as predicted by cluster theory – although the internal working of clusters require further explanation.

  16. Science, information, technology, and the changing character of public policy in non-point source pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, John L.; Corwin, Dennis L.

    Information technologies are already delivering important new capabilities for scientists working on non-point source (NPS) pollution in the vadose zone, and more are expected. This paper focuses on the special contributions of modeling and network communications for enhancing the effectiveness of scientists in the realm of policy debates regarding NPS pollution mitigation and abatement. The discussion examines a fundamental shift from a strict regulatory strategy of pollution control characterized by a bureaucratic/technical alliance during the period through the 1970's and early 1980's, to a more recently evolving paradigm of pluralistic environmental management. The role of science and scientists in this shift is explored, with special attention to the challenges facing scientists working in NPS pollution in the vadose zone. These scientists labor under a special handicap in the evolving model because their scientific tools are often times incapable of linking NPS pollution with individuals responsible for causing it. Information can facilitate the effectiveness of these scientists in policy debates, but not under the usual assumptions in which scientific truth prevails. Instead, information technology's key role is in helping scientists shape the evolving discussion of trade-offs and in bringing citizens and policymakers closer to the routine work of scientists.

  17. Reconciling the science and policy divide: The reality of scaling up antiretroviral therapy in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Whiteside

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the world’s largest national treatment programme and over 340 000 incident casesannually, the response to HIV in South Africa is hotly contested and there is sometimes adissonance between activism, science and policy. Too often, policy, whilst well intentioned, isinformed only by epidemiological data. The state of the healthcare system and socioculturalfactors drive and shape the epidemic and its response. By analysis of the financial,infrastructural, human resources for health, and governance landscape in South Africa,we assess the feasibility and associated costs of implementing a universal test and treatprogramme. We situate a universal test and treat strategy within the governance, fiscal,human resources for health, and infrastructural landscape in South Africa. We argue that theresponse to the epidemic must be forward thinking, progressive and make the most of thebenefits from treatment as prevention. However, the logistics of implementing a universaltest and treat strategy mean that this option is problematic in the short term. We recommenda health systems strengthening HIV treatment and prevention approach that includes scalingup treatment (for treatment and prevention along with a range of other prevention strategies.

  18. Dr Kathryn Beers, Assistant Director Physical Sciences and Engineering, Office of Science and Technology Policy Executive Office of the President United States of America visit the CMS experiment at point 5.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    Dr Kathryn Beers, Assistant Director Physical Sciences and Engineering, Office of Science and Technology Policy Executive Office of the President United States of America visit the CMS experiment at point 5.

  19. Dr Hiroshi Ikukawa Director Planning and Evaluation Division Science and Technology Policy Bureau Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan and Mr Robert Aymar signed an accord for the CERN.

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2007-01-01

    Dr Hiroshi Ikukawa Director Planning and Evaluation Division Science and Technology Policy Bureau Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan and Mr Robert Aymar signed an accord for the CERN.

  20. Izmit Foreshocks Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, W. L.; Bulut, F.

    2016-12-01

    Much of what we know about the initiation of earthquakes comes from the temporal and spatial relationship of foreshocks to the initiation point of the mainshock. The 1999 Mw 7.6 Izmit, Turkey, earthquake was preceded by a 44 minute-long foreshock sequence. Bouchon et al. (Science, 2011) analyzed the foreshocks using a single seismic station, UCG, located to the north of the east-west fault, and concluded on the basis of waveform similarity that the foreshocks repeatedly re-ruptured the same fault patch, driven by slow slip at the base of the crust. We revisit the foreshock sequence using seismograms from 9 additional stations that recorded the four largest foreshocks (Mw 2.0 to 2.8) to better characterize spatial and temporal evolution of the foreshock sequence and their relationship to the mainshock hypocenter. Cross-correlation timing and hypocentroid location with hypoDD reveals a systematic west-to-east propagation of the four largest foreshocks toward the mainshock hypocenter. Foreshock rupture dimensions estimated using spectral ratios imply no major overlap for the first three foreshocks. The centroid of 4th and largest foreshock continues the eastward migration, but lies within the circular source area of the 3rd. The 3rd, however, has a low stress drop and strong directivity to the west . The mainshock hypocenter locates on the eastern edge of foreshock 4. We also re-analyzed waveform similarity of all 18 foreshocks recorded at UCG by removing the common mode signal and clustering the residual seismogram using the correlation coefficient as the distance metric. The smaller foreshocks cluster with the larger events in time order, sometimes as foreshocks and more commonly as aftershocks. These observations show that the Izmit foreshock sequence is consistent with a stress-transfer driven cascade, moving systematically to the east along the fault and that there is no observational requirement for creep as a driving mechanism.

  1. Foster Care Dynamics and System Science: Implications for Research and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulczyn, Fred; Halloran, John

    2017-10-05

    Although system is a word frequently invoked in discussions of foster care policy and practice, there have been few if any attempts by child welfare researchers to understand the ways in which the foster care system is a system. As a consequence, insights from system science have yet to be applied in meaningful ways to the problem of making foster care systems more effective. In this study, we draw on population biology to organize a study of admissions and discharges to foster care over a 15-year period. We are interested specifically in whether resource constraints, which are conceptualized here as the number of beds, lead to a coupling of admissions and discharges within congregate care. The results, which are descriptive in nature, are consistent with theory that ties admissions and discharges together because of a resource constraint. From the data, it is clear that the underlying system exerts an important constraint on what are normally viewed as individual-level decisions. Our discussion calls on extending efforts to understand the role of system science in studies of child welfare systems, with a particular emphasis on the role of feedback as a causal influence.

  2. The climate regime before and after Copenhagen: science, policy, and the two-degrees target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aykut, S.C.; Dahan, A.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the political results of the Copenhagen Conference and evolutions in the international climate arena including geopolitical shifts, new issues on the agenda and a changing cartography of the main actors. As recent attacks on the climate regime concern both its political governance and the peculiar relationship between science and politics that developed through its main institutions (IPCC and the Conference of the Parties), we retrace in a first part the construction of the climate arena and in a second part the framing of the problem between climate science, expertise, and politics. Drawing on this historical sketch, we suggest the years 2000 were characterized by a convergence of top-down approaches in climate expertise and policies, structuring action and discourse around quantified reduction targets, temperature and concentration thresholds, and carbon budgets. The bottom-up character of the voluntary reduction commitments in the Copenhagen Accord is a serious setback to this approach. A central figure in this context is the threshold of 'dangerous warming' of two degrees. The Copenhagen Accord - endorsed in the Cancun compromise - elevates this figure to an official target of the U.N. negotiation process, thereby accentuating the tension between a newly assumed 'Real politic' and an alarming expertise. The article analyzes the construction of the two-degrees target and the role it plays in the climate regime. We conclude by discussing several contributions to the Post-Copenhagen debate. (authors)

  3. Celebrity Climate Contrarians: Understanding a keystone species in contemporary climate science-policy-public interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykoff, M. T.

    2012-12-01

    Since the 1980s, a keystone species called 'climate contrarians' has emerged and thrived. Through resistance to dominant interpretations of scientific evidence, and often outlier views on optimal responses to climate threats, contrarians have raised many meta-level questions: for instance, questions involve to what extent have their varied interventions been effective in terms of sparking a new and wise Copernican revolution; or do their amplified voices instead service entrenched carbon-based industry interests while they blend debates over 'climate change' with other culture wars? While the value of their influence has generated numerous debates, there is no doubt that climate contrarians have had significant influence on climate science, policy and public communities in ways that are larger than would be expected from their relative abundance in society. As such, a number of these actors have achieved 'celebrity status' in science-policy circles, and, at times, larger public spaces. This presentation focuses on how - particularly through amplified mass media attention to their movements - various outlier interventions have demonstrated themselves to be (often deliberately) detrimental to efforts that seek to enlarge rather than constrict the spectrum of possibility for mobilizing appropriate responses to ongoing climate challenges. Also, this work analyses the growth pathways of these charismatic megafauna through interview data and participant observations completed by the author at the 2011 Heartland Institute's Sixth International Conference on Climate Change. This provides detail on how outlier perspectives characterized as climate contrarians do work in these spaces under the guise of public intellectualism to achieve intended goals and objectives. The research undertaken and related in the presentation here seeks to better understand motivations that prop up these contrarian stances, such as possible ideological or evidentiary disagreement to the orthodox

  4. 76 FR 28793 - Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of... Hill, NSABB Program Assistant, NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750...

  5. 76 FR 3918 - Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of... Assistant NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750, Bethesda, Maryland 20892...

  6. 76 FR 77240 - Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of..., NSABB Program Assistant, NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750...

  7. 77 FR 66624 - Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of..., Maryland 20892. Contact Person: Ronna Hill, NSABB Program Assistant, NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities...

  8. 75 FR 15713 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science Policy; Office of the Director; Notice of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology... Lewallen, Advisory Committee Coordinator, Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy..., Director, Office of Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health. [FR Doc. 2010-6970 Filed 3-29...

  9. 75 FR 2549 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Office of Science Policy; Office of the Director; Notice of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology... Coordinator, Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director, National..., Office of Biotechnology Activities, National Institutes of Health. [FR Doc. 2010-730 Filed 1-14-10; 8:45...

  10. 75 FR 58410 - Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of the Director; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of..., NSABB Program Assistant, NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 750...

  11. Developing Low-Cost Solutions to Improve Public Policy: The Work of MDRC's Center for Applied Behavioral Science. Issue Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    MDRC, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Many social policy and education programs start from the assumption that people act in their best interest. But behavioral science shows that people often weigh intuition over reason, make inconsistent choices, and put off big decisions. The individuals and families who need services and the staff who provide them are no exception. From city…

  12. Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste: The Nuclear Waste Policy Act, Unit 3. Teacher Guide. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC.

    This guide is Unit 3 of the four-part series, Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The goal of this unit is to identify the key elements of the United States' nuclear waste dilemma and introduce the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and the role of the…

  13. The Belgian Minister of Economy, Energy, Foreign Trade and Science Policy, Marc Verwilghen, with CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar.

    CERN Multimedia

    Michel Blanc

    2005-01-01

    Marc Verwilghen, Belgian Minister of Economy, Energy, Foreign Trade and Science Policy, came to CERN on 8 April 2005, where he visited the CMS assembly hall and underground cavern, as well as the hall where the LHC superconducting magnets are being tested.

  14. Scientists as lobbyists? How science can make its voice heard in the South African policy-making arena

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Funke, Nicola S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the complexity of the South African policy-making context and its official and non-official actors and investigates the challenges that scientists face when trying to exert their influence here in order to strengthen the science...

  15. The UNCCD Science-Policy Interface (SPI) - Exploring the sustainable land management nexus among the Rio Conventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safriel, Uriel; Akhtar-Schuster, Mariam; Abraham, Elena Maria; Cowie, Annette; Daradur, Mihail; de Vente, Joris; Dema Dorji, Karma; Kust, German; Metternicht, Graciela; Orr, Barron; Pietragalla, Vanina

    2015-04-01

    At its 11th meeting in Windhoek/Namibia, in September 2013, the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) Conference of the Parties (COP) decided to establish a Science-Policy Interface (SPI)* (decision 23/COP.11). The goal of the SPI is to facilitate a two-way dialogue between scientists and policy makers in order to ensure the delivery of policy-relevant information, knowledge and advice on desertification/land degradation and drought (DLDD). The SPI established several initial objectives, including working with the scientific community to bring to the UNCCD and the other Rio conventions (climate change and biodiversity) the scientific evidence for the contribution of sustainable land use and management to climate change adaptation/mitigation and to safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystem services. *For more on the SPI see: http://www.unccd.int/en/programmes/Science/International-Scientific-Advice/Pages/SPI.aspx?HighlightID=282

  16. Revisiting the Factors Shaping Outcomes for Forest and Landscape Restoration in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Way Forward for Policy, Practice and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Nadia S. Djenontin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A lack of systematic understanding of the elements that determine the success of forest and landscape restoration (FLR investments leads to the inability to clearly articulate strategic and practical approaches to support natural resource restoration endeavors across Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. This review examines the different challenges and opportunities for effective restoration interventions. Using a structured literature review, we draw evidence from a broad range of scholarly works on natural resource conservation and governance to investigate the early dynamics of FLR in SSA. We first engage in a contextual clarification of FLR concepts and then provide a synthesis of the factors that influence the results of FLR interventions at the social and institutional level to inform relevant restoration stakeholders—policy makers, investors, and practitioners. The review finds that several interacting factors shape the outcomes of FLR interventions. We classified them into three categories based on their features, intensity, and scale of occurrence: (1 micro-scale factors that enable or limit individual engagement in FLR and sustainable management practices; (2 project/program-level factors, including the design and implementation stages; and (3 institutional, policy, and governance factors, and issues of inequity that operate at the local or national government scale. The review goes beyond underscoring funding constraints as a major challenge to the up- and out-scaling of restoration interventions and FLR success. The findings also set out a premise for future research to guide the design and implementation of successful FLR models in SSA.

  17. Sustaining Rocky Mountain landscapes: Science, policy and management for the Crown of the Continent ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Tony; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2007-01-01

    Prato and Fagre offer the first systematic, multi-disciplinary assessment of the challenges involved in managing the Crown of the Continent Ecosystem ( CCE), an area of the Rocky Mountains that includes northwestern Montana, southwestern Alberta, and southeastern British Columbia. The spectacular landscapes, extensive recreational options, and broad employment opportunities of the CCE have made it one of the fastest growing regions in the United States and Canada, and have lead to a shift in its economic base from extractive resource industries to service-oriented recreation and tourism industries. In the process, however, the amenities and attributes that draw people to this “New West” are under threat. Pastoral scenes are disappearing as agricultural lands and other open spaces are converted to residential uses, biodiversity is endangered by the fragmentation of fish and wildlife habitats, and many areas are experiencing a decline in air and water quality. Sustaining Rocky Mountain Landscapes provides a scientific basis for communities to develop policies for managing the growth and economic transformation of the CCE without sacrificing the quality of life and environment for which the land is renowned. This forthcoming edited volume focuses on five aspects of sustaining mountain landscapes in the CCE and similar regions in the Rocky Mountains. The five aspects are: 1) how social, economic, demo graphic and environmental forces are transforming ecosystem structure and function, 2) trends in use and conditions for human and environmental resources, 3) activating science, policy and education to enhance sustainable landscape management, 4) challenges to sustainable management of public and private lands, and 5) future prospects for achieving sustainable landscapes.

  18. Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs/Policies and Interpretation of Research Evidence (INSPIRE)12345

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiten, Daniel J; Ashour, Fayrouz A Sakr; Ross, A Catharine; Meydani, Simin N; Dawson, Harry D; Stephensen, Charles B; Brabin, Bernard J; Suchdev, Parminder S; van Ommen, Ben

    2015-01-01

    An increasing recognition has emerged of the complexities of the global health agenda—specifically, the collision of infections and noncommunicable diseases and the dual burden of over- and undernutrition. Of particular practical concern are both 1) the need for a better understanding of the bidirectional relations between nutritional status and the development and function of the immune and inflammatory response and 2) the specific impact of the inflammatory response on the selection, use, and interpretation of nutrient biomarkers. The goal of the Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs/Policies and Interpretation of Research Evidence (INSPIRE) is to provide guidance for those users represented by the global food and nutrition enterprise. These include researchers (bench and clinical), clinicians providing care/treatment, those developing and evaluating programs/interventions at scale, and those responsible for generating evidence-based policy. The INSPIRE process included convening 5 thematic working groups (WGs) charged with developing summary reports around the following issues: 1) basic overview of the interactions between nutrition, immune function, and the inflammatory response; 2) examination of the evidence regarding the impact of nutrition on immune function and inflammation; 3) evaluation of the impact of inflammation and clinical conditions (acute and chronic) on nutrition; 4) examination of existing and potential new approaches to account for the impact of inflammation on biomarker interpretation and use; and 5) the presentation of new approaches to the study of these relations. Each WG was tasked with synthesizing a summary of the evidence for each of these topics and delineating the remaining gaps in our knowledge. This review consists of a summary of the INSPIRE workshop and the WG deliberations. PMID:25833893

  19. Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs/Policies and Interpretation of Research Evidence (INSPIRE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiten, Daniel J; Sakr Ashour, Fayrouz A; Ross, A Catharine; Meydani, Simin N; Dawson, Harry D; Stephensen, Charles B; Brabin, Bernard J; Suchdev, Parminder S; van Ommen, Ben

    2015-05-01

    An increasing recognition has emerged of the complexities of the global health agenda—specifically, the collision of infections and noncommunicable diseases and the dual burden of over- and undernutrition. Of particular practical concern are both 1) the need for a better understanding of the bidirectional relations between nutritional status and the development and function of the immune and inflammatory response and 2) the specific impact of the inflammatory response on the selection, use, and interpretation of nutrient biomarkers. The goal of the Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs/Policies and Interpretation of Research Evidence (INSPIRE) is to provide guidance for those users represented by the global food and nutrition enterprise. These include researchers (bench and clinical), clinicians providing care/treatment, those developing and evaluating programs/interventions at scale, and those responsible for generating evidence-based policy. The INSPIRE process included convening 5 thematic working groups (WGs) charged with developing summary reports around the following issues: 1) basic overview of the interactions between nutrition, immune function, and the inflammatory response; 2) examination of the evidence regarding the impact of nutrition on immune function and inflammation; 3) evaluation of the impact of inflammation and clinical conditions (acute and chronic) on nutrition; 4) examination of existing and potential new approaches to account for the impact of inflammation on biomarker interpretation and use; and 5) the presentation of new approaches to the study of these relations. Each WG was tasked with synthesizing a summary of the evidence for each of these topics and delineating the remaining gaps in our knowledge. This review consists of a summary of the INSPIRE workshop and the WG deliberations. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. SCIENTIFIC POLICY OF SAUDI ARABIA: INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE AS A BASIS FOR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Tyukaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In less than a century of its existence Saudi Arabia has developed from mass illiteracy and lack of education of its population into the current state of complex structure of educational and research institutions and organizations equipped with most modern and advanced technologies and top world specialists in accordance with the highest international standards. It is especially important that the Kingdom has managed to achieve such success in no time. Until lately scientifi c development in Saudi Arabia was mostly concentrated on applied research, especially in the Kingdom’s key economic sphere – energy. Despite the country’s abundant financial resources, science was considerably underfunded and lacked any development strategy. Meanwhile, in the last 15 years the Saudi Kingdom has made a huge leap in scientifi c development with a clear action plan worked out, a solid structure of scientifi c institutes formed and the world experience effi ciently used. The success came with the Saudi authorities’ realization of the importance of scientifi c and technical progress both for the national economy and political positions of the state in the region and in the world. The article aims to analyze the scientifi c policy of Saudi Arabia on the stage of its birth and in the current state by means of studying offi cial documents, statistics and the existing institutes in the scientifi c system of the Kingdom. The author concludes that the key features of the Saudi scientifi c policy are prevailing role of the state, priority of applied over fundamental research and internalization with serious dependency on foreign support in the absence of a national scientifi c tradition.

  1. Policy implications of medical tourism development in destination countries: revisiting and revising an existing framework by examining the case of Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A; Ormond, Meghann

    2015-07-04

    Medical tourism is now targeted by many hospitals and governments worldwide for further growth and investment. Southeast Asia provides what is perhaps the best documented example of medical tourism development and promotion on a regional scale, but interest in the practice is growing in locations where it is not yet established. Numerous governments and private hospitals in the Caribbean have recently identified medical tourism as a priority for economic development. We explore here the projects, activities, and outlooks surrounding medical tourism and their anticipated economic and health sector policy implications in the Caribbean country of Jamaica. Specifically, we apply Pocock and Phua's previously-published conceptual framework of policy implications raised by medical tourism to explore its relevance in this new context and to identify additional considerations raised by the Jamaican context. Employing case study methodology, we conducted six weeks of qualitative fieldwork in Jamaica between October 2012 and July 2013. Semi-structured interviews with health, tourism, and trade sector stakeholders, on-site visits to health and tourism infrastructure, and reflexive journaling were all used to collect a comprehensive dataset of how medical tourism in Jamaica is being developed. Our analytic strategy involved organizing our data within Pocock and Phua's framework to identify overlapping and divergent issues. Many of the issues identified in Pocock and Phua's policy implications framework are echoed in the planning and development of medical tourism in Jamaica. However, a number of additional implications, such as the involvement of international development agencies in facilitating interest in the sector, cyclical mobility of international health human resources, and the significance of health insurance portability in driving the growth of international hospital accreditation, arise from this new context and further enrich the original framework. The framework

  2. The impact of federal policy on teachers' use of science manipulatives: A survey of teacher philosophy and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgoe, Catherine A.

    Recently, educators in public K-12 schools have added testing of science knowledge to the measures of Adequate Yearly Progress required by the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation. Research of the impact of NCLB policy on general teaching practices had credited the policy with improving instruction; however, negative impacts noted included the concern that teachers "teach to the test," narrowing the curriculum. Testing as an assessment strategy was not advocated by the professional educators and scientists responsible for the National Science Education Standards (NSES). Results from previous studies pointed to a potential conflict between the NCLB reforms and the National Science Education Standards science standards, in which teachers might reduce or eliminate hands-on activities and other constructivist practices in order to focus class time on other topics and tasks. Most research on NCLB policy, however, had not evaluated instructional practices regarding science education. This study examined the relationship among teacher beliefs, specifically the strength of their constructivist versus traditional beliefs, teachers' responses to NCLB policy, and teachers' use of constructivist practices in the form of manipulatives. This study showed that national policy did have an impact on teachers; however, that impact was not specific to the hands-on practices in science education. Teachers who responded to this survey had found many benefits in student learning using manipulatives and those positive impacts on their students justified the increased use of manipulatives in the classroom. The strength of teachers' constructivist beliefs showed a weak positive correlation to choices related to curriculum priorities, learning goals and advantages in using manipulatives. However, a relationship to beliefs was not found in the changes teachers made to various instructional practices, or in how they viewed certain manipulative materials, or in how they viewed

  3. Firm Segmentation as a Tool for R&D Policy Evaluation: Revisiting the Taxonomy of Firms Engaged in International R&D Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Brandao Fischer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As we have addressed in an earlier article, quantitative evaluation of R&D policies often approaches the outcomes of initiatives without effectively considering differential impacts on economic agents. Our goal is to confirm the existence of “segments” of firms according to their outcomes arising from participation in a given R&D program. Data is gathered from Eureka Program’s Final Reports (2000-2005 and 2006-2008 from Spanish, Italian, French, British, and German firms. Classification focus is directed towards variables related to innovation projects’ outcomes. Log-likelihood clustering method was used. Tests for differences between clusters in terms of some variables of interest were performed. Results are consistent with the hypothesis of marked heterogeneity in firms’ outcomes. This methodology offers a valuable instrument for RTD policymakers in terms of monitoring and ex post intervention.

  4. Root Shock Revisited: Perspectives of Early Head Start Mothers on Community and Policy Environments and Their Effects on Child Health, Development, and School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Carol L.; Thomas, Tammy L.; Green, Beth L.

    2009-01-01

    Racial differences in school readiness are a form of health disparity. By examining, from the perspective of low-income minority families participating in an Early Head Start study, community and policy environments as they shape and inform lived experiences, we identified several types of social and economic dislocation that undermine the efforts of parents to ready their children for school. The multiple dislocations of community triggered by housing and welfare reform and “urban renewal” are sources of stress for parents and children and affect the health and development of young children. Our findings suggest that racial differences in school readiness result not from race but from poverty and structural racism in American society. PMID:19059871

  5. Increasing Internal Stakeholder Consensus about a University Science Center's Outreach Policies and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Richard D.

    For decades the United States has tried to increase the number of students pursuing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and careers. Educators and policy makers continue to seek strategies to increase the number of students in the STEM education pipeline. Public institutions of higher education are involved in this effort through education and public outreach (EPO) initiatives. Arizona State University opened its largest research facility, the new Interdisciplinary Science and Technology Building IV (ISTB4) in September, 2012. As the new home of the School of Earth & Space Exploration (SESE), ISTB4 was designed to serve the school's dedication to K-12 education and public outreach. This dissertation presents a menu of ideas for revamping the EPO program for SESE. Utilizing the Delphi method, I was able to clarify which ideas would be most supported, and those that would not, by a variety of important SESE stakeholders. The study revealed that consensus exists in areas related to staffing and expansion of free programming, whereas less consensus exist in the areas of fee-based programs. The following most promising ideas for improving the SESE's EPO effort were identified and will be presented to SESE's incoming director in July, 2013: (a) hire a full-time director, theater manager, and program coordinator; (b) establish a service-learning requirement obligating undergraduate SESE majors to serve as docent support for outreach programs; (c) obligate all EPO operations to advise, assist, and contribute to the development of curricula, activities, and exhibits; (d) perform a market and cost analysis of other informational education venues offering similar programming; (3) establish a schedule of fee-based planetarium and film offerings; and (f) create an ISTB4 centric, fee-based package of programs specifically correlated to K12 education standards that can be delivered as a fieldtrip experience.

  6. Managing A Lake/Aquifer System-Science, Policy, and the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    Lake Isabel is a small (312 ha) natural lake located in central North Dakota in the glaciated Missouri Coteau. The average lake depth is about 1.8 m with a maximum depth of about 3.6 to 4.6 m. The lake overlies the Central Dakota aquifer complex which is comprised of three sand and gravel aquifer units that are either directly or indirectly (through leakage) hydraulically connected to the lake. The aquifer is a major water source for center pivot irrigation. During the 2001-2008 drought, lower lake levels reduced lake recreation, including leaving many boat docks unusable. Lake homeowners attribute lake level decline to irrigation pumping and believe that irrigation should be curtailed. There is no water right associated with Lake Isabel because there are no constructed works associated with the lake. Therefore, under North Dakota statute the lake cannot be protected as a prior (senior) appropriator. The lake does have standing under the public interest as defined by North Dakota statute. Evaluation of the public interest involves the integration of both science and policy. Is it in the best interest of the people of the state to prohibit ground water withdrawals for irrigation to protect the lake? This is a policy decision, not a scientific decision. The basis of the policy decision should include an economic analysis of the irrigated crops, fish, wildlife, recreation, and lake property. In addition, priority of use and lake level history should be considered. The issue can likely be resolved without scientific controversy arising from hydrologic system uncertainty. If the decision is to protect the lake at some level, the issue becomes “scientized” and the following questions need to be answered: 1) Does irrigation pumping effect changes in lake levels? 2) Is our level of scientific understanding sufficient to determine what volume of irrigation pumping will cause what amount of lake level change? 3) Given aquifer lag time response to changes in pumping and

  7. Children, Families and Poverty: Definitions, Trends, Emerging Science and Implications for Policy. Social Policy Report. Volume 26, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aber, Lawrence; Morris, Pamela; Raver, Cybele

    2012-01-01

    Now, more than ever, it is crucial to address the topic of children and poverty in the U.S., given current scientific knowledge about poverty's influence on children and effective strategies to mitigate its negative impact. In this report, we summarize the best available information on definitions and trends in child poverty, policy responses to…

  8. Integrating natural and social sciences to inspire public confidence in radioactive waste policy case study - Committee on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, Sam

    2007-01-01

    Integrating Natural and Social Sciences to Inspire Public Confidence in Radioactive Waste Policy Case Study: Committee on Radioactive Waste Management Implementing effective long-term radioactive waste management policy is challenging, and both UK and international experience is littered with policy and programme failures. Policy must not only be underpinned by sound science and technical rationale, it must also inspire the confidence of the public and other stakeholders. However, in today's modern society, communities will not simply accept the word of scientists for setting policy based purely on technical grounds. This is particularly so in areas where there are significant social and ethical issues, such as radioactive waste disposal. To develop and implement effective policy, governments, waste owners and implementing bodies must develop processes which effectively integrate both complex technical and scientific issues, with equally challenging social and ethical concerns. These integrating processes must marry often intricate technical issues with broad public and stakeholder engagement programmes, in programmes which can expect the highest levels of public scrutiny, and must invariably be delivered within challenging time and budget constraints. This paper considers a model for how such integrating processes can be delivered. The paper reviews, as a case study, how such challenges were overcome by the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CoRWM), which, in July 2006, made recommendations to the UK government for the establishment of a long-term radioactive waste policy. Its recommendations were underpinned by sound science, but also engendered public confidence through undertaking the largest and most significant deliberative public and stakeholder engagement programme on a complex policy issue in the UK. Effective decision-making was enabled through the integration of both proven and bespoke methodologies, including Multi-criteria Decision Analysis and

  9. The Roles of Science in Local Resilience Policy Development: A Case Study of Three U.S. Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavin, C.; Gupta, N.

    2015-12-01

    The development and deployment of resilience policies within communities in the United States often respond to the place-based, hazard-specific nature of disasters. Prior to the onset of a disaster, municipal and regional decision makers establish long-term development policies, such as land use planning, infrastructure investment, and economic development policies. Despite the importance of incorporating disaster risk within community decision making, resilience and disaster risk are only one consideration community decision makers weigh when choosing how and whether to establish resilience policy. Using a case study approach, we examine the governance, organizational, management, and policy making processes and the involvement of scientific advice in designing and implementing resilience policy in three U.S. communities: Los Angeles, CA; Norfolk, VA; and Flagstaff, AZ. Disaster mitigation or resilience initiatives were developed and deployed in each community with differing levels and types of scientific engagement. Engagement spanned from providing technical support with traditional risk assessment to direct engagement with community decision makers and design of community resilience outreach. Best practices observed include embedding trusted, independent scientific advisors with strong community credibility within local government agencies, use of interdisciplinary and interdepartmental expert teams with management and technical skillsets, and establishing scientifically-informed disaster and hazard scenarios to enable community outreach. Case study evidence suggest science communication and engagement within and across municipal government agencies and scientifically-informed direct engagement with community stakeholders are effective approaches and roles that disaster risk scientists can fill to support resilience policy development.

  10. Risk and society: The interaction of science, technology and public policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterstone, M.

    1992-01-01

    Risk and Society is the sixth volume in Kluwer's Technology, Risk, and Society series, and like the previous volumes in this series, it is made up of papers presented at a symposium convened in 1989 to discuss the changing interactions of technology and society and definitions of risk. The papers presented all center around risk as a constructed phenomenon. The first paper is a general overview of concepts of risk in society and the changing emphasis on risk in the last two decades. The papers represent four main topic areas: Risk, science and public policy; Allocating scarce medical resources; Nuclear power and nuclear waste disposal; and Setting standards for air quality. Three papers, representing three different points of view, are presented in each topic area. The contributors cover a range of issues in this format, and the combined effect is a good overview of the issues with which risk assessors, risk managers, and public policymakers must grapple if constructive use is to be made of risk in public decision-making

  11. Pan-European management of coastal lagoons: A science-policy-stakeholder interface perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillebø, Ana I.; Stålnacke, Per; Gooch, Geoffrey D.; Krysanova, Valentina; Bielecka, Małgorzata

    2017-11-01

    The main objective of the work carried out in the scope of a three years collaborative research project was to develop science-based strategies and a decision support framework for the integrated management of coastal lagoons and their catchments and, in this context, to enhance connectivity between research and policymaking. In this paper our main objective is to share the lessons learned from the innovative methodology used throughout the project. To achieve the proposed objectives, the multidisciplinary scientific knowledge in the project team was combined and integrated with the knowledge and views of local stakeholders of four selected European coastal lagoons, using a three step participatory approach. With this innovative approach, which included the usage of eco-hydrological and water quality-modelling tools, the team developed and analyzed integrated scenarios of possible economic development and environmental impacts in four European lagoons and their catchments. These scenarios were presented and discussed with stakeholders, giving rise to management recommendations for each case study lagoon. Results show that some management options might be transferrable to other European lagoons having similar climatic, geophysical and socio-economic settings. In management terms, the project output provides a set of policy guidelines derived from the different analyses conducted and proposes initiatives concerning management implementation in a local-regional-national-European setting.

  12. The GMOS cyber(e)-infrastructure: advanced services for supporting science and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinnirella, S; D'Amore, F; Bencardino, M; Sprovieri, F; Pirrone, N

    2014-03-01

    The need for coordinated, systematized and catalogued databases on mercury in the environment is of paramount importance as improved information can help the assessment of the effectiveness of measures established to phase out and ban mercury. Long-term monitoring sites have been established in a number of regions and countries for the measurement of mercury in ambient air and wet deposition. Long term measurements of mercury concentration in biota also produced a huge amount of information, but such initiatives are far from being within a global, systematic and interoperable approach. To address these weaknesses the on-going Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project ( www.gmos.eu ) established a coordinated global observation system for mercury as well it retrieved historical data ( www.gmos.eu/sdi ). To manage such large amount of information a technological infrastructure was planned. This high-performance back-end resource associated with sophisticated client applications enables data storage, computing services, telecommunications networks and all services necessary to support the activity. This paper reports the architecture definition of the GMOS Cyber(e)-Infrastructure and the services developed to support science and policy, including the United Nation Environmental Program. It finally describes new possibilities in data analysis and data management through client applications.

  13. Considerations on the EU definition of a nanomaterial: science to support policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleeker, Eric A J; de Jong, Wim H; Geertsma, Robert E; Groenewold, Monique; Heugens, Evelyn H W; Koers-Jacquemijns, Marjorie; van de Meent, Dik; Popma, Jan R; Rietveld, Anton G; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Cassee, Flemming R; Oomen, Agnes G

    2013-02-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of applications and products containing or using nanomaterials have become available. This has raised concerns that some of these materials may introduce new risks for humans or the environment. A clear definition to discriminate nanomaterials from other materials is prerequisite to include provisions for nanomaterials in legislation. In October 2011 the European Commission published the 'Recommendation on the definition of a nanomaterial', primarily intended to provide unambiguous criteria to identify materials for which special regulatory provisions might apply, but also to promote consistency on the interpretation of the term 'nanomaterial'. In this paper, the current status of various regulatory frameworks of the European Union with regard to nanomaterials is described, and major issues relevant for regulation of nanomaterials are discussed. This will contribute to better understanding the implications of the choices policy makers have to make in further regulation of nanomaterials. Potential issues that need to be addressed and areas of research in which science can contribute are indicated. These issues include awareness on situations in which nano-related risks may occur for materials that fall outside the definition, guidance and further development of measurement techniques, and dealing with changes during the life cycle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Revisiting Okun's Relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, R.; Lim, G.C.; van Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Our paper revisits Okun's relationship between observed unemployment rates and output gaps. We include in the relationship the effect of labour market institutions as well as age and gender effects. Our empirical analysis is based on 20 OECD countries over the period 1985-2013. We find that the

  15. Revisiting the Okun relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, R. (Robert); Lim, G.C.; J.C. van Ours (Jan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractOur article revisits the Okun relationship between observed unemployment rates and output gaps. We include in the relationship the effect of labour market institutions as well as age and gender effects. Our empirical analysis is based on 20 OECD countries over the period 1985–2013. We

  16. Bounded Intention Planning Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Sievers Silvan; Wehrle Martin; Helmert Malte

    2014-01-01

    Bounded intention planning provides a pruning technique for optimal planning that has been proposed several years ago. In addition partial order reduction techniques based on stubborn sets have recently been investigated for this purpose. In this paper we revisit bounded intention planning in the view of stubborn sets.

  17. A Hydrostatic Paradox Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganci, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    This paper revisits a well-known hydrostatic paradox, observed when turning upside down a glass partially filled with water and covered with a sheet of light material. The phenomenon is studied in its most general form by including the mass of the cover. A historical survey of this experiment shows that a common misunderstanding of the phenomenon…

  18. The Faraday effect revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Nenciu, Gheorghe

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series revisiting the (effect of) Faraday rotation. We formulate and prove the thermodynamic limit for the transverse electric conductivity of Bloch electrons, as well as for the Verdet constant. The main mathematical tool is a regularized magnetic and geometric...

  19. submitter BioSharing: curated and crowd-sourced metadata standards, databases and data policies in the life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    McQuilton, Peter; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Thurston, Milo; Lister, Allyson; Maguire, Eamonn; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta

    2016-01-01

    BioSharing (http://www.biosharing.org) is a manually curated, searchable portal of three linked registries. These resources cover standards (terminologies, formats and models, and reporting guidelines), databases, and data policies in the life sciences, broadly encompassing the biological, environmental and biomedical sciences. Launched in 2011 and built by the same core team as the successful MIBBI portal, BioSharing harnesses community curation to collate and cross-reference resources across the life sciences from around the world. BioSharing makes these resources findable and accessible (the core of the FAIR principle). Every record is designed to be interlinked, providing a detailed description not only on the resource itself, but also on its relations with other life science infrastructures. Serving a variety of stakeholders, BioSharing cultivates a growing community, to which it offers diverse benefits. It is a resource for funding bodies and journal publishers to navigate the metadata landscape of the ...

  20. Dynamic Topography Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresi, Louis

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic Topography Revisited Dynamic topography is usually considered to be one of the trinity of contributing causes to the Earth's non-hydrostatic topography along with the long-term elastic strength of the lithosphere and isostatic responses to density anomalies within the lithosphere. Dynamic topography, thought of this way, is what is left over when other sources of support have been eliminated. An alternate and explicit definition of dynamic topography is that deflection of the surface which is attributable to creeping viscous flow. The problem with the first definition of dynamic topography is 1) that the lithosphere is almost certainly a visco-elastic / brittle layer with no absolute boundary between flowing and static regions, and 2) the lithosphere is, a thermal / compositional boundary layer in which some buoyancy is attributable to immutable, intrinsic density variations and some is due to thermal anomalies which are coupled to the flow. In each case, it is difficult to draw a sharp line between each contribution to the overall topography. The second definition of dynamic topography does seem cleaner / more precise but it suffers from the problem that it is not measurable in practice. On the other hand, this approach has resulted in a rich literature concerning the analysis of large scale geoid and topography and the relation to buoyancy and mechanical properties of the Earth [e.g. refs 1,2,3] In convection models with viscous, elastic, brittle rheology and compositional buoyancy, however, it is possible to examine how the surface topography (and geoid) are supported and how different ways of interpreting the "observable" fields introduce different biases. This is what we will do. References (a.k.a. homework) [1] Hager, B. H., R. W. Clayton, M. A. Richards, R. P. Comer, and A. M. Dziewonski (1985), Lower mantle heterogeneity, dynamic topography and the geoid, Nature, 313(6003), 541-545, doi:10.1038/313541a0. [2] Parsons, B., and S. Daly (1983), The

  1. Don't shoot the messenger: re-framing climate policy to respond to evolving science (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. R.; Otto, F. E.; Otto, A.; Rayner, S.

    2013-12-01

    Lack of progress in mitigation policy, as atmospheric CO2 concentrations climb apparently inexorably past 400ppm, is often blamed on a failure to 'communicate the climate change message' effectively. A small but increasing number of commentators is arguing that the problem is not communication, but the way in which climate policy choices are framed. In particular, the overt politicization of climate science, with so-called 'belief in climate change' being invoked as automatically implying support for a global carbon price or cap-and-trade regime, or even as an argument for voting for specific parties, makes it increasingly difficult to discuss policy options in the light of evolving science. At the heart of the problem is the interpretation of the 'precautionary principle', which is widely invoked in climate policy as a response to scientific uncertainty: policies, it is argued, should be designed to be robust to the range of possible future climates, or to deliver the ';best' possible probability-weighted outcome. The problem with this approach is that it very often makes policy contingent on worst-case scenarios - such as the risk of high climate sensitivity or rapid non-linear climate change - which are often the most uncertain aspects of climate science and hence subject to frequent revision. To be relevant to policies that are based on mitigating worst-case risks, the scientific community is also required to focus on establishing what these risks are, leaving it open, unjustly but understandably, to the accusation of alarmism. Focusing on worst-case scenarios can also give the impression that the mitigation problem is unachievable, and the only option is short-term adaptation followed by geo-engineering. One way of reducing the politicization of climate science is to make policy explicitly contingent on the climate response, such that a high (or low) rate of anthropogenic warming over the coming decades is automatically met with an aggressive (or moderate

  2. Science, law, and politics in the Food and Drug Administration's genetically engineered foods policy: FDA's 1992 policy statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, David L

    2005-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) 1992 policy statement was developed in the context of critical gaps in scientific knowledge concerning the compositional effects of genetic transformation and severe limitations in methods for safety testing. FDA acknowledged that pleiotropy and insertional mutagenesis may cause unintended changes, but it was unknown whether this happens to a greater extent in genetic engineering compared with traditional breeding. Moreover, the agency was not able to identify methods by which producers could screen for unintended allergens and toxicants. Despite these uncertainties, FDA granted genetically engineered foods the presumption of GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) and recommended that producers use voluntary consultations before marketing them.

  3. Frederic Joliot, science and society: an itinerary from nuclear physics to nuclear policy (1900-1958)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinault, M.

    1999-01-01

    Frederic Joliot, called Joliot-Curie, got the Nobel prize of chemistry with his wife Irene Curie in 1935 for the discovery of artificial radioactivity. This French physicist belongs to a circle of ambitious scientists influenced by Marie Curie, Paul Langevin and Jean Perrin's outstanding personalities. His fame - with the Nobel prize - plus the outcoming of a government led by the Front Populaire, including a ministry of Scientific Research, favoured Joliot's plans to build laboratories equipped with particle accelerators, among which a cyclotron. Although he had been thinking of radiobiology, Joliot started to study chain nuclear reactions, in 1939, at the College de France, in order to achieve the liberation of nuclear energy. After the armistice, the laboratories' young manager stayed in France as one of the leaders of the scientific community and got involved in the Resistance. At the Liberation, having joined the communist party, he became head of the CNRS and founded the Atomic Energy Committee (CEA). His aim was to use science for the reconstruction and modernization of France. His ambitious policy cut short. In June 1946 he stated that he would refuse to take part in any military nuclear program. The failure of the negotiations about atomic energy at the United Nations, in which he represented France, as well as the increasing threat of the Cold War, brought Joliot-Curie to the head of the World Peace Council. He appealed for the atom bomb ban (Appel de Stockholm in march 1950). He was dismissed from the CEA by the Government and then tried to rally the scientific community to react against all nuclear atmospheric tests. As chairman of the World Scientific Workers Federation, he took part in the Einstein-Russell Appeal (July 1955) an in the Pugwash movement. In 1956 he was in charge of the new university - equipped with particle accelerators - in Orsay. That was meant to favor a fresh start for French nuclear physics. (author)

  4. Public Policy and Gender Inequality in Brazilian Society: Considerations From the Realms of Labor, Politics and Science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Xavier do Nascimento

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present text focuses on issues of gender inequality and public policy in Brazil today. My major goals are as follows: 1 to provide an analysis of gender inequality in Brazilian society through an examination of the three key arenas of labor, political representation and science and 2 to examine both the advances and the challenges that persist in confronting inequality through public policies on gender. To these ends, I employ secondary data, obtained from three different official sources (IBGE, TSE and CNPq. Lastly, I argue that while the policies that have been implemented can be linked to significant progress in the three above-mentioned arenas, we are still quite far from a real reversal of the current situation of deep inequality, persisting, above all, in the field of political representation.

  5. Geo-Hazards and Mountain Road Development in Nepal: Understanding the Science-Policy-Governance Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugar, Sumit; Dahal, Vaskar

    2015-04-01

    informed other road development schemes in Nepal. Geomorphological surveys and robust geo-hazard assessments that factor the spatial and temporal dimensions of the seismic, fluvial and sediment hazards along the road corridor are critical for sustainable development of mountain roads. However, scientific and technical research studies seldom inform mountain road development primarily due to lack of co-ordination between the respective government agencies, access to journal papers in developing countries and unwillingness to adopt novel interventions in rural road construction practices. These challenges are further exacerbated by weak governance and lack of proper policy enforcement that often leads to construction of poorly engineered roads, thereby increasing the risk of rural infrastructural damage from geo-hazards. Though there exists a disconnect between the science-policy-governance interface where information on geo-hazards is neglected in mountain road development due to lack of scientific research and government apathy, there is an opportunity to spur dialogue and sensitize these issues via trans-disciplinary approaches on disaster risk management.

  6. Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Gibbs

    2007-01-01

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science Policy.” The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the agreements administered by the World Trade Organization, particularly the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), were adopted to promote international trade and i...

  7. Science in the Maori-Medium Curriculum: Assessment of Policy Outcomes in Putaiao Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Georgina

    2011-01-01

    This second research paper on science education in Maori-medium school contexts complements an earlier article published in this journal (Stewart, 2005). Science and science education are related domains in society and in state schooling in which there have always been particularly large discrepancies in participation and achievement by Maori. In…

  8. 'Felson Signs' revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Phiji P.; Irodi, Aparna; Keshava, Shyamkumar N.; Lamont, Anthony C.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we revisit, with the help of images, those classic signs in chest radiography described by Dr Benjamin Felson himself, or other illustrious radiologists of his time, cited and discussed in 'Chest Roentgenology'. We briefly describe the causes of the signs, their utility and the differential diagnosis to be considered when each sign is seen. Wherever possible, we use CT images to illustrate the basis of some of these classic radiographic signs.

  9. Time functions revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Albert

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we revisit our joint work with Antonio Siconolfi on time functions. We will give a brief introduction to the subject. We will then show how to construct a Lipschitz time function in a simplified setting. We will end with a new result showing that the Aubry set is not an artifact of our proof of existence of time functions for stably causal manifolds.

  10. Seven Issues, Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehead, Jim; De Bra, Paul; Grønbæk, Kaj; Larsen, Deena; Legget, John; schraefel, monica m.c.

    2002-01-01

    It has been 15 years since the original presentation by Frank Halasz at Hypertext'87 on seven issues for the next generation of hypertext systems. These issues are: Search and Query Composites Virtual Structures Computation in/over hypertext network Versioning Collaborative Work Extensibility and Tailorability Since that time, these issues have formed the nucleus of multiple research agendas within the Hypertext community. Befitting this direction-setting role, the issues have been revisited ...

  11. Deterministic Graphical Games Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Daniel; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the deterministic graphical games of Washburn. A deterministic graphical game can be described as a simple stochastic game (a notion due to Anne Condon), except that we allow arbitrary real payoffs but disallow moves of chance. We study the complexity of solving deterministic graphical...... games and obtain an almost-linear time comparison-based algorithm for computing an equilibrium of such a game. The existence of a linear time comparison-based algorithm remains an open problem....

  12. Raising test scores vs. teaching higher order thinking (HOT): senior science teachers' views on how several concurrent policies affect classroom practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Anat; Alboher Agmon, Vered

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates how senior science teachers viewed the effects of a Raising Test Scores policy and its implementation on instruction of higher order thinking (HOT), and on teaching thinking to students with low academic achievements.

  13. Innovation Happens in Systems: Implications for Science, Technology and Innovation Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Holbrook, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    This report addresses the regional systems of innovation in Canada, and looks at the ways that policy instruments play a role in the process. Recommendations are made to encourage the development of policies that foster the development of innovation clusters in Canada.

  14. The impact of foresight on environmental science and technology policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, Barend

    1999-01-01

    Globalisation, high tech development and environmental issues have made policy makers aware again of the possibilities of future studies for policy making. However, the lack of systematic knowledge about their impact is a major obstruction to a proper use of future studies. Especially since future

  15. Science, Policy, and Practice: Three Cultures in Search of a Shared Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonkoff, Jack P.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how child development research, social policy design, and human service delivery for children and families reflect three separate yet related cultures. Argues that transmitting knowledge from the academy to social policy and practice could be facilitated by a simple taxonomy differentiating established knowledge from both reasonable…

  16. Assessing the influence of Environmental Impact Assessments on science and policy: an analysis of the Three Gorges Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullos, Desiree

    2009-07-01

    The need to understand and minimize negative environmental outcomes associated with large dams has both contributed to and benefited from the introduction and subsequent improvements in the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process. However, several limitations in the EIA process remain, including those associated with the uncertainty and significance of impact projections. These limitations are directly related to the feedback between science and policy, with information gaps in scientific understanding discovered through the EIA process contributing valuable recommendations on critical focus areas for prioritizing and funding research within the fields of ecological conservation and river engineering. This paper presents an analysis of the EIA process for the Three Gorges Project (TGP) in China as a case study for evaluating this feedback between the EIA and science and policy. For one of the best-studied public development projects in the world, this paper presents an investigation into whether patterns exist between the scientific interest (via number of publications) in environmental impacts and (a) the identification of impacts as uncertain or priority by the EIA, (b) decisions or political events associated with the dam, and (c) impact type. This analysis includes the compilation of literature on TGP, characterization of ecosystem interactions and responses to TGP through a hierarchy of impacts, coding of EIA impacts as "uncertain" impacts that require additional study and "priority" impacts that have particularly high significance, mapping of an event chronology to relate policies, institutional changes, and decisions about TGP as "events" that could influence the focus and intensity of scientific investigation, and analysis of the number of publications by impact type and order within the impact hierarchy. From these analyses, it appears that the availability and consistency of scientific information limit the accuracy of environmental impact

  17. Reliving the History of Compensatory Education: Policy Choices, Bureaucracy, and the Politicized Role of Science in the Evolution of Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Barbara; Zigler, Edward

    2012-01-01

    In this article, Edward Zigler, interviewed by Barbara Beatty, talks about a turning point in the history of Head Start that reveals how policy choices, bureaucracy, and science came together when he was told to phase out the program in 1970. New to Washington, Zigler learned that President Richard M. Nixon's domestic policy advisor Daniel Patrick…

  18. Raising Test Scores vs. Teaching Higher Order Thinking (HOT): Senior Science Teachers' Views on How Several Concurrent Policies Affect Classroom Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Anat; Alboher Agmon, Vered

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates how senior science teachers viewed the effects of a Raising Test Scores policy and its implementation on instruction of higher order thinking (HOT), and on teaching thinking to students with low academic achievements. Background: The study was conducted in the context of three concurrent policies advocating: (a)…

  19. Build a Catastrophe: Using Digital World and Policy Models to Engage Political Science Students with Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodyskyj, L.; Lennon, T.; Mead, C.; Anbar, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change is a problem that involves science, economics, and politics. Particularly in the United States, political resistance to addressing climate change has been exacerbated by a concerted misinformation campaign against the basic science, a negative response to how the proposed solutions to climate change intersect with values. Scientists often propose more climate science education as a solution to the problem, but preliminary studies indicate that more science education does not necessarily reduce polarization on the topic (Kahan et al. 2012). Is there a way that we can better engage non-science students in topics related to climate change that improve their comprehension of the problem and its implications, overcoming polarization? In an existing political science course, "Do You Want to Build a Nation?", we are testing a new digital world-building model based on resource development and consequent environmental and societal impacts. Students spend half the class building their nations based on their assigned ideology (i.e., socialist, absolute monarchy, libertarian) and the second half of the class negotiating with other nations to resolve global issues while remaining true to their ideologies. The course instructor, co-author Lennon, and ASU's Center for Education Through eXploration have collaborated to design a digital world model based on resources linked to an adaptive decision-making environment that translates student policies into modifications to the digital world. The model tracks students' exploration and justification of their nation's policy choices. In the Fall 2017 offering of the course, we will investigate how this digital world model and scenarios built around it affect student learning outcomes. Specifically, we anticipate improved understanding of the policy trade-offs related to energy development, better understanding of the ways that different ideologies approach solutions to climate change, and that both will result in more

  20. The attitudes of science policy, environmental, and utility leaders on U.S. Energy issues and fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. D.

    1988-03-01

    This paper examines the awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and policy preferences of a national sampling of leaders from the science policy, environmental, and utility fields, and of congressional science staff members. Several conclusions emerge: First, a substantial segment of those polled already have some familiarity with the full range of issues about current energy policy. More specifically, there is also a substantial portion of the leaders who believe they have an understanding of the fusion process and who hold the expectation that fusion-based energy technology will be the primary source of electrical power fifty years from now. In this regard, then, we may conclude that there already exists a foundation or basis upon which policy leaders may build an expanded and improved understanding of general energy issues, and of the fusion process and related technologies. Second, the policy attitudes and orientations of the leaders appear to be positive. Utility leaders show a great deal of enthusiasm for the future prospects of fusion-based energy technologies, as do most science policy leaders. There is discernibly less enthusiasm among environmental leaders and the congressional science staff about long term prospects for fusion-based systems, but even among these groups there is still substantial support. Among all of the groups, there is a recognition that fossil fuel resources are finite and that it is imperative to plan now for the time when those resources will be gone or severely limited. In broad terms, there is already a forward looking perspective in regard to energy policy. Third, following a pattern similar to that found in regard to biotechnology, science policy and environmental organization leaders appear to rely heavily on printed media and to focus their trust and confidence on a small number of distinguished publications. We observe a two-step information process. In the first step, leaders use science magazines, news magazines, newspapers, and

  1. U.S. EPA. 2000. Science Policy Council Handbook: Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of the Peer Review Policy and this Handbook is to enhance the quality and credibility of Agency decisions by ensuring that the scientific and technical work products underlying these decisions receive appropriate levels of peer review by independe

  2. Green industrial policy. Perspectives of economic and political scienc; Oekologische Industriepolitik. Wirtschafts- und politikwissenschaftliche Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Klaus [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    The necessity and possibilities of, limits to and the specific instruments employed for green industrial policy are a topic of both scientific and political debate. Economists and politicians can draw on rich resources in dealing with these issues. The contributions contained in this volume are the outcome of a workshop held by the German Federal Environment Agency and the Federal Environment Ministry on the topic of ''Green industrial policy'' on 18 April 2008 in Berlin. Economists and politicians were invited to participate in an expert dialog to locate the topic of green industrial policy within the larger discourses of political economics, deliberate on theoretical motives and practical limits to the concept from an economic viewpoint and discuss possible instruments and fields of action. The workshop focussed on questions relating to the necessity of green industrial policy, the framing of political programmes and the implementation of adopted goals into specific measures.

  3. Exploring Resource Security Policy and Green Science and Technology in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    consumption patterns, diets and resource use of its population that will only increase 1...Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand and Malaysia - have started to put, if not ramped up existing, green policies in place. 9 In India, the government’s

  4. THE BEAR BROOK WATERSHED MANIPULATION PROJECT: WATERSHED SCIENCE IN A POLICY PERSPECTIVE. (R825762)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  5. CONNECTIVITY OF ENVIRONMENT, HUMAN HEALTH AND SOCIOECONOMICS: IMPLICATIONS FOR SCIENCE AND POLICY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental and public health policy continues to evolve in response to new and complex social, economic and environmental drivers. Globalization of commerce, evolving patterns of land use, and technological advances in such areas as manufacturing and genetically modified food...

  6. Inter-organizational relations for regional development: an expansion policy promoted by the federal network of professional education, science & technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleidson Nogueira Dias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research paper examines the importance of inter-organizational network management as a government policy tool to promote regional development. This pattern requires Federal Government intervention so as to compensate for the imbalance that this causes and to guarantee that economic growth resulting from government actions leads to development in all regions of the country, thereby avoiding the traditional mechanisms of wealth concentration. For this, a methodology of content analysis was used based on a relevant public policy aimed at promoting development within Brazil and by analyzing the data collected in relation to the current theory related to strategy, local development and inter-organizational networks in general.  The analysis results show that, when the policy studied in this work, applied in the federal network of professional education, science & technology, was implemented the networks had a positive influence on the outcome of the policy objectives and represented an extremely powerful support tool, being one of the most important factors to boost development.

  7. Viewpoint of policy science is required for measures against the global warming. Chikyu ondanka taisaku ni motomerareru seisaku kagakuteki shiza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, Shuzo [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1990-01-25

    It is a matter of course that the issue of the global warming requires management of policy science, but the ultimate target of various propositions is not just the holding back of the global warming which causes the collapse of living; it is necessary to check the propositions from the viewpoints of evasion of international strifes, security of fairness among generations, measures against uncertainty, and measures delayed from the actual phenomena. For Japan it is necessary to declare its responsibility to the environment, and make it clear that Japan pays sufficient costs and efforts. In order to exhibit its leadership, Japan must clarify its stance and then contribute to the world making the most of its unparalleled ability consolidated in the systematic and technical background of public pollution and in the cultural conception. Targeted policies will be the support of developing countries in their independent environmental management, exhibition of leadership in the environmental field and acceleration of international agreements. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Functional Land Management: Bridging the Think-Do-Gap using a multi-stakeholder science policy interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Lilian; Wall, David; Creamer, Rachel; Bampa, Francesca; Schulte, Rogier P O

    2018-03-01

    Functional Land Management (FLM) is proposed as an integrator for sustainability policies and assesses the functional capacity of the soil and land to deliver primary productivity, water purification and regulation, carbon cycling and storage, habitat for biodiversity and recycling of nutrients. This paper presents the catchment challenge as a method to bridge the gap between science, stakeholders and policy for the effective management of soils to deliver these functions. Two challenges were completed by a wide range of stakeholders focused around a physical catchment model-(1) to design an optimised catchment based on soil function targets, (2) identify gaps to implementation of the proposed design. In challenge 1, a high level of consensus between different stakeholders emerged on soil and management measures to be implemented to achieve soil function targets. Key gaps including knowledge, a mix of market and voluntary incentives and mandatory measures were identified in challenge 2.

  9. Development and case study of a science-based software platform to support policy making on air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Lao, Yanwen; Jang, Carey; Lin, Chen-Jen; Xing, Jia; Wang, Shuxiao; Fu, Joshua S; Deng, Shuang; Xie, Junping; Long, Shicheng

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and implementations of a novel software platform that supports real-time, science-based policy making on air quality through a user-friendly interface. The software, RSM-VAT, uses a response surface modeling (RSM) methodology and serves as a visualization and analysis tool (VAT) for three-dimensional air quality data obtained by atmospheric models. The software features a number of powerful and intuitive data visualization functions for illustrating the complex nonlinear relationship between emission reductions and air quality benefits. The case study of contiguous U.S. demonstrates that the enhanced RSM-VAT is capable of reproducing the air quality model results with Normalized Mean Bias quality policy making in near real time. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Science as an early driver of policy: child labor reform in the early Progressive Era, 1870-1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Frederica

    2014-10-01

    Scientific evidence is an increasingly important driver of social and environmental policy concerning child health. This trend began earlier than generally recognized. The child labor reform movement of the Gilded Age and early Progressive Era reflected not only moral and economic forces but also the dramatic advances during the later decades of the 19th century in scientific knowledge concerning children's biological and psychological vulnerability to environmental and psychosocial stressors. The growing importance of scientific information in shaping policy concerning children's health between 1870 and 1900 is illustrated by the events leading up to and following the New York State Child Labor Law of 1886. Child labor reform during this period was a critical step in the development of a science-based as well as a value-driven movement to protect children's environmental health and well-being that continues today.

  11. Science as an Early Driver of Policy: Child Labor Reform in the Early Progressive Era, 1870–1900

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Scientific evidence is an increasingly important driver of social and environmental policy concerning child health. This trend began earlier than generally recognized. The child labor reform movement of the Gilded Age and early Progressive Era reflected not only moral and economic forces but also the dramatic advances during the later decades of the 19th century in scientific knowledge concerning children’s biological and psychological vulnerability to environmental and psychosocial stressors. The growing importance of scientific information in shaping policy concerning children’s health between 1870 and 1900 is illustrated by the events leading up to and following the New York State Child Labor Law of 1886. Child labor reform during this period was a critical step in the development of a science-based as well as a value-driven movement to protect children’s environmental health and well-being that continues today. PMID:25121809

  12. Open Science Strategies in Research Policies: A Comparative Exploration of Canada, the US and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasthiotakis, Helen; Kretz, Andrew; Sá, Creso

    2015-01-01

    Several movements have emerged related to the general idea of promoting "openness" in science. Research councils are key institutions in bringing about changes proposed by these movements, as sponsors and facilitators of research. In this paper we identify the approaches used in Canada, the US and the UK to advance open science, as a…

  13. 76 FR 4947 - Comment Request: National Science Foundation Proposal & Award Policies and Procedures Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... of women and minorities in science and engineering. Another major change occurred in 1986, when... directed NSF to initiate and support: Basic scientific research and research fundamental to the engineering process; Programs to strengthen scientific and engineering research potential; Science and engineering...

  14. Science overlay maps: a new tool for research policy and library management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafols, I.; Porter, A.L.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel approach to visually locate bodies of research within the sciences, both at each moment of time and dynamically. This article describes how this approach fits with other efforts to locally and globally map scientific outputs. We then show how these science overlay maps help

  15. Crossing Science-Policy-Societal Boundaries to Reduce Scientific and Institutional Uncertainty in Small-Scale Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Abigail M.; Rudd, Murray A.

    2016-10-01

    The governance of small-scale fisheries (SSF) is challenging due to the uncertainty, complexity, and interconnectedness of social, political, ecological, and economical processes. Conventional SSF management has focused on a centralized and top-down approach. A major criticism of conventional management is the over-reliance on `expert science' to guide decision-making and poor consideration of fishers' contextually rich knowledge. That is thought to exacerbate the already low governance potential of SSF. Integrating scientific knowledge with fishers' knowledge is increasingly popular and is often assumed to help reduce levels of biophysical and institutional uncertainties. Many projects aimed at encouraging knowledge integration have, however, been unsuccessful. Our objective in this research was to assess factors that influence knowledge integration and the uptake of integrated knowledge into policy-making. We report results from 54 semi-structured interviews with SSF researchers and practitioners from around the globe. Our analysis is framed in terms of scientific credibility, societal legitimacy, and policy saliency, and we discuss cases that have been partially or fully successful in reducing uncertainty via push-and-pull-oriented boundary crossing initiatives. Our findings suggest that two important factors affect the science-policy-societal boundary: a lack of consensus among stakeholders about what constitutes credible knowledge and institutional uncertainty resulting from shifting policies and leadership change. A lack of training for scientific leaders and an apparent `shelf-life' for community organizations highlight the importance of ongoing institutional support for knowledge integration projects. Institutional support may be enhanced through such investments, such as capacity building and specialized platforms for knowledge integration.

  16. Crossing Science-Policy-Societal Boundaries to Reduce Scientific and Institutional Uncertainty in Small-Scale Fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Abigail M; Rudd, Murray A

    2016-10-01

    The governance of small-scale fisheries (SSF) is challenging due to the uncertainty, complexity, and interconnectedness of social, political, ecological, and economical processes. Conventional SSF management has focused on a centralized and top-down approach. A major criticism of conventional management is the over-reliance on 'expert science' to guide decision-making and poor consideration of fishers' contextually rich knowledge. That is thought to exacerbate the already low governance potential of SSF. Integrating scientific knowledge with fishers' knowledge is increasingly popular and is often assumed to help reduce levels of biophysical and institutional uncertainties. Many projects aimed at encouraging knowledge integration have, however, been unsuccessful. Our objective in this research was to assess factors that influence knowledge integration and the uptake of integrated knowledge into policy-making. We report results from 54 semi-structured interviews with SSF researchers and practitioners from around the globe. Our analysis is framed in terms of scientific credibility, societal legitimacy, and policy saliency, and we discuss cases that have been partially or fully successful in reducing uncertainty via push-and-pull-oriented boundary crossing initiatives. Our findings suggest that two important factors affect the science-policy-societal boundary: a lack of consensus among stakeholders about what constitutes credible knowledge and institutional uncertainty resulting from shifting policies and leadership change. A lack of training for scientific leaders and an apparent 'shelf-life' for community organizations highlight the importance of ongoing institutional support for knowledge integration projects. Institutional support may be enhanced through such investments, such as capacity building and specialized platforms for knowledge integration.

  17. Revisiting the safety of aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Arbind Kumar; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2017-09-01

    Aspartame is a synthetic dipeptide artificial sweetener, frequently used in foods, medications, and beverages, notably carbonated and powdered soft drinks. Since 1981, when aspartame was first approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, researchers have debated both its recommended safe dosage (40 mg/kg/d) and its general safety to organ systems. This review examines papers published between 2000 and 2016 on both the safe dosage and higher-than-recommended dosages and presents a concise synthesis of current trends. Data on the safe aspartame dosage are controversial, and the literature suggests there are potential side effects associated with aspartame consumption. Since aspartame consumption is on the rise, the safety of this sweetener should be revisited. Most of the literature available on the safety of aspartame is included in this review. Safety studies are based primarily on animal models, as data from human studies are limited. The existing animal studies and the limited human studies suggest that aspartame and its metabolites, whether consumed in quantities significantly higher than the recommended safe dosage or within recommended safe levels, may disrupt the oxidant/antioxidant balance, induce oxidative stress, and damage cell membrane integrity, potentially affecting a variety of cells and tissues and causing a deregulation of cellular function, ultimately leading to systemic inflammation. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. 16th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy and the Environment: The Food–Energy–Water Nexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saundry, Peter [National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-06-07

    The National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) received $50,000 from the US Department of Energy to support the organization of the of the 16th National Conference and Global Forum on the theme of The Food-Energy-Water Nexus, held January 19-21, 2016 at the Hyatt Regency Crystal City in Crystal City, VA. Approximately 1,000 participants attended the event from the fields of science, engineering, federal and local government, business, and civil society. The conference developed and advanced partnerships focusing on strategies and initiatives to address the world’s interconnected food, water and energy systems, specifically how to provide these resources to a population of 9 billion people by midcentury without overwhelming the environment. The conference emphasized actionable outcomes—moving forward on policy and practice with a focus on “opportunities for impact” on the most critical issues in the relatively near term.

  19. Deterministic Graphical Games Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Klas Olof Daniel; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2012-01-01

    Starting from Zermelo’s classical formal treatment of chess, we trace through history the analysis of two-player win/lose/draw games with perfect information and potentially infinite play. Such chess-like games have appeared in many different research communities, and methods for solving them......, such as retrograde analysis, have been rediscovered independently. We then revisit Washburn’s deterministic graphical games (DGGs), a natural generalization of chess-like games to arbitrary zero-sum payoffs. We study the complexity of solving DGGs and obtain an almost-linear time comparison-based algorithm...

  20. Bottomonium spectrum revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Segovia, Jorge; Entem, David R.; Fernández, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the bottomonium spectrum motivated by the recently exciting experimental progress in the observation of new bottomonium states, both conventional and unconventional. Our framework is a nonrelativistic constituent quark model which has been applied to a wide range of hadronic observables from the light to the heavy quark sector and thus the model parameters are completely constrained. Beyond the spectrum, we provide a large number of electromagnetic, strong and hadronic decays in order to discuss the quark content of the bottomonium states and give more insights about the better way to determine their properties experimentally.

  1. Metamorphosis in Craniiformea revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Wanninger, Andreas; Holmer, Lars E.

    2013-01-01

    We revisited the brachiopod fold hypothesis and investigated metamorphosis in the craniiform brachiopod Novocrania anomala. Larval development is lecithotrophic and the dorsal (brachial) valve is secreted by dorsal epithelia. We found that the juvenile ventral valve, which consists only of a thin...... brachiopods during metamorphosis to cement their pedicle to the substrate. N. anomala is therefore not initially attached by a valve but by material corresponding to pedicle cuticle. This is different to previous descriptions, which had led to speculations about a folding event in the evolution of Brachiopoda...

  2. Policies, activities, and structures supporting research mentoring: a national survey of academic health centers with clinical and translational science awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Robert E; Jang, Susan; Abedin, Zainab; Richards, Boyd F; Spaeth-Rublee, Brigitta; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2013-01-01

    To document the frequency of policies and activities in support of mentoring practices at institutions receiving a U.S. National Institutes of Health's Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). The study consisted of a 69-item survey with questions about the inclusion (formal or informal) of policies, activities, and structures supporting mentoring within CTSA-sponsored research (i.e., KL2 programs) and, more broadly, in the CTSA's home institution. The survey, conducted from November 2010 through January 2011, was sent to the 55 institutions awarded CTSAs at the time of the survey. Follow-up phone interviews were conducted to clarify responses as needed. Fifty-one of 55 (92%) institutions completed the survey for institutional programs and 53 of 55 (96%) for KL2 programs. Responses regarding policies and activities involving mentor criteria, mentor-mentee relationship, incentives, and evaluative mechanisms revealed considerable variability between KL2 and institutional programs in some areas, such as having mentor qualification criteria and processes to evaluate mentors. The survey also identified areas, such as training and women and minority mentoring programs, where there was frequent sharing of activities between the institutional and KL2 programs. KL2 programs and institutional programs tend to have different preferences for policies versus activities to optimize qualification of mentors, the mentor-mentee relationship, incentives, and evaluation mechanisms. Frequently, these elements are informal. Individuals in charge of implementing and maintaining mentoring initiatives can use the results of the study to consider their current mentoring policies, structures, and activities by comparing them with national patterns within CTSA institutions.

  3. Results of a strategic science study to inform policies targeting extreme thinness standards in the fashion industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Ziff, Sara; Lowy, Alice S; Yu, Kimberly; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-03-01

    The appearance pressures experienced by fashion models have been criticized as harmful to their health, as well as increasing eating disorder risk among youth by promoting ideals of extreme thinness. Given recent legislation to protect models, we undertook a strategic science study to assess professional fashion models' perceptions of the potential impact and feasibility of seven policy proposals. A sample of 85 female fashion models, mean age = 22.7 years (SD 3.7) completed an online survey assessing unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCB), perceived pressure from agencies to lose weight, as well as the perceived impact and feasibility of seven potential policy actions. Chi-squared analyses and multivariable logistic regressions compared UWCB among models who were asked to lose weight and those who were not. Friedman and Kendall's W tests were conducted to examine differences in impact and feasibility ratings across the seven policy proposals. Models reported high levels of pressure to lose weight, which was associated with higher odds of engaging in UWCB. The policy approaches rated as most impactful were those to increase worker protections, though they were rated as only moderately feasible. Requiring employers to provide food and a 30-min break for jobs longer than 6 h was rated as both impactful and feasible. Imposing restrictions on minimum BMI was rated as the least impactful. Approaches providing employment protections and healthier working conditions are most supported by professional models. These findings help to illuminate viable policy approaches from the perspective of key stakeholders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Observations of the role of science in the United States medical cannabis state policies: Lessons learnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grbic, Jelica; Goddard, Perilou; Ryder, David

    2017-04-01

    Clinical trials have shown cannabis to be effective in the treatment of some medical conditions and there is mounting public and political pressure to enact laws enabling the use of cannabis for medicinal purposes. To date, 28 United States (U.S.) states and the District of Columbia have enacted medical cannabis laws. This study sought to identify the main issues pertaining to the development of medical cannabis laws in the U.S, including the role of scientific evidence. Data were collected from three groups of participants: government officials, lobbyists and medical professionals involved in the medical cannabis debate in five selected states in the U.S.; researchers from the same five states conducting funded research in the alcohol and other drugs field; and members of the International Society for the Study of Drug Policy. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. Six major themes emerged in relation to the factors influencing policy: scientific evidence plays a limited role in the development of policy; the available research is limited and mixed; there is a need for clearer communication and active dissemination of evidence to policy makers; researchers need to consider what research is likely to impact on policy; scientific evidence is not a major factor in policy development; and there is a need to consider evidence within a political context. Researchers need to be aware of the political context in which medical cannabis laws are or are not enacted and consider ways in which research findings can achieve a higher profile within this context. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. [The development of European Union common research and development policy and programs with special regard to life sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pörzse, Gábor

    2009-08-09

    Research and development (R&D) has been playing a leading role in the European Community's history since the very beginning of European integration. Its importance has grown in recent years, after the launch of the Lisbon strategy. Framework programs have always played a considerable part in community research. The aim of their introduction was to fine tune national R&D activities, and to successfully divide research tasks between the Community and the member states. The Community, from the very outset, has acknowledged the importance of life sciences. It is no coincidence that life sciences have become the second biggest priority in the last two framework programs. This study provides a historical, and at the same time analytical and evaluative review of community R&D policy and activity from the starting point of its development until the present day. It examines in detail how the changes in structure, conditional system, regulations and priorities of the framework programs have followed the formation of social and economic needs. The paper puts special emphasis on the analysis of the development of life science research, presenting how they have met the challenges of the age, and how they have been built into the framework programs. Another research area of the present study is to elaborate how successfully Hungarian researchers have been joining the community research, especially the framework programs in the field of life sciences. To answer these questions, it was essential to survey, process and analyze the data available in the national and European public and closed databases. Contrary to the previous documents, this analysis doesn't concentrate on the political and scientific background. It outlines which role community research has played in sustainable social and economic development and competitiveness, how it has supported common policies and how the processes of integration have been deepening. Besides, the present paper offers a complete review of

  6. Revisiting Nursing Research in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-08-18

    Aug 18, 2016 ... health care research, it is therefore pertinent to revisit the state of nursing research in the country. .... platforms, updated libraries with electronic resource ... benchmarks for developing countries of 26%, [17] the amount is still ...

  7. Revisiting "The fertilization fairytale:" an analysis of gendered language used to describe fertilization in science textbooks from middle school to medical school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Engelstein, Lisa; Johnson, Nadia L.

    2014-03-01

    Emily Martin's (Signs J Women Cult Soc 16(31):485-501, 1991) article, "The Egg and the Sperm: How Science Has Constructed a Romance Based on Stereotypical Male-Female Roles," was published in Signs over 20 years ago. In this groundbreaking article, she discusses how gender roles are often projected onto reproductive biology, leading to the portrayal of eggs as passive and sperm as active. We were interested in seeing if many of her findings are still relevant today. We analyzed science textbooks from the middle school to the medical school level to determine if fertilization in human reproduction is described in gender-biased language regarding the sentence structure, amount of information provided for female and male processes/parts, and neutrality in describing female and male processes/parts. Although there has been much improvement, there is still a long way to go. Sexist language in scientific textbooks is troubling because it negatively affects both female and male students and undermines teachers' ability to teach in an accurate and gender-neutral way.

  8. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Social, behavioural and economic science and policy and political science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    AIDS 2008 firmly established stigma and discrimination as fundamental priorities in the push for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. Conference sessions and discussions reinforced the tangible negative effects of stigma on national legislation and policies. A strong theme throughout the conference was the need to replace prevention interventions that focus exclusively on individual behaviour change or biomedical prevention interventions with "combination prevention" approaches that address both individual and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV infection. Several high-level sessions addressed various aspects of the debate over "vertical" (disease-specific) versus "horizontal" (health systems) funding. The majority of evidence presented at the conference suggests that HIV investments strengthen health systems through the establishment of clinical and laboratory infrastructure, strengthened supply and procurement systems, improvements in health care worker training, and increased community engagement. Human rights were a focal point at the conference; several presentations emphasized the importance of securing human rights to achieve universal access goals, including workplace discrimination, travel restrictions, gender inequality, and the criminalization of homosexuality, drug use, sex work, and HIV transmission and/or exposure. PMID:19811671

  9. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Social, behavioural and economic science and policy and political science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhalovskiy, Eric; Brown, Glen; Kort, Rodney

    2009-10-06

    AIDS 2008 firmly established stigma and discrimination as fundamental priorities in the push for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. Conference sessions and discussions reinforced the tangible negative effects of stigma on national legislation and policies. A strong theme throughout the conference was the need to replace prevention interventions that focus exclusively on individual behaviour change or biomedical prevention interventions with "combination prevention" approaches that address both individual and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV infection.Several high-level sessions addressed various aspects of the debate over "vertical" (disease-specific) versus "horizontal" (health systems) funding. The majority of evidence presented at the conference suggests that HIV investments strengthen health systems through the establishment of clinical and laboratory infrastructure, strengthened supply and procurement systems, improvements in health care worker training, and increased community engagement.Human rights were a focal point at the conference; several presentations emphasized the importance of securing human rights to achieve universal access goals, including workplace discrimination, travel restrictions, gender inequality, and the criminalization of homosexuality, drug use, sex work, and HIV transmission and/or exposure.

  10. Knowledge Translation Research: The Science of Moving Research into Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet A.; Grimshaw, Jeremy M.; Hayden, Jill A.; Campbell, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Research findings will not change health outcomes unless health care organizations, systems, and professionals adopt them in practice. Knowledge translation research is the scientific study of the methods to promote the uptake of research findings by patients, health care providers, managers, and policy makers. Many forms of enquiry addressing…

  11. Selecting, Evaluating and Creating Policies for Computer-Based Resources in the Behavioral Sciences and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Linda B., Comp.; And Others

    This collection includes four handouts: (1) "Selection Critria Considerations for Computer-Based Resources" (Linda B. Richardson); (2) "Software Collection Policies in Academic Libraries" (a 24-item bibliography, Jane W. Johnson); (3) "Circulation and Security of Software" (a 19-item bibliography, Sara Elizabeth Williams); and (4) "Bibliography of…

  12. Tracing the Policy Mediation Process in the Implementation of a Change in the Life Sciences Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Pillay, Asheena; Alant, Busisiwe

    2015-01-01

    This paper accounts for the enacted realities of curriculum reform in South Africa, in particular the mediation of curriculum change. Curriculum implementation is viewed as a complex networked process of transforming or mediating policy into classroom practice. The fact that curriculum implementation is seen as problematic requires attention for…

  13. Forest biodiversity and the delivery of ecosystem goods and services: translating science into policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian Thompson; Kimiko Okabe; Jason Tylianakis; Pushpam Kumar; Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Nancy Schellhorn; John A. Parrotta; Robert Nasi

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity is integral to almost all ecosystem processes, with some species playing key functional roles that are essential for maintaining the value of ecosystems to humans. However, many ecosystem services remain nonvalued, and decisionmakers rarely consider biodiversity in policy development, in part because the relationships between biodiversity and the provision...

  14. Advancing science and policy through a coordinated international study of physical activity and built environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Sallis, James F; Owen, Neville

    2013-01-01

    National and international strategies to increase physical activity emphasize environmental and policy changes that can have widespread and long-lasting impact. Evidence from multiple countries using comparable methods is required to strengthen the evidence base for such initiatives. Because some...

  15. Ethical considerations of research policy for personal genome analysis: the approach of the Genome Science Project in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minari, Jusaku; Shirai, Tetsuya; Kato, Kazuto

    2014-12-01

    As evidenced by high-throughput sequencers, genomic technologies have recently undergone radical advances. These technologies enable comprehensive sequencing of personal genomes considerably more efficiently and less expensively than heretofore. These developments present a challenge to the conventional framework of biomedical ethics; under these changing circumstances, each research project has to develop a pragmatic research policy. Based on the experience with a new large-scale project-the Genome Science Project-this article presents a novel approach to conducting a specific policy for personal genome research in the Japanese context. In creating an original informed-consent form template for the project, we present a two-tiered process: making the draft of the template following an analysis of national and international policies; refining the draft template in conjunction with genome project researchers for practical application. Through practical use of the template, we have gained valuable experience in addressing challenges in the ethical review process, such as the importance of sharing details of the latest developments in genomics with members of research ethics committees. We discuss certain limitations of the conventional concept of informed consent and its governance system and suggest the potential of an alternative process using information technology.

  16. Science education reform in Confucian learning cultures: teachers' perspectives on policy and practice in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Syuan; Asghar, Anila

    2018-03-01

    This empirical study investigates secondary science teachers' perspectives on science education reform in Taiwan and reflects how these teachers have been negotiating constructivist and learner-centered pedagogical approaches in contemporary science education. It also explores the challenges that teachers encounter while shifting their pedagogical focus from traditional approaches to teaching science to an active engagement in students' learning. Multiple sources of qualitative data were obtained, including individual interviews with science teachers and teachers' reflective journals about Confucianism in relation to their educational philosophies. Thematic analysis and constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that Confucian traditions play a significant role in shaping educational practices in Taiwan and profoundly influence teachers' epistemological beliefs and their actual classroom practice. Indeed, science teachers' perspectives on Confucian learning traditions played a key role in supporting or obstructing their pedagogical commitments to inquiry-based and learner-centered approaches. This study draws on the literature concerning teachers' professional struggles and identity construction during educational reform. Specifically, we explore the ways in which teachers respond to educational changes and negotiate their professional identities. We employed various theories of identity construction to understand teachers' struggles and challenges while wrestling with competing traditional and reform-based pedagogical approaches. Attending to these struggles and the ways in which they inform the development of a teacher's professional identity is vital for sustaining current and future educational reform in Taiwan as well as in other Eastern cultures. These findings have important implications for teachers' professional development programs in East Asian cultures.

  17. Perspectives on Policy and the Value of Nursing Science in a Big Data Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Sheila M; Davis, Mary; Shea, Kimberly

    2018-01-01

    As data volume explodes, nurse scientists grapple with ways to adapt to the big data movement without jeopardizing its epistemic values and theoretical focus that celebrate while acknowledging the authority and unity of its body of knowledge. In this article, the authors describe big data and emphasize ways that nursing science brings value to its study. Collective nursing voices that call for more nursing engagement in the big data era are answered with ways to adapt and integrate theoretical and domain expertise from nursing into data science.

  18. Science 101: What Constitutes a Good Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Having written columns dealing with science fairs before, Bill Robertson notes that it's been a long time since he has tackled the subject of what passes for a "science fair" in schools these days. Because science fairs have changed over the years, Robertson revisits the topic and explains the scientific method. The main focus of the…

  19. Whitehead Policy Symposium. The Human Genome Project: Science, law, and social change in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, E.K.

    2000-02-17

    Advances in the biomedical sciences, especially in human genomics, will dramatically influence law, medicine, public health, and many other sectors of our society in the decades ahead. The public already senses the revolutionary nature of genomic knowledge. In the US and Europe, we have seen widespread discussions about genetic discrimination in health insurance; privacy issues raised by the proliferation of DNA data banks; the challenge of interpreting new DNA diagnostic tests; changing definitions of what it means to be healthy; and the science and ethics of cloning animals and human beings. The primary goal of the Whitehead/ASLME Policy Symposium was to provide a bridge between the research community and professionals, who were just beginning to grasp the potential impact of new genetic technologies on their fields. The ''Human Genome Project: Science, Law, and Social Change in the 21st Century'' initially was designed as a forum for 300-500 physicians, lawyers, consumers, ethicists, and scientists to explore the impact of new genetic technologies and prepare for the challenges ahead.

  20. Conceptualising forensic science and forensic reconstruction. Part II: The critical interaction between research, policy/law and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R M

    2017-11-01

    This paper builds on the FoRTE conceptual model presented in part I to address the forms of knowledge that are integral to the four components of the model. Articulating the different forms of knowledge within effective forensic reconstructions is valuable. It enables a nuanced approach to the development and use of evidence bases to underpin decision-making at every stage of a forensic reconstruction by enabling transparency in the reporting of inferences. It also enables appropriate methods to be developed to ensure quality and validity. It is recognised that the domains of practice, research, and policy/law intersect to form the nexus where forensic science is situated. Each domain has a distinctive infrastructure that influences the production and application of different forms of knowledge in forensic science. The channels that can enable the interaction between these domains, enhance the impact of research in theory and practice, increase access to research findings, and support quality are presented. The particular strengths within the different domains to deliver problem solving forensic reconstructions are thereby identified and articulated. It is argued that a conceptual understanding of forensic reconstruction that draws on the full range of both explicit and tacit forms of knowledge, and incorporates the strengths of the different domains pertinent to forensic science, offers a pathway to harness the full value of trace evidence for context sensitive, problem-solving forensic applications. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Trends in the industrial science and technology policies and an overview of the innovation system in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    The paper reported the investigation into policies on industrial science technology of the New Zealand government. In 1996, the New Zealand government adopted high-grade strategic priorities on research, science and technology. Those are as follows: The social value/attitude that scientific technology is critical for the future prosperity is to be created; An adequate level of investment in science is to be ensured as a part of the national life; Benefits of scientific technology are to be enjoyed for social/economical/environmental preservation. As goals of the scientific technology, the following were set up: innovation goal to enhance the innovative capacity of New Zealand by knowledge creation, reinforcement of human/social capitals, and education systems; goal to strengthen the competitive force of enterprises of New Zealand by new products, processes, and systems/services; goal to increase the knowledge of the environment for maintaining the healthy environment; goal to build the society where all New Zealanders can enjoy health, independence and identity. (NEDO)

  2. Non-equilibrium social science and policy introduction and essays on new and changing paradigms in socio-economic thinking

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, Andrzej; Ormerod, Paul; Rosewell, Bridget; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    The overall aim of this book, an outcome of the European FP7 FET Open NESS project, is to contribute to the ongoing effort to put the quantitative social sciences on a proper footing for the 21st century. A key focus is economics, and its implications on policy making, where the still dominant traditional approach increasingly struggles to capture the economic realities we observe in the world today - with vested interests getting too often in the way of real advances. Insights into behavioral economics and modern computing techniques have made possible both the integration of larger information sets and the exploration of disequilibrium behavior. The domain-based chapters of this work illustrate how economic theory is the only branch of social sciences which still holds to its old paradigm of an equilibrium science - an assumption that has already been relaxed in all related fields of research in the light of recent advances in complex and dynamical systems theory and related data mining. The other chapters ...

  3. Science, society, and America's nuclear waste: Unit 3, The Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This teachers guide is unit 3, the nuclear waste policy act, in a four-unit secondary curriculum. It is intended to provide information about scientific and societal issues related to the management of spent nuclear fuel from generation of electricity at nuclear powerplants and high-level radioactive waste from US national defense activities. The curriculum, supporting classroom activities, and teaching materials present a brief discussion of energy and electricity generation, including that produced at nuclear power plants; information on sources, amounts, location, and characteristics of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; sources, types and effects of radiation; US policy for managing and disposing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and what other countries are doing; and the components of the nuclear waste management system

  4. Science, society, and America's nuclear waste: Unit 3, The Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This is the 3rd unit, (The Nuclear Waste Policy Act) a four-unit secondary curriculum. It is intended to provide information about scientific and societal issues related to the management of spent nuclear fuel from generation of electricity at nuclear powerplants and high-level radioactive waste from US national defense activities. The curriculum, supporting classroom activities, and teaching materials present a brief discussion of energy and electricity generation, including that produced at nuclear powerplants; information on sources, amounts, location, and characteristics of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; sources, types and effects of radiation; US policy for managing and disposing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and what other countries are doing; and the components of the nuclear waste management system

  5. Food allergy - science and policy needs - The UK Food Standards Agency Research Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, Joelle; Hattersley, Sue; Kimber, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Food allergy is a significant health issue in the UK, affecting between 1 and 2% of adults and 5 and 8% of children. The UK Food Standards Agency seeks to ensure the safety of food allergic consumers by providing them with information and guidance on food choices. Since 1995, with the aim of addressing important policy issues and improving the quality of the support and guidance available for food allergic consumers, the Agency (and before that the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food), has had a programme of research dedicated to investigating the causes and mechanisms of food allergy and delivering benefits for UK consumers. In this paper, we outline some of the major scientific challenges that the programme has sought to address. We reflect on how the findings have been used as a basis for the development of sound, evidence-based policy and advice for UK consumers, and the current direction of research being supported by the programme.

  6. Implementing the European policies for alien species – networking, science, and partnership in a complex environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios Katsanevakis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The European Commission has recognized the need for more stringent action to manage biological invasions and has committed to develop adedicated legislative instrument. Under this upcoming legislation, European countries and their relevant institutions will have additional obligations and commitments in respect to invasive alien species. In September 2012, the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC launched the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN to facilitate the exploration of existing alien species information from distributed sources and to assist the implementation of European policies on biological invasions. Subsequent to the launching of EASIN, there was an evident need to define its niche within a complex environment of global, European, regional and national information systems. Herein we propose an organizational chart clearly defining the role of each actor in this framework, and we emphasize the need for collaboration in order to effectively support EU policies.

  7. A Policy and Program for Invigorating Science and Technology for National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    security S&T, and facilitate commercialisation of research outcomes for national benefit. The policy will be delivered through a coherent and...our economy and higher living and education standards1,2. Questions for discussion: Q2.1 Are there other imperatives or drivers that justify the...organisations can drive the uptake of new technology and knowledge. Second, private sector organisations are essential to the commercialisation of

  8. How landscape ecology informs global land-change science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrey L. Mayer; Brian Buma; Am??lie Davis; Sara A. Gagn??; E. Louise Loudermilk; Robert M. Scheller; Fiona K.A. Schmiegelow; Yolanda F. Wiersma; Janet Franklin

    2016-01-01

    Landscape ecology is a discipline that explicitly considers the influence of time and space on the environmental patterns we observe and the processes that create them. Although many of the topics studied in landscape ecology have public policy implications, three are of particular concern: climate change; land use–land cover change (LULCC); and a particular type of...

  9. People-centred science: strengthening the practice of health policy and systems research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Health policy and systems research (HPSR) is a transdisciplinary field of global importance, with its own emerging standards for creating, evaluating, and utilizing knowledge, and distinguished by a particular orientation towards influencing policy and wider action to strengthen health systems. In this commentary, we argue that the ability of the HPSR field to influence real world change hinges on its becoming more people-centred. We see people-centredness as recognizing the field of enquiry as one of social construction, requiring those conducting HPSR to locate their own position in the system, and conduct and publish research in a manner that foregrounds human agency attributes and values, and is acutely attentive to policy context. Change occurs at many layers of a health system, shaped by social, political, and economic forces, and brought about by different groups of people who make up the system, including service users and communities. The seeds of transformative practice in HPSR lie in amplifying the breadth and depth of dialogue across health system actors in the conduct of research – recognizing that these actors are all generators, sources, and users of knowledge about the system. While building such a dialogic practice, those conducting HPSR must strive to protect the autonomy and integrity of their ideas and actions, and also clearly explain their own positions and the value-basis of their work. We conclude with a set of questions that health policy and systems researchers may wish to consider in making their practice more people-centred, and hence more oriented toward real-world change. PMID:24739525

  10. Social Science in Government: The Role of Policy Researchers. New Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Richard P.

    This substantially updated version of a book first published in 1988 tells the story of welfare reform in the United States over the past three decades, with an emphasis on contributions made by social scientists. This edition contains five new chapters with new case material to show how social science principles can be used in U.S. government. In…

  11. Wilderness social science responding to change in society, policy, and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan E. Watson; H. Ken Cordell

    2014-01-01

    Wilderness social science has changed over the 50 years since passage of the Wilderness Act. This research was initially heavily influenced by the need to operationalize definitions contained in the Wilderness Act, the desire to report use levels, and the need for better understanding of the important values American people attached to wilderness. Over the past three...

  12. Education Policy and Biological Science: Genetics, Eugenics, and the College Textbook, c. 1908-1931.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, Steven

    1985-01-01

    A revolution in genetics is occurring, but when looking ahead, we must not romanticize the past. The social history of genetics, and American education's association with eugenics, make it necessary that we understand that both education and science are informed by social attitudes. (MT)

  13. Ecosystem management and its role in linking science, policy, and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Skroch

    2005-01-01

    The scientific community has recently emphasized the importance of ecological process, structure, and scale in the maintenance of biological diversity. Humans have affected most natural landscapes, and many naturally occurring processes, structures, and species may not rebound to naturally sustaining function without intervention. Ecosystem management relies on science...

  14. States Move toward Computer Science Standards. Policy Update. Vol. 23, No. 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley-Coulson, Eve

    2016-01-01

    While educators and parents recognize computer science as a key skill for career readiness, only five states have adopted learning standards in this area. Tides are changing, however, as the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) recognizes with its call on states to provide a "well-rounded education" for students, to include computer science…

  15. SWOT Analysis of Veterinary and Animal Science Education in India: Implications for Policy and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidhar, P. V. K.; Reddy, P. Gopal

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify and rank the SWOT issues of India's veterinary and animal science education. Design: The data were collected at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI) from 168 post-graduate students. The two surveys generated 72% (N = 121) and 68% (N = 114) response rates, respectively. In the first…

  16. Categories of difference in science and policy: Reflections on academic practices, conceptualizations and knowledge production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bak Jørgensen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Categories of difference have a crucial position in academic research as well as policy-making. They serve to distinguish and differentiate between groups in society. They can appear in the shape of crude dichotomies or in complex and sophisticated forms resting on constructivist and intersectionalist perspectives. Nevertheless, using categories of difference also creates something into existence and there may be implications through the particular application of specific categories. This article reflects on how categories of difference are constructed and employed in research, legislation and policy discourse. By looking at different approaches used by qualitative and quantitative researchers, as well as at how specific concepts enter policy-making and legislation, I want to address a number of questions about how we as researchers understand and work with categories of differences. The article will mainly consist of a theoretical discussion, but will use two main empirical examples of race and religion. The article aims to provide tentative answers about what the consequences of particular uses of categories and concepts could be.

  17. Gerald L. Epstein, PhD: director, center for science, technology, and security policy, American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Interview by Madeline Drexler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Gerald L

    2009-12-01

    Over his entire career, Gerald Epstein has toiled at the nexus of science, technology, and security. From 2003 to 2009, he was Senior Fellow for Science and Security at the Center for Strategic and International Studies Homeland Security Program, where he worked on reducing biological weapons threats, improving national preparedness, and easing potential tensions between the scientific research and national security communities. Epstein came to CSIS from the Institute for Defense Analyses. From 1996 to 2001, he served in the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. And from 1983 to 1989, and again from 1991 until its demise in 1995, Epstein worked at the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment, where he directed a study on the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, alongside research on other global security topics. A recognized expert in biological risk reduction, Epstein was actually trained as a physicist, having received SB degrees in physics and electrical engineering from MIT, and a PhD in physics from the University of California at Berkeley. How, then, did he come to study the evolving threat from bioterrorism? "What compelled me about bioterrorism was that it was a stellar example of a topic that would lead to a train wreck between the scientific community and the security community unless they figured out how to work together," he said. "The distance between a laboratory and a very large consequence event is a lot shorter in biology than in any other field. I got into bioterrorism to help make sure that the security community doesn't get so scared of the science that it shuts it down, and that the science community isn't so oblivious of security concerns that it pays no attention to them." Epstein spoke on November 6, 2009, with contributing writer Madeline Drexler, author of Emerging Epidemics: The Menace of New Infections (Penguin, 2009), an updated version of an earlier volume. Drexler holds a visiting appointment at the

  18. Life quality index revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2004-01-01

    The derivation of the life quality index (LQI) is revisited for a revision. This revision takes into account the unpaid but necessary work time needed to stay alive in clean and healthy conditions to be fit for effective wealth producing work and to enjoyable free time. Dimension analysis...... at birth should not vary between countries. Finally the distributional assumptions are relaxed as compared to the assumptions made in an earlier work by the author. These assumptions concern the calculation of the life expectancy change due to the removal of an accident source. Moreover a simple public...... consistency problems with the standard power function expression of the LQI are pointed out. It is emphasized that the combination coefficient in the convex differential combination between the relative differential of the gross domestic product per capita and the relative differential of the expected life...

  19. Quantum duel revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Alexandre G M; Paiva, Milena M

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the quantum two-person duel. In this problem, both Alice and Bob each possess a spin-1/2 particle which models dead and alive states for each player. We review the Abbott and Flitney result—now considering non-zero α 1 and α 2 in order to decide if it is better for Alice to shoot or not the second time—and we also consider a duel where players do not necessarily start alive. This simple assumption allows us to explore several interesting special cases, namely how a dead player can win the duel shooting just once, or how can Bob revive Alice after one shot, and the better strategy for Alice—being either alive or in a superposition of alive and dead states—fighting a dead opponent. (paper)

  20. Satellite failures revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-12-01

    In January 1994, the two geostationary satellites known as Anik-E1 and Anik-E2, operated by Telesat Canada, failed one after the other within 9 hours, leaving many northern Canadian communities without television and data services. The outage, which shut down much of the country's broadcast television for hours and cost Telesat Canada more than $15 million, generated significant media attention. Lam et al. used publicly available records to revisit the event; they looked at failure details, media coverage, recovery effort, and cost. They also used satellite and ground data to determine the precise causes of those satellite failures. The researchers traced the entire space weather event from conditions on the Sun through the interplanetary medium to the particle environment in geostationary orbit.