WorldWideScience

Sample records for revising swiss food

  1. The information content of KOF indicators on Swiss current account data revisions

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Jan-Egbert; Jacobs, Jan P.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses revisions of Swiss current account data, taking into account the actual data revision process and the implied types of revisions. In addition we investigate whether the first release of current account data can be improved upon by the use of survey results as gathered by the KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich. An answer in the affirmative indicates that it is possible to improve first releases and thereby enhance the current assessment of the Swiss economy.

  2. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were ad...

  3. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were administered with 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity in rats treated with a blend of these food colors was studied by assessing parameters such as serum total protein, serum albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were assessed. Significantly increased concentrations of serum total protein, serum albumin, serum ALP and hepatic MDA and significantly lowered levels of SOD, reduced GSH and CAT in the liver tissue of treated animals were observed when compared with control animals. The alteration in the liver includes necrosis of hepatocytes, infiltration and vacuolation. The result indicates that consumption of food color in diet induces liver tissue damage. The used doses of food color were mostly attributable to hepatocellular damage and drastic alteration in antioxidant defense system.

  4. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were administered with 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity in rats treated with a blend of these food colors was studied by assessing parameters such as serum total protein, serum albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were assessed. Results: Significantly increased concentrations of serum total protein, serum albumin, serum ALP and hepatic MDA and significantly lowered levels of SOD, reduced GSH and CAT in the liver tissue of treated animals were observed when compared with control animals. The alteration in the liver includes necrosis of hepatocytes, infiltration and vacuolation. Conclusion: The result indicates that consumption of food color in diet induces liver tissue damage. The used doses of food color were mostly attributable to hepatocellular damage and drastic alteration in antioxidant defense system. PMID:26862277

  5. RPE and RPO in the revised Swiss radiation protection legislation; RPE und RPO in der revidierten schweizerischen Strahlenschutzgesetzgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, S.G. [Eidgenoessisches Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat (ENSI), Brugg (Switzerland); Stritt, N.; Bogni, S. [Bundesamt fuer Gesundheit (BAG), Bern (Switzerland); Hammans, M. [Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt (SUVA), Luzern (Switzerland); Duerst, B. [Departement fuer Verteidigung, Bevoelkerungsschutz und Sport (VBS), Bern (Switzerland); Kuehne, G. [Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI), Wuerenlingen (Switzerland); Besancon, A. [Institut de Radiophysique (IRA), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01

    Currently the Swiss 'Ordinance on Radiation Protection' and the 'Ordinance about Education and Training in RP' are undergoing a revision process. Concerning responsibilities and obligations as well as the capabilities and skills in RP the new ordinances are supposed to take account on the new EU Basic Safety Standard on the one hand and on the other hand to resume the approved approaches on RP in Switzerland. An overview of the planned content of the revised ordinances will be given in this report. In the Swiss system the education, training and retraining of RPO has a higher priority. Particularly it will be described which groups of persons assume the roles of RPE and therefore the definition of RPE in the new Swiss legislation is needless. (orig.)

  6. The revision of the Swiss Inventory of Geosites (2006-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, Emmanuel

    2013-04-01

    Switzerland has a long history of geoconservation but it is only during the last two decades that a growing attention has been given to geoheritage protection and promotion. In order to disseminate knowledge of Swiss geoheritage and to encourage the Swiss Confederation and the cantons to protect this heritage accordingly, the Swiss Academy of Sciences (SCNAT) created a working group on Geotopes in 1993. The working group undertook the compilation of a list of geosites of national importance. This work was not a real inventory, based on a common methodology, but rather a list of proposals made by experts from various parts of the country, various fields (palaeontology, mineralogy, geomorphology, etc.), and various institutions (cantonal administrations, nature historical museums, universities, etc.). More than 800 proposals were received from which the working group retained 401 geosites. This list suffered several problems. One of them was its heterogeneity both in terms of content (regional discrepancy, differences between the various fields of Earth sciences) and of form (some proposals were very well documented in spite of others which were limited to the name of the site without any details of perimeter and description). Moreover, there was no information in digital form. As a result, a revision of the inventory was carried out in 2006 by the working group, with the financial support of the SCNAT and the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN). The revision was both formal and digital. A relational database was created and hosted on the SCNAT server. It allowed project contributors to introduce information in the system by completing a form from their office. In parallel, all the geographical information - especially the perimeters - was managed within a Geographical Information System (GIS) in order to simplify use by the public administrations. At the end of the project, the list was published on the Geological data viewer (www.geologieviewer.ch) of the

  7. Global Biodiversity Loss by Freshwater Consumption and Eutrophication from Swiss Food Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan

    2016-07-05

    We investigated water-related resource use, emissions and ecosystem impacts of food consumed in Switzerland. To do so, we coupled LCA methodologies on freshwater consumption, freshwater eutrophication and the consequent local and global biodiversity impacts with Swiss customs data and multiregional input-output analysis. Most of the resource use, emissions and impacts occur outside the national boundaries which illustrates the extent of environmental outsourcing facilitated by international trade. Countries that are severely affected by Swiss food consumption include Spain, the United States and Ecuador. Cocoa, coffee, and almonds stood out as products with high impacts. By identifying spatial hotspots and impactful products, awareness of policy-makers as well as individual consumers can be raised and efforts of detailed assessments can be streamlined. However, political and economic constraints and the resistance by individual consumers limit the high potential of changes in diets and trade relations to decrease the environmental impacts of food.

  8. IgE-mediated food allergies in Swiss infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Giovanni Gaspare; Eng, Peter Andreas

    2011-10-12

    To determine the most frequent food allergens causing immediate hypersensitivity reactions in Swiss children of different age groups and to investigate the clinical manifestation of IgE-mediated food allergies in young patients. The study was a prospective analysis of children referred for assessment of immediate type I food hypersensitivity reactions. The diagnostic strategy included a careful history, skin prick tests with commercial extracts and native foods, in vitro determination of specific IgE to food proteins and food challenges when appropriate. A total of 278 food allergies were identified in 151 children with a median age of 1.9 years at diagnosis. Overall, the most frequent food allergens were hen's egg (23.7%), cow's milk (20.1%), peanut (14.0%), hazelnut (10.4%), wheat (6.1%), fish (4.3%), kiwi and soy (2.2% each). In infancy, cow's milk, hen's egg and wheat were the most common allergens. In the second and third year of life however, the top three food allergens were hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut, whereas above the age of 3 years, peanut was number one, followed by hen's egg and fish. Overall, urticaria (59.0%) and angioedema (30.2%) were the most frequent clinical manifestations. Gastrointestinal symptoms were found in 25.9% and respiratory involvement in 25.2%. There were 13 cases (4.7%) of anaphylaxis to peanut, fish, cow's milk, hen's egg, wheat and shrimps. A total of eight allergens account for 83% of IgE-mediated food allergies in Swiss infants and children, with differences in the distribution and order of the most frequently involved food allergens between paediatric age groups.

  9. Consumer Exposure to Antimicrobial Resistant Bacteria From Food at Swiss Retail Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Jans

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR in bacteria is an increasing health concern. The spread of AMR bacteria (AMRB between animals and humans via the food chain and the exchange of AMR genes requires holistic approaches for risk mitigation. The AMRB exposure of humans via food is currently only poorly understood leaving an important gap for intervention design.Method: This study aimed to assess AMRB prevalence in retail food and subsequent exposure of Swiss consumers in a systematic literature review of data published between 1996 and 2016 covering the Swiss agriculture sector and relevant imported food.Results: Data from 313 out of 9,473 collected studies were extracted yielding 122,438 food samples and 38,362 bacteria isolates of which 30,092 samples and 8,799 isolates were AMR positive. A median AMRB prevalence of >50% was observed for meat and seafood harboring Campylobacter, Enterococcus, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Listeria, and Vibrio spp. and to a lesser prevalence for milk products harboring starter culture bacteria. Gram-negative AMRB featured predominantly AMR against aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, penicillins, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines observed at AMR exposures scores of levels 1 (medium and 2 (high for Campylobacter, Salmonella, E. coli in meat as well as Vibrio and E. coli in seafood. Gram-positive AMRB featured AMR against glycoproteins, lincosamides, macrolides and nitrofurans for Staphylococcus and Enterococcus in meat sources, Staphylococcus in seafood as well as Enterococcus and technologically important bacteria (incl. starters in fermented or processed dairy products. Knowledge gaps were identified for AMR prevalence in dairy, plant, fermented meat and novel food products and for the role of specific indicator bacteria (Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, starter culture bacteria and their mobile genetic elements in AMR gene transfer.Conclusion: Raw meat, milk, seafood, and certain fermented dairy

  10. Consumer Exposure to Antimicrobial Resistant Bacteria From Food at Swiss Retail Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Christoph; Sarno, Eleonora; Collineau, Lucie; Meile, Leo; Stärk, Katharina D. C.; Stephan, Roger

    2018-01-01

    Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria is an increasing health concern. The spread of AMR bacteria (AMRB) between animals and humans via the food chain and the exchange of AMR genes requires holistic approaches for risk mitigation. The AMRB exposure of humans via food is currently only poorly understood leaving an important gap for intervention design. Method: This study aimed to assess AMRB prevalence in retail food and subsequent exposure of Swiss consumers in a systematic literature review of data published between 1996 and 2016 covering the Swiss agriculture sector and relevant imported food. Results: Data from 313 out of 9,473 collected studies were extracted yielding 122,438 food samples and 38,362 bacteria isolates of which 30,092 samples and 8,799 isolates were AMR positive. A median AMRB prevalence of >50% was observed for meat and seafood harboring Campylobacter, Enterococcus, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Listeria, and Vibrio spp. and to a lesser prevalence for milk products harboring starter culture bacteria. Gram-negative AMRB featured predominantly AMR against aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, penicillins, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines observed at AMR exposures scores of levels 1 (medium) and 2 (high) for Campylobacter, Salmonella, E. coli in meat as well as Vibrio and E. coli in seafood. Gram-positive AMRB featured AMR against glycoproteins, lincosamides, macrolides and nitrofurans for Staphylococcus and Enterococcus in meat sources, Staphylococcus in seafood as well as Enterococcus and technologically important bacteria (incl. starters) in fermented or processed dairy products. Knowledge gaps were identified for AMR prevalence in dairy, plant, fermented meat and novel food products and for the role of specific indicator bacteria (Staphylococcus, Enterococcus), starter culture bacteria and their mobile genetic elements in AMR gene transfer. Conclusion: Raw meat, milk, seafood, and certain fermented dairy products

  11. Reproducibility and relative validity of a food-frequency questionnaire for French-speaking Swiss adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Marques-Vidal

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background : Due to the distinct cultural and language differences that exist in Switzerland, there is little information on the dietary intake among the general Swiss population. Adequately assessing dietary intake is thus paramount if nutritional epidemiological studies are to be conducted. Objective : To assess the reproducibility and validity of a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ developed for French-speaking Swiss adults. Design : A total of 23 men and 17 women (43.1±2.0 years filled out one FFQ and completed one 24-hour dietary recall at baseline and 1 month afterward. Results : Crude Pearson's correlation coefficients between the first and the second FFQ ranged from 0.58 to 0.90, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC ranged between 0.53 and 0.92. Lin's concordance coefficients ranged between 0.55 and 0.87. Over 80% of participants were classified in the same or adjacent tertile using each FFQ. Macronutrient intakes estimated by both FFQs were significantly higher than those estimated from the 24-hour recall for protein and water, while no significant differences were found for energy, carbohydrate, fats (five groups, and alcohol. De-attenuated Pearson's correlation coefficients between the 24-hour recall and the first FFQ ranged between 0.31 and 0.49, while for the second FFQ the values ranged between 0.38 and 0.59. Over 40 and 95% of participants fell into the same or the adjacent energy and nutrient tertiles, respectively, using the FFQs and the 24-hour recall. Conclusions : This FFQ shows good reproducibility and can be used determining macronutrient intake in a French-speaking Swiss population in an epidemiological setting.

  12. Environmental Impacts and Hotspots of Food Losses: Value Chain Analysis of Swiss Food Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Claudio; Stucki, Matthias; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2017-10-03

    Reducing food losses and waste is crucial to making our food system more efficient and sustainable. This is the first paper that quantifies the environmental impacts of food waste by distinguishing the various stages of the food value chain, 33 food categories that represent the whole food basket in Switzerland, and including food waste treatment. Environmental impacts are expressed in terms of climate change and biodiversity impacts due to water and land use. Climate change impacts of food waste are highest for fresh vegetables, due to the large amounts wasted, while the specific impact per kg is largest for beef. Biodiversity impacts are mainly caused by cocoa and coffee (16% of total) and by beef (12%). Food waste at the end of the food value chain (households and food services) causes almost 60% of the total climate impacts of food waste, because of the large quantities lost at this stage and the higher accumulated impacts per kg of product. The net environmental benefits from food waste treatment are only 5-10% of the impacts from production and supply of the wasted food. Thus, avoiding food waste should be a first-line priority, while optimizing the method of treatment is less relevant.

  13. Food waste in the Swiss food service industry - Magnitude and potential for reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Alexandra; Buchli, Jürg; Göbel, Christine; Müller, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Food losses occur across the whole food supply chain. They have negative effects on the economy and the environment, and they are not justifiable from an ethical point of view. The food service industry was identified by Beretta et al. (2013) as the third largest source of food waste based on food input at each stage of the value added chain. The total losses are estimated 18% of the food input, the avoidable losses 13.5%. However, these estimations are related with considerable uncertainty. To get more reliable and detailed data of food losses in this sector, the waste from two companies (in the education and business sectors) was classified into four categories (storage losses, preparation losses, serving losses, and plate waste) and seven food classes and measured for a period of five days. A questionnaire evaluated customer reaction, and a material flow analysis was used to describe the mass and monetary losses within the process chain. The study found that in company A (education sector) 10.73% and in company B (business sector) 7.69% of the mass of all food delivered was wasted during the process chain. From this, 91.98% of the waste in company A and 78.14% in company B were classified as avoidable. The highest proportion of waste occurred from serving losses with starch accompaniments and vegetables being the most frequently wasted items. The quantities of waste per meal were 91.23 g (value CHF 0.74) and 85.86 g (value CHF 0.44) for company A and company B, respectively. The annual loss averaged 10.47 tonnes (value CHF 85,047) in company A and 16.55 tonnes (value CHF 85,169) in company B. The customer survey showed that 15.79% (n=356) of the respondents in company A and 18.32% (n=382) in company B produced plate waste. The main causes of plate waste cited were 'portion served by staff too large' and 'lack of hunger'. Sustainable measures need to be implemented in the food service industry to reduce food waste and to improve efficiency. Copyright © 2014

  14. Origin and outcome of multiple pregnancies in Bern, Switzerland, 1995-2006 and the current proposal of the Swiss parliament to revise the Swiss law of reproductive medicine: Switzerland quo vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunder, Dorothea; Neurohr, Eva-Maria; Faouzi, Mohamed; Birkhäuser, Martin H

    2013-09-19

    Infertility treatments are a major source of the increase in multiple pregnancies (MPs). The aims of the present study were (1.) to investigate the origin and maternal/neonatal outcomes of MP and (2.) to review the different measures that can be adopted to reduce these serious complications. The study included all women with multiple births between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2006 at the University Hospital of Bern, Switzerland. The outcomes associated with the various origins of MP (natural conception, ovarian stimulation [OS]--in-vitro fertilisation [IVF-ICSI]) were analysed using a multinomial logistic regression model. An analysis of the Swiss law on reproductive medicine and its current proposed revision, as well as a literature review using Pubmed, was carried out. A total of 592 MP were registered, 91% (n = 537) resulted in live births. There was significantly more neonatal/maternal morbidity in MP after OS compared with natural conception and even with the IVF-ICSI group. With a policy of elective single embryo transfer (eSET), twin rates after IVF-ICSI can be reduced to <5% and triplets to <1%. After OS, more triplets are found and the outcome of MP is worse. MP is known to be associated with morbidity, mortality, and economic and social risks. To counteract these complications (1.) better training for physicians performing OS should be encouraged and (2.) the Swiss law on reproductive medicine needs to be changed, with the introduction of eSET policies. This would lead to a dramatic decrease in neonatal and maternal morbidity/mortality as well as significant cost reductions for the Swiss healthcare system.

  15. Advances in food composition tables in Japan-Standard Tables Of Food Composition in Japan - 2015 - (Seventh Revised Edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tomoko; Kawai, Ryoko

    2018-01-01

    The latest version of the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan-2015- comprises the main food composition table (Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan-2015-[Seventh revised Edition)) and three supplementary books. The supplementary books are Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan - 2015 - (Seventh Revised Edition) - Amino Acids -, Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan - 2015 - (Seventh Revised Edition) - Fatty Acids - and Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan - 2015 - (Seventh Revised Edition) - Available Carbohydrates, Polyols and Organic Acids-. We believe understanding these food composition tables can give greater insight into Japan's gastronomic culture and changes in eating habits. We expect them to play important roles as part of the East Asia food composition tables. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. The New Design Handbook for School Food Service. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Susan Crowl

    A handbook, created for both designers and users of food service facilities in schools, provides reference information and guidance for making sure schools can provide quality food service. The handbook's first six chapters include explanations on how to start a school food service design project; required space, including kitchen work flow and…

  17. Life cycle inventory and carbon and water FoodPrint of fruits and vegetables: application to a Swiss retailer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoessel, Franziska; Juraske, Ronnie; Pfister, Stephan; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2012-03-20

    Food production and consumption is known to have significant environmental impacts. In the present work, the life cycle assessment methodology is used for the environmental assessment of an assortment of 34 fruits and vegetables of a large Swiss retailer, with the aim of providing environmental decision-support to the retailer and establishing life cycle inventories (LCI) also applicable to other case studies. The LCI includes, among others, seedling production, farm machinery use, fuels for the heating of greenhouses, irrigation, fertilizers, pesticides, storage and transport to and within Switzerland. The results show that the largest reduction of environmental impacts can be achieved by consuming seasonal fruits and vegetables, followed by reduction of transport by airplane. Sourcing fruits and vegetables locally is only a good strategy to reduce the carbon footprint if no greenhouse heating with fossil fuels is involved. The impact of water consumption depends on the location of agricultural production. For some crops a trade-off between the carbon footprint and the induced water stress is observed. The results were used by the retailer to support the purchasing decisions and improve the supply chain management.

  18. The healthfulness of food and beverage purchases after the federal food package revisions: The case of two New England states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Tripp, Amanda S

    2016-10-01

    In 2009, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) implemented new food packages to improve dietary intake among WIC participants. This paper examines how the healthfulness of food purchases among low-income households changed following this reform. Point-of-sale data for 2137 WIC-participating and 1303 comparison households were obtained from a regional supermarket chain. The healthfulness of purchased foods and beverages was determined per their saturated fat, sugar, and sodium content. A pre-post assessment (2009-2010) of the product basket healthfulness was completed using generalized estimating equation models. Data were analyzed in 2015. At baseline, healthy products accounted for most of the food volume purchased by WIC participants, but beverages were dominated by moderation (less healthy) items. With new subsidies for fruit, vegetables and whole grains, the WIC revisions increased the volume of healthy food purchases of WIC-participating households by 3.9% and reduced moderation foods by 1.8%. The biggest improvements were reductions in moderation beverages (down by 24.7% in volume), driven by milk fat restrictions in the WIC food package revisions. The healthfulness of the product basket increased post-WIC revisions; mainly due to a reduction in the volume of moderation food and beverages purchased (down by 15.5%) rather than growth in healthy products (up by 1.9%). No similar improvements were seen in a comparison group of low-income nonparticipants. After the WIC revisions, the healthfulness of participant purchases improved, particularly for beverages. Efforts to encourage healthy eating by people receiving federal food assistance are paying off. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Planning the School Food Service Facilities. Revised 1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City.

    Evaluations of food service equipment, kitchen design and food service facilities are comprehensively reviewed for those concerned with the planning and equipping of new school lunchrooms or the remodeling of existing facilities. Information is presented in the form of general guides adaptable to specific local situations and needs, and is…

  20. Food-Wine Pairing Suggestions as a Risk Reduction Strategy: Reducing Risk and Increasing Wine by the Glass Sales in the Context of a Swiss Restaurant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, Lohyd; Jaquinet, Anne-Laure

    2016-08-01

    This study tests the effect of a pairing suggestion for food with wine by the glass directly placed on the menu. We made the assumption that these suggestions can, by reducing social and financial risk, increase wine by the glass sales. One hundred and fifty-nine customers of a Swiss restaurant participated in this experiment. For 82 customers, a food and wine by the glass suggestion was directly placed on the menu while the 77 others were given a normal menu (without a pairing suggestion). Results show that this type of suggestion significantly increases wine sold by the glass. Practical applications of this strategy are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Revised

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Vivian Kvist; Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Riis-Nielsen, Torben

    This report is a revised analysis of the Danish data on CO2 emissions from forest, afforestation and deforestation for the period 1990 - 2008 and a prognosis for the period until 2020. Revision have included measurements from 2009 in the estimations. The report is funded by the Ministry of Climate...

  2. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Dietary Intake among WIC Families Prior to Food Package Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Angela; Odoms-Young, Angela M.; Schiffer, Linda A.; Berbaum, Michael L.; Porter, Summer J.; Blumstein, Lara; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the diets of African American and Hispanic families in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) prior to the 2009 food package revisions. Methods: Mother-child dyads were recruited from 12 WIC sites in Chicago, IL. Individuals with 1 valid 24-hour recall were included in the analyses…

  3. Food for Thought: A Population Simulation Kit. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Carol C.

    Designed to foster an understanding of some of the relationships among population growth and distribution of people, food, and land area, this simulation kit deals with the following concepts: (1) the finite nature of land and resources, (2) the size and rate of growth of population, (3) the unequal distribution of population throughout the world,…

  4. Food Service Refrigerators and Food Service Storage Freezers. Standard No. 7, Revised April 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    This standard covers the sanitation and performance requirements for new food service refrigerators and food service storage freezers of the type generally used in the food service industry. It covers cabinets operating in the freezers, above or below freezing temperature, designed for the storage or display of varieties of food products. Topics…

  5. Quantity and quality of food losses along the Swiss potato supply chain: Stepwise investigation and the influence of quality standards on losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willersinn, Christian; Mack, Gabriele; Mouron, Patrik; Keiser, Andreas; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a stepwise investigation of the quantity and quality of food losses along the Swiss potato supply chain. Quantitative data were collected from field trials, from structured interviews with wholesalers, processors and retailers, and from consumer surveys in combination with a 30-day diary study. The "Swiss trade customs for potatoes" pose the basis for the qualitative evaluation of losses. The influences of technological, institutional (business and economy; legislation and policy), and social drivers on the generation of fresh potato and processed potato products losses were assessed. Losses due to quality standards driven by food safety and consumer preferences for certain aesthetic standards have been evaluated too. Across the entire potato value chain, approximately 53-55% of the initial fresh potato production and 41-46% of the initial processing potato production are finally lost. Losses between organic and non-organic supply chains differ from 2% to 5%. From the total initial fresh potato production, 15-24% gets lost during agricultural production, a further 12-24% at wholesalers, 1-3% at retailers, and 15% at private households. In comparison, 5-11% of the initial production gets lost at wholesalers, a further 14-15% during processing, 0% at retailers, and 2% at private households. Losses during agricultural production do not vary much (13-25%) between fresh and processing potatoes. Approximately half of total potato losses occur because potatoes do not meet quality standards. 25-34% of these quality-driven losses are caused by food safety reasons, and the remainder are caused by consumer preferences or suitability for storage. In total, social drivers (e.g., consumer preferences, behavior, or socio-demographical factors) are responsible for two-thirds to three-fourths of all fresh potato losses and 40-45% of all processing potato losses. Technological drivers cause circa one-third of the total processing potato losses. The

  6. Fruit and vegetable availability and selection: federal food package revisions, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N; Odoms-Young, Angela; Powell, Lisa M; Campbell, Richard T; Block, Daniel; Chavez, Noel; Krauss, Ramona C; Strode, Steven; Armbruster, James

    2012-10-01

    With nearly 49,000 authorized retailers nationwide, a policy change that added fruits and vegetables (FV) to the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food packages in 2009 had the potential to expand neighborhood FV availability. This study examined changes in availability and selection of commonly consumed and culturally specific FV at authorized retailers (WIC vendors) before and after implementation of the revised WIC food packages. Quasi-experimental, one-group design with two pre-policy observations and one post-policy observation. Trained observers assessed a list of fresh, frozen, and canned FV at each vendor in seven northern Illinois counties. Eight indices of FV availability and selection were derived. Multiple regression estimated relationships. Data were collected in 2008-2010 and analyzed in 2011. Overall, availability and selection of commonly consumed fresh FV and availability of African-American culturally specific fresh FV improved after implementation of the new policy. Modest improvements in the overall availability of canned low-sodium vegetables and frozen FV were observed. Changes differed by vendor type (large vendor, small vendor, and pharmacy). Changes in availability or selection did not differ by neighborhood characteristics (population density, median household income, racial/ethnic composition). Expansion of WIC foods was associated with small positive externalities on the food environment. Larger subsidies to create more demand and more-substantial stocking requirements for retailers may yield significantly larger improvements and thus warrant further investigation. Approaches targeting rural, low-income, and racial/ethnic minority neighborhoods also may be needed. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Alignment of Assessment Objectives with Instructional Objectives Using Revised Bloom's Taxonomy--The Case for Food Science and Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jideani, V. A.; Jideani, I. A.

    2012-01-01

    Nine food science and technology (FST) subjects were assessed for alignment between the learning outcomes and assessment using revised Bloom's taxonomy (RBT) of cognitive knowledge. Conjoint analysis was used to estimate the utilities of the levels of cognitive, knowledge, and the attribute importance (cognitive process and knowledge dimension)…

  8. Evaluating the Influence of the Revised Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Food Allocation Package on Healthy Food Availability, Accessibility, and Affordability in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenhua; McKyer, E Lisako J; Dowdy, Diane; Evans, Alexandra; Ory, Marcia; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Wang, Suojin; Miao, Jingang

    2016-02-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) was implemented to improve the health of pregnant women and children of low socioeconomic status. In 2009, the program was revised to provide a wider variety of healthy food choices (eg, fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain items). The purpose of this study was to evaluate (1) the impact of the revised WIC Nutrition Program's food allocation package on the availability, accessibility, and affordability of healthy foods in WIC-authorized grocery stores in Texas; and (2) how the impact of the policy change differed by store types and between rural and urban regions. WIC-approved stores (n=105) across Texas were assessed using a validated instrument (88 items). Pre- (June-September 2009) and post-new WIC package implementation (June-September 2012) audits were conducted. Paired-sample t tests were conducted to compare the differences between pre- and post-implementation audits on shelf width and number of varieties (ie, availability), visibility (ie, accessibility), and inflation-adjusted price (ie, affordability). Across the 105 stores, post-implementation audits showed increased availability in terms of shelf space for most key healthy food options, including fruit (PFood visibility increased for fresh juices (Pfoods such as fruits (Pbread (Pbread (Pfood availability and visibility were observed in stores of different types and in different locations, although smaller or fewer effects were noted in small stores and stores in rural regions. Implementation of the revised WIC food package has generally improved availability and accessibility, but not affordability, of healthy foods in WIC-authorized stores in Texas. Future studies are needed to explore the impact of the revised program on healthy food option purchases and consumption patterns among Texas WIC participants. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental Profile of the Swiss Supply Chain for French Fries: Effects of Food Loss Reduction, Loss Treatments and Process Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Mouron

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of food is responsible for major environmental impacts. Bearing this in mind, it is even worse when food is lost rather than consumed. In Switzerland, 46% of all processing potatoes and 53% of all fresh potatoes are lost on their way from field to fork. Our study therefore compares the environmental impacts of losses of fresh potatoes with those of French fries. With the aid of a Life Cycle Assessment, we assessed the impact categories “demand for nonrenewable energy resources”, “global warming potential”, “human toxicity”, “terrestrial ecotoxicity” and “aquatic ecotoxicity”. Our results show that 1 kg of potatoes consumed as French fries causes 3–5 times more environmental impacts than the same quantity of fresh potatoes, but also that the proportion of impacts relating to losses is considerably lower for French fries (5%–10% vs. 23%–39%. The great majority of processing potato losses occur before the resource-intensive, emission-rich frying processes and therefore the environmental “backpack” carried by each lost potato is still relatively small. Nonetheless, appropriate loss treatment can substantially reduce the environmental impact of potato losses. In the case of French fries, the frying processes and frying oil are the main “hot spots” of environmental impacts, accounting for a considerably higher proportion of damage than potato losses; it is therefore also useful to look at these processes.

  10. Food loss reduction from an environmental, socio-economic and consumer perspective - The case of the Swiss potato market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willersinn, Christian; Mouron, Patrik; Mack, Gabriele; Siegrist, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Potatoes are one of the commodities with the highest loss shares along the entire supply chain. In the present study, we analyzed six potential loss reduction scenarios concerning their environmental-socio-economic sustainability compared with the current situation by using the "SustainOS" methodology. For this purpose, life cycle assessments, full-cost calculations and an online consumer survey were conducted. Environmental improvements through loss reduction were rather small and did not cross limits of significance, but the socio-economic performance of the entire supply chain can be improved considerably. Pearson correlation coefficients and linear regression analyses were used to predict the influence of specific subjective items like the intention to avoid food loss, knowledge related to food loss and consumers' price sensitivity on the assigned preference. Results show that perceived risks, perceived inconvenience and the general acceptance of loss-reducing instruments influence consumers' preferences. Altogether, only three out of six tested scenarios seem realistic: selling unwashed potatoes in a lightproof box, selling unpacked potatoes, and improved quality sorting at farms. For two of the other scenarios, consumers significantly indicated their refusal even if losses decreased considerably, whereas the sixth scenario was unfavorable from a socio-economic perspective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 4 (FGE.21Rev4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 59 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision...... of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all 41 candidate substances...

  12. The Swiss regulatory framework for paediatric health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, Valerie

    2008-07-01

    Medical research on minors entails both risks and benefits. Under Swiss law, clinical trials on children, including nontherapeutic drug trials, are permissible. However, ethics committees must systematically verify that all clinical studies have a favorable risk-benefit profile. Additional safeguards are designed to ensure that children are not unnecessarily involved in research and that proper consent is always obtained. Federal Swiss law is undergoing revision to extend these protections beyond clinical trials to a broad array of health research. The Swiss drug agency also seeks to improve the incentives for pharmaceutical firms to develop new paediatric drugs and relevant paediatric drug labels.

  13. Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission - Annual report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maus, K.

    2010-02-01

    This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides an overview of the work carried out by the Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission CORE in 2009. The commission's main work included preparation work for the revised energy research concept for the period 2013 - 2016, a review of all research programmes operated by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE, the enhancement of cooperation with public and private research and promotion institutions, the coordination and consultation of research institutions and the improvement of international information exchange. The report summarises coordination work with the many CORE programmes and defines strategic main areas of interest for future work

  14. Benchmarking Swiss electricity grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walti, N.O.; Weber, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    This extensive article describes a pilot benchmarking project initiated by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises that assessed 37 Swiss utilities. The data collected from these utilities on a voluntary basis included data on technical infrastructure, investments and operating costs. These various factors are listed and discussed in detail. The assessment methods and rating mechanisms that provided the benchmarks are discussed and the results of the pilot study are presented that are to form the basis of benchmarking procedures for the grid regulation authorities under the planned Switzerland's electricity market law. Examples of the practical use of the benchmarking methods are given and cost-efficiency questions still open in the area of investment and operating costs are listed. Prefaces by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy complete the article

  15. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 24, Revision 2 (FGE.24Rev2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 24 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 24, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision...... the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all 24 candidate substances....

  16. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 4 (FGE.21Rev4)

    OpenAIRE

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Lund, Pia; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    2013-01-01

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 59 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision is made due to the inclusion of the assessment of new toxicity data on one supporting substance 5,6-dihydro-2,4,6-tris(2-methylpropyl)-4H-1,3,5-dithiazine [FL-no: 15.113], which is considered to be str...

  17. The Impact of the 2009 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children Food Package Revisions on Participants: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Daniel Joseph; Byker Shanks, Carmen; Houghtaling, Bailey

    2015-11-01

    For the first time since 1980, the US Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food package policies were revised in 2009 to meet the Institute of Medicine's nutrition recommendations. These changes included increases in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy to improve nutrition and health of WIC participants. Our systematic review of the literature assessed the influence that the 2009 WIC food package revisions have had on dietary intake, healthy food and beverage availability, and breastfeeding participation. The systematic review followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations. Four electronic databases were searched between April 1 and 30, 2014, for peer-reviewed research. Two reviewers screened the articles, extracted the data, and established inter-rater reliability by discussing and resolving discrepancies. Twenty articles were included that met our inclusion criteria. Nine of the studies analyzed changes in dietary intake, eight examined changes in healthy food and beverage availability, and three evaluated breastfeeding participation exclusively. The review demonstrated an improved dietary intake and an increase in the availability of healthier foods and beverages in authorized WIC stores. The revised food package was also associated with improved dietary intake of WIC participants. Mixed results were demonstrated in regard to improved breastfeeding outcomes. Further research is needed to assess the influence of WIC 2009 food package revisions on breastfeeding outcomes and to make conclusions about broad nutrition-related implications. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Participants' comments on changes in the revised special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children food packages: the Maryland food preference study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Hurley, Kristen M; Oberlander, Sarah E; Hager, Erin R; McGill, Adrienne E; White, Nneka T; Quigg, Anna M

    2009-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recommended changes in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food packages to help families from diverse populations establish more healthful dietary patterns. A cross-sectional study conducted during summer 2007 included interviews and focus groups with 223 WIC participants throughout Maryland. The objectives were to examine participants' responses to food package changes, to identify racial/ethnic differences, and to assess costs. All participants (100%) consumed fruits and vegetables. They preferred fresh for taste, but many endorsed canned and frozen for convenience and cost. Most women (56%) and children (69%) consumed whole milk and did not want reduced-fat milk. Few participants (13%) consumed soy products and most were uninterested in future consumption. Participants endorsed whole-wheat bread as more healthful and reported that they (59%) and their children (51%) would increase consumption if provided by WIC. Non-Hispanic participants preferred peanut butter over beans, Hispanic participants reported that they (44%) and their children (57%) would consume more beans (substituting for peanut butter) if provided by WIC. There were few differences in preferences between African-American and white participants. Hispanics differed from non-Hispanics in preference for beans and dislike of frozen and canned vegetables, suggesting the importance of choices. The proposed food packages were cost-neutral, except when extensive substitutions with soy products were allowed. By providing fruits and vegetables, reduced-fat options, and increased opportunities for nutrition education, the revised food packages may reduce the risk of obesity among low-income women, infants, and children.

  19. Revision of the recommended international general standard for irradiated foods and of the recommended international code of practice for the operation of radiation facilities used for the treatment of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    In view of the findings and statements of the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food, convened in Geneva from 27 October to 3 November 1980, a Consultation Group, convened in Geneva from 1 to 3 July 1981 suggested the revision of the Recommended International General Standard for Irradiated Foods and of the Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities. The proposed changes are given and justified and the revised wording of the documents presented

  20. Basic Skills in the Hotel & Food Service Industries. Workforce & Workplace Literacy Series. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BCEL Brief, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a list of 21 contacts and 9 references concerned with workplace literacy programs in the hotel and food service industries. Each listing includes addresses and telephone numbers, prices if applicable, and a brief description of the resource or materials. The materials listed are mostly reports of workplace literacy projects in…

  1. Swiss State Secretary visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The new Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research recently visited CERN. Peter Jenni, the spokesperson for ATLAS, gave Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, the new Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research, a tour of ATLAS and the LHC tunnel.On 2 April, the newly appointed Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research, Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, was welcomed to CERN by Director-General Robert Aymar. On arrival the Swiss minister was given a guided tour of ATLAS and the adjoining LHC tunnel by Peter Jenni, the ATLAS spokesperson. Dr Dell’Ambrogio was then greeted by Swiss scientists and attended presentations by young post doc physicists about Swiss contributions to CMS and LHCb, in particular their work concerning hardware contribution and data analysis. There are 120 physicists from Swiss universities working on CERN’s experiments, and many more Swiss people working at CERN in other departments due to Switzerland’s special position as a host state. Also before ...

  2. The insurance industry and public-private collaborations as a vector to develop and spread EO technologies and techniques in the domain of Food Security: The Swiss Re case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, S.; Ragaz, M.; Mäder, D.; Hammer, P.; Andriesse, M.; Güttinger, U.; Feyen, H.

    2017-12-01

    The insurance industry has been contributing to the resilient development of agriculture in multiple regions of the globe since the beginning of the 19th Century. It also has from the very beginning of the development of EO Sciences, kept a very close eye on the development of technologies and techniques in this domain. Recent advances in this area such as increased satellite imagery resolution, faster computation time and Big Data management combined with the ground-based knowledge from the insurance industry have offered farmers not only tools permitting better crop management, but also reliable and live yield coverage. This study presents several of these applications at different scales (industrial farming and micro-farming) and in different climate regions, with an emphasis on the limit of current products. Some of these limits such as lack of access of to ground data, R&D efforts or understanding of ground needs could be quickly overcome through closer public-private or private-private collaborations. However, despite a clear benefit for the Food Security nexus and potential win-win situations, those collaborations are not always simple to develop. We present here successful but also disappointing collaboration cases based on the Swiss Re experience, as a global insurance leader. As a conclusion, we highlight how academia, NGOs, governmental organization, start-ups and the insurance industry can get together to foster the development of EO in the domain of Food Security, and bring cutting-edge science to game changing industrial applications.

  3. Proposal for the award of a contract for cleaning on the Swiss part of the CERN site

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for cleaning on the Swiss part of the CERN site. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with TOP-NET SERVICES (CH), the lowest bidder complying with the specification, for the provision of cleaning and building maintenance work on the Swiss part of the CERN site for three years for a total amount of 5 841 159 Swiss francs, not subject to revision until 1 January 2009, with options for additional services for an additional amount of 350 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision until 1 January 2009, bringing the total amount to 6 191 159 Swiss francs, not subject to revision until 1 January 2009. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial three-year period.

  4. Swiss electricity statistics 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This detailed article discusses the following subjects: Survey of electricity supply in Switzerland in 1996; The Swiss electricity balance; Electric power generation; Electric power consumption; Generation, consumption and loads on selected days; Energy trade with other countries; Expansion capacities until 2003; Financial situation and appendix. (orig./RHM) [de

  5. Swiss energy statistics 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2006. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2006 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  6. Swiss energy statistics 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2004. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2004 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  7. Swiss energy statistics 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2005. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2005 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  8. Swiss energy statistics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2003 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  9. Swiss energy statistics 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2002 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  10. Cold growth behaviour and genetic comparison of Canadian and Swiss Listeria monocytogenes strains associated with the food supply chain and human listeriosis cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguedas-Villa, Carolina; Kovacevic, Jovana; Allen, Kevin J; Stephan, Roger; Tasara, Taurai

    2014-06-01

    Sixty-two strains of Listeria monocytogenes isolated in Canada and Switzerland were investigated. Comparison based on molecular genotypes confirmed that strains in these two countries are genetically diverse. Interestingly strains from both countries displayed similar range of cold growth phenotypic profiles. Based on cold growth lag phase duration periods displayed in BHI at 4 °C, the strains were similarly divided into groups of fast, intermediate and slow cold adaptors. Overall Swiss strains had faster exponential cold growth rates compared to Canadian strains. However gene expression analysis revealed no significant differences between fast and slow cold adapting strains in the ability to induce nine cold adaptation genes (lmo0501, cspA, cspD, gbuA, lmo0688, pgpH, sigB, sigH and sigL) in response to cold stress exposure. Neither was the presence of Stress survival islet 1 (SSI-1) analysed by PCR associated with enhanced cold adaptation. Phylogeny based on the sigL gene subdivided strains from these two countries into two major and one minor cluster. Fast cold adaptors were more frequently in one of the major clusters (cluster A), whereas slow cold adaptors were mainly in the other (cluster B). Genetic differences between these two major clusters are associated with various amino acid substitutions in the predicted SigL proteins. Compared to the EGDe type strain and most slow cold adaptors, most fast cold adaptors exhibited five identical amino acid substitutions (M90L, S203A/S203T, S304N, S315N, and I383T) in their SigL proteins. We hypothesize that these amino acid changes might be associated with SigL protein structural and functional changes that may promote differences in cold growth behaviour between L. monocytogenes strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Swiss energy statistics 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2007. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2007 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power

  12. Swiss electricity statistics 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication by the Association of Swiss Electricity Enterprises for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2000. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2000, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The production of power in Switzerland is examined in detail. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2000 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The final two chapters cover new and future power generation capacities and the economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity

  13. Swiss energy statistics 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2000. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2000 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power

  14. Swiss energy statistics 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2001. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2001 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power

  15. Swiss energy statistics 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2010. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2010 and energy use in various sectors are presented. The Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. In the third chapter, details are given related to each energy carrier. The final chapter deals with economical and environmental aspects

  16. EUROPE: Swiss role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    On its continual round of CERN Member States, the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) met in Bern, Switzerland, in March. With CERN based in Geneva, and with a national research centre at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland figures prominently in European particle physics. The Bern ECFA meeting provided a full picture of Swiss particle physics activities, project by project, and was prefaced by an overview by Claude Joseph of Lausanne. The number of experimental particle physicists in the country is about 200, with an academic staff of about 170. These are distributed among seven universities - Basel, Bern, Fribourg, Geneva, Lausanne, Neuchâtel and Zurich. In addition there are substantial research groups at ETH-Zurich and at PSI. Probably reflecting the proximity of CERN, the size of the national research community, when scaled to the population, is above the CERN Member State average. At CERN, there is a strong Swiss participation in research at the LEP electron-positron collider (concentrated on L3), with 44 physicists. There are also 33 physicists working at the LEAR low energy antiproton ring, in particular the Crystal Barrel and CP-LEAR studies. In addition there is interest in heavy ion research and in neutrino physics (NOMAD) as well as substantial participation in research and development work for experiments at the LHC. Away from CERN, there are 6 Swiss physicists working at the HERA electron-proton collider at DESY, Hamburg, with the national PSI programme involving about 40 physicists. (The PSI programme was covered at the Bern ECFA meeting by H.C. Walter.) Following the illustrious tradition of Fritz Zwicky, Switzerland also counts many astrophysicists. Theoretical physics, with a community of some 80 researchers, has a great tradition. Throughout the 20th century, leading Swiss research centres have been beacons of brilliance. Zurich, in particular, played a leading role, with Einstein, Schrödinger and Pauli among

  17. Tools for the Classroom. Gruezi Miteinand! A Focus on Swiss-German Culture and Language Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehle-Vieregge, Linda

    1999-01-01

    Swiss-German language and culture rarely form the core focus in basic German language instruction. This article examines Swiss-German culture, focusing on geography and history, language, sports, world organizations, legendary figures, literature, music, art, holidays, and food. It points out online resources that touch upon aspects of Swiss…

  18. First Swiss bachelor in Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutenegger, Tobias; Studer, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    Swissmem, the Swiss association of mechanical and electrical engineering industries, founded a new photonics group in 2013. This reflects the importance of this key technology for Switzerland. Swissmem requested from the Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences to introduce a new bachelor program to fulfill the increasing demand of the Swiss industry of young academics in the field of photonics. Optech Consulting is investigating the Swiss photonics market since many years on behalf of Swissphotonics, the Swiss national thematic network for photonics. The study concluded that the total production volume of the Swiss photonics industry in the year 2013 was 3 billion Swiss francs and a slight growth is expected for 2014. The University of Applied Science HTW Chur is located in the Eastern part of Switzerland. This area of the Rhine valley is a technology cluster of innovative companies in the field of optics and electronics. The industry is growing and the R&D departments of the worldwide active companies are lacking well-educated photonics engineers. The HTW Chur is dedicated to establish the first Swiss bachelor in Photonics. Supported by strong industrial players and an excellent network, the HTW Chur developed different job descriptions and a complete curriculum, which reflect the needs of the Swiss photonics industry. Almost 60% of the ECTS of this national degree program are assigned to photonics specific courses and the practical projects are organized in close collaboration with the photonics industry. Curriculum, job descriptions and the industrial needs will be discussed in detail in this paper.

  19. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 5 (FGE.21Rev5): Thiazoles, thiophenes, thiazoline and thienyl derivatives from chemical groups 29 and 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 41 flavouring substances in Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 5, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision...... have also been considered. Adequate specifications, including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce, have been provided for all 41 candidate substances....

  20. Swiss electricity statistics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2003, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2003 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2010. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  1. Swiss electricity statistics 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2002, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2002 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2009. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  2. Swiss electricity statistics 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2004. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2004, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2004 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2010. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  3. Swiss electricity statistics 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This publication by the Association of Swiss Electricity Enterprises for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2001. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2001, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The production of power in Switzerland is examined in detail. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2001 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The final two chapters cover new and future power generation capacities and the economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity chapters cover new and future power generation capacities and the economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity

  4. Swiss radon programme 'RAPROS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, W.

    1992-03-01

    The results of the five-year radon research program RAPROS presented in this report, allow for scientifically valid statements on the origin of elevated levels of indoor radon in Switzerland. These results form a basis for recommendations and for actions to be taken. Indoor radon concentrations have been measured in more than 4000 living-rooms and 2000 basements; a sampling density of about 0.2% of the Swiss housing stock. According to these measurements radon leads to an estimated average annual effective dose of 2 milli-Sievert, although in some regions the annual dose may be much higher. Extrapolation of the existing data shows that in about 10'000 Swiss houses radon may exceed 1000 Bq/m 3 . For these houses remedial actions are recommended. There seems to be no radon problem in the large cities in the Swiss Plateau. High indoor radon concentrations in Switzerland are due to the soil beneath the buildings. Data from the study indicated that the most important soil characteristic influencing indoor radon concentrations was its gas permeability. Because natural ventilation in a heated house creates a slight underpressure in the lower levels with respect to surrounding soils, radon is driven from the soil into the building. Weatherization of the houses to reduce energy consumption had in most cases no effect on the indoor radon concentrations. Radon from tap water or from building materials does not contribute significantly to indoor radon levels in Switzerland. The high levels in the Jura Mountains are thought to be associated with karstic limestone bedrock. Several houses within Switzerland have now been modified to reduce radon levels. The most successful mitigation technique combined forced-air ventilation with tightening of the basement to decrease or prevent air infiltration from the soil. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  5. Impact of the revised Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food package policy on fruit and vegetable prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N; Powell, Lisa M; Odoms-Young, Angela M; Krauss, Ramona; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Block, Daniel; Campbell, Richard T

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is generally inversely related to income among women in the United States. Less access to healthy foods is one way lower income can influence dietary behaviors and body weight. Federal food assistance programs, such as the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), are an important source of healthy food for low-income populations. In 2009, as part of a nationwide policy revision, WIC added a fruit and vegetable (F/V) voucher to WIC food packages. This quasi-experimental study determined whether F/V prices at stores authorized to accept WIC (ie, WIC vendors) decreased after the policy revision in seven Illinois counties. It also examined cross-sectional F/V price variations by store type and neighborhood characteristics. Two pre-policy observations were conducted in 2008 and 2009; one post-policy observation was conducted in 2010. Small pre- to post-policy reductions in some F/V prices were found, particularly for canned fruit and frozen vegetables at small stores. Compared with chain supermarkets, mass merchandise stores had lower prices for fresh F/V and frozen F/V and small stores and non-chain supermarkets had higher canned and frozen F/V prices, but lower fresh F/V prices. Limited price differences were found across neighborhoods, although canned vegetables were more expensive in neighborhoods with higher concentrations of either Hispanics or blacks and fresh F/V prices were lower in neighborhoods with more Hispanics. Results suggest the WIC policy revision contributed to modest reductions in F/V prices. WIC participants' purchasing power can differ depending on the type and neighborhood of the WIC vendor used. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of the Revised Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Food Package Policy on Fruit and Vegetable Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Powell, Lisa M.; Odoms-Young, Angela M.; Krauss, Ramona; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Block, Daniel; Campbell, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is generally inversely related to income among women in the United States. Less access to healthy foods is one way lower income can influence dietary behaviors and body weight. Federal food assistance programs, such as the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), are an important source of healthy food for low-income populations. In 2009, as part of a nationwide policy revision, WIC added a fruit and vegetable (F/V) voucher to WIC food packages. This quasi-experimental study determined whether F/V prices at stores authorized to accept WIC (ie, WIC vendors) decreased after the policy revision in seven Illinois counties. It also examined cross-sectional F/V price variations by store type and neighborhood characteristics. Two pre-policy observations were conducted in 2008 and 2009; one post-policy observation was conducted in 2010. Small pre- to post-policy reductions in some F/V prices were found, particularly for canned fruit and frozen vegetables at small stores. Compared with chain supermarkets, mass merchandise stores had lower prices for fresh F/V and frozen F/V and small stores and non-chain supermarkets had higher canned and frozen F/V prices, but lower fresh F/V prices. Limited price differences were found across neighborhoods, although canned vegetables were more expensive in neighborhoods with higher concentrations of either Hispanics or blacks and fresh F/V prices were lower in neighborhoods with more Hispanics. Results suggest the WIC policy revision contributed to modest reductions in F/V prices. WIC participants’ purchasing power can differ depending on the type and neighborhood of the WIC vendor used. PMID:24183996

  7. SIA model for buildings: energy-efficiency path for commercial and residential buildings. Preliminary study on the Swiss model for buildings - Basics for the revision of the 'SIA energy-efficiency path' - Final report; Gebaeudeparkmodell 'SIA Effizienzpfad Energie', Dienstleistungs- und Wohngebaeude. Vorstudie zum Gebaeudeparkmodell Schweiz - Grundlagen zur Ueberarbeitung des SIA Effizienzpfades Energie - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeren, N.; Gabathuler, M.; Wallbaum, H. [Institut fuer Bauplanung und Baubetrieb, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich (ETHZ), Zuerich (Switzerland); Jakob, M.; Martius, M.; Gross, N. [TEP Energy GmbH, Technology Economics Policy - Research and Advice, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-10-15

    The aim of the project was to provide a basis for the revision of the so-called 'Efficiency Path' of the Swiss Association of Engineers and Architects (SIA) in the context of the goals of the 2000-Watt-Society. Particularly, the objective is to find the conditions in which the specific goals of the 2000-Watt-Society for residential, school and office buildings could be reached. Considered indicators are the per capita primary energy use in terms of average power and the greenhouse gas emissions. A bottom-up model was developed to estimate final and primary energy demand of the mentioned building types, broken down by different types of energy utilisation. Assumptions were made regarding the most important physical drivers as well as for regarding energy efficiency parameters of new buildings, building retrofits, building technologies and other energy applications in the residential, school and office buildings. Two basic scenarios were developed: an ambitious efficiency scenario was compared to a reference scenario which included current and foreseeable energy policy elements. Regarding electricity supply three scenario-variants of the so-called Swiss Energy Perspectives of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) were used: variant I b 'business-as-usual - nuclear and central fossil plants', IV a: Path to the 2000-Watt-Society - nuclear' and, IV e 'Path to the 2000-Watt-Society - renewable energies'. With this respect it was found that in the case of the efficiency scenario the influence of the electricity generation mix is relatively small. This finding is explained by the fact that hydro power (which is held more or less at the current level) has a large share in the power supply mix in the case of the efficiency scenario with moderate electricity demand and that hydro power is efficient in terms of primary energy and has considerably low greenhouse gas emissions. The results of the study show that with the underlying

  8. Swiss Federal Law on the Genetic Testing of Humans

    OpenAIRE

    森, 芳周

    2009-01-01

    To add an article against the misuse of a reproductive technology and a genetic engineering, theSwiss Federal Constitution was revised in 1992 through an initiative in 1987. On the basis of thisarticle of the constitution, the Reproductive Medicine Act and the Stem Cell Research Act wereenacted in turns; then, the Federal Law on the Genetic Testing of Humans was enacted in October2004. This paper treats a process of the revision of the constitution in 1992 and the enactment of thelaw in 2004....

  9. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 304, Revision 1 (FGE.304Rev1): Four carboxamides from Chemical Groups 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate four flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 304, Revision 1 (FGE.304Rev1) using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565...... criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all four candidate substances....

  10. Revised version of quality guidelines for presurgical epilepsy evaluation and surgical epilepsy therapy issued by the Austrian, German, and Swiss working group on presurgical epilepsy diagnosis and operative epilepsy treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenow, Felix; Bast, Thomas; Czech, Thomas; Feucht, Martha; Hans, Volkmar H; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Noachtar, Soheyl; Oltmanns, Frank; Polster, Tilman; Seeck, Margitta; Trinka, Eugen; Wagner, Kathrin; Strzelczyk, Adam

    2016-08-01

    The definition of minimal standards remains pivotal as a basis for a high standard of care and as a basis for staff allocation or reimbursement. Only limited publications are available regarding the required staffing or methodologic expertise in epilepsy centers. The executive board of the working group (WG) on presurgical epilepsy diagnosis and operative epilepsy treatment published the first guidelines in 2000 for Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. In 2014, revised guidelines were published and the WG decided to publish an unaltered English translation in this report. Because epilepsy surgery is an elective procedure, quality standards are particularly high. As detailed in the first edition of these guidelines, quality control relates to seven different domains: (1) establishing centers with a sufficient number of sufficiently and specifically trained personnel, (2) minimum technical standards and equipment, (3) continuous medical education of employees, (4) surveillance by trained personnel during video electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring (VEM), (5) systematic acquisition of clinical and outcome data, (6) the minimum number of preoperative evaluations and epilepsy surgery procedures, and (7) the cooperation of epilepsy centers. These standards required the certification of the different professions involved and minimum numbers of procedures. In the subsequent decade, quite a number of colleagues were certified by the trinational WG; therefore, the executive board of the WG decided in 2013 to make these standards obligatory. This revised version is particularly relevant given that the German procedure classification explicitly refers to the guidelines of the WG with regard to noninvasive/invasive preoperative video-EEG monitoring and invasive intraoperative diagnostics in epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  11. Swiss Light Source SLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    The Paul Scherrer Institute has begun work on the implementation of the Swiss Synchrotron Light Source (SLS). The construction of this facility, which will have international scope, is intended to provide a national focus for co-operation between various disciplines and for research in material sciences. Although basic research in physics and chemistry, biology, medicine and environmental sciences would seem to be in the foreground, industrial users also have an interest in the SLS. At present, this mainly centres on investigations into the structure of biological and chemical molecules, the use of high-performance methods of analysis, and the manufacture and investigation of microstructures. SLS is planned to be taken into service with an initial experimental installation by the middle of 2001. In this brochure an overview is presented on the main characteristics of the SLS facility and on its significance as a tool for interdisciplinary research

  12. Swiss Light Source SLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The Paul Scherrer Institute has begun work on the implementation of the Swiss Synchrotron Light Source (SLS). The construction of this facility, which will have international scope, is intended to provide a national focus for co-operation between various disciplines and for research in material sciences. Although basic research in physics and chemistry, biology, medicine and environmental sciences would seem to be in the foreground, industrial users also have an interest in the SLS. At present, this mainly centres on investigations into the structure of biological and chemical molecules, the use of high-performance methods of analysis, and the manufacture and investigation of microstructures. SLS is planned to be taken into service with an initial experimental installation by the middle of 2001. In this brochure an overview is presented on the main characteristics of the SLS facility and on its significance as a tool for interdisciplinary research.

  13. Swiss electricity statistics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the article also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2003, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2003 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2010. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  14. Swiss electricity statistics 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiss Federal Office of Energy, Berne

    2003-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the article also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2002, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2002 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2009. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  15. Swiss electricity statistics 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2004. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the article also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2004, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2004 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2010. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  16. Healthier food choices as a result of the revised healthy diet programme Krachtvoer for students of prevocational schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bessems, K.M.H.H.; Assema, P. van; Martens, M.K.; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.; Raaijmakers, L.G.M.; Rooij, M. de; Vries, N.K. de

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Krachtvoer is a Dutch healthy diet programme for prevocational schools, developed in 2001 and revised for a broader target group in 2007, based on the findings of an evaluation of the first version. The goal of this study was to report on the short- and longer-term total and subgroup

  17. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  18. The new Swiss Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tami, R.

    1999-01-01

    The new Swiss Energy Act and the accompanying regulation enable the instructions given in the poll by the electorate in 1990 -- the Energy Article in the Swiss Constitution -- to be implemented. The Energy Act creates the necessary basis for an advanced and sustainable energy policy. It should contribute to a sufficient, broadly based, dependable, economical and environment-friendly energy supply. The Energy Act and the Energy Regulation entered into force on January 1, 1999. (author)

  19. The Swiss LCT-coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecsey, G.; Benz, H.; Horvath, I.

    1985-01-01

    With delivery of the coil to ORNL on February 4, 1984, the second phase of the Swiss Large Coil Program - design and construction - was terminated. Mainlines of the Swiss design concept are summarized and related to theoretical calculations, experimental results of the supporting program, fabricational experience and first successful test results. An attempt is made to draw preliminary conclusions with regard to the design of future toroidal systems such as NET

  20. Management of Food Allergy in Japan “Food Allergy Management Guideline 2008 (Revision from 2005” and “Guidelines for the Treatment of Allergic Diseases in Schools”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohiro Ebisawa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, the “Food Allergy Management Guideline 2005” was published. In order to encompass food allergy from infancy to adulthood, the project committee included not only pediatricians, but also internists, dermatologists, and otolaryngologists. After the release of the guideline, oral food challenge tests were approved as a medical examination on hospital admission by the national health insurance system in 2006, and the tests at outpatient clinics were also approved in 2008. As clearly stated in the guideline, it is essential for general practitioners to refer food allergy patients to specialists to receive accurate diagnosis. A specialist is needed because the oral food challenge test, which is sometimes required for accurate diagnosis, carries the potential risk of developing an adverse reaction. In 2008, the “Food Allergy Management Guideline 2008” was revised to update recent advances, such as the appropriate conditions needed to perform oral food challenge tests and probability curves for hen's egg and cow's milk developed in Japan. In the same year, “The Guidelines for the Treatment of Allergic Diseases in Schools” was published by the Japanese Society of School Health. In addition to the guideline, “School Life Management Certificate (for Allergic Diseases” was developed in order to allow the verification of the diagnosis and encourage the discussion of countermeasures by parents/guardians and school teachers for students requiring special care. It is hoped that this review article will be useful for doctors treating food allergy and that the quality of life of food allergy patients and their parents will be improved.

  1. Swiss electricity statistics 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics for 2008 on electricity production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2008. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's electricity supply in 2008 is presented. Details are noted of the proportions generated by different sources including nuclear, hydro-power, storage schemes and thermal power stations as well as energy transfer with neighbouring countries. A second chapter takes a look at the balance of imports and exports with illustrative flow diagrams along with tables for total figures from 1950 through to 2008. For the summer and winter periods, figures from 1995 to 2008 are presented. The third chapter examines the production of electricity in the various types of power stations and the developments over the years 1950 to 2008, whereby, for example, statistics on regional generation and power station type are looked at. The fourth chapter looks at electricity consumption in various sectors from 1984 to 2008 and compares the figures with international data. The fifth chapter looks at generation, consumption and loading on particular days and chapter six considers energy exchange with Switzerland's neighbours. Chapter seven takes a look at possibilities for extending generation facilities in the period up to 2015

  2. Swiss electricity statistics 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics for 2005 on electricity production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2005. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's electricity supply in 2005 is presented. Details are noted of the proportions generated by different sources including nuclear, hydro-power, storage schemes and thermal power stations as well as energy transfer with neighbouring countries. A second chapter takes a look at the balance of imports and exports with illustrative flow diagrams along with tables for total figures from 1950 through to 2005. For the summer and winter periods, figures from 1995 to 2005 are presented. The third chapter examines the production of electricity in the various types of power stations and the developments over the years 1950 to 2005, whereby, for example, statistics on regional generation and power station type are looked at. The fourth chapter looks at electricity consumption in various sectors from 1983 to 2005 and compares the figures with international data. The fifth chapter looks at generation, consumption and loading on particular days and chapter six considers energy exchange with Switzerland's neighbours. Chapter seven takes a look at possibilities for extending generation facilities in the period up to 2012

  3. Swiss electricity statistics 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics on electricity production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2006. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's electricity supply in 2006 is presented. Details are noted of the amounts generated by different sources including nuclear, hydro-power, storage schemes and thermal power stations as well as energy transfer with neighbouring countries. A second chapter takes a look at the balance of imports and exports with illustrative flow diagrams along with tables for total figures from 1950 through to 2006. For the summer and winter periods, figures from 1995 to 2006 are presented. The third chapter examines the production of electricity in the various types of power stations and the developments over the years 1950 to 2006, whereby, for example, statistics on regional generation and power station type are looked at. The fourth chapter looks at electricity consumption in various sectors from 1983 to 2006 and compares the figures with international data. The fifth chapter looks at generation, consumption and loading on particular, selected days and chapter six considers energy exchange with Switzerland's neighbours. Chapter seven takes a look at possibilities for extending generation facilities in the period up to 2013

  4. Swiss breeder research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A new initiative for a Swiss Fast Breeder Research Program has been started during 1991. This was partly the consequence of a vote in Fall 1990, when the Swiss public voted for maintaining nuclear reactors in operation, but also for a moratorium of 10 years, within which period no new reactor project should be proposed. On the other hand the Swiss government decided to keep the option 'atomic reactors' open and therefore it was essential to have programmes which guaranteed that the knowledge of reactor technology could be maintained in the industry and the relevant research organisations. There is also motivation to support a Swiss Breeder Research Program on the part of the utilities, the licensing authorities and the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). The utilities recognise the breeder reactor as an advanced reactor system which has to be developed further and might be a candidate, somewhere in the future, for electricity production. In so far they have great interest that a know-how base is maintained in our country, with easy access for technical questions and close attention to the development of this reactor type. The licensing authorities have a legitimate interest that an adequate knowledge of the breeder reactor type and its functions is kept at their disposal. PSI and the former EIR have had for many years a very successful basic research programme concerning breeder reactors, and were in close cooperation with EFR. The activities within this programme had to be terminated owing to limitations in personnel and financial resources. The new PSI research programme is based upon two main areas, reactor physics and reactor thermal hydraulics. In both areas relatively small but valuable basic research tasks, the results of which are of interest to the breeder community, will be carried out. The lack of support of the former Breeder Programme led to capacity problems and finally to a total termination. Therefore one of the problems which had to be solved first was

  5. Exploration and exploitation of food sources by social insect colonies: a revision of the scout-recruit concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesmeijer, J.C.; Vries, Han de

    2000-01-01

    Social insect colonies need to explore and exploit multiple food sources simultaneously and efficiently. At the individual level, this colony-level behaviour has been thought to be taken care of by two types of individual: scouts that independently search for food, and recruits that are

  6. Validity and reproducibility of a revised semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ) for women of age-group 12-44 years in Chengdu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ying; Liu, Ying; Xu, Liangzhi; Jia, Yujian; Shan, Dan; Li, Wenjuan; Pan, Xin; Kang, Deying; Huang, Chengyu; Li, Xiaosong; Zhang, Jing; Hu, Ying; Konglin, Lingli; Zhuang, Jing

    2015-03-01

    To find a credible nutritional screening tool for evaluating relationship between nutritional status and diseases in Chengdu female residents, the reliability and validity of a revised semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ) were tested. The validity was assessed by comparing the SQFFQ with the 'standard' method of 3 days' dietary recall, and the reliability was assessed by comparing the first SQFFQ with the second SQFFQ at 4 weeks interval. Correlation analysis showed that, for reliability, the average correlation coefficient (CC) of 22 kinds of nutrients was 0.66 and reduced to 0.60 after adjusting for energy; the average of intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) was 0.65. For validity, the average CC was 0.35 and remained stable after adjusting for CC of energy or nutrients. Validity of 17 nutrients in SQFFQ survey had correlation with result of 3 days' dietary recall. The results showed that the revised SQFFQ can be used for investigating the role of nutrients in development of disease in Chengdu female residents.

  7. Price transmission in the Swiss wheat market: does sophisticated border protection make the difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Esposti, Roberto; Listorti, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with horizontal wheat price transmission from the international markets to the domestic Swiss market. The analysis takes into account trade policies implemented at the borders that might shelter the domestic market from international markets fluctuations, as well as the presence of explosive behavior in some of the price series. Furthermore, the Swiss case is peculiar due to the presence of different border policies for wheat according to its domestic use, food or feed. The p...

  8. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 11, Revision 3 (FGE.11Rev3): Aliphatic dialcohols, diketones, and hydroxyketones from chemical groups 8 and 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 11 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 11, Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The substances......, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all candidate substances....

  9. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Material, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 47, Revision 1: Bi- and tricyclic secondary, ketones and related esters from chemical groups 7 and 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate six flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 47, including an additional two substances in this Revision 1, using the Procedure in Commission...... of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity fo the materials of commerce have been provided for all six candidate substances....

  10. Healthier food choices as a result of the revised healthy diet programme Krachtvoer for students of prevocational schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessems Kathelijne MHH

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Krachtvoer is a Dutch healthy diet programme for prevocational schools, developed in 2001 and revised for a broader target group in 2007, based on the findings of an evaluation of the first version. The goal of this study was to report on the short- and longer-term total and subgroup effects of the revised programme on students’ fruit, fruit juice, breakfast, and snack consumption. Methods Schools were randomized to the experimental condition, teaching the Krachtvoer programme, or to the control condition teaching the regular nutrition lessons. Self-reported consumption of fruit, fruit juice, breakfast and snacks was measured at baseline directly before programme implementation, one to four weeks after finishing programme implementation, and after six months. Mixed linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results In total 1117 students of 13 experimental schools and 758 students of 11 control schools participated in the study. Short- and longer-term favourable intervention effects were found on fruit consumption (mean difference between experimental and control group 0.15 servings at both posttests. Regarding fruit juice consumption, only short-term favourable effects were revealed (mean difference between experimental and control group 0.05 glasses. Intervention effects on breakfast intakes were limited. No changes in snack frequency were reported, but students made healthier snack choices as a result of the programme. Some favourable as well as unfavourable effects occurred in subgroups of students. Conclusions The effects on fruit consumption and snack choices justify the current nationwide dissemination of the programme. Achieving changes in breakfast consumption may, however, require other strategies.

  11. Diet History Questionnaire: Database Revision History

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following details all additions and revisions made to the DHQ nutrient and food database. This revision history is provided as a reference for investigators who may have performed analyses with a previous release of the database.

  12. Revised Human Health Risk Assessment on Chlorpyrifos

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have revised our human health risk assessment and drinking water exposure assessment for chlorpyrifos that supported our October 2015 proposal to revoke all food residue tolerances for chlorpyrifos. Learn about the revised analysis.

  13. Swiss President to visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Pascal Couchepin, President of the Swiss Confederation, will visit CERN on 4 June to participate in the official inauguration of the underground cavern for the laboratory's ATLAS experiment. As the first new experimental cavern to be handed over to CERN by civil engineering contractors, this represents an important milestone for the Laboratory" (1 page).

  14. The changing Swiss electricity - Critical views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilms, E.F.J.

    2001-01-01

    This book takes a critical look at developments in the Swiss electricity market and, in particular, criticises national, regional and local energy policy, which the author considers to be incoherent. The book first describes how the electricity market works, the main players involved and the daily problems that have to be solved. Then, the problems that could be caused by liberalisation, including the question of transit fees, the development of electricity prices for consumers, changes in the structure of the electricity business and third party access are discussed. The second part of the book examines legal aspects of proposed electricity market legislation and then presents 16 propositions covering energy policy, market regulation, unbundling not only of electricity generation, distribution and services but also of politics and business, the revision of proposed liberalisation legislation, taxation aspects as well as the national and international operation of the electricity grid. The book further examines three regional electricity utilities and the attempts to privatise them, which did not meet with the approval of the voting public, and discusses the suspicion cast on certain politicians, that they try to push through the particular interests of groups they are closely associated with. The book is also includes a bibliography and a list of useful addresses

  15. On the revision of control index levels on the ingestion of food and water in the guidelines for radiological emergency preparedness and countermeasures in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Shinichi; Ichikawa, Ryushi

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the revised index levels of the control of food and water in the Nuclear Safety Commission guidelines, 'Off-Site Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Nuclear Power Plants, etc'. Food and water are divided into five categories, and the consumption of each has been conjectured. For this purpose, a nationwide survey for nutrition in Japan by the Welfare Ministry and a survey on the food of infants and children in the coastal area of Ibaraki Prefecture by the National Institute of Radiological Sciences are considered. These categories are drinking water, milk and dairy products, vegetables, grain, and meats, egg, fish, shellfish, and others. The radionuclides groups are then chosen in consideration of their potential importance in regard to food and water contamination. Those chosen were, radio-iodine, radioactive cesium and strontium, uranium, and plutonium and alpha-ray-emitting transuranic radionuclides. The intervention dose levels of 5 mSv of effective dose and 50 mSv of committed equivalent dose to the thyroid for radio-iodine for a period of one year were adopted. The radioactivities of 131 I, 132 I, 133 I, 134 I, 135 I and 132 Te are assumed to be proportional to the contents in nuclear fuel after a cooling time of 0.5 day, and the radioactivity of 131 I is taken as a scale that represents the level of control on the ingestion of food and water. Based on doses to infants, whose exposure is highest, the levels of control are recommended to be 300 Bq/kg or more for drinking water and milk and other dairy products, and 2,000 Bq/kg or more for vegetables, except edible roots and potatoes. It is assumed that radio-cesium released in the environment is accompanied by strontium radio-nuclides with a 90 Sr/ 137 Cs radioactivity ratio of 0.1, taking into account the past measurements of fallout. Radio-nuclides are assumed to contain 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 90 Sr, and 89 Sr with the same mixing ratio as that of the fuel in a nuclear reactor. The sum of

  16. ATLAS honours two Swiss companies

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On 18 June 2003, ATLAS presented awards to two Swiss companies, Cicorel SA and Isola Composites AG, the suppliers of the electrodes and the composite bars for the electromagnetic calorimeter. "Physicists' dreams could not become reality without industry's active participation and creativity", said Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesman, congratulating two of the collaboration's suppliers, to which it presented awards on 18 June. Swiss quality was the order of the day, since the two companies, Cicorel SA and Isola Composites AG, which are both involved in the production of components for the electromagnetic calorimeter, are located in Switzerland's Jura region. "You have taken up and met a challenge that bordered on the impossible", added Peter Jenni. The suppliers who received the ATLAS award: Hans Wyss from Cicorel SA (left) and Constant Gentile from Isola Composites (right).Circorel SA produced enough electrodes to cover an entire football pitch. Each electrode, measuring 2 square metres, consists of three layers of...

  17. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders ofSWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  18. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bldg 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  19. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011. Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  20. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: ­ a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) ­ the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011 Members of the personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsability in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  1. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    Members of the personnel and their families, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2001, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-009/1-015. Members of the personnel will be notified by the Social and Statutary Conditions Group, HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: If you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  2. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  3. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR DIVISION

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a photocopy (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-025Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  4. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:-\ta recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)-\tthe expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  5. Reminder: Swiss and French cards

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of personnel concerned that they are obliged to: • hold a valid Swiss  Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; • return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken towards the member of personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide. Users and Unpaid Associates must contact the Users Office HR Department Tel.: 729...

  6. Swiss and French cards - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of the personnel concerned that they are obliged to: hold a valid Swiss Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken with respect to the member of the personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide: https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/cartes/proc_cartes_home.asp Users and Unpaid Associates must ...

  7. Immigration and Swiss House Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Kathrin Degen; Andreas M. Fischer

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the behavior of Swiss house prices to immigration flows for 85 districts from 2001 to 2006. The results show that the nexus between immigration and house prices holds even in an environment of low house price inflation, nationwide rent control, and modest immigration flows. An immigration inflow equal to 1% of an area's population is coincident with an increase in prices for single-family homes of about 2.7%: a result consistent with previous studies. The overall immigrati...

  8. Association of Swiss Electrical Utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The report, reproduced in full, discusses Swiss energy policy in 1986, paying particular attention to the fall in confidence with nuclear power following the Chernobyl accident. Statistical data on primary and secondary energy consumption and power generation are presented. Other sections include imports/exports, construction of power stations, transmission/distribution links, finance, constitution of council, committees and public relations. (G.T.H.)

  9. New law on Swiss nationality

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    CERN has recently been informed by the Swiss authorities that the Swiss Parliament adopted a new law on Swiss nationality in June 2014, which is due to enter into force in the autumn of 2016.   Under the new law, naturalisation can be granted only if the following conditions are met at the time of application: 1. the applicant must hold a settlement permit (autorisation d’établissement or permis C); and 2. the applicant must supply proof that he or she has resided in Switzerland for a total of ten years, including during three of the five years preceding the application (see Article 9 below). For the purposes of calculating the length of residence in Switzerland, any period of residence as a holder of a residence or settlement permit (autorisation de séjour or autorisation d’établissement), a temporary admission document (admission provisoire), or a legitimation card (carte de légitimation) issued by the DFAE will be taken...

  10. Relating sensory profiles of canned amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus), cleome (Cleome gynandra), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris) leaves to consumer acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeoziri, Isiguzoro O; Kinnear, Marise; de Kock, Henriëtta L

    2018-04-01

    The younger generation of South Africans generally do not consume traditional meals prepared using African green leafy vegetables, primarily because they are regarded as bitter, "poverty" foods. Canning of these vegetables could create value-added products that can be sold in the commercial market. Descriptive sensory evaluation and consumer acceptance testing with young females were used to assess the potential of such products. The sensory attributes of amaranth, cleome and cowpea leaves canned in brine and in a cream sauce were described using 21 attributes grouped by aroma, taste, texture/mouthfeel and aftertaste. Amaranth and Swiss chard products were described as sweet with a popcorn-like aroma. Cleome products were described as bitter, sour, pungent, chemical-tasting, astringent, sandy with a metallic mouthfeel and strong aftertaste. Cowpea products were described as having woody and tobacco aromas as well as a chewy and cohesive texture. Among the products canned with a cream sauce, young female consumers preferred amaranth and Swiss chard; cowpea was less liked, while cleome was least liked. Canned amaranth leaves have potential as a commercial product that may be well liked by young consumers. The cowpea leaves product has consumer potential, but the formulation needs revision, while canned cleome leaves need further research work. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific O pinion Flavouring Group Evaluation 23, Revision 4 (FGE.23Rev4): Aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic ethers including anisole derivatives from chemical groups 15, 16, 22, 26 and 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 21 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 23, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision i...... also been considered. Specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all 21 candidate substances. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 21 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 23, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. This revision...

  12. International Nuclear Safety Experts Conclude IAEA Peer Review of Swiss Regulatory Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    equipment and safety procedures and adopting current technology to maximize nuclear safety; ENSI demonstrates openness and transparency by posting significant documents on its website, including reports on safety research, applicable lessons from foreign nuclear power plants, and safety assessments for all Swiss nuclear power plants; and ENSI's comprehensive and user friendly management system enables the regulator to work effectively and efficiently to oversee Swiss nuclear safety. The IRRS team also made recommendations to improve the Swiss regulatory system, including the following: As ENSI was established as an independent regulatory body in 2009 as part of a revised government framework, the Swiss government should actively monitor how this new framework is working and make improvements as needed; ENSI needs the authority to set conditions for licensing nuclear activities and to issue regulatory requirements; and The Swiss regulatory framework should continue evolving its graded approach to safety, and further develop its inspection efforts in all areas, especially in waste, decommissioning and transport. In a preliminary report, the IAEA has conveyed the team's main conclusions to ENSI, and a final report will be submitted to the authority in about three months. ENSI has told the team that it will make the report public. The IAEA encourages nations to invite a follow-up IRRS mission about two years after the full mission has been completed. About IRRS Missions IRRS missions are designed to strengthen and enhance the effectiveness of the national nuclear regulatory infrastructure of States, while recognizing the ultimate responsibility of each State to ensure safety in this area. This is done through consideration of both regulatory, technical and policy issues, with comparisons against IAEA safety standards and, where appropriate, good practices elsewhere. More information about IRRS missions is available on the IAEA Website. Quick Facts: 2 PWRs at Beznau; 1 PWR at

  13. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 303, Revision 1 (FGE.303Rev1): Spilanthol from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate the flavouring substance spilanthol [FL-no: 16.121] in Flavouring Group Evaluation 303, Revision 1, using the Procedure according to Commission Regulation...... (MSDI) approach. Besides the safety assessment of the flavouring substance, the specifications for the material of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the material of commerce have been provided for the candidate substance....

  14. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 25, Revision 3 (FGE.25Rev3): Aliphatic hydrocarbons from chemical group 31

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 14 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 25, Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None...... on the basis of the MSDI approach. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity and identity criteria for the materials of commerce have been provided for all 14...

  15. Revising Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The paper explains the theoretical background and findings of an empirical study of revision policies, using Denmark as a case in point. After an overview of important definitions, types and parameters, the paper explains the methods and data gathered from a questionnaire survey and an interview...... survey. Results clearly show that most translation companies regard both unilingual and comparative revisions as essential components of professional quality assurance. Data indicate that revision is rarely fully comparative, as the preferred procedure seems to be a unilingual revision followed by a more...... or less comparative rereading. Though questionnaire data seem to indicate that translation companies use linguistic correctness and presentation as the only revision parameters, interview data reveal that textual and communicative aspects are also considered. Generally speaking, revision is not carried...

  16. Swiss overall energy statistics 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The comprehensive statistics are produced by the Federal Department of Energy and the Swiss National Committee of the World Energy Conference, and are divided into three sections, (1) Consumption of energy in 1979, (2) Development of the energy balance-sheet from 1974 to 1979, and (3) Comments relative to the energy balance-sheet. Appendices are also included giving tables of energy consumption in the year 1950 and for the period 1960 - 1979, and the energy consumption by industry and other branches in 1979. (A.G.P.)

  17. Numerical analysis of Swiss roll metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demetriadou, A; Pendry, J B

    2009-01-01

    A Swiss roll metamaterial is a resonant magnetic medium, with a negative magnetic permeability for a range of frequencies, due to its self-inductance and self-capacitance components. In this paper, we discuss the band structure, S-parameters and effective electromagnetic parameters of Swiss roll metamaterials, with both analytical and numerical results, which show an exceptional convergence.

  18. The Swiss Society of Microbiology: Small Bugs, Big Questions and Cool Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greub, Gilbert; Holliger, Christof; Sanglard, Dominique; Schrenzel, Jacques; Thiel, Volker; Viollier, Patrick

    2016-12-21

    The Swiss Society for Microbiology (SSM) represents around 700 scientists working in the fields of medical (human and veterinary), microbial biotechnology as well as fundamental, environmental, and food microbiology. Five sections: Clinical Microbiology, Environmental Microbiology, Mycology, Prokaryotic Biology, and Virology reflects the main interests of the membership.

  19. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 2 (FGE.10Rev2): Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 61 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the sub......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 61 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None...... of the substances were considered to have genotoxic potential. The substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity....... The Panel concluded that the 61 substances do not give rise to safety concerns at their levels of dietary intake, estimated on the basis of the MSDI approach. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. For four...

  20. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 25, Revision 2 (FGE.25Rev2): Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons from chemical group 31

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 37 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 25, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the sub......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 37 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 25, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None...... of the substances were considered to have genotoxic potential. The substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity...... assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. For five substances, the composition of the stereoisomeric mixture has to be specified further....

  1. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 3 (FGE.21Rev3): Thiazoles, thiophenes, thiazoline and thienyl derivatives from chemical groups 29 and 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 59 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, including an additional three substances in this Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commiss......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 59 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, including an additional three substances in this Revision 3, using the Procedure.......086, 15.090, 15.099, 15.114, 15.119 and 15.133] were considered to have genotoxic potential. The remaining 52 substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern.......092, 15.093, 15.094, 15.096, 15.097, 15.106, 15.107, 15.129 and 15.135] evaluated through the Procedure, no appropriate NOAEL was available and additional data are required. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been...

  2. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of red spinach, green spinach, red chicory, green chicory, green leaf chard, red leaf chard, red Swiss chard, golden Swiss chard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to a combination of red spinach, green spinach, red chicory, green chicory, green leaf chard, red leaf chard, red Swiss chard, golden Swiss chard and white Swiss chard and maintenance of normal blood cholesterol concentration. The food that is the subject of the health claim, a combination of red...... spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), green spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), red chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), green chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), green leaf chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla), red leaf chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla), red Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla), golden Swiss chard...... for the scientific substantiation of the claim were provided by the applicant. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between consumption of a combination of red spinach, green spinach, red chicory, green chicory, green leaf chard, red leaf chard, red Swiss chard, golden...

  3. Tartrazine induced changes in physiological and biochemical parameters in Swiss albino mice, Mus musculus

    OpenAIRE

    Arefin, Sayema; Hossain, Mohammad Salim; Akter Neshe, Shamme; Rashid, Md. Mamun Or; Amin, Mohammad Tohidul; Hussain, Md. Saddam

    2017-01-01

    Now-a-days synthetic food dyes are being used most commonly as food colorant in confectionaries, drugs and cosmetics. Present study was designed to evaluate the toxic effect of tartrazine, a widely used azo dye, on Swiss Albino mice. Experimental animals were treated with tested dye at a dose level 200mg/kg & 400mg/kg body weight along with normal diet. Various physiological and biochemical parameters were assessed to study the toxic effect of tartrazine. Our study rev...

  4. Guidelines for the Interpretation of Results of Microbiological Testing of Ready-to-Eat Foods Placed on the Market (Revision 2)

    OpenAIRE

    Food Safety Authority of Ireland

    2016-01-01

    This document provides guideline microbiological limits for ready-to-eat foods placed on the market. These guideline limits can be used if legal microbiological criteria (Appendix 1) do not exist for a particular combination of food and microorganism. This Guidance Note is intended to be used by: • Food business operators • Enforcement officers, and • Laboratories performing microbiological testing on ready-to-eat foods Food business operators may also use the limits prese...

  5. Biogas plants in the Swiss agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A

    1985-01-01

    Description of the systems of Swiss biogas plants, gas production rates and the use of the gas for heating the biogas digesters and apartments, for agriculture, cheese factories, and for the production of electricity.

  6. Wind energy and Swiss hydro power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M.; Fritz, W.; Zimmer, Ch.; Feldmann, J.; Haubrich, H.-J.; Dany, G.; Schmoeller, H.; Hartmann, T.

    2004-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the possibilities of using Switzerland's hydropower generation facilities as a means of control and as a capacity-reserve for a European power system that includes a considerable amount of wind-generated electricity. The aims of the study - the analysis of possible changes in power availability and of the relative importance of peak load compensation, economic optimisation potential for the use of Swiss hydropower and organisational aspects - are presented. Various methods for organising production timetables and trading are looked at, as are future developments in the European power market. Methods of assessment of the value of Swiss hydropower installations are discussed in detail and possibilities of increasing capacity are discussed. The report is concluded with recommendations on the participation of Swiss hydropower in the market for regulation energy and the development of associated strategies. Also, environmental aspects are examined and the influence of national wind-energy concepts are discussed

  7. Survey of Swiss nuclear's cost study 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, Stefan; Ustohalova, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    The report discusses the Swiss nuclear cost study 2016 concerning the following issues: evaluation of the aspects of the cost study: cost structure, cost classification and risk provision, additional payment liability, option of lifetime extension for Swiss nuclear power plants; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the decommissioning cost of Swiss nuclear power plants'': decommissioning costs in Germany, France and the USA, indexing the Swiss cost estimation for decommissioning cost, impact factors on the decommissioning costs; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the disposal cost - interim storage, transport, containers and reprocessing''; specific indications on the report ''cost studies (KS16) - estimation of disposal costs - geological deep disposal'': time scale and costs incurred, political/social risks, retrievability, comparison with other mining costs.

  8. Tax evasion and Swiss bank deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    quarters immediately before and after the tax was introduced. We also present evidence suggesting that the drop in Swiss bank deposits was driven by behavioral responses aiming to escape the tax - such as the transfer of funds to bank accounts in other offshore centers and the transfer of formal ownership......Bank deposits in offshore financial centers may be used to evade taxes on interest income. A recent EU reform limits the scope for this type of tax evasion by introducing a withholding tax on interest income earned by EU households in Switzerland and several other offshore centers. This paper...... estimates the impact of the withholding tax on Swiss bank deposits held by EU residents while using non-EU residents who were not subject to the tax as a comparison group. We present evidence that Swiss bank deposits owned by EU residents declined by 30–40% relative to other Swiss bank deposits in two...

  9. Macroprudential Insurance Regulation: A Swiss Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Deprez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a case study that analyzes national macroprudential insurance regulation in Switzerland. We consider an insurance market that is based on data from the Swiss private insurance industry. We stress this market with several scenarios related to financial and insurance risks, and we analyze the resulting risk capitals of the insurance companies. This stress-test analysis provides insights into the vulnerability of the Swiss private insurance sector to different risks and shocks.

  10. Macroprudential Insurance Regulation: A Swiss Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Deprez; Mario V. Wüthrich

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a case study that analyzes national macroprudential insurance regulation in Switzerland. We consider an insurance market that is based on data from the Swiss private insurance industry. We stress this market with several scenarios related to financial and insurance risks, and we analyze the resulting risk capitals of the insurance companies. This stress-test analysis provides insights into the vulnerability of the Swiss private insurance sector to different risks and sho...

  11. EFSA CEF Penal (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 212, Revision 2 (FGE.212Rev2): α,β-Unsaturated alicyclic ketones and precursors from chemical subgroup 2.6 of FGE.19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Lund, Pia

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate the genotoxic potential of 24 flavouring substances from subgroup 2.6 of FGE.19 in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 212, Revision 2. The Panel concluded in ...

  12. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 9, Revision 3 (FGE.09Rev3): Secondary alicyclic saturated and unsaturated alcohols, ketones and esters containing secondary alicyclic alcohols from chemical group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 17 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 9, Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the subs...

  13. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 9, Revision 4 (FGE.09Rev4): Secondary alicyclic saturated and unsaturated alcohols, ketones and esters containing secondary alicyclic alcohols from chemical group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 21 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 9, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present revi...

  14. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 7, Revision 4 (FGE.07Rev4): Saturated and unsaturated aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and esters of secondary alcohols and saturated linear or branched

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 49 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 07, including additional five substances in this Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission ...

  15. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 9, Revision 5 (FGE.09Rev5): Secondary alicyclic saturated and unsaturated alcohols, ketones and esters containing secondary alicyclic alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 21 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 9, Revision 5, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present revi...

  16. Effects of post-Kyoto policy on the Swiss national economy - Analysis using a single-country equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-08-01

    This final report elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) deals with questions concerning Swiss climate policy after 2012. In 2012, existing climate legislation as defined in CO 2 emission legislation is to be revised and brought in line with European legislation on greenhouse gases. The paper presents and discusses the proposals of the Swiss government that are to make Switzerland climate-neutral. These questions include how high a steering-tax must be in order to provide a 20% reduction in CO 2 emissions, which effects on the economy in general (BIP) and on particular sectors are to be expected, how households will be affected and how large the positive secondary side-effects are. The methods used in the study and their limitations are examined. In particular, a dynamic, single-country equilibrium model is introduced and various scenarios are discussed

  17. Transposition into swiss law of the Paris convention and the Brussels supplementary convention, as amended

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tami, R.; Daina, S.

    2004-01-01

    Apart from the considerable increase in the amounts of cover, two basic factors lie behind the Swiss government decision to propose shortly to parliament a draft revised L.R.C.N.(federal act on nuclear third party liability). These are, firstly, that the revised Paris/Brussels system still incorporates the principle of the limited liability of the operator of a nuclear installation but now contains a minimum liability amount (liability threshold) and no longer a maximum amount (liability ceiling), and secondly, that the States parties are allowed to provide in their national legislation for the unlimited liability of operators. One of the aims of ratifying the revised conventions is to enable most victims to obtain fair compensation on an egalitarian basis for damage caused by a nuclear incident, and also to join an international system for compensating nuclear damage based on solidarity between states, most of them nuclear. (N.C.)

  18. Swiss Property kontor = Offices of Swiss Property / kommenteerinud Tõnis Sõõrumaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Swiss Property kontoriruumid Tallinnas Rotermanni 8. Sisekujunduse autorid Kätlin Ölluk, Tiina Kesküla, Katy Seppel, Aet Kiivet, Liina Rohtlaan, Marita Mätas, Lilian Esing, Kristin Boginski (Swiss Property); arhitektid Yoko Azukawa, Hanno Grossschmidt, Tomomi Hayashi

  19. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 300, Revision 1 (FGE.300Rev1): One cyclo-aliphatic amide from chemical group 33

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate a flavouring substance,cyclopropanecarboxylic acid (2-isopropyl-5-methyl-cyclohexyl)-amide [FL-no: 16.115] in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 300, Revision 1....... The substance was not considered to have genotoxic potential. The substance was evaluated through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity....... The Panel concluded that the substance [FL-no: 16.115] does not give rise to safety concern at its levels of dietary intake estimated on the basis of the Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intake MSDI approach. Besides the safety assessment of this flavouring substance, the specifications for the material...

  20. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 17, Revision 3 (FGE.17Rev3): Pyrazine derivatives from chemical group 24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 28 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 17, including seven additional substances considered in this Revision 3, using the Procedure......-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel concluded that 24 substances [FL-no: 14.057, 14.081, 14.083, 14.084, 14.086, 14.087, 14.091, 14.097, 14.099, 14.101, 14.102, 14.108, 14.109, 14.111, 14.112, 14.113, 14.122, 14...... substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for one substance [FL-no: 14.102], the composition of mixture has not been specified sufficiently....

  1. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 22, Revision 1 (FGE.22Rev1): Ring substituted phenolic substances from chemical groups 21 and 25

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 28 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 22, Revision 1, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The substance 3...... through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel concluded that these 27 candidate substances do not give rise to safety...... concerns at their levels of dietary intake, estimated on the basis of the MSDI approach. Adequate specifications for the materials of commerce are available for all 27 flavouring substances evaluated through the Procedure....

  2. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 17, Revision 2 (FEG.17Rev2): Pyrazine derivatives from chemical group 24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 21 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 17, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. From the in vitro...... substance [FL-no: 14.051] no intake data are available preventing it from being evaluated through the Procedure. The remaining 18 substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold...... intake, estimated on the basis of the MSDI approach. For the remaining substance [FL-no: 14.052] additional toxicity data are required. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for two substances...

  3. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 3 (FGE.10Rev3): Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 63 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, including additional two substances in this Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission...... threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel concluded that the 62 substances do not give rise to safety concerns at their levels of dietary intake, estimated on the basis of the MSDI approach. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications...... for the materials of commerce have also been considered. For four substances evaluated through the Procedure, the stereoisomeric composition has not been specified sufficiently....

  4. Swiss electricity production into the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmann, Walter

    2008-01-01

    In January 2007 the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's work on energy perspectives up until 2035 were concluded and presented. The results form the basis for political debate on the future direction of Switzerland's energy and climate policies. The energy perspectives point to an increase in demand for electricity in Switzerland by 2035 of around 20% and a deficit of roughly 17 billion kWh if no extra measures are taken. This corresponds to twice the annual production of a Swiss nuclear power station. This development and the unharnessed potential in the areas of efficiency and renewable energies prompted Switzerland's Federal Council to decide on a reorientation of its energy policy in 2007. This is based on four pillars: 1. Improved energy efficiency; 2. Promotion of renewable energy; 3. Targeted extension and construction of large-scale power stations; 4. Intensification of foreign energy policy, particularly in terms of cooperation with the EU. 2008 has got off to a strong start in terms of energy policy - the CO 2 tax on fuels has been introduced and the first package of the new Energy Supply Act (StromVG) has entered into force. The new Electricity Supply Act creates the necessary conditions for a progressive opening of Switzerland's electricity market. From 2009 some 50,000 large customers with an annual electricity consumption of over 100 megawatt hours will be able to benefit from this partial opening and be free to choose their power suppliers. But all other power consumers will benefit right from the start too because their electricity suppliers will also be able to buy in their electricity from the free market and pass on any price savings to their customers. Furthermore, the Electricity Supply Act delivers a clear legal framework for cross-border trade in electricity. In actual fact the opening of the electricity market is already well advanced around Switzerland. Liberalisation also results in cost transparency: As the opening of the electricity market

  5. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 76, Revision 1 (FGE.76Rev1)

    OpenAIRE

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Lund, Pia; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    2013-01-01

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), and to decide whether further evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present opinion concerns a group of 26 sulphur-containing heterocyclic compounds evaluated by the JECFA at the 59th m...

  6. Swiss Energy Perspectives 2035 - Management summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This management summary issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the Swiss Energy Perspectives 2035 - a five-part synthesis report published in 2007. The report presents no prognoses but provides an 'if-then' overview of a set of four scenarios that examined ways in which Swiss energy demands could be met by the year 2035. National and international boundary conditions taken into account are reviewed and the four scenarios are introduced and briefly described. These include the reference scenario 'Business as Usual', 'Increased Co-operation' between politics and business, 'New Priorities' with goals set to reduce energy consumption and CO 2 emissions and 'On the Way to a 2000-Watt Society'. Risks posed and chances provided are discussed, as are the options for taking action

  7. SwissEnergy - new energy for everybody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This is a richly illustrated general document on the Swiss programme 'SwissEnergy' aiming at promoting energy efficiency and renewable energy sources in Switzerland, especially as a part of efforts made to reach the target set by the Kyoto Protocol for the emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Compared to 1990 figures, CO 2 emissions in Switzerland have to be reduced by 10% until 2010. SwissEnergy is supported by the national and regional governments and by the economy as well. The document lists the main issues addressed by the programme and the proposed actions, all of them related to large dissemination of already known technologies. The document is designed as a motivation tool for ordinary people

  8. Dietary intake and physical activity of normal weight and overweight 6 to 14 year old Swiss children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aeberli, I.; Kaspar, M.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    Principles and questions under study: The prevalence of overweight is increasing in Swiss children, and they are at increased risk for hypertension and insulin resistance. Better understanding of how food intakes and activity patterns differ between overweight and normal weight children is needed to

  9. Status of the Swiss LCT-coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zichy, J; Benz, H.; Horvath, I.; Jakob, B.; Marinucci, C.; Vecsey, G.; Weymuth, P.; Zellweger, J.

    1983-01-01

    The Swiss coil is a forced flow coil cooled by supercritical helium. A brief review of the design considerations, some of its specific features, and the progress in fabrication are described. A discussion of both the instrumentation and the cryogenic characteristics of the coil is presented

  10. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how

  11. SwissFEL - Conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganter, R.

    2010-07-01

    This report issued by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland takes a look at the design concepts behind the institute's SwissFEL X-ray Laser facility. The goal of SwissFEL is to provide a source of extremely bright and short X-ray pulses enabling scientific discoveries in a wide range of disciplines to be made, from fundamental research through to applied science. The eminent scientific need for such an X-ray source which is well documented in the SwissFEL Science Case Report is noted. The technical design of SwissFEL has to keep a delicate balance between the demand by experimentalists for breathtaking performance in terms of photon beam properties on the one hand, and essential requirements for a user facility, such as confidence in technical feasibility, reliable and stable functioning and economy of installation and operation on the other hand. The baseline design which has been defined is discussed. This relies entirely on state-of-the-art technologies without fundamental feasibility issues. This SwissFEL Conceptual Design Report describes the technical concepts and parameters used for this baseline design. The report discusses the design strategy, the choice of parameters and the simulation of the accelerator unit and undulator. The photon beam layout is discussed, as is the installation's tera hertz pump source. The components of the facility, including the laser and radio-frequency systems, timing and synchronisation systems, magnets, undulators, and mechanical support systems are discussed. Further, the concepts behind electron beam diagnostics, vacuum equipment as well as control and feedback systems are discussed. The building layout is described and safety issues are discussed. An appendix completes the report

  12. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 18, Revision 2 (FGE.18Rev2): Aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic saturated and unsaturated tertiary alcohols, aromatic tertiary alcohols and their esters from

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 32 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 18, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the sub......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 32 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 18, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None...... of the substances were considered to have genotoxic potential. The substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity......, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for six substances information is lacking....

  13. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 08, Revision 5 (FGE.08Rev5): Aliphatic and alicyclic mono-, di-, tri-, and polysulphides with or without additional oxygenated functional groups from chemical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 80 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 08, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. Since the publi......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 80 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 08, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. Since...... approach that integrates information on the structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel concluded that 59 substances do not give rise to safety concerns at their levels of dietary intake, estimated...... substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for three substances, evaluated through the Procedure, information on the specifications is lacking....

  14. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 8, Revision 3 (FGE.08Rev3): Aliphatic and alicyclic mono-, di-, tri-, and polysulphides with or without additional oxygenated functional groups from chemical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 70 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 08, Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. For the substan......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 70 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 08, Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565......-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel concluded that 48 substances do not give rise to safety concerns at their levels of dietary intake, estimated on the basis of the MSDI approach. For the remaining fourteen......, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for eightteen substances information on specifications is lacking....

  15. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 13, Revision 2 (FGE.13 Rev2) Furfuryl and furan derivatives with and without additional side-chain substituents and heteroatoms from chemical group 14

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 27 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 13, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. Three...... of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all 24 flavouring substances evaluated through the Procedure....

  16. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 2 (FGE.21Rev2): Thiazoles, thiophene, thiazoline and thienyl derivatives from chemical group 29. Miscellaneous substances from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 56 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 21, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. Seven...... of commerce have also been considered. For two substances are an identity test lacking and for one has the stereoisomeric composition to be specified....

  17. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 93, Revision 1 (FGE.93Rev1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...... through a stepwise approach that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The two substances 5-ethyl-4-methyl-2-(2-methylpropyl)-thiazoline [FL-no: 15.130] and 5-ethyl-4-methyl-2...... and agrees with the JECFA conclusion, “No safety concern at estimated levels of intake as flavouring substances” based on the MSDI approach. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for all five substances...

  18. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 76, Revision 1 (FGE.76Rev1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), and to decide whether further...... by Industry for use as a flavouring substance in Europe and will therefore not be considered any further. The substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data...... as flavouring substances, as these substances could not be evaluated because of concern with respect to genotoxicity. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for all 26 substances, the information is adequate....

  19. Basic and Special Criteria for the Evaluation of Manually Activated and/or Coin Activated Vending Machines for Foods and/or Beverages. Revised February 1963.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    Appraisal of various types of manually activated and/or coin activated vending machines is discussed in this standard. The following are included--(1) introduction and definitions and discussion of various types of food and beverage vending machines, (2) general provisions including minimum requirements, alternate materials, and a classification…

  20. Revised dietary guidelines for Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young Ai; Lee, Haeng Shin; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Hae Jeung; Moon, Jae Jin; Kim, Cho-il

    2008-01-01

    With rapidly changing dietary environment, dietary guidelines for Koreans were revised and relevant action guides were developed. First, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was established with experts and government officials from the fields of nutrition, preventive medicine, health promotion, agriculture, education and environment. The Committee set dietary goals for Koreans aiming for a better nutrition state of all after a thorough review and analysis of recent information related to nutritional status and/or problems of Korean population, changes in food production/supply, disease pattern, health policy and agricultural policy. Then, the revised dietary guidelines were proposed to accomplish these goals in addition to 6 different sets of dietary action guides to accommodate specific nutrition and health problems of respective age groups. Subsequently, these guidelines and guides were subjected to the focus group review, consumer perception surveys, and a public hearing for general and professional comments. Lastly, the language was clarified in terms of public understanding and phraseology. The revised Dietary guidelines for Koreans are as follows: eat a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat, poultry and dairy products; choose salt-preserved foods less, and use less salt when you prepare foods; increase physical activity for a healthy weight, and balance what you eat with your activity; enjoy every meal, and do not skip breakfast; if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation; prepare foods properly, and order sensible amounts; enjoy our rice-based diet.

  1. The SwissFEL Experimental Laser facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erny, Christian; Hauri, Christoph Peter

    2016-09-01

    The hard X-ray laser SwissFEL at the Paul Scherrer Institute is currently being commissioned and will soon become available for users. In the current article the laser facility is presented, an integral part of the user facility, as most time-resolved experiments will require a versatile optical laser infrastructure and precise information about the relative delay between the X-ray and optical pulse. The important key parameters are a high availability and long-term stability while providing advanced laser performance in the wavelength range from ultraviolet to terahertz. The concept of integrating a Ti:sapphire laser amplifier system with subsequent frequency conversion stages and drift compensation into the SwissFEL facility environment for successful 24 h/7 d user operation is described.

  2. Large volume axionic Swiss cheese inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2008-09-01

    Continuing with the ideas of (Section 4 of) [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without anti-D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi Yau's, arXiv: 0707.0105 [hep-th], Nucl. Phys. B, in press], after inclusion of perturbative and non-perturbative α corrections to the Kähler potential and (D1- and D3-) instanton generated superpotential, we show the possibility of slow roll axionic inflation in the large volume limit of Swiss cheese Calabi Yau orientifold compactifications of type IIB string theory. We also include one- and two-loop corrections to the Kähler potential but find the same to be subdominant to the (perturbative and non-perturbative) α corrections. The NS NS axions provide a flat direction for slow roll inflation to proceed from a saddle point to the nearest dS minimum.

  3. Swiss Federal Energy Research Concept 2008 - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the plan for the activities of the Swiss Federal Commission on Energy Research CORE during the period 2008 - 2011. The motivation behind the state promotion of energy research is discussed. The visions, aims and strategies of the energy research programme are discussed. The main areas of research to be addressed during the period are presented. These include the efficient use of energy in buildings and traffic - batteries and supercaps, electrical technologies, combustion systems, fuel cells and power generation are discussed. Research to be done in the area of renewable sources of energy are listed. Here, solar-thermal, photovoltaics, hydrogen, biomass, geothermal energy, wind energy and ambient heat are among the areas to be examined. Research on nuclear energy and safety aspects are mentioned. Finally, work on the basics of energy economy are looked at and the allocation of funding during the period 2008 - 2011 is looked at

  4. Safety in Swiss nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederqvist, H.

    1992-01-01

    Safety-related facilities and equipment are continuously backfitted in Swiss nuclear power plants. In the Beznau-1 and -2 nuclear generating units, the measures taken under the heading of 'Backfitting of Emergency Systems' included provisions to enhance the protection against earthquakes, airplane crash, and fire; in addition, the emergency power system was upgraded. In Muehleberg, the stack exhaust air monitoring system was optimized. The containment pressure suppression system of the plant has been designed to withstand a hypothetical accident exceeding the design basis. The BKM-Crud computer simulation model simulates steps taken to reduce radiation exposure. The power of Swiss nuclear power stations will be raised by 4% to 15% within the 'Energy 2000' action program. (orig.) [de

  5. Large volume axionic Swiss cheese inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2008-01-01

    Continuing with the ideas of (Section 4 of) [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without anti-D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau's, (arXiv: 0707.0105 [hep-th]), Nucl. Phys. B, in press], after inclusion of perturbative and non-perturbative α ' corrections to the Kaehler potential and (D1- and D3-) instanton generated superpotential, we show the possibility of slow roll axionic inflation in the large volume limit of Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau orientifold compactifications of type IIB string theory. We also include one- and two-loop corrections to the Kaehler potential but find the same to be subdominant to the (perturbative and non-perturbative) α ' corrections. The NS-NS axions provide a flat direction for slow roll inflation to proceed from a saddle point to the nearest dS minimum

  6. Food chemistry. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltes, W.

    1989-01-01

    This second edition of the textbook deals with all essential aspects of food chemistry. The revision improved in particular the chapters on food preservation, including irradiation of food, food additives, and pollutants and residues, including radionuclides. The chapter on the German legal regime for foodstuffs has been updated to cover the recent amendments of the law, and the information on processes applied in food technology has been largely enhanced. (VHE) With 153 figs., 78 tabs [de

  7. The Swiss nuclear installations. Annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Surveillance of the Swiss nuclear installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). Five nuclear power plants are operational in Switzerland: the three units Beznau I and II and Muehleberg with electrical capacities in the range of 300 to 400 MWe, and the two units Goesgen and Leibstadt with capacities between 900 and 1200 MWe. These are light water reactors; at Beznau and Goesgen of the PWR type, and at Muehleberg and Leibstadt of the BWR type. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basel. Further subject to HSK`s supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut-down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration, in Switzerland, of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities. The report first deals with the nuclear power and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK. In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for research installations. Chapter 6, on radwaste disposal, is dedicated to the treatment of waste, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants` proximity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations. All in all, the safety of operation of the Swiss nuclear installations, in the period of 1994, is judged as good by HSK. (author) 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. The Swiss nuclear installations. Annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    Surveillance of the Swiss nuclear installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). Five nuclear power plants are operational in Switzerland: the three units Beznau I and II and Muehleberg with electrical capacities in the range of 300 to 400 MWe, and the two units Goesgen and Leibstadt with capacities between 900 and 1200 MWe. These are light water reactors; at Beznau and Goesgen of the PWR type, and at Muehleberg and Leibstadt of the BWR type. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basel. Further subject to HSK's supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut-down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities in Switzerland. The report first deals with the nuclear power and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK. In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for research installations. Chapter 6, on radwaste disposal, is dedicated to the treatment of waste, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants' proximity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations. All in all, the safety of operation of the Swiss nuclear installations, in the period of 1993, is judged as good by HSK. (author) 10 figs., 11 tabs

  9. The Swiss nuclear installations annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report concerns the safety of the Swiss nuclear installations in the period of 1992. Surveillance of these installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). In Switzerland five nuclear power plants are operational: Beznau I and II, Muehleberg, Goesgen and Leibstadt. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basle. Further subject to HSK's supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration in Switzerland of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities. The present report first deals with the nuclear power plants and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK (chapters 1-4). In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for the research installations. Chapter 6 on radwaste disposal is dedicated to the waste treatment, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by the NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants' vicinity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into some general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations, and in particular covers important events in nuclear installations abroad. In all, the operation of the Swiss nuclear installations in the period of 1992 is rated safe by HSK. (author) 7 figs., 13 tabs

  10. Extreme chirality in Swiss roll metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demetriadou, A; Pendry, J B

    2009-01-01

    The chiral Swiss roll metamaterial is a resonant, magnetic medium that exhibits a negative refractive band for one-wave polarization. Its unique structure facilitates huge chiral effects: a plane polarized wave propagating through this system can change its polarization by 90 deg. in less than a wavelength. Such chirality is at least 100 times greater than previous structures have achieved. In this paper, we discuss this extreme chiral behaviour with both numerical and analytical results.

  11. Swiss economy and the future energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuenberger, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    Lecture of the president of the Swiss Trade and Industry Association at their premises on the occasion of the Annual General meeting of the SVA. The lecture dealt with the subject of economic growth and the difficulties faced by this growth in Switzerland. He formulated energy-political theories in respect of provision security, market economy, free choice between suppliers, economy-friendly energy laws, keeping the nuclear energy option open

  12. CMB seen through random Swiss Cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavinto, Mikko; Räsänen, Syksy, E-mail: mikko.lavinto@helsinki.fi, E-mail: syksy.rasanen@iki.fi [Physics Department, University of Helsinki and Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-10-01

    We consider a Swiss Cheese model with a random arrangement of Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi holes in ΛCDM cheese. We study two kinds of holes with radius r{sub b}=50 h{sup −1} Mpc, with either an underdense or an overdense centre, called the open and closed case, respectively. We calculate the effect of the holes on the temperature, angular diameter distance and, for the first time in Swiss Cheese models, shear of the CMB . We quantify the systematic shift of the mean and the statistical scatter, and calculate the power spectra. In the open case, the temperature power spectrum is three orders of magnitude below the linear ISW spectrum. It is sensitive to the details of the hole, in the closed case the amplitude is two orders of magnitude smaller. In contrast, the power spectra of the distance and shear are more robust, and agree with perturbation theory and previous Swiss Cheese results. We do not find a statistically significant mean shift in the sky average of the angular diameter distance, and obtain the 95% limit |Δ D{sub A}/ D-bar {sub A}|∼< 10{sup −4}. We consider the argument that areas of spherical surfaces are nearly unaffected by perturbations, which is often invoked in light propagation calculations. The closed case is consistent with this at 1σ, whereas in the open case the probability is only 1.4%.

  13. Swiss roll operation for giant fibroadenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, Saleem A; Memon, Sohail A; Mohammad, Noor; Maher, Mumtaz

    2009-01-01

    Fibroadenoma 5 cm or more is called giant fibroadenoma. Giant fibroadenoma can distort the shape of breast and causes asymmetry, so it should be excised. There are several techniques for excision of giant fibroadenoma. In our technique we remove them through cosmetically acceptable circumareolar incision to maintain the shape and symmetry of breast. The objectives were to assess the cosmetic results of Swiss roll operation for giant fibroadenoma. The study was conducted for six years from January, 2002 to December, 2007. Seventy patients of giant fibroadenoma were included in this study. They were diagnosed on history and clinical examination supported by ultrasound and postoperative histopathological examination. Data were collected from outpatient department and operation theatre. Swiss roll operation was performed under general anaesthesia. Mean tumor size was 6.38 cm. Three cm and 4 cm incisions were used for tumour 6 cm in size respectively. Skin closed with Vicryl 3/0 subcuticular stitches. Sixteen out of 70 patients had no scar while others hadminimal scar. All patients had normal shape and symmetry of breast. On histopathology fibroadenoma was confirmed. Giant fibroadenoma should be removed through cosmetically acceptable cicumareolar incision especially in unmarried young females who have small breast. Swiss-roll operation is superior in maintaining the shape and symmetry of breast. No major complication was found in our series except seroma formation in 10 patients.

  14. SwissPalm: Protein Palmitoylation database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Mathieu; David, Fabrice; Abrami, Laurence; Migliozzi, Daniel; Armand, Florence; Bürgi, Jérôme; van der Goot, Françoise Gisou

    2015-01-01

    Protein S-palmitoylation is a reversible post-translational modification that regulates many key biological processes, although the full extent and functions of protein S-palmitoylation remain largely unexplored. Recent developments of new chemical methods have allowed the establishment of palmitoyl-proteomes of a variety of cell lines and tissues from different species.  As the amount of information generated by these high-throughput studies is increasing, the field requires centralization and comparison of this information. Here we present SwissPalm ( http://swisspalm.epfl.ch), our open, comprehensive, manually curated resource to study protein S-palmitoylation. It currently encompasses more than 5000 S-palmitoylated protein hits from seven species, and contains more than 500 specific sites of S-palmitoylation. SwissPalm also provides curated information and filters that increase the confidence in true positive hits, and integrates predictions of S-palmitoylated cysteine scores, orthologs and isoform multiple alignments. Systems analysis of the palmitoyl-proteome screens indicate that 10% or more of the human proteome is susceptible to S-palmitoylation. Moreover, ontology and pathway analyses of the human palmitoyl-proteome reveal that key biological functions involve this reversible lipid modification. Comparative analysis finally shows a strong crosstalk between S-palmitoylation and other post-translational modifications. Through the compilation of data and continuous updates, SwissPalm will provide a powerful tool to unravel the global importance of protein S-palmitoylation.

  15. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank: current status.

    OpenAIRE

    Bairoch, A; Boeckmann, B

    1994-01-01

    SWISS-PROT is an annotated protein sequence database established in 1986 and maintained collaboratively, since 1988, by the Department of Medical Biochemistry of the University of Geneva and the EMBL Data Library. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank consist of sequence entries. Sequence entries are composed of different lines types, each with their own format. For standardization purposes the format of SWISS-PROT follows as closely as possible that of the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Databa...

  16. Swiss multinational enterprises and transnational corruption: management matters

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, N.

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the Office of the Attorney General of Switzerland sanctioned a Swiss corporation for having bribed a Libyan Minister. The same year, it opened a criminal proceeding against the Swiss bank BSI for its involvement in the corruption scandals surrounding the Malaysian company 1MDB. Swiss corporations are also currently under investigation in the Brazilian Petrobras scandal. At the international level, anti-corruption treaties encourage states to make corporations criminally liable for tr...

  17. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of red spinach, green spinach, red chicory, green chicory, green leaf chard, red leaf chard, red Swiss chard, golden Swiss chard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to a combination of red spinach, green spinach, red chicory, green chicory, green leaf chard, red leaf chard, red Swiss chard, golden Swiss chard and white Swiss chard and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage. The food that is the subject of the health claim, a combination...... of the following frozen vegetables: red spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), green spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), red chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), green chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), green leaf chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla), red leaf chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla), red Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var...... conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim were provided by the applicant. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between consumption of a combination of red spinach, green spinach, red chicory, green chicory, green leaf chard, red leaf...

  18. Swiss Strategic Communication in the Defense Sector and Its Implications for Swiss Security Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    rejected because of its projected higher costs compared to buying the fighter jets.392 Through a public -private partnership, the needed Gripens would...necessary military strategies, overall efficiency and coherence can be augmented to the benefit of national security, the public finances, and the...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. SWISS STRATEGIC

  19. Basic principles of Swiss energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiener, E.

    1979-01-01

    The author shows that Swiss energy problems, and the measures to be adopted for their solution, are similar to those in other industrial countries. For Switzerland water power is still the most important indigenous energy source. In energy policy it is necessary to make economies. It is important that those responsible for energy policy tackle the problems today, and not leave it to a time when it is too late. The author is convinced that science and engineering will make much more progress in the energy field. (orig.) [de

  20. ATLAS computing on Swiss Cloud SWITCHengines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, S.; Sciacca, F. G.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    Consolidation towards more computing at flat budgets beyond what pure chip technology can offer, is a requirement for the full scientific exploitation of the future data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva. One consolidation measure is to exploit cloud infrastructures whenever they are financially competitive. We report on the technical solutions and the performances used and achieved running simulation tasks for the ATLAS experiment on SWITCHengines. SWITCHengines is a new infrastructure as a service offered to Swiss academia by the National Research and Education Network SWITCH. While solutions and performances are general, financial considerations and policies, on which we also report, are country specific.

  1. Impact of recession on Swiss pension program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, F B

    1978-04-01

    Legislation drafted in Switzerland in 1975--77 aims at countering the effects of inflation and recession by bringing increased revenues into the system, reducing expenditures, devising a mechanism to adjust pensions automatically, and improving income maintenance for the unemployed. The proposed legislation to place the social security system on a sound financial basis now needs voter approval in a referendum. Swiss voters meanwhile rejected (in mid-1977) a government-proposed value-added tax designed to finance increasing government contributions during 1978-82. Still to be resolved, therefore, is the problem of how the government will finance higher contributions and still achieve its staged goal of a balanced budget.

  2. Successful Swiss solar bicycles in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.

    2000-01-01

    The article takes a look at the Swiss 'Spirit of Bike' team's success in the 'Power Challenge' race across Australia using solar-bicycles based on commercially available models. Apart from the sporting aspects of race, technical details on the cycles and their supply of solar power are given. Also, the history behind the success of the team is presented and the monitoring of man (and woman) and machine during the race is described. The article also discusses the electric bicycles that are commercially available and the potential of these energy-efficient vehicles in Switzerland

  3. ATLAS computing on Swiss Cloud SWITCHengines

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00215485; The ATLAS collaboration; Sciacca, Gianfranco

    2017-01-01

    Consolidation towards more computing at flat budgets beyond what pure chip technology can offer, is a requirement for the full scientific exploitation of the future data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva. One consolidation measure is to exploit cloud infrastructures whenever they are financially competitive. We report on the technical solutions and the performances used and achieved running simulation tasks for the ATLAS experiment on SWITCHengines. SWITCHengines is a new infrastructure as a service offered to Swiss academia by the National Research and Education Network SWITCH. While solutions and performances are general, financial considerations and policies, on which we also report, are country specific.

  4. ATLAS Computing on the Swiss Cloud SWITCHengines

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00215485; The ATLAS collaboration; Sciacca, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Consolidation towards more computing at flat budgets beyond what pure chip technology can offer, is a requirement for the full scientific exploitation of the future data from the Large Hadron Collider. One consolidation measure is to exploit cloud infrastructures whenever they are financially competitive. We report on the technical solutions and the performance used and achieved running ATLAS production on SWITCHengines. SWITCHengines is the new cloud infrastructure offered to Swiss academia by the National Research and Education Network SWITCH. While solutions and performances are general, financial considerations and policies, which we also report on, are country specific.

  5. Production versus environmental impact trade-offs for Swiss cropping systems: a model-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Six, Johan

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing need to improve sustainability of agricultural systems. The key focus remains on optimizing current production systems in order to deliver food security at low environmental costs. It is therefore essential to identify and evaluate agricultural management practices for their potential to maintain or increase productivity and mitigate climate change and N pollution. Previous research on Swiss cropping systems has been concentrated on increasing crop productivity and soil fertility. Thus, relatively little is known about management effects on net soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and environmental N losses in the long-term. The aim of this study was to extrapolate findings from Swiss long-term field experiments and to evaluate the system-level sustainability of a wide range of cropping systems under conditions beyond field experimentation by comparing their crop productivity and impacts on soil carbon, net soil GHG emissions, NO3 leaching and soil N balance over 30 years. The DayCent model was previously parameterized for common Swiss crops and crop-specific management practices and evaluated for productivity, soil carbon dynamics and N2O emissions from Swiss cropping systems. Based on a prediction uncertainty criterion for crop productivity and soil carbon (rRMSEGM). The productivity of Swiss cropping systems was mainly driven by total N inputs to the systems. The GWP of systems ranged from -450 to 1309 kg CO2 eq ha-1 yr-1. All studied systems, except for ORG-RT-GM systems, acted as a source of net soil GHG emissions with the relative contribution of soil N2O emissions to GWP of more than 60%. The GWP of systems with CT decreased consistently with increasing use of organic manures (MIN>IN>ORG). NT relative to RT management showed to be more effective in reducing GWP from MIN systems due to reduced soil N2O emissions and positive effects on soil C sequestration. GM relative to CC management was shown to be more effective in mitigating NO3

  6. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 11, Revision 2 (FGE.11Rev2): Aliphatic dialcohols, diketones, and hydroxyketones from chemical groups 8 and 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Scientific Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) was asked to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs in the Member States. In particular......, the Panel was requested to evaluate 12 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 11, Revision 2 (FGE.11Rev2), using the Procedure as referred to in the Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. These 12 flavouring substances belong to chemical group 10, Annex I of the Commission Regulation (EC...... is a tertiary alcohol) [FL-no: 07.097, 07.165 and 07.184] all belonging to chemical groups 8 and 10. One of the 12 candidate substances possesses four chiral centres [FL-no: 06.134] two possesses two chiral centres [FL-no: 02.133 and 07.168] and four substances possesses one chiral centre [FL-no: 07.097, 07...

  7. Radiation protection in Swiss nuclear installations; Strahlenschutz in Schweizer Kernanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, J.; Brunell, M. [Eidgenoessisches Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat ENSI, Brugg (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    Well developed measures on operational radiation protection within Swiss nuclear installations will be presented. The focus lays on competent authority actions. Results of the last ten years, including events on radiation issues, will be discussed. Finally a view on challenges for radiation protection personnel with respect to a renewed Swiss radiation protection legislation based on recent ICRP recommendations will be given.

  8. CERN receives early 50th anniversary present from Swiss Confederation

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Swiss President Pascal Couchepin announced Wednesday 4 June an early 50th birthday present from the Swiss Confederation to CERN. Switzerland has decided to offer the laboratory the 'Palais de l'Equilibre', a landmark building designed by Geneva architects for Switzerland's 2002 national exhibition" (1/2 page).

  9. Efek Toksin T-2 terhadap Perkembangan Embrio Praimplantasi dan Fetus Mencit Swiss Webster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUS HARYONO

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available T-2 toxin is a toxic and teratogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium tricintum which may contaminate cereal, seed, and food. The aim of this research is to find out the effects of T-2 Toxin on preimplantion embryos and fetuses of Swiss Webster mice. Pregnant female of Swiss Webster mice on 0 or 2 day of gestation was injected intraperitoneally with T-2 toxin at doses 0.05 or 0.10 mg/kg body weight (bw and the dam was observed at 3.5 and 18 days of gestation. At 0 day of gestation, embryos were arrested at one to eight cell and uncompacted morulae stages (P < 0.01 compared to control, in both 0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg bw doses. The cell numbers of late blastocyst at all treated groups were decreased significantly compared to control. At 2 day of gestation, most of embryos were arrested on compacted morulae stage at dose 0.10 mg/kg bw (P < 0.01, the late blastocyst and its cell number were dose-dependently decreased. The live fetuses decreased significantly at all dose of T-2 toxin. No external malformation occurred in the fetuses. Results showed that T-2 toxin given at preimplantation stages inhibited development of preimplantation embryos as indicated by decreased number of live fetuses. Therefore, it was grouped as embryotoxic agent but those dosages did not cause malformation of the external appearance of Swiss Webster mice fetuses.

  10. A First Standardized Swiss Electronic Maternity Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murbach, Michel; Martin, Sabine; Denecke, Kerstin; Nüssli, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    During the nine months of pregnancy, women have to regularly visit several physicians for continuous monitoring of the health and development of the fetus and mother. Comprehensive examination results of different types are generated in this process; documentation and data transmission standards are still unavailable or not in use. Relevant information is collected in a paper-based maternity record carried by the pregnant women. To improve availability and transmission of data, we aim at developing a first prototype for an electronic maternity record for Switzerland. By analyzing the documentation workflow during pregnancy, we determined a maternity record data set. Further, we collected requirements towards a digital maternity record. As data exchange format, the Swiss specific exchange format SMEEX (swiss medical data exchange) was exploited. Feedback from 27 potential users was collected to identify further improvements. The relevant data is extracted from the primary care information system as SMEEX file, stored in a database and made available in a web and a mobile application, developed as prototypes of an electronic maternity record. The user confirmed the usefulness of the system and provided multiple suggestions for an extension. An electronical maternity record as developed in this work could be in future linked to the electronic patient record.

  11. Swiss electricity grid - Benchmarking pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This article is a short version of the ENET number 210369. This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a benchmarking pilot project carried out as a second phase in the development of a formula for the regulation of an open electricity market in Switzerland. It follows on from an initial phase involving the definition of a 'blue print' and a basic concept. The aims of the pilot project - to check out the practicability of the concept - are discussed. The collection of anonymised data for the benchmarking model from over 30 electricity utilities operating on all 7 Swiss grid levels and their integration in the three areas 'Technology', 'Grid Costs' and 'Capital Invested' are discussed in detail. In particular, confidentiality and data protection aspects are looked at. The methods used in the analysis of the data are described and the results of an efficiency analysis of various utilities are presented. The report is concluded with a listing of questions concerning data collection and analysis as well as operational and capital costs that are still to be answered

  12. Replacement of Swiss "Attestations de fonctions"

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN that the "attestations de fonctions" issued to certain members of the personnel and the "attestations" issued to their family members will gradually be replaced by P-type "cartes de légitimation" (see specimen copies in the printed Bulletin). This card’s name, together with its more contemporary design compared with old-style "Attestations" issued in the 1970s, will make the holder’s daily life much easier, e.g. when crossing borders, renting accommodation or setting up a telephone line. The Users Office (PH Department) and the Cards Office (HR Department), which are responsible for handling requests for "cartes de légitimation", will provide information in due course on how they intend to organise the exchange of "attestations" (priority will be given to residents of Switzerland, in particular those requiring a visa for the Schengen area). In this context, we remind you that the Swiss Permanent Mission is systematically in...

  13. The Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research SIN

    CERN Document Server

    Pritzker, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This book tells the story of the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research (SIN). The institute was founded in 1968 and became part of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in 1988. Its founding occurred at a time when physics was generally considered the key discipline for technological and social development. This step was unusual for a small country like Switzerland and showed courage and foresight. Equally unusual were the accomplishments of SIN, compared with similar institutes in the rest of the world, as well as its influence on Swiss, and partially also on international politics of science. That this story is now available in a widely understandable form is due to the efforts of some physicists, who took the initiative as long as contemporary witnesses could still be questioned. As is usually the case, official documents always show just an excerpt of what really happened. An intimate portrayal of people who contributed to success requires personal memories. This text relies on both sources. In addition, the e...

  14. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, Revision 3 (FGE.20Rev3): Benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids, and related esters from chemical groups 23 and 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider in this revision 3 of Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, the SCF Opinion on benzoic acid. Furthermore information on stereoisomeric composition for two...... Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the substances were considered to have genotoxic potential. The substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern...

  15. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 23, Revision 3 (FGE.23Rev3): Aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic ethers including anisole derivatives from chemical groups 15, 16, 22, 26 and 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 20 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 23, Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None...... of the MSDI approach. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. Specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all 20 candidate substances....

  16. SwissFEL injector conceptual design report. Accelerator test facility for SwissFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrozzi, M.

    2010-07-01

    This comprehensive report issued by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland takes a look at the design concepts behind the institute's SwissFEL X-ray Laser facility - in particular concerning the conceptual design of the injector system. The SwissFEL X-ray FEL project at PSI, involves the development of an injector complex that enables operation of a FEL system operating at 0.1 - 7 nm with permanent-magnet undulator technology and minimum beam energy. The injector pre-project was motivated by the challenging electron beam requirements necessary to drive the SwissFEL accelerator facility. The report takes a look at the mission of the test facility and its performance goals. The accelerator layout and the electron source are described, as are the low-level radio-frequency power systems and the synchronisation concept. The general strategy for beam diagnostics is introduced. Low energy electron beam diagnostics, the linear accelerator (Linac) and bunch compressor diagnostics are discussed, as are high-energy electron beam diagnostics. Wavelength selection for the laser system and UV pulse shaping are discussed. The laser room for the SwissFEL Injector and constructional concepts such as the girder system and alignment concepts involved are looked at. A further chapter deals with beam dynamics, simulated performance and injector optimisation. The facility's commissioning and operation program is examined, as are operating regimes, software applications and data storage. The control system structure and architecture is discussed and special subsystems are described. Radiation safety, protection systems and shielding calculations are presented and the lateral shielding of the silo roof examined

  17. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2016-10-11

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people's attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties-namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased-but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception.

  18. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J.

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people’s attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties—namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased—but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception. PMID:27725715

  19. Loosening After Acetabular Revision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckmann, Nicholas A.; Weiss, Stefan; Klotz, Matthias C.M.

    2014-01-01

    The best method of revision acetabular arthroplasty remains unclear. Consequently, we reviewed the literature on the treatment of revision acetabular arthroplasty using revision rings (1541 cases; mean follow-up (FU) 5.7 years) and Trabecular Metal, or TM, implants (1959 cases; mean FU 3.7 years...

  20. Replacement of Swiss "Attestations de fonctions"

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN that the "attestations de fonctions" issued to certain members of the personnel and the "attestations" issued to their family members will gradually be replaced by P-type "cartes de légitimation" (see specimen copies below). This card’s name, together with its more contemporary design compared with old-style "Attestations" issued in the 1970s, will make the holder’s daily life much easier, e.g. when crossing borders, renting accommodation or setting up a telephone line. The Users Office (PH Department) and the Cards Office (HR Department), which are responsible for handling requests for "cartes de légitimation", will provide information in due course on how they intend to organise the exchange of "attestations" (priority will be given to residents of Switzerland, in parti...

  1. Swiss-Cheese Gravitino Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aalok

    2014-06-01

    We present a phenomenological model which we show can be obtained as a local realization of large volume D 3 / D 7 μ-Split SUSY on a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the big divisor of a Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau [Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra, arxiv:arXiv:1207.2774 [hep-ph], Nucl. Phys. B867 (2013) 636-748]. After identification of the first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic super-partners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup.

  2. Swiss-Cheese Gravitino Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Aalok

    2014-01-01

    We present a phenomenological model which we show can be obtained as a local realization of large volume D3/D7μ-Split SUSY on a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the big divisor of a Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau [Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra, (arXiv:1207.2774 [hep-ph]), Nucl. Phys. B867 (2013) 636–748]. After identification of the first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic super-partners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup

  3. Swiss-Cheese Gravitino Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Aalok

    2014-06-15

    We present a phenomenological model which we show can be obtained as a local realization of large volume D3/D7μ-Split SUSY on a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the big divisor of a Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau [Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra, (arXiv:1207.2774 [hep-ph]), Nucl. Phys. B867 (2013) 636–748]. After identification of the first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic super-partners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup.

  4. Swiss solar power statistics 2007 - Significant expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostettler, T.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents and discusses the 2007 statistics for solar power in Switzerland. A significant number of new installations is noted as is the high production figures from newer installations. The basics behind the compilation of the Swiss solar power statistics are briefly reviewed and an overview for the period 1989 to 2007 is presented which includes figures on the number of photovoltaic plant in service and installed peak power. Typical production figures in kilowatt-hours (kWh) per installed kilowatt-peak power (kWp) are presented and discussed for installations of various sizes. Increased production after inverter replacement in older installations is noted. Finally, the general political situation in Switzerland as far as solar power is concerned are briefly discussed as are international developments.

  5. Swiss geothermal energy update 1985 - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybach, L.; Hauber, L.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1985, geothermal R and D has evolved steadily in Switzerland. REgional low-enthalphy exploration and resource assessment are largely complete; emphasis is now on drilling and development. Vertical earth-heat exchangers (small-scale, decentralized, heat pump-coupled heating facilities) increase rapidly in number; the governmental system of risk coverage for geothermal drilling, established in 1987, gives rise to several drilling projects. Of these, a single well and a doublet have been successfully completed so far. Numerical modeling of coupled thermohydraulic processes in fracture-dominate Hot Dry Rock systems including rock-mechanics aspects, is in progress. In this paper some further efforts such as contributions to general geothermics, exploration and resource assessment activities in Switzerland, and financing of geothermal development abroad by Swiss banks are described

  6. The Swiss electrical power industry: energy policy problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tognola, F.

    1986-01-01

    The emotive consequences of the Chernobyl accident have had a devastating effect on Swiss public opinion and endanger the serious effort by the Swiss electrical power industry over many years at making possible a power supply capable of meeting increasing demand at minimum cost, compatible with security of supply and protection of the environment. It is considered that two new nuclear power stations will be required, one in 1995 and the other in 2000. The serious consequences if these are not built and, particularly, if it were decided to shut down all existing Swiss nuclear stations are stressed. (P.G.R.)

  7. Problems of gas marketing, particularly with respect to Swiss conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunzinger, W

    1981-07-01

    Rising gas prices have required a change in Switzerland's marketing strategy to a greater emphasis on the residential, commercial, and service sectors. A Swiss committee on energy in 1978 reported on three different scenarios for Swiss energy development. Excluding district heating and cogeneration use, natural gas consumption, though modest by world standards, grew 13.3% in 1979 to reach 7848 GWhr, or 4.2% of the total energy consumption. The Swiss gas industry association in 1979 began an information campaign to send out a series of six letters about gas.

  8. Romanian - Swiss cooperative research programme "Environmental Science and Technology in Romania" (ESTROM)

    OpenAIRE

    PANIN, Nicolae; GIGER, Walter

    2008-01-01

    The Romanian Ministry for Education, Research and Youth (MECT), the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and the Swiss National Science Foundation had launched in 2004 the Romanian-Swiss research programme known as “Environmental Science and Technology in Romania” (ESTROM). ESTROM was established as a pilot programme of scientific co-operation between Swiss Research and Education Units with similar ones from Romania in the framework of SCOPES – a Swiss national programme for sup...

  9. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 30, Revision 1 (FGE.30Rev1): 4-Prop-1-enylphenol and 2-methoxy-4-(prop- 1enyl)phenyl 3-methylbutyrate from chemical group 17

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate two flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 30, Revision 1, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the su......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate two flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 30, Revision 1, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None...... of the substances were considered to have genotoxic potential. The two substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel...... concluded that the two substances [FL-no: 04.097, 09.894] do not give rise to safety concerns at their levels of dietary intake, estimated on the basis of the MSDI approach. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been...

  10. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 08, Revision 4 (FGE.08Rev4): Aliphatic and alicyclic mono-, di-, tri-, and polysulphides with or without additional oxygenated functional groups from chemical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 80 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 08, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. Since the publi......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 80 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 08, Revision 4, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. Since...... be estimated and accordingly the Panel concluded that the Procedure could not be applied to these four substances either. The remaining 71 substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach that integrates information on the structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold.......116, 12.120, 12.164, 12.167, 12.199, 15.007, 15.102 and 15.125 and 15.134], evaluated through the Procedure, no appropriate NOAEL was available and additional data are required. Besides the safety assessment of the flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been...

  11. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 06, Revision 3 (FGE.06Rev3): Straight- and branched-chain aliphatic unsaturated primary alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, and esters from chemical groups 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 50 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 6, Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the subs......The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 50 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 6, Revision 3, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None...... of the substances were considered to have genotoxic potential. The substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity...... of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered. For one substance [FL-no: 09.938] an identity test is missing and for two substances [FL-no: 05.226 and 09.950] the range of the specific gravity is too wide. Additional, the stereoisomeric mixture has not been...

  12. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank

    OpenAIRE

    Bairoch, Amos; Boeckmann, Brigitte

    1992-01-01

    SWISS-PROT is an annotated protein sequence database established in 1986 and maintained collaboratively, since 1988, by the Department of Medical Biochemistry of the University of Geneva and the EMBL Data Library

  13. Wind energy and Swiss hydroelectric power; Windenergie und schweizerischer Wasserkraftpark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Fritz, W.; Zimmer, Ch.; Feldmann, J. [Consentec GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Haubrich, H.-J.; Dany, G.; Schmoeller, H.; Hartmann, T. [Institut fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Energiewirtschaft RWTH Aachen (IAEW), Aachen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to analyse the possible changes in the European electricity supply system, in particular with reference to the increasing amount of wind-generated electricity. Also, the role of peak-power and the optimisation potential for Swiss hydropower was examined. The part to be played by Swiss wind power in the future and the government's sustainability strategy is also looked at. The report looks at electricity dealing in the European context and introduces a method of assessment for Swiss hydropower. The report's conclusions and recommendations cover the increasing importance of energy storage in hydropower schemes, the question if grid capacity is sufficient under the new conditions, the market liberalisation question and possible ecological problems that may be encountered.

  14. bipyridinium dichloride-induced hepatic and renal toxicity in Swiss

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. ... Methods: Three groups of Swiss albino mice (n = 10), i.e., control, paraquat (15 mg/kg) ... Control and vitamin C-treated mice .... Tokyo, Japan).

  15. Serological Changes Induced by Blend of Sunset Yellow, Metanil Yellow and Tartrazine in Swiss Albino Rat, Rattus Norvegicus

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic effect of blend of some food colors on Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: A blend (1:1:1) of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine showed additive effects on serological parameters which indicate that addition of these dye together in food stuff may give rise to more toxic effects than are produced by each dye individually. Animals were divided into four groups (I, II, III, and IV). First group was treated as con...

  16. The consolidation of annual accounts in the Swiss Federal Government

    OpenAIRE

    Vollenweider, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Financial reporting in the public sector is influenced by the private sector accounting standards. The Swiss Federal Government has recently started to prepare consolidated financial statements. The purpose of this study is to describe how the Swiss Federal Government is doing its consolidated financial statements. Theoretically there are different consolidation theories and methods. The choice of consolidation method can explain which consolidation theory is used when the financial statement...

  17. What Triggers Early Retirement. Results from Swiss Pension Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Bütler; Olivia Huguenin; Federica Teppa

    2004-01-01

    Early retirement is predominantly considered as the result of incentives set by social security and the tax system. But people seem to retire early even in the absence of such distortions as the Swiss example demonstrates. We look for determinants of early retirement, in particular the role of lifetime income and family status, using individual data from a selection of Swiss pension funds. Our findings suggest that affordability is a key determinant in retirement decisions: More affluent men,...

  18. O-GLYCBASE version 2.0: a revised database of O-glycosylated proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jan; Lund, Ole; Rapacki, Kristoffer

    1997-01-01

    O-GLYCBASE is an updated database of information on glycoproteins and their O-linked glycosylation sites. Entries are compiled and revised from the literature, and from the SWISS-PROT database. Entries include information about species, sequence, glycosylation sites and glycan type. O-GLYCBASE is...... patterns for the GalNAc, mannose and GlcNAc transferases are shown. The O-GLYCBASE database is available through WWW or by anonymous FTP....

  19. Digital Preservation at the Swiss Federal Archives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnesorge, Krystyna

    2012-01-01

    The Swiss Federal Archives (SFA) archives Swiss government data when it is no longer in use. The SFA is responsible for advising, inspecting and issuing directives in records management and archiving services in offices, agencies and institutions subjected to the Federal Act on Archiving; as well as archiving and disseminating records and data of archival value. With regard to RWM, it thus in fact is an additional regulator. The conceptual basis for digital archiving at the SFA is based on the ISO OAIS Open Archival Information System Reference Model (ISO 14721:2003). The SFA use a process-orientated approach. The SFA and the Federal Office decide jointly which documents and data are to be archived. Archive-worthy documents and data are selected on the basis of a systematic appraisal. Wherever possible this should be carried out pro-actively - before the documents are actually created - based on an indexing or classification system. If there is clarity, people will know what data - and metadata - to keep for the submission. The submission is split into several stages, from appraisal to the conclusion of the submission. Information is never changed once it is archived, except that it carries out conservation measures. New information is a new submission. The sustainable information management is a core expertise of national archives. The SFA preserves digital records and data and is responsible for their secure and appropriate safe-keeping, description and dissemination. For the archiving of relational databases (e.g. Microsoft Access, Oracle and SQL Server), the SFA have developed a format known as SIARD (Software Independent Archiving of Relational Databases). SIARD is an open standard and is supported by the SIARD Suite application, which can be used to convert relational databases into SIARD format. The SIARD Suite is now in use worldwide (over 170 downloads). The SFA distribute the SIARD Suite free of charge in conformity with the license agreement. Currently

  20. Effects of post-Kyoto policy on the Swiss national economy - Analysis using a single-country equilibrium model; Volkswirtschaftliche Auswirkungen der Schweizer Post-Kyoto-Politik - Analyse mit einem dynamischen Gleichgewichtsmodell fuer die Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-08-15

    This final report elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) deals with questions concerning Swiss climate policy after 2012. In 2012, existing climate legislation as defined in CO{sub 2} emission legislation is to be revised and brought in line with European legislation on greenhouse gases. The paper presents and discusses the proposals of the Swiss government that are to make Switzerland climate-neutral. These questions include how high a steering-tax must be in order to provide a 20% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, which effects on the economy in general (BIP) and on particular sectors are to be expected, how households will be affected and how large the positive secondary side-effects are. The methods used in the study and their limitations are examined. In particular, a dynamic, single-country equilibrium model is introduced and various scenarios are discussed

  1. Multivariate analysis of dietary patterns in 939 Swiss adults: sociodemographic parameters and alcohol consumption profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gex-Fabry, M; Raymond, L; Jeanneret, O

    1988-09-01

    A dietary survey of 939 Swiss adults, randomly selected from the population of Geneva and its surrounding communities, was performed according to the history method. A factor analysis, using average weekly intakes for 33 food variables, reveals three principal components of the diet: satiating capacity, healthfulness and culinary complexity. These characteristics, together with the energy content of the diet, were analysed for differences according to sex, age, relative weight index, birthplace, marital status and occupation. All of these sociodemographic variables influence some dimension of dietary habits. Alcohol consumption is positively associated with satiating, protein rich diets, but energy intake from foods does not significantly differ between various groups of abstainers and drinkers. Although the energy contribution of alcoholic beverages is globally additive, we suggest that cultural and societal norms may modulate the relationship of alcohol and diet.

  2. Safety climate in Swiss hospital units: Swiss version of the Safety Climate Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Katrin; Mascherek, Anna C.; Bezzola, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rationale, aims and objectives Safety climate measurements are a broadly used element of improvement initiatives. In order to provide a sound and easy‐to‐administer instrument for the use in Swiss hospitals, we translated the Safety Climate Survey into German and French. Methods After translating the Safety Climate Survey into French and German, a cross‐sectional survey study was conducted with health care professionals (HCPs) in operating room (OR) teams and on OR‐related wards in 10 Swiss hospitals. Validity of the instrument was examined by means of Cronbach's alpha and missing rates of the single items. Item‐descriptive statistics group differences and percentage of ‘problematic responses’ (PPR) were calculated. Results 3153 HCPs completed the survey (response rate: 63.4%). 1308 individuals were excluded from the analyses because of a profession other than doctor or nurse or invalid answers (n = 1845; nurses = 1321, doctors = 523). Internal consistency of the translated Safety Climate Survey was good (Cronbach's alpha G erman = 0.86; Cronbach's alpha F rench = 0.84). Missing rates at item level were rather low (0.23–4.3%). We found significant group differences in safety climate values regarding profession, managerial function, work area and time spent in direct patient care. At item level, 14 out of 21 items showed a PPR higher than 10%. Conclusions Results indicate that the French and German translations of the Safety Climate Survey might be a useful measurement instrument for safety climate in Swiss hospital units. Analyses at item level allow for differentiating facets of safety climate into more positive and critical safety climate aspects. PMID:25656302

  3. Determination of changes to TFWT and OBT concentrations in potatoes and Swiss chard as a result of preparation for human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.B.; Bredlaw, M.; Farrow, F.

    2014-01-01

    Ingestion is one of the most important pathways to consider for calculating tritium dose to human beings. The objective of this study is to determine changes to TFWT and OBT concentrations in food as a result of its preparation for consumption. The contribution of OBT to the total tritium dose can be reduced by the oxidation of OBT during food preparation. The results show that preparation for consumption can result in reductions of up to 46% in TFWT concentration and 54% in OBT concentration in potato, and 22% in TFWT concentration and 57% in OBT concentration in Swiss chard. - Highlights: • Determine changes to TFWT and OBT concentrations in potatoes and Swiss chard. • The contribution of OBT to the total tritium dose can be reduced by the oxidation of OBT during food preparation. • Reductions were up to 46% in TFWT and 57% in OBT

  4. Swiss Farmer Power - Biogas from farms will be the fuel for tomorrow; Biogas vom Bauer wird zum Treibstoff von morgen - SwissFarmerPower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruecker, U. [ITZ InnovationsTransfer Zentralschweiz, Horw (Switzerland); Limacher, R. [bapGROUP AG, Lucerne (Switzerland); Engeli, H. [Engeli Engineering, Neerach (Switzerland); Henggeler, H. [Fenaco Alternativ Energie, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that involves the building of a joint biogas plant serving 60 farmers and industrial companies with an annual processing capacity of 45,000 tons. The plant is to produce biogas to be fed into the gas mains and will not only reduce nutrient loading in a region with an extensive livestock industry but also reduce carbon dioxide emissions by using the gas as a motor fuel. The importance of the project with respect to both the environment and energy policy-making is discussed and the costs involved are examined. Details are presented on the technology used and on the material flows involved. Figures are quoted on energy production. The various biogenic substrates used, such as food wastes, waste oils, cereal wastes and used mushroom substrates, are discussed, as is the use of the solid and liquid outputs of the digester in farming activities.

  5. A Swiss Pocket Knife for Computability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D. Jones

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research is about operational- and complexity-oriented aspects of classical foundations of computability theory. The approach is to re-examine some classical theorems and constructions, but with new criteria for success that are natural from a programming language perspective. Three cornerstones of computability theory are the S-m-ntheorem; Turing's "universal machine''; and Kleene's second recursion theorem. In today's programming language parlance these are respectively partial evaluation, self-interpretation, and reflection. In retrospect it is fascinating that Kleene's 1938 proof is constructive; and in essence builds a self-reproducing program. Computability theory originated in the 1930s, long before the invention of computers and programs. Its emphasis was on delimiting the boundaries of computability. Some milestones include 1936 (Turing, 1938 (Kleene, 1967 (isomorphism of programming languages, 1985 (partial evaluation, 1989 (theory implementation, 1993 (efficient self-interpretation and 2006 (term register machines. The "Swiss pocket knife'' of the title is a programming language that allows efficient computer implementation of all three computability cornerstones, emphasising the third: Kleene's second recursion theorem. We describe experiments with a tree-based computational model aiming for both fast program generation and fast execution of the generated programs.

  6. An estimation of the Swiss hydropower rent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banfi, Silvia; Filippini, Massimo; Mueller, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    The electricity generation in Switzerland is mostly based on hydropower (∼58%) and nuclear power (∼38%). The exploitation of water in the hydropower sector can generate significant economic rent. One possibility to capture this rent is through royalties or fees. This system has been used in Switzerland since many decades. However, the actual water fee system is not flexible and does not take into consideration different production costs between the type and location of hydropower plants. Furthermore, storage plants can sell electricity to a higher price than run-of-river plants. A flexible system is needed in a liberalized electricity market, to take into account these different production situations and the fact that prices may vary considerably over time. The main goal of this paper is to calculate the potential economic rent that could be generated in the Swiss hydropower sector under a future liberalized market. Based on the results of the paper, it can be concluded that the introduction of a flexible fee system could improve the competitiveness of the hydropower sector and promote an energy system based on renewable energy sources

  7. Biomass - Overview of Swiss Research Programme 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2003-01-01

    This overview for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results obtained in 2003 in various research projects worked on in Switzerland on the subject of biomass. In the biomass combustion area, subjects discussed include system optimisation for automatic firing, combustion particles, low-particle pellet furnaces, design and optimisation of wood-fired storage ovens, efficiency of filtering techniques and methane generation from wood. Also, an accredited testing centre for wood furnaces is mentioned and measurements made on an installation are presented. As far as the fermentation of biogenic wastes is concerned, biogas production from dairy-product wastes is described. Other projects discussed include a study on eco-balances of energy products, certification and marketing of biogas, evaluation of membranes, a measurement campaign for solar sludge-drying, the operation of a percolator installation for the treatment of bio-wastes, the effects of compost on the environment and the fermentation of coffee wastes. Also, statistics on biogas production in 2002 is looked at. Finally, a preliminary study on biofuels is presented

  8. Radionuclide sorption database for Swiss safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, I.G.; Hadermann, J.

    1984-10-01

    Recommended sorption data for use in transport models for a Swiss High-Level Waste repository are presented. The models used in 'Project Gewaehr 1985' assume linear sorption isotherms and require elemental partition coefficient (Kd) data. On the basis of a literature search 'realistic' Kd data for 22 elements have been selected for weathered crystalline rock and sediments in contact with a reducing groundwater and also sediments with a less reducing groundwater. In an appendix sorption data for 28 elements on bentonite backfill are given. These data are supplemented with 'conservative' estimates taken to represent minimum reasonable values. Available data are discussed for each element clearly exhibiting (i) the large gaps in knowledge, (ii) their unbalanced distribution between different elements and, hence, (iii) the need for further experiments in the laboratory, the field and analogue studies. An overview of the theoretical concepts of sorption, experimental methodology and data interpretation is given in order to put the values into context. General problem areas are identified. (Auth.)

  9. Stress and burnout among Swiss dental residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divaris, Kimon; Lai, Caroline S; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Eliades, Theodore; Katsaros, Christos

    2012-01-01

    Stress and burnout have been well-documented in graduate medical and undergraduate dental education, but studies among dental graduate students and residents are sparse. The purpose of this investigation was to examine perceived stressors and three dimensions of burnout among dental residents enrolled in the University of Bern, Switzerland. Thirty-six residents enrolled in five specialty programmes were administered the Graduate Dental Environment Stress (GDES30) questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Individual stress items and overall GDES30 scores were used to quantify perceived stress. To measure burnout, proportions of burnout "cases" and MBI subscale scores were computed in the domains of emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP) and reduced personal accomplishment (PA). Analyses relied on descriptive and bi-variate methods. The mean GDES30 score was 2.1 (SD = 0.4). "Lack of leisure time", "meeting the research requirement of the programme" and "completing graduation requirements" emerged as the top three stressors. Thirty-six percent of respondents were burnout "cases" on the PA scale, while this proportion was 17% for EE and 8% for DP. Both stress and burnout levels increased according to year of study, whereas younger residents and females had consistently higher stress and burnout scores compared to older ones and males. Overall, low levels of perceived stress and burnout were found among this group of Swiss dental residents.

  10. Bibliocable. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    This selective, annotated bibliography is a revision of the original published in 1972 (ED 071 402). Some 104 books, articles, and reports included here deal with access, applications, franchising, regulation, technology, and other aspects of cable television. The listings are of two types in each category. First are revisions of the original…

  11. [Swiss research agenda for gerontological nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Lorenz; Naef, Rahel; Mahrer-Imhof, Romy

    2008-12-01

    In Switzerland life expectancy is currently 84 years in women and 79 years in men. By 2030 the number of people over 80 will increase by 83% to 625 000. The need of nursing care in this population is expected to double. In order to ensure high quality care, scientific knowledge generated by nursing research is, therefore, pivotal. Within the framework of a national project, a nursing research agenda has been formulated based on a literature review, expert panels, a national survey, and a consensus conference; seven priorities for clinical nursing research for the years 2007-2017 have been developed. In the field of gerontological nursing twenty-one research priorities have been identified. They include among others interventions to support independent living and autonomy at home or the impact of new technology on nursing care of the elderly. Support for caregivers and the health of caregivers of patients with dementia have to be addressed as well as interventions for specific challenges in the elderly such as fall prevention, delirium, malnutrition, and depression. Pivotal questions in nursing research are concerned with the continuity of nursing care that exceeds institutional and professional boundaries. Moreover, it is recommended that research projects address the impact of political decisions on nursing care and provide knowledge to improve quality in nursing homes and community health care. With this article the first research agenda for gerontological nursing is presented, that is based on the seven priorities of the Swiss Research Agenda for Nursing-SRAN and in turn can be used as a basis for strategic discussion, action plans, and research projects.

  12. INFLUENCE OF MICROBIOTA IN EXPERIMENTAL CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN SWISS MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVEIRA Marcia Rosa de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of Swiss/NIH mice with Leishmania major was compared with infection in isogenic resistant C57BL/6 and susceptible BALB/c mice. Swiss/NIH mice showed self-controlled lesions in the injected foot pad. The production of high levels of interferon-g (IFN-g and low levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 by cells from these animals suggests that they mount a Th1-type immune response. The importance of the indigenous microbiota on the development of murine leishmaniasis was investigated by infecting germfree Swiss/NIH in the hind footpad with L. major and conventionalizing after 3 weeks of infection. Lesions from conventionalized Swiss/NIH mice were significantly larger than conventional mice. Histopathological analysis of lesions from conventionalized animals showed abscesses of variable shapes and sizes and high numbers of parasitized macrophages. In the lesions from conventional mice, besides the absence of abscess formation, parasites were rarely observed. On the other hand, cells from conventional and conventionalized mice produced similar Th1-type response characterized by high levels of IFN-g and low levels of IL-4. In this study, we demonstrated that Swiss/NIH mice are resistant to L. major infection and that the absence of the normal microbiota at the beginning of infection significantly influenced the lesion size and the inflammatory response at the site of infection.

  13. Effect of cold exposure on energy budget and thermogenesis during lactation in Swiss mice raising large litters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jun Zhao

    2012-02-01

    In Swiss mice sustained energy intake (SusEI during peak lactation has been previously suggested to be constrained by the capacity of the mammary glands to produce milk, supporting the “peripheral limitation” hypothesis. Here we experimentally examined if SusEI in these mice was not only limited peripherally but also constrained by the ability to dissipate heat. Female Swiss mice were provided with additional offspring above their natural litter sizes and were maintained during lactation either in warm (23°C or cold (5°C conditions. Food intake, thermogenesis, litter size and mass, and the weight of the mammary glands were measured. No differences were observed in asymptotic food intake at peak lactation, litter mass and thermogenesis between females raising litters of different size. Cold-exposed females increased food intake and thermogenic capacity, but weaned significantly smaller and lighter litters with smaller pup sizes compared with females in warm conditions. The weight of the mammary glands did not differ between warm and cold-exposed females, but within temperatures was positively related to litter mass. These data suggested that cold exposure increased food intake, but had no effect on the capacity of the mammary glands to secret milk because they were already working maximally in the females raising larger litters. The factors causing this limit in the mammary capacity remain elusive.

  14. Constructing food choice decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobal, Jeffery; Bisogni, Carole A

    2009-12-01

    Food choice decisions are frequent, multifaceted, situational, dynamic, and complex and lead to food behaviors where people acquire, prepare, serve, give away, store, eat, and clean up. Many disciplines and fields examine decision making. Several classes of theories are applicable to food decision making, including social behavior, social facts, and social definition perspectives. Each offers some insights but also makes limiting assumptions that prevent fully explaining food choice decisions. We used constructionist social definition perspectives to inductively develop a food choice process model that organizes a broad scope of factors and dynamics involved in food behaviors. This food choice process model includes (1) life course events and experiences that establish a food choice trajectory through transitions, turning points, timing, and contexts; (2) influences on food choices that include cultural ideals, personal factors, resources, social factors, and present contexts; and (3) a personal system that develops food choice values, negotiates and balances values, classifies foods and situations, and forms/revises food choice strategies, scripts, and routines. The parts of the model dynamically interact to make food choice decisions leading to food behaviors. No single theory can fully explain decision making in food behavior. Multiple perspectives are needed, including constructionist thinking.

  15. Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands.......Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands....

  16. The methane emissions of the Swiss gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinmin, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a method for the estimation of the methane emissions caused by the Swiss gas industry. Based on new data on the Swiss gas infrastructure, current emission levels are estimated for methane - one of the major greenhouse gases. The methodology and modelling used, which is based on previous studies on this topic, are discussed. Results are presented that show that the estimates provided by the current study are consistent with earlier data. Scenarios are presented that show that a steady decrease in methane emissions emanating from the Swiss gas industry's installations can be expected by the year 2012. The data used in the study and its results are presented in tabular and graphical form and commented on

  17. Swiss and German Ministers make a joint visit to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On Friday, 23 May the German Federal Minister of Education and Research, Annette Schavan, and the Head of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Micheline Calmy-Rey, paid a joint visit to CERN. German Federal Minister of Education and Research, Annette Schavan and the Head of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Micheline Calmy-Rey, with Robert Aymar, Rolf-Dieter Heuer and Jos Engelen. The Swiss and German ministers in front of the ATLAS experiment, accompanied by Robert Aymar, Rolf-Dieter Heuer, Jos Engelen and Peter Jenni. Director-General Robert Aymar gave the ministers a short introduction to CERN, which was followed by the signing of the Guest Book. Both ministers took the opportunity to go to Point 1 to visit the ATLAS experiment, guided by the ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni, and also the LHC tunnel.

  18. A scenario planning approach for disasters on Swiss road network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, G. A.; Axhausen, K. W.; Andrade, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-05-01

    We study a vehicular traffic scenario on Swiss roads in an emergency situation, calculating how sequentially roads block due to excessive traffic load until global collapse (gridlock) occurs and in this way displays the fragilities of the system. We used a database from Bundesamt für Raumentwicklung which contains length and maximum allowed speed of all roads in Switzerland. The present work could be interesting for government agencies in planning and managing for emergency logistics for a country or a big city. The model used to generate the flux on the Swiss road network was proposed by Mendes et al. [Physica A 391, 362 (2012)]. It is based on the conservation of the number of vehicles and allows for an easy and fast way to follow the formation of traffic jams in large systems. We also analyze the difference between a nonlinear and a linear model and the distribution of fluxes on the Swiss road.

  19. Physical optics simulations with PHASE for SwissFEL beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flechsig, U.; Follath, R.; Reiche, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Swiss Light Source, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Bahrdt, J. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-27

    PHASE is a software tool for physical optics simulation based on the stationary phase approximation method. The code is under continuous development since about 20 years and has been used for instance for fundamental studies and ray tracing of various beamlines at the Swiss Light Source. Along with the planning for SwissFEL a new hard X-ray free electron laser under construction, new features have been added to permit practical performance predictions including diffraction effects which emerge with the fully coherent source. We present the application of the package on the example of the ARAMIS 1 beamline at SwissFEL. The X-ray pulse calculated with GENESIS and given as an electrical field distribution has been propagated through the beamline to the sample position. We demonstrate the new features of PHASE like the treatment of measured figure errors, apertures and coatings of the mirrors and the application of Fourier optics propagators for free space propagation.

  20. Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission - Annual report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maus, K.

    2009-01-01

    This annual report presents a review of the activities carried out by the Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission CORE in the year 2008. Main points of interest were the definition of a new CORE vision, a review of all research programmes, co-operation and co-ordination with public and private institutes, active consultancy, recommendations for further education and training, improved international information exchange and good communication with business, politics and the general public. The definition of a concept for Swiss energy research for the period 2012 to 2016 is mentioned. The annual report also reports on an internal visit made to various laboratories of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne and the Energy Center in Zurich. The focussing of CORE activities on particular themes is discussed

  1. [Main results of the Swiss study on DRGs (Casemix Study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casemix, E

    1989-01-01

    Sponsored by the Health Administrations of nine cantons, this study was conducted by the University Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine in Lausanne in order to assess how DRGs could be used within the Swiss context. A data base mainly provided by the Swiss VESKA statistics was used. The first step provided the transformation of Swiss diagnostic and intervention codes into US codes, allowing direct use of the Yale Grouper for DRG. The second step showed that the overall performance of DRG in terms of variability reduction of the length of stay was similar to the one observed in US; there are, however, problems when the homogeneity of medicotechnical procedures for DRG is considered. The third steps showed how DRG could be used as an account unit in hospital, and how costs per DRG could be estimated. Other examples of applications of DRG were examined, for example comparison of Casemix or length of stay between hospitals.

  2. Szekeres Swiss-cheese model and supernova observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Celerier, Marie-Noeelle

    2010-01-01

    We use different particular classes of axially symmetric Szekeres Swiss-cheese models for the study of the apparent dimming of the supernovae of type Ia. We compare the results with those obtained in the corresponding Lemaitre-Tolman Swiss-cheese models. Although the quantitative picture is different the qualitative results are comparable, i.e., one cannot fully explain the dimming of the supernovae using small-scale (∼50 Mpc) inhomogeneities. To fit successfully the data we need structures of order of 500 Mpc size or larger. However, this result might be an artifact due to the use of axial light rays in axially symmetric models. Anyhow, this work is a first step in trying to use Szekeres Swiss-cheese models in cosmology and it will be followed by the study of more physical models with still less symmetry.

  3. EFSA Panel on food contact materials, enzymes, flavourings and processing aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 23, Revision 2 (FGE.23Rev2): Aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic ethers including anisole derivatives from chemical groups 15, 16, 22, 26 and 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs...... in the Member States. In particular, the Panel was requested to evaluate 19 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 23, Revision 2 (FGE.23Rev2), using the Procedure as referred to in the Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. These 19 flavouring substances belong to chemical groups 15, 16, 22......-no: 03.022] Industry has informed that it occurs as a mixture of E- & Z-isomers, however, the composition of the mixture has to be specified. Two of the flavouring substances are classified into structural class I, seven are classified into structural class II and 10 are classified into structural class...

  4. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 12, Revision 4 (FGE.12Rev4): primary saturated or unsaturated alicyclic alcohols, aldehydes, acids and esters from chemical groups 1 and 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 12 flavouring substances in Flavouring Group Evaluation 12, Revision 4 (FGE.12Rev4), including two additional substances, using the Procedure in Commission...... (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure–activity relationships, intake from current uses and the toxicological threshold of concern and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel concluded that none of the 12 substances [FL-nos: 02.134, 02.186, 02.216, 02.217, 05.157, 05.......182, 05.183, 05.198, 08.135, 09.342, 09.670 and 09.829] gives rise to safety concerns at their levels of dietary intake, estimated on the basis of the maximised survey-derived daily intake approach. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials...

  5. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 82, Revision 1 (FGE.82Rev1): Consideration of Epoxides evaluated by the JECFA (65 th meeting)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present consideration concerns a group of five epoxides evaluated by the JECFA at the 65th meeting in 2005. This revision is made due to inclusion of one additional substance, beta-ionone epoxide [FL-no: 07.170], cleared...

  6. Opening the electricity market - the Swiss Confederation's perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmann, W.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the possibilities offered by the opening of the Swiss electricity market in the European context. The importance of appropriate legislation that would enable Switzerland to actively take part in the shaping of a Europe-wide electricity market is stressed. Measures to be considered such as those in the areas of third-party access, tariffs, security of supply and the promotion of renewable sources of energy are discussed. Questions of public service are addressed and comparisons are made to solutions that have been implemented in other areas such as post, telecommunications and the railway system. The regulations and structures suggested in Swiss proposals for legislation are discussed in detail

  7. Late-Glacial radiocarbon- and palynostratigraphy in the Swiss Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammann, B.; Lotter, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed Late-Glacial radiocarbon stratigraphy for the Swiss Plateau has been established on the basis of over 90 accelerator 14 C dates on terrestrial plant macrofossils. A comparison of the radiocarbon ages derived from terrestrial, telmatic and limnic material at different sites on the Swiss Plateau yields a proposal for modifying the zonation system of Welten for the Late-Glacial. By retaining the limits of chronozones and by refining the palynostratigraphic criteria for the limits of biozones, a separation between chrono- and biozonation at the beginning of the Boelling and the Younger Dryas becomes obvious. 54 refs

  8. What next after the rejection of Swiss electricity market legislation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miolo, A.; Rechsteiner, S.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the situation in Switzerland after the rejection of new legislation on the liberalisation of the Swiss electricity market (Electricity Market Law, EMG) in a public vote in September 2002. The problems thus posed and the possibilities for further action available to those involved and affected are discussed. The legal situation after the rejection of the EMG is discussed with respect to Swiss regional structures and cantonal regulations. Three possible scenarios are discussed - the status quo, a solution to be provided by the electricity business or a Federal decree. The possibilities open to electricity enterprises for optimisation and the realisation of synergies to increase efficiency and competitiveness are discussed

  9. The Swiss biotech referendum: A case study of science communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cueni, Thomas B.

    1999-01-01

    On June 7 , 1998, the Swiss citizens voted on a constitutional amendment, which could have jeopardised the future of biotechnological research in Switzerland. Scientists and opinion leaders around the world expected the referendum with great anxiety. 'Nature', in an editorial, had firmly stated that the Swiss way showed 'how not to run a country', the 'Economist', a week prior to the referendum, had written that the Swiss might be the only people in the world who decided on their own to forego a world class position in scientific research. In fact, the Swiss did none of that. They rejected the constitutional amendment with an overwhelming majority of 67 per cent of the votes, and what started out as a dramatic threat to scientific research in Switzerland became a platform in favour of modern biotechnology. The presentation addresses some of the key features of the Swiss biotech campaign, analyses the success factors of the campaign, provides an insight in the most in-depth collection of data on public perception of biotechnology in the world, and draws conclusions as to what extent the Swiss experience can be of use in the way to communicate on modem science. The result of the Swiss referendum has convincingly shown that successful communication of modem science is possible if - scientists, authorities, and the industry accept the challenge to cope with the demands of communicating with the public at large, - there is a clear understanding that the public's needs may often be based on psychological rather than on logic scientific reasons, - all participants in the dialogue are willing to forego scientific jargon for clear understandable language, i.e. understand that it is hardly the public's fault if messages do not get across, - everybody accepts that dialogue, information, and education on modem science is a long-haul task. The Swiss biotech referendum was seen as a major threat to Switzerland as a leading country of scientific research. However, something which

  10. Instrumentation and test of the Swiss LCT-coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zichy, J.A.; Horvath, I.; Jakob, B.; Marinucci, C.; Vecsey, G.; Weymuth, P.; Zellweger, J.

    1985-01-01

    Just before Christmas 1983 the fabrication of the Swiss LCT-coil was finished. Tests at ambient temperature were performed on the factory site and after delivery in Oak Ridge. To avoid an undesirable delay of the rescheduled Partial-Array Test it was agreed to install the coil without its superconducting bus. In July 1984 the Swiss LCT-coil was successfully cooled down to LHe temperature together with the other two fully installed coils. Besides the cooling system, the instrumentation, measured parameters of the coil and some preliminary results obtained during the ongoing Partial-Array Test are presented

  11. CWC: A Swiss Retrospective and Perspective (OPCW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadisch, M.

    2007-01-01

    A world without Weapons of Mass Destruction - this is the vision of SPIEZ LABORATORY, Switzerland. As the federal establishment for NBC defense, it deals with the protection from nuclear, biological, and chemical threats and risks, as well as with the technical aspects of arms control and disarmament of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (NBC weapons). Now on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), it is the right time to look back on the achievements of the OPCW and on how a small country like Switzerland can support an international organization such as the OPCW on its way to a world free of chemical weapons. SPIEZ LABORATORY was involved in the negotiations during the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva which in turn led to the CWC. Switzerland in general and SPIEZ LABORATORY in particular, have played an active role in different areas relevant to the CWC, all in order to get closer to a w orld without Weapons of Mass Destruction . The support of the OPCW and different Member States covered fundamental parts of the Convention such as, chemical weapon destruction (financial contribution and analytical work) and the implementation of Article VII obligations (declaration support, information and experience exchange). In addition, Switzerland and SPIEZ LABORATORY still have an important role in assistance and protection. Switzerland submitted a proposal for the delivery of protective equipment to the OPCW and is also active in capacity building courses like CITPRO or SEFLAB. The support in the field of international cooperation and assistance is expressed by numerous internships in SPIEZ LABORATORY and in the Swiss industry. In order to support the operability of the OPCW, SPIEZ LABORATORY participates in inspector training modules (basic modules, mock inspections) and delivers on a regular basis reference chemicals and analytical data (by now 2/3 of all the data has been inputted into the OPCW Central Analytical

  12. Can food irradiation boost nutrition in China?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedekind, Lothar

    1986-01-01

    In January 1986, the first of five regional irradiation facilities planned for China opened officially in Shanghai, mainly to process food. Irradiated potatoes, mushrooms, rice, onions, garlic, peanuts, pork sausage, and probably apples, will be introduced in mass marketing trials. Four other demonstration plants for irradiating food are being built near provincial capitals. Food irradiation offers large economic incentives, but transportation is an impediment except near large urban centres. All irradiators, whether mainly for food or not, will be made in China, with the exception of AECL and Swiss participation in two facilities

  13. Publishing and Revising Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Editors and Webmasters can publish content without going through a workflow. Publishing times and dates can be set, and multiple pages can be published in bulk. Making an edit to published content created a revision.

  14. Letter of Map Revision

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  15. Traditional and molecular detection methods reveal intense interguild competition and other multitrophic interactions associated with native entomopathogenic nematodes in Swiss tillage soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Campos-Herrera, R.; Jaffuel, G.; Chiriboga, X.; Blanco-Pérez, R.; Fesselet, M.; Půža, Vladimír; Mascher, F.; Turlings, T. C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 389, 1-2 (2015), s. 237-255 ISSN 0032-079X Grant - others:Swiss National Science Foundation(CH) 143065 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : entomopathogenic nematodes * annual crops * soil food web Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.969, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11104-014-2358-4

  16. Serological changes induced by blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine in swiss albino rat, rattus norvegicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic effect of blend of some food colors on Swiss albino rats. A blend (1:1:1) of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine showed additive effects on serological parameters which indicate that addition of these dye together in food stuff may give rise to more toxic effects than are produced by each dye individually. Animals were divided into four groups (I, II, III, and IV). First group was treated as control and respective group of animals received 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of food colors by gavaging up to 30 days. The serological study showed a decrease in total protein and albumin and an increase in alkaline phosphatase, SGPT and total bilirubin. The results revealed that oral administration of these blend did not affect the body weight gain. The prolonged consumption of the blend may cause adverse effect on human health.

  17. History of heat pumps - Swiss contributions and international milestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zogg, M

    2008-05-15

    Compared to conventional boilers, heating by heat pumps cuts down fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions to about 50%. Compared to electric resistance heating, the energy consumption is even reduced up to 80%. Therefore, the impressive market penetration growth of heat pumps will continue. Swiss pioneers were the first to realize functioning vapour recompression plants. The first European heat pumps were realized in Switzerland. To date it remains one of the heat pump champions. Swiss pioneering work in the development of borehole heat exchangers, sewage heat recovery, oil free piston compressors and turbo compressors is well known. The biggest heat pump ever built comes from Switzerland. Although there is a fairly comprehensive natural gas distribution grid, 75% of the new single-family homes built in Switzerland are currently heated by heat pumps. This paper presents some of the highlights of this success story focusing on Swiss developments and relating them to the international milestones. In order to indicate the direction in which the future development might go to, some recent Swiss research projects are presented as well. (author)

  18. How Swiss fuel dealers are fighting natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, U.

    1995-01-01

    The upward trend of natural gas in Switzerland and its favourable future prospects have put Swiss fuel dealers into a state of alarm. The trade has set itself the aim to prevent a further expansion of natural gas with all the means at its disposal. The author describes and comments on the arguments put forward and measures taken to this end. (orig.) [de

  19. Empirical study of ERP systems implementation costs in Swiss SMES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Equey, C.; Kusters, R.J.; Varone, S.; Montandon, N.; Cordeiro, J.; Felipe, J.

    2008-01-01

    Based on sparse literature investigating the cost of ERP systems implementation, our research uses data from a survey of Swiss SMEs having implemented ERP in order to test cost drivers. The main innovation is the proposition of a new classification of cost drivers that depend on the enterprise

  20. Aerial surveys for Swiss needle cast in Western Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Kanaskie; M. McWilliams; J. Prukop; D. Overhulser; K. Sprengel

    2002-01-01

    In the last decade, Swiss needle cast (SNC), caused by the native fungus Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii, has severely damaged Douglas-fir in the Coast Range of western Oregon. The primary impact of the pathogen on Douglas-fir (the only susceptible tree species) is premature loss of foliage, which results in significant reduction in tree growth. Recent...

  1. Plant life management (PLIM) in Swiss nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stejskal, Jan; Steudler, Daniel; Thoma, Kurt; Fuchs, Reinhard

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Swiss Utility Working group for ageing Management (AM) presented their programme for the first time at the PLIM/PLEX 93. In the meantime the key guideline documents have been prepared and the most so called S teckbrief - files for Safety Class 1 (SC1) are issued. The 'Steckbrief' file is a summary of the component history and includes the results of the Reviews performed and measures taken or planned to counteract ageing mechanisms. The scope of these activities does not only serve the important aspect of reliable plant service but also facilitates component and plant life extension feasibility. The older plants have been operated now for up to 30 years, so PLEX will become a more important topic for Swiss NPP. It is very encouraging, that there is an official memorandum of the Swiss authority with the clear statement, that they could not identify any technical reason, why the older plants should not extend their design life of 40 years for at least 10 and the younger for 20 years. The result of this is that a well established Ageing Management Programme (AMP) provide a good basis for Plant Life Extension (PLEX), e.g. the Swiss AMP has to be seen as a PLIM. (author)

  2. Wind energy and Swiss hydro power; Windenergie und schweizerischer Wasserkraftpark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Fritz, W.; Zimmer, Ch.; Feldmann, J. [Consentec, Consulting fuer Energiewirtschaft und -technik GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Haubrich, H.-J.; Dany, G.; Schmoeller, H.; Hartmann, T. [Institut fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Energiewirtschaft (IAEW), RWTH, Aachen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the possibilities of using Switzerland's hydropower generation facilities as a means of control and as a capacity-reserve for a European power system that includes a considerable amount of wind-generated electricity. The aims of the study - the analysis of possible changes in power availability and of the relative importance of peak load compensation, economic optimisation potential for the use of Swiss hydropower and organisational aspects - are presented. Various methods for organising production timetables and trading are looked at, as are future developments in the European power market. Methods of assessment of the value of Swiss hydropower installations are discussed in detail and possibilities of increasing capacity are discussed. The report is concluded with recommendations on the participation of Swiss hydropower in the market for regulation energy and the development of associated strategies. Also, environmental aspects are examined and the influence of national wind-energy concepts are discussed.

  3. MESSAGE TO MEMBERS OF THE PERSONNEL OF SWISS NATIONALITY

    CERN Multimedia

    Legal Service

    2002-01-01

    15 November 2002 Reimbursement of Swiss income tax The Swiss authorities have introduced a new system of taxation with effect from this year onwards. The main feature of this new system is that the tax year henceforth coincides with the year in which income is earned. One major practical consequence is that Swiss members of the personnel will receive a provisional income tax demand that must be settled by the date shown; however, the final income tax demand will not be sent until up to several months later. Hitherto, the CERN Administration only recognised this final demand as proof of payment for the reimbursement of Swiss income tax. In view of the delay the new procedure will generate between the settlement of the provisional demand and receipt of the final demand, and to avoid members of the personnel having to bear the cost of an advance payment, the CERN Administration has decided to align its reimbursement procedure with the new system of taxation. In future, the provisional income tax demand will also...

  4. New Swiss legislation on nuclear third party liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.

    1981-10-01

    Following a description of the Paris Convention and Brussels Supplementary Convention system for nuclear third party liability and that prevailing until now in Switzerland, the paper reviews the new Swiss nuclear third party liability Bill prepared after a popular consultation. The new provisions are analysed and in particular, that providing for unlimited liability. (NEA) [fr

  5. [Food security in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquía-Fernández, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance.

  6. Automatically extracting functionally equivalent proteins from SwissProt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Andrew CR

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a frequent need to obtain sets of functionally equivalent homologous proteins (FEPs from different species. While it is usually the case that orthology implies functional equivalence, this is not always true; therefore datasets of orthologous proteins are not appropriate. The information relevant to extracting FEPs is contained in databanks such as UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and a manual analysis of these data allow FEPs to be extracted on a one-off basis. However there has been no resource allowing the easy, automatic extraction of groups of FEPs – for example, all instances of protein C. We have developed FOSTA, an automatically generated database of FEPs annotated as having the same function in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot which can be used for large-scale analysis. The method builds a candidate list of homologues and filters out functionally diverged proteins on the basis of functional annotations using a simple text mining approach. Results Large scale evaluation of our FEP extraction method is difficult as there is no gold-standard dataset against which the method can be benchmarked. However, a manual analysis of five protein families confirmed a high level of performance. A more extensive comparison with two manually verified functional equivalence datasets also demonstrated very good performance. Conclusion In summary, FOSTA provides an automated analysis of annotations in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot to enable groups of proteins already annotated as functionally equivalent, to be extracted. Our results demonstrate that the vast majority of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot functional annotations are of high quality, and that FOSTA can interpret annotations successfully. Where FOSTA is not successful, we are able to highlight inconsistencies in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot annotation. Most of these would have presented equal difficulties for manual interpretation of annotations. We discuss limitations and possible future extensions to FOSTA, and

  7. Summary of operating experience in Swiss nuclear power plants 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    In 1994 the Swiss nuclear power plants produced their highest-ever combined annual output. Their contribution to total electricity generation in the country was 36%. At Muehleberg the power uprate, undertaken in 1993, was effective for the first time for an entire year. The larger capacity of the new steam generators installed in 1993 in unit 1 of the Beznau NPP allows for an electric output of 103% of nominal power. The plant efficiency of the Goesgen and Leibstadt units was increased by replacing the low pressure turbines by the new ones with a modern design. The application for a power uprate of the Leibstadt reactor is still pending. For the first time in Switzerland, one of the reactor units, Beznau 2, operated on an extended cycle of one and a half years, with no refuelling outage in 1994. In spite of the replacements of two of its three low pressure turbines, Goesgen had the shortest refuelling shutdown since the start of commercial operation. The average number of reactor scrams at the Swiss plants remained stable, at less than one scram per reactor year. Re-inspection of crack indications detected in 1990 in the core shroud of the Muehleberg reactor revealed no significant changes. A crack indication was found in one of the other welds inspected. The Swiss government issued a limited operating licence for Beznau 2 for the next ten years, i.e. until the end of 2004. The only other unit with a limited operating licence (until 2003) is Muehleberg. The remaining three reactor units, have no time limits on their operating licences, in accordance with the Atomic Law. Goesgen is the first Swiss nuclear power plant having now produced more than 100 billion kWh. As from January 1, 1995, the nominal net power of the largest Swiss reactor unit, Leibstadt, has been fixed at 1030 MW; that of the Goesgen NPP has been increased by 25 MW to 965 MW. (author) figs., tabs

  8. Reimbursement of care for severe trauma under SwissDRG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf M; Sprengel, Kai; Jensen, Kai Oliver; Jentzsch, Thorsten; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Seifert, Burkhardt; Ciritsis, Bernhard; Neuhaus, Valentin; Volbracht, Jörk; Mehra, Tarun

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of patients with severe injuries is costly, with best results achieved in specialised care centres. However, diagnosis-related group (DRG)-based prospective payment systems have difficulties in depicting treatment costs for specialised care. We analysed reimbursement of care for severe trauma in the first 3 years after the introduction of the Swiss DRG reimbursement system (2012-2014). The study included all patients with solely basic insurance, hospital admission after 01.01.2011 and discharge in 2011 or 2012, who were admitted to the resuscitation room of the University Hospital of Zurich, aged ≥16 years and with an injury severity score (ISS) ≥16 (n = 364). Clinical, financial and administrative data were extracted from the electronic medical records. All cases were grouped into DRGs according to different SwissDRG versions. We considered results to be significant if p ≤0.002. The mean deficit decreased from 12 065 CHF under SwissDRG 1.0 (2012) to 2 902 CHF under SwissDRG 3.0 (2014). The main reason for the reduction of average deficits was a refinement of the DRG algorithm with a regrouping of 23 cases with an ISS ≥16 from MDC 01 to DRGs within MDC21A. Predictors of an increased total loss per case could be identified: for example, high total number of surgical interventions, surgeries on multiple anatomical regions or operations on the pelvis (p ≤0.002). Psychiatric diagnoses in general were also significant predictors of deficit per case (p<0.001). The reimbursement for care of severely injured patients needs further improvement. Cost neutral treatment was not possible under the first three versions of SwissDRG.

  9. Summary of operating experience in Swiss nuclear power plants 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    In 1994 the Swiss nuclear power plants produced their highest-ever combined annual output. Their contribution to total electricity generation in the country was 36%. At Muehleberg the power uprate, undertaken in 1993, was effective for the first time for an entire year. The larger capacity of the new steam generators installed in 1993 in unit 1 of the Beznau NPP allows for an electric output of 103% of nominal power. The plant efficiency of the Goesgen and Leibstadt units was increased by replacing the low pressure turbines by the new ones with a modern design. The application for a power uprate of the Leibstadt reactor is still pending. For the first time in Switzerland, one of the reactor units, Beznau 2, operated on an extended cycle of one and a half years, with no refuelling outage in 1994. In spite of the replacements of two of its three low pressure turbines, Goesgen had the shortest refuelling shutdown since the start of commercial operation. The average number of reactor scrams at the Swiss plants remained stable, at less than one scram per reactor year. Re-inspection of crack indications detected in 1990 in the core shroud of the Muehleberg reactor revealed no significant changes. A crack indication was found in one of the other welds inspected. The Swiss government issued a limited operating licence for Beznau 2 for the next ten years, i.e. until the end of 2004. The only other unit with a limited operating licence (until 2003) is Muehleberg. The remaining three reactor units, have no time limits on their operating licences, in accordance with the Atomic Law. Goesgen is the first Swiss nuclear power plant having now produced more than 100 billion kWh. As from January 1, 1995, the nominal net power of the largest Swiss reactor unit, Leibstadt, has been fixed at 1030 MW; that of the Goesgen NPP has been increased by 25 MW to 965 MW. (author) figs., tabs.

  10. Programme for the Environmental Control at the Swedish Nuclear Facilities, Revision; Omgivningskontrollprogram foer de kaerntekniska anlaeggningarna, revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, Ann-Marie

    2004-12-01

    This report contains a revised version of the Environmental Monitoring Programme for the Swedish Nuclear Facilities. The revision is based on earlier experiences and evaluations. Some samples have been excluded. Some have been added, for example spruce cone and the food products apple and currant. The sediment samples of 2 cm length have been completed with samples of 10 cm length every fourth year to follow the migration of radio nuclides down the sediment layers over time. The revised Environmental Monitoring Programme is valid from the 1st of January 2005.

  11. Proposal for the award of three contracts for the provision of temporary labour on the Swiss part of the CERN site

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    This document concerns the award of three contracts for the provision of temporary labour on the Swiss part of the CERN site. Following a market survey carried out among 71 firms in thirteen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2875/HR) was sent on 11 July 2001 to nine firms and six consortia, one consisting of three firms, five consisting of two firms, in eight Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received 12 tenders from eight firms and four consortia in five Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of three contracts for the provision of temporary labour on the Swiss part of the CERN site with CONSULTOR (PL), ADECCO (CH) and FLEX-FORCE (CH)/TEMP-TEAM (NO). The total maximum amount for all three contracts is, for an initial period of three years starting 1 July 2002, 5 500 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision for inflation from 1 January 2003. The contracts will include an option for two further one-year extensions beyond the initial three-year period. The firms ...

  12. New trends in food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Señorans, Javier; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    In this work some of the newest trends in food processing are reviewed. This revision intends to provide an updated overview (including works published until February 2001) on the newest food processes, including food manufacturing, preservation, and control. Modern processes for food and food ingredients manufacturing based on membrane technology, super-critical fluid technology, and some applications of biotechnology are presented, mainly applied to obtain functional foods, "all-natural" enriched foods, probiotics and prebiotics. Also included is a critical assessment concerning non-thermal preservation techniques used for food preservation, such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric fields, ultrasound, pulsed light, hurdle systems, etc. Finally, a group of new analytical techniques (i.e., molecular techniques such as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), food image analysis, and biosensors) and their use for food and process control is reviewed.

  13. Acetabular Cup Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Ho

    2017-09-01

    The use of acetabular cup revision arthroplasty is on the rise as demands for total hip arthroplasty, improved life expectancies, and the need for individual activity increase. For an acetabular cup revision to be successful, the cup should gain stable fixation within the remaining supportive bone of the acetabulum. Since the patient's remaining supportive acetabular bone stock plays an important role in the success of revision, accurate classification of the degree of acetabular bone defect is necessary. The Paprosky classification system is most commonly used when determining the location and degree of acetabular bone loss. Common treatment options include: acetabular liner exchange, high hip center, oblong cup, trabecular metal cup with augment, bipolar cup, bulk structural graft, cemented cup, uncemented cup including jumbo cup, acetabular reinforcement device (cage), trabecular metal cup cage. The optimal treatment option is dependent upon the degree of the discontinuity, the amount of available bone stock and the likelihood of achieving stable fixation upon supportive host bone. To achieve successful acetabular cup revision, accurate evaluation of bone defect preoperatively and intraoperatively, proper choice of method of acetabular revision according to the evaluation of acetabular bone deficiency, proper technique to get primary stability of implant such as precise grafting technique, and stable fixation of implant are mandatory.

  14. Food packing optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of a universal closure lid for the space shuttle food package is reported. The revised lid needs a folded configuration which, when unfolded, fully conforms to the interior surfaces of the food cup. Experimental thermoform molds were fabricated and test lids formed. The lid material not in contact with the food conformed to the cup interior without wrinkles, permitting full nesting of the cups. The final lid design was established and thermoform tooling designed and fabricated. Lids formed on these molds were tested for strength. The heating elements were replaced and repositioned to eliminate any hot spots which may cause warpage.

  15. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Flavouring Group Evaluation 46, Revision 1 (FGE.46Rev1): Ammonia and three ammonium salts from chemical group 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Scientific Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) was asked to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs in the Member States. In particular...... in a wide range of food items up to very high amounts. Hydrogen sulphide is also reported to occur naturally in a wide range of food items. In its evaluation, the Panel as a default used the “Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intake” (MSDI) approach to estimate the per capita intakes of the flavouring...... substances in Europe. However, when the Panel examined the information provided by the European Flavouring Industry on the use levels in various foods, it appeared obvious that the MSDI approach in a number of cases would grossly underestimate the intake by regular consumers of products flavoured at the use...

  16. Role of Spirulina in mitigating hemato-toxicity in Swiss albino mice exposed to aluminum and aluminum fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, K P; Sharma, Subhasini

    2016-12-01

    Aluminum is ingested through foods, water, air, and even drugs. Its intake is potentiated further through foods and tea prepared in aluminum utensils and Al salt added in the drinking water for removal of suspended impurities and also fluoride in the affected areas. The ameliorating role of a blue green alga Spirulina is well documented to various pollutants in the animal models. We, therefore, examined its protective role (230 mg/kg body weight) on the hematology of male Swiss albino mice treated with aluminum (sub-acute = 78.4 mg/kg body weight for 7 days, sub-chronic = 7.8 mg/kg body weight for 90 days) and aluminum fluoride (sub-acute = 103 mg/kg body weight, sub-chronic = 21 mg/kg body weight), along with their recovery after 90 days of sub-chronic exposure. This study revealed significant reduction in the values of RBC (5-18 %), Hb (15-17 %), PCV (8-14 %), and platelets (26-36 %), and increase in WBC (54-124 %) in the treated mice, particularly after sub-acute exposure. Aluminum fluoride was comparatively more toxic than aluminum. Further, Spirulina supplement not only alleviated toxicity of test chemicals in Swiss albino mice but also led to their better recovery after withdrawal.

  17. Organizational issues in stroke treatment: The Swiss paradigm - Stroke units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios K Matis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke represents the leading cause of acquired disability in adults and poses a tremendous socioeconomic burden both on patients and the society. In this sense, prompt diagnosis and urgent treatment are needed in order to radically reduce the devastating consequences of this disease. Herein the authors present the new guidelines recently adopted by the Swiss Stroke Society concerning the establishment of stroke units. Standardized treatment and allocation protocols along with an acute rehabilitation concept seem to be the core of the Swiss stroke management system. Coordinated multidisciplinary care provided by specialized medical, nursing and therapy staff is of utmost importance for achieving a significant dependency and death reduction. It is believed that the implementation of these guidelines in the stroke care system would be beneficial not only for the stroke patients, but also for the health system.

  18. Swiss-cheese models and the Dyer-Roeder approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleury, Pierre, E-mail: fleury@iap.fr [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR-7095 du CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis, boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France)

    2014-06-01

    In view of interpreting the cosmological observations precisely, especially when they involve narrow light beams, it is crucial to understand how light propagates in our statistically homogeneous, clumpy, Universe. Among the various approaches to tackle this issue, Swiss-cheese models propose an inhomogeneous spacetime geometry which is an exact solution of Einstein's equation, while the Dyer-Roeder approximation deals with inhomogeneity in an effective way. In this article, we demonstrate that the distance-redshift relation of a certain class of Swiss-cheese models is the same as the one predicted by the Dyer-Roeder approach, at a well-controlled level of approximation. Both methods are therefore equivalent when applied to the interpretation of, e.g., supernova obervations. The proof relies on completely analytical arguments, and is illustrated by numerical results.

  19. The Materials Science beamline upgrade at the Swiss Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willmott, P. R., E-mail: philip.willmott@psi.ch; Meister, D.; Leake, S. J.; Lange, M.; Bergamaschi, A. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); and others

    2013-07-16

    The wiggler X-ray source of the Materials Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source has been replaced with a 14 mm-period cryogenically cooled in-vacuum undulator. In order to best exploit the increased brilliance of this new source, the entire front-end and optics have been redesigned. The Materials Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source has been operational since 2001. In late 2010, the original wiggler source was replaced with a novel insertion device, which allows unprecedented access to high photon energies from an undulator installed in a medium-energy storage ring. In order to best exploit the increased brilliance of this new source, the entire front-end and optics had to be redesigned. In this work, the upgrade of the beamline is described in detail. The tone is didactic, from which it is hoped the reader can adapt the concepts and ideas to his or her needs.

  20. Revision of Pachycentria (Melastomataceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clausing, Gudrun

    2000-01-01

    A revision of Pachycentria Blume, which includes the monotypic Pogonanthera Blume, is presented. Pachycentria comprises eight species and one subspecies. Two species, P. vogelkopensis and P. hanseniana, are newly described. The genus is distinguished from other genera in the Medinillinae by a small

  1. Revision of Oxandra (Annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junikka, L.; Maas, P.J.M.; Maas-van de Kamer, H.; Westra, L.Y.Th.

    2016-01-01

    A taxonomic revision is given of the Neotropical genus Oxandra (Annonaceae). Within the genus 27 species are recognized, 4 of which are new to science. Most of the species are occurring in tropical South America, whereas a few (6) are found in Mexico and Central America and two in the West Indies

  2. Revision without ordinals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivello, Edoardo

    2013-01-01

    We show that Herzberger’s and Gupta’s revision theories of truth can be recast in purely inductive terms, without any appeal neither to the transfinite ordinal numbers nor to the axiom of Choice. The result is presented in an abstract and general setting, emphasising both its validity for a wide

  3. Revising and editing for translators

    CERN Document Server

    Mossop, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Revising and Editing for Translators provides guidance and learning materials for translation students learning to edit texts written by others, and professional translators wishing to improve their self-revision ability or learning to revise the work of others. Editing is understood as making corrections and improvements to texts, with particular attention to tailoring them to the given readership. Revising is this same task applied to draft translations. The linguistic work of editors and revisers is related to the professional situations in which they work. Mossop offers in-depth coverage of a wide range of topics, including copyediting, style editing, structural editing, checking for consistency, revising procedures and principles, and translation quality assessment. This third edition provides extended coverage of computer aids for revisers, and of the different degrees of revision suited to different texts. The inclusion of suggested activities and exercises, numerous real-world examples, a proposed gra...

  4. IT-Benefits-Management in the Swiss Financial Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Schwabe, G; Baenninger, P

    2008-01-01

    Companies engage in IT-projects in order to gain some benefits; however they complain that those bene-fits are difficult to achieve. On the basis of a survey in the Swiss financial industry this paper comes to the conclusion that due to a fundamental misconception companies reproduce the lack of success in reaping IT benefits: Many companies regard benefit management as an instrument to support project proposals rather than as an instrument to gain optimal benefits. Conse-quently, benefits ma...

  5. Summary of operating experience in Swiss nuclear power plants 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    In 1993 the Swiss nuclear power plants produced their third highest combined annual output. The contribution to the total electricity generation in the country was close to 37%. Replacement of the steam generators in Beznau Unit 1 resulted in a longer than usual annual outage. For the other four units the availability figures were close to, or exceeded, those of previous years. The energy utilization was, however, lowered due to load reduction in autumn resulting from unusually high production by the hydro-electric power plants. The steam generator replacement at Beznau enabled an increase in electrical power of about 2% without increase in reactor power. With the approval of the Swiss government in December 1992, the output of the Muehleberg power plant was increased in two stages by a total of 10%. The application for an unlimited operating license for Beznau Unit 2, and for a power uprate at the Leibstadt power plant, are still pending. The average number of scrams at the Swiss plants remained stable, at less than one scram per reactor year. As a result of experience in the Swedish nuclear power plant at Barsebaeck, the suction strainers of the emergency core cooling systems of the boiling water reactors at Muehleberg and Leibstadt were replaced by strainers with larger surface areas. The re-inspection of crack indications previously detected in the core shroud of the Muehleberg reactor and the penetration tubes in the reactor pressure vessel closure head of Beznau revealed no growth during the intervening operating periods. Following the completion of installation activities during the annual outages at Beznau Unit 1, Goesgen and Leibstadt, all Swiss nuclear power plants are now equipped with filtered containment venting systems. (author) figs., tabs

  6. Basel III D: Swiss Finish to Basel III

    OpenAIRE

    Christian M. McNamara; Natalia Tente; Andrew Metrick

    2014-01-01

    After the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) introduced the Basel III framework in 2010, individual countries confronted the question of how best to implement the framework given their unique circumstances. Switzerland, with a banking industry that is both heavily concentrated and very large relative to the size of its overall economy, faced a special challenge. It ultimately adopted what is sometimes referred to as the “Swiss Finish” to Basel III – enhanced requirements applicable...

  7. 8th Swiss National Photovoltaics Congress. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, S.

    2010-01-01

    These congress proceedings contain the presentations made at the two-day 8 th Swiss National Photovoltaics Conference held in Winterthur, Switzerland, in February 2010. The presentations were grouped into six sessions. The first session dealt with promotional activities for photovoltaics (PV) in Switzerland. The presentations dealt with the present state of PV promotion, the cantonal support program in Basle and the Swiss photovoltaics market in a global context. The session was rounded off with a podium discussion on the Swiss cost-covering remuneration system for solar power. This theme was looked at in more detail in the second session of the conference; successes and hindrances in the system were discussed as well as an example of an alternative solar power 'exchange'. The third session looked at building-integration of PV systems; facade and roof integration and the use of flexible solar cells were discussed. The second day of the conference featured three further sessions. The first session dealt with transfer of know-how from research institutes to industry. A general overview was presented and specific examples of successful know-how transfer were reported on. The next session dealt with the great challenges presented by the efforts being made to expand the use of PV. Safety aspects were discussed, as were the certified testing of modules, mains integration and the training of personnel involved with the implementation of PV systems. The final session looked at the scenarios, perspectives and visions for Swiss and European PV business. PV systems were examined from the point of view of the semiconductor business, European energy planning, the role of PV in future energy supply and the roles of customers, investors and politics on the way to a renewable future.

  8. Sustainability assessment of GM crops in a Swiss agricultural context

    OpenAIRE

    Speiser , Bernhard; Stolze , Matthias; Oehen , Bernadette; Gessler , Cesare; Weibel , Franco; Bravin , Esther; Kilchenmann , Adeline; Widmer , Albert; Charles , Raffael; Lang , Andreas; Stamm , Christian; Triloff , Peter; Tamm , Lucius

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this study was to provide an ex ante assessment of the sustainability of genetically modified (GM) crops under the agricultural conditions prevailing in Switzerland. The study addressed the gaps in our knowledge relating to (1) the agronomic risks/benefits in production systems under Swiss conditions (at field and rotation/orchard level), (2) the economic and socio-economic impacts associated with altered farming systems, and (3) the agro-ecological risks/be...

  9. Present lead content of the vegetation near Swiss highways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, T

    1970-01-01

    This study examined the lead content of the vegetation near Swiss highways. The factors influencing the total lead content of the trees, shrubs and grasses were found to be the direction of the traffic, the age of the plants, the season, the surface peculiarities of the plant, and the lateral and vertical distance between the plants and the road. 15 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  10. A Swiss Manufacturer Sees the Industrial Revolution in England*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buess, Heinrich

    1962-01-01

    I have recently come across the diaries of Johann Conrad Fischer. These diaries span six decades and cover the years of social, economic, and technological upheaval which marked the industrial revolution in England. The reader is given a picture of these years through the eyes of a Swiss manufacturer with a good perception of history, and his notes are of some value to historians. PMID:13874462

  11. Effect of CO{sub 2} and emissions-trading on the Swiss national economy - Analysis using a multi-country equilibrium model; Volkswirtschaftliche Auswirkungen von CO{sub 2}-Abgaben und Emissionshandel fuer das Jahr 2020 - Analyse der volkswirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen mit Hilfe eines allgemeinen Mehrlaender-Gleichgewichtsmodell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-15

    This report elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) deals with questions concerning Swiss climate policy after 2012. In 2012, existing climate legislation as defined in CO{sub 2} emissions legislation is to be revised and brought in line with European legislation on greenhouse gases. The report presents and discusses the proposals of the Swiss government that are to make Switzerland climate-neutral. These questions include how high a steering-tax must be in order to provide a 20% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, the amount of finance needed to do this, which effects on the economy in general (GDP) and on particular sectors are to be expected, how households will be affected and how large the positive secondary side-effects of an active climate policy are. The methods used in the study and their limitations are examined. A multi-country equilibrium model is introduced and various scenarios are discussed

  12. Food hygienics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Yeong Gyun; Lee, Gwang Bae; Lee, Han Gi; Kim, Se Yeol

    1993-01-01

    This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.

  13. 78 FR 70225 - West Virginia: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... 04. 45-25-1.1.a, 45-25- Trucks, Revision Checklist 1.5.a/Table 25-A, 205. Item 9. RCRA Cluster XV...- Pigments, and Food, Drug, and 70 FR 35032, 6/ 10.1. Cosmetic Colorants, Revision 16/05. Checklist 206...

  14. Bi-directional charger for swiss2G - Annual report; Bi-directional charger for swiss2G - Jahresbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, M.; Baumann, P.

    2010-11-15

    This short annual report for 2010 for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a bi-directional charger that can be used in intelligent 'Smart Grid' applications. The idea is based on being able to use electric vehicles as a source of electricity to help meet peak demand for mains electricity. The swiss2G project aims to produce an electric car battery-charger that also functions as an inverter to convert the car's DC battery voltage to mains electricity. The project was started in September 2010. The report describes the aims of the project and reports on initial work done in the areas of safety, switching electronics and AC/DC conversion. National and international co-operation is noted and prospects for further work are discussed.

  15. An important year for Swiss Electricity Politics - President's speech at the shareholder's meeting of the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, R.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the speech made by Rudolf Steiner, president of the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises, in Bad Ragaz in September 2004. Steiner comments on 2004 as being an important year with respect to energy politics in Switzerland. A public vote turned down the idea of opting out of nuclear energy, the Federal Court decided that the Restricted Trade Practices act was also applicable to the Swiss electricity supply industry and the EU parliament passed guidelines on the opening of the European power market. The effects of large-scale blackouts in America and Europe on the public's perception of secure supplies are commented on. The importance of the Association as a provider of services for its members and as a partner for the government is stressed

  16. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 12, Revision 2 (FGE.12Rev2): Primary saturated or unsaturated alicyclic alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and esters from chemical group 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (the Panel) to provide scientific advice to the Commission on the implications for human health of chemically defined flavouring substances used in or on foodstuffs....... However, this does not preclude evaluation of the flavouring substances in the present group using the Procedure (SCF, 1999a). It is considered that on the basis of the default MSDI approach these nine flavouring substances would not give rise to safety concerns at the estimated levels of intake arising...

  17. 21 CFR 60.24 - Revision of regulatory review period determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shall be sent to the Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630... number; and (5) The basis for the request for revision, including any documentary evidence. (b) Unless...

  18. O-GLYCBASE: a revised database of O-glycosylated proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jan; Lund, Ole; Nielsen, Jens O.

    1996-01-01

    O-GLYCBASE is a comprehensive database of information on glycoproteins and their O-linked glycosylation sites. Entries are compiled and revised from the SWISS-PROT and PIR databases as well as directly from recently published reports. Nineteen percent of the entries extracted from the databases n...... of mucin type O-glycosylation sites in mammalian glycoproteins exclusively from the primary sequence is made available by E-mail or WWW. The O-GLYCBASE database is also available electronically through our WWW server or by anonymous FTP....

  19. Assessing the safety attitudes questionnaire (SAQ), German language version in Swiss university hospitals - a validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    of missing responses for several items suggest that improvements and adaptations in translation are required for select items, especially within the perception of management scale. Following these revisions, psychometric properties should reassessed in a randomly selected sample and hospitals and departments prior to use in Swiss hospital settings. PMID:24016183

  20. Validation of the Swiss methane emission inventory by atmospheric observations and inverse modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henne

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric inverse modelling has the potential to provide observation-based estimates of greenhouse gas emissions at the country scale, thereby allowing for an independent validation of national emission inventories. Here, we present a regional-scale inverse modelling study to quantify the emissions of methane (CH4 from Switzerland, making use of the newly established CarboCount-CH measurement network and a high-resolution Lagrangian transport model. In our reference inversion, prior emissions were taken from the "bottom-up" Swiss Greenhouse Gas Inventory (SGHGI as published by the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment in 2014 for the year 2012. Overall we estimate national CH4 emissions to be 196 ± 18 Gg yr−1 for the year 2013 (1σ uncertainty. This result is in close agreement with the recently revised SGHGI estimate of 206 ± 33 Gg yr−1 as reported in 2015 for the year 2012. Results from sensitivity inversions using alternative prior emissions, uncertainty covariance settings, large-scale background mole fractions, two different inverse algorithms (Bayesian and extended Kalman filter, and two different transport models confirm the robustness and independent character of our estimate. According to the latest SGHGI estimate the main CH4 source categories in Switzerland are agriculture (78 %, waste handling (15 % and natural gas distribution and combustion (6 %. The spatial distribution and seasonal variability of our posterior emissions suggest an overestimation of agricultural CH4 emissions by 10 to 20 % in the most recent SGHGI, which is likely due to an overestimation of emissions from manure handling. Urban areas do not appear as emission hotspots in our posterior results, suggesting that leakages from natural gas distribution are only a minor source of CH4 in Switzerland. This is consistent with rather low emissions of 8.4 Gg yr−1 reported by the SGHGI but inconsistent with the much higher value of 32 Gg yr−1 implied by the

  1. Energy efficiency and climate change: an opportunity for the Swiss economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, M.; Baettig, R.

    2010-01-01

    This article takes a look at the results of a study elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. The study comes to the conclusion that the Swiss economy can profit from the implementation of energy-efficiency measures as well as from global growth in the area of products for increasing energy-efficiency. Swiss companies can therefore not only help lower emission rates for greenhouse gases and increase energy efficiency but also create new jobs. The long-term potential for the reduction of CO 2 emissions is quoted as being enormous. Winners and losers in the changing energy scene are noted and opportunities for Swiss exports are examined

  2. SAPHYR: the Swiss Atlas of PHYsical properties of Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenning, Q. C.; Zappone, A. S.; Kissling, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Swiss Atlas of PHYsical properties of Rocks (SAPHYR) is a multi-year project, aiming to compile a comprehensive data set on physical properties of rocks exposed in Switzerland and surrounding areas. The ultimate goal of SAPHYR is to make these data accessible to an open and wide public, such as industrial, engineering, land and resource planning companies, as well as academic institutions. Since the early sixties worldwide geophysicists, petrologists, and engineers, focused their work on laboratory measurements of rocks physical properties, and their relations with microstructures, mineralogical compositions and other rock parameters, in the effort to constrain the geological interpretation of geophysical surveys. In combination with efforts to investigate deep structure of the continental crust by controlled source seismology, laboratories capable to reproduce pressure and temperature conditions to depth of 50km and more collected measurements of various parameters on a wide variety of rock types. In recent years, the increasing interest on non-traditional energy supply, (deep geothermal energy, shale gas) and CO2 storage renovated the interests in physical characterization of the deep underground. The idea to organize those laboratory data into a geographically referenced database (GIS) is supported by the Swiss Commission for Geophysics. The data refer to density and porosity, seismic, magnetic, thermal properties, permeability and electrical properties. An effort has been placed on collecting samples and measuring the physical properties of lithologies that are poorly documented in literature. The phase of laboratory measurements is still in progress. At present SAPHYR focuses towards developing a 3-D physical properties model of the Swiss subsurface, using the structure of the exposed geology, boreholes data and seismic surveys, combined with lab determined pressure and temperature derivatives. An early version of the final product is presented here.

  3. Attitudes of Swiss Health Care Providers Toward Childhood Immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Marianne; Schaedelin, Sabine; Aebi, Christoph; Berger, Christoph; Crisinel, Pierre-Alex; Diana, Alessandro; Niederer-Loher, Anita; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Vaudaux, Bernard; Heininger, Ulrich

    2017-06-01

    INFOVAC is a network providing information about immunization issues to health professionals. The aim of this study was to assess the attitude of INFOVAC subscribers toward the current Swiss immunization schedule, potential modifications, and current and hypothetical immunization practices regarding their own children. In March 2015, a Web-based survey was sent to 4260 physicians and pharmacists subscribed to INFOVAC. Participation was anonymous and voluntary. The following information was obtained: (1) current immunization status of own children; (2) which immunizations would currently be accepted for a hypothetical own child and (3) attitudes toward potential modifications of the Swiss immunization schedule. Descriptive methods and multivariate models to correct for covariables were used for data analysis. Nine hundred and fifty-five valid questionnaires were received: 886/3704 (23.9%) from physicians and 69/556 (12.4%) from pharmacists. Current (>95%) and hypothetical (>99%) immunization rates were high for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis and measles-mumps-rubella. Most pediatricians (61%) would support more vaccines for their children than currently recommended by the Swiss immunization advisory committee, whereas about 50% of other physicians and pharmacists would decline at least one of the recommended immunizations, most frequently varicella, pneumococcal or meningococcal C conjugate vaccines. Strong general support was expressed for the expansion of human papillomavirus immunization to males, acceleration of the measles-mumps-rubella schedule and a 2 + 1 instead of 3 + 1 diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, acellular-inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (DTPa-IPV)/Haemophilus influenzae type b ± hepatitis B virus (HBV) schedule. Survey participants generally demonstrated a positive attitude toward immunization, with pediatricians being the most progressive subgroup with the largest percentage of participants (63.1%) neither declining nor postponing any

  4. Suicide in adolescents: findings from the Swiss National cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Nicole; Egger, Matthias; Schimmelmann, Benno G; Kupferschmid, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Suicide in adolescents is the second most common cause of death in this age group and an important public health problem. We examined sociodemographic factors associated with suicide in Swiss adolescents and analysed time trends in youth suicide in the Swiss National Cohort (SNC). The SNC is a longitudinal study of the whole Swiss resident population, based on linkage of census and mortality records. We identified suicides in adolescents aged 10-18 years from 1991 to 2013. A total of 2.396 million adolescents were included and 592 suicides were recorded, corresponding to a rate of 3.7 per 100,000 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.4-4.0]. Rates increased with age from 0.0 per 100,000 at age 10 years to 14.8 per 100,000 (95% CI 12.6-17.5) at 18 years in boys, and from 0.0 to 5.4 per 100,000 (4.1-7.2) in girls. Being a boy, living in a single parent household, being an only or middle-born child, and living in rural regions were factors associated with a higher rate of suicide. Hanging was the most common method in boys, and railway suicides were most frequent in girls. There was no clear evidence for an increase or decrease over calendar time. We conclude that familial and socioeconomic factors including type of household, birth order and urbanity are associated with youth suicide in Switzerland. These factors should be considered when designing prevention programmes for youth suicide.

  5. The Swiss national network for isotopes in the hydrological cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schotterer, U.

    1998-01-01

    The network is based on the long-term stations of the Climate and Environmental Physics Group and includes 11 precipitation, 6 river and 3 ground water stations. For the isotope measurements the Universities of Bern (Climate and Environmental Physics Group, tritium and oxygen-18) and Lausanne (Institute for Mineralogy and Petrography, deuterium) are contracted on a year to year basis. Sampling instructions, collection and shipment of samples are within the responsibility of the Bern group. The sampling apart from monthly composites of precipitation includes also samples from surface and ground water. The isotope data are available by contacting the Swiss Hydrological and Geological Survey directly

  6. The Swiss gas market - Facts and figures of today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfander, M.

    1999-01-01

    This contribution presents a selection of the latest statistical data about the current state of development of the Swiss gas market. The sales and consumer structure areas are the focal points. The key data are clarified by graphics or shown in tabular form with brief comments. The following topics are dealt with: gas balance and sources of natural gas supply for Switzerland, natural gas sales by regions and cantons, energy consumption in the different consumption sectors, heating structure of residential accommodation according to energy sources, trend of natural gas consumption in Switzerland and elsewhere in Europe. (author)

  7. Survey and alignment for the Swiss Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, F.Q.; Dreyer, K.; Fehlmann, U.; Pochon, J.L.; Wrulich, A.

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss Light Source (SLS) is a dedicated high brightness synchrotron light source currently under construction at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Villigen. It will be commissioned in 2001. The accelerator complex includes a 2.4 GeV electron storage ring (SR) with 288 in circumference, a full energy injection booster synchrotron (Booster) and a 100 MeV linear pre-accelerator. The general alignment method and first results of the network measurements are presented. A laser tracker LTD500 is mainly adopted for network measurements and the alignment of storage ring components. (authors)

  8. Uranium supply of the Swiss nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, A.

    1991-01-01

    Securing the supply to Swiss nuclear power stations takes into account the fact that finished fuel elements must be introduced. The situation is, however, relieved by the fact there are excess capacities both in the amount of natural uranium available as well as in all processing stages. As further security, each nuclear power station keeps a reload of fuel elements in stock, so that if supplies are disrupted, continued operation is guaranteed for 1-2 years. Political influences should be taken into account, as should any repercussions that fuel disposal may have on fuel supply. 3 figs

  9. Swiss electro-industry is oriented towards export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horat, E

    1982-08-20

    When a Swiss enterprise years ago got an order from the USA for two steam turbines with a power of 1100 and 1300 MW a British economic journal refered to this as a 'literally revolutionary event'. The reason was that the biggest machines for generation of electric energy had a performance of merely 500 to 600 MW. In between the competitive industry has gained pace and now builds machines of the same performance class. The competition for the technical leadership still goes on, research and development are constantly being pushed forward, emphasis is put on improving the degree of efficiency.

  10. The Swiss approach to finding compromises in nuclear waste governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuppler, Sophie; Grunwald, Armin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany). Inst. for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis

    2015-07-01

    In Switzerland, a new site selection procedure is being implemented since 2008. This procedure, which is laid down in a 'sectoral plan', shows strong elements of public participation and transparency and can be considered a step away from the classical 'decide-announce-defend' approach in decision-making. This procedure tends towards a more governance-oriented approach based on ideas of 'civility' of decision-making. Despite this renewal, the Swiss case clearly shows that any kind of selection process has to be considered as a 'working compromise', which needs to be adapted when new challenges emerge.

  11. The Swiss approach to finding compromises in nuclear waste governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuppler, Sophie; Grunwald, Armin

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland, a new site selection procedure is being implemented since 2008. This procedure, which is laid down in a 'sectoral plan', shows strong elements of public participation and transparency and can be considered a step away from the classical 'decide-announce-defend' approach in decision-making. This procedure tends towards a more governance-oriented approach based on ideas of 'civility' of decision-making. Despite this renewal, the Swiss case clearly shows that any kind of selection process has to be considered as a 'working compromise', which needs to be adapted when new challenges emerge.

  12. Swiss association for atomic energy (SVA/ASPEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    A report of the general assembly of the Swiss association for atomic energy held on 4th June 1985. The president, Alain Colomb, called for a 'second electrification' of the country to free Switzerland from a dependence on petroleum. Nuclear energy is necessary to combat air pollution. An invited speaker, Manuel Poyatos of the 'Electricite de France', recounted the French experience of restructuring their electric production system; particular the increasing contribution of nuclear energy and the beneficial effects on the environment. (G.T.H.)

  13. Revised regulation on the Hiring of Domestic Staff in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland has informed CERN of the publication of the official translation of the 'Directive on the hiring of private servants by staff members of diplomatic missions, permanent missions, consular posts and international organisations in Switzerland', which came into effect on 1st May 2006. The members of the personnel concerned are reminded that they must comply with the provisions of the revised Directive, which replaces that of 1st May 1998, and present a copy to their domestic staff. The full text of the revised Directive is available on the Swiss Mission's website: http://www.dfae.admin.ch/geneva_miss/f/home/guide/dir.html (original French version); http://www.dfae.admin.ch/geneva_miss/e/home/guide/dir.html (English translation). This notification cancels the information published in document CERN/DSU-DO/RH/9304 on 19 October 1999. Relations with the Host States Service Tel.: 72848 relations.secretariat@cern.ch www.cern.ch/relations

  14. A 'YES' to the partial revision of the law on atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The Swiss Atomic Energy Law, dated 23 December 1959, has been reviewed by a National Council and it was agreed on 6 October 1978 that it should be partially revised, with a full revision to be made by the end of 1983. Station construction authorisations previously made for Muehleberg, Beznau I, II, Goesgen and Leibstadt are to be followed in a simplified fashion for Kaiseraugst, Groben and Verbois. Safety precautions, however, must be shown to be met, and this includes storage facilities for spent fuel. Final decision on a new station must be approved by democratic means. The final paragraph of the article states that the economics of nuclear power appear to be favourable and that there is no other apparently acceptable alternative. (G.C.)

  15. 26 CFR 509.106 - Control of a United States enterprise by a Swiss enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of a United States enterprise by a Swiss enterprise. 509.106 Section 509.106 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... a United States enterprise by a Swiss enterprise. In effect, Article IV of the convention provides...

  16. Experts' perspectives on SwissDRG: Second class care for vulnerable patient groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, A; Wepf, H; Elger, B; Wangmo, T

    2018-03-14

    On the 1st of January 2012, Switzerland introduced the diagnosis-related group hospital tariff structure (SwissDRG). It was recognised that healthcare provided to the most vulnerable patient groups would be a challenge for the new SwissDRG. Coincident with the implementation of SwissDRG, we explored hospital experts' perceptions of which patient groups are vulnerable under the SwissDRG system, what has changed for this group, as well as solutions to ensure adequate access to health care for them. We interviewed 43 experts from 40 Swiss hospitals. Participating experts named several vulnerable patient groups who share some common characteristics. These hospital experts were concerned about the patient groups that are not financially profitable and questioned the practicability of the current regulation. At the same time, they highlighted the complexity associated with caring for this group under the new SwissDRG and reported measures at the macro, meso, and micro levels to protect vulnerable patient groups from negative effects. To curb negative outcomes for vulnerable patient groups after the introduction of the SwissDRG, the Swiss legislation has introduced various instruments including the acute and transitional care (ATC) measures. We conclude that ATC measures do not produce the expected effect the legislators had hoped for. More health data is needed to identify situations where vulnerable patient groups are more susceptible to inadequate health care access in Switzerland. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Swiss synchrotron light source at the Paul Scherrer Institute at Villigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The brochure describes the Swiss project for a synchrotron light source to be built at the Paul Scherrer Institute at Villigen. According to the project the synchrotron light source shall be realized up to the year 2001 at costs of 165 Million Swiss Francs. figs., tabs

  18. The "Profiles" document: a modern revision of the objectives of undergraduate medical studies in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Pierre-André; Jucker-Kupper, Patrick; The Profiles Working Group

    2016-01-01

    The Joint Commission of the Swiss Medical Schools (SMIFK/CIMS) decided in 2000 to establish a Swiss Catalogue of Learning Objectives (SCLO) for undergraduate medical training, which was adapted from a similar Dutch blueprint. A second version of the SCLO was developed and launched in 2008. The catalogue is a prerequisite for the accreditation of the curricula of the six Swiss medical faculties and defines the contents of the Federal Licensing Examination (FLE). Given the evolution of the field of medicine and of medical education, the SMIFK/CIMS has decided to embark on a total revision of the SCLO. This article presents the proposed structure and content of Profiles, a new document which, in the future, will direct the format of undergraduate studies and of the FLE. Profiles stands for the Principal Relevant Objectives for Integrative Learning and Education in Switzerland. It is currently being developed by a group of experts from the six Swiss faculties as well as representatives of other institutions involved in these developments. The foundations of Profiles are grounded in the evolution of medical practice and of public health and are based on up-to-date teaching concepts, such as EPAs (entrustable professional activities). An introduction will cover the concepts and a tutorial will be displayed. Three main chapters will provide a description of the seven 2015 CanMEDS roles, a list of core EPAs and a series of ≈250 situations embracing the most frequent and current conditions affecting health. As Profiles is still a work in progress, it is hoped that this paper will attract the interest of all individuals involved in the training of medical students.

  19. The Reference Scenarios for the Swiss Emergency Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanspeter Isaak; Navert, Stephan B.; Ralph Schulz

    2006-01-01

    For the purpose of emergency planning and preparedness, realistic reference scenarios and corresponding accident source terms have been defined on the basis of common plant features. Three types of representative reference scenarios encompass the accident sequences expected to be the most probable. Accident source terms are assumed to be identical for all Swiss nuclear power plants, although the plants differ in reactor type and power. Plant-specific probabilistic safety analyses were used to justify the reference scenarios and the postulated accident source terms. From the full spectrum of release categories available, those categories were selected which would be covered by the releases and time frames assumed in the reference scenarios. For each nuclear power plant, the cumulative frequency of accident sequences not covered by the reference scenarios was determined. It was found that the cumulative frequency for such accident sequences does not exceed about 1 x 10 -6 per year. The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate concludes that the postulated accident source terms for the reference scenarios are consistent with the current international approach in emergency planning, where one should concentrate on the most probable accident sequences. (N.C.)

  20. Swiss operating experience: availability and post-Chernobyl upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, H.

    1988-01-01

    Switzerland started its era of nuclear power with the foundation stone for the country's first nuclear power unit (Beznau-1) onSeptember 6, 1965. Up to that date, Switzerland was the classic country for hydropower, negligible amounts of electricity being produced by fossil-fuelled plants. Today, nuclear accounts for close to 40 % of Swiss total electricity generation. Whwn credits for lifetime capacity factors of each individual plant are combined, Switzerland tops the world list for light water reactor performance over many years. The Chernobyl reactor type RBMK-1000 has very little in common with the light water reactors operating in Switzerland, so one would certainly not expect any direct influence on Swiss plant design, operation or maintenance as an immediate consequence of the accident. Some important safety measures against severe accidents are currently being implemented. These measures were not a direct outcome of the Chernobyl accident and were already in discussion quite some time before. With this action, the proper position of nuclear power to meet the ever increasing demand for electricity in Switzerland will hopefully again find greater public acceptance. 1 tab

  1. Fiftieth anniversary celebrations get underway with a Swiss philatelic gift

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    A special commemorative stamp dedicated to CERN will go on sale in post offices throughout Switzerland on 9 March, marking the official start of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations. On your marks, get set...go! The first ten stamp-lovers born in 1954 to present themselves at the counter of CERN's Meyrin post office at 9.00 a.m. on Tuesday 9 March will receive the new Swiss commemorative stamp issued in honour of CERN, together with a surprise gift. Designed by Swiss artists Christian Stuker and Beat Trummer, the stamp aims to convey the spirit of CERN in an area no larger than 28 mm by 33 mm. 'We wanted to get away from existing CERN imagery and create something symbolic for this 50th anniversary,' Christian Stucker explains. The radiating design portrays an opening, a spreading-out 'towards infinity', which reflects CERN's fundamental goals of research and the transmission of knowledge. The stamp will be available from 9 March onwards in all post offices across Switzerland as well as in the philatelic cen...

  2. Genetic variation within and between strains of outbred Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, S; Chesson, C; Hope, R

    1993-04-01

    The aim of this survey was to measure levels of genetic variation within and between 5 different strains of outbred Swiss mice. Ten to 15 animals from each strain (NIH, Q(S), ARC, IMVS and STUD) were typed, using allozyme electrophoresis, at 10 gene loci: Mod-1, Idh-1, Gpi-I, Es-1, Es-3, Hbb, Pep-3, Gr-1, Got-2 and Pgm-1. Polymorphic variation in at least one of the 5 strains was detected at all 10 loci. The proportion of polymorphic loci ranged from 0.3 (NIH) to 0.8 (IMVS) with a mean of 0.52. Average expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.08 (NIH) to 0.37 (IMVS) with a mean of 0.21. The inbred strain SWR was, as expected, homozygous at all 10 loci. The amount of allelic substitution between pairs of strains was quantified using Nei's genetic distance, and a dendrogram based on these genetic distances showed a close overall similarity in its branching pattern to the known genealogy of the strains. This survey showed that a considerable degree of genetic variation persists in the 5 strains examined, a level of variation similar to that previously detected by Rice and O'Brien (1980) in 3 other outbred Swiss strains.

  3. Fog Chemistry at Different Altitudes in the Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michna, P.; Eugster, W.; Wanner, H.

    2010-07-01

    During two extended summer seasons in 2006 and 2007, we installed two battery driven versions of the Caltech active strand cloud water collector (MiniCASCC) at the Niesen mountain in the northern Swiss Alps. Along, we measured air temperature, relative humidity, wind, and visibility. During these two field operation phases we gained weekly samples of fogwater, where we analysed the major anions and cations, and the stable water isotopes δD and δ18O. The fog collectors were installed at an altitude of 2300 and 1600 m asl to resolve altitudinal differences in fog chemistry. We found a large variability between the events, but no clear altitudinal gradient. At both sites, the most important ions were nitrate, ammonium, and sulphate. Higher concentrations occured preferably in late spring (start of sampling period) and in autumn (end of sampling). Compared to previous studies at lower elevations in the Swiss Plateau during wintertime, our measurements showed considerable lower ion loads in the fogwater. The combination of these results suggest that lowest ion loads are found in convective clouds with a short lifetime and that the highest ion loads occur during radiation fog events at lower elevations.

  4. Antidiarrheal Activity of Three Medicinal Plants in Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. Ashrafuzzaman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different parts of Allamanda neriifolia (AN, Crinum latifolium (CL, and Bruguiera cylindrical (BC are used in folk medicine to treat diarrhea. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate and compare possible antidiarrheal activity of methanol extracts from barks, stems, and roots of AL, CL, and BC in Swiss albino mice. Methods: Antidiarrheal activities of extracts were evaluated at three doses (100mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400mg/kg and compared with Loperamide in a castor oil-induced diarrhea and charcoal meal test model in the Swiss albino mice. Results: The aqueous extract of CL and BC administered at doses of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg showed 0%, 24.5%, 62.26% and 5.66%, 37.11%, and 62.26% diarrhea inhibition, respectively (Table 2. This reduction in diarrheal episodes is significant, and maximum effect was observed at the dose of 400mg/kg similarly in the alcohol extracts of both CL and BC. AN administered at the dose of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg showed 55.97%, 74.84% and 74.84% diarrhea inhibition, respectively. Conclusion: The antidiarrheal effect of the AN extract, in contrast to CL and BC, against the castor oil-induced diarrhea model prove its efficacy in an extensive range of diarrheal conditions.

  5. The Best Model of the Swiss Banknote Data -Validation by the 95% CI of coefficients and t-test of discriminant scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Shinmura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The discriminant analysis is not the inferential statistics since there are no equations for standard error (SE of error rate and discriminant coefficient based on the normal distribution. In this paper, we proposed the “k-fold cross validation for small sample” and can obtain the 95% confidence interval (CI of error rates and discriminant coefficients. This method is the computer-intensive approach by statistical and mathematical programming (MP software such as JMP and LINGO. By the proposed approach, we can choose the best model with the minimum mean of error rate in the validation samples (Minimum M2 Standard. In this research, we examine the sixteen linear separable models of Swiss banknote data by eight linear discriminant functions (LDFs. M2 of the best model of Revised IP-OLDF is the smallest value of all models. We find all coefficients of six Revised IP-OLDF among sixteen models rejected by the 95% CI of discriminant coefficients (Discriminant coefficient standard. We compare t-values of the discriminant scores. The t-value of the best model has the maximum values among sixteen models (Maximum t-value Standard. Moreover, we can conclude that all standards support the best model of Revised IP-OLDF.

  6. Revised Rules for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Jensen, F. M.; Middleton, C.

    This paper is based on research performed for the Highway Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: Concrete Bridges" It contains details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability profiles....... These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for Concrete Bridges....

  7. Emotion Processes in Knowledge Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevors, Gregory J.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Butterfuss, Reese

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, a number of insights have been gained into the cognitive processes that explain how individuals overcome misconceptions and revise their previously acquired incorrect knowledge. The current study complements this line of research by investigating the moment-by-moment emotion processes that occur during knowledge revision using a…

  8. Philippines revises power plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, D.

    1988-02-01

    Following an unexpected surge in electricity demand the Philippines has revised its medium term power development programme. The sharp increase in electricity consumption follows three years of slack demand due to civil disturbances before the end of the Macros administration and the election of Corazon Aquino as President in 1986. Originally, the Aquino government's medium term power development plans called for about 500MW of generating capacity to be installed between 1986 and 1992. The three proposed plants were scheduled for commissioning in 1991 and 1992. However, a spurt in power demand growth during the past nine months has caused concern among industrialists that power shortages could occur by the end of the decade. So additional capacity will be installed to prevent an anticipated shortfall in electricity supplies by the early 1990s.

  9. Revised SRAC code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihashi, Keichiro; Ishiguro, Yukio; Kaneko, Kunio; Ido, Masaru.

    1986-09-01

    Since the publication of JAERI-1285 in 1983 for the preliminary version of the SRAC code system, a number of additions and modifications to the functions have been made to establish an overall neutronics code system. Major points are (1) addition of JENDL-2 version of data library, (2) a direct treatment of doubly heterogeneous effect on resonance absorption, (3) a generalized Dancoff factor, (4) a cell calculation based on the fixed boundary source problem, (5) the corresponding edit required for experimental analysis and reactor design, (6) a perturbation theory calculation for reactivity change, (7) an auxiliary code for core burnup and fuel management, etc. This report is a revision of the users manual which consists of the general description, input data requirements and their explanation, detailed information on usage, mathematics, contents of libraries and sample I/O. (author)

  10. Microcomputers and the Improvement of Revision Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses use of word processing software as an effective tool in writing and revision instruction, and describes the role of the teacher. Examples of exercises that encourage revision and of software designed to teach effective revision skills are reviewed. (MBR)

  11. Landscape History of Grosses Moos, NW Swiss Alpine Foreland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanna Heer, Aleksandra; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Veit, Heinz; May, Jan-Hendrik; Novenko, Elena; Hajdas, Irka

    2017-04-01

    The western Swiss Plateau with Lake Neuchâtel is part of the alpine foreland and among the key areas for the reconstruction of environmental changes since the last postglacial. This study was carried out in a landscape located NE of the lake and called Grosses Moos (The Large Fen) - currently designated the Swiss largest, continuous farming area, after the fen was drained in course of landscape engineering projects performed in Switzerland at the end of the 19th century. The study contributes new results from nine excavations of littoral ridges identified in Grosses Moos, and integrates sedimentology, paleo-environmental analysis and three independent chronological methods. Radiocarbon dating, pollen analysis and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) were applied to the sediments. While pollen and radiocarbon follow the standard procedures, the evaluation of the luminescence age estimates demanded adjustment according to the physical and microdosimetric properties of the alpine quartz, and consideration of the peculiarities of the changing littoral environments of Grosses Moos. The Grosses Moos landscape developed on the temporary surface of the post-Last Glacial sedimentary infill of the over-deepened glacial Aare valley. In this study the landscape history has been fitted into the existing supraregional time scales of NGRIP, the Swiss bio-zones system and the human history based on archaeological and historic records and covers a time span of up to 15'000 yr b2k. The wide-ranging suite of geomorphic features and sedimentary sequences, including littoral lake sediments, beach ridges, dunes, palaeo-channels, peat and colluvial deposits, enable the extensive reconstruction of spatially and temporally variable natural shaping processes. In addition, our results indicate remobilization of soil, colluvium, and sediment due to human settlement activities since the Neolithic - with an important increase in sediment load and spatial variability since the Bronze Age

  12. Swiss Atlas of PHYsical properties of Rocks (SAPHYR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappone, Alba; Kissling, Eduard

    2015-04-01

    The Swiss Atlas of PHYsical properties of Rocks (SAPHYR), is a multi-year project, funded entirely by Swiss Commission for Geophysics (SGPK), with the aim to compile a comprehensive data set in digital form on physical properties of rocks exposed in Switzerland and surrounding regions. The ultimate goal of SAPHYR is to make these data accessible to an open and wide public including industrial, engineering, land and resource planning companies, as well as academic institutions, or simply people interested in geology. Since the early sixties worldwide many scientists, i.e. geophysicists, petrologists, and engineers, focused their work on laboratory measurements of rocks physical properties, and their relations with microstructures, mineralogical compositions and other rock parameters, in the effort to constrain the geological interpretation of geophysical surveys. Particularly in the years in which seismic reflection and refraction crustal scale projects were investigating the deep structures of the Alps, laboratories capable to reproduce the pressure and temperature ranges of the continental crust were collecting measurements of various rock parameters on a wide variety of lithologies, developing in the meantime more and more sophisticated experimental methodologies. In recent years, the increasing interest of European Countries on non-traditional energy supply, (i.e. Deep Geothermal Energy and shale gas) and CO2 storage renovated the interests in physical characterization of the deep underground. SAPHYR aims to organize all those laboratory data into a geographically referenced database (GIS). The data refer to density, porosity, permeability, and seismic, magnetic, thermal and electric properties. In the past years, effort has been placed on collecting samples and measuring the physical properties of lithologies that were poorly documented in literature. The phase of laboratory measurements is still in progress. Recently, SAPHYR project focused towards developing

  13. Grid Data Management and Customer Demands at MeteoSwiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, G.; Lukasczyk, Ch.

    2010-09-01

    Data grids constitute the required input form for a variety of applications. Therefore, customers increasingly expect climate services to not only provide measured data, but also grids of these with the required configurations on an operational basis. Currently, MeteoSwiss is establishing a production chain for delivering data grids by subscription directly from the data warehouse in order to meet the demand for precipitation data grids by governmental, business and science customers. The MeteoSwiss data warehouse runs on an Oracle database linked with an ArcGIS Standard edition geodatabase. The grids are produced by Unix-based software written in R called GRIDMCH which extracts the station data from the data warehouse and stores the files in the file system. By scripts, the netcdf-v4 files are imported via an FME interface into the database. Currently daily and monthly deliveries of daily precipitation grids are available from MeteoSwiss with a spatial resolution of 2.2km x 2.2km. These daily delivered grids are a preliminary based on 100 measuring sites whilst the grid of the monthly delivery of daily sums is calculated out of about 430 stations. Crucial for the absorption by the customers is the understanding of and the trust into the new grid product. Clearly stating needs which can be covered by grid products, the customers require a certain lead time to develop applications making use of the particular grid. Therefore, early contacts and a continuous attendance as well as flexibility in adjusting the production process to fulfill emerging customer needs are important during the introduction period. Gridding over complex terrain can lead to temporally elevated uncertainties in certain areas depending on the weather situation and coverage of measurements. Therefore, careful instructions on the quality and use and the possibility to communicate the uncertainties of gridded data proofed to be essential especially to the business and science customers who require

  14. Protein sequence annotation in the genome era: the annotation concept of SWISS-PROT+TREMBL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apweiler, R; Gateau, A; Contrino, S; Martin, M J; Junker, V; O'Donovan, C; Lang, F; Mitaritonna, N; Kappus, S; Bairoch, A

    1997-01-01

    SWISS-PROT is a curated protein sequence database which strives to provide a high level of annotation, a minimal level of redundancy and high level of integration with other databases. Ongoing genome sequencing projects have dramatically increased the number of protein sequences to be incorporated into SWISS-PROT. Since we do not want to dilute the quality standards of SWISS-PROT by incorporating sequences without proper sequence analysis and annotation, we cannot speed up the incorporation of new incoming data indefinitely. However, as we also want to make the sequences available as fast as possible, we introduced TREMBL (TRanslation of EMBL nucleotide sequence database), a supplement to SWISS-PROT. TREMBL consists of computer-annotated entries in SWISS-PROT format derived from the translation of all coding sequences (CDS) in the EMBL nucleotide sequence database, except for CDS already included in SWISS-PROT. While TREMBL is already of immense value, its computer-generated annotation does not match the quality of SWISS-PROTs. The main difference is in the protein functional information attached to sequences. With this in mind, we are dedicating substantial effort to develop and apply computer methods to enhance the functional information attached to TREMBL entries.

  15. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Allergies KidsHealth / For Kids / Food Allergies What's in this ... milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system makes ...

  16. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  17. Exposure of the Swiss population by radiodiagnostics: 2013 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Coultre, Regis; Champendal, Melanie; Bize, Julie; Ryckx, Nick; Aroua, Abbas; Verdun, Francis R.; Wittwer, David; Trueb, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, a nationwide investigation was conducted in Switzerland to establish the population's exposure from medical X rays. A hybrid approach was used combining the Raddose database accessible on-line by the participating practices and the Swiss medical pricing system for hospitals. This study revealed that the average annual number of examinations is 1.2 per inhabitant, and the associated annual effective dose is 1.4 mSv. It also showed that computed tomography is the most irradiating modality and that it delivers 70 % of the total dose. The annual effective dose per inhabitant registered a 17 % increase in 5 y and is comparable with what was recently reported in neighbouring countries. (authors)

  18. Visit of the President of the Swiss Confederation

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    On 24 March, CERN welcomed Johann Schneider-Ammann, President of the Swiss Confederation.   President Johann Schneider-Ammann arrived to CERN in the morning, where he was welcomed by CERN Director-General Fabiola Gianotti. During the visit, the President was accompanied by Erik Reumann, spokesperson of the Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research, Alexandre Fasel, Ambassador and Permanent Representative of Switzerland to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva, and Patrick Pardo, counsellor at the permanent Mission of Switzerland to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva. In the Main Building he exchanged a few words with Frédérick Bordry, Director for Accelerators and Technology, Martin Steinacher, Director for Finance and Human Resources, and Friedemann Eder, Head of CERN Host States relations service. President Johann Schneider-Ammann also signed the guestbook of the Organ...

  19. Asian Martial Art Exhibitions at the Swiss Castle of Morges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Gothard Bialokur

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on two unique cultural exhibitions (2005 and 2007 held in Morges, Switzerland. The main theme for these exhibitions was Asian martial arts with a focus on those from Japan, including presentations by notable masters in aikido, karate, judo, kyudo, iaido, kenjutsu, jodo, juttejutsu, kusarigamajutsu, naginatajutsu, tameshigiri, and kendo. On exhibit were artifacts from Morges Castle museum collections as well as numerous ancient objects borrowed specifically for these exhibitions from other Swiss museums and private collections. There was also a lecture on Japanese sword collecting and care, and presentations of Japanese dance, flower arranging (ikebana, the art of tea (châ no yu, châdo, paper folding (origami, traditional kimono dress, and detailed demonstrations on the manufacture of bladed weapons. Text and photography were arranged to record these events for this article, showing how excellent organization and cooperation can introduce high-quality martial traditions to the public.

  20. Liberalization of the Swiss electricity and gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattin, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss government intends to liberalize the electricity and gas market. Competition is to be introduced in the electricity sector first because the European Union is also giving priority to this industry. Moreover, electricity prices in Switzerland are too high. The principle of market liberalization is not contested, but the route to be taken to achieve this goal is a matter of heated controversy. Opinions on the power line network, non-amortizable investments, hydropower plants or the pace of market liberalization still differ too widely. Liberalization of the gas market is also in preparation, but the problems here are less complex. This is because competition already exists on the heating market. In addition, domestic gas prices are not much higher than those charged in other countries. (author)

  1. Swiss guideline: Protection objectives for the disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurkinden, A.

    1994-01-01

    The Swiss guideline R-21 establishing the protection objectives for the disposal of radioactive waste has been reviewed and amended in order to adapt it to improvements made in the field of radioactive waste disposal. In an introductory part, the new guideline states the overall objective of radioactive waste disposal and the associated principles which have to be observed. The guideline then establishes the safety requirements applied to a geological disposal facility. These safety requirements are formulated as protection goals for the whole disposal system and not as specific criteria applying to the system components. The guideline gives finally a series of explanatory comments and indications concerning the conduct of the safety assessment for a disposal facility

  2. An effective medium description of 'Swiss Rolls', a magnetic metamaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltshire, M C K; Pendry, J B; Williams, W; Hajnal, J V

    2007-01-01

    The 'Swiss Roll' metamaterial medium is well suited to operation in the radio frequency (RF) range, because it has a low resonant frequency and a strong magnetic response. Two prisms of this material, one hexagonal and one square, have been constructed and characterized both at the metamaterial's resonant frequency of 21.5 MHz and above it, where the effective permeability is strongly negative. A series of spatial resonances is observed in the field patterns on the surfaces of the prisms. Using an effective medium description, we have carried out both analytical and numerical modelling of the electromagnetic behaviour of the metamaterial, and find, within certain obvious limitations, extremely good agreement between the measured and modelled results

  3. How does a Swiss citizen want to heat his home?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadelmann, M.

    2003-01-01

    This short article presents a summary of the results of representative market research carried out on which forms of energy are the most favoured in Switzerland. Solar energy is the form of energy at the top of the list of the most desired forms of energy for providing hot water. Natural gas is the energy carrier most favoured for space-heating, having for the first time overtaken solar energy in this sector. The article also quotes further findings of the survey, including the roles played by air pollution and other factors that influence energy desires. Also, the survey studied the sources used by the Swiss to obtain information on the subject of energy supply when building, buying or refurbishing their homes. The results are presented in the form of diagrams

  4. Design, commissioning and operation of the Swiss Light Source SLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streun, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    The Swiss Light Source (SLS) at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is the most recent 3rd generation light source coming to operation. It consists of a 12- TBA storage ring of 288 m circumference providing 5 nm rad emittance at 2.4 GeV, a novel type of full energy booster synchrotron and a 100 MeV linac. The initial four beamlines cover protein X-ray crystallography (PX), materials science (MS), surface and interface spectroscopy (SIS) and microscopy (SIM). We will review the project history, describe the design concepts of the accelerators and the technical subsystems, and report on the commissioning process and the status of operation by end of 2002. (author)

  5. Engaging the public in decision-making. A Swiss approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Swiss public is still involved in main decisions which may be concern them. The nuclear industry knows a lot about the difficulties of advancing with projects such as repository or new plants. The temptation is very high to change the existing law to simplify the procedure of authorization. But this would be a very bad way to circumvent the distrust of public against nuclear projects. Everywhere today politicians are promoting the empowerment of responsible citizens: in health care, consumers decision and so on. In the domain of nuclear concerns this empowerment is extremely important: especially in this field the public has rights and needs which must be taken into account. (R.P.)

  6. Cost effectiveness at Beznau and other Swiss nuclear stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, H.E.

    1996-01-01

    Switzerland, with 7 million inhabitants, has the sixth highest per-capita electricity consumption in the world. At present, 40% of electric power is nuclear. The four Swiss nuclear plants have an average capacity factor well above 80%. Total cost per kw.h ranges from 5.4 US-cents for Beznau to 7.1 for Leibstadt. Staffing levels are lower than in other countries, due to the stable and highly skilled work force. The maintenance practice has been one of preventive maintenance. Both steam generators in Beznau-1 were replaced in 1993, and Beznau-2 is scheduled for 2000. Some maintenance is done by contractors. There is practically no technical support from headquarters. Retrofitting mandated by the regulatory authority is a matter of concern, because of its effect on production costs. Possible deregulation of the market for electricity in Europe powers the drive to become more efficient. 3 tabs

  7. International status of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1982-09-01

    Recent international moves that are likely to result in an increasing acceptance of irradiated foods are reviewed. Particular attention is given to the activities of the FAO, WHO, Codex Alimentarius and to attitudes in the United States and the Asian-Pacific region. In 1979, the Codex Alimentarius Commission adopted a Recommended General Standard for Irradiated Food. A resume is given of a revised version of the standard that is presently under consideration. However, remaining barriers to trade in irradiated food are briefly discussed, such as legal and regulatory problems, labelling, public acceptance and economic viability

  8. Swiss family physicians' perceptions and attitudes towards knowledge translation practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengough, Theresa; Bovet, Emilie; Bécherraz, Camille; Schlegel, Susanne; Burnand, Bernard; Pidoux, Vincent

    2015-12-11

    Several studies have been performed to understand the way family physicians apply knowledge from medical research in practice. However, very little is known concerning family physicians in Switzerland. In an environment in which information constantly accumulates, it is crucial to identify the major sources of scientific information that are used by family physicians to keep their medical knowledge up to date and barriers to use these sources. Our main objective was to examine medical knowledge translation (KT) practices of Swiss family physicians. The population consisted of French- and German-speaking private practice physicians specialised in family medicine. We conducted four interviews and three focus groups (n = 25). The interview guides of the semi-structured interviews and focus groups focused on (a) ways and means used by physicians to keep updated with information relevant to clinical practice; (b) how they consider their role in translating knowledge into practice; (c) potential barriers to KT; (d) solutions proposed by physicians for effective KT. Family physicians find themselves rather ambivalent about the translation of knowledge based on scientific literature, but generally express much interest in KT. They often feel overwhelmed by "information floods" and perceive clinical practice guidelines and other supports to be of limited usefulness for their practice. They often combine various formal and informal information sources to keep their knowledge up to date. Swiss family physicians report considering themselves as artisans, caring for patients with complex needs. Improved performance of KT initiatives in family medicine should be tailored to actual needs and based on high quality evidence-based sources.

  9. Suicide tourism: a pilot study on the Swiss phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Saskia; Mausbach, Julian; Reisch, Thomas; Bartsch, Christine

    2015-08-01

    While assisted suicide (AS) is strictly restricted in many countries, it is not clearly regulated by law in Switzerland. This imbalance leads to an influx of people-'suicide tourists'-coming to Switzerland, mainly to the Canton of Zurich, for the sole purpose of committing suicide. Political debate regarding 'suicide tourism' is taking place in many countries. Swiss medicolegal experts are confronted with these cases almost daily, which prompted our scientific investigation of the phenomenon. The present study has three aims: (1) to determine selected details about AS in the study group (age, gender and country of residence of the suicide tourists, the organisation involved, the ingested substance leading to death and any diseases that were the main reason for AS); (2) to find out the countries from which suicide tourists come and to review existing laws in the top three in order to test the hypothesis that suicide tourism leads to the amendment of existing regulations in foreign countries; and (3) to compare our results with those of earlier studies in Zurich. We did a retrospective data analysis of the Zurich Institute of Legal Medicine database on AS of non-Swiss residents in the last 5 years (2008-2012), and internet research for current legislation and political debate in the three foreign countries most concerned. We analysed 611 cases from 31 countries all over the world. Non-terminal conditions such as neurological and rheumatic diseases are increasing among suicide tourists. The unique phenomenon of suicide tourism in Switzerland may indeed result in the amendment or supplementary guidelines to existing regulations in foreign countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Extreme heat and runoff extremes in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zappa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological response of Swiss river basins to the 2003 European summer heatwave was evaluated by a combined analysis of historical discharge records and specific applications of distributed hydrological modeling. In the summer of 2003, the discharge from headwater streams of the Swiss Central Plateau was only 40%–60% of the long-term average. For alpine basins runoff was about 60%–80% of the average. Glacierized basins showed the opposite behavior. According to the degree of glacierization, the average summer runoff was close or even above average. The hydrological model PREVAH was applied for the period 1982–2005. Even if the model was not calibrated for such extreme meteorological conditions, it was well able to simulate the hydrological responses of three basins. The aridity index φ describes feedbacks between hydrological and meteorological anomalies, and was adopted as an indicator of hydrological drought. The anomalies of φ and temperature in the summer of 2003 exceeded the 1982–2005 mean by more than 2 standard deviations. Catchments without glaciers showed negative correlations between φ and discharge R. In basins with about 15% glacierization, φ and R were not correlated. River basins with higher glacier percentages showed a positive correlation between φ and R. Icemelt was positively correlated with φ and reduced the variability of discharge with larger amounts of meltwater. Runoff generation from the non-glaciated sub-areas was limited by high evapotranspiration and reduced precipitation. The 2003 summer heatwave could be a precursor to similar events in the near future. Hydrological models and further data analysis will allow the identification of the most sensitive regions where heatwaves may become a recurrent natural hazard with large environmental, social and economical impacts.

  11. Summary of Operating Experience in Swiss Nuclear Power Plants 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-15

    The five Swiss nuclear power units produced a net total of 23.6 TWh of electricity in 1999 - not as high as the all-time record (24.45 TWh in 1998), but nonetheless a solid operational performance. The nuclear share in overall electricity production was 35.3%, again lower than the previous year's 40%. In general, plant operation in 1999 was practically as undisturbed and as reliable as in 1998, reflecting the ongoing tradition of careful maintenance that contributes so much to keeping the plants in excellent condition. However, due to exceptional outage activities at Beznau 2 (steam generator replacement) and an unplanned shut-down at Goesgen to replace a hydrogen seal on the main generator, 1999 nuclear production could not match that of the previous year. Also, record hydro power production caused the nuclear share in total electricity production to drop. With the exception of Beznau 2, all refueling and maintenance outages were once again short. The Leibstadt outage lasted 26 days, Goesgen 33 days, Beznau 1 lasted 29 days, Beznau 2 89 days and Muehleberg 27 days. At Goesgen, MOX fuel was loaded for the third time in 1999. Of the 44 freshly-loaded fuel elements, 20 were MOX elements. Non-electrical energy supplies from the Beznau and Goesgen nuclear power plants functioned flawlessly. Beznau fed 143.6 GWh of heat energy into the Refuna district heating system, while Goesgen supplied 169 GWh of process heat to the neighboring Niedergoesgen cardboard factory. At the end of 1999 and the beginning of 2000 all Swiss nuclear units continued to operate flawlessly - notwithstanding the challenges posed by the 'Lothar' storm that hit Western Europe in late December and the so-called Y2K computer bug that threatened to hit shortly afterwards, during the 'millennial' change-over. (authors)

  12. Surveillance for European bat lyssavirus in Swiss bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megali, A; Yannic, G; Zahno, M-L; Brügger, D; Bertoni, G; Christe, P; Zanoni, R

    2010-10-01

    Most countries in Western Europe are currently free of rabies in terrestrial mammals. Nevertheless, rabies remains a residual risk to public health due to the natural circulation of bat-specific viruses, such as European bat lyssaviruses (EBLVs). European bat lyssavirus types 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and EBLV-2) are widely distributed throughout Europe, but little is known of their true prevalence and epidemiology. We report that only three out of 837 brains taken from bats submitted to the Swiss Rabies Centre between 1976 and 2009 were found by immunofluorescence (FAT) to be positive for EBLVs. All three positive cases were in Myotis daubentoni, from 1992, 1993 and 2002. In addition to this passive surveillance, we undertook a targeted survey in 2009, aimed at detecting lyssaviruses in live bats in Switzerland. A total of 237 bats of the species M. daubentoni, Myotis myotis, Eptesicus serotinus and Nyctalus noctula were captured at different sites in western Switzerland. Oropharyngeal swabs and blood from each individual were analysed by RT-PCR and rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT), respectively. RNA corresponding to EBLV-2 was detected from oropharyngeal swabs of a single M. daubentoni bat, but no infectious virus was found. Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed that the corresponding sequence was closely related to the other EBLV-2 sequences identified in previous rabies isolates from Swiss bats (particularly to that found at Geneva in 2002). Three M. daubentoni bats were found to be seropositive by RFFIT. In conclusion, even though the prevalence is low in Switzerland, continuous management and surveillance are required to assess the potential risk to public health.

  13. Summary of Operating Experience in Swiss Nuclear Power Plants 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-05-01

    The five Swiss nuclear power units produced a net total of 23.6 TWh of electricity in 1999 - not as high as the all-time record (24.45 TWh in 1998), but nonetheless a solid operational performance. The nuclear share in overall electricity production was 35.3%, again lower than the previous year's 40%. In general, plant operation in 1999 was practically as undisturbed and as reliable as in 1998, reflecting the ongoing tradition of careful maintenance that contributes so much to keeping the plants in excellent condition. However, due to exceptional outage activities at Beznau 2 (steam generator replacement) and an unplanned shut-down at Goesgen to replace a hydrogen seal on the main generator, 1999 nuclear production could not match that of the previous year. Also, record hydro power production caused the nuclear share in total electricity production to drop. With the exception of Beznau 2, all refueling and maintenance outages were once again short. The Leibstadt outage lasted 26 days, Goesgen 33 days, Beznau 1 lasted 29 days, Beznau 2 89 days and Muehleberg 27 days. At Goesgen, MOX fuel was loaded for the third time in 1999. Of the 44 freshly-loaded fuel elements, 20 were MOX elements. Non-electrical energy supplies from the Beznau and Goesgen nuclear power plants functioned flawlessly. Beznau fed 143.6 GWh of heat energy into the Refuna district heating system, while Goesgen supplied 169 GWh of process heat to the neighboring Niedergoesgen cardboard factory. At the end of 1999 and the beginning of 2000 all Swiss nuclear units continued to operate flawlessly - notwithstanding the challenges posed by the 'Lothar' storm that hit Western Europe in late December and the so-called Y2K computer bug that threatened to hit shortly afterwards, during the 'millennial' change-over. (authors)

  14. 75 FR 61119 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ..., Processing, and Marketing of Natural Mineral Waters at Step 4. Proposed Draft Revision of the Principles for... on the Application of General Principles of Food Hygiene to the Control of Viruses in Food at Step 4...

  15. Occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in brown trout bile and liver from Swiss rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Paul C. [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia [Department of Environmental Science, University of Basel, Vesalgasse 1, 4051 Basel (Switzerland)]. E-mail: patricia.holm@unibas.ch; Giger, Walter [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)]. E-mail: giger@eawag.ch

    2007-03-15

    The ranges of total polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish from four Swiss rivers were 0.8-240 ng/g in the bile and 16-7400 ng/g lipid in the liver. PBDE concentrations varied within each river and among the various rivers. Female fish tended to have higher concentrations in the liver, while the male fish had higher concentrations in the bile. From the resulting PBDE concentrations in fish it could not be infered that these contaminants contribute to the causes of the observed fish catch decline in Swiss rivers. - PBDEs with the most abundant BDE-47 were determined in brown trout bile and liver from Swiss rivers.

  16. Occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in brown trout bile and liver from Swiss rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Paul C.; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Giger, Walter

    2007-01-01

    The ranges of total polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish from four Swiss rivers were 0.8-240 ng/g in the bile and 16-7400 ng/g lipid in the liver. PBDE concentrations varied within each river and among the various rivers. Female fish tended to have higher concentrations in the liver, while the male fish had higher concentrations in the bile. From the resulting PBDE concentrations in fish it could not be infered that these contaminants contribute to the causes of the observed fish catch decline in Swiss rivers. - PBDEs with the most abundant BDE-47 were determined in brown trout bile and liver from Swiss rivers

  17. The Swiss ''CANUPIS'' study on childhood cancer in the vicinity of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelkle, Hansruedi

    2011-01-01

    A nationwide cohort study on leukaemia and any other childhood cancer in the vicinity of Swiss nuclear power stations (CANUPIS) was supported by the Krebsliga Schweiz and the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health. The results, covering the years 1985 to 2009 and including some 21 million person years, was published in July 2011. Three zones around nuclear installations were investigated: 0 to 5 km, 5 to 10 km and 10 to 15 km distance. The CANUPIS study found no evidence for a statistically significant increased cancer risk among 0 to 15 year old children living near Swiss nuclear power stations, compared to children living in other regions of the country. (orig.)

  18. A study on scar revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Talwar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Scars are psychologically distressing for the patients and have an impact on the quality of life and self esteem of the patients. Scar revision is an aesthetic skill which is mastered by plastic surgeons and encroached now by dermatosurgeons. Scars on the face are aesthetically unacceptable and various techniques have been improvised for making a scar aesthetically acceptable. Various types of techniques are used for scar revision like W plasty, Z plasty and VY plasty. Aims: To see the efficacy of various scar revision techniques including Z plasty, VY plasty and W plasty in 30 patients with disfiguring scars. Methods: We selected twenty patients of disfiguring scars for the study. The scars from various causes including trauma and burns were included in our study. Various techniques of scar revision include Z plasty, W plasty and VY plasty were performed according to the type and site of scar. Results: Male: female was 1.5: 1. The scar revision surgery yielded excellent results with minimal complications including haematoma formation, secondary infection and delayed healing seen in 5% patients each. Regarding the efficacy of scar revision, excellent improvement was seen in 60% patients, moderate improvement was seen in 30% patients and mild improvement was seen in 10% patients. Conclusions: Dermatologists can employ a number of surgical scar revision techniques. While some are better suited to treat specific types of scars, they can be used in combination with each other or with adjunctive therapies to achieve optimal results.

  19. The epic of the Swiss electric utilities: the entry into a new era of the Swiss history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remondeulaz, J.

    2010-01-01

    Until the 19 th century the only resources of Switzerland were wood and hydraulic energy. Their exploitation was adequate to produce heat and useful mechanical energy. The electrification of the country was introduced in the second half of the 19 th century in the form of hydropower in DC. The potential is very important, with a gigantic buffer constituted by the glaciers, estimated to be 50 TWh a year. Today, it is used at around 65-85% (for the time being, annual hydropower generation varies from 42.3 TWh in 2001 to only 32.6 in 2006). The standardization of power distribution in AC was realized during World War I: public and private lighting, space heating and hot water, mechanical power, drive propulsion system in replacement of gas, coal and vapour, e.g. with the electrification of the national railway network. Between 1875 and 1914 more than 1000 electric utilities have been established. The first law concerning hydropower was decided in 1916. During World War II the restrictions on fossil fuel import were an incentive for the development of new hydropower plants: it was the epic of the dams. The high voltage network (220 kV) was developed in order to enable interconnection with the neighbour countries France, Germany and Italy. Since 1958 this interconnection is established on the whole European level. Switzerland was entrusted with the frequency adjustment of the European network and the controlling of the exchanges in the framework of a special European agreement on electricity. From the Swiss point of view the international trade of electricity is very profitable: thanks to its accumulation lakes Switzerland can sell expensive peak load energy to whole Europe. Since the mid 50ies it was clear that the exploitation of all economically available hydropower would not be enough to cover the increasing demand of the country. A first experimental nuclear power plant was decided in 1961, built from 1962 on and turned into operation in 1968 (30 MW th and 6 MW el

  20. Revision of ASCE 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, T.A.; Murray, R.C.; Short, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    The original version of ASCE Standard 4, ''Seismic Analysis of Safety-Related Nuclear Structures'' was published in September 1986. It is ASCE policy to update its standards on a five year interval and the Working Group on Seismic Analysis of Safety Related Nuclear Structures was reconvened to formulate the revisions. The goal in updating the standard is to make sure that it is still relevant and that it incorporates the state of the practice in seismic engineering or, in some cases, where it has been demonstrated that state-of-the-art improvements need to be made to standard practice; new improvements are included. The contents of the new standard cover the same areas as the original version, with some additions. The contents are as follows: Input - response spectra and time histories; modeling of structures; analysis of structures; soil-structure interaction; input for subsystem analysis; special structures - buried pipes and conduits, earth-retaining walls, above-ground vertical tanks, raceways, and base-isolated structures; and an appendix providing seismic probabilistic risk assessment and margin assessment

  1. Contact activation: a revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaier, A H

    1997-07-01

    In conclusion, a revised view of the contact system has been presented. This system has little to do with the initiation of hemostasis. Like lupus anticoagulants, deficiencies of contact proteins give prolonged APTTs but may be risk factors for thrombosis. BK from kininogens is a potent modulator of vascular biology inducing vasodilation, tissue plasminogen activator release, and prostacyclin liberation. Kininogens, themselves, are selective inhibitors of alpha-thrombin-induced platelet activation preventing alpha-thrombin from cleaving the cloned thrombin receptor after arginine41. Kininogens' alpha-thrombin inhibitory activity exists in intact kininogens, BK, and all of BK's breakdown products. HK also is the pivotal protein for contact protein assembly on endothelium. It is the receptor for prekallikrein which when bound to HK becomes activated to kallikrein by an endothelial cell enzyme system independent of activated forms of plasma factor XII. Prekallikrein activation on endothelial cells results in kinetically favorable single chain urokinase and plasminogen activation. Thus the "physiologic, negatively charged surface" for contact system activation is really the assembly of these proteins on cell membranes and activation by membrane-associated enzymes.

  2. Revision of criteria for foodstuffs control following a nuclear or radiological emergency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Lee, Young Min; Jeong, Seung Young [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    GAL(generic action level)s were derived using cost-benefit methods. But the factors used to derive GALs, such as Gross National Product (GNP) and cost of foodstuff, have been changed for last 10 years. Moreover the standards did not consider exposure situation change from emergency exposure to existing exposure situation. In this study, two ways to revise existing standards for foodstuff control were considered; 1st, revision of GAL, 2nd, newly derived reference level. In this study, two methods to revise food control criteria following nuclear emergency were suggested. GAL based on recent GNI and cost of foodstuff would be revised and decreased up to 30 % than existing criteria. DRLs reflecting exposure situation and consumption pattern were smaller than existing criteria for group 1 nuclides. The approach considered in the study would be applied to set up domestic criteria for food control during and following nuclear or radiological emergency.

  3. Revision of criteria for foodstuffs control following a nuclear or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Lee, Young Min; Jeong, Seung Young

    2015-01-01

    GAL(generic action level)s were derived using cost-benefit methods. But the factors used to derive GALs, such as Gross National Product (GNP) and cost of foodstuff, have been changed for last 10 years. Moreover the standards did not consider exposure situation change from emergency exposure to existing exposure situation. In this study, two ways to revise existing standards for foodstuff control were considered; 1st, revision of GAL, 2nd, newly derived reference level. In this study, two methods to revise food control criteria following nuclear emergency were suggested. GAL based on recent GNI and cost of foodstuff would be revised and decreased up to 30 % than existing criteria. DRLs reflecting exposure situation and consumption pattern were smaller than existing criteria for group 1 nuclides. The approach considered in the study would be applied to set up domestic criteria for food control during and following nuclear or radiological emergency

  4. From Food Producer to Landscape Preserver: A Swiss Perspective on the Future of the Balinese Subak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel P. Lorenzen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The future of Bali’s agriculture is at a cross-roads. Tourismand urbanisation are slowly but steadily dismemberingone of the cornerstones of Balinese culture, the subak andits distinct ways of sharing water, cultivating rice andbeautifying the landscape. A combined effort is requiredof farmers, the government and society to rethink andreappraise the value of agriculture for the Balinese peopleand the economy. Such a change of perception needs toconsider the question of adequate compensation for thework farmers do in the fields, grooming 1000 year oldrice terraces, and planting, irrigating, and celebrating rice.To place Bali in a global context, I examine Switzerland’sprotective agricultural policies, rural developmentplanning and community-led initiatives which may offersome unconventional but pragmatic solutions to turn thetables for Bali’s rice sector protecting the subak institution.At last, I envisage a future for the subak and its members, anactive and proud farming community, not only famous riceproducers and fair water sharers but also recognised andappraised for their services to society as cultural landscapepreservers.

  5. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bicoloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and protection of blood lipids from

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bi-coloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage. The food that is the subject of the health claim, a combination of Tuscan black cabbage (Brassica Oleracea botrytis L.), “tri......-coloured” Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris ciclaL.), “bi-coloured” spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and “blu savoy” cabbage (Brassica oleracea convar. capitata var. sabauda L.), is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage, may be a beneficial physiological effect......-coloured” Swiss chard, “bi-coloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage....

  6. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bicoloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and maintenance of normal blood LDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bi-coloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and maintenance of normal blood cholesterol concentration. The food that is the subject of the health claim, a combination of Tuscan black cabbage (Brassica Oleracea botrytis L.......), “tri-coloured” Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris ciclaL.), “bi-coloured” spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and “blu savoy” cabbage (Brassica oleracea convar. capitata var. sabauda L.), is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration, is a beneficial......, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bi-coloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration....

  7. Circumcision revision in male children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Al-Ghazo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine indications for circumcision revision and to identify the specialty of the person who performed unsatisfactory primary circumcision. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors reviewed medical records of 52 cases that underwent circumcision revision over a 6-year period (1998 to 2004. Sleeve surgical technique was used for revision in patients with redundant foreskin or concealed penis, penoplasty for partial or complete degloving of the penis and meatotomy for external meatal stenosis. The mean age of children was 32 months (range 6 months to 9 years. RESULTS: Most of unsatisfactory primary circumcisions (86.7% were performed by laymen. All patients who underwent circumcision revision had good to excellent cosmetic results. CONCLUSION: Primary circumcision performed by laymen carry a high complication rate and serious complications may occur. A period of training and direct supervision by physicians is required before allowing laymen to perform circumcision independently.

  8. EPR first responders revision test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In this revision test evaluates the acquired knowledge in case of radiological emergency confront. Actions to be taken in relation to people, equipment and the environment. Doses, radioactive sources, pollution

  9. Corporate Author Entries. Revision 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, P.L.

    1986-05-01

    This reference authority has been created and is maintained to provide standard forms for recording the names of organizations consistently in bibliographic citations. This revision includes approximately 42,000 entries established since 1973

  10. Annual report 1996 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland. figs., tabs., refs.

  11. Can a fake fir tell the truth about Swiss needle cast? (paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key question in dendrochronology to reconstruct forest disturbance history is how to distinguish between the effects of Swiss needle cast (SNC) and other forest disturbance agents (e.g., Arceuthobium spp., Armillaria, Phaseolus schweinitzii, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Dendroctonu...

  12. Annual Report 1998 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland.

  13. Annual Report 1998 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland

  14. Future electricity supplies must be secured - Swiss outlook for 2035 / 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This comprehensive article reviews an update made in 2009 by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises VSE on their paper 'Outlook 2006 on Swiss electricity supply for the period up to 2035 / 2050'. The association is of the opinion that the paper can still form the basis for issue-related public discussion on energy-related questions. The Swiss 'four-pillar' strategy - energy efficiency, renewable energy, large power stations and international energy policy - is noted and supported. The special role played by electricity in the Swiss energy mix is discussed and the issue of security of supply is examined. Possible shortages that could occur in the future are discussed, as is the question of carbon dioxide emissions. Economic viability and power prices are discussed. Energy efficiency and power production options are also examined. Combined heat and power, hydropower and nuclear power are examined and, finally, import and export options reviewed

  15. Kalam's visit to cement Indo-Swiss ties in high tech area

    CERN Multimedia

    Sumir, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Seeking to boost Indo-Swiss cooperation in high tech areas, President APJ Abdul Kalam arrived in Geneva on a four-day visit to Switzerland aimed at firming up plans for future cooperation with the CERN

  16. The Swiss Black Swan Bad Scenario: Is Switzerland Another Casualty of the Eurozone Crisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Lleo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Financial disasters to hedge funds, bank trading departments and individual speculative traders and investors seem to always occur because of non-diversification in all possible scenarios, being overbet and being hit by a bad scenario. Black swans are the worst type of bad scenario: unexpected and extreme. The Swiss National Bank decision on 15 January 2015 to abandon the 1.20 peg against the Euro was a tremendous blow for many Swiss exporters, but also Swiss and international investors, hedge funds, global macro funds, banks, as well as the Swiss central bank. In this paper, we discuss the causes for this action, the money losers and the few winners, what it means for Switzerland, Europe and the rest of the world, what kinds of trades were lost and how they have been prevented.

  17. Survey of Swiss nuclear's cost study 2016; Pruefung der Kostenstudie 2016 von swissnuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, Stefan; Ustohalova, Veronika [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2017-04-26

    The report discusses the Swiss nuclear cost study 2016 concerning the following issues: evaluation of the aspects of the cost study: cost structure, cost classification and risk provision, additional payment liability, option of lifetime extension for Swiss nuclear power plants; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the decommissioning cost of Swiss nuclear power plants'': decommissioning costs in Germany, France and the USA, indexing the Swiss cost estimation for decommissioning cost, impact factors on the decommissioning costs; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the disposal cost - interim storage, transport, containers and reprocessing''; specific indications on the report ''cost studies (KS16) - estimation of disposal costs - geological deep disposal'': time scale and costs incurred, political/social risks, retrievability, comparison with other mining costs.

  18. Annual Report 1999 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-08-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland

  19. Transcatheter renal denervation for the treatment of resistant arterial hypertension: the Swiss expert consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuerzner, Gregoire; Muller, Olivier; Erne, Paul; Cook, Stéphane; Sudano, Isabella; Lüscher, Thomas F; Noll, Georg; Kaufmann, Urs; Rickli, Hans; Waeber, Bernard; Kaiser, Christophe; Sticherling, Christian; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Baumgartner, Iris; Jacob, Augustinus L; Burnier, Michel; Qanadli, Salah D

    2014-03-20

    Transcatheter (or percutaneous) renal denervation is a novel technique developed for the treatment of resistant hypertension. So far, only one randomised controlled trial has been published, which has shown a reduction of office blood pressure. The Swiss Society of Hypertension, the Swiss Society of Cardiology, The Swiss Society of Angiology and the Swiss Society of Interventional Radiology decided to establish recommendations to practicing physicians and specialists for good clinical practice. The eligibility of patients for transcatheter renal denervation needs (1.) confirmation of truly resistant hypertension, (2.) exclusion of secondary forms of hypertension, (3.) a multidisciplinary decision confirming the eligibility, (4.) facilities that guarantee procedural safety and (5.) a long-term follow-up of the patients, if possible in cooperation with a hypertension specialist. These steps are essential until long-term data on safety and efficacy are available.

  20. Annual Report 1999 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-15

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland.

  1. Annual report 1996 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland. figs., tabs., refs

  2. Fast food and take-away food consumption are associated with different lifestyle characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, K; Brunner, T A; Siegrist, M

    2011-12-01

    One of the most prominent characteristics of fast food and take-away food is that it is convenient, meaning that it saves time, it reduces the required effort for food provisioning and culinary skills are transferred. Studies that investigate the unique effect of these factors on dietary behaviours are lacking. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the associations of time, effort, time spent cooking and cooking skills with fast food and take-away food consumption. Between May and June 2009, a random postal survey was sent out to 2323 Swiss households. The response rate was 44% (n = 1017). Spearman rank correlations and logistic regression analysis were used to determine the multiple relationships of fast food and take-away food intake with gender, age, educational level, income, mental effort, physical effort, working status, cooking skills and time spent cooking. Fast food consumption was found to be associated with gender (males) [odds ratio (OR) = 1.61, P away food consumption was found to be associated with gender (males) (OR = 1.86, P away and fast food consumption are behaviours that share the same demographic determinants of age and gender, although they are influenced by different life style determinants. It is very likely that motivations related to time, effort and cooking are of increasing importance for food decisions in our society. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  3. Consumers' practical understanding of healthy food choices: a fake food experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mötteli, Sonja; Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael; Barbey, Jana; Bucher, Tamara

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about laypeople's practical understanding of a healthy diet, although this is important to successfully promote healthy eating. The present study is the first to experimentally examine how consumers define healthy and balanced food choices for an entire day compared with normal choices and compared with dietary guidelines. We used an extensive fake food buffet (FFB) with 179 foods commonly consumed in the Swiss diet. The FFB is a validated method to investigate food choice behaviour in a well-controlled laboratory setting. People from the general population in Switzerland (n 187; 51·9 % females), aged between 18 and 65 years, were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In the control group, the participants were instructed to serve themselves foods they would eat on a normal day, whereas in the 'healthy' group they were instructed to choose foods representing a healthy diet. Participants chose significantly more healthy foods, with 4·5 g more dietary fibre, 2 % more protein and 2 % less SFA in the 'healthy' group compared with the control group. However, in both experimental conditions, participants served themselves foods containing twice as much sugar and salt than recommended by dietary guidelines. The results suggest that laypeople lack knowledge about the recommended portion sizes and the amounts of critical nutrients in processed food, which has important implications for communicating dietary guidelines. Furthermore, the energy of the food served was substantially correlated with the energy needs of the participants, demonstrating the potential of the fake food buffet method.

  4. Successes and Challenges in School Meal Reform: Qualitative Insights from Food Service Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Yuka; Ziemann, Margaret; Zatz, Lara; Chriqui, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) directed the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to revise school meal standards to increase healthy food offerings. A critical stakeholder in the implementation of standards is Food Service Directors (FSDs). We sought to examine FSDs' perspectives on revised school meal standards to…

  5. Differences in health status and health behaviour among young Swiss adults between 1993 and 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Wydler, Hans; Zellweger, Ueli; Gutzwiller, Felix

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Very few studies specifically have examined the health status of 20-year-olds. The purpose of the present study is to examine the changes in health status and behaviour among young Swiss adults between 1993 and 2003. METHODS: The present study used data from the Swiss Federal Surveys of Adolescents, conducted in 1993 and 2003 among 20-year-olds in Switzerland. The study sample included military recruits and a representative community cohort. More than 20,000 subjects participate...

  6. Depression in early adulthood: Prevalence and psychosocial correlates among young Swiss men

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Jürgen; Hofmann, Karen; Schori, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    QUESTION UNDER STUDY Depression in young adults is common, but data from Switzerland are scarce. Our study gives a point prevalence estimate of depression in young Swiss men, and describes the association between depression and education, material and social resources, and job/school satisfaction. METHODS We used data from the cross-sectional Swiss Federal Surveys of Adolescents (ch-x) from 2010 to 2011 comprising 9,066 males aged between 18 and 25 years. Depression was assessed b...

  7. Swiss roll nanomembranes with controlled proton diffusion as redox micro-supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hengxing; Mei, Yongfeng; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2010-06-14

    We demonstrate a redox Swiss roll micro-supercapacitor by rolling up a multilayered nanomembrane with an electrochemical active layer at either the outer or inner surface for different proton diffusion behaviors. The Swiss roll micro-supercapacitor could achieve high performance (e.g. capacity and life time) in a microscale power source and is helpful for studying charge transfer at the electrolyte/electrode interface.

  8. Decision of the Swiss Federal Council of 22 August 1979 (nuclear power station Leibstadt)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    On the occasion of an appeal in administrative matters, launched by private persons domiciled in the Federal Republic of Germany against two part-construction permits for the Leibstadt nuclear power plant, the Swiss Bundesrat decided that these private persons do have the right to launch an appeal, in accordance with section 48 a of the Rules of administrative proceedings. The appeal may, however, only be based on infringement of rights protected by Swiss national law. (HP) [de

  9. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshin Han

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  10. Programme for the Environmental Control at the Swedish Nuclear Facilities, Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, Ann-Marie

    2004-12-01

    This report contains a revised version of the Environmental Monitoring Programme for the Swedish Nuclear Facilities. The revision is based on earlier experiences and evaluations. Some samples have been excluded. Some have been added, for example spruce cone and the food products apple and currant. The sediment samples of 2 cm length have been completed with samples of 10 cm length every fourth year to follow the migration of radio nuclides down the sediment layers over time. The revised Environmental Monitoring Programme is valid from the 1st of January 2005

  11. Transition of the Swiss Phosphorus System towards a Circular Economy—Part 1: Current State and Historical Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Mehr

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Current phosphorus (P use in European countries is highly dependent on mineral P imports and not sustainably managed. In order to identify and implement measures for sustainable P management, a comprehensive understanding of national P flows and stocks and their temporal dynamics is essential. We conduct a substance flow analysis (SFA of the Swiss P system of the year 2015, and study the dynamics of the national P system by looking into its development since 1989. Furthermore, we investigate how political-legislative interventions affected the P system during this period. The results show that between 1989 and 2015, the P efficiency in Swiss agriculture increased from 59% to 94%, mainly due to a considerable reduction of fertilization in the agricultural subsystem. At the same time, Switzerland's P import dependency decreased from 33% to 24% between 1989 and 2002 because of a reduction of mineral fertilizer import and use. Between 2002 and 2015, the import dependency stagnated because further improvements in P use efficiency in agriculture were outweighed by a decrease of P recycling and an increase of P losses in the waste management system. By embedding these temporal dynamics in their political-legislative context, we found that top-down interventions such as incentives for a balanced nutrient budget in agriculture, restrictions of the use of animal by-products in the agri-food system or the ban of direct sewage sludge recycling in agriculture significantly affected and shaped the national P system. Our analysis provides profound quantitative and qualitative insights into past and present P management in Switzerland and is followed by part 2 of the paper, where we analyze possible future pathways of P management.

  12. Swiss residents' arguments for and against a career in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaghofer Richard

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In some Western countries, the medical profession is continuously losing prestige, doctors are claiming of high demands, low rewards, and difficult structural working conditions. This study aimed to investigate the arguments given by Swiss residents for and against a career in medicine. Methods As part of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates on career development, 567 fourth-year residents were asked to answer the free-response item of what arguments there still were in favour of or against a career in medicine. They also indicated whether they would choose the medical profession all over again (yes/no. The statements were transcribed, content categories inductively formulated, and their descriptions written down in a code manual. Arguments were encoded according to the code manual and assigned to eight content categories (Mayring's content analysis. Frequency distributions were given for categories and tested with Chi2-tests for differences in gender, speciality fields, and whether or not the respondent would again choose a career in medicine. Results The 567 participants made 1,640 statements in favour of and 1,703 statements against a career in medicine. The content analysis of the residents' answers yielded eight categories with arguments both for and against a career in medicine. Of all "statements for" responses, 70% fell into the two top-ranking categories of Personal experiences in day-to-day working life (41.2% and Interpersonal experiences in professional relationships (28.8%. The top-ranking category of the "statements against" arguments was General work-related structural conditions (32%, followed by Social prestige and health-policy aspects (21%. Main arguments in favour of a career in medicine were interdisciplinary challenge, combination of basic sciences and interpersonal concerns, helping suffering people, guarantee of a secure job; arguments against comprised high workload, time

  13. Swiss national MD-PhD-program: an outcome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnle, Katrin; Winkler, David T; Meier-Abt, Peter J

    2009-09-19

    This study aims at a first evaluation of the outcome of the Swiss national MD-PhD program during the last 16 years. One hundred and twenty six former and current students in the Swiss national MD-PhD program were surveyed via a Web-based questionnaire in September 2007. Twenty-four questions assessed information regarding participant demographics, information on the PhD thesis and publication activity, current positions and research activity, as well as participant's opinions, attitudes and career goals. Eighty questionnaires were received from 126 MD-PhD students and graduates (63.5% response rate). The responders consisted of present students (36%), former graduates (56%), and dropouts (8%). The percentage of women in the program was 23%, and the average duration of the program was 4.2 +/- 1.4 years. Research interests were predominantly in the fields of neuroscience, immunology, molecular biology and cancer research. A considerable portion of the MD-PhD graduates had an excellent publication record stemming from their PhD research work, and 89% were planning to continue a research-orientated career. Over 50% of those MD-PhD graduates completing their thesis before 2002 had already reached an assistant or full professor position at the time of the survey. Nearly all participants considered the MD-PhD training helpful to their career and high quality standards were assigned to the acquired practical and intellectual skills. However, criticism was expressed concerning the general mentoring and the career related mentoring. Moreover, general mentoring and career related mentoring were significantly less well perceived in research groups employing more than seven PhD students at the same time. The MD-PhD students and graduates surveyed were satisfied with their education and most of them continued a research-orientated career. Regarding the overall positive evaluation, this study supports the view that MD-PhD graduates are well qualified for a successful career in

  14. Swiss residents' arguments for and against a career in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Dietz, Claudia; Klaghofer, Richard; Buddeberg, Claus

    2006-08-14

    In some Western countries, the medical profession is continuously losing prestige, doctors are claiming of high demands, low rewards, and difficult structural working conditions. This study aimed to investigate the arguments given by Swiss residents for and against a career in medicine. As part of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates on career development, 567 fourth-year residents were asked to answer the free-response item of what arguments there still were in favour of or against a career in medicine. They also indicated whether they would choose the medical profession all over again (yes/no). The statements were transcribed, content categories inductively formulated, and their descriptions written down in a code manual. Arguments were encoded according to the code manual and assigned to eight content categories (Mayring's content analysis). Frequency distributions were given for categories and tested with Chi2-tests for differences in gender, speciality fields, and whether or not the respondent would again choose a career in medicine. The 567 participants made 1,640 statements in favour of and 1,703 statements against a career in medicine. The content analysis of the residents' answers yielded eight categories with arguments both for and against a career in medicine. Of all "statements for" responses, 70% fell into the two top-ranking categories of Personal experiences in day-to-day working life (41.2%) and Interpersonal experiences in professional relationships (28.8%). The top-ranking category of the "statements against" arguments was General work-related structural conditions (32%), followed by Social prestige and health-policy aspects (21%). Main arguments in favour of a career in medicine were interdisciplinary challenge, combination of basic sciences and interpersonal concerns, helping suffering people, guarantee of a secure job; arguments against comprised high workload, time pressure, emotional stress, poorly structured

  15. Swiss residents' arguments for and against a career in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Dietz, Claudia; Klaghofer, Richard; Buddeberg, Claus

    2006-01-01

    Background In some Western countries, the medical profession is continuously losing prestige, doctors are claiming of high demands, low rewards, and difficult structural working conditions. This study aimed to investigate the arguments given by Swiss residents for and against a career in medicine. Methods As part of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates on career development, 567 fourth-year residents were asked to answer the free-response item of what arguments there still were in favour of or against a career in medicine. They also indicated whether they would choose the medical profession all over again (yes/no). The statements were transcribed, content categories inductively formulated, and their descriptions written down in a code manual. Arguments were encoded according to the code manual and assigned to eight content categories (Mayring's content analysis). Frequency distributions were given for categories and tested with Chi2-tests for differences in gender, speciality fields, and whether or not the respondent would again choose a career in medicine. Results The 567 participants made 1,640 statements in favour of and 1,703 statements against a career in medicine. The content analysis of the residents' answers yielded eight categories with arguments both for and against a career in medicine. Of all "statements for" responses, 70% fell into the two top-ranking categories of Personal experiences in day-to-day working life (41.2%) and Interpersonal experiences in professional relationships (28.8%). The top-ranking category of the "statements against" arguments was General work-related structural conditions (32%), followed by Social prestige and health-policy aspects (21%). Main arguments in favour of a career in medicine were interdisciplinary challenge, combination of basic sciences and interpersonal concerns, helping suffering people, guarantee of a secure job; arguments against comprised high workload, time pressure, emotional stress

  16. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soothill, R.

    1987-01-01

    The issue of food irradiation has become important in Australia and overseas. This article discusses the results of the Australian Consumers' Association's (ACA) Inquiry into food irradiation, commissioned by the Federal Government. Issues discussed include: what is food irradiation; why irradiate food; how much food is consumer rights; and national regulations

  17. Study on the immuno stimulation of radiation degraded β-glucan in swiss mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thanh Long; Le Quang Luan

    2015-01-01

    The mixtures β-glucan extracted from the yeast cell wall were irradiated under gamma rays from a Co-60 source at doses of 100, 200 and 300 kGy in order to prepare water-soluble β-glucan. Yields of the water soluble β-glucan produced are 25.9, 49.1, 66.71%, and their molecular weights (Mw) are 30.5, 24.9 and 10.8 kDa, respectively. There are no any new peak in the IR spectra of the irradiated β-glucan samples, but the intensity ratio between the peaks at wavenumber of 1156 cm"-"1 (assigned to C-O-C bond) and of 1040 cm"-"1 (assigned to C-C bond) in glycosidic linkages was reduced with irradiation dose. These results revealed that gamma irradiation did not cause any change in the β-glucan structure except the scissions of glycosidic linkages. In this study, immuno stimulation of the irradiated β-glucan was also investigated for the Swiss mice. After 28 days supplying with the irradiated β-glucan, not only cellular indexes (white blood cell, neutrophils and lymphocytes counts), but also humoral immunity indexes (IgA and IgM) of the mice significantly increased and the highest effects was obtained for the mice supplied with the oligo β-glucan prepared by gamma irradiation at 200 kGy. Thus, the water soluble oligo β-glucan with Mw ~ 24.9 kDa prepared by gamma radiation much stimulated the natural immune system (non-specific immunity) in mice including both the cellular and humoral immunities. Particularly, the irradiated β-glucan is a very promising product for preparation of functional foods aiming at cancer prevention. (author)

  18. Histopathological effects of Chromium (III Sulfate on Liver and Kidney of Swiss Albino Mice (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iffat Fatima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chromium (III sulfate has various industrial applications and is widely used in leather industry due to its high tanning properties. Cr (III is required for efficient metabolism of fats and carbohydrates in traces. Various studies have reported that its constant exposure may lead to severe health problems in both animals and humans. In this study, histopathological effect of dietary Cr (III was evaluated on liver and kidneys of rodents. For this purpose, adult Swiss albino mice (n=25 were divided into different treatment and control groups (n=5/group after sufficient acclimatization. After 3 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and observations regarding histopathology of liver and kidneys were made in all treatment groups and compared to control. Microscopy and photography was performed after processing the tissues according to standard protocol of sectioning and staining. Liver cross sections of treated animals showed signs of fibrosis in portal area, and congestion of sinusoid and central vein. Whereas, more pronounced effects of Cr (III toxicity were observed in kidneys. These include mononuclear cell infiltration, necrosis and contraction of glomerulus within Bowman’s capsule. However, No pathological changes were observed in control group. These results support the hypothesis that enhanced level of Cr (III contamination of food can induce both hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. These basic findings prove that currently increasing levels of trivalent chromium in environment are hazardous to living organisms. Therefore, to avoid health risks to both animals and humans, conversion of toxic chromium waste to less toxic compounds is required. Moreover, exposure level through any route should also be minimized.

  19. Food allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... questions about the food you are served. When buying food, read package ingredients carefully. ... allergies in breastfed or other children to prevent future food allergies. Always discuss this with your child's ...

  20. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Labels KidsHealth / For Teens / Food Labels What's in ... to have at least 95% organic ingredients. Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  1. Biomass - Overview of Swiss Research Programme 2003; Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2003-07-01

    This overview for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results obtained in 2003 in various research projects worked on in Switzerland on the subject of biomass. In the biomass combustion area, subjects discussed include system optimisation for automatic firing, combustion particles, low-particle pellet furnaces, design and optimisation of wood-fired storage ovens, efficiency of filtering techniques and methane generation from wood. Also, an accredited testing centre for wood furnaces is mentioned and measurements made on an installation are presented. As far as the fermentation of biogenic wastes is concerned, biogas production from dairy-product wastes is described. Other projects discussed include a study on eco-balances of energy products, certification and marketing of biogas, evaluation of membranes, a measurement campaign for solar sludge-drying, the operation of a percolator installation for the treatment of bio-wastes, the effects of compost on the environment and the fermentation of coffee wastes. Also, statistics on biogas production in 2002 is looked at. Finally, a preliminary study on biofuels is presented.

  2. Environmental assessment of current and future Swiss electricity supply options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Christian; Heck, Thomas; Hirschberg, Stefan; Dones, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Options for near future electricity supply are currently one of the main topics in the Swiss energy policy debate. Contrary to the total energy demand per capita the trend of rising electricity demand per capita is still visible. This paper presents a comparative environmental assessment of a broad portfolio of current and future electricity generation technologies including nuclear, fossil, and renewable power plants with their associated energy chains. The evaluation, based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), is carried out quantifying ten different environmental indicators, grouped in the categories greenhouse gas emissions, consumption of resources, waste, and impact on ecosystems. Hydropower shows minimal environmental impacts for all indicators; for other systems, the picture is diverse. The comparison of non-aggregated indicators allows preliminary conclusions about the environmental performance of the assessed systems. Establishing ranking of technologies calls for aggregating the indicators, which can be done by weighting of the indicators based on individual or stakeholder group preferences, either within a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) framework or with Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods. Calculating total costs of electricity by adding external costs due to impacts on human health and ecosystems to the electricity production costs poses another option for ranking of technologies. (authors)

  3. Psychosocial adaptation of adolescent migrants in a Swiss community survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bearth-Carrari, Cinzia; Winkler Metzke, Christa

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare psychosocial adaptation in adolescent (first generation) migrants, double-citizens (mainly second generation with one migrant parent), and native Swiss, and to compare migrants from various European regions. Data from a community survey were based on 1,239 participants (mean age 13.8, SD = 1.6 years) with 996 natives, 55 double-citizens, and 188 migrants. The adolescents completed the youth self-report measuring emotional and behavioural problems, and various questionnaires addressing life events, personality variables, perceived parental behaviour (PPB), family functioning, school environment, and social network. Adolescent migrants had significantly higher scores for internalizing and externalizing problems. There was a pattern of various unfavourable psychosocial features including life events, coping, self-related cognitions, and PPB that was more common among adolescent migrants than natives. Double-citizens were similar to natives in all domains. Young adolescents from South and South-East Europe differed from natives in terms of more unfavourable psychosocial features. Migrant status was best predicted by adverse psychosocial features rather than emotional and behavioural problems. There is some indication that certain migrant adolescents are at risk of psychosocial mal-adaptation. Obviously, ethnic origin is an important moderator.

  4. Extraction of Th and U from Swiss granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajo, C.

    1980-12-01

    The extraction, at the laboratory level, of U and Th from Swiss granites is discussed. The Mittagfluh, Bergell and Rotondo granites and the Giuv syenite offered a wide range of U and Th concentrations; 7.7 to 20.0 ppm U and 25.5 to 67.0 ppm Th. U and Th were determined in the leach solutions by the fission track method and by spectrophotometry, respectively. Samples containing less than 0.3 μg U and 4 μg Th, could be measured with an accuracy of 10% for U and 5% for Th. Leach tests were performed during which the following parameters were varied: granite-type, grain size, acid-type, acid concentration, temperature and time. There were very great leaching differences between the granites studied. Temperature was the most important parameter. Sharp differences in extraction occurred between 20 0 C, 50 0 C and 80 0 C. At 80 0 C, more than 85% U and Th were extracted. The extraction curve (percent extracted as a function of time) of aliquots sampled after 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours showed a plateau after 8 hours. The half life of the reaction was between one and two hours. As a general rule, Th was better extracted than U. (Auth.)

  5. Economies of vertical integration in the Swiss electricity sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetz, Aurelio; Filippini, Massimo [Department of Management, Technology and Economics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Department of Economics, University of Lugano (Switzerland)

    2010-11-15

    Over the last two decades, several European nations have introduced reforms to their electricity sector. Generally, these reforms require a legal and functional unbundling of vertically integrated companies. These unbundling processes may reduce the possibilities that exist to fruitfully exploit the advantages of vertical integration. The goal of this paper is to empirically analyze the presence of economies of scale and vertical integration in the Swiss electricity sector. Economies of vertical integration between electricity production and distribution result from reduced transaction costs, better coordination of highly specific and interdependent investments and less financial risk. Different econometric specifications for panel data, including a random effects and a random-coefficients model, have been used to estimate a quadratic multi-stage cost function for a sample of electricity companies. The empirical results reflect the presence of considerable economies of vertical integration and economies of scale for most of the companies considered in the analysis. Moreover, the results suggest a variation in economies of vertical integration across companies due to unobserved heterogeneity. (author)

  6. Payment schemes and cost efficiency: evidence from Swiss public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims at analysing the impact of prospective payment schemes on cost efficiency of acute care hospitals in Switzerland. We study a panel of 121 public hospitals subject to one of four payment schemes. While several hospitals are still reimbursed on a per diem basis for the treatment of patients, most face flat per-case rates-or mixed schemes, which combine both elements of reimbursement. Thus, unlike previous studies, we are able to simultaneously analyse and isolate the cost-efficiency effects of different payment schemes. By means of stochastic frontier analysis, we first estimate a hospital cost frontier. Using the two-stage approach proposed by Battese and Coelli (Empir Econ 20:325-332, 1995), we then analyse the impact of these payment schemes on the cost efficiency of hospitals. Controlling for hospital characteristics, local market conditions in the 26 Swiss states (cantons), and a time trend, we show that, compared to per diem, hospitals which are reimbursed by flat payment schemes perform better in terms of cost efficiency. Our results suggest that mixed schemes create incentives for cost containment as well, although to a lesser extent. In addition, our findings indicate that cost-efficient hospitals are primarily located in cantons with competitive markets, as measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschman index in inpatient care. Furthermore, our econometric model shows that we obtain biased estimates from frontier analysis if we do not account for heteroscedasticity in the inefficiency term.

  7. Interfamiliar specific fertility in Italian Brown Swiss cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bagnato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of interaction between sire of cow and service sire on the success/unsuccess of inseminations. Data from insemination events of Italian Brown Swiss cows collected from January 1993 through August 2007 were restricted to repeat breeder cows. A cluster analysis was carried out to group herds with very few observations in clusters with at least 15 observations. The edited data set included 102,710 services of 10,708 cows, daughters of 1,716 sires and mated to 3,108 service sires. The success or unsuccess at each insemination was evaluated by a linear mixed model including the fixed effects of herd-year interaction, month of insemination, age, and the random effects of sire service-sire of cow interaction and residual. The distribution of bull combination estimates was bimodal. When the tails of distribution (best and worst 5% of estimates were considered, 271 service sires were included in both tails. Results suggest that major gene can affect the survival of embryos and that positive or negative interactions between paternal and maternal genotype can affect this reproductive trait.

  8. Tritium pollution in the Swiss luminous compound industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejci, K.; Zeller, Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The Swiss luminous compound industry is an important consumer of tritium. About 350kCi go into production of tritium gas-filled light sources and 40kCi into production of tritium luminous compound annually. To illustrate the pollution problem, a factory is mentioned that handles 200kCi annually and a chain of luminizers, processing 20kCi over the same period as tritium luminous compound. This material is manufactured by coating phosphors with tritiated polystyrene having a specific activity up to 200Ci/g. Because of the high specific activity, the radiation damage produces an average activity release of 5.2% annually, which is one of the main reasons for public and occupational exposure. The processing of large quantities of tritium gas requires special equipment, such as units made entirely of stainless steel for purification and hydrogenation, oxidation systems for highly contaminated air, glove boxes, ventilation and monitoring systems. Nevertheless, contamination of air, surfaces, water and workers cannot be avoided. Only in a few cases were MPC-values for tritium content in urine of workers exceeded. From these results, biological half-lives between 5-15 days were estimated. Regular medical examinations showed no significant influence in blood picture parameters, except in one single case with a tritium concentration in urine of 2.8mCi/litre. Entirely different problems arise in most luminizing factories where luminous paint is processed as an open radioactive source. (author)

  9. Interfaces and interactions in the Swiss waste disposal programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCombie, C.

    1994-01-01

    Switzerland is a small country (41,293 km 2 ) with a small population (∼7 million) and a small nuclear power park (∼3000 MWe) which gives rise to correspondingly limited volumes of radioactive wastes. The following sections present a summary of the technical and organizational structures involved in the procedures for implementing a back-end strategy in Switzerland and the rationale for their choice. The hierarchical organizational units involved in repository projects, their responsibilities and their interactions are described. This linked chain of responsibilities must be thought through as a whole if interface and communication problems in the line structure are to be minimized -- this we call vertical integration. The programme implementers do not work, however, in a technical or social vacuum. Interfaces to other bodies (regulators, politicians, public) are equally vital to programme success. These communications and exchanges must all be coordinated with one another and with the line organization -- this we call horizontal interaction. The multidimensional organizational system to be considered is described in Sections 2 and 3, in which the roles of each of the entities involved and the relevant interfaces are described. Beforehand, however, we present a short overview of the Swiss waste management strategy and the current programme status in order that individual points made in the following discussion can be related to concrete projects, plans, locations and waste management facilities

  10. Intrabeam scattering studies at the Swiss light source

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniou, F; Aiba, M; Boege, M; Milas, N; Streun, A; Demma, T

    2012-01-01

    The target parameters of modern ultra-low emittance rings are entering into a regime where Intra-beam Scattering (IBS) becomes important and, in the case of linear collider damping rings, even a limitation for the delivered emittances. The Swiss Light Source (SLS) storage ring, as it has achieved a vertical geometrical emittance of around 1 pm at 2.4 GeV [1], and it has the ability to run at even lower energies, and the availability of emittance monitoring diagnostics, is an ideal testbed for IBS studies. Simulations using the classical IBS theories and tracking codes are undertaken in order to explore the possibilities and limitations for IBS measurements at the SLS. In this respect, comparison between the theories and codes is first discussed. The dependence of the output emittances, taking into account the effect of IBS, with respect to energy, bunch charge and zero current vertical and longitudinal emittance is also studied, in order to define the regimes where the IBS effect can be significant. First mea...

  11. Implementation of the ICRP-60 Recommendations by Swiss Pharmaceutical Companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, R. P.; Traub, K.; Berlepsch, P.; Reischmann, F. J.; Zoubek, N.

    2004-01-01

    Switzerland was among the first countries that adapted its national law to the recommendations of the ICRP-publication No. 60. Already in 1991, the Federal Parliament enacted a new Radiological Protection Act. In 1994, the Federal Government adopted the new Radiation Protection Ordinance. Federal Ministries followed with technical ordinances and guidelines, e.g., for radioactive waste in 1996, for handling open sources in 1997, for X-rays in 1998 and for the training and dosimetry of radiation workers in 1999. In 1996, the Council of the European Union (Switzerland is not a member of the EU) decreed the Directive for the Protection of the Health of Workers and the General Public against the Dangers Arising from Ionising Radiation. Based on this directive, Germany adopted a new Radiation Protection Ordinance in 2001 and a new X-Ray-Ordinance in 2002. To transform the ordinances into radiation protection in the workplace further technical ordinances and guidelines are under development. Almost ten years ago, users of ionising radiation in Switzerland had to deal with the problems of implementing the new radiation protection legislation into their local rules that Germany and other EU companies are facing now. Therefore it may be interesting and helpful for authorities and companies in the EU to learn from the experience of their Swiss colleagues. (Author) 4 refs

  12. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchacek, V.

    1989-01-01

    The ranges of doses used for food irradiation and their effect on the processed foods are outlined. The wholesomeness of irradiated foods is discussed. The present food irradiation technology development in the world is described. A review of the irradiated foods permitted for public consumption, the purposes of food irradiaton, the doses used and a review of the commercial-scale food irradiators are tabulated. The history and the present state of food processing in Czechoslovakia are described. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 13 refs

  13. Assessing the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ), German language version in Swiss university hospitals--a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Natalie; Küng, Kaspar; Sereika, Susan M; Engberg, Sandra; Sexton, Bryan; Schwendimann, René

    2013-09-10

    that improvements and adaptations in translation are required for select items, especially within the perception of management scale. Following these revisions, psychometric properties should reassessed in a randomly selected sample and hospitals and departments prior to use in Swiss hospital settings.

  14. Revised licensee event report system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, G.T.; Poore, W.P.

    1985-01-01

    Licensee Event Reports (LERs) provide the basis for evaluating and assessing operating experience information from nuclear power plants. The reporting requirements for submitting LERs to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission have been revised. Effective Jan. 1, 1984, all events were to be submitted in accordance with 10 CFR 50.73 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Report NUREG-1022, Licensee Event Report System-Description of System and Guidelines for Reporting, describes the guidelines on reportability of events. This article summarizes the reporting requirements as presented in NUREG-1022, high-lights differences in data reported between the revised and previous LER systems, and presents results from a preliminary assessment of LERs submitted under the revised LER reporting system

  15. Revised food-based dietary guidelines for South Africa: challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    especially the alcohol FBDG,3-4 might be misinterpreted by consumers. ... of the general recommendations for healthy eating. The main ... psychological and biological interactions. Clearly, there is a need to influence dietary behaviour towards a more prudent diet. ... postgraduate students at South Africa universities that.

  16. Bottle Babies: A Guide to the Baby Foods Issue. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, Jane, Comp.

    This guide has been compiled as an aide-memoire and resource book about the increasing incidence of malnutrition in infants caused by bottle feeding in the Third World. It deals with four major interrelated issues: (1) the prevalence of protein energy malnutrition, (2) the importance of breast milk, not only in preventing malnutrition and disease…

  17. Menu Planning Guide for School Food Service. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanEgmont-Pannell, Dorothy; And Others

    This menu planning guide for school lunches and breakfasts contains: (1) lunch requirements, recommendations, and policies; (2) the basics of menu planning; (3) how to vary portions for various age/grade groups; (4) planning breakfasts; (5) merchandising school lunches and breakfasts; and (6) nutrition education and menu planning; Appendixes…

  18. SEBARAN STASIONER PADA SISTEM BONUS-MALUS SWISS SERTA MODIFIKASINYA (Stationary Distribution of Swiss Bonus-Malus System and its Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry Galatia Ballangan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bonus-Malus System is a system in actuary that introduce the premium class (state partition, where the state is influenced by the number of annual claims reported by the policy holder. We could base the determination of the state on the stationary distribution that represent the number of policy holders in any state. Swiss Bonus-Malus System has 22 state. The number of state that involved in this system result in the difficulty of stationary distribution determination. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to study a method to obtain stationary distribution of Swiss Bonus-Malus System by recursive formula, with this recursive formula, the stationary distribution of Swiss Bonus-Malus System can be determined easier. Modification of this system with infinite state result in the changes of recursive formula to obtain the stationary. This changes including the determining of base value of the recursive formula. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sistem Bonus-Malus merupakan sistem dalam aktuaria yang memperkenalkan pembagian kelas premi (state yang dipengaruhi oleh jumlah klaim yang diajukan oleh pemegang polis tiap tahunnya. Penetapan state dalam sistem ini didasarkan pada pencarian sebaran stasioner yang menyatakan banyaknya pemegang polis dalam tiap state. Sistem Bonus-Malus Swiss (BMS memiliki 22 state. Banyaknya state yang terlibat dalam sistem ini mengakibatkan sulitnya penentuan sebaran stasioner pada sistem BMS tersebut. Karena itu dalam tulisan ini dipelajari suatu metode penentuan sebaran stasioner dari sistem BMS tersebut, yaitu dengan menggunakan formula rekursif. Dengan formula rekursif ini, sebaran stasioner sistem BMS dapat ditentukan dengan mudah. Modifikasi sistem BMS untuk jumlah state yang tak hingga mengakibatkan perubahan pada formula rekursif untuk mencari sebaran stasionernya. Perubahan ini meliputi penetapan nilai awal dari formula rekursif tersebut. Kata kunci: sebaran stasioner, formula rekursif, sistem Monus-Malus Swiss.

  19. Quantum interaction. Revised selected papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Dawei; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Lei [Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Computing; Melucci, Massimo [Padua Univ., Padova (Italy). Dept. of Information Engineering; Frommholz, Ingo [Bedfordshire Univ. (United Kingdom); Arafat, Sachi (eds.) [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Computing Science

    2011-07-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Quantum Interaction, QI 2011, held in Aberdeen, UK, in June 2011. The 26 revised full papers and 6 revised poster papers, presented together with 1 tutorial and 1 invited talk were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions during two rounds of reviewing and improvement. The papers show the cross-disciplinary nature of quantum interaction covering topics such as computation, cognition, mechanics, social interaction, semantic space and information representation and retrieval. (orig.)

  20. HEDR modeling approach: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipler, D.B.; Napier, B.A.

    1994-05-01

    This report is a revision of the previous Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project modeling approach report. This revised report describes the methods used in performing scoping studies and estimating final radiation doses to real and representative individuals who lived in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. The scoping studies and dose estimates pertain to various environmental pathways during various periods of time. The original report discussed the concepts under consideration in 1991. The methods for estimating dose have been refined as understanding of existing data, the scope of pathways, and the magnitudes of dose estimates were evaluated through scoping studies

  1. Quantum interaction. Revised selected papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Dawei; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Lei; Arafat, Sachi

    2011-01-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Quantum Interaction, QI 2011, held in Aberdeen, UK, in June 2011. The 26 revised full papers and 6 revised poster papers, presented together with 1 tutorial and 1 invited talk were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions during two rounds of reviewing and improvement. The papers show the cross-disciplinary nature of quantum interaction covering topics such as computation, cognition, mechanics, social interaction, semantic space and information representation and retrieval. (orig.)

  2. Medical writing, revising and editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Morten

    2006-01-01

    The globalization of science makes medical writing, editing and revision a rapidly growing field of linguistic study and practice. Medical science texts are written according to uniform, general guidelines and medical genres have become highly conventionalized in terms of structure and linguistic...... form. Medical editing often takes the form of peer review and mainly addresses issues of contents and overall validity. Medical revision incorporates the checking of the macrostructure and the microstructure of the text, its language and style and its suitability for the target reader or client...

  3. Revising Nabokov Revising”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Bouchet

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nabokov revised his works as he translated them and, on another plane, canon revisionism has been having its backlash and provoked other refracting waves. The purpose of the conference was to advance Nabokov studies through the discussion of how our view of Nabokov’s standing and his works today should be revised, especially after the publication of The Original of Laura. However the conference was not confined to just this theme, since “revising” is a word rich with implications. To borrow s...

  4. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented...

  5. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercader, J.P.; Emily Leong

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  6. Food Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, H.; Warnaar, M.; Methorst, B.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Dagevos, H.; Onwezen, M.C.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Kortstee, H.J.M.; Genderen, van R.A.

    2017-01-01

    These days many innovations are taking place through and in the food system. There is quite a debate about our food and how it is produced. Although this process is a slow one, more and more consumers are willing to make a conscious choice for healthier and more sustainable food. A healthier food

  7. Population structure and genomic inbreeding in nine Swiss dairy cattle populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signer-Hasler, Heidi; Burren, Alexander; Neuditschko, Markus; Frischknecht, Mirjam; Garrick, Dorian; Stricker, Christian; Gredler, Birgit; Bapst, Beat; Flury, Christine

    2017-11-07

    Domestication, breed formation and intensive selection have resulted in divergent cattle breeds that likely exhibit their own genomic signatures. In this study, we used genotypes from 27,612 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms to characterize population structure based on 9214 sires representing nine Swiss dairy cattle populations: Brown Swiss (BS), Braunvieh (BV), Original Braunvieh (OB), Holstein (HO), Red Holstein (RH), Swiss Fleckvieh (SF), Simmental (SI), Eringer (ER) and Evolèner (EV). Genomic inbreeding (F ROH ) and signatures of selection were determined by calculating runs of homozygosity (ROH). The results build the basis for a better understanding of the genetic development of Swiss dairy cattle populations and highlight differences between the original populations (i.e. OB, SI, ER and EV) and those that have become more popular in Switzerland as currently reflected by their larger populations (i.e. BS, BV, HO, RH and SF). The levels of genetic diversity were highest and lowest in the SF and BS breeds, respectively. Based on F ST values, we conclude that, among all pairwise comparisons, BS and HO (0.156) differ more than the other pairs of populations. The original Swiss cattle populations OB, SI, ER, and EV are clearly genetically separated from the Swiss cattle populations that are now more common and represented by larger numbers of cows. Mean levels of F ROH ranged from 0.027 (ER) to 0.091 (BS). Three of the original Swiss cattle populations, ER (F ROH : 0.027), OB (F ROH : 0.029), and SI (F ROH : 0.039), showed low levels of genomic inbreeding, whereas it was much higher in EV (F ROH : 0.074). Private signatures of selection for the original Swiss cattle populations are reported for BTA4, 5, 11 and 26. The low levels of genomic inbreeding observed in the original Swiss cattle populations ER, OB and SI compared to the other breeds are explained by a lesser use of artificial insemination and greater use of natural service. Natural service

  8. Sorption data bases for generic Swiss argillaceous rock systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M. H.; Baeyens, B.; Thoenen, T.

    2010-09-01

    In Switzerland the site selection procedure for both high level waste (HLW) and low and intermediate level waste (L/ILW) repositories is specified by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy in the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories. In the forthcoming stage 2 of this plan, potential sites will be identified within regions previously selected based on the presence of suitable host rocks, namely Opalinus Clay, 'Brauner Dogger', Effingen Member and Helvetic Marl. Preliminary safety analyses are an integral part of this procedure, and require, amongst other information, the radionuclide sorption properties of the host rock. This report describes a methodology to develop a Generic Rock Sorption Data Base (GR-SDB) for argillaceous rocks. The method will be used to compile specific SDBs for the above mentioned host rocks. Arguments are presented that the main factor influencing sorption on argillaceous rocks is the phyllosilicate mineral content. These minerals are particularly effective at binding metals to their surfaces by cation exchange and surface complexation. Generally, the magnitude of sorption is directly correlated with the phyllosilicate content (2:1 type clays: illite/smectite/illitesmectite mixed layers), and this parameter best reflects the sorption potential of a given mineral assembly. Consequently, sorption measurements on illite were preferably used as source data for the GR-SDB. The second component influencing radionuclide sorption is the porewater chemistry. In the present report, generic water compositions were extracted from the analytical ranges of deep ground waters in various sedimentary formations in Switzerland. In order to cover the range of ionic strength (I) and pH values of Swiss ground waters in argillaceous rocks, five types of generic water compositions were defined, combining low, intermediate and high values of ionic strength and pH. The GR-SDB for in situ conditions was derived using conversion factors (CF). As the name

  9. Failure of aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leta, Tesfaye H; Lygre, Stein Håkon L; Skredderstuen, Arne; Hallan, Geir; Furnes, Ove

    2015-02-01

    In Norway, the proportion of revision knee arthroplasties increased from 6.9% in 1994 to 8.5% in 2011. However, there is limited information on the epidemiology and causes of subsequent failure of revision knee arthroplasty. We therefore studied survival rate and determined the modes of failure of aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties. This study was based on 1,016 aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register between 1994 and 2011. Revisions done for infections were not included. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to assess the survival rate and the relative risk of re-revision with all causes of re-revision as endpoint. 145 knees failed after revision total knee arthroplasty. Deep infection was the most frequent cause of re-revision (28%), followed by instability (26%), loose tibial component (17%), and pain (10%). The cumulative survival rate for revision total knee arthroplasties was 85% at 5 years, 78% at 10 years, and 71% at 15 years. Revision total knee arthroplasties with exchange of the femoral or tibial component exclusively had a higher risk of re-revision (RR = 1.7) than those with exchange of the whole prosthesis. The risk of re-revision was higher for men (RR = 2.0) and for patients aged less than 60 years (RR = 1.6). In terms of implant survival, revision of the whole implant was better than revision of 1 component only. Young age and male sex were risk factors for re-revision. Deep infection was the most frequent cause of failure of revision of aseptic total knee arthroplasties.

  10. The heterogeneous HLA genetic makeup of the Swiss population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, Stéphane; Nunes, José Manuel; Nicoloso, Grazia; Tiercy, Jean-Marie; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the HLA molecular variation across Switzerland in order to determine possible regional differences, which would be highly relevant to several purposes: optimizing donor recruitment strategies in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), providing reliable reference data in HLA and disease association studies, and understanding the population genetic background(s) of this culturally heterogeneous country. HLA molecular data of more than 20,000 HSCT donors from 9-13 recruitment centers of the whole country were analyzed. Allele and haplotype frequencies were estimated by using new computer tools adapted to the heterogeneity and ambiguity of the data. Non-parametric and resampling statistical tests were performed to assess Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, selective neutrality and linkage disequilibrium among different loci, both in each recruitment center and in the whole national registry. Genetic variation was explored through genetic distance and hierarchical analysis of variance taking into account both geographic and linguistic subdivisions in Switzerland. The results indicate a heterogeneous genetic makeup of the Swiss population: first, allele frequencies estimated on the whole national registry strongly deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, by contrast with the results obtained for individual centers; second, a pronounced differentiation is observed for Ticino, Graubünden, and, to a lesser extent, Wallis, suggesting that the Alps represent(ed) a barrier to gene flow; finally, although cultural (linguistic) boundaries do not represent a main genetic differentiation factor in Switzerland, the genetic relatedness between population from south-eastern Switzerland and Italy agrees with historical and linguistic data. Overall, this study justifies the maintenance of a decentralized donor recruitment structure in Switzerland allowing increasing the genetic diversity of the national--and hence global--donor registry. It also

  11. Practical aspects of implementing RMS at Swiss facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, U.; Wieland, B.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Remote Monitoring System (RMS) is viewed as a tool to complement the traditional Safeguards Agreements as defined in INFCIRC/153 and provides an optimal approach to the changing requirements of advanced Safeguards techniques. The objectives of RMS are manifold; among cost savings, one main objective is to decrease the overall inspection rate at facilities. Switzerland is a test country for the IAEA and plays a leading role in the application and development of RMS. In view of the Safeguards approach as applied in Switzerland, RMS units have been installed and commissioned at all light water reactors (LWR) and storage facilities. The present paper provides an overview of practical aspects, which were experienced in contiguity with the commissioning, and the application of RMS. Technical problems encountered during the commissioning period include the use of neutron sensitive cameras, ISDN communication line, and configuration systems. Implemented remedies include the use of radiation resistant cameras, improvements in digital communication systems, and improvements in hardware. As a result, the overall RMS unit failure rate has decreased to one in six months. The technical problems identified above, associated with organisational and administrative problems, led to a long commissioning period (over one year) and to significant delays in implementing RMS in Switzerland. To date, no facility has officially been authorised to use RMS, even though it has been exceptionally used in one case where MIV cameras had failed. The Swiss Federal Office of Energy anticipates that incorporating RMS into Safeguards approach, as suggested by the IAEA, will lead to an optimisation and a decrease in the number of IAEA inspections in Switzerland. Furthermore, it shall account for the trend of increasing IAEA activities due to the increased number of transport containers being transferred to a storage facility and the future implementation of the Additional Protocol. (author)

  12. Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by Adhatoda vesica leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The radioprotective role of aqueous extract of Adhatoda vesica leaf extract against radiation induced hematological alterations in peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice was studied at various post-irradiation intervals between 6 hrs to 30 days. Oral administration of Adhatoda vesica leaf extract (800 mg / kg body weight) prior to whole-body irradiation showed a significant protection in terms of survival percentage and hematological parameters. Mice exposed to radiation (8 Gy) without Adhatoda vesica leaf extract pre-treatment exhibited signs of radiation sickness like anorexia, lethargicity, ruffled hairs and diarrhoea and such animals died within 26 days post-irradiation. The dose reduction factor (DRF=1.6) for Adhatoda vesica leaf extract was calculated from LD50/30 values. A significant decline in hematological constituents (RBCs, WBCs, Hb and Hct) was evident till day 15, at later period of observation (day 15 onwards), no animals could survive from control group whereas, in Adhatoda vesica leaf extract pre-treated irradiated group, a gradual recovery was noted in the hematological values. However, these hematological values remained significantly below the normal even till day 30. A significant decrease in GSH was recorded in control animals. Experimental animals showed a significant increase in GSH content (blood as well as liver) with respect to control, but such values remained below normal. A significant increase in TBARS level in liver and serum was evident in control animals. Although, no significant difference was noticed in such levels in normal and Adhatoda vesica leaf extract treated animals. But, a significant decrease was registered in Adhatoda vesica leaf extract pretreated irradiated animals. The results from the present study suggest that Adhatoda vesica leaf extract has radioprotective role in stimulating/protecting the hematopoietic system thereby enhancing the survival and increasing the hematological constituents in peripheral

  13. Hawking radiation in the Swiss-cheese universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saida, Hiromi

    2002-01-01

    The Hawking radiation forms the essential basis of black-hole thermodynamics. Black-hole thermodynamics denotes a good correspondence between black-hole kinematics and the laws of ordinary thermodynamics, but has so far been considered only in an asymptotically flat case. Does such correspondence rely strongly on the feature of gravity vanishing at infinity? In order to resolve this question, extending the Hawking radiation to a case with a dynamical boundary condition like an expanding universe should be considered. Therefore, the Hawking radiation in an expanding universe is discussed in this paper. As a concrete model of a black hole in an expanding universe, we use the 'Swiss-cheese' universe which is a spacetime including a Schwarzschild black hole in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. Further, for simplicity, our calculation is performed in two dimensions. The resultant spectrum of the Hawking radiation measured by a comoving observer is generally different from a thermal one. We find that the qualitative behaviour of the non-thermal spectrum is of dumping oscillation as a function of the frequency measured by the observer, and that the intensity of the Hawking radiation is enhanced by the presence of a cosmological expansion. It is appropriate to say that a black hole with an asymptotically flat boundary condition stays in a lowest energy thermal equilibrium state, and that once a black hole is put into an expanding universe, it is excited to a non-equilibrium state and emits its mass energy with stronger intensity than a thermal one

  14. Swiss Re Global Flood Hazard Zones: Know your flood risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinukollu, R. K.; Castaldi, A.; Mehlhorn, J.

    2012-12-01

    Floods, among all natural disasters, have a great damage potential. On a global basis, there is strong evidence of increase in the number of people affected and economic losses due to floods. For example, global insured flood losses have increased by 12% every year since 1970 and this is expected to further increase with growing exposure in the high risk areas close to rivers and coastlines. Recently, the insurance industry has been surprised by the large extent of losses, because most countries lack reliable hazard information. One example has been the 2011 Thailand floods where millions of people were affected and the total economic losses were 30 billion USD. In order to assess the flood risk across different regions and countries, the flood team at Swiss Re based on a Geomorphologic Regression approach, developed in house and patented, produced global maps of flood zones. Input data for the study was obtained from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) elevation data, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) and HydroSHEDS. The underlying assumptions of the approach are that naturally flowing rivers shape their channel and flood plain according to basin inherent forces and characteristics and that the flood water extent strongly depends on the shape of the flood plain. On the basis of the catchment characteristics, the model finally calculates the probability of a location to be flooded or not for a defined return period, which in the current study was set to 100 years. The data is produced at a 90-m resolution for latitudes 60S to 60N. This global product is now used in the insurance industry to inspect, inform and/or insure the flood risk across the world.

  15. The Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy John

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family history and twins studies suggest an inherited component to ischemic stroke risk. Candidate gene association studies have been performed but have limited capacity to identify novel risk factor genes. The Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS aims to conduct a genome-wide scan in sibling pairs concordant or discordant for ischemic stroke to identify novel genetic risk factors through linkage analysis. Methods Screening at multiple clinical centers identifies patients (probands with radiographically confirmed ischemic stroke and a family history of at least 1 living full sibling with stroke. After giving informed consent, without violating privacy among other family members, the proband invites siblings concordant and discordant for stroke to participate. Siblings then contact the study coordinating center. The diagnosis of ischemic stroke in potentially concordant siblings is confirmed by systematic centralized review of medical records. The stroke-free status of potentially discordant siblings is confirmed by validated structured telephone interview. Blood samples for DNA analysis are taken from concordant sibling pairs and, if applicable, from 1 discordant sibling. Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines are created, and a scan of the human genome is planned. Discussion Conducting adequately powered genomics studies of stroke in humans is challenging because of the heterogeneity of the stroke phenotype and the difficulty of obtaining DNA samples from clinically well-characterized members of a cohort of stroke pedigrees. The multicentered design of this study is intended to efficiently assemble a cohort of ischemic stroke pedigrees without invoking community consent or using cold-calling of pedigree members.

  16. Personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure measurements in Swiss adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser, Katharina; Schoeni, Anna; Struchen, Benjamin; Zahner, Marco; Eeftens, Marloes; Fröhlich, Jürg; Röösli, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Adolescents belong to the heaviest users of wireless communication devices, but little is known about their personal exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). The aim of this paper is to describe personal RF-EMF exposure of Swiss adolescents and evaluate exposure relevant factors. Furthermore, personal measurements were used to estimate average contributions of various sources to the total absorbed RF-EMF dose of the brain and the whole body. Personal exposure was measured using a portable RF-EMF measurement device (ExpoM-RF) measuring 13 frequency bands ranging from 470 to 3600MHz. The participants carried the device for three consecutive days and kept a time-activity diary. In total, 90 adolescents aged 13 to 17years participated in the study conducted between May 2013 and April 2014. In addition, personal measurement values were combined with dose calculations for the use of wireless communication devices to quantify the contribution of various RF-EMF sources to the daily RF-EMF dose of adolescents. Main contributors to the total personal RF-EMF measurements of 63.2μW/m 2 (0.15V/m) were exposures from mobile phones (67.2%) and from mobile phone base stations (19.8%). WLAN at school and at home had little impact on the personal measurements (WLAN accounted for 3.5% of total personal measurements). According to the dose calculations, exposure from environmental sources (broadcast transmitters, mobile phone base stations, cordless phone base stations, WLAN access points, and mobile phones in the surroundings) contributed on average 6.0% to the brain dose and 9.0% to the whole-body dose. RF-EMF exposure of adolescents is dominated by their own mobile phone use. Environmental sources such as mobile phone base stations play a minor role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Local food:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Donna Isabella Caroline

    2013-01-01

    are identified and then categorised according to whether they pertain to the food product itself or the production methods and facilities and whether they describe physical or social properties of local food. From this a model with four categories is developed. It is found that properties of the product are more......Recently there has been more focus on food in general and local food in particular. But what is local food? And what are the perceptions of this concept according to theory and to providers and consumers of local food? This article first summarises and compares three different theoretical...... perspectives on local food, namely experience economy, local food systems and what is termed pro-industrialism. These have differing and sometimes opposite conceptualisations and aims for the concept of local food. Using the perspective of experience economy as theoretical background, the concept of local food...

  18. The Election System of the Swiss Confederation: Counting of Votes and Establishment of Election Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena A. Tarnavskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the following article the author covers the process of counting the votes and the disclosure rules of establishment the election results in the Swiss Confederation. Switzerland along with other EU member states pays special attention to the determination of the election results. According to Art. 149 para. 2 Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation the elections to the National Council, which is one of two chambers of the Federal Assembly, are held according to proportional representation system. The Hagenbach-Bischoff system is used for allocating seats in National Council of the Swiss Con federation. However the above mentioned system for determining the quota of votes per each mandate creates ambiguous opinions among Swiss scientists and legal experts, which frequently comes up in discussions whether to modify it or not. In this article, the author also gives a brief description of the main political parties in Switzerland and statistics of seats allocation in 49 legislature of National Council following the elections of October 23, 2011. As a result, the author provides the full information on the process of votes counting and establishment of election results in the Swiss Confederation. The material presented in this article is particularly interesting and relevant in terms of improving the electoral legislation in the Russian Federation. The information presented by the author will be useful to all parties interested in electoral law.

  19. EFFECTIVENESS OF SWISS BALL VS FLOOR EXERCISES ON CORE MUSCLE STRENGTH IN ELITE CRICKETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sai sudha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cricket is one of the most popular game in India played by men and women of all ages. The increased physical demands on the players may be associated with an increased risk of injuries. Core muscle strength is important to prevent risk of injuries in elite cricketers. The beginners in the cricket must have enough strength of core muscles, as core is the bridge between upper and lower limbs. So, it should be strong enough to prevent low back and lower limb injuries in cricketers. The aim is to determine the effectiveness of swiss ball exercises versus floor exercises on core muscle strength in elite cricketers. The objective is to study and compare the effectiveness of swiss ball exercises and floor exercises in elite cricketers in terms of back strength. Method: The total number of students in this study were 30 eilte cricketers between 16-25 years out of which 15 subjects were included each in floor exercise(n=15 and swiss ball group(n=15. Back strength was measured before and after the intervention of 6 weeks using isokinetic analyser. Results: After the analysis, the results revealed significant improvement of back strength in both the groups(p< 0.00. The swiss ball group showed significant results when compared with floor exercise group. Conclusion: Although the study showed beneficial results in both the groups, the results reflected that swiss ball group had better improvement of core muscle strength than the floor exercise group.

  20. The Swiss Federal Energy Research Concept for the Years 2000-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    The Swiss Federal Energy Research Concept provides details within the framework set by the Swiss Parliament and the Swiss Federal Council (Government). It maps out how publicly supported research shall be used to achieve politically decided energy goals. Information is provided on the manner in which energy education, research and technology developments will be supported during the period from 2000-2003. The Concept facilitates coordination among federal and cantonal decision makers as well as municipal authorities. Swiss energy research is dedicated to sustainable development, including the massive reduction of CO 2 emissions. This is also implicit in the concept of the '2000 W society'. A two-pronged approach strives to reduce pollution by energy systems and increase system efficiencies. Technical progress is buttressed by socio-economic measures. Priorities for publicly funded energy research have been set in the context of long-term perspectives, harmonized with European and worldwide goals. Swiss energy research must be high-level research and this requires adequate means being made available to assure both quality and continuity. It is important that the attractiveness and competitiveness of Switzerland as a home for science and technology be maintained, indeed strengthened. It has been proved worldwide that energy research needs public funding. Particularly favored is application oriented research, including pilot and demonstration projects. (author)

  1. The Swiss Federal Energy Research Concept for the Years 2000-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    The Swiss Federal Energy Research Concept provides details within the framework set by the Swiss Parliament and the Swiss Federal Council (Government). It maps out how publicly supported research shall be used to achieve politically decided energy goals. Information is provided on the manner in which energy education, research and technology developments will be supported during the period from 2000-2003. The concept facilitates coordination among federal and cantonal decision makers as well as municipal authorities. Swiss energy research is dedicated to sustainable development, including the massive reduction of CO 2 emissions. This is also implicit in the concept of the '2000 W society'. A two-pronged approach strives to reduce pollution by energy systems and increase system efficiencies. Technical progress is buttressed by socio-economic measures. Priorities for publicly funded energy research have been set in the context of long-term perspectives, harmonized with European and worldwide goals. Swiss energy research must be high-level research and this requires adequate means being made available to assure both quality and continuity. It is important that the attractiveness and competitiveness of Switzerland as a home for science and technology be maintained, indeed strengthened. It has been proved worldwide that energy research needs public funding. Particularly favored is application oriented research, including pilot and demonstration projects. (author)

  2. Compliance with guidelines for disease management in diabetes: results from the SwissDiab Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimke, Katrin E; Renström, Frida; Meier, Sandro; Stettler, Christoph; Brändle, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Tight glycemic control and aggressive treatment of additional cardiovascular risk factors can substantially reduce risk of diabetes-related complications. In 2013, the Swiss Society of Endocrinology and Diabetology (SSED) established national criteria on good disease management in diabetes, but little is known about compliance in clinical care. Here we assessed to what extent patients from two tertiary care centers in the German-speaking part of Switzerland enrolled in the Swiss Diabetes (SwissDiab) Registry adhere to the SSED criteria. SwissDiab is a prospective observational cohort study of patients regularly treated at Swiss tertiary diabetes centers. Data were collected through standardized annual health examinations. Baseline participant descriptive statistics, stratified by diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2), were compared with SSED targets for glycemic control, blood pressure, blood lipids, weight maintenance, and ophthalmic examination. By the end of 2016, 604 participants with DM1 (40%) and DM2 (60%) had data available for analyses, 36% and 29% women, respectively. At baseline, all the SSED targets were met with two exceptions: a glycated hemoglobin A1c value management in diabetes were achieved in the majority of participants at the time of enrollment, but results also highlight areas where disease management can be improved, particularly the role of nutrition counseling.

  3. Organisation and standardisation of information in SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Magrane

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available SWISS-PROT is a curated, non-redundant protein sequence database which provides a high level of annotation and is integrated with a large number of other biological databases. It is supplemented by TrEMBL, a computer-annotated database which contains translations of all coding sequences in the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database which are not yet in SWISS-PROT. Each fully curated SWISS-PROT entry contains as much up-to-date information as possible from a variety of sources and the high quality of the annotation in SWISS-PROT provides the basis for the procedure which is used to automatically annotate the TrEMBL database. The large amounts of different data types found in both databases are stored in a highly structured and uniform manner and this structured organisation means that SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL together provide a comprehensive resource with data that are readily accessible for users and easily retrievable by computer programs.

  4. [Swiss surgery: quo vadis? Reader and market analysis for strategic positioning of a specialty journal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiermuth, O; Todorov, A; Bolli, M; Heberer, M

    2003-01-01

    Scientific journals currently face challenges including cost pressures caused by economic constraints, increasing rivalry among competitors, limited market potential of non-english speaking journals, increasing medical specialization with resulting market fragmentation, and internet-based competition. We therefore analyzed strategic opportunities of the journal Swiss Surgery on the basis of customer surveys and of a market analysis. Swiss surgeons expressed their interest in the continuation of the journal but also indicated their support for changes in its concept and for an increased use of electronic media. An international market analysis points-out the difficulties of national, non-english speaking journals in gaining impact points and in attracting authors and readers of scientific medical articles. Therefore, a journal such as Swiss Surgery should identify and use publication niches. The demand for a concept addressing surgical training including continuous postgraduate education was confirmed by the customers of Swiss Surgery. A corresponding offer does not presently exist in the area and could become the new focus of the journal. This change of concept may have a number of consequences: A journal focusing on surgical training and education should use the results of readers' surveys rather than impact point assignment to evaluate quality. The journal should increasingly use electronic services including data bases, pictures, videos and closed user groups to supplement the print version. At short term, however, the printed version should be continued and not be substituted by the electronic version in order to maintain the established brand "Swiss Surgery".

  5. Cadmium and chromium effects on seed germination and root elongation in lettuce, spinach and Swiss chard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar V Bautista

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The La Ramada district and the Bogota River are the principal water resources used for horticultural crop production on the Bogota Plateau, which contain channel pollutant materials, including heavy metals due to domestic and industrial activities on the Plateau. These materials have effects on crop production in this zone. The present research, under laboratory conditions, aimed to evaluate the effect of three concentrations (25, 35 and 50 µM L-1 of cadmium (Cd and chromium (Cr on imbibition, seed germination and root elongation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. Batavia, Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla "White Ribbed", and spinach (Spinacia oleracea Hib. 424, three species widely cultivated on the Plateau. The three species used for evaluation showed a differential susceptibility response to Cd and Cr. In lettuce, fresh weight increase (imbibition was lower with all Cd concentrations at the last day of observation and at 25 µM L-1 of Cd in Swiss chard. Cadmium reduced seed germination by up to 46%, 97% and 8% in Swiss chard, lettuce and spinach, respectively. Also, root elongation decreased in Cd treatments by up to 57%, 89% and 56%, for Swiss chard, lettuce and spinach, respectively. Chromium, which showed fewer negative effects, decreased germination by up to 29% in Swiss chard, 6% in lettuce and 34% in spinach, as compared to the control

  6. [Development of a set of nursing-sensitive indicators for Swiss practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinknecht-Dolf, Michael; Baumberger, Dieter; Jucker, Thomas; Kliem, Uwe; Zimmermann, Natalie; Spirig, Rebecca

    2016-02-01

    The SwissDRG prospective payment system is known to inadequately account for nursing intensity due to the DRG group criteria insufficiently describing the variability of nursing intensity within individual diagnosis-related groups. In order to allow for appropriate reimbursement and resource allocation, nursing intensity must be able to be explicitly quantified and accounted for. The aim of this project was to develop a set of nursing-sensitive indicators intended to reduce the variation within individual diagnosis-related groups, supplementary to existing SwissDRG group criteria. The approach comprised a variety of methods. A systematic literature review, input from an advisory board and an expert panel, as well as three focus group interviews with nurses and nurse managers formed the basis for the synthesis of data and information gathered from these sources. A set of 14 nursing-sensitive indicators was developed. The indicators are intended to improve the homogeneity of nursing intensity within SwissDRG diagnosis-related groups. Before these nursing indicators can be adopted as group criteria, they must be formulated to conform with SwissDRG and tested empirically. This set of indicators can be seen at as a first step towards nursing intensity being adequately represented in SwissDRG diagnosis-related groups. The next challenge to be met is operationalising the indicators in codable form.

  7. Carbon dioxide in electricity delivered to Swiss end-users. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakob, M.; Volkart, K.; Widmer, D.

    2009-07-01

    In this comprehensive final report, made by TEP Energy GmbH - Technology Economics Policy - Research and Advice - a spin-off company of ETH Zuerich for the Swiss gas and oil industries, the effective CO 2 intensities involved in Swiss electricity consumption are calculated and discussed. The authors present details on how CO 2 emissions should be calculated on the basis of figures both on Swiss power generation and, also, on electricity imports and exports in a European context. Daily and seasonal export-import balances are discussed. In particular the authors note that the actual production-mix for electricity in Switzerland should not be used as a basis for judging actual consumption. Three methods for viewing Swiss electricity consumption involving net and gross power export and import are introduced and discussed. The determination of the CO 2 intensity of Swiss power is discussed, as are power demand profiles and international agreements. The results obtained using the three methods used are presented and discussed. Future developments are also examined. The report is completed with an appendix

  8. Japanese guidelines for food allergy 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisawa, Motohiro; Ito, Komei; Fujisawa, Takao

    2017-04-01

    Five years have passed since the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for Food Allergy (JPGFA) was first revised in 2011 from its original version. As many scientific papers related to food allergy have been published during the last 5 years, the second major revision of the JPGFA was carried out in 2016. In this guideline, food allergies are generally classified into four clinical types: (1) neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy, (2) infantile atopic dermatitis associated with food allergy, (3) immediate-type of food allergy (urticaria, anaphylaxis, etc.), and (4) special forms of immediate-type of food allergy such as food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis and oral allergy syndrome (OAS). Much of this guideline covers the immediate-type of food allergy that is seen during childhood to adolescence. Infantile atopic dermatitis associated with food allergy type is especially important as the onset of most food allergies occurs during infancy. We have discussed the neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy and special forms of immediate type food allergy types separately. Diagnostic procedures are highlighted, such as probability curves and component-resolved diagnosis, including the recent advancement utilizing antigen-specific IgE. The oral food challenge using a stepwise approach is recommended to avoid complete elimination of causative foods. Although oral immunotherapy (OIT) has not been approved as a routine treatment by nationwide insurance, we included a chapter for OIT, focusing on efficacy and problems. Prevention of food allergy is currently the focus of interest, and many changes were made based on recent evidence. Finally, the contraindication between adrenaline and antipsychotic drugs in Japan was discussed among related medical societies, and we reached an agreement that the use of adrenaline can be allowed based on the physician's discretion. In conclusion, this guideline encourages physicians to follow the principle to let patients

  9. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindqvist, H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review of food irradiation and lists plants for food irradiation in the world. Possible applications for irradiation are discussed, and changes induced in food from radiation, nutritional as well as organoleptic, are reviewed. Possible toxicological risks with irradiated food and risks from alternative methods for treatment are also brought up. Ways to analyze weather food has been irradiated or not are presented. 8 refs

  10. Mutagenicity of irradiated food in the host mediated assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston-Arthur, T.; Turanitz, K.; Hruby, R.; Stehlik, G.; Brena-Valle, M.

    1975-01-01

    Groups of Swiss albino mice (SPF) fed with normal and gamma-irradiated food at doses of 0.75, 1.5 and 3.0 Mrad, were injected intraperitoneally with SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM TA 1530 for the host mediated assay test of mutagenesis. The mutation frequency was calculated in terms of the number of mutant colonies per unit number of surviving cells. The results indicate that there is a significant increase in mutation frequency induced by the 3 Mrad sterilized food. No difference was observed in the 0.75 Mrad dose when compared with the control

  11. The nuclear liability conventions revised

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    2004-01-01

    The signature on 12 February 2004 of the Protocols amending respectively the 1960 Paris Convention and the 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention was the second step of the process of modernisation of the international nuclear liability regime after the adoption in September 1997 of a Protocol revising the 1963 Vienna Convention and of a new Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage. The common objective of the new instruments is to provide more funds to compensate a larger number of potential victims in respect of a broader range of damage. Another goal of the revision exercise was to maintain the compatibility between the Paris and Vienna based systems, a commitment enshrined in the 1988 Joint Protocol, as well as to ascertain that Paris/Brussels countries could also become a Party to the Convention on Supplementary Compensation. However, while generally consistent vis a vis the Joint Protocol, the provisions of the Paris and Vienna Conventions, as revised, differ on some significant aspects. Another remaining issue is whether the improved international nuclear liability regime will succeed in attracting in the future a larger number of countries, particularly outside Europe, and will so become truly universal. Therefore, the need for international co-operation to address these issues, to facilitate the adoption of new implementing legislation and to ensure that this special regime keeps abreast of economic and technological developments, is in no way diminished after the revision of the Conventions.(author)

  12. Concise revision of the Sarcospermataceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, H.J.; Royen, van P.

    1952-01-01

    After the senior writer, together with W. W. Varossieau, had published a revision of this monogeneric family (Blumea III, 1938—’39 and IV, 1941), some more material has been examined by us and, moreover, some new species have been described. Thanks to the courtesy of Prof. F. Gagnepain of Paris, and

  13. Guidelines for Curriculum Development. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, K.; And Others

    The curriculum development process explained in this booklet was first implemented at College of the Redwoods in May 1986 and then revised in June 1989. First, information on the college's Curriculum Committee is provided, indicating that the committee was formed to plan credit/non-credit courses; evaluate and approve additions, modifications, or…

  14. Revised Accounting for Business Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Arlette C.; Key, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has recently issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 141 (Revised 2007) Business Combinations. The object of this Statement is to improve the relevance, representational faithfulness, and comparability of reported information about a business combination and its effects. This Statement…

  15. How Adults Learn. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, J. R.

    The book's emphasis is on learning during the years of adulthood and examines present-day practice of adult education for practitioners. This revised edition brings up to date advances in such areas of learning as controversial theory; the effects of environment; sensory processes; intellectual capacities; motivation and attitude; transactional…

  16. A revision of the Paronychiinae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaudhri, Mohammad Nazeer

    1968-01-01

    This study was undertaken, in April 1964, at the suggestion of Prof. Dr. J. Lanjouw. The need for such a revision, was, however, stressed by the authors of the subtribe, viz. PAX et K. HOFFMANN, who, while delimiting these genera, remarked that the Systematics of both the (main) genera of this

  17. [Revised practice guideline 'Anaemia in midwifery practice'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, M.; Jans, S.M.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    The practice guideline of the Royal Dutch Organization of Midwives 'Anaemia in primary care midwifery practice' published in 2000, has recently been revised. The revised guideline takes physiological haemodilution during pregnancy into consideration and provides gestation specific reference values

  18. 75 FR 60485 - NRC Enforcement Policy Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2008-0497] NRC Enforcement Policy Revision AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Policy statement. SUMMARY: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or Commission) is publishing a major revision to its Enforcement Policy (Enforcement Policy or Policy) to...

  19. Viability of the Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 probiotic strain in Swiss- and Dutch-type cheese and cheese-like products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, Grażyna; Aljewicz, Marek; Nalepa, Beata

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the viability of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 in Swiss-type and Dutch-type cheese and cheese-like products (milk fat is substituted by stearin fraction of palm fat) during manufacture, ripening, and storage. The use of the probiotic L. rhamnosus HN001 in Dutch-type cheese and cheese-like products significantly (P = 0.1) changed their chemical composition (protein and fat content) and an insignificant increase (approximately 1.6% in cheese-like products and approximately 0.3% in cheese) in yield. L. rhamnosus HN001 did not affect the rate of changes in the pH of ripened cheese and cheese-like products. A minor increase in probiotic counts was observed in initial stages of production and were partially removed with whey. Ripened cheese and cheese-like products were characterized by high survival rates of probiotic bacteria which exceeded 8 log CFU/g after ripening. An insignificant reduction in the number of viable probiotic cells was noted during storage of Swiss-type and Dutch-type cheese, whereas a significant increase in probiotic cell counts was observed in cheese-like products during storage. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. ENET News March 2004 - Information on Swiss energy research; ENET News, Maerz 2004, Nr. 57 deutsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellstein, J.

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's (SFOE) magazine with information on Swiss energy research presents a large selection of articles on various energy-relevant topics. These include the Swiss research strategy for the period 2004 to 2007, a discussion on wind energy, saving electricity, stand-by losses of coffee machines and information on hydrogen and fuel-cells. Further articles cover road-traffic topics including zero-emission vehicles and clean engine technology. Also, research on better fuel use in nuclear plant and models for batch-processes in the processing industry are looked at. Further articles cover the use of photovoltaics, wood fuels and biomass. Results of a field-analysis of heat-pump installations and the storage of solar energy using zinc powder as well as building insulation are covered. Finally, the ETDE is honoured as being the largest collection of energy documents.

  1. DRIVING VEHICLES SUBJECT TO A CUSTOMS RESTRICTIONS AGREEMENT WITH ORDINARY SWISS NUMBER PLATES

    CERN Document Server

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission to the International Organisations in Geneva has just confirmed to CERN that it is not necessary to hold a carte de légitimation or an attestation de fonctions issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs to drive a vehicle subject to a customs restrictions agreement (engagement douanier), i.e. purchased or imported free of tax and customs duty, provided that the vehicle concerned is registered on ordinary Swiss number plates and not on diplomatic plates. We should like to remind you that the documents published by the Relations with the Host States Service since 1996 can be consulted on the Service's Web pages (http://www.cern.ch/relations/), which are updated as soon as new information is received from the Authorities of the Host States.

  2. Regulatory oversight report 2008 concerning nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    This annual report issued by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Inspectorate (ENSI) reports on the work carried out by the Inspectorate in 2008. This report reviews the regulatory activities in the four Swiss nuclear power stations and in four further nuclear installations in various Swiss research facilities. It deals with topics such as operational details, technologies in use, radiation protection, radioactive wastes, emergency dispositions, personnel and provides an assessment of operations from the safety point of view. Also, the transportation of nuclear materials - both nuclear fuels and nuclear wastes - is reported on. General topics discussed include probabilistic safety analyses and accident management, earthquake damage analysis and agreements on nuclear safety. The underground disposal of highly-radioactive nuclear wastes and work done in the rock laboratories are discussed, as are proposals for additional nuclear power stations

  3. Regulatory oversight report 2007 concerning nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-04-01

    This annual report issued by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Inspectorate (HSK) reports on the work carried out by the Inspectorate in 2007. This report reviews the regulatory activities in the four Swiss nuclear power stations and in four further nuclear installations in various Swiss research facilities. It deals with topics such as operational details, technologies in use, radiation protection, radioactive wastes, emergency dispositions and personnel and provides an assessment of operations from the point of view of safety. Also, the transportation of nuclear materials - both nuclear fuels and nuclear wastes - is reported on. General topics discussed include probabilistic safety analyses and accident management. Finally, the disposal of nuclear wastes and work done in the rock laboratories in Switzerland is commented on

  4. ENET News July 2004 - Information on Swiss energy research; ENET News, Juli 2004, Nr. 58 deutsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellstein, J.

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Magazine (SFOE) with information on Swiss energy research presents a large selection of articles on various energy-relevant topics. These include research strategies, a discussion on oil reserves, technology transfer and innovation, Swiss biomass activities, winning power from the drinking water mains and the use of ambient heat. Further articles cover the topics of energy-efficiency and lighting in buildings, the use of batteries in vehicles, the increasing decentralisation of power generation and the use of supra-conducting current-limiters. Also, research on improved fuel use in nuclear plant and models for batch-processes in the processing industry are looked at. Further articles cover the wood fuels, photovoltaics and wind-energy areas as well as heat storage using geothermal techniques.

  5. Leadership style in Swiss evangelical churches in the light of their historically shaped leadership culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Russenberger

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a sociological-historical study of the inter-relation between the historically developed leadership culture of democracy and leadership practice in the evangelical churches of Switzerland. Contemporary Swiss leadership style is based on the cultural inheritance of the Celts, the Romans and the Germanic tribes, the foundation of the Confederation, as well as the history of Christianity. The core values that shaped Swiss leadership culture are the idea that not too much power should vest in the individual, that there should be a democratic right of co-determination, that there should be federal freedom, and that work and achievement are very important. These same basic values still affect leadership in Swiss evangelical congregations today.

  6. The influence of climate-warming on the power production of Swiss hydroelectric power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeppi, A.

    2006-01-01

    This article summarises an interview with Michael Piot of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on a study commissioned by the office that takes a look at the influence of a possible climate warming on water flow in the Swiss alpine area. In particular, the influence of such possible changes on the Swiss power generation industry are looked at. Prognoses for climate change are reviewed, as are the results of a study made by the SFOE on energy perspectives for the period up to the year 2035. Possible changes in the alpine climate are discussed and their influence on the water household of the region is examined. Possible further and more drastic changes in the period up to 2099 are briefly commented on

  7. Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission - Annual report 2008; Eidgenoessische Energieforschungskommission CORE. Jahresbericht 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maus, K.

    2009-07-01

    This annual report presents a review of the activities carried out by the Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission CORE in the year 2008. Main points of interest were the definition of a new CORE vision, a review of all research programmes, co-operation and co-ordination with public and private institutes, active consultancy, recommendations for further education and training, improved international information exchange and good communication with business, politics and the general public. The definition of a concept for Swiss energy research for the period 2012 to 2016 is mentioned. The annual report also reports on an internal visit made to various laboratories of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne and the Energy Center in Zurich. The focussing of CORE activities on particular themes is discussed

  8. Swiss hydropower in competition - an analysis with reference to the future European power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, M.; Spreng, D.; Moest, D.

    2006-01-01

    This article takes a look at a number of questions in relation to the future use of Swiss hydropower that are neither clear nor unchallenged. Questions concerning the replacement or refurbishment of hydropower schemes that will have to be renewed in the next few years are asked. Also, developments in the European power market are looked at. The future influence of wind power, trading with CO 2 certificates, increases in the price of gas etc. are examined. An analysis of the competitiveness of Swiss hydropower with reference to the European power supply system that was made by the Centre for Energy Policy and Economics CEPE at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH is described. The 'Perseus'-model developed by CEPE and the Industrial Technology Institute at the University of Karlsruhe in Germany is used to analyse possible developments over the period up to 2030. The results are presented in graphical form and commented on

  9. ENET News November 2004 - Information on Swiss energy research; ENET News, November 2004, Nr. 59 deutsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellstein, J.

    2004-07-01

    This last edition of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE)'s magazine with information on Swiss energy research presents a large selection of articles on various energy-relevant topics. These include a review of energy research in Switzerland in general and the work of the Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission CORE in particular and a look at the basis for energy-economical perspectives in Switzerland. Further articles take a look at activities in the solar-chemical area, biomass and small-hydro projects, wind and geothermal energy as well as solar heating, photovoltaics and the use of ambient heat. Energy-efficiency in the buildings and traffic areas and combustion and combined heat and power are further topics covered. Nuclear energy and process engineering, fuel cells and activities in the international sector are examined. The publication is completed with a list of recent publications in the energy area.

  10. Humeral windows in revision total elbow arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Chris A; Salama, Amir; Stanley, David

    2016-04-01

    The use of cortical windows for revision elbow arthroplasty has not previously been widely reported. Their use aids safe revision of a well fixed humeral prosthesis and can be used in the setting of dislocation, periprosthetic fracture or aseptic loosening of the ulnar component. We describe our technique and results of cortical windows in the distal humerus for revision elbow arthroplasty surgery.

  11. A taxonomic revision of the genus Podocarpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laubenfels, de D.J.

    1985-01-01

    In connection with the forthcoming revision of the Coniferae for the Flora Malesiana, the author thought it necessary to revise the genus Podocarpus. Although this genus has a substantial representation in Malesia (30 species), the revision is too involved to be appropriate with the Flora Malesiana

  12. 24 CFR 968.225 - Budget revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget revisions. 968.225 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.225 Budget revisions. (a) A PHA shall not incur any modernization cost in excess of the total HUD-approved CIAP budget. A PHA shall submit a budget revision, in a form prescribed...

  13. 7 CFR 3015.115 - Budget revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget revisions. 3015.115 Section 3015.115..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Programmatic Changes and Budget Revisions § 3015.115 Budget revisions. (a) Nonconstruction projects. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of...

  14. 48 CFR 15.307 - Proposal revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 15.307 Proposal revisions. (a) If an... allow proposal revisions to clarify and document understandings reached during negotiations. At the... submit a final proposal revision. The contracting officer is required to establish a common cut-off date...

  15. A Note on Price Risks in Swiss Crop Production – Empirical Results and Comparisons with other Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finger, R.; Benni, El N.

    2012-01-01

    The liberalization of Swiss agricultural markets will not only decrease crop price levels but is also expected to increase the volatility of prices. Even though these potential increases in price volatilities for Swiss producers are acknowledged as an important fact, no empirical estimates are

  16. Trapezius Muscle Load, Heart Rate and Time Pressure during Day and Night Shift in Swiss and Japanese Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    NICOLETTI, Corinne; MÜLLER, Christian; TOBITA, Itoko; NAKASEKO, Masaru; LÄUBLI, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the activity of the trapezius muscle, the heart rate and the time pressure of Swiss and Japanese nurses during day and night shifts. The parameters were measured during a day and a night shift of 17 Swiss and 22 Japanese nurses. The observed rest time of the trapezius muscle was longer for Swiss than for Japanese nurses during both shifts. The 10th and the 50th percentile of the trapezius muscle activity showed a different effect for Swiss than for Japanese nurses. It was higher during the day shift of Swiss nurses and higher during the night shift of Japanese nurses. Heart rate was higher for both Swiss and Japanese nurses during the day. The time pressure was significantly higher for Japanese than for Swiss nurses. Over the duration of the shifts, time pressure increased for Japanese nurses and slightly decreased for those from Switzerland. Considering trapezius muscle activity and time pressure, the nursing profession was more burdening for the examined Japanese nurses than for Swiss nurses. In particular, the night shift for Japanese nurses was characterized by a high trapezius muscle activity and only few rest times for the trapezius muscle. PMID:24633074

  17. 78 FR 40688 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ...] Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia Into the... availability. SUMMARY: We are advising the public that we have prepared a pest risk analysis that evaluates the... weeds via the importation of Swiss chard from Colombia. We are making the pest risk analysis available...

  18. 78 FR 69640 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia Into the Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... States of Swiss chard from Colombia. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis, which we made..., based on the findings of a pest risk analysis (PRA), can be safely imported subject to one or more of... introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of Swiss chard from Colombia...

  19. Explaining electricity demand and the role of energy and investment literacy on end-use efficiency of Swiss households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasch, J.E.; Filippini, Massimo; Boogen, Nina; Kumar, Nilkanth

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates the level of transient and persistent efficiency in the use of electricity in Swiss households using the newly developed generalized true random effects model (GTREM). An unbalanced panel dataset of 1994 Swiss households from 2010 to 2014 collected via a household survey is used

  20. The Expansion of Swiss Criminal Jurisdiction in Light of International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Petrig

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, a global trend of extending the reach of domestic penal power can be observed, namely driven by the changing face of crime as it becomes increasingly transnational in nature. It is demonstrated in this article that the Swiss legislature has clearly followed this global trend of broadening the extraterritorial reach of domestic criminal law, most notably since the 1980s. It has acted with particular resolve in the last decade, adding jurisdictional bases to the Swiss Criminal Code by virtue of which Swiss criminal law can be applied to many instances of conduct taking place abroad. Certain offences – specified crimes against minors and female genital mutilation – have even been subjected to an absolute and unrestricted universality principle. The Swiss legislature is not indifferent to the problems that such an expansive approach to jurisdiction may create, notably in terms of conflicts of jurisdiction. Yet, the rules it adopted to temper the effects of applying Swiss criminal law to extraterritorial conduct only partially remedy the situation. This development in Swiss law begs the question whether such an expansive approach towards jurisdiction is permissible – or even encouraged or requested by international law. Hence, this article explores to what extent international law informs the reach of domestic penal power and concludes that international law is Janus-faced with regard to the question of the geographical scope of domestic criminal law. While some of its rules push for long-arm jurisdiction, others put limits on the domestic legislature’s endeavour to expand the reach of its domestic criminal law. In light of this, the idea of adopting, on an international level, general principles governing the definition of the scope of domestic prescriptive and adjudicative jurisdiction for transnational cases is tempting, albeit difficult to realize.

  1. Food allergies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, Paula F G

    2012-02-03

    Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.

  2. Swiss Photovoltaics Programme 2008 edition - Summary report, annual project abstracts for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-04-15

    This comprehensive, illustrated report issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of activities in 2007 within the framework of the Swiss Photovoltaics Research Programme. Work completed in 2007 and the results achieved in the areas of cell technology, solar modules and building integration, electrical systems technology, supplementary projects and studies are summarised. National and international co-operation is examined. New, current and completed Pilot and Demonstration projects are reported on as are the prospects for the year 2008. The report is completed with lists of research and development as well as pilot and demonstration projects.

  3. Reactor physics teaching and research in the Swiss nuclear engineering master

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, R.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2008, a Master of Science program in Nuclear Engineering (NE) has been running in Switzerland, thanks to the combined efforts of the country's key players in nuclear teaching and research, viz. the Swiss Federal Inst.s of Technology at Lausanne (EPFL) and at Zurich (ETHZ), the Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI) at Villigen and the Swiss Nuclear Utilities (Swissnuclear). The present paper, while outlining the academic program as a whole, lays emphasis on the reactor physics teaching and research training accorded to the students in the framework of the developed curriculum. (authors)

  4. The promotion of work safety. A continuous task for the Swiss gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luescher, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    The modern Western European population values the work safety very highly because of ethical and economical reasons. In Switzerland too, safety at work is actively promoted. Based on national legislation and on the SGWA-Association Statutes, the Swiss Gas Industry, with great engagement, promotes the measures for accident prevention. Following a general introduction into the legislative basis, possible ways and means for the promotion of safety at work are described. Subsequently, the concrete activities of the Gas Supply Authorities and the SGWA are pointed out, followed by a description of the future work-safety programmes of the Swiss Gas Industry. (orig.) [de

  5. The Swiss strategy on the new Electricity Industry Decree ('Elektrizitaetswirtschaftsordnung', ELWO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmann, W.

    2003-01-01

    This lecture by Dr. Walter Steinmann, director of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, describes in three parts the efforts being made in the electricity sector to reorganise the Swiss electricity market. The first part deals with international aspects, including electricity trading between Switzerland and the European Union and the associated reciprocal agreements as well as the realisation of transnational European power trading systems. The second part of the lecture deals with cross-connections between ELWO and other related areas such as public services, energy and climate policies and long-term security of supply. The last part of the lecture examines the strategy behind the new ELWO legislation in detail

  6. [Traffic casualties and injuries: a problem of costs, too. A Swiss survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinoli, S; Quadri, B; Casabianca, A

    1993-01-01

    Based on an epidemiological observation in Ticino 1985, following statement is possible: in Switzerland every year 900 people dye in traffic casualties. Many victims of tragic accidents get lifetime disabled. Direct and indirect costs of traffic injuries are yearly 3 billions of swiss francs. Only a small percentage (6%) is devoted to medical treatment. The most part is due to compensation of income, disability with its allocations and lost productivity. Among "avoidable" deaths, traffic victims are an essential portion because the are young. More efforts should be undertaken to lower road mortality because she erodes the swiss population pyramid in a significant manner.

  7. The Determinants of House Prices and Construction: An Empirical Investigation of the Swiss Housing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the Swiss housing price determinants. The Swiss housing economy is reproduced by employing a macro-series from the last seventeen years and constructing a vector-autoregressive model. Conditional on a comparatively broad set of fundamental determinants considered, i.e. wealth......, banking, demographic and real estate specific variables, the following findings are made: 1) real house price growth and construction activity dynamics are most sensitive to changes in population and construction prices, whereas real GDP, in contrary to common empirical findings in other countries, turns...

  8. Antidiarrhoeal efficacy of Mangifera indica seed kernel on Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, S; Suganya, H; Thirunalasundari, T; Jeeva, S

    2012-08-01

    To examine the antidiarrhoeal activity of alcoholic and aqueous seed kernel extract of Mangifera indica (M. indica) on castor oil-induced diarrhoeal activity in Swiss albino mice. Mango seed kernels were processed and extracted using alcohol and water. Antidiarrhoeal activity of the extracts were assessed using intestinal motility and faecal score methods. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of M. indica significantly reduced intestinal motility and faecal score in Swiss albino mice. The present study shows the traditional claim on the use of M. indica seed kernel for treating diarrhoea in Southern parts of India. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Initial experience gained with the balance-group system of the Swiss power supply legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldner, M.; Rechsteiner, S.

    2010-01-01

    This article takes a look at the initial experience gained with the Swiss balance-group system. This system was introduced within the framework of Swiss power supply legislation (StromVG - Stromversorgungsgesetz). The balance-group system was considered to be an essential precondition for the implementation of an energy trading business in a liberalised power market. The associated rights and responsibilities and the economic risks involved are discussed in detail. The partners and structures involved in such a balance-group are looked at and basic models for the associated contracts are examined. The relationship between balance-groups and the national power grid Swissgrid are discussed

  10. Ultrafast phenomena at the nanoscale: science opportunities at the SwissFEL X-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abela, R.; Braun, H.; Ming, P.; Pedrozzi, M.; Quitmann, Ch.; Reiche, S.; Daalen, M. van; Veen, J.F. van der; Mesot, J.; Mesot, J.; Shiroka, T.; Veen, J.F. van der; Mesot, J.

    2009-09-01

    In today's fast-moving society, standing still is effectively synonymous with being left behind. If it is to maintain, beyond the coming 10-15 years, its high international standing as a complex of large research infrastructures, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) must now lay the foundation for a competitive future. Experts worldwide foresee a strongly growing demand within science and technology for photon sources delivering ultra-short, coherent X-ray pulses. Such a source, called a free electron laser (FEL), is nothing less than a gigantic flash camera, allowing us to take a deeper look into matter than with any other machine before. By literally seeing molecules in action, scientists will be able not only to capture chemical and biological processes of direct relevance and benefit to society but also to improve them. It is a dream coming true. For the first time, it will not only be possible to take pictures of molecular structures, we will be able to make movies of their motion. The new X-ray laser project at PSI, known as SwissFEL, will be an important addition to the existing complex of PSI facilities that serve interdisciplinary and international research teams from academia and industry. The SwissFEL is an essential element of Switzerland's strategic focus and will prolong our nation's leading position in scientific research for years to come. It will attract top scientists from Switzerland and abroad, and will strengthen the position of PSI as a world-class research institute. This new high-tech facility will also provide an important incentive for Swiss industry, through which existing highly-qualified jobs will be maintained and new ones created. In this report we present a wide range of important, open questions within science and engineering disciplines that SwissFEL will contribute towards solving. These questions, which form the 'scientific case' for SwissFEL, have been identified through a range of workshops organized over the past few years and by

  11. Snack frequency: associations with healthy and unhealthy food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christina; Siegrist, Michael; van der Horst, Klazine

    2013-08-01

    We examined associations between snack frequency, sociodemographic characteristics, BMI, dietary and eating behaviour. In order to identify whether various subgroups of high-frequency snack consumers exist, we investigated underlying food patterns and lifestyle factors. The data were based on the Swiss Food Panel Questionnaire of 2010, which included an FFQ, questions relating to sociodemographics and lifestyle factors. Data were examined using ANOVA, regression analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Gender differences were also investigated in the analysis of the data. A sample of 6189 adults participating in the Swiss Food Panel filled in a questionnaire (response rate 30%). The sample consisted of both men and women, with a mean age of 54?4 (SD 13?5) years. There was no association between snack frequency and BMI. Consumption frequency of sweets and savouries as well as fruit intake increased with increasing snack frequency. Additionally, three different subgroups of high-frequency snack consumers could be revealed: healthy, moderate and unhealthy dietary-pattern groups. The latter included respondents who were less health-conscious and was characterized by high alcohol consumption frequency, daily breakfast skipping and watching television during the main meal. High snack frequency occurred in the context of healthy as well as unhealthy dietary behaviour and lifestyle patterns. Women made healthier dietary food choices and were more likely to consume fruits as snacks, while men chose unhealthy foods, such as sweets and savouries, more often.

  12. Policy Approaches to Offset Childhood Food Insecurity and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, Danielle M.; Broberg, Katharine A.; McGuire, Jenifer K.

    2009-01-01

    Policies originally designed to address food insecurity are in need of revision due to rising rates of obesity among those they serve. Within the context of national policies, this article uses an ecological perspective to consider the links between food insecurity and obesity. The recommendations include adjusting the nutritional standards of the…

  13. Tapping hidden hydropower potential in Swiss Alpine catchments in the context of the planned nuclear power phase out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana Clara; Schaefli, Bettina; Manso, Pedro; Schleiss, Anton; Portela, Maria Manuela; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    In its Energy Strategy 2050, Switzerland is revising its energy perspectives with a strong focus on renewable sources of energy and in particular hydropower. In this context, the Swiss Government funded a number of competence centers for energy research (SCCERs), including one on the Supply of Energy (SCCER-SoE), which develops fundamental research and innovative solutions in geoenergies and hydropower . Hydropower is already the major energy source in Switzerland, corresponding to approximately 55% of the total national electricity production (which was 69 TWh in 2014). The Energy Strategy 2050 foresees at least a net increase by 1.53 TWh/year in average hydrological conditions, in a context were almost all major river systems are already exploited and a straightforward application of recent environmental laws will impact (reduce) current hydropower production. In this contribution, we present the roadmap of the SCCER-SoE and an overview of our strategy to unravel currently non-exploited hydropower potential, in particular in river systems that are already used for hydropower production. The aim is hereby to quantify non-exploited natural flows, unnecessary water spills or storage volume deficits, whilst considering non-conventional approaches to water resources valuation and management. Such a better understanding of the current potential is paramount to justify future scenarios of adaptation of the existing hydropower infrastructure combining the increase of storage capacity with new connections between existing reservoirs, heightening or strengthening existing dams, increasing the operational volume of natural lakes (including new glacier lakes), or by building new dams. Tapping hidden potential shall also require operational changes to benefit from new flow patterns emerging under an evolving climate and in particular in the context of the ongoing glacier retreat. The paper shall present a broad view over the mentioned issues and first conclusions of ongoing

  14. Swiss teleradiology survey: present situation and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lienemann, Bernhard; Hodler, Juerg; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Luetolf, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain a survey about the present situation including the usage pattern, technical characteristics and the anticipated future of teleradiology in Switzerland. An internet-based questionnaire was made available to all members of the Swiss Society of Radiology. Questions concerning current teleradiology usage, the type of transmitted modalities, the technology employed, security, billing issues and the anticipated future of teleradiology were addressed. One hundred and two (22.67%) of 450 radiologists responded to the survey. Of the total, 41.2% (42) were teleradiology users, 35.3% (36) planned to use teleradiology in the near future and 24.5% (25) did not use or plan to use teleradiology. The mean number of examinations transmitted per month was 198 (range 1-2,000) and the mean distance was 33 km (range 1,250 km). An emergency service was considered the most important purpose (mean score 6.90; minimum 1, maximum 10) for the use of teleradiology, followed by image distribution (mean 6.74) and expert consultation (mean 6.61). The most commonly transmitted modality was computed tomography (mean 8.80), followed by conventional X-rays (8.40) and magnetic resonance imaging (8.32). The most commonly transmitted format was Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) (66.7%), followed by bitmap/Joint Photographic Experts Group (jpg) (38.1%), using the DICOM send/receive protocol (52.4%), followed by the hypertext transfer protocol (26.2%) and e-mail (21.4%). For security a secure connection (54.8%) followed by encryption (14.3%) and anonymization (9.5%) was used. For the future, image distribution was rated the most important aspect of teleradiology (7.88), followed by emergency (7.22) and expert consultation (6.53). Development of legal regulations is considered most important (8.17), followed by data security guidelines (8.15). Most radiologists believe that insurance companies should pay for the costs of teleradiology (37

  15. [The Swiss border veterinary service in the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluep, J

    2018-01-01

    The first animal disease act of Switzerland was released in 1872. Its revision in 1886 brought the basis for establishing a border veterinary inspection service. This service was first reporting to the federal Ministry of Agriculture; after 1914, the newly created Federal Veterinary Office became responsible for it. The border checks were first limited to live biungulate animals and horses; later on they were extended to meat and meat products and finally to venison and fishery products. At the beginning, part-time veterinarians with own practice were engaged. As the traffic increased, full time border veterinary inspectors joined the team; these were mainly active at the most important border posts (like Basel, St. Margrethen, Buchs, Chiasso, Geneva, more recently the international airports). The border veterinary inspection service, including the relevant instruction of the personnel, was (and is) financed with weight depending fees which included until 1966 a fee intended for financing the efforts to control livestocks epidemics.

  16. CERN’s Rugby Club to play the Swiss Cup semi-finals: come and support the CERN team!

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    On Saturday 25 June, the CERN’s Rugby Club will be playing in the Swiss Cup semi-final against the Hermance Rugby Club. Although the CERN club has had a less than stellar year in the Swiss national first division, they earned a place in the Cup semi-final after beating Bern 30 – 0 and La Chaux-de-Fonds 38 – 7. The club last made it to the Swiss Cup semi-finals in 2002, where they lost to Hermance (the most successful Swiss rugby club, followed closely by CERN’s). Show your support for the CERN team and help them reach the Swiss Cup final by going to the 25 June match at 15.00 in the CERN pitch.  

  17. FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks; redistribution of food availability within the country or out through international exchanges; effective access of the population to purchase food consumer goods, by ensuring its effective demand as required. Food security of families (FFS is required for assuring individual food security (IFS, but it is not sufficient because the food available may be unevenly distributed between family members. National food security (NFS corresponds to the possibilities that different countries have to ensure both FFS and IFS without sacrificing other important objectives. Under the name of GAS is defined the global food security which represents permanent access for the entire population of the globe to the necessary food for a healthy and active life.

  18. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1,3-galactose, a carbohydrate found on mammalian meat, and is associated with being bitten by the ... home. Treating Food Allergies There is currently no cure for food allergy, but there are many promising ...

  19. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook and Twitter . Play our Food Allergy Bubble Game with Mr. Nose-it-All. Test your knowledge ... oral allergy syndrome? » Video: What is a red meat allergy? » Vitamin D and Food Allergy » When Should ...

  20. Revising an Extension Education Website for Limited Resource Audiences Using Social Marketing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sarah L.; Martin, Peggy; Taylor, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Spend Smart Eat Smart (SSES), a unique website combining nutrition and food buying education for limited resource audiences (LRAs), was revised using social marketing theory to make it more appealing and relevant to LRAs (25-40 years). Focus groups and surveys identified the needs and preferences of LRAs. Needs were cooking, basic health, and…