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Sample records for revised xmm-newton x-ray

  1. Exploring the Diffuse X-ray Emission of Supernova Remnant Kesteven 69 with XMM-Newton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Ae Seo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the X-ray emission from the shock-heated plasma of the Galactic supernova remnant Kesteven 69 with XMM-Newton. Assuming the plasma is at collisional ionization equilibrium, a plasma temperature and a column absorption are found to be kT ~ 0.62 keV and NH ~ 2.85 ×1022 cm-2 respectively by imaging spectroscopy. Together with the deduced emission measure, we place constraints on its Sedov parameters.

  2. Symbiotic Stars in X-rays. II. Faint Sources Detected with XMM-Newton and Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, N. E.; Luna, G. J. M.; Pillitteri, I.; Mukai, K.

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection from four symbiotic stars that were not known to be X-ray sources. These four object show a ß-type X-ray spectrum, that is, their spectra can be modeled with an absorbed optically thin thermal emission with temperatures of a few million degrees. Photometric series obtained with the Optical Monitor on board XMM-Newton from V2416 Sgr and NSV 25735 support the proposed scenario where the X-ray emission is produced in a shock-heated region inside the symbiotic nebulae.

  3. An XMM-Newton study of the hard X-ray sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piconcelli, E.; Cappi, M.; Bassani, L.; Di Cocco, G.; Dadina, M.

    2003-12-01

    We report on the spectral properties of a sample of 90 hard X-ray selected serendipitous sources detected in 12 XMM-Newton observations with 1 law modified by Galactic absorption offers an acceptable fit to ~ 65% of the source spectra. This fit yields an average photon index of ≈ 1.55 over the whole sample. We also find that the mean slope of the QSOs in our sample turns out to remain nearly constant ( (≈ 1.8-1.9) between 0 1022 cm-2) is ~ 30%, with little evolution in the range 2 <≈ F2-10˜< 80 x 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1. Interestingly, this value is a factor ~ 2 lower than predicted by the synthesis models of the CXB. This finding, detected for the first time in this survey, therefore suggests that most of the heavily obscured objects which make up the bulk of the CXB will be found at lower fluxes (F2-10< 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1). This mismatch together with other recent observational evidences which contrast with CXB model predictions suggest that one (or more) of the assumptions usually included in these models need to be revised.

  4. Supernova remnants in M33: X-ray properties as observed by XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofali, Kristen; Williams, Benjamin F.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Wold, Brian; Haberl, Frank; Long, Knox S.; Blair, William P.; Pannuti, Thomas G.; Winkler, P. Frank; Gross, Jacob

    2017-11-01

    We have carried out a study of the X-ray properties of the supernova remnant (SNR) population in M33 with XMM-Newton, comprising deep observations of eight fields in M33 covering all of the area within the D25 contours, and with a typical luminosity of 7.1 × 1034 erg s-1 (0.2-2.0 keV). Here, we report our work to characterize the X-ray properties of the previously identified SNRs in M33, as well as our search for new X-ray detected SNRs. With our deep observations and large field of view we have detected 105 SNRs at the 3σ level, of which 54 SNRs are newly detected in X-rays, and three are newly discovered SNRs. Combining XMM-Newton data with deep Chandra survey data allows detailed spectral fitting of 15 SNRs, for which we have measured temperatures, ionization time-scales and individual abundances. This large sample of SNRs allows us to construct an X-ray luminosity function, and compare its shape to luminosity functions from host galaxies of differing metallicities and star formation rates to look for environmental effects on SNR properties. We conclude that while metallicity may play a role in SNR population characteristics, differing star formation histories on short time-scales, and small-scale environmental effects appear to cause more significant differences between X-ray luminosity distributions. In addition, we analyse the X-ray detectability of SNRs, and find that in M33 SNRs with higher [S II]/H α ratios, as well as those with smaller galactocentric distances, are more detectable in X-rays.

  5. XMM-Newton detects X-ray 'solar cycle' in distant star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    The Sun as observed by SOHO hi-res Size hi-res: 708 Kb The Sun as observed by SOHO The Sun as observed by the ESA/NASA SOHO observatory near the minimum of the solar cycle (left) and near its maximum (right). The signs of solar activity near the maximum are clearly seen. New XMM-Newton observations suggest that this behaviour may be typical of stars like the Sun, such as HD 81809 in the constellation Hydra. Solar flare - 4 November 2003 The huge flare produced on 4 November 2003 This image of the Sun, obtained by the ESA/NASA SOHO observatory, shows the powerful X-ray flare that took place on 4 November 2003. The associated coronal mass ejection, coming out of the Sun at a speed of 8.2 million kilometres per hour, hit the Earth several hours later and caused disruptions to telecommunication and power distribution lines. New XMM-Newton observations suggest that this behaviour may be typical of stars like the Sun, such as HD 81809 in the constellation Hydra. Since the time Galileo discovered sunspots, in 1610, astronomers have measured their number, size and location on the disc of the Sun. Sunspots are relatively cooler areas on the Sun that are observed as dark patches. Their number rises and falls with the level of activity of the Sun in a cycle of about 11 years. When the Sun is very active, large-scale phenomena take place, such as the flares and coronal mass ejections observed by the ESA/NASA solar observatory SOHO. These events release a large amount of energy and charged particles that hit the Earth and can cause powerful magnetic storms, affecting radio communications, power distribution lines and even our weather and climate. During the solar cycle, the X-ray emission from the Sun varies by a large amount (about a factor of 100) and is strongest when the cycle is at its peak and the surface of the Sun is covered by the largest number of spots. ESA's X-ray observatory, XMM-Newton, has now shown for the first time that this cyclic X-ray behaviour is common to

  6. Modelling of X-ray emission supernova remnants observed by the European satellite XMM-Newton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassam-Chenai, G.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis deals with the X-ray emission of supernova remnants (SNRs) observed by the European satellite XMM-Newton. In SNRs, the matter heated to millions of degrees shines brightly in X-rays. This emission depends on the hydrodynamical evolution of the SNR, on the chemical composition of the ejected matter and on the ambient medium. Moreover, the blast-wave is considered to be the prime site of the production and the acceleration of cosmic-rays in our Galaxy. XMM-Newton is one of the first to allow the investigation of these different aspects thanks to its spatially-resolved spectroscopy and its very good sensitivity. l first studied Kepler's SNR (SN 1604) whose X-ray emission is dominated by the ejecta. Its observation has allowed to obtain information on the nucleosynthesis products, on their spatial distribution and on the temperature structure in the shocked ejecta. This gives strong constraints on the physics of the explosion and on the progenitor's type. l have shown also that the X-ray emission at the shock is likely to be non-thermal. Then, l studied the SNR G347.3-0.5 whose X-ray emission is entirely due to the synchrotron radiation of relativistic (TeV) electrons accelerated at the shock. From five pointing, l made a full mapping of the X-ray emission characteristics (brightness, absorption and spectral index) at small scale. Combined to radio observations, these results have indicated a clear interaction between the SNR and molecular clouds located at 1 kpc and not at 6 kpc as previously estimated. Lastly, in the framework of a self-similar hydrodynamical model coupled with non-linear particle acceleration, l have obtained the synchrotron emission profile in SNRs, including the adiabatic and radiative losses of the accelerated electrons. (author) [fr

  7. XMM-Newton X-ray Observatory Guest Observer program (AO-1) at CASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Stephen L.

    2003-01-01

    In this research program, we obtained and analyzed X-ray observations of the Wolf-Rayet (WR) star WR 110 (HD 165688) using the XMM-Newton space-based observatory. Radio observations were also obtained using the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope located in New Mexico and operated by the Natl. Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). This star was targeted for observations primarily because it is believed to be a single WR star without a companion. Single WR stars are thought to emit X-rays from cool plasma in shocks distributed throughout their powerful stellar winds. However, there has been little observational work done to test this idea since single WR stars are relatively weak X-ray sources and have been difficult to detect with previous generation telescopes. The launch of XMM-Newton provides a new telescope that is much more sensitive than its predecessors, allowing single WR stars to be studied in detail for the first time. X-ray emission was clearly detected from WR 110. Analysis of its spectrum yields a surprising result. Its X-ray emitting plasma is distributed over a range of temperatures and is dominated by relatively cool plasma with a characteristic temperature T is approximately 6 million K. Such plasma can be explained by existing theoretical wind shock models. However, the spectrum also shows hotter plasma whose temperature is uncertain but is thought to be in excess of T approximately 30 million K. The origin of this hotter plasma is yet unknown, but possible mechanisms are identified

  8. THE XMM-NEWTON/EPIC X-RAY LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS OF WR 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignace, R.; Gayley, K. G.; Hamann, W.-R.; Oskinova, L. M.; Huenemoerder, D. P.; Pollock, A. M. T.; McFall, M.

    2013-01-01

    We obtained four pointings of over 100 ks each of the well-studied Wolf-Rayet star WR 6 with the XMM-Newton satellite. With a first paper emphasizing the results of spectral analysis, this follow-up highlights the X-ray variability clearly detected in all four pointings. However, phased light curves fail to confirm obvious cyclic behavior on the well-established 3.766 day period widely found at longer wavelengths. The data are of such quality that we were able to conduct a search for event clustering in the arrival times of X-ray photons. However, we fail to detect any such clustering. One possibility is that X-rays are generated in a stationary shock structure. In this context we favor a corotating interaction region (CIR) and present a phenomenological model for X-rays from a CIR structure. We show that a CIR has the potential to account simultaneously for the X-ray variability and constraints provided by the spectral analysis. Ultimately, the viability of the CIR model will require both intermittent long-term X-ray monitoring of WR 6 and better physical models of CIR X-ray production at large radii in stellar winds

  9. THE XMM-NEWTON/EPIC X-RAY LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS OF WR 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignace, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37663 (United States); Gayley, K. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52245 (United States); Hamann, W.-R.; Oskinova, L. M. [Institute for Physics and Astronomy, University Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Huenemoerder, D. P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 70 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Pollock, A. M. T. [European Space Agency XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, Apartado 78, Villanueva de la Cañada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); McFall, M., E-mail: ignace@etsu.edu [Department of Physics, 191 W. Woodruff Avenue, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We obtained four pointings of over 100 ks each of the well-studied Wolf-Rayet star WR 6 with the XMM-Newton satellite. With a first paper emphasizing the results of spectral analysis, this follow-up highlights the X-ray variability clearly detected in all four pointings. However, phased light curves fail to confirm obvious cyclic behavior on the well-established 3.766 day period widely found at longer wavelengths. The data are of such quality that we were able to conduct a search for event clustering in the arrival times of X-ray photons. However, we fail to detect any such clustering. One possibility is that X-rays are generated in a stationary shock structure. In this context we favor a corotating interaction region (CIR) and present a phenomenological model for X-rays from a CIR structure. We show that a CIR has the potential to account simultaneously for the X-ray variability and constraints provided by the spectral analysis. Ultimately, the viability of the CIR model will require both intermittent long-term X-ray monitoring of WR 6 and better physical models of CIR X-ray production at large radii in stellar winds.

  10. Ultraviolet and X-ray variability of NGC 4051 over 45 days with XMM-Newton and Swift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alston, W.N.; Vaughan, S.; Uttley, P.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse 15 XMM-Newton observations of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4051 obtained over 45 d to determine the ultraviolet (UV) light curve variability characteristics and search for correlated UV/X-ray emission. The UV light curve shows variability on all time-scales, however with lower fractional rms

  11. LONG-TERM X-RAY VARIABILITY STUDY OF IC342 FROM XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, Daisy S. Y.; Pun, Chun S. J.; Kong, Albert K. H.

    2011-01-01

    We presented the results of an analysis of four XMM-Newton observations of the starburst galaxy IC342 taken over a four-year span from 2001 to 2005, with an emphasis on investigating the long-term flux and spectral variability of the X-ray point sources. We detected a total of 61 X-ray sources within 35' x 30' of the galaxy down to a luminosity of (1-2) x 10 37 erg s -1 depending on the local background. We found that 39 of the 61 detected sources showed long-term variability, in which 26 of them were classified as X-ray transients. We also found 19 sources exhibiting variations in hardness ratios or undergoing spectral transitions among observations, and were identified as spectral variables. In particular, eight of the identified X-ray transients showed spectral variability in addition to flux variability. The diverse patterns of variability observed are indicative of a population of X-ray binaries. We used X-ray colors, flux and spectral variability, and in some cases the optical or radio counterparts to classify the detected X-ray sources into several stellar populations. We identified a total of 11 foreground stars, 1 supersoft source (SSS), 3 quasisoft sources (QSSs), and 2 supernova remnants (SNRs). The identified SSS/QSSs are located near or on the spiral arms, associated with young stellar populations; the 2 SNRs are very close to the starburst nucleus where current star formation activities are dominated. We also discovered a spectral change in the nuclear source of IC342 for the first time by a series of X-ray spectrum analysis.

  12. A hard X-ray study of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5204 X-1 with NuSTAR and XMM-Newton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukherjee, E. S.; Walton, D. J.; Bachetti, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results from coordinated X-ray observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5204 X-1 performed by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array and XMM-Newton in early 2013. These observations provide the first detection of NGC 5204 X-1 above 10 keV, extending the broadband cover...

  13. Broadband X-ray spectra of the ultraluminous x-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 observed with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Grefenstette, B. W.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from the coordinated broadband X-ray observations of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 performed by NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku in late 2012. These observations provide the first high-quality spectra of Holmberg IX X-1 above 10 keV to date, extending the...

  14. A Spectral Analysis of the X-Ray Pulsar 4U 1907+09 obtained at thePeriastron Passage with the XMM-Newton Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balman, Solen; Mendez, Mariano; Diaz Trigo, Maria; Inam, Cagdas; Baykal, Altan

    2010-01-01

    We present results from a 20 ksec observation of the wind-accreting X-ray pulsar 4U 1907+09 obtained using the XMM-Newton Observatory at the periastron passage. The XMM-Newton spectrum allows us to study the continuum emission and the emission line at 6.4 keV with the high sensitivity and

  15. XMM-Newton 13H deep field - I. X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaring, N. S.; Dwelly, T.; Page, M. J.; Mason, K.; McHardy, I.; Gunn, K.; Moss, D.; Seymour, N.; Newsam, A. M.; Takata, T.; Sekguchi, K.; Sasseen, T.; Cordova, F.

    2005-10-01

    We present the results of a deep X-ray survey conducted with XMM-Newton, centred on the UK ROSAT13H deep field area. This region covers 0.18 deg2, and is the first of the two areas covered with XMM-Newton as part of an extensive multiwavelength survey designed to study the nature and evolution of the faint X-ray source population. We have produced detailed Monte Carlo simulations to obtain a quantitative characterization of the source detection procedure and to assess the reliability of the resultant sourcelist. We use the simulations to establish a likelihood threshold, above which we expect less than seven (3 per cent) of our sources to be spurious. We present the final catalogue of 225 sources. Within the central 9 arcmin, 68 per cent of source positions are accurate to 2 arcsec, making optical follow-up relatively straightforward. We construct the N(>S) relation in four energy bands: 0.2-0.5, 0.5-2, 2-5 and 5-10 keV. In all but our highest energy band we find that the source counts can be represented by a double power law with a bright-end slope consistent with the Euclidean case and a break around 10-14yergcm-2s-1. Below this flux, the counts exhibit a flattening. Our source counts reach densities of 700, 1300, 900 and 300 deg-2 at fluxes of 4.1 × 10-16,4.5 × 10-16,1.1 × 10-15 and 5.3 × 10-15ergcm-2s-1 in the 0.2-0.5, 0.5-2, 2-5 and 5-10 keV energy bands, respectively. We have compared our source counts with those in the two Chandra deep fields and Lockman hole, and found our source counts to be amongst the highest of these fields in all energy bands. We resolve >51 per cent (>50 per cent) of the X-ray background emission in the 1-2 keV (2-5 keV) energy bands.

  16. X-ray spectroscopy of the mixed morphology supernova remnant W 28 with XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryoko; Bamba, Aya; Ishida, Manabu; Yamazaki, Ryo; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Kohri, Kazunori; Pühlhofer, Gerd; Wagner, Stefan J.; Sawada, Makoto

    2014-06-01

    We report on spatially resolved X-ray spectroscopy of the north-eastern part of the mixed morphology supernova remnant (SNR) W 28 with XMM-Newton. The observed field of view includes a prominent and twisted shell emission forming the edge of this SNR as well as part of the center-filled X-ray emission brightening toward the south-west edge of the field of view. The shell region spectra are in general represented by an optically thin thermal plasma emission in collisional ionization equilibrium with a temperature of ˜ 0.3 keV and a density of ˜ 10 cm-3, which is much higher than the density obtained for inner parts. In contrast, we detected no significant X-ray flux from one of the TeV γ-ray peaks with an upper-limit flux of 2.1 × 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 2-10 keV band. The large flux ratio of TeV to X-ray, larger than 16, and the spatial coincidence of the molecular cloud and the TeV γ-ray emission site indicate that the TeV γ-ray of W 28 is π0-decay emission originating from collisions between accelerated protons and molecular cloud protons. Comparing the spectrum in the TeV band and the X-ray upper limit, we obtained a weak upper limit on the magnetic field strength B ≲ 1500 μG.

  17. Exospheric Neutral Density at the Earth's subsolar magnetopause deduced from the XMM-Newton X-ray observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, H. K.; Carter, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Soft X-rays can be emitted when highly charged solar wind ions and exospheric neutrals exchange electrons. Astrophysics missions, such as XMM-Newton and ROSAT X-ray telescopes, have found that such solar wind charge exchange happens at the Earth's exosphere. The Earth's magnetosphere can be imaged via soft X-rays in order to understand its interaction with solar wind. Consequently, two soft X-ray telescope missions (CuPID and SMILE) are scheduled to launch in 2019 and 2021. They will provide wide field-of-view soft X-ray images of the Earth's dayside magnetosphere. The imagers will track the location and movement of the cusps, magnetopause, and bow shock in response to solar wind variations. To support these missions, an understanding of exospheric neutral density profile is needed. The neutral density is one of the controlling factors of soft X-ray signals. Strong neutral density can help to obtain high-resolution and high-cadence of soft X-ray images. In this study, we estimate the exospheric neutral density at 10 RE subsolar point using XMM X-ray observations, Cluster plasma observations, and OpenGGCM global magnetosphere - ionosphere MHD model. XMM-Newton observes line-of-sight, narrow field-of-view, integrated soft X-ray emissions when it looks through the dayside magnetosphere. OpenGGCM reproduces soft X-ray signals seen by the XMM spacecraft, assuming exospheric neutral density as a function of the neutral density at the 10RE subsolar point and the radial distance. Cluster observations are used to confirm OpenGGCM plasma results. Finally, we deduce the neutral density at 10 RE subsolar point by adjusting the model results to the XMM-Newton soft X-ray observations.

  18. A year after lift-off, XMM-Newton is impressing the X-ray astronomy community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    XMM-Newton was launched from Kourou on 10 December 1999 on the first Ariane-5 commercial flight. After in-orbit commissioning of the spacecraft, and calibration and performance verification of its science instruments, the observatory entered its routine operations phase on 1 July. At the press conference, ESA's Director of Science Prof. Roger-Maurice Bonnet and XMM-Newton Project Scientist Fred Jansen will present some of the many scientific results from the first eight months of the mission. Also present will be two of Europe's foremost X-ray astronomers, Prof. Johan Bleeker of the Space Research Organisation of the Netherlands, and Prof. Guenther Hasinger of the Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam, Germany. Amongst the topics to be illustrated with some remarkably vivid "colour" images of the X-ray Universe, will be XMM-Newton's first examination of a cataclysmic binary star, its first insights into some enigmatic black hole systems, analysis of the morphology of a few supernovae remnants, and evidence it has collected to end the long-standing mystery over X-ray cosmic background emission... The press conference will also recap on the spacecraft's operations, the performance of its science instruments, the issue of radiation constraints and future aspects of the mission. Media representatives wishing to attend the press event are kindly invited to complete the attached reply form and fax it back to ESA Media Relations Office +33(0)1.53.69.7690. Note to editors XMM-Newton is ESA's second Cornerstone Mission of the Horizon 2000 programme. The spacecraft was built by a European consortium of companies led by Astrium (formerly Dornier Satellitensysteme), Friedrichshafen, Germany. Its X-ray imaging and spectrographic instruments (EPIC and RGS) and its optical telescope (OM) were provided by large consortia, whose principal investigators are from, respectively, the University of Leicester, UK, SRON University of Utrecht Netherlands, and the Mullard Space Science

  19. THE XMM-Newton and integral observations of the Supergiant Fast X-Ray Transient IGR J16328-4726

    OpenAIRE

    Fiocchi, M.; Bazzano, A.; Natalucci, L.; Ubertini, P.; Sguera, V.; Bird, A. J.; Boon, C.M.; Persi, P.; Piro, L.

    2016-01-01

    The accretion mechanism producing the short flares observed from the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXT) is still highly debated and forms a major part in our attempts to place these X-ray binaries in the wider context of the High Mass X-ray Binaries. We report on a 216 ks INTEGRAL observation of the SFXT IGR J16328-4726 (2014 August 24–27) simultaneous with two fixed-time observations with XMM-Newton (33 and 20 ks) performed around the putative periastron passage, in order to investigate...

  20. Investigating the origin of X-ray variability through XMM-Newton and WISE data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaino, A.; Vignali, C.; Severgnini, P.; Della Ceca, R.; Ballo, L.

    2017-10-01

    An efficient diagnostic method to find local (zmaster thesis work, in which I tested the stability of the method outlined above using the latest 3XMM and WISE data, and I investigated its potentialities in finding interesting spectrally variable (including changing-look) XMM-Newton sources.

  1. NUSTAR and Xmm-Newton Observations of the Extreme Ultraluminous X-Ray Source NGC 5907 UlX1: A Vanishing Act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Bachetti, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present results obtained from two broadband X-ray observations of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5907 ULX1, known to have a peak X-ray luminosity of ~5 × 1040 erg s–1. These XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations, separated by only ~4 days, revealed an extreme level of short-term...

  2. Contributions of the "Great" X-Ray Observatories (XMM-Newton and Chandra) to Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Martin

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Chandra X-ray Observatory and ESA s XMM-Newton made their first observations over a decade ago. The unprecedented and complementary capabilities of these observatories to detect, image, and measure the energy of cosmic X-rays, achieved less than 50 years after the first detection of an extra-solar X-ray source, represent an increase in sensitivity comparable in going from naked-eye observations to the most powerful optical telescopes over the past 400 years. In this presentation we highlight some of the many discoveries made using these powerful X-ray observatories that have transformed 21st century astronomy. We briefly discuss future prospects for this truly exciting field.

  3. Comparative Analysis and Variability of the Jovian X-Ray Spectra Detected by the Chandra and XMM-Newton Observatories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, Yawei [ORNL; Schultz, David Robert [ORNL; Kharchenko, Vasili A [ORNL; Bhardwaj, Anil [Vikram Sarabhai Space Center, Trivandrum, India; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella [University College, London; Stancil, Phillip C. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Cravens, Thomas E. E. [University of Kansas; Lisse, Carey M. [Johns Hopkins University; Dalgarno, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

    2010-01-01

    Expanding upon recent work, a more comprehensive spectral model based on charge exchange induced X-ray emission by ions precipitating into the Jovian atmosphere is used to provide new understanding of the polar auroras. In conjunction with the Xspec spectral fitting software, the model is applied to analyze observations from both Chandra and XMM-Newton by systematically varying the initial precipitating ion parameters to obtain the best fit model for the observed spectra. In addition to the oxygen and sulfur ions considered previously, carbon is included to discriminate between solar wind and Jovian magnetospheric ion origins, enabled by the use of extensive databases of both atomic collision cross sections and radiative transitions. On the basis of fits to all the Chandra observations, we find that carbon contributes negligibly to the observed polar X-ray emission suggesting that the highly accelerated precipitating ions are of magnetospheric origin. Most of the XMM-Newton fits also favor this conclusion with one exception that implies a possible carbon contribution. Comparison among all the spectra from these two observatories in light of the inferred initial energies and relative abundances of precipitating ions from the modeling show that they are significantly variable in time (observation date) and space (north and south polar X-ray auroras).

  4. AN XMM-NEWTON SURVEY OF THE SOFT X-RAY BACKGROUND. III. THE GALACTIC HALO X-RAY EMISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.

    2013-01-01

    We present measurements of the Galactic halo's X-ray emission for 110 XMM-Newton sight lines selected to minimize contamination from solar wind charge exchange emission. We detect emission from few million degree gas on ∼4/5 of our sight lines. The temperature is fairly uniform (median = 2.22 × 10 6 K, interquartile range = 0.63 × 10 6 K), while the emission measure and intrinsic 0.5-2.0 keV surface brightness vary by over an order of magnitude (∼(0.4-7) × 10 –3 cm –6 pc and ∼(0.5-7) × 10 –12 erg cm –2 s –1 deg –2 , respectively, with median detections of 1.9 × 10 –3 cm –6 pc and 1.5 × 10 –12 erg cm –2 s –1 deg –2 , respectively). The high-latitude sky contains a patchy distribution of few million degree gas. This gas exhibits a general increase in emission measure toward the inner Galaxy in the southern Galactic hemisphere. However, there is no tendency for our observed emission measures to decrease with increasing Galactic latitude, contrary to what is expected for a disk-like halo morphology. The measured temperatures, brightnesses, and spatial distributions of the gas can be used to place constraints on models for the dominant heating sources of the halo. We provide some discussion of such heating sources, but defer comparisons between the observations and detailed models to a later paper

  5. The soft-X-ray emission of Ark 120. XMM-Newton, NuSTAR, and the importance of taking the broad view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matt, G.; Marinucci, A.; Guainazzi, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present simultaneous XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations of the 'bare' Seyfert 1 galaxy, Ark 120, a system in which ionized absorption is absent. The NuSTAR hard-X-ray spectral coverage allows us to constrain different models for the excess soft-X-ray emission. Among phenomenological models, a ...

  6. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton Observations of the Hard X-Ray Spectrum of Centaurus A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, F.; Müller, C.; Madsen, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    with an absorbed power-law witha photon index Γ = 1.815 ± 0.005 and a fluorescent Fe Kα line in good agreement with literature values.The spectrum does not require a high-energy exponential rollover, with a constraint of Efold > 1 MeV. Athermal Comptonization continuum describes the data well, with parameters....... We use archival Chandra data to estimatethe contribution from diffuse emission, extra-nuclear point-sources, and the X-ray jet to the observed NuSTAR and XMM-Newton X-ray spectra and find the contribution to be negligible. We discuss different scenarios forthe physical origin of the observed X...

  7. XMM-NEWTON MEASUREMENT OF THE GALACTIC HALO X-RAY EMISSION USING A COMPACT SHADOWING CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.; Cumbee, Renata S.; Stancil, Phillip C.

    2015-01-01

    Observations of interstellar clouds that cast shadows in the soft X-ray background can be used to separate the background Galactic halo emission from the local emission due to solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) and/or the Local Bubble (LB). We present an XMM-Newton observation of a shadowing cloud, G225.60–66.40, that is sufficiently compact that the on- and off-shadow spectra can be extracted from a single field of view (unlike previous shadowing observations of the halo with CCD-resolution spectrometers, which consisted of separate on- and off-shadow pointings). We analyzed the spectra using a variety of foreground models: one representing LB emission, and two representing SWCX emission. We found that the resulting halo model parameters (temperature T h ≈ 2 × 10 6 K, emission measure E h ≈4×10 −3  cm −6  pc) were not sensitive to the foreground model used. This is likely due to the relative faintness of the foreground emission in this observation. However, the data do favor the existence of a foreground. The halo parameters derived from this observation are in good agreement with those from previous shadowing observations, and from an XMM-Newton survey of the Galactic halo emission. This supports the conclusion that the latter results are not subject to systematic errors, and can confidently be used to test models of the halo emission

  8. CHANDRA AND XMM-NEWTON X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE HYPERACTIVE T TAURI STAR RY TAU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Stephen L. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy (CASA), Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States); Audard, Marc [Dept. of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Ch. d’Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Güdel, Manuel, E-mail: stephen.skinner@colorado.edu, E-mail: marc.audard@unige.ch, E-mail: manuel.guedel@univie.ac.at [Dept. of Astrophysics, Univ. of Vienna, Türkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-07-20

    We present results of pointed X-ray observations of the accreting jet-driving T Tauri star RY Tau using Chandra and XMM-Newton . We obtained high-resolution grating spectra and excellent-quality CCD spectra and light curves with the objective of identifying the physical mechanisms underlying RY Tau’s bright X-ray emission. Grating spectra reveal numerous emission lines spanning a broad range of temperature superimposed on a hot continuum. The X-ray emission measure distribution is dominated by very hot plasma at T {sub hot} ∼ 50 MK, but higher temperatures were present during flares. A weaker cool plasma component is also present as revealed by low-temperature lines such as O viii. X-ray light curves show complex variability consisting of short-duration (∼hours) superhot flares accompanied by fluorescent Fe emission at 6.4 keV superimposed on a slowly varying (∼one day) component that may be tied to stellar rotation. The hot flaring component is undoubtedly of magnetic (e.g., coronal) origin. Soft- and hard-band light curves undergo similar slow variability implying that at least some of the cool plasma shares a common magnetic origin with the hot plasma. Any contribution to the X-ray emission from cool shocked plasma is small compared to the dominant hot component but production of individual low-temperature lines such as O viii in an accretion shock is not ruled out.

  9. XMM-Newton and Swift spectroscopy of the newly discovered very faint X-ray transient IGR J17494-3030

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.; Wijnands, R.; Degenaar, N.

    2013-01-01

    A growing group of low-mass X-ray binaries are found to be accreting at very faint X-ray luminosities of <1036 erg s−1 (2-10 keV). One such system is the new X-ray transient IGR J17494-3030. We present Swift and XMM-Newton observations obtained during its 2012 discovery outburst. The Swift

  10. Analysis of Quasi-periodic Oscillations and Time Lag in Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources with XMM-Newton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zi-Jian; Xiao, Guang-Cheng; Zhang, Shu; Ma, Xiang; Yan, Lin-Li; Qu, Jin-Lu [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Li; Bu, Qing-Cui; Zhang, Liang, E-mail: lizijian@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: qujl@ihep.ac.cn [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2017-04-10

    We investigated the power density spectrum (PDS) and time lag of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) observed by XMM-Newton . We determined the PDSs for each ULX and found that five of them show intrinsic variability due to obvious quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of mHz–1 Hz, consistent with previous reports. We further investigated these five ULXs to determine their possible time lag. The ULX QPOs exhibit a soft time lag that is linearly related to the QPO frequency. We discuss the likelihood of the ULX QPOs being type-C QPO analogs, and the time lag models. The ULXs might harbor intermediate-mass black holes if their QPOs are type-C QPO analogs. We suggest that the soft lag and the linearity may be due to reverberation.

  11. XMM-Newton Spectroscopy of the Accretion-driven Millisecond X-Ray Pulsar XTE J1751-305 in Outburst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, J. M.; Wijnands, R.; Méndez, M.; Kendziorra, E.; Tiengo, A.; van der Klis, M.; Chakrabarty, D.; Gaensler, B. M.; Lewin, W. H. G.

    2003-01-01

    We present an analysis of the first high-resolution spectra measured from an accretion-driven millisecond X-ray pulsar in outburst. We observed XTE J1751-305 with XMM-Newton on 2002 April 7 for approximately 35 ks. Using a simple absorbed blackbody plus power-law model, we measure an unabsorbed flux

  12. INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton observations of the low-luminosity and X-ray-rich burst GRB 040223

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGlynn, S.; Hanlon, L.; Foley, S. [College Univ., Dublin (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Department of Experimental Physics; McBreen, S. [ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands). Astrophysics Mission Division, RSSD of ESA; Moran, L. [Southampton Univ., Southampton (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Preece, R. [Alabama Univ., Huntsville (United States); Kienlin, A. von [Max-Planck-Institut fur extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Williams, O.R. [SCI-SDG, Noordwijk (Netherlands). Science Operation and Data Systems Division of ESA-ESTEC

    2005-07-15

    GRB 040223 was observed by INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton. GRB 040223 has a peak flux of (1.6{+-}0.13) x 10{sup -8} ergs cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, a fluence of (4.4{+-}0.4) x 10{sup -7} ergs cm{sup -2} and a steep photon power law index of -2.3{+-}0.2, in the energy range 20-200 keV. The steep spectrum implies it is an X-ray-rich GRB with emission up to 200 keV and E{sub peak} < 20 keV. If E{sub peak} is < 10 keV, it would qualify as an X-ray flash with high-energy emission. The X-ray data has a spectral index {beta}{sub x} = -1.7{+-}0.2, a temporal decay of t{sup -0.75{+-}}{sup 0.25} and a large column density of 1.8 x 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}. The luminosity-lag relationship was used to obtain a redshift z 0.1{sub -0.02}{sup +0.04}. The isotropic energy radiated in {gamma}-rays and X-ray luminosity after 10 hours are factors of 1000 and 100 less than classical GRBs. GRB 040223 is consistent with the extrapolation of the Amati relation into the region that includes XRF 030723 and XRF 020903.

  13. NuSTAR, XMM-Newton and Suzaku Observations of the Ultraluminous X-Ray Source Holmberg II X-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, D. J.; Middleton, M. J.; Rana, V.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first broadband 0.3-25.0 keV X-ray observations of the bright ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) Holmberg II X-1, performed by NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku in 2013 September. The NuSTAR data provide the first observations of Holmberg II X-1 above 10 keV and reveal a very steep high...

  14. Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the low-luminosity X-ray pulsators SAX J1324.4−6200 and SAX J1452.8−5949

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaur, R.; Wijnands, R.; Patruno, A.; Testa, V.; Israel, G.; Degenaar, N.; Paul, B.; Kumar, B.

    2009-01-01

    We present results from our Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of two low-luminosity X-ray pulsators SAX J1324.4-6200 and SAX J1452.8-5949 which have spin periods of 172 and 437 s, respectively. The XMM-Newton spectra for both sources can be fitted well with a simple power-law model of photon

  15. XMM-Newton and NuSTAR Simultaneous X-Ray Observations of IGR J11215-5952

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidoli, L.; Tiengo, A.; Paizis, A.; Sguera, V.; Lotti, S.; Natalucci, L.

    2017-01-01

    We report the results of an XMM - Newton and NuSTAR coordinated observation of the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient (SFXT) IGR J11215–5952, performed on 2016 February 14, during the expected peak of its brief outburst, which repeats every ∼165 days. Timing and spectral analysis were performed simultaneously in the energy band 0.4–78 keV. A spin period of 187.0 (±0.4) s was measured, consistent with previous observations performed in 2007. The X-ray intensity shows a large variability (more than one order of magnitude) on timescales longer than the spin period, with several luminous X-ray flares that repeat every 2–2.5 ks, some of which simultaneously observed by both satellites. The broadband (0.4–78 keV) time-averaged spectrum was well deconvolved with a double-component model (a blackbody plus a power law with a high energy cutoff) together with a weak iron line in emission at 6.4 keV (equivalent width, EW, of 40 ± 10 eV). Alternatively, a partial covering model also resulted in an adequate description of the data. The source time-averaged X-ray luminosity was 10 36 erg s −1 (0.1–100 keV; assuming 7 kpc). We discuss the results of these observations in the framework of the different models proposed to explain SFXTs, supporting a quasi-spherical settling accretion regime, although alternative possibilities (e.g., centrifugal barrier) cannot be ruled out.

  16. XMM-Newton and NuSTAR Simultaneous X-Ray Observations of IGR J11215-5952

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidoli, L.; Tiengo, A.; Paizis, A. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Sguera, V. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Lotti, S.; Natalucci, L., E-mail: sidoli@iasf-milano.inaf.it [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy)

    2017-04-01

    We report the results of an XMM - Newton and NuSTAR coordinated observation of the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient (SFXT) IGR J11215–5952, performed on 2016 February 14, during the expected peak of its brief outburst, which repeats every ∼165 days. Timing and spectral analysis were performed simultaneously in the energy band 0.4–78 keV. A spin period of 187.0 (±0.4) s was measured, consistent with previous observations performed in 2007. The X-ray intensity shows a large variability (more than one order of magnitude) on timescales longer than the spin period, with several luminous X-ray flares that repeat every 2–2.5 ks, some of which simultaneously observed by both satellites. The broadband (0.4–78 keV) time-averaged spectrum was well deconvolved with a double-component model (a blackbody plus a power law with a high energy cutoff) together with a weak iron line in emission at 6.4 keV (equivalent width, EW, of 40 ± 10 eV). Alternatively, a partial covering model also resulted in an adequate description of the data. The source time-averaged X-ray luminosity was 10{sup 36} erg s{sup −1} (0.1–100 keV; assuming 7 kpc). We discuss the results of these observations in the framework of the different models proposed to explain SFXTs, supporting a quasi-spherical settling accretion regime, although alternative possibilities (e.g., centrifugal barrier) cannot be ruled out.

  17. A SEARCH FOR HYPERLUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES IN THE XMM-NEWTON SOURCE CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolotukhin, I.; Webb, N. A.; Godet, O.; Barret, D. [CNRS, IRAP, 9 av. Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Bachetti, M., E-mail: ivan.zolotukhin@irap.omp.eu [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, via della Scienza 5, I-09047 Selargius (Italy)

    2016-02-01

    We present a new method to identify luminous off-nuclear X-ray sources in the outskirts of galaxies from large public redshift surveys, distinguishing them from foreground and background interlopers. Using the 3XMM-DR5 catalog of X-ray sources and the SDSS DR12 spectroscopic sample of galaxies, with the help of this off-nuclear cross-matching technique, we selected 98 sources with inferred X-ray luminosities in the range 10{sup 41} < L{sub X} < 10{sup 44} erg s{sup −1}, compatible with hyperluminous X-ray objects (HLX). To validate the method, we verify that it allowed us to recover known HLX candidates such as ESO 243–49 HLX–1 and M82 X–1. From a statistical study, we conservatively estimate that up to 71 ± 11 of these sources may be foreground- or background sources, statistically leaving at least 16 that are likely to be HLXs, thus providing support for the existence of the HLX population. We identify two good HLX candidates and using other publicly available data sets, in particular the VLA FIRST in radio, UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey in the near-infrared, GALEX in the ultraviolet and Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Megacam archive in the optical, we present evidence that these objects are unlikely to be foreground or background X-ray objects of conventional types, e.g., active galactic nuclei, BL Lac objects, Galactic X-ray binaries, or nearby stars. However, additional dedicated X-ray and optical observations are needed to confirm their association with the assumed host galaxies and thus secure their HLX classification.

  18. Observations of the transient X-ray pulsar EXO 053109-6609.2 with ASCA, BeppoSAX and XMM-Newton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, S.; Paul, B.; Agrawal, P.C.; Jaaffery, S.N.A.

    2004-01-01

    We report timing and spectral properties of the transient X-ray pulsar EXO 053109-6609.2 using observations carried out with ASCA, BeppoSAX, and XMM-Newton observatories. Pulse period measurements of the source show a monotonic spin-up trend since 1996. The pulse profile is found to have a strong luminosity dependence, a single peaked profile at low luminosity that changes to a double peaked profile at high luminosity. The X-ray spectrum is described by a simple power-law model with photon index in the range of 0.2-0.8. A soft excess over the power-law continuum is also detected from XMM-Newton observation

  19. XMM-Newton X-ray observations of γ2 Velorum (WC8 + O7.5III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raassen, A.J.J.; Mewe, R.; Hucht, K.A. van der; Schmutz, W.; Schild, H.; Dumm, T.; Guedel, M.; Audard, M.; Leutenegger, M.A.; Skinner, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    The spectrum of the binary system γ 2 Velorum (WC8 + O7.5III) has been observed with RGS and EPIC-MOS aboard XMM-Newton. The system shows a 'high state' when the O-star is between the Wolf-Rayet star and the observer (near periastron) and a 'low state' when most of the spectrum is absorbed by the dense stellar wind of the Wolf-Rayet star (near apastron). The spectrum has been model-led by a 4-T plasma, using SPEX. The absorption affects the hot temperature component (kT = 1.5 keV) that is formed by the collision of the Wolf-Rayet wind and the O-star wind, and the second hot component (kT 0.65 keV) for which the origin is still unclear. Part of the spectrum is not sensitive to the absorption by the stellar wind. This concerns a low-temperature component (kT = 0.23 keV) and features that are produced by plasma that has been photoionized by X-ray radiation from the hot component. In the RGS spectrum features of Radiative Recombination Continua (RRC) of C VI and C V of this photoionized plasma are detected

  20. The ultraluminous x-ray sources ngc 1313 x-1 and x-2: a broadband study with NuSTAR and XMM-Newton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachetti, Matteo; Rana, Vikram; Walton, Dominic J.

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of the two ultraluminous X-ray sources: NGC 1313 X-1 and X-2. The combined spectral bandpass of the two satellites enables us to produce the first spectrum of X-1 between 0.3 and 30 keV, while X-2 is not significantly detected by NuSTAR...

  1. XMM-Newton view of X-ray overdensities from nearby galaxy clusters : the environmental dependencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caglar,; T.; Hudaverdi,; M.,

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we studied ten nearby (z≤0.038) galaxy clusters to understand possible interactions between hot plasma and member galaxies. A multi-band source detection was applied to detect point-like structures within the intra-cluster medium. We examined spectral properties of a total of 391 X-ray

  2. XMM-Newton Survey of Local O VII Absorption Lines in the Spectra of Galactic X-Ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yang; Fang, Taotao; Ma, Renyi

    2018-04-01

    The detection of highly ionized metal absorption lines in the X-ray spectra of the Galactic X-ray binaries (XRBs) implies the distribution of hot gas along the sightline toward the background sources. However, the origin of this hot gas is still unclear: it can arise in the hot interstellar medium (ISM), or is intrinsic to the XRBs. In this paper, we present an XMM-Newton survey of the O VII absorption lines in the spectra of Galactic XRBs. A total of 33 XRBs were selected, with 29 low-mass XRBs and 4 high-mass XRBs. At a more than 3σ threshold, O VII absorption line was detected in 16 targets, among which 4 were newly discovered in this work. The average line equivalent width is centered around ∼20 mÅ. Additionally, we do not find strong correlations between the O VII EWs and the Galactic neutral absorption N H, the Galactic coordinates, or the distance of background targets. Such non-correlation may suggest contamination of the circumstellar material, or a lack of constraints on the line Doppler-b parameter. We also find that regardless of the direction of the XRBs, the O VII absorption lines are always detected when the flux of the background XRBs reaches a certain level, suggesting a uniform distribution of this hot gas. We estimate a ratio of 0.004–0.4 between the hot and neutral phases of the ISM. This is the second paper in the series following Fang et al. (2015), in which we focused on the local O VII absorption lines detected in the background AGN spectra. Detailed modeling of the hot ISM distribution will be investigated in a future paper.

  3. A deep X-ray view of the bare AGN Ark120. IV. XMM-Newton and NuSTAR spectra dominated by two temperature (warm, hot) Comptonization processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porquet, D.; Reeves, J. N.; Matt, G.

    2018-01-01

    an extensive campaign observing Ark 120 in X-rays with XMM-Newton (4 × 120 ks, 2014 March 18–24), and NuSTAR (65.5 ks, 2014 March 22).Results. During this very deep X-ray campaign, the source was caught in a high-flux state similar to the earlier 2003 XMM-Newton observation, and about twice as bright...

  4. Observations of X-ray flares in G-K dwarfs by XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Jeewan Chandra

    Eclipsing binary BD +5 706 is best investigated member of rare class of cool Algols, which differ from clasical Algol systems in that the mass gaining component is also a late-type star. The analysis of X-ray lightcurve of this system registered by ROSAT suggested the primary component to be the dominant source of activity in the system (Torres et al, AJ 125, 3237, 2003). We reconstruct the spatial structure of coronal emission within the system according to the method proposed by Siarkowski, and show that coronal emission is most likely attributed to both components.

  5. A broadband X-ray study of the Geminga pulsar with NuSTAR And XMM-Newton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kaya; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Halpern, Jules P.; Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Hailey, Charles J.; Dufour, Francois; Kaspi, Victoria M.; An, Hongjun; Bachetti, Matteo; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the first hard X-ray detection of the Geminga pulsar above 10 keV using a 150 ks observation with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observatory. The double-peaked pulse profile of non-thermal emission seen in the soft X-ray band persists at higher energies. Broadband phase-integrated spectra over the 0.2-20 keV band with NuSTAR and archival XMM-Newton data do not fit to a conventional two-component model of a blackbody plus power law, but instead exhibit spectral hardening above ∼5 keV. We find that two spectral models fit the data well: (1) a blackbody (kT 1 ∼ 42 eV) with a broken power law (Γ 1 ∼ 2.0, Γ 2 ∼ 1.4 and E break ∼ 3.4 keV) and (2) two blackbody components (kT 1 ∼ 44 eV and kT 2 ∼ 195 eV) with a power-law component (Γ ∼ 1.7). In both cases, the extrapolation of the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the thermal component is consistent with the UV data, while the non-thermal component overpredicts the near-infrared data, requiring a spectral flattening at E ∼ 0.05-0.5 keV. While strong phase variation of the power-law index is present below ∼5 keV, our phase-resolved spectroscopy with NuSTAR indicates that another hard non-thermal component with Γ ∼ 1.3 emerges above ∼5 keV. The spectral hardening in non-thermal X-ray emission as well as spectral flattening between the optical and X-ray bands argue against the conjecture that a single power law may account for multi-wavelength non-thermal spectra of middle-aged pulsars.

  6. Star formation history of Canis Major OB1. II. A bimodal X-ray population revealed by XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, T.; Gregorio-Hetem, J.; Montmerle, T.; Fernandes, B.; Stelzer, B.

    2018-02-01

    Aims: The Canis Major OB1 Association has an intriguing scenario of star formation, especially in the region called Canis Major R1 (CMa R1) traditionally assigned to a reflection nebula, but in reality an ionized region. This work is focussed on the young stellar population associated with CMa R1, for which our previous results from ROSAT, optical, and near-infrared data had revealed two stellar groups with different ages, suggesting a possible mixing of populations originated from distinct star formation episodes. Methods: The X-ray data allow the detected sources to be characterized according to hardness ratios, light curves, and spectra. Estimates of mass and age were obtained from the 2MASS catalogue and used to define a complete subsample of stellar counterparts for statistical purposes. Results: A catalogue of 387 XMM-Newton sources is provided, of which 78% are confirmed as members or probable members of the CMa R1 association. Flares (or similar events) were observed for 13 sources and the spectra of 21 bright sources could be fitted by a thermal plasma model. Mean values of fits parameters were used to estimate X-ray luminosities. We found a minimum value of log(LX [erg/s] ) = 29.43, indicating that our sample of low-mass stars (M⋆ ≤ 0.5 M⊙), which are faint X-ray emitters, is incomplete. Among the 250 objects selected as our complete subsample (defining our "best sample"), 171 are found to the east of the cloud, near Z CMa and dense molecular gas, of which 50% of them are young (10 Myr). The opposite happens to the west, near GU CMa, in areas lacking molecular gas: among 79 objects, 30% are young and 50% are older. These findings confirm that a first episode of distributed star formation occurred in the whole studied region 10 Myr ago and dispersed the molecular gas, while a second, localized episode (<5 Myr) took place in the regions where molecular gas is still present.

  7. Broadband X-ray spectra of the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 observed with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Fuerst, F.; Madsen, K. K.; Rana, V.; Stern, D. [Space Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Miller, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Webb, N. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Fabian, A. C.; Parker, M. L. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Ptak, A.; Zhang, W. W., E-mail: dwalton@srl.caltech.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    We present results from the coordinated broadband X-ray observations of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 performed by NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku in late 2012. These observations provide the first high-quality spectra of Holmberg IX X-1 above 10 keV to date, extending the X-ray coverage of this remarkable source up to ∼30 keV. Broadband observations were undertaken at two epochs, between which Holmberg IX X-1 exhibited both flux and strong spectral variability, increasing in luminosity from L {sub X} = (1.90 ± 0.03) × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1} to L {sub X} = (3.35 ± 0.03) × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}. Neither epoch exhibits a spectrum consistent with emission from the standard low/hard accretion state seen in Galactic black hole binaries, which would have been expected if Holmberg IX X-1 harbors a truly massive black hole accreting at substantially sub-Eddington accretion rates. The NuSTAR data confirm that the curvature observed previously in the 3-10 keV bandpass does represent a true spectral cutoff. During each epoch, the spectrum appears to be dominated by two optically thick thermal components, likely associated with an accretion disk. The spectrum also shows some evidence for a nonthermal tail at the highest energies, which may further support this scenario. The available data allow for either of the two thermal components to dominate the spectral evolution, although both scenarios require highly nonstandard behavior for thermal accretion disk emission.

  8. NUSTAR AND XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATIONS OF THE EXTREME ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE NGC 5907 ULX1: A VANISHING ACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D. J.; Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Harrison, F. A.; Fuerst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Madsen, K. K.; Rana, V. [Space Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Webb, N. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Middleton, M. J. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Roberts, T. P.; Sutton, A. D. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Zhang, W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We present results obtained from two broadband X-ray observations of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5907 ULX1, known to have a peak X-ray luminosity of ∼5 × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}. These XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations, separated by only ∼4 days, revealed an extreme level of short-term flux variability. In the first epoch, NGC 5907 ULX1 was undetected by NuSTAR, and only weakly detected (if at all) with XMM-Newton, while in the second NGC 5907 ULX1 was clearly detected at high luminosity by both missions. This implies an increase in flux of ∼2 orders of magnitude or more during this ∼4 day window. We argue that this is likely due to a rapid rise in the mass accretion rate, rather than to a transition from an extremely obscured to an unobscured state. During the second epoch we observed the broadband 0.3-20.0 keV X-ray luminosity to be (1.55 ± 0.06) × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}, similar to the majority of the archival X-ray observations. The broadband X-ray spectrum obtained from the second epoch is inconsistent with the low/hard accretion state observed in Galactic black hole binaries, but is well modeled with a simple accretion disk model incorporating the effects of photon advection. This strongly suggests that when bright, NGC 5907 ULX1 is a high-Eddington accretor.

  9. The ultraluminous X-ray sources NGC 1313 X-1 and X-2: A broadband study with NuSTAR and XMM-Newton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier; Webb, Natalie A. [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Rana, Vikram; Walton, Dominic J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Fürst, Felix; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Madsen, Kristin K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Fabian, Andrew C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Hornschemeier, Ann; Ptak, Andrew F.; Zhang, William W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Stern, Daniel, E-mail: matteo.bachetti@irap.omp.eu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We present the results of NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of the two ultraluminous X-ray sources: NGC 1313 X-1 and X-2. The combined spectral bandpass of the two satellites enables us to produce the first spectrum of X-1 between 0.3 and 30 keV, while X-2 is not significantly detected by NuSTAR above 10 keV. The NuSTAR data demonstrate that X-1 has a clear cutoff above 10 keV, whose presence was only marginally detectable with previous X-ray observations. This cutoff rules out the interpretation of X-1 as a black hole in a standard low/hard state, and it is deeper than predicted for the downturn of a broadened iron line in a reflection-dominated regime. The cutoff differs from the prediction of a single-temperature Comptonization model. Further, a cold disk-like blackbody component at ∼0.3 keV is required by the data, confirming previous measurements by XMM-Newton only. We observe a spectral transition in X-2, from a state with high luminosity and strong variability to a lower-luminosity state with no detectable variability, and we link this behavior to a transition from a super-Eddington to a sub-Eddington regime.

  10. THE BROADBAND XMM-NEWTON AND NuSTAR X-RAY SPECTRA OF TWO ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES IN THE GALAXY IC 342

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, Vikram; Harrison, Fiona A.; Walton, Dominic J.; Furst, Felix; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Madsen, Kristin K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier; Webb, Natalie A. [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Fabian, Andrew C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, Finn C. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Ptak, Andrew F.; Zhang, William W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We present results for two ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), IC 342 X-1 and IC 342 X-2, using two epochs of XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations separated by ∼7 days. We observe little spectral or flux variability above 1 keV between epochs, with unabsorbed 0.3-30 keV luminosities being 1.04{sub −0.06}{sup +0.08}×10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1} for IC 342 X-1 and 7.40 ± 0.20 × 10{sup 39} erg s{sup –1} for IC 342 X-2, so that both were observed in a similar, luminous state. Both sources have a high absorbing column in excess of the Galactic value. Neither source has a spectrum consistent with a black hole binary in low/hard state, and both ULXs exhibit strong curvature in their broadband X-ray spectra. This curvature rules out models that invoke a simple reflection-dominated spectrum with a broadened iron line and no cutoff in the illuminating power-law continuum. X-ray spectrum of IC 342 X-1 can be characterized by a soft disk-like blackbody component at low energies and a cool, optically thick Comptonization continuum at high energies, but unique physical interpretation of the spectral components remains challenging. The broadband spectrum of IC 342 X-2 can be fit by either a hot (3.8 keV) accretion disk or a Comptonized continuum with no indication of a seed photon population. Although the seed photon component may be masked by soft excess emission unlikely to be associated with the binary system, combined with the high absorption column, it is more plausible that the broadband X-ray emission arises from a simple thin blackbody disk component. Secure identification of the origin of the spectral components in these sources will likely require broadband spectral variability studies.

  11. The Broadband XMM-Newton and NuSTAR X-ray Spectra of Two Ultraluminous X-ray Sources in the Galaxy IC 342

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Vikram; Harrison, Fiona A.; Bachetti, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    We present results for two Ultraluminous X-ray Sources (ULXs), IC 342 X-1 and IC 342 X-2, using two epochs of XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations separated by ∼7 days. We observe little spectral or flux variability above 1 keV between epochs, with unabsorbed 0.3-30 keV luminosities being $1.04+0.0...

  12. A Potential Cyclotron Resonant Scattering Feature in the Ultraluminous X-Ray Source Pulsar NGC 300 ULX1 Seen by NuSTAR and XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, D. J.; Bachetti, M.; Fürst, F.; Barret, D.; Brightman, M.; Fabian, A. C.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Harrison, F. A.; Heida, M.; Kennea, J.; Kosec, P.; Lau, R. M.; Madsen, K. K.; Middleton, M. J.; Pinto, C.; Steiner, J. F.; Webb, N.

    2018-04-01

    Based on phase-resolved broadband spectroscopy using XMM-Newton and NuSTAR, we report on a potential cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF) at E ∼ 13 keV in the pulsed spectrum of the recently discovered ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) pulsar NGC 300 ULX1. If this interpretation is correct, the implied magnetic field of the central neutron star is B ∼ 1012 G (assuming scattering by electrons), similar to that estimated from the observed spin-up of the star, and also similar to known Galactic X-ray pulsars. We discuss the implications of this result for the connection between NGC 300 ULX1 and the other known ULX pulsars, particularly in light of the recent discovery of a likely proton cyclotron line in another ULX, M51 ULX-8.

  13. X-Ray Temperatures, Luminosities, and Masses from XMM-Newton Follow-up of the First Shear-selected Galaxy Cluster Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Amruta J.; Hughes, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers the State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Wittman, David, E-mail: amrejd@physics.rutgers.edu, E-mail: jph@physics.rutgers.edu, E-mail: dwittman@physics.ucdavis.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2017-04-20

    We continue the study of the first sample of shear-selected clusters from the initial 8.6 square degrees of the Deep Lens Survey (DLS); a sample with well-defined selection criteria corresponding to the highest ranked shear peaks in the survey area. We aim to characterize the weak lensing selection by examining the sample’s X-ray properties. There are multiple X-ray clusters associated with nearly all the shear peaks: 14 X-ray clusters corresponding to seven DLS shear peaks. An additional three X-ray clusters cannot be definitively associated with shear peaks, mainly due to large positional offsets between the X-ray centroid and the shear peak. Here we report on the XMM-Newton properties of the 17 X-ray clusters. The X-ray clusters display a wide range of luminosities and temperatures; the L {sub X} − T {sub X} relation we determine for the shear-associated X-ray clusters is consistent with X-ray cluster samples selected without regard to dynamical state, while it is inconsistent with self-similarity. For a subset of the sample, we measure X-ray masses using temperature as a proxy, and compare to weak lensing masses determined by the DLS team. The resulting mass comparison is consistent with equality. The X-ray and weak lensing masses show considerable intrinsic scatter (∼48%), which is consistent with X-ray selected samples when their X-ray and weak lensing masses are independently determined.

  14. AN XMM-NEWTON SURVEY OF THE SOFT X-RAY BACKGROUND. I. THE O VII AND O VIII LINES BETWEEN l = 120 DEG. AND l = 240 DEG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.

    2010-01-01

    We present measurements of the soft X-ray background (SXRB) O VII and O VIII intensity between l = 120 deg. and l = 240 deg., the first results of a survey of the SXRB using archival XMM-Newton observations. We do not restrict ourselves to blank-sky observations, but instead use as many observations as possible, removing bright or extended sources by hand if necessary. In an attempt to minimize contamination from near-Earth solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission, we remove times of high solar wind proton flux from the data. Without this filtering we are able to extract measurements from 586 XMM-Newton observations. With this filtering, ∼1/2 of the observations are rendered unusable, and we are able to extract measurements from 303 observations. The oxygen intensities are typically ∼0.5-10 photons cm -2 s -1 sr -1 (line units, L.U.) for O VII and ∼0-5 L.U. for O VIII. The proton flux filtering does not systematically reduce the oxygen intensities measured from a given observation. However, the filtering does preferentially remove the observations with higher oxygen intensities. Our data set includes 69 directions with multiple observations, whose oxygen intensity variations can be used to constrain SWCX models. One observation exhibits an O VII enhancement of ∼25 L.U. over two other observations of the same direction, although most SWCX enhancements are ∼ 6 K, in good agreement with previous studies.

  15. Planck early results. XXVI. Detection with Planck and confirmation by XMM-Newton of PLCK G266.6-27.3, an exceptionally X-ray luminous and massive galaxy cluster at z ~ 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, A.; Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present first results on PLCKG266.6-27.3, a galaxy cluster candidate detected at a signal-to-noise ratio of 5 in the Planck All Sky survey. An XMM-Newton validation observation has allowed us to confirm that the candidate isa bona fide galaxy cluster. With these X-ray data we measure an accurate...

  16. INVESTIGATING THE COMPLEX X-RAY SPECTRUM OF A BROAD-LINE 2MASS RED QUASAR: XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATION OF FTM 0830+3759

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piconcelli, Enrico; Nicastro, Fabrizio; Fiore, Fabrizio; Vignali, Cristian; Bianchi, Stefano; Miniutti, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    We report results from a 50 ks XMM-Newton observation of the dust-reddened broad-line quasar FTM 0830+3759 (z = 0.413) selected from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm/Two Micron All Sky Survey red quasar survey. For this active galactic nucleus (AGN), a very short 9 ks Chandra exposure had suggested a feature-rich X-ray spectrum and Hubble Space Telescope images revealed a very disturbed host galaxy morphology. Contrary to classical, optically selected quasars, the X-ray properties of red (i.e., with J - K s > 1.7 and R - K s > 4.0) broad-line quasars are still quite unexplored, although there is a growing consensus that, due to moderate obscuration, these objects can offer a unique view of spectral components typically swamped by the AGN light in normal, blue quasars. The XMM-Newton observation discussed here has definitely confirmed the complexity of the X-ray spectrum revealing the presence of a cold (or mildly ionized) absorber with N H ∼ 10 22 cm -2 along the line of sight to the nucleus and a Compton reflection component accompanied by an intense Fe Kα emission line in this quasar with a L 2-10 k eV ∼ 5 x 10 44 erg s -1 . A soft-excess component is also required by the data. The match between the column density derived by our spectral analysis and that expected on the basis of reddening due to the dust suggests the possibility that both absorptions occur in the same medium. FTM 0830+3759 is characterized by an extinction/absorption-corrected X-ray-to-optical flux ratio α ox = -2.3, which is steeper than expected on the basis of its UV luminosity. These findings indicate that the X-ray properties of FTM 0830+3759 differ from those typically observed for optically selected broad-line quasars with comparable hard X-ray luminosity.

  17. XMM-Newton Detection of Hard X-Ray Emission in the Nitrogen-Type Wolf-Rayet Star WR 110

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Zhekov, Svetozar A.; Güdel, Manuel; Schmutz, Werner

    2002-06-01

    We have used the excellent sensitivity of XMM-Newton to obtain the first high-quality X-ray spectrum of a Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star that is not known to be a member of a binary system. Our target, the nitrogen-type star WR 110 (HD 165688), was also observed and detected with the Very Large Array at four different frequencies. The radio flux density increases with frequency according to a power law Sν~ν+0.64+/-0.10, in very good agreement with the behavior expected for free-free wind emission. The radio data give an ionized mass-loss rate M=4.9×10-5 Msolar yr-1 for an assumed spherical constant-velocity wind. The undispersed CCD X-ray spectra reveal strong emission lines from He-like ions of Mg, Si, and S. The emission measure distribution shows a dominant contribution from cool plasma with a characteristic temperature kTcool~0.5 keV (~6 MK). Little or no excess absorption of this cool component above the value expected from the visual extinction is present. We conclude that the bulk of the cool plasma detected by XMM-Newton lies at hundreds of stellar radii or more if the wind is approximately spherical and homogeneous, but it could lie closer to the star if the wind is clumped. If the cool plasma is due to instability-driven wind shocks, then typical shock velocities are vs~340-550 km s-1 and the average filling factor of X-ray-emitting gas in the wind is no larger than f~10-6. A surprising result is the unambiguous detection of a hard X-ray component that is clearly seen in the hard-band images and the spectra. This hard component accounts for about half of the observed flux and can be acceptably fitted by a hot, optically thin thermal plasma or a power-law model. If the emission is thermal, then a temperature kThot>=3 keV is derived. Such high temperatures are not predicted by current instability-driven wind shock models, and a different mechanism is thus required to explain the hard X-rays. We examine several possible mechanisms and show that the hard emission

  18. THE XMM-NEWTON LONG LOOK OF NGC 1365: LACK OF A HIGH/SOFT STATE IN ITS ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria, R.; Risaliti, G.; Elvis, M.; Fabbiano, G.; Bianchi, S.; Kuncic, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Based on our long (∼300 ks) 2007 XMM-Newton observation of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1365, we report here on the spectral and timing behavior of two ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), which had previously reached isotropic X-ray luminosities L X ∼ 4 x 10 40 erg s -1 (0.3-10 keV band). In 2007, they were in a lower state (L X ∼ 5 x 10 39 and 1.5 x 10 39 erg s -1 for X1 and X2, respectively). Their X-ray spectra were dominated by power laws with photon indices Γ ∼ 1.8 and 1.2, respectively. Thus, their spectra were similar to those at their outburst peaks. Both sources have been seen to vary by a factor of 20 in luminosity over the years, but their spectra are always dominated by a hard power law; unlike most stellar-mass black holes, they have never been found in a canonical high/soft state dominated by a standard disk. The lack of a canonical high/soft state seems to be a common feature of ULXs. We speculate that the different kind of donor star and/or a persistently super-Eddington accretion rate during their outbursts may prevent accretion flows in ULXs from settling into steady standard disks.

  19. CONSTRAINTS ON THE SURFACE MAGNETIC FIELDS AND AGE OF A COOL HYPERGIANT: XMM-NEWTON X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF VY CMa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montez, Rodolfo Jr.; Kastner, Joel H.; Humphreys, Roberta M.; Davidson, Kris; Turok, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    The complex circumstellar ejecta of highly evolved, cool hypergiants are indicative of multiple, asymmetric mass-loss events. To explore whether such episodic, non-isotropic mass loss may be driven by surface magnetic activity, we have observed the archetypical cool hypergiant VY CMa with the XMM-Newton X-ray satellite observatory. The hypergiant itself is not detected in these observations. From the upper limit on the X-ray flux from VY CMa at the time of our observations (F X, UL ≈ 8 × 10 –14 erg cm –2 s –1 , corresponding to log L X /L bol ≤ –8), we estimate an average surface magnetic field strength fB ≤ 2 × 10 –3 G (where f is the filling factor of magnetically active surface regions). These X-ray results for VY CMa represent the most stringent constraints to date on the magnetic field strength near the surface of a hypergiant. VY CMa's mass loss is episodic, however, and the hypergiant may have been in a state of low surface magnetic activity during the XMM observations. The XMM observations also yield detections of more than 100 X-ray sources within ∼15' of VY CMa, roughly 50 of which have near-infrared counterparts. Analysis of X-ray hardness ratios and IR colors indicates that some of these field sources may be young, late-type stars associated with VY CMa, its adjacent molecular cloud complex, and the young cluster NGC 2362. Further study of the VY CMa field is warranted, given the potential to ascertain the evolutionary timescale of this enigmatic, massive star

  20. A broadband x-ray study of the Geminga pulsar with NuSTAR and XMM-Newton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Kaya; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Dufour, Francois

    2014-01-01

    We report on the first hard X-ray detection of the Geminga pulsar above 10 keV using a 150 ks observation with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observatory. The double-peaked pulse profile of non-thermal emission seen in the soft X-ray band persists at higher energies. Broadband......V. The spectral hardening in non-thermal X-ray emission as well as spectral flattening between the optical and X-ray bands argue against the conjecture that a single power law may account for multi-wavelength non-thermal spectra of middle-aged pulsars....

  1. XMM-Newton X-ray and HST weak gravitational lensing study of the extremely X-ray luminous galaxy cluster Cl J120958.9+495352 (z = 0.902)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thölken, Sophia; Schrabback, Tim; Reiprich, Thomas H.; Lovisari, Lorenzo; Allen, Steven W.; Hoekstra, Henk; Applegate, Douglas; Buddendiek, Axel; Hicks, Amalia

    2018-03-01

    Context. Observations of relaxed, massive, and distant clusters can provide important tests of standard cosmological models, for example by using the gas mass fraction. To perform this test, the dynamical state of the cluster and its gas properties have to be investigated. X-ray analyses provide one of the best opportunities to access this information and to determine important properties such as temperature profiles, gas mass, and the total X-ray hydrostatic mass. For the last of these, weak gravitational lensing analyses are complementary independent probes that are essential in order to test whether X-ray masses could be biased. Aims: We study the very luminous, high redshift (z = 0.902) galaxy cluster Cl J120958.9+495352 using XMM-Newton data. We measure global cluster properties and study the temperature profile and the cooling time to investigate the dynamical status with respect to the presence of a cool core. We use Hubble Space Telescope (HST) weak lensing data to estimate its total mass and determine the gas mass fraction. Methods: We perform a spectral analysis using an XMM-Newton observation of 15 ks cleaned exposure time. As the treatment of the background is crucial, we use two different approaches to account for the background emission to verify our results. We account for point spread function effects and deproject our results to estimate the gas mass fraction of the cluster. We measure weak lensing galaxy shapes from mosaic HST imaging and select background galaxies photometrically in combination with imaging data from the William Herschel Telescope. Results: The X-ray luminosity of Cl J120958.9+495352 in the 0.1-2.4 keV band estimated from our XMM-Newton data is LX = (13.4+1.2-1.0) × 1044 erg/s and thus it is one of the most X-ray luminous clusters known at similarly high redshift. We find clear indications for the presence of a cool core from the temperature profile and the central cooling time, which is very rare at such high redshifts. Based

  2. AN XMM-NEWTON SURVEY OF THE SOFT X-RAY BACKGROUND. II. AN ALL-SKY CATALOG OF DIFFUSE O VII AND O VIII EMISSION INTENSITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.

    2012-01-01

    We present an all-sky catalog of diffuse O VII and O VIII line intensities, extracted from archival XMM-Newton observations. This catalog supersedes our previous catalog, which covered the sky between l = 120° and l = 240°. We attempted to reduce the contamination from near-Earth solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission by excluding times of high solar wind proton flux from the data. Without this filtering, we were able to extract measurements from 1868 observations. With this filtering, nearly half of the observations became unusable, and only 1003 observations yielded measurements. The O VII and O VIII intensities are typically ∼2-11 and ∼ –2 s –1 sr –1 (line unit, L.U.), respectively, although much brighter intensities were also recorded. Our data set includes 217 directions that have been observed multiple times by XMM-Newton. The time variation of the intensities from such directions may be used to constrain SWCX models. The O VII and O VIII intensities typically vary by ∼ 10 L.U. were observed. We compared our measurements with models of the heliospheric and geocoronal SWCX. The heliospheric SWCX intensity is expected to vary with ecliptic latitude and solar cycle. We found that the observed oxygen intensities generally decrease from solar maximum to solar minimum, both at high ecliptic latitudes (which is as expected) and at low ecliptic latitudes (which is not as expected). The geocoronal SWCX intensity is expected to depend on the solar wind proton flux incident on the Earth and on the sightline's path through the magnetosheath. The intensity variations seen in directions that have been observed multiple times are in poor agreement with the predictions of a geocoronal SWCX model. We found that the oxygen lines account for ∼40%-50% of the 3/4 keV X-ray background that is not due to unresolved active galactic nuclei, in good agreement with a previous measurement. However, we found that this fraction is not easily explainable by a

  3. Classification of X-ray sources in the XMM-Newton serendipitous source catalog: Objects of special interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Dacheng; Webb, Natalie A.; Barret, Didier, E-mail: dlin@ua.edu [CNRS, IRAP, 9 Avenue du Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2014-01-01

    We analyze 18 sources that showed interesting properties of periodicity, very soft spectra, and/or large long-term variability in X-rays in our project of classification of sources from the 2XMMi-DR3 catalog, but were poorly studied in the literature, in order to investigate their nature. Two hard sources show X-ray periodicities of ∼1.62 hr (2XMM J165334.4–414423) and ∼2.1 hr (2XMM J133135.2–315541) and are probably magnetic cataclysmic variables. One source, 2XMM J123103.2+110648, is an active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidate showing very soft X-ray spectra (kT ∼ 0.1 keV) and exhibiting an intermittent ∼3.8 hr quasi-periodic oscillation. There are six other very soft sources (with kT < 0.2 keV), which might be in other galaxies with luminosities between ∼10{sup 38}-10{sup 42} erg s{sup –1}. They probably represent a diverse group that might include objects such as ultrasoft AGNs and cool thermal disk emission from accreting intermediate-mass black holes. Six highly variable sources with harder spectra are probably in nearby galaxies with luminosities above 10{sup 37} erg s{sup –1} and thus are great candidates for extragalactic X-ray binaries. One of them (2XMMi J004211.2+410429, in M31) is probably a new-born persistent source, having been X-ray bright and hard in 0.3-10 keV for at least four years since it was discovered entering an outburst in 2007. Three highly variable hard sources appear at low galactic latitudes and have maximum luminosities below ∼10{sup 34} erg s{sup –1} if they are in our Galaxy. Thus, they are great candidates for cataclysmic variables or very faint X-ray transients harboring a black hole or neutron star. Our interpretations of these sources can be tested with future long-term X-ray monitoring and multi-wavelength observations.

  4. A Spatial Study of X-ray Properties in Superbubble 30 Dor C with XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babazaki, Yasunori; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; SANO, Hidetoshi; Yoshiike, Satoshi; Fukuda, Tatsuya; Maruyama, Shohei; Fujii, Kosuke; Fukui, Yasuo; Tawara, Yuzuru; Matsumoto, Hironori

    2015-08-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Galaxy are believed to be most likely accelerators of cosmic-rays (CRs) in an energy range less than 3×10^15 eV. Thus SNRs emit synchrotron X-rays by high-energy electrons. Sano et al. (2014) investigated spatially-resolved X-ray spectral properties of a shell-type SNR RX1713.77-3946 which shows strong non-thermal X-ray emissions. A large variation in the photon index is found and the photon index tends to be hard with increasing an interstellar gas density, suggesting that CR electrons are efficiently accelerated in denser interstellar gas environments. Few studies have focused on a photon index variation in superbubbles which possess 100-1000 pc diameter shells of swept-up interstellar materials containing hot (~10^6 K) shock-heated gas. The superbubble 30 Dor C in the Large Magellanic Cloud is one of the best targets for examining the photon index variation, because 30 Dor C is by far strong non-thermal X-ray emissions, and thus provides an ideal laboratory for probing non-thermal emission mechanisms in the supperbubble. We investigated X-ray spectral properties of the superbubble with a high spatial resolution of on the order of 10 pc. Consequently, the spectra in the west region of 30 Dor C can be described with a combination of absorbed thermal and non-thermal models while the spectra in the east region can be fitted with an absorbed non-thermal model. The photon index and intensity in 2-10 keV show variations of 2.0-3.5 and (0.6-8.0) × 10^-7 erg/s/cm^2, respectively. The temperature of the thermal component ranges from ~0.1 to ~0.3 keV. We will discuss an interaction between the hot gas and an interstellar gas using mutiwavelength data.

  5. Modeling the Magnetospheric X-ray Emission from Solar Wind Charge Exchange with Verification from XMM-Newton Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-26

    Earth (i.e., hydrogen) to a heavy , high charge state, ion in the solarwind. The electron can be captured in an excited state and transition to lower... heavy ions , Geophys Res. Lett., 24, 105–109, doi:10.1029/96GL03780. Cravens, T. E. (2000), Heliospheric X-ray emission associated with charge transfer...quantifying charge exchange from other ions with emission lines around the 1 4 keV band have also been performed, though the lack of cross-sectional

  6. The x-ray luminous galaxy cluster population at 0.9 < z ≲ 1.6 as revealed by the XMM-Newton Distant Cluster Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassbender, R; Böhringer, H; Nastasi, A; Šuhada, R; Mühlegger, M; Mohr, J J; Pierini, D; De Hoon, A; Kohnert, J; Lamer, G; Schwope, A D; Pratt, G W; Quintana, H; Rosati, P; Santos, J S

    2011-01-01

    We present the largest sample to date of spectroscopically confirmed x-ray luminous high-redshift galaxy clusters comprising 22 systems in the range 0.9 2 of non-contiguous deep archival XMM-Newton coverage, of which 49.4 deg 2 are part of the core survey with a quantifiable selection function and 17.7 deg 2 are classified as ‘gold’ coverage as the starting point for upcoming cosmological applications. Distant cluster candidates were followed up with moderately deep optical and near-infrared imaging in at least two bands to photometrically identify the cluster galaxy populations and obtain redshift estimates based on the colors of simple stellar population models. We test and calibrate the most promising redshift estimation techniques based on the R-z and z-H colors for efficient distant cluster identifications and find a good redshift accuracy performance of the z-H color out to at least z ∼ 1.5, while the redshift evolution of the R-z color leads to increasingly large uncertainties at z ≳ 0.9. Photometrically identified high-z systems are spectroscopically confirmed with VLT/FORS 2 with a minimum of three concordant cluster member redshifts. We present first details of two newly identified clusters, XDCP J0338.5+0029 at z = 0.916 and XDCP J0027.2+1714 at z = 0.959, and investigate the x-ray properties of SpARCS J003550-431224 at z = 1.335, which shows evidence for ongoing major merger activity along the line-of-sight. We provide x-ray properties and luminosity-based total mass estimates for the full sample of 22 high-z clusters, of which 17 are at z ⩾ 1.0 and seven populate the highest redshift bin at z > 1.3. The median system mass of the sample is M 200 ≃ 2 × 10 14 M ⊙ , while the probed mass range for the distant clusters spans approximately (0.7-7) × 10 14 M ⊙ . The majority (>70%) of the x-ray selected clusters show rather regular x-ray morphologies, albeit in most cases with a discernible elongation along one axis. In contrast to

  7. THE XMM-NEWTON X-RAY SPECTRA OF THE MOST X-RAY LUMINOUS RADIO-QUIET ROSAT BRIGHT SURVEY-QSOs: A REFERENCE SAMPLE FOR THE INTERPRETATION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT QSO SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumpe, M.; Markowitz, A.; Lamer, G.; Corral, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the broadband X-ray properties of four of the most X-ray luminous (L X ≥ 10 45 erg s -1 in the 0.5-2 keV band) radio-quiet QSOs found in the ROSAT Bright Survey. This uniform sample class, which explores the extreme end of the QSO luminosity function, exhibits surprisingly homogenous X-ray spectral properties: a soft excess with an extremely smooth shape containing no obvious discrete features, a hard power law above 2 keV, and a weak narrow/barely resolved Fe Kα fluorescence line for the three high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) spectra. The soft excess can be well fitted with only a soft power law. No signatures of warm or cold intrinsic absorbers are found. The Fe Kα centroids and the line widths indicate emission from neutral Fe (E = 6.4 keV) originating from cold material from distances of only a few light days or further out. The well-constrained equivalent widths (EW) of the neutral Fe lines are higher than expected from the X-ray Baldwin effect which has been only poorly constrained at very high luminosities. Taking into account our individual EW measurements, we show that the X-ray Baldwin effect flattens above L X ∼ 10 44 erg s -1 (2-10 keV band) where an almost constant (EW) of ∼100 eV is found. We confirm the assumption of having very similar X-ray active galactic nucleus properties when interpreting stacked X-ray spectra. Our stacked spectrum serves as a superb reference for the interpretation of low S/N spectra of radio-quiet QSOs with similar luminosities at higher redshifts routinely detected by XMM-Newton and Chandra surveys.

  8. A deep X-ray view of the bare AGN Ark 120. IV. XMM-Newton and NuSTAR spectra dominated by two temperature (warm, hot) Comptonization processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porquet, D.; Reeves, J. N.; Matt, G.; Marinucci, A.; Nardini, E.; Braito, V.; Lobban, A.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Dauser, T.; Farrah, D.; Garcia, J.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F.; Stern, D.; Tortosa, A.; Ursini, F.; Zhang, W. W.

    2018-01-01

    Context. The physical characteristics of the material closest to supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are primarily studied through X-ray observations. However, the origins of the main X-ray components such as the soft X-ray excess, the Fe Kα line complex, and the hard X-ray excess are still hotly debated. This is particularly problematic for active galactic nuclei (AGN) showing a significant intrinsic absorption, either warm or neutral, which can severely distort the observed continuum. Therefore, AGN with no (or very weak) intrinsic absorption along the line of sight, so-called "bare AGN", are the best targets to directly probe matter very close to the SMBH. Aims: We perform an X-ray spectral analysis of the brightest and cleanest bare AGN known so far, Ark 120, in order to determine the process(es) at work in the vicinity of the SMBH. Methods: We present spectral analyses of data from an extensive campaign observing Ark 120 in X-rays with XMM-Newton (4 × 120 ks, 2014 March 18-24), and NuSTAR (65.5 ks, 2014 March 22). Results: During this very deep X-ray campaign, the source was caught in a high-flux state similar to the earlier 2003 XMM-Newton observation, and about twice as bright as the lower-flux observation in 2013. The spectral analysis confirms the "softer when brighter" behavior of Ark 120. The four XMM-Newton/pn spectra are characterized by the presence of a prominent soft X-ray excess and a significant Fe Kα complex. The continuum is very similar above about 3 keV, while significant variability is present for the soft X-ray excess. We find that relativistic reflection from a constant-density, flat accretion disk cannot simultaneously produce the soft excess, broad Fe Kα complex, and hard X-ray excess. Instead, Comptonization reproduces the broadband (0.3-79 keV) continuum well, together with a contribution from a mildly relativistic disk reflection spectrum. Conclusions: During this 2014 observational campaign, the soft X-ray spectrum of Ark 120 below 0

  9. A Survey of X-Ray Variability in Seyfert 1 Galaxies with XMM-Newton to study the soft excess and the broad Fe lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Gabriele

    The nature of the soft excess and the presence of the broad Fe lines is still nowadays highly debated because the different absorption/emission models are degenerate. Spectral variability studies have the potential to break this degeneracy. I will present the results of a spectral variability RMS survey of the 36 brightest type 1 Seyfert galaxies observed by XMM-Newton for more than 30 ks. More than 80 as already measured, on longer timescales, with RXTE (Markowitz et al. 2004). About half of the sample show lower variability in the soft energy band, indicating that the emission from the soft excess is more stable than the one of the continuum. While the other sources show a soft excess that is as variable as the continuum. About half of the sample do not show an excess of variability where the warm absorber component imprints its stronger features, suggesting that for these sources the soft excess is not produced by a relativistic absorbing wind. In a few bright and well exposed sources it has been possible to measure an excess of variability at the energy of the broad component of the Fe K line, in agreement with the broad emission line interpretation. For the sources where more than one observation was available the stability of the shape of the RMS spectrum has been investigated. Moreover, it will be presented the results of the computation of the excess variance of all the radio quiet type 1 AGN of the XMM-Newton database. The relations between variability, black hole mass, accretion rate and luminosity are investigated and their scatter measured.

  10. UV, X-ray, and Optical Variability of the Young Star T Cha Produced by Inner Disk Obscuration: Results from a Coordinated HST, XMM-Newton, LCOGT, and SMARTS Observing Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alexander; France, Kevin; Walter, Frederick M.; Schneider, P. Christian; Brown, Timothy M.; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.

    2018-06-01

    The young (7 Myr) 1.5 solar mass T Tauri star T Chamaeleontis shows dramatic variability. The optical extinction varies by at least 3 magnitudes on few hour time-scales with no obvious periodicity. The obscuration is produced by material at the inner edge of the circumstellar disk and therefore characterizing the absorbing material can reveal important clues regarding the transport of gas and dust within such disks. The inner disk of T Cha is particularly interesting, because T Cha has a transitional disk with a large gap at 0.2-15 AU in the dust disk and allows study of the gas and dust structure in the terrestrial planet formation zone during this important rapid phase of protoplanetary disk evolution. For this reason we have conducted a major multi-spectral-region observing campaign to study the UV/X-ray/optical variability of T Cha. During 2018 February/March we monitored the optical photometric and spectral variability using LCOGT (Chile/South Africa/Australia) and the SMARTS telescopes in Chile. These optical data provide a broad context within which to interpret our shorter UV and X-ray observations. We observed T Cha during 3 coordinated observations (each 5 HST orbits + 25 ksec XMM; on 2018 Feb 22, Feb 26, Mar 2) using the HST COS/STIS spectrographs to measure the FUV/NUV spectra and XMM-Newton to measure the corresponding X-ray energy distribution. The observed spectral changes are well correlated and demonstrate the influence of the same absorbing material in all the spectral regions observed. By examining which spectral features change and by how much we can determine the location of different emitting regions relative to the absorbers along the line-of-sight to the star. In this poster we provide an overview of the variability seen in the different spectral regions and quantify the dust and gas content of T Cha's inner disk edge.(This work is supported by grant HST-GO-15128 and time awarded by HST, XMM-Newton, LCOGT, and SMARTS. We acknowledge the

  11. CAIXA: a catalogue of AGN in the XMM-Newton archive. III. Excess variance analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponti, G.; Papadakis, I.; Bianchi, S.; Guainazzi, M.; Matt, G.; Uttley, P.; Bonilla, N.F.

    2012-01-01

    Context. We report on the results of the first XMM-Newton systematic "excess variance" study of all the radio quiet, X-ray un-obscured AGN. The entire sample consist of 161 sources observed by XMM-Newton for more than 10 ks in pointed observations, which is the largest sample used so far to study

  12. Black Hole Results from XMM-Newton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Schartel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available XMM-Newton is one of the most successful science missions of the  European Space Agency. Since 2003 every year about 300 articles are published in refereed journals making directly use of XMM-Newton data. All XMM-Newton calls for observing proposals are highly oversubscribed by factors of six and more. In the following some scientic highlights of XMM-Newton observations of black holes are summarized.

  13. The 2-79 keV X-ray spectrum of the Circinus galaxy with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Chandra: a fully Compton-thick active galactic nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Puccetti, S.; Walton, D. J.; Fuerst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Harrison, F. A.; Madsen, K. K.; Koss, M.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Brandt, W. N.; Luo, B.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Madejski, G.; Marinucci, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Circinus galaxy is one of the closest obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), making it an ideal target for detailed study. Combining archival Chandra and XMM-Newton data with new NuSTAR observations, we model the 2-79 keV spectrum to constrain the primary AGN continuum and to derive physical parameters for the obscuring material. Chandra's high angular resolution allows a separation of nuclear and off-nuclear galactic emission. In the off-nuclear diffuse emission, we find signatures of strong cold reflection, including high equivalent-width neutral Fe lines. This Compton-scattered off-nuclear emission amounts to 18% of the nuclear flux in the Fe line region, but becomes comparable to the nuclear emission above 30 keV. The new analysis no longer supports a prominent transmitted AGN component in the observed band. We find that the nuclear spectrum is consistent with Compton scattering by an optically thick torus, where the intrinsic spectrum is a power law of photon index Γ = 2.2-2.4, the torus has an equatorial column density of N H = (6-10) × 10 24 cm –2 , and the intrinsic AGN 2-10 keV luminosity is (2.3-5.1) × 10 42 erg s –1 . These values place Circinus along the same relations as unobscured AGNs in accretion rate versus Γ and L X versus L IR phase space. NuSTAR's high sensitivity and low background allow us to study the short timescale variability of Circinus at X-ray energies above 10 keV for the first time. The lack of detected variability favors a Compton-thick absorber, in line with the spectral fitting results.

  14. Eye-openers from XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    many years of work. They are all that we hoped they would be. In the LMC we can see the elements, which go to make up new stars and planets, being released in giant stellar explosions. We can even see the creation of new stars going on, using elements scattered through space by previous stellar explosions. This is what we built the EPIC cameras for and they are really fulfilling their promise" Multiwavelength views of Hickson Group 16 The HCG-16 viewed by EPIC and by the Optical Monitor in the visible and ultraviolet wavelengths is one of approximately a hundred compact galaxy clusters listed by Canadian astronomer Paul Hickson in the 1980s. The criteria for the Hickson cluster groups included their compactness, their isolation from other galaxies and a limited magnitude range between their members. Most Hicksons are very faint, but a few can be observed with modest aperture telescopes. Galaxies in Hickson groups have a high probability of interacting. Their study has shed light on the question of galactic evolution and the effects of interaction. Investigation into their gravitational behaviour has also significantly contributed to our understanding of "dark matter", the mysterious matter that most astronomers feel comprises well over 90% of our universe. Observation of celestial objects from space over a range of X-ray, ultraviolet and visible wavelengths, is a unique feature of the XMM-Newton mission. The EPIC-PN view of the Hickson 16 group shows a handful of bright X-sources and in the background more than a hundred faint X-ray sources that XMM-Newton is revealing for the first time. Juxtaposing the X-ray view of HCG 16 with that of the Optical Monitor reveals one of the great strengths of XMM-Newton in being able to routinely compare the optical, ultraviolet and X-ray properties of objects. Many of the X-ray sources are revealed as elongated "fuzzy blobs" coincident with some of the optical galaxies. Routine access to ultraviolet images is a first for the mission

  15. The kinematics and chemical stratification of the type Ia supernova remnant 0519-69.0 : an XMM-Newton and Chandra study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosenko, D.; Helder, E.A.; Vink, J.

    2010-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray data of the young type Ia supernova remnant SNR 0519-69.0, which is situated in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We used data from both the Chandra ACIS and XMM-Newton EPIC MOS instruments, and high resolution X-ray spectra obtained with

  16. XMM-Newton operations beyond the design lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Arvind N.; Kirsch, Marcus G. F.; Muñoz, J. Ramon; Santos-Lleo, Maria; Schartel, Norbert

    2012-09-01

    After more than twelve years in orbit and two years beyond the design lifetime, XMM-Newton continues its near faultless operations providing the worldwide astronomical community with an unprecedented combination of imaging and spectroscopic X-ray capabilities together with simultaneous optical and ultra-violet monitoring. The interest from the scientific community in observing with XMM-Newton remains extremely high with the last annual Announcement of Observing Opportunity (AO-11) attracting proposals requesting 6.7 times more observing time than was available. Following recovery from a communications problem in 2008, all elements of the mission are stable and largely trouble free. The operational lifetime if currently limited by the amount of available hydrazine fuel. XMM-Newton normally uses reaction wheels for attitude control and fuel is only used when offsetting reaction wheel speed away from limiting values and for emergency Sun acquisition following an anomaly. Currently, the hydrazine is predicted to last until around 2020. However, ESA is investigating the possibility of making changes to the operations concept and the onboard software that would enable lower fuel consumption. This could allow operations to well beyond 2026.

  17. The 2-79 keV X-ray spectrum of the circinus galaxy with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Chandra: a fully compton-thick active galactic nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Puccetti, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Circinus galaxy is one of the closest obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), making it an ideal target for detailed study. Combining archival Chandra and XMM-Newton data with new NuSTAR observations, we model the 2-79 keV spectrum to constrain the primary AGN continuum and to derive physical......-nuclear emission amounts to 18% of the nuclear flux in the Fe line region, but becomes comparable to the nuclear emission above 30 keV. The new analysis no longer supports a prominent transmitted AGN component in the observed band. We find that the nuclear spectrum is consistent with Compton scattering...

  18. An X-ray view of the very faint black hole X-ray transient Swift J1357.2-0933 during its 2011 outburst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.; Wijnands, R.; Altamirano, D.; Méndez, M.; Miller, J. M.; Degenaar, N.

    We report on the X-ray spectral (using XMM-Newton data) and timing behaviour [using XMM-Newton and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data] of the very faint X-ray transient and black hole system Swift J1357.2-0933 during its 2011 outburst. The XMM-Newton X-ray spectrum of this source can be

  19. Observations of MCG-5-23-16 with Suzaku, XMM-Newton and Nustar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoghbi, A.; Cackett, E. M.; Reynolds, C.

    2014-01-01

    MCG-5-23-16 is one of the first active galactic nuclei (AGNs) where relativistic reverberation in the iron K line originating in the vicinity of the supermassive black hole was found, based on a short XMM-Newton observation. In this work, we present the results from long X-ray observations using...... Suzaku, XMM-Newton, and NuSTAR designed to map the emission region using X-ray reverberation. A relativistic iron line is detected in the lag spectra on three different timescales, allowing the emission from different regions around the black hole to be separated. Using NuSTAR coverage of energies above...

  20. High spectral resolution X-ray observations of AGN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaastra, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    brief overview of some highlights of high spectral resolution X-ray observations of AGN is given, mainly obtained with the RGS of XMM-Newton. Future prospects for such observations with XMM-Newton are given.

  1. Planck intermediate results I. Further validation of new Planck clusters with XMM-Newton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghanim, N.; Collaboration, Planck; Arnaud, M.

    2012-01-01

    of candidates previously confirmed with XMM-Newton. The X-ray and optical redshifts for a total of 20 clusters are found to be in excellent agreement. We also show that useful lower limits can be put on cluster redshifts using X-ray data only via the use of the Y-X vs. Y-SZ and X-ray flux F-X vs. Y-SZ relations....

  2. Has ESA's XMM-Newton cast doubt over dark energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    Galaxy cluster RXJ0847 hi-res Size hi-res: 100k Galaxy cluster RXJ0847 The fuzzy object at the centre of the frame is one of the galaxy clusters observed by XMM-Newton in its investigation of the distant Universe. The cluster, designated RXJ0847.2+3449, is about 7 000 million light years away, so we see it here as it was 7 000 million years ago, when the Universe was only about half of its present age. This cluster is made up of several dozen galaxies. Observations of eight distant clusters of galaxies, the furthest of which is around 10 thousand million light years away, were studied by an international group of astronomers led by David Lumb of ESA's Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) in the Netherlands. They compared these clusters to those found in the nearby Universe. This study was conducted as part of the larger XMM-Newton Omega Project, which investigates the density of matter in the Universe under the lead of Jim Bartlett of the College de France. Clusters of galaxies are prodigious emitters of X-rays because they contain a large quantity of high-temperature gas. This gas surrounds galaxies in the same way as steam surrounds people in a sauna. By measuring the quantity and energy of X-rays from a cluster, astronomers can work out both the temperature of the cluster gas and also the mass of the cluster. Theoretically, in a Universe where the density of matter is high, clusters of galaxies would continue to grow with time and so, on average, should contain more mass now than in the past. Most astronomers believe that we live in a low-density Universe in which a mysterious substance known as 'dark energy' accounts for 70% of the content of the cosmos and, therefore, pervades everything. In this scenario, clusters of galaxies should stop growing early in the history of the Universe and look virtually indistinguishable from those of today. In a paper soon to be published by the European journal Astronomy and Astrophysics, astronomers from the XMM-Newton

  3. INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton observations of the weak gamma-ray burst GRB 030227

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mereghetti, S.; Gotz, D.; Tiengo, A.

    2003-01-01

    We present International Gamma-Ray Astrophysical Laboratory ( INTEGRAL) and XMM-Newton observations of the prompt gamma-ray emission and the X-ray afterglow of GRB 030227, the first gamma-ray burst for which the quick localization obtained with the INTEGRAL Burst Alert System has led...

  4. Constraining the neutron star equation of state using XMM-Newton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaastra, J.; Mendez, M.; In 't Zand, J. J. M.; Jonker, P.G.

    We have identified three possible ways in which future XMM-Newton observations can provide significant constraints on the equation of state of neutron stars. First, using a long observation of the neutron star X-ray transient Cen X-4 in quiescence one can use the RGS spectrum to constrain the

  5. Constraining the neutron star equation of state using XMM-Newton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, P.G.; Kaastra, J.S.; Méndez, M.; in 't Zand, J.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    We have identified three possible ways in which future XMM-Newton observations can provide significant constraints on the equation of state of neutron stars. First, using a long observation of the neutron star X-ray transient Cen X-4 in quiescence one can use the RGS spectrum to constrain the

  6. XMM-Newton Proposal 03039101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernanz, Margarita

    2004-10-01

    Two recent galactic novae, V2487 Oph 1998 and V4633 Sgr 1998, have been detec- ted in both soft and hard X-rays with XMM. V2487 Oph showed an iron fluores- cent line only 2.7 yrs after its explosion, a clear signature of the very fast recovery of accretion, and V4633 Sgr displayed hard X-ray emission not clearly attributable to shocked ejecta or accretion. Longer observations are needed to do accurate timing and high resolution spectroscopy, essential to determine the main properties of the underlying cataclysmic variable in V2487 Oph (first nova seen in X-rays prior and after exploding) and to disentangle the origin of the hard X-rays from V4633 Sgr, through an analysis of the chemical compo- sition of the emitting thermal plasma, solar if accretion, non solar if ejecta.

  7. XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATION OF THE α PERSEI CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillitteri, Ignazio; Evans, Nancy Remage; Wolk, Scott J.; Bruck Syal, Megan

    2013-01-01

    We report on the analysis of an archival observation of part of the α Persei cluster obtained with XMM-Newton. We detected 102 X-ray sources in the band 0.3-8.0 keV, of which 39 of them are associated with the cluster as evidenced by appropriate magnitudes and colors from Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry. We extend the X-ray luminosity distribution (XLD) for M dwarfs, to add to the XLD found for hotter dwarfs from spatially extensive surveys of the whole cluster by ROSAT. Some of the hotter stars are identified as a background, possible slightly older group of stars at a distance of approximately 500 pc.

  8. A long XMM-Newton observation of an extreme narrow-line Seyfert 1: PG 1244+026

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, C.; Done, C.; Middleton, M.; Ward, M.

    2013-01-01

    We explore the origin of the strong soft X-ray excess in narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies using spectral-timing information from a 120 ks XMM-Newton observation of PG 1244+026. Spectral fitting alone cannot distinguish between a true additional soft X-ray continuum component and strongly

  9. Probing the accretion disk and central engine structure of NGC 4258 with Suzaku and XMM-Newton observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynolds, C.S.; Nowak, M.A.; Markoff, S.; Tueller, J.; Wilms, J.; Young, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    We present an X-ray study of the low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN) in NGC 4258 using data from Suzaku, XMM-Newton, and the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope survey. We find that signatures of X-ray reprocessing by cold gas are very weak in the spectrum of this Seyfert-2 galaxy; a weak, narrow

  10. The XMM-Newton Wide-field Survey in the Cosmos Field (XMM-COSMOS) : Demography and Multiwavelength Properties of Obscured and Unobscured Luminous Active Galactic Nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brusa, M.; Civano, F.; Comastri, A.; Miyaji, T.; Salvato, M.; Zamorani, G.; Cappelluti, N.; Fiore, F.; Hasinger, G.; Mainieri, V.; Merloni, A.; Bongiorno, A.; Capak, P.; Elvis, M.; Gilli, R.; Hao, H.; Jahnke, K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Ilbert, O.; Le Floc'h, E.; Lusso, E.; Mignoli, M.; Schinnerer, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Treister, E.; Trump, J. D.; Vignali, C.; Zamojski, M.; Aldcroft, T.; Aussel, H.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Cappi, A.; Caputi, K.; Contini, T.; Finoguenov, A.; Fruscione, A.; Garilli, B.; Impey, C. D.; Iovino, A.; Iwasawa, K.; Kampczyk, P.; Kartaltepe, J.; Kneib, J. P.; Knobel, C.; Kovac, K.; Lamareille, F.; Leborgne, J. -F.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fevre, O.; Lilly, S. J.; Maier, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Pello, R.; Peng, Y. -J.; Perez-Montero, E.; de Ravel, L.; Sanders, D.; Scodeggio, M.; Scoville, N. Z.; Tanaka, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Tasca, L.; de la Torre, S.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.

    2010-01-01

    We report the final optical identifications of the medium-depth (~60 ks), contiguous (2 deg2) XMM-Newton survey of the COSMOS field. XMM-Newton has detected ~1800 X-ray sources down to limiting fluxes of ~5 × 10-16, ~3 × 10-15, and ~7 × 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 0.5-2 keV, 2-10 keV, and 5-10 keV

  11. Searching for propeller-phase ULXs in the XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, H. P.; Roberts, T. P.; Sathyaprakash, R.

    2018-05-01

    We search for transient sources in a sample of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) from the 3XMM-DR4 release of the XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalogue in order to find candidate neutron star ULXs alternating between an accreting state and the propeller regime, in which the luminosity drops dramatically. By examining their fluxes and flux upper limits, we identify five ULXs that demonstrate long-term variability of over an order of magnitude. Using Chandra and Swift data to further characterize their light curves, we find that two of these sources are detected only once and could be X-ray binaries in outburst that only briefly reach ULX luminosities. Two others are consistent with being super-Eddington accreting sources with high levels of inter-observation variability. One source, M51 ULX-4, demonstrates apparent bimodal flux behaviour that could indicate the propeller regime. It has a hard X-ray spectrum, but no significant pulsations in its timing data, although with an upper limit of 10 per cent of the signal pulsed at ˜1.5 Hz a pulsating ULX cannot be excluded, particularly if the pulsations are transient. By simulating XMM-Newton observations of a population of pulsating ULXs, we predict that there could be approximately 200 other bimodal ULXs that have not been observed sufficiently well by XMM-Newton to be identified as transient.

  12. XMM-Newton observation of the NLS1 galaxy Ark 564. I. Spectral analysis of the time-average spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadakis, I.E.; Brinkmann, W.; Page, M.J.; McHardy, I.; Uttley, P.

    2007-01-01

    Context: .We present the results from the spectral analysis of the time-average spectrum of the Narrow Line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxy Ark 564 from a ~100 ks XMM-Newton observation. Aims: .Our aim is to characterize accurately the shape of the time-average, X-ray continuum spectrum of the source and

  13. The cooling, mass and radius of the neutron star in EXO 0748-676 in quiescence with XMM-Newton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Zheng; Méndez, Mariano; Díaz-Trigo, María; Costantini, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    We analyse four XMM-Newton observations of the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary EXO 0748-676 in quiescence. We fit the spectra with an absorbed neutron-star atmosphere model, without the need for a high-energy (power-law) component; with a 95 per cent confidence the power law contributes less than

  14. Dark Matter Search Using XMM-Newton Observations of Willman 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Michael; Kusenko, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a search for an emission line from radiatively decaying dark matter in the ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxy Willman 1 based on analysis of spectra extracted from XMM-Newton X-ray Observatory data. The observation follows up our analysis of Chandra data of Willman 1that resulted in line flux upper limits over the Chandra bandpass and evidence of a 2.5 keY feature at a significance below the 99% confidence threshold used to define the limits. The higher effective area of the XMM-Newton detectors, combined with application of recently developing methods for extended-source analysis, allow us to derive improved constraints on the combination of mass and mixing angle of the sterile neutrino dark matter candidate. We do not confirm the Chandra evidence for a 2.5 keV emission line.

  15. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of 1e1743.1-2843: indications of a neutron star LMXB nature of the compact object

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotti, Simone; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Mori, Kaya

    2016-01-01

    We report on the results of NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of the persistent X-ray source 1E1743.1-2843, located in the Galactic Center region. The source was observed between 2012 September and October by NuSTAR and XMM-Newton, providing almost simultaneous observations in the hard and soft X......-ray bands. The high X-ray luminosity points to the presence of an accreting compact object. We analyze the possibilities of this accreting compact object being either a neutron star (NS) or a black hole, and conclude that the joint XMM-Newton and NuSTAR spectrum from 0.3 to 40 keV fits a blackbody spectrum...

  16. XMM-Newton study of the supersoft symbiotic system Draco C1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Sara; Sasaki, Manami; Ducci, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    We present the results of the analysis of thirty-one XMM-Newton observations of the symbiotic star Draco C1 located in the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy. This object had been identified as a supersoft source based on ROSAT data. We analysed X-ray, ultraviolet (UV) and optical data taken with XMM-Newton in order to obtain the physical parameters and the geometry of the system. We have also performed the first X-ray timing analysis of Draco C1. The X-ray spectrum is well fitted with a blackbody model with a temperature of (1.8 ± 0.3) × 105 K. We obtained a bolometric luminosity of ≳1038 erg s-1 for the white dwarf. The X-ray spectrum and luminosity suggest stable nuclear burning on the surface of the white dwarf. The low column density derived from the X-ray spectrum is consistent with the lack of nebular lines found in previous UV studies. The long-term variability in the optical and the UV suggests that the system is not observed face-on and that the variability is caused by the reflection effect. For the red giant companion, we estimate a radius of ∼110 R⊙ and an upper limit ≲1.5 M⊙ for its mass assuming Roche lobe overflow.

  17. HIGH-RESOLUTION XMM-NEWTON SPECTROSCOPY OF THE COOLING FLOW CLUSTER A3112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulbul, G. Esra; Smith, Randall K.; Foster, Adam [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cottam, Jean; Loewenstein, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Shafer, Richard, E-mail: ebulbul@cfa.harvard.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2012-03-01

    We examine high signal-to-noise XMM-Newton European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) and Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) observations to determine the physical characteristics of the gas in the cool core and outskirts of the nearby rich cluster A3112. The XMM-Newton Extended Source Analysis Software data reduction and background modeling methods were used to analyze the XMM-Newton EPIC data. From the EPIC data, we find that the iron and silicon abundance gradients show significant increase toward the center of the cluster while the oxygen abundance profile is centrally peaked but has a shallower distribution than that of iron. The X-ray mass modeling is based on the temperature and deprojected density distributions of the intracluster medium determined from EPIC observations. The total mass of A3112 obeys the M-T scaling relations found using XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of massive clusters at r{sub 500}. The gas mass fraction f{sub gas} = 0.149{sup +0.036}{sub -0.032} at r{sub 500} is consistent with the seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe results. The comparisons of line fluxes and flux limits on the Fe XVII and Fe XVIII lines obtained from high-resolution RGS spectra indicate that there is no spectral evidence for cooler gas associated with the cluster with temperature below 1.0 keV in the central <38'' ({approx}52 kpc) region of A3112. High-resolution RGS spectra also yield an upper limit to the turbulent motions in the compact core of A3112 (206 km s{sup -1}). We find that the contribution of turbulence to total energy is less than 6%. This upper limit is consistent with the energy contribution measured in recent high-resolution simulations of relaxed galaxy clusters.

  18. Tidal disruption events seen in the XMM-Newton slew survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, Richard; Komossa, S.; Read, Andrew; Lira, Paulina; Alexander, Kate D.; Steele, Iain

    XMM-Newton performs a survey of the sky in the 0.2-12 keV X-ray band while slewing between observation targets. The sensitivity in the soft X-ray band is comparable with that of the ROSAT all-sky survey, allowing bright transients to be identified in near real-time by a comparison of the flux in both surveys. Several of the soft X-ray flares are coincident with galaxy nuclei and five of these have been interpreted as candidate tidal disruption events (TDE). The first three discovered had a soft X-ray spectrum, consistent with the classical model of TDE, where radiation is released during the accretion phase by thermal processes. The remaining two have an additional hard, power-law component, which in only one case was accompanied by radio emission. Overall the flares decay with the classical index of t -5/3 but vary greatly in the early phase.

  19. XMM-Newton confirmation of a new intermediate polar: XMMU J185330.7-012815

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, C. Y.; Sriram, K.; Choi, C.-S.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the results of a detailed spectro-imaging and temporal analysis of an archival XMM-Newton observation of a new intermediate polar XMMU J185330.7-012815. Its X-ray spectrum can be well described by a multitemperature thermal plasma model with the K lines of heavy elements clearly detected. Possible counterparts of XMMU J185330.7-012815 have been identified in optical and ultraviolet (UV) bands. The low values of the inferred X-ray-to-UV and X-ray-to-optical flux ratios safely rule out the possibility of its being an isolated neutron star. We confirm the X-ray periodicity of ˜238 s but, differently from the previous preliminary results, we do not find any convincing evidence of phase shift in this observation. We further investigate its properties through an energy-resolved temporal analysis and find that the pulsed fraction monotonically increases with energy.

  20. TESTING RELATIVISTIC REFLECTION AND RESOLVING OUTFLOWS IN PG 1211+143 WITH XMM-NEWTON AND NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobban, A. P.; Pounds, K.; Vaughan, S. [University of Leicester, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Reeves, J. N., E-mail: al394@le.ac.uk [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-10

    We analyze the broad-band X-ray spectrum (0.3–50 keV) of the luminous Seyfert 1/quasar PG 1211+143—the archetypal source for high-velocity X-ray outflows—using near-simultaneous XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations. We compare pure relativistic reflection models with a model including the strong imprint of photoionized emission and absorption from a high-velocity wind, finding a spectral fit that extrapolates well over the higher photon energies covered by NuSTAR . Inclusion of the high signal-to-noise ratio XMM-Newton spectrum provides much tighter constraints on the model parameters, with a much harder photon index/lower reflection fraction compared to that from the NuSTAR data alone. We show that pure relativistic reflection models are not able to account for the spectral complexity of PG 1211+143 and that wind absorption models are strongly required to match the data in both the soft X-ray and Fe K spectral regions. In confirming the significance of previously reported ionized absorption features, the new analysis provides a further demonstration of the power of combining the high throughput and resolution of long-look XMM-Newton observations with the unprecedented spectral coverage of NuSTAR .

  1. Neutron Stars and Black Holes New clues from Chandra and XMM-Newton

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2002-01-01

    Neutron stars and black holes, the most compact astrophysical objects, have become observable in many different ways during the last few decades. We will first review the phenomenology and properties of neutron stars and black holes (stellar and supermassive) as derived from multiwavelength observatories. Recently much progress has been made by means of the new powerful X-ray observatories Chandra and XMM-Newton which provide a substantial increase in sensitivity as well as spectral and angular resolution compared with previous satellites like ROSAT and ASCA. We shall discuss in more detail two recent topics: (1) The attempts to use X-ray spectroscopy for measuring the radii of neutron stars which depend on the equation of state at supranuclear densities. Have quark stars been detected? (2) The diagnostics of the strong gravity regions around supermassive black holes using X-ray spectroscopy.

  2. ASCA and XMM-Newton observations of the galactic supernova remnant G311.5−0.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pannuti T.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of X-ray observations made with ASCA and XMM-Newton of the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR G311.5−0.3. Prior infrared and radio observations of this SNR have revealed a shell-like morphology at both wavelengths. The spectral index of the radio emission is consistent with synchrotron emission, while the infrared colors are consistent with emission from shocked molecular hydrogen. Also previous CO observations have indicated an interaction between G311.5−0.3 and an adjacent molecular cloud. Our previous analysis of the pointed ASCA observation made of this SNR detected X-ray emission from the source for the first time but lacked the sensitivity and the angular resolution to rigorously investigate its X-ray properties. We have analyzed an archival XMM-Newton observation that included G311.5−0.3 in the field of view: this is the first time that XMM-Newton data has been used to probe the X-ray properties of this SNR. The XMM-Newton observation confirms that the X-ray emission from G311.5−0.3 is centrally concentrated and supports the classification of this source as a mixed-morphology SNR. In addition, our joint fitting of extracted ASCA and XMM-Newton spectra favor a thermal origin for the X-ray emission over a non-thermal origin. The spectral fitting parameters for our TBABS×APEC fit to the extracted spectra are NH = 4.63+1.87 −0.85×1022 cm −2 and kT = 0.68+0.20−0.24 keV. From these fit parameters, we derive the following values for physical parameters of the SNR: ne = 0.20 cm −3, np = 0.17 cm −3, MX = 21.4 M· and P/k = 3.18×106 K cm −3.

  3. A systematic analysis of the XMM-Newton background: III. Impact of the magnetospheric environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghizzardi, Simona; Marelli, Martino; Salvetti, David; Gastaldello, Fabio; Molendi, Silvano; De Luca, Andrea; Moretti, Alberto; Rossetti, Mariachiara; Tiengo, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    A detailed characterization of the particle induced background is fundamental for many of the scientific objectives of the Athena X-ray telescope, thus an adequate knowledge of the background that will be encountered by Athena is desirable. Current X-ray telescopes have shown that the intensity of the particle induced background can be highly variable. Different regions of the magnetosphere can have very different environmental conditions, which can, in principle, differently affect the particle induced background detected by the instruments. We present results concerning the influence of the magnetospheric environment on the background detected by EPIC instrument onboard XMM-Newton through the estimate of the variation of the in-Field-of-View background excess along the XMM-Newton orbit. An important contribution to the XMM background, which may affect the Athena background as well, comes from soft proton flares. Along with the flaring component a low-intensity component is also present. We find that both show modest variations in the different magnetozones and that the soft proton component shows a strong trend with the distance from Earth.

  4. XMM-NEWTON SLEW SURVEY OBSERVATIONS OF THE GRAVITATIONAL WAVE EVENT GW150914

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troja, E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Rd, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Read, A. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Leicester University, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Tiengo, A. [Istituto Universitario di Studi Superiori, piazza della Vittoria 15, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Salvaterra, R. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Milano, INAF, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2016-05-01

    The detection of the first gravitational wave (GW) transient GW150914 prompted an extensive campaign of follow-up observations at all wavelengths. Although no dedicated XMM-Newton observations have been performed, the satellite passed through the GW150914 error region during normal operations. Here we report the analysis of the data taken during these satellite slews performed two hours and two weeks after the GW event. Our data cover 1.1 and 4.8 deg{sup 2} of the final GW localization region. No X-ray counterpart to GW150914 is found down to a sensitivity of 6 × 10{sup −13} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} in the 0.2–2 keV band. Nevertheless, these observations show the great potential of XMM-Newton slew observations for searching for the electromagnetic counterparts of GW events. A series of adjacent slews performed in response to a GW trigger would take ≲1.5 days to cover most of the typical GW credible region. We discuss this scenario and its prospects for detecting the X-ray counterpart of future GW detections.

  5. ESA's XMM-Newton gains deep insights into the distant Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    First image from the XMM-LSS survey hi-res Size hi-res: 87 kb Credits: ESA First image from the XMM-LSS survey The first image from the XMM-LSS survey is actually a combination of fourteen separate 'pointings' of the space observatory. It represents a region of the sky eight times larger than the full Moon and contains around 25 clusters. The circles represent the sources previously known from the 1991 ROSAT All-Sky Survey. A computer programme zooms in on an interesting region hi-res Size hi-res: 86 kb Credits: ESA A computer programme zooms in on an interesting region A computer programme zooms in on an interesting region of the image and identifies the possible cluster. Each point on this graph represents a single X-ray photons detected by XMM-Newton. Most come from distant actie galaxies and the computer must perform a sophisticated, statistical computation to determine which X-ray come from clusters. Contour map of clusters hi-res Size hi-res: 139 kb Credits: ESA Contour map of clusters The computer programme transforms the XMM-Newton data into a contour map of the cluster's probable extent and superimposes it over the CFHT snapshot, allowing the individual galaxies in the cluster to be targeted for further observations with ESO's VLT, to measure its distance and locate the cluster in the universe. Unlike grains of sand on a beach, matter is not uniformly spread throughout the Universe. Instead, it is concentrated into galaxies like our own which themselves congregate into clusters. These clusters are 'strung' throughout the Universe in a web-like structure. Astronomers have studied this large-scale structure of the nearby Universe but have lacked the instruments to extend the search to the large volumes of the distant Universe. Thanks to its unrivalled sensitivity, in less than three hours, ESA's X-ray observatory XMM-Newton can see back about 7000 million years to a cosmological era when the Universe was about half its present size, and clusters of galaxies

  6. XMM-NEWTON AND OPTICAL OBSERVATIONS OF CATACLYSMIC VARIABLES FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, Eric J.; Szkody, Paula; Mukadam, Anjum; Henden, Arne; Dillon, William; Schmidt, Gary D.

    2009-01-01

    We report on XMM-Newton and optical results for six cataclysmic variables that were selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra because they showed strong He II emission lines, indicative of being candidates for containing white dwarfs with strong magnetic fields. While high X-ray background rates prevented optimum results, we are able to confirm SDSS J233325.92+152222.1 as an intermediate polar from its strong pulse signature at 21 minutes and its obscured hard X-ray spectrum. Ground-based circular polarization and photometric observations were also able to confirm SDSS J142256.31 - 022108.1 as a polar with a period near 4 hr. Photometry of SDSS J083751.00+383012.5 and SDSS J093214.82+495054.7 solidifies the orbital period of the former as 3.18 hr and confirms the latter as a high-inclination system with deep eclipses.

  7. INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton observations of the puzzling binary system LSI +61 303

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyakova, Masha; Neronov, A.; Walter, R.

    LSI +61° 303 is one of the few X-ray binaries with Be star companion from which both radio and high-energy gamma-ray emission have been observed. We present XMM-Newton and INTE- GRAL observations which reveal variability of the X-ray spectral index of the system. The X-ray spectrum is hard (photon index Γ ≃ 1.5) during the orbital phases of both high and low X-ray flux. However, the spectrum softens at the moment of transition from high to low X-ray state. The spectrum of the system in the hard X-ray band does not reveal the presence of a cut-off (or, at least a spectral break) at 10-60 keV energies, expected if the compact object is an accreting neu- tron star. The observed spectrum and spectral variability can be explained if the compact object in the system is a rotation powered pulsar. In this case the recently found X-ray spectral variability of the system on the several kiloseconds time scale can be explained by the clumpy structure of the Be star disk.

  8. XMM-Newton Observations of MBM 12: More Constraints on the Solar Wind Charge Exchange and Local Bubble Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroumpa, Dimitra; Smith, Randall K.; Edgar, Richard J.; Kuntz, Kip D.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Snowden, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    We present the first analysis of an XMM-Newton observation of the nearby molecular cloud MBM 12. We find that in the direction of MBM 12 the total O VII (0.57 keV) triplet emission is 1.8(+0.5/-0.6) photons/sq cm/s/sr (or Line Units - LU) while for the O VIII (0.65 keV) line emission we find a 3(sigma) upper limit of by Solar Wind Charge-eXchange (SWCX) which we compare to the XMM-Newton observations. This comparison provides new constraints on the relative heliospheric and Local Bubble contributions to the local diffuse X-ray background. The heliospheric SWCX model predicts 0.82 LU for O VII, which accounts for approx. 46+/-15% of the observed value, and 0.33 LU for the O VIII line emission consistent with the XMM-Newton observed value. We discuss our results in combination with previous observations of the MBM 12 with CHANDRA and Suzaku.

  9. X-ray data booklet. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, D. (ed.)

    1986-04-01

    A compilation of data is presented. Included are properties of the elements, electron binding energies, characteristic x-ray energies, fluorescence yields for K and L shells, Auger energies, energy levels for hydrogen-, helium-, and neonlike ions, scattering factors and mass absorption coefficients, and transmission bands of selected filters. Also included are selected reprints on scattering processes, x-ray sources, optics, x-ray detectors, and synchrotron radiation facilities. (WRF)

  10. XMM-Newton Observations of NGC 253: Resolving the Emission Components in the Disk and Nuclear Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, W.; Borozdin, K. N.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Cappi, M.; Ehle, M.; Ferrando, P.; Freyberg, M. J.; Kahn, S. M.; Ponman, T. J.; Ptak, A.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the first XMM-Newton observations of the starburst galaxy NGC 253. As known from previous X-ray observations, NGC 253 shows a mixture of extended (disk and halo) and point-source emission. The high XMM-Newton throughput allows for the first time a detailed investigation of the spatial, spectral and variability properties of these components simultaneously. We detect a bright X-ray transient approx. 70 sec SSW of the nucleus and show the spectrum and light curve of the brightest point source (approx. 30 sec S of the nucleus, most likely a black-hole X-ray binary, BHXRB). The unprecedented combination of RGS and EPIC also sheds new light on the emission of the complex nuclear region, the X-ray plume and the disk diffuse emission. In particular, EPIC images reveal that the limb-brightening of the plume is mostly seen in higher ionization emission lines, while in the lower ionization lines, and below 0.5 keV, the plume is more homo- geneously structured, pointing to new interpretations as to the make up of the starburst-driven outflow. Assuming that type IIa supernova remnants (SNRs) are mostly responsible for the E greater than 4 keV emission, the detection with EPIC of the 6.7 keV line allows us to estimate a supernova rate within the nuclear starburst of 0.2 /yr.

  11. Swift , XMM - Newton , and NuSTAR Observations of PSR J2032+4127/MT91 213

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kong, A. K. H. [Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Tam, P. H. T. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai 519082 (China); Hou, X. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 396 Yangfangwang, Guandu District, Kunming 650216 (China); Takata, J. [Institute of Particle Physics and Astronomy, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (China); Hui, C. Y., E-mail: liliray@pa.msu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-10

    We report our recent Swift , NuSTAR , and XMM - Newton X-ray and Lijiang optical observations on PSR J2032+4127/MT91 213, the γ -ray binary candidate with a period of 45–50 years. The coming periastron of the system was predicted to be in 2017 November, around which high-energy flares from keV to TeV are expected. Recent studies with Chandra and Swift X-ray observations taken in 2015/2016 showed that its X-ray emission has been brighter by a factors of ∼10 than that before 2013, probably revealing some ongoing activities between the pulsar wind and the stellar wind. Our new Swift /XRT lightcurve shows no strong evidence of a single vigorous brightening trend, but rather several strong X-ray flares on weekly to monthly timescales with a slowly brightening baseline, namely the low state. The NuSTAR and XMM - Newton observations taken during the flaring and the low states, respectively, show a denser environment and a softer power-law index during the flaring state, implying that the pulsar wind interacted with the stronger stellar winds of the companion to produce the flares. These precursors would be crucial in studying the predicted giant outburst from this extreme γ -ray binary during the periastron passage in late 2017.

  12. XMM-Newton Observation of IGR J18538-0102 and an Optical/IR Candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, J. P.; Gotthelf, E. V.

    2010-02-01

    We observed the X-ray counterpart of IGR J18538-0102 (Stephen et al., ATel #2441) in a pointed observation with XMM-Newton on 2004 October 8. This apparently steady source (in an 8 ks exposure) can be fitted with a power-law model of photon index 1.7+/-0.1, NH = (1.5+/-0.2)e22 cm-2, and unabsorbed 1-10 keV flux 5.6e-12 erg cm-2 s-1. Its coordinates 18h53m48.50s, -01d02'30.0" (J2000), with 90% confidence error radius of 3.2", coincide with an object in the 2MASS Point Source Catalog at 18h53m48.48s, -01d02'29.6" of magnitudes H=14.00+/-0.05 and K=12.50+/-0.05.

  13. THE FIFTH DATA RELEASE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY/XMM-NEWTON QUASAR SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.; Elvis, M.; Risaliti, G.

    2009-01-01

    We present a catalog of 792 Fifth Data Release Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars with optical spectra that have been observed serendipitously in the X-rays with the XMM-Newton. These quasars cover a redshift range of z = 0.11-5.41 and a magnitude range of i = 15.3-20.7. Substantial numbers of radio-loud (70) and broad absorption line (51) quasars exist within this sample. Significant X-ray detections at ≥2σ account for 87% of the sample (685 quasars), and 473 quasars are detected at ≥6σ, sufficient to allow X-ray spectral fits. For detected sources, ∼60% have X-ray fluxes between F 2-10keV = (1-10) x10 -14 erg cm -2 s -1 . We fit a single power law, a fixed power law with intrinsic absorption left free to vary, and an absorbed power-law model to all quasars with X-ray signal-to-noise ratio ≥ 6, resulting in a weighted mean photon index Γ = 1.91 ± 0.08, with an intrinsic dispersion σ Γ = 0.38. For the 55 sources (11.6%) that prefer intrinsic absorption, we find a weighted mean N H = 1.5 ± 0.3 x 10 21 cm -2 . We find that Γ correlates significantly with optical color, Δ(g - i), the optical-to-X-ray spectral index (α ox ), and the X-ray luminosity. While the first two correlations can be explained as artifacts of undetected intrinsic absorption, the correlation between Γ and X-ray luminosity appears to be a real physical correlation, indicating a pivot in the X-ray slope.

  14. Searching for Decaying Dark Matter in Deep XMM-Newton Observation of the Draco Dwarf Spheroidal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchayskiy, Oleg; Boyardsky, Alex; Iakbovskyi, Dmytro; Bulbul, Esra; Eckert, Domique; Franse, Jeron; Malyshev, Denys; Markevitch, Maxim; Neronov, Andrii

    2016-01-01

    We present results of a search for the 3.5 keV emission line in our recent very long (approx. 1.4 Ms) XMM-Newton observation of the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy. The astrophysical X-ray emission from such dark matter-dominated galaxies is faint, thus they provide a test for the dark matter origin of the 3.5 keV line previously detected in other massive, but X-ray bright objects, such as galaxies and galaxy clusters. We do not detect a statistically significant emission line from Draco; this constrains the lifetime of a decaying dark matter particle to tau >(7-9) × 10(exp 27) s at 95% CL (combining all three XMM-Newton cameras; the interval corresponds to the uncertainty of the dark matter column density in the direction of Draco). The PN camera, which has the highest sensitivity of the three, does show a positive spectral residual (above the carefully modeled continuum) at E = 3.54 +/- 0.06 keV with a 2.3(sigma) significance. The two MOS cameras show less-significant or no positive deviations, consistently within 1(sigma) with PN. Our Draco limit on tau is consistent with previous detections in the stacked galaxy clusters, M31 and the Galactic Centre within their 1 - 2(sigma) uncertainties, but is inconsistent with the high signal from the core of the Perseus cluster (which has itself been inconsistent with the rest of the detections). We conclude that this Draco observation does not exclude the dark matter interpretation of the 3.5 keV line in those objects.

  15. Multi-wavelength study of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3783 with XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Blustin, A J; Behar, E; Kaastra, J S; Kahn, S M; Page, M J; Sako, M; Steenbrugge, K C

    2002-01-01

    We present the analysis of multi-wavelength XMM-Newton data from the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3783, including UV imaging, X-ray and UV lightcurves, the 0.2-10 keV X-ray continuum, the iron K-alpha emission line, and high-resolution spectroscopy and modelling of the soft X-ray warm absorber. The 0.2-10 keV spectral continuum can be well reproduced by a power-law at higher energies; we detect a prominent Fe K-alpha emission line, with both broad and narrow components, and a weaker emission line at 6.9 keV which is probably a combination of Fe K-beta and Fe XXVI. We interpret the significant deficit of counts in the soft X-ray region as being due to absorption by ionised gas in the line of sight. This is demonstrated by the large number of narrow absorption lines in the RGS spectrum from iron, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, neon, argon, magnesium, silicon and sulphur. The wide range of iron states present in the spectrum enables us to deduce the ionisation structure of the absorbing medium. We find that our spectrum contai...

  16. An Archival Chandra and XMM-Newton Survey of Type 2 Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jianjun; Ptak, Andrew Francis; Heckman, Timothy; Zakamska, Nadia L.

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate obscuration in high-luminosity type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we analyzed Chandra and XMM-Newton archival observations for 71 type 2 quasars detected at 0.05 100 eV in the rest frame) and we detect this line in the other sources through a joint fit (spectral stacking). The correlation between the Fe K alpha and [O III] fluxes and the inverse correlation of the equivalent width of the Fe Ka line with the ratio of hard X-ray and [O III] fluxes is consistent with previous results for lower luminosity Seyfert 2 galaxies. We conclude that obscuration is the cause of the weak hard X-ray emission rather than intrinsically low X-ray luminosities. We find that about half of the population of optically selected type 2 quasars are likely to be Compton thick. We also find no evidence that the amount of X-ray obscuration depends on the AGN luminosity (over a range of more than three orders of magnitude in luminosity).

  17. A DEEP XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATION OF THE QUASAR 3C 287

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvesen, G.; Miller, J. M.; Cackett, E.; Siemiginowska, A.

    2009-01-01

    We report on an XMM-Newton observation of the z = 1.055 quasar and Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) source 3C 287. Our 62.3 ks observation provides an exceptional X-ray view of a prominent member of this important subclass of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The X-ray spectra of 3C 287 are consistent with a simple absorbed power law with a spectral index of Γ = 1.72 ± 0.02. Our fits imply a bolometric luminosity of L = 5.8 ± 0.2 x 10 45 erg s -1 over the 0.3-10.0 keV band; this gives a mass lower limit of M BHmin ≥ 4.6 x 10 7 M sun assuming X-rays contribute 10% of the bolometric luminosity and radiation at the Eddington limit. Iron emission lines are common in the X-ray spectra of many AGNs, but the observed spectra appear to rule out strong emission lines in 3C 287. The simple power-law spectrum and the absence of strong emission lines may support a picture where our line of sight intersects a relativistic jet. Milliarcsecond radio imaging of 3C 287 appears to support this interpretation. We discuss our results in the context of different AGNs subclasses and the possibility that GPS sources harbor newly formed black hole jets.

  18. The Milky Way's central black hole and its environment: high energy observations with Integral and XMM-Newton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belanger, Guillaume

    2006-01-01

    The main subject of this doctoral thesis of the supermassive black hole at the centre of the Milky Way galaxy: SgrA*. The means by which the study of this object and the various astrophysical systems that populate the core of the Galaxy was carried out, is through high energy observations of the region with the space observatories XMM-Newton and INTEGRAL. With XMM-Newton, I was able to focus in on the radiation from processes closely tied to the central black hole itself, and in particular, perform a detailed study the spectral and temporal characteristics of the emission during X-ray ares originating very near the event horizon of this massive black hole. Of the two X-ray ares detected by XMM-Newton in March and August 2004, both of which reached peak luminosities of 10"3"5 ergs s"-"1, corresponding to roughly a factor of 40 above the quiescent X-ray luminosity, the latter proved to be very interesting indeed. This flaring event lasted nearly 10 ks, hence allowing a meaningful investigation of the possible periodic or semi-periodic quality of the emission. A fine power spectral analysis uncovered the clear presence of a semi-periodic signal centred on 1330 s (22.2 min). The theoretical statistical probability that this peak in the periodogram is caused by random fluctuations in a white noise background is 10"-"1"0. The probability is found to be 10"-"6, when calculated empirically using simulations of event lists having the same statistical properties as the are data itself. This is the most convincing result yet; some ares in SgrA* exhibit semi-periodic qualities. With INTEGRAL, I have brought to light the first detection of soft-rays above 20 keV from the central parsecs of the Galaxy. The central portion of the Galaxy was observed extensively and with the analysis of the first two years of data obtained with INTEGRAL, the central Galactic centre source, IGR J17456-2901, was found to be weak but persistent, with a 20-200 keV luminosity of L≅5*10"3"5 ergs s"-"1

  19. Soft X-ray excess in the cluster of galaxies Sérsic 159-03

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Plaa, J.; Kaastra, J.S.; Méndez, R.M.; Tamura, T.; Bleeker, J.A.M.; Peterson, J.; Paerels, F.B.S.; Bonamente, M.; Lieu, R.

    2004-01-01

    We present the results from a new 120 ks XMM-Newton observation of Sérsic 159-03. A previous XMM-Newton observation of this cluster shows the presence of a soft X-ray excess in the outer parts of the cluster, which is possibly connected to the interaction between the cluster and the gas from the

  20. Nine Years of XMM-Newton Pipeline: Experience and Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Laurent; Motch, Christian

    2009-05-01

    The Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory is member of the Survey Science Centre (SSC) of the XMM-Newton satellite. Among other responsibilities, we provide a database access to the 2XMMi catalogue and run the part of the data processing pipeline performing the cross-correlation of EPIC sources with archival catalogs. These tasks were all developed in Strasbourg. Pipeline processing is flawlessly in operation since 1999. We describe here the work load and infrastructure setup in Strasbourg to support SSC activities. Our nine year long SSC experience could be used in the framework of the Simbol-X ground segment.

  1. Nine Years of XMM-Newton Pipeline: Experience and Feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Laurent; Motch, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory is member of the Survey Science Centre (SSC) of the XMM-Newton satellite. Among other responsibilities, we provide a database access to the 2XMMi catalogue and run the part of the data processing pipeline performing the cross-correlation of EPIC sources with archival catalogs. These tasks were all developed in Strasbourg. Pipeline processing is flawlessly in operation since 1999. We describe here the work load and infrastructure setup in Strasbourg to support SSC activities. Our nine year long SSC experience could be used in the framework of the Simbol-X ground segment.

  2. New Gener. High-Energy Spectra of the Blazar 3C 279 with XMM-Newton and GLAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collmar, Werner

    2007-10-01

    We propose two 20 ksec XMM-Newton observations of the X-ray bright gamma-ray blazar 3C~279 simultaneous with GLAST/LAT. The main goal is to measure its X-ray properties (spectrum, variability) in order to (1) improve our knowledge on the X-ray emission of the blazar, and (2) to supplement and correlate them to simultaneous GLAST/LAT Gamma-ray observations (30 MeV-300 GeV). Simultaneous GLAST observations of 3C 279 are guaranteed (assuming proper operation then). The high-energy data will be supplemented by ground-based measurements, adding finally up to multifrequency spectra which have unprecedented accuracy and will extend up to high-energy gamma-rays. Such high-quality SEDs will provide severe constraints on their modeling and have the potential to discriminate among models.

  3. Black Holes in Bulgeless Galaxies: An XMM-Newton Investigation of NGC 3367 AND NGC 4536

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, W.; Satyapal, S.; Gliozzi, M.; Cheung, C. C.; Sambruna, R. M.; Eracleous, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of optically identified active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the local Universe reside in host galaxies with prominent bulges, supporting the hypothesis that black hole formation and growth is fundamentally connected to the build-up of galaxy bulges. However, recent mid-infrared spectroscopic studies with Spitzer of a sample of optically "normal" late-type galaxies reveal remarkably the presence of high-ionization [NeV] lines in several sources, providing strong evidence for AGNs in these galaxies. We present follow-up X-ray observations recently obtained with XMM-Newton of two such sources, the late-type optically normal galaxies NGC 3367 and NGC 4536. Both sources are detected in our observations. Detailed spectral analysis reveals that for both galaxies, the 2-10 keV emission is dominated by a power law with an X-ray luminosity in the L(sub 2- 10 keV) approximates 10(exp 39) - 10(exp 40) ergs/s range, consistent with low luminosity AGNs. While there is a possibility that X-ray binaries account for some fraction of the observed X-ray luminosity, we argue that this fraction is negligible. These observations therefore add to the growing evidence that the fraction of late-type galaxies hosting AGNs is significantly underestimated using optical observations alone. A comparison of the midinfrared [NeV] luminosity and the X-ray luminosities suggests the presence of an additional highly absorbed X-ray source in both galaxies, and that the black hole masses are in the range of 10(exp 5) - 10(exp 7) solar M for NGC 3367 and 10(exp 4) - (exp 10) solar M for NGC 4536

  4. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton Observations of the 2015 Outburst Decay of GX 339-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiele, H.; Kong, A. K. H., E-mail: hstiele@mx.nthu.edu.tw [National Tsing Hua University, Department of Physics and Institute of Astronomy, No. 101 Sect. 2 Kuang-Fu Road, 30013, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2017-07-20

    The extent of the accretion disk in the low/hard state of stellar mass black hole X-ray binaries remains an open question. There is some evidence suggesting that the inner accretion disk is truncated and replaced by a hot flow, while the detection of relativistic broadened iron emission lines seems to require an accretion disk extending fully to the innermost stable circular orbit. We present comprehensive spectral and timing analyses of six Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array and XMM-Newton observations of GX 339–4 taken during outburst decay in the autumn of 2015. Using a spectral model consisting of a thermal accretion disk, Comptonized emission, and a relativistic reflection component, we obtain a decreasing photon index, consistent with an X-ray binary during outburst decay. Although we observe a discrepancy in the inner radius of the accretion disk and that of the reflector, which can be attributed to the different underlying assumptions in each model, both model components indicate a truncated accretion disk that resiles with decreasing luminosity. The evolution of the characteristic frequency in Fourier power spectra and their missing energy dependence support the interpretation of a truncated and evolving disk in the hard state. The XMM-Newton data set allowed us to study, for the first time, the evolution of the covariance spectra and ratio during outburst decay. The covariance ratio increases and steeps during outburst decay, consistent with increased disk instabilities.

  5. An X-ray and optical study of the ultracompact X-ray binary A 1246-58

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    in 't Zand, J.J.M.; Bassa, C.G.; Jonker, P.G.; Keek, L.; Verbunt, F.W.M.; Méndez, M.; Markwardt, C.B.

    2008-01-01

    Results are discussed of an X-ray and optical observation campaign of the low-mass X-ray binary A 1246-58 performed with instruments on Satellite per Astronomia X ("BeppoSAX"), the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), the X-ray Multi-mirror Mission ("XMM-Newton"), the Swift mission, and the Very

  6. The XMM-Newton spectrum of a candidate recoiling supermassive black hole: An elusive inverted P-Cygni profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzuisi, G.; Civano, F.; Marchesi, S.; Hickox, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03855 (United States); Comastri, A.; Cappelluti, N. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Costantini, E. [SRON, Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan, 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Elvis, M.; Fruscione, A. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mainieri, V. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Jahnke, K. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Komossa, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Piconcelli, E. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Vignali, C.; Brusa, M. [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universitá degli Studi di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-11-20

    We present a detailed spectral analysis of new XMM-Newton data of the source CXOC J100043.1+020637, also known as CID-42, detected in the COSMOS survey at z = 0.359. Previous works suggested that CID-42 is a candidate recoiling supermassive black hole (SMBH) showing also an inverted P-Cygni profile in the X-ray spectra at ∼6 keV (rest) with an iron emission line plus a redshifted absorption line (detected at 3σ in previous XMM-Newton and Chandra observations). Detailed analysis of the absorption line suggested the presence of ionized material flowing into the black hole at high velocity. In the new long XMM-Newton observation, while the overall spectral shape remains constant, the continuum 2-10 keV flux decrease of ∼20% with respect to previous observation and the absorption line is undetected. The upper limit on the intensity of the absorption line is EW < 162 eV. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations show that the nondetection of the line is solely due to variation in the properties of the inflowing material, in agreement with the transient nature of these features, and that the intensity of the line is lower than the previously measured with a probability of 98.8%. In the scenario of CID-42 as a recoiling SMBH, the absorption line can be interpreted as being due to an inflow of gas with variable density that is located in the proximity of the SMBH and recoiling with it. New monitoring observations will be requested to further characterize this line.

  7. Catalog of 3 < z < 5.5 Quasar Candidates Selected among XMM-Newton Sources and Its Spectroscopic Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khorunzhev, Georgii; Sazonov, Sergey; Burenin, Rodion [High Energy Astrophysics, Space Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Eselevich, Maxim, E-mail: horge@iki.rssi.ru [Laboratory of Infrared Methods in Astrophysics, Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-11-13

    We have compiled a catalog of 903 quasar candidates (including known quasars) at 3 < z < 5.5 selected among X-ray sources from the XMM-Newton serendipitous survey (3XMM-DR4 catalog). We used photometric SDSS, 2MASS, and WISE data to select the objects. The surface number density of objects in our sample exceeds that in the SDSS spectroscopic quasar sample at the same redshifts by a factor of 1.5. We have performed spectroscopic observations of a subsample of new quasar candidates using a new low- and medium-resolution spectrograph at the 1.6-m AZT-33IK telescope (Mondy, Russia) and demonstrated that the purity of these candidates is about 65%. We have discovered one of the most distant (z = 5.08) X-ray selected quasars.

  8. Catalog of 3 < z < 5.5 Quasar Candidates Selected among XMM-Newton Sources and Its Spectroscopic Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgii Khorunzhev

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We have compiled a catalog of 903 quasar candidates (including known quasars at 3 < z < 5.5 selected among X-ray sources from the XMM-Newton serendipitous survey (3XMM-DR4 catalog. We used photometric SDSS, 2MASS, and WISE data to select the objects. The surface number density of objects in our sample exceeds that in the SDSS spectroscopic quasar sample at the same redshifts by a factor of 1.5. We have performed spectroscopic observations of a subsample of new quasar candidates using a new low- and medium-resolution spectrograph at the 1.6-m AZT-33IK telescope (Mondy, Russia and demonstrated that the purity of these candidates is about 65%. We have discovered one of the most distant (z = 5.08 X-ray selected quasars.

  9. XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATION OF THE VERY OLD PULSAR J0108-1431

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posselt, B.; Arumugasamy, P.; Pavlov, G. G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Manchester, R. N.; Shannon, R. M. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Kargaltsev, O., E-mail: posselt@psu.edu [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2012-12-20

    We report on an X-ray observation of the 166 Myr old radio pulsar J0108-1431 with XMM-Newton. The X-ray spectrum can be described by a power-law model with a relatively steep photon index {Gamma} Almost-Equal-To 3 or by a combination of thermal and non-thermal components, e.g., a power-law component with fixed photon index {Gamma} = 2 plus a blackbody component with a temperature of kT = 0.11 keV. The two-component model appears more reasonable considering different estimates for the hydrogen column density N{sub H}. The non-thermal X-ray efficiency in the single power-law model is {eta}{sup PL}{sub 1-10{sub keV}}= L{sup PL}{sub 1-10{sub keV}}/ E-dot {approx}0.003, higher than in most other X-ray-detected pulsars. In the case of the combined model, the non-thermal and thermal X-ray efficiencies are even higher, {eta}{sup PL}{sub 1-10{sub keV}}{approx}{eta}{sup bb}{sub PC}{approx}0.006. We detected X-ray pulsations at the radio period of P Almost-Equal-To 0.808 s with significance of Almost-Equal-To 7{sigma}. The pulse shape in the folded X-ray light curve (0.15-2 keV) is asymmetric, with statistically significant contributions from up to five leading harmonics. Pulse profiles at two different energy ranges differ slightly: the profile is asymmetric at low energies, 0.15-1 keV, while at higher energies, 1-2 keV, it has a nearly sinusoidal shape. The radio pulse peak leads the 0.15-2 keV X-ray pulse peak by {phi} = 0.06 {+-} 0.03.

  10. XMM-Newton On-demand Reprocessing Using SaaS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, A.; Fajersztejn, N.; Loiseau, N.; Gabriel, C.

    2014-05-01

    We present here the architectural design of the new on-the-fly reprocessing capabilities that will be soon developed and implemented in the new XMM-Newton Science Operation Centre. The inclusion of processing capabilities into the archive, as we plan, will be possible thanks to the recent refurbishment of the XMM-Newton science archive, its alignment with the latest web technologies and the XMM-Newton Remote Interface for Science Analysis (RISA), a revolutionary idea of providing processing capabilities through internet services.

  11. On-the-fly XMM-Newton Spacecraft Data Reduction on the Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ibarra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the first prototype of a XMM-Newton pipeline processing task, parallelized at a CCD level, which can be run in a Grid system. By using the Grid Way application and the XMM-Newton Science Archive system, the processing of the XMM-Newton data is distributed across the Virtual Organization (VO constituted by three different research centres: ESAC (European Space Astronomy Centre, ESTEC (the European Space research and TEchnology Centre and UCM (Complutense University of Madrid. The proposed application workflow adjusts well to the Grid environment, making use of the massive parallel resources in a flexible and adaptive fashion.

  12. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of luminous, heavily obscured, WISE-selected quasars at z ∼ 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Del Moro, A.; Gandhi, P. [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Assef, R. J. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Brandt, W. N.; Griffith, R. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Ballantyne, D. R. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Baloković, M.; Bridge, C. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bauer, F. E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Benford, D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Blain, A. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, 1 University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Brightman, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748, Garching bei München (Germany); Christensen, F. E. [Danish Technical University, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Comastri, A., E-mail: daniel.k.stern@jpl.nasa.gov [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127, Bologna (Italy); and others

    2014-10-20

    We report on a NuSTAR and XMM-Newton program that has observed a sample of three extremely luminous, heavily obscured WISE-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z ∼ 2 across a broad X-ray band (0.1 – 79 keV). The parent sample, selected to be faint or undetected in the WISE 3.4 μm (W1) and 4.6 μm (W2) bands but bright at 12 μm (W3) and 22 μm (W4), are extremely rare, with only ∼1000 so-called 'W1W2-dropouts' across the extragalactic sky. Optical spectroscopy reveals typical redshifts of z ∼ 2 for this population, implying rest-frame mid-IR luminosities of νL {sub ν}(6 μm) ∼ 6 × 10{sup 46} erg s{sup –1} and bolometric luminosities that can exceed L {sub bol} ∼ 10{sup 14} L {sub ☉}. The corresponding intrinsic, unobscured hard X-ray luminosities are L(2-10 keV) ∼ 4 × 10{sup 45} erg s{sup –1} for typical quasar templates. These are among the most AGNs known, though the optical spectra rarely show evidence of a broad-line region and the selection criteria imply heavy obscuration even at rest-frame 1.5 μm. We designed our X-ray observations to obtain robust detections for gas column densities N {sub H} ≤ 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}. In fact, the sources prove to be fainter than these predictions. Two of the sources were observed by both NuSTAR and XMM-Newton, with neither being detected by NuSTAR (f {sub 3-24} {sub keV} ≲ 10{sup –13} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}), and one being faintly detected by XMM-Newton (f {sub 0.5-10} {sub keV} ∼ 5 × 10{sup –15} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}). A third source was observed only with XMM-Newton, yielding a faint detection (f {sub 0.5-10} {sub keV} ∼ 7 × 10{sup –15} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}). The X-ray data imply these sources are either X-ray weak, or are heavily obscured by column densities N {sub H} ≳ 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}. The combined X-ray and mid-IR analysis seems to favor this second possibility, implying the sources are extremely obscured, consistent with Compton

  13. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of luminous, heavily obscured, WISE-selected quasars at z ∼ 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Del Moro, A.; Gandhi, P.; Assef, R. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Griffith, R. L.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Baloković, M.; Bridge, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a NuSTAR and XMM-Newton program that has observed a sample of three extremely luminous, heavily obscured WISE-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z ∼ 2 across a broad X-ray band (0.1 – 79 keV). The parent sample, selected to be faint or undetected in the WISE 3.4 μm (W1) and 4.6 μm (W2) bands but bright at 12 μm (W3) and 22 μm (W4), are extremely rare, with only ∼1000 so-called 'W1W2-dropouts' across the extragalactic sky. Optical spectroscopy reveals typical redshifts of z ∼ 2 for this population, implying rest-frame mid-IR luminosities of νL ν (6 μm) ∼ 6 × 10 46 erg s –1 and bolometric luminosities that can exceed L bol ∼ 10 14 L ☉ . The corresponding intrinsic, unobscured hard X-ray luminosities are L(2-10 keV) ∼ 4 × 10 45 erg s –1 for typical quasar templates. These are among the most AGNs known, though the optical spectra rarely show evidence of a broad-line region and the selection criteria imply heavy obscuration even at rest-frame 1.5 μm. We designed our X-ray observations to obtain robust detections for gas column densities N H ≤ 10 24 cm –2 . In fact, the sources prove to be fainter than these predictions. Two of the sources were observed by both NuSTAR and XMM-Newton, with neither being detected by NuSTAR (f 3-24 keV ≲ 10 –13 erg cm –2 s –1 ), and one being faintly detected by XMM-Newton (f 0.5-10 keV ∼ 5 × 10 –15 erg cm –2 s –1 ). A third source was observed only with XMM-Newton, yielding a faint detection (f 0.5-10 keV ∼ 7 × 10 –15 erg cm –2 s –1 ). The X-ray data imply these sources are either X-ray weak, or are heavily obscured by column densities N H ≳ 10 24 cm –2 . The combined X-ray and mid-IR analysis seems to favor this second possibility, implying the sources are extremely obscured, consistent with Compton-thick, luminous quasars. The discovery of a significant population of heavily obscured, extremely luminous AGNs would not conform to the standard

  14. X-ray reflection in oxygen-rich accretion discs of ultracompact X-ray binaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madej, O. K.; Garcia, Jeronimo; Jonker, P. G.

    2014-01-01

    We present spectroscopic X-ray data of two candidate ultracompact X-ray binaries (UCXBs): 4U 0614+091 and 4U 1543-624. We confirm the presence of a broad O viii Ly alpha reflection line (at a parts per thousand 18 angstrom) using XMM-Newton and Chandra observations obtained in 2012 and 2013. The ...

  15. ESA's XMM-Newton sees matter speed-racing around a black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    shift and resembles that used by the police to catch speeding motorists. As an object moves towards us, the frequency or energy of its light rises. Conversely, the energy falls as the object moves away. This is the ‘Doppler effect’ and a similar phenomenon happens with the changing pitch of a police siren. If it is approaching, the frequency of the sound is higher, but if it is receding the frequency is lower. "We think we are viewing the accretion disc at a slightly tilted angle, so we see the light from each of these flares rise and fall in energy as they orbit the black hole," Miller said. By studying the pattern with which the light from the clumps rises and falls in energy, scientists could also determine the mass of the black hole and the viewing angle of the accretion disc. With a known mass and orbital period, Turner and her team could determine the speed of the clumps using relatively simple Newtonian physics. Two factors made the measurement possible. One is that XMM-Newton captured particularly persistent flares during a long observation, lasting nearly 27 hours. Equally crucial is the unprecedented light collecting power of XMM-Newton, which allowed scientists to look at how energy from the clumps changed over time. Turner said this observation confirms a preliminary XMM-Newton result, announced in September 2004 by a European team led by Dr Kazushi Iwasawa of the Institute of Astronomy in Cambridge, United Kingdom, that something as detailed as an orbital period could be detected with the current generation of X-ray observatories. The combination of results indicates that scientists, given long observation times, are now able to make careful black hole measurements and even test general relativity in the domain of extreme gravity.

  16. Chandra and XMM-Newton Observations of the Abell 3395/Abell 3391 Intercluster Filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Gabriella E.; Randall, Scott W.; Bourdin, Hervé; Jones, Christine; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly

    2018-05-01

    We present Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations of the Abell 3391/Abell 3395 intercluster filament. It has been suggested that the galaxy clusters Abell 3395, Abell 3391, and the galaxy group ESO-161 -IG 006 located between the two clusters, are in alignment along a large-scale intercluster filament. We find that the filament is aligned close to the plane of the sky, in contrast to previous results. We find a global projected filament temperature kT = {4.45}-0.55+0.89 keV, electron density {n}e={1.08}-0.05+0.06× {10}-4 cm‑3, and {M}gas}={2.7}-0.1+0.2 × {10}13 M ⊙. The thermodynamic properties of the filament are consistent with that of the intracluster medium (ICM) of Abell 3395 and Abell 3391, suggesting that the filament emission is dominated by ICM gas that has been tidally disrupted during an early stage merger between these two clusters. We present temperature, density, entropy, and abundance profiles across the filament. We find that the galaxy group ESO-161 may be undergoing ram-pressure-stripping in the low-density environment at or near the virial radius of both clusters, due to its rapid motion through the filament.

  17. Cooling out the radiation damage on the XMM-Newton EPIC MOS CCDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbey, A.F. E-mail: afa@star.le.ac.uk; Bennie, P.J.; Turner, M.J.L.; Altieri, B.; Rives, S

    2003-11-01

    The X-ray astronomy satellite XMM-Newton has been in an orbit taking it through the trapped radiation belts and direct solar proton flux during the peak of the current solar cycle for over two and a half years. The MOS CCD detectors (E2 V CCD22's) have degraded in charge transfer efficiency (CTE) as a result of damage created by high energy protons. Corrections for CTE in ground software have managed to restore most of the energy loss generated by the trapping sites, but the detector energy resolution has widened due to imperfect correction methods and the statistical noise generated by charge trapping. The detectors have been at -100 deg. C since launch, and they are qualified to operate down to -130 deg. C. Similar CCDs have been irradiated on the ground with 10 MeV protons and it was believed that the devices in orbit, although irradiated by much lower fluxes for longer times should exhibit the same improved CTE at lower temperatures. There was also concern that contrary to test devices on the ground, the devices in orbit had been almost continually cold for over 2 years and many bright pixels had developed giving a signal even at -100 deg. C, due possibly to radiation and the impact of micro-meteoroids. Cooling the CCDs in XMM to -120 deg. C demonstrated the expected improvement, and we intend to run both MOS cameras at the new temperature later in the year.

  18. Phase-resolved XMM-Newton and swift observations of WR 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, J. C.; Pandey, S. B.; Karmakar, Subhajeet, E-mail: jeewan@aries.res.in [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES), Nainital 263 002 (India)

    2014-06-10

    We present an analysis of long-term X-ray and optical observations of the Wolf-Rayet binary, WR 25. Using archival data from observations with the XMM-Newton and the Swift observatories, spanning over ∼10 yr, we show that WR 25 is a periodic variable in X-rays with a period of 208 ± 3 days. X-ray light curves in the 0.5-10.0 keV energy band show phase-locked variability, where the flux increased by a factor of ∼2 from minimum to maximum, being maximum near periastron passage. The light curve in the soft energy band (0.5-2.0 keV) shows two minima indicating the presence of two eclipses. However, the light curve in the hard energy band (2.0-10.0 keV) shows only one minimum during the apastron passage. The X-ray spectra of WR 25 were explained by a two-temperature plasma model. Both the cool and the hot plasmas were constant at 0.628 ± 0.008 and 2.75 ± 0.06 keV throughout an orbital cycle, where the cooler plasma could be due to small scale shocks in a radiation-driven outflow and the high temperature plasma could be due to the collision of winds. The column density varied with the orbital phase and was found to be maximum after the periastron passage, when the WN star is in front of the O star. The abundances of WR 25 were found to be non-solar. Optical V-band data of WR 25 also show the phase-locked variability, being at maximum near periastron passage. The results based on the present analysis indicate that WR 25 is a colliding wind binary where the presence of soft X-rays is attributed to individual components; however, hard X-rays are due to the collision of winds.

  19. Spectral re-distribution and surface loss effects in Swift XRT (XMM-Newton EPIC) MOS CCDs

    CERN Document Server

    Short, A D; Turner, M J L

    2002-01-01

    In the course of testing and selecting the EPIC MOS CCDs for the XMM-Newton observatory, the developed a Monte-Carlo model of the CCD response. Among other things, this model was used to investigate surface loss effects evident at low energies. By fitting laboratory data, these losses were characterised as a simple function of X-ray interaction depth and this result enabled the spectral re-distribution itself to be modelled as a simple analytical function. Subsequently, this analytical function has been used to generate the response matrix for the EPIC MOS instruments and will now be employed to model the spectral re-distribution for the Swift XRT CCD.

  20. Quiet but still bright: XMM-Newton observations of the soft gamma-ray repeater SGR 0526-66

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiengo, A.; Esposito, P.; Mereghetti, S.; Esposito, P.; Israel, G.L.; Stella, L.; Turolla, R.; Turolla, R.; Zane, S.; Rea, N.; Gotz, D.; Feroci, M.

    2009-01-01

    SGR 0526-66 was the first soft gamma-ray repeater from which a giant flare was detected in 1979 March, suggesting the existence of magnetars, i.e. neutron stars powered by the decay of their extremely strong magnetic field. Since then, very little information has been obtained on this object, mainly because it has been burst inactive since 1983 and the study of its persistent X-ray emission has been hampered by its large distance and its location in a X-ray bright supernova remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Here, we report on a comprehensive analysis of all the available XMM-Newton observations of SGR 0526-66. In particular, thanks to a deep observation taken in 2007, we measured its pulsation period (P = 8.0544 ± 0.0002 s) 6 years after its latest detection by Chandra. This allowed us to detect for the first time a significant reduction of its spin-down rate. From a comparison with two shorter XMM-Newton observations performed in 2000 and 2001, we found no significant changes in the spectrum, which is well modelled by an absorbed power law with nH = 4.6E+21 cm -2 and photon index = 3.27. The high luminosity about 4E+35 erg/s, in the 1-10 keV energy band) still observed about 25 years after the latest detection of bursting activity places SGR 0526-66 in the group of bright and persistent magnetar candidates. (authors)

  1. NuSTAR + XMM-Newton monitoring of the neutron star transient AX J1745.6-2901

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, G.; Bianchi, S.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; Mori, K.; De, K.; Rau, A.; De Marco, B.; Hailey, C.; Tomsick, J.; Madsen, K. K.; Clavel, M.; Rahoui, F.; Lal, D. V.; Roy, S.; Stern, D.

    2018-01-01

    AX J1745.6-2901 is a high-inclination (eclipsing) transient neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binary showcasing intense ionized Fe K absorption. We present here the analysis of 11 XMM-Newton and 15 NuSTAR new data sets (obtained between 2013 and 2016), therefore tripling the number of observations of AX J1745.6-2901 in outburst. Thanks to simultaneous XMM-Newton and NuSTAR spectra, we greatly improve on the fitting of the X-ray continuum. During the soft state, the emission can be described by a disc blackbody (kT ∼ 1.1-1.2 keV and inner disc radius rDBB ∼ 14 km), plus hot (kT ∼ 2.2-3.0 keV) blackbody radiation with a small emitting radius (rBB ∼ 0.5 - 0.8 km) likely associated with the boundary layer or NS surface, plus a faint Comptonization component. Imprinted on the spectra are clear absorption features created by both neutral and ionized matter. Additionally, positive residuals suggestive of an emission Fe K α disc line and consistent with relativistic ionized reflection are present during the soft state, while such residuals are not significant during the hard state. The hard-state spectra are characterized by a hard (Γ ∼ 1.9-2.1) power law, showing no evidence for a high energy cut-off (kTe > 60-140 keV) and implying a small optical depth (τ < 1.6). The new observations confirm the previously witnessed trend of exhibiting strong Fe K absorption in the soft state that significantly weakens during the hard state. Optical (GROND) and radio (GMRT) observations suggest for AX J1745.6-2901 a standard broad-band spectral energy distribution as typically observed in accreting NSs.

  2. Investigating a Possible New Heavyweight Champion for Stellar Mass Black Holes with XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Robin

    Using methods described below, we have identified a record-breaking black hole candidate (BHC) associated with a globular cluster inside the Andromeda Galaxy (M31). Our BHC, known as XBo 135, has an inferred mass of 50 solar masses, around 60% heavier than the current record holder. We have been granted a 33 hr observation with the XMM-Newton X-ray observatory that will allow us to test different scenarios for the formation of such a beast. We are asking for $55k to support one postdoc (R. Barnard) for 6 months, travel to a conference to share our results, and publication in ApJ. We have strong observational evidence for two classes of black hole (BH): stellar mass BHs that are formed in the death throes of the most massive stars, and supermassive BHs that live at the centers of most galaxies. Stellar mass BHs are 3-30 times more massive than the Sun, while supermassive black holes 1 E+6 times more massive still. It is unknown how such massive black holes are formed, although we suspect the existence of a class of intermediate mass black holes that bridge the two populations. Our target, XBo 135, is an X-ray binary (XB) system where a compact object (neutron star or black hole) accretes material from a co-orbiting donor star; mass transfer from the donor to the compact object results in a huge release of energy, extracted from the gravitational potential energy of the in-falling matter. The material forms an accretion disk that gets faster and hotter as it approaches the accretor, extracting energy >10 times more efficiently than nuclear fusion. We have invented a method for identifying BHXBs from the X-ray emission alone, summarized as follows. At low accretion rates, all XBs exhibit strikingly similar emission that is dominated by a power law component with photon index 90% of the X-ray flux. Crucially, this emission is limited to luminosities below 10% of the Eddington limit , which is proportional to the mass of the accretor. If we observe low state emission at

  3. An XMM-Newton Study of the Mixed-morphology Supernova Remnant G346.6-0.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchettl, Katie; Lopez, Laura [Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics (CCAPP), The Ohio State University, 191 W. Woodruff Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ng, C-Y.; Wong, B. T. T. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Slane, Patrick, E-mail: auchettl.1@osu.edu, E-mail: ncy@bohr.physics.hku.hk [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-10-01

    We present an X-ray imaging and spectroscopic study of the molecular cloud interacting mixed-morphology supernova remnant G346.6–0.2 using XMM-Newton . The X-ray spectrum of the remnant is well described by a recombining plasma that most likely arises from adiabatic cooling and has subsolar abundances of Mg, Si, and S. Our fits also suggest the presence of either an additional power-law component with a photon index of ∼2 or an additional thermal component with a temperature of ∼2.0 keV. We investigate the possible origin of this component and suggest that it could arise from either the Galactic ridge X-ray emission, an unidentified pulsar wind nebula, or X-ray synchrotron emission from high-energy particles accelerated at the shock. However, deeper, high-resolution observations of this object are needed to shed light on the presence and origin of this feature. Based on its morphology, its Galactic latitude, the density of the surrounding environment, and its association with a dense molecular cloud, G346.6–0.2 most likely arises from a massive progenitor that underwent core collapse.

  4. Tentative detection of warm intervening gas towards PKS 0548-322 with XMM-Newton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcons, X.

    2005-03-17

    We present the results of a long ({approx} 93 ksec) XMM-Newton observation of the bright BL-Lac object PKS 0548-322 (z = 0.069). Our Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) spectrum shows a single absorption feature at an observed wavelength {lambda} = 23.33 {+-} 0.01 {angstrom} which we interpret as OVI K{alpha} absorption at z = 0.058, i.e., {approx} 3000 km s{sup -1} from the background object. The observed equivalent width of the absorption line {approx} 30m {angstrom}, coupled with the lack of the corresponding absorption edge in the EPIC pn data, implies a column density N{sub OVI} {approx} 2 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} and turbulence with a Doppler velocity parameter b > 100 km s{sup -1}. Within the limitations of our RGS spectrum, no OVII or OV K{alpha} absorption are detected. Under the assumption of ionization equilibrium by both collisions and the extragalactic background, this is only marginally consistent if the gas temperature is {approx} 2.5 x 10{sup 5} K, with significantly lower or higher values being excluded by our limits on OV or OVII. If confirmed, this would be the first X-ray detection of a large amount of intervening warm absorbing gas through OVI absorption. The existence of such a high column density absorber, much stronger than any previously detected one in OVI, would place stringent constraints on the large-scale distribution of baryonic gas in the Universe.

  5. XMM-Newton high-resolution spectroscopy reveals the chemical evolution of M 87

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, N.; Boehringer, H.; Kaastra, J.S.; de Plaa, J.; Simionescu, D.; Vink, J.

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of chemical abundances in the giant elliptical galaxy M 87 using high-resolution spectra obtained with the Reflection Grating Spectrometers during two deep XMM-Newton observations. While we confirm the two-temperature structure of the inter-stellar medium (ISM) in M 87, we also

  6. Planck early results. IX. XMM-Newton follow-up for validation of Planck cluster candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.; Polenta, G.

    2011-01-01

    We present the XMM-Newton follow-up for confirmation of Planck cluster candidates. Twenty-five candidates have been observed to date using snapshot (∼10 ks) exposures, ten as part of a pilot programme to sample a low range of signal-to-noise ratios (4

  7. Planck intermediate results: IV. the XMM-Newton validation programme for new Planck galaxy clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartlett, J.G.; Delabrouille, J.; Ganga, K.

    2013-01-01

    We present the final results from the XMM-Newton validation follow-up of new Planck galaxy cluster candidates. We observed 15 new candidates, detected with signal-to-noise ratios between 4.0 and 6.1 in the 15.5-month nominal Planck survey. The candidates were selected using ancillary data flags d...

  8. Simultaneous observations of the quasar 3C 273 with INTEGRAL, XMM-Newton and RXTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courvoisier, T.J.L.; Beckmann, V.; Bourban, G.

    2003-01-01

    INTEGRAL has observed the bright quasar 3C 273 on 3 epochs in January 2003 as one of the first observations of the open programme. The observation on January 5 was simultaneous with RXTE and XMM-Newton observations. We present here a first analysis of the continuum emission as observed by these 3...

  9. AGN spectral states from simultaneous UV and X-ray observations by XMM-Newton

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jiří; Guainazzi, M.; Merloni, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 603, July (2017), A127/1-A127/13 E-ISSN 1432-0746 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-20970P; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E13012 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 312789 - STRONGGRAVITY Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : black hole physics * accretion disks * galaxies nuclei Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy , Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.014, year: 2016

  10. DISCOVERY OF THE TRANSIENT MAGNETAR 3XMM J185246.6+003317 NEAR SUPERNOVA REMNANT KESTEVEN 79 WITH XMM-NEWTON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ping; Chen, Yang; Li, Xiang-Dong; Sun, Wei [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Safi-Harb, Samar [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Mendez, Mariano [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Terada, Yukikatsu [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Simo-Ohkubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Ge, Ming-Yu [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2014-01-20

    We report the serendipitous discovery with XMM-Newton that 3XMM J185246.6+003317 is an 11.56 s X-ray pulsar located 1' away from the southern boundary of supernova remnant Kes 79. The spin-down rate of 3XMM J185246.6+003317 is <1.1 × 10{sup –13} s s{sup –1}, which, together with the long period P = 11.5587126(4) s, indicates a dipolar surface magnetic field of <3.6 × 10{sup 13} G, a characteristic age of >1.7 Myr, and a spin-down luminosity of <2.8 × 10{sup 30} erg s{sup –1}. Its X-ray spectrum is best-fitted with a resonant Compton scattering model and also can be adequately described by a blackbody model. The observations covering a seven-month span from 2008 to 2009 show variations in the spectral properties of the source, with the luminosity decreasing from 2.7 × 10{sup 34} erg s{sup –1} to 4.6 × 10{sup 33} erg s{sup –1}, along with a decrease of the blackbody temperature from kT ≈ 0.8 keV to ≈0.6 keV. The X-ray luminosity of the source is higher than its spin-down luminosity, ruling out rotation as a power source. The combined timing and spectral properties, the non-detection of any optical or infrared counterpart, together with the lack of detection of the source in archival X-ray data prior to the 2008 XMM-Newton observation, point to 3XMM J185246.6+003317 being a newly discovered transient low-B magnetar undergoing an outburst decay during the XMM-Newton observations. The non-detection by Chandra in 2001 sets an upper limit of 4 × 10{sup 32} erg s{sup –1} to the quiescent luminosity of 3XMM J185246.6+003317. Its period is the longest among currently known transient magnetars. The foreground absorption toward 3XMM J185246.6+003317 is similar to that of Kes 79, suggesting a similar distance of ∼7.1 kpc.

  11. The XMM-SERVS survey: new XMM-Newton point-source catalog for the XMM-LSS field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.-T. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Luo, B.; Ranalli, P.; Yang, G.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Kelson, D. D.; Lacy, M.; Nyland, K.; Tozzi, P.; Vito, F.; Cirasuolo, M.; Gilli, R.; Jarvis, M. J.; Lehmer, B. D.; Paolillo, M.; Schneider, D. P.; Shemmer, O.; Smail, I.; Sun, M.; Tanaka, M.; Vaccari, M.; Vignali, C.; Xue, Y. Q.; Banerji, M.; Chow, K. E.; Häußler, B.; Norris, R. P.; Silverman, J. D.; Trump, J. R.

    2018-04-01

    We present an X-ray point-source catalog from the XMM-Large Scale Structure survey region (XMM-LSS), one of the XMM-Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (XMM-SERVS) fields. We target the XMM-LSS region with 1.3 Ms of new XMM-Newton AO-15 observations, transforming the archival X-ray coverage in this region into a 5.3 deg2 contiguous field with uniform X-ray coverage totaling 2.7 Ms of flare-filtered exposure, with a 46 ks median PN exposure time. We provide an X-ray catalog of 5242 sources detected in the soft (0.5-2 keV), hard (2-10 keV), and/or full (0.5-10 keV) bands with a 1% expected spurious fraction determined from simulations. A total of 2381 new X-ray sources are detected compared to previous source catalogs in the same area. Our survey has flux limits of 1.7 × 10-15, 1.3 × 10-14, and 6.5 × 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1 over 90% of its area in the soft, hard, and full bands, respectively, which is comparable to those of the XMM-COSMOS survey. We identify multiwavelength counterpart candidates for 99.9% of the X-ray sources, of which 93% are considered as reliable based on their matching likelihood ratios. The reliabilities of these high-likelihood-ratio counterparts are further confirmed to be ≈97% reliable based on deep Chandra coverage over ≈5% of the XMM-LSS region. Results of multiwavelength identifications are also included in the source catalog, along with basic optical-to-infrared photometry and spectroscopic redshifts from publicly available surveys. We compute photometric redshifts for X-ray sources in 4.5 deg2 of our field where forced-aperture multi-band photometry is available; >70% of the X-ray sources in this subfield have either spectroscopic or high-quality photometric redshifts.

  12. The XXL Survey. I. Scientific motivations - XMM-Newton observing plan - Follow-up observations and simulation programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, M.; Pacaud, F.; Adami, C.; Alis, S.; Altieri, B.; Baran, N.; Benoist, C.; Birkinshaw, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Bremer, M. N.; Brusa, M.; Butler, A.; Ciliegi, P.; Chiappetti, L.; Clerc, N.; Corasaniti, P. S.; Coupon, J.; De Breuck, C.; Democles, J.; Desai, S.; Delhaize, J.; Devriendt, J.; Dubois, Y.; Eckert, D.; Elyiv, A.; Ettori, S.; Evrard, A.; Faccioli, L.; Farahi, A.; Ferrari, C.; Finet, F.; Fotopoulou, S.; Fourmanoit, N.; Gandhi, P.; Gastaldello, F.; Gastaud, R.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Giles, P.; Guennou, L.; Guglielmo, V.; Horellou, C.; Husband, K.; Huynh, M.; Iovino, A.; Kilbinger, M.; Koulouridis, E.; Lavoie, S.; Le Brun, A. M. C.; Le Fevre, J. P.; Lidman, C.; Lieu, M.; Lin, C. A.; Mantz, A.; Maughan, B. J.; Maurogordato, S.; McCarthy, I. G.; McGee, S.; Melin, J. B.; Melnyk, O.; Menanteau, F.; Novak, M.; Paltani, S.; Plionis, M.; Poggianti, B. M.; Pomarede, D.; Pompei, E.; Ponman, T. J.; Ramos-Ceja, M. E.; Ranalli, P.; Rapetti, D.; Raychaudury, S.; Reiprich, T. H.; Rottgering, H.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E.; Sadibekova, T.; Santos, J.; Sauvageot, J. L.; Schimd, C.; Sereno, M.; Smith, G. P.; Smolčić, V.; Snowden, S.; Spergel, D.; Stanford, S.; Surdej, J.; Valageas, P.; Valotti, A.; Valtchanov, I.; Vignali, C.; Willis, J.; Ziparo, F.

    2016-06-01

    Context. The quest for the cosmological parameters that describe our universe continues to motivate the scientific community to undertake very large survey initiatives across the electromagnetic spectrum. Over the past two decades, the Chandra and XMM-Newton observatories have supported numerous studies of X-ray-selected clusters of galaxies, active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and the X-ray background. The present paper is the first in a series reporting results of the XXL-XMM survey; it comes at a time when the Planck mission results are being finalised. Aims: We present the XXL Survey, the largest XMM programme totaling some 6.9 Ms to date and involving an international consortium of roughly 100 members. The XXL Survey covers two extragalactic areas of 25 deg2 each at a point-source sensitivity of ~5 × 10-15 erg s-1 cm-2 in the [0.5-2] keV band (completeness limit). The survey's main goals are to provide constraints on the dark energy equation of state from the space-time distribution of clusters of galaxies and to serve as a pathfinder for future, wide-area X-ray missions. We review science objectives, including cluster studies, AGN evolution, and large-scale structure, that are being conducted with the support of approximately 30 follow-up programmes. Methods: We describe the 542 XMM observations along with the associated multi-λ and numerical simulation programmes. We give a detailed account of the X-ray processing steps and describe innovative tools being developed for the cosmological analysis. Results: The paper provides a thorough evaluation of the X-ray data, including quality controls, photon statistics, exposure and background maps, and sky coverage. Source catalogue construction and multi-λ associations are briefly described. This material will be the basis for the calculation of the cluster and AGN selection functions, critical elements of the cosmological and science analyses. Conclusions: The XXL multi-λ data set will have a unique lasting legacy

  13. Adaptation of XMM-Newton SAS to GRID and VO architectures via web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, A.; de La Calle, I.; Gabriel, C.; Salgado, J.; Osuna, P.

    2008-10-01

    The XMM-Newton Scientific Analysis Software (SAS) is a robust software that has allowed users to produce good scientific results since the beginning of the mission. This has been possible given the SAS capability to evolve with the advent of new technologies and adapt to the needs of the scientific community. The prototype of the Remote Interface for Science Analysis (RISA) presented here, is one such example, which provides remote analysis of XMM-Newton data with access to all the existing SAS functionality, while making use of GRID computing technology. This new technology has recently emerged within the astrophysical community to tackle the ever lasting problem of computer power for the reduction of large amounts of data.

  14. Easy XMM-Newton Data Analysis with the Streamlined ABC Guide!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencic, Lynne A.; Snowden, Steven L.; Pence, William D.

    2016-01-01

    The US XMM-Newton GOF has streamlined the time-honored XMM-Newton ABC Guide, making it easier to find and use what users may need to analyze their data. It takes into account what type of data a user might have, if they want to reduce the data on their own machine or over the internet with Web Hera, and if they prefer to use the command window or a GUI. The GOF has also included an introduction to analyzing EPIC and RGS spectra, and PN Timing mode data. The guide is provided for free to students, educators, and researchers for educational and research purposes. Try it out at: http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/xmm/sl/intro.html

  15. Efficient management of high level XMM-Newton science data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotukhin, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    Like it is the case for many large projects, XMM-Newton data have been used by the community to produce many valuable higher level data products. However, even after 15 years of the successful mission operation, the potential of these data is not yet fully uncovered, mostly due to the logistical and data management issues. We present a web application, http://xmm-catalog.irap.omp.eu, to highlight an idea that existing public high level data collections generate significant added research value when organized and exposed properly. Several application features such as access to the all-time XMM-Newton photon database and online fitting of extracted sources spectra were never available before. In this talk we share best practices we worked out during the development of this website and discuss their potential use for other large projects generating astrophysical data.

  16. The XMM-Newton Science Archive and its integration into ESASky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, N.; Baines, D.; Colomo, E.; Giordano, F.; Merín, B.; Racero, E.; Rodríguez, P.; Salgado, J.; Sarmiento, M.

    2017-07-01

    We describe the variety of functionalities of the XSA (XMM-Newton Science Archive) that allow to search and access the XMM-Newton data and catalogues. The web interface http://nxsa.esac.esa.int/ is very flexible allowing different kinds of searches by a single position or target name, or by a list of targets, with several selecting options (target type, text in the abstract, etc.), and with several display options. The resulting data can be easily broadcast to Virtual Observatory (VO) facilities for a first look analysis, or for cross-matching the results with info from other observatories. Direct access via URL or command line are also possible for scripts usage, or to link XMM-Newton data from other interfaces like Vizier, ADS, etc. The full metadata content of the XSA can be queried through the TAP (Table access Protocol) via ADQL (Astronomical Data Query Language). We present also the roadmap for future improvements of the XSA including the integration of the Upper Limit server, the on-the-fly data analysis, and the interactive visualization of EPIC sources spectra and light curves and RGS spectra, among other advanced features. Within this modern visualization philosophy XSA is also being integrated into ESASky (http://sky.esa.int). ESASky is the science-driven multi-wavelength discovery portal for all the ESA Astronomy Missions (Integral, HST, Herschel, Suzaku, Planck, etc.), and other space and ground telescope data. The system offers progressive multi-resolution all-sky projections of full mission datasets using HiPS, a new generation of HEALPix projections developed by CDS, precise footprints to connect to individual observations, and direct access to science-ready data from the underlying mission specific science archives. XMM-Newton EPIC and OM all-sky HiPS maps, catalogues and links to the observations are available through ESASky.

  17. IACHEC CROSS-CALIBRATION OF CHANDRA , NuSTAR , SWIFT , SUZAKU , XMM-NEWTON WITH 3C 273 ANDPKS 2155-304

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, Kristin K.; Forster, Karl [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Beardmore, Andrew P.; Page, Kim L. [X-ray and Observational Astronomy Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Guainazzi, Matteo [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 252-5201 (Japan); Marshall, Herman L.; Miller, Eric D. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Stuhlinger, Martin [European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Caada, Madrid (Spain)

    2017-01-01

    On behalf of the International Astronomical Consortium for High Energy Calibration, we present results from the cross-calibration campaigns in 2012 on 3C 273 and in 2013 on PKS 2155-304 between the then active X-ray observatories Chandra , NuSTAR , Suzaku , Swift, and XMM-Newton . We compare measured fluxes between instrument pairs in two energy bands, 1–5 keV and 3–7 keV, and calculate an average cross-normalization constant for each energy range. We review known cross-calibration features and provide a series of tables and figures to be used for evaluating cross-normalization constants obtained from other observations with the above mentioned observatories.

  18. Accretion flow diagnostics with X-ray spectral timing: the hard state of SWIFT J1753.5-0127

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassatella, P.; Uttley, P.; Maccarone, T.

    2012-01-01

    Recent XMM-Newton studies of X-ray variability in the hard states of black hole X-ray binaries (BHXRBs) indicate that the variability is generated in the ‘standard’ optically thick accretion disc that is responsible for the multi-colour blackbody emission. The variability originates in the disc as

  19. Revival of the Magnetar PSR J1622–4950: Observations with MeerKAT, Parkes, XMM-Newton, Swift, Chandra, and NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilo, F.; Scholz, P.; Serylak, M.; Buchner, S.; Merryfield, M.; Kaspi, V. M.; Archibald, R. F.; Bailes, M.; Jameson, A.; van Straten, W.; Sarkissian, J.; Reynolds, J. E.; Johnston, S.; Hobbs, G.; Abbott, T. D.; Adam, R. M.; Adams, G. B.; Alberts, T.; Andreas, R.; Asad, K. M. B.; Baker, D. E.; Baloyi, T.; Bauermeister, E. F.; Baxana, T.; Bennett, T. G. H.; Bernardi, G.; Booisen, D.; Booth, R. S.; Botha, D. H.; Boyana, L.; Brederode, L. R. S.; Burger, J. P.; Cheetham, T.; Conradie, J.; Conradie, J. P.; Davidson, D. B.; De Bruin, G.; de Swardt, B.; de Villiers, C.; de Villiers, D. I. L.; de Villiers, M. S.; de Villiers, W.; De Waal, C.; Dikgale, M. A.; du Toit, G.; du Toit, L. J.; Esterhuyse, S. W. P.; Fanaroff, B.; Fataar, S.; Foley, A. R.; Foster, G.; Fourie, D.; Gamatham, R.; Gatsi, T.; Geschke, R.; Goedhart, S.; Grobler, T. L.; Gumede, S. C.; Hlakola, M. J.; Hokwana, A.; Hoorn, D. H.; Horn, D.; Horrell, J.; Hugo, B.; Isaacson, A.; Jacobs, O.; Jansen van Rensburg, J. P.; Jonas, J. L.; Jordaan, B.; Joubert, A.; Joubert, F.; Józsa, G. I. G.; Julie, R.; Julius, C. C.; Kapp, F.; Karastergiou, A.; Karels, F.; Kariseb, M.; Karuppusamy, R.; Kasper, V.; Knox-Davies, E. C.; Koch, D.; Kotzé, P. P. A.; Krebs, A.; Kriek, N.; Kriel, H.; Kusel, T.; Lamoor, S.; Lehmensiek, R.; Liebenberg, D.; Liebenberg, I.; Lord, R. T.; Lunsky, B.; Mabombo, N.; Macdonald, T.; Macfarlane, P.; Madisa, K.; Mafhungo, L.; Magnus, L. G.; Magozore, C.; Mahgoub, O.; Main, J. P. L.; Makhathini, S.; Malan, J. A.; Malgas, P.; Manley, J. R.; Manzini, M.; Marais, L.; Marais, N.; Marais, S. J.; Maree, M.; Martens, A.; Matshawule, S. D.; Matthysen, N.; Mauch, T.; McNally, L. D.; Merry, B.; Millenaar, R. P.; Mjikelo, C.; Mkhabela, N.; Mnyandu, N.; Moeng, I. T.; Mokone, O. J.; Monama, T. E.; Montshiwa, K.; Moss, V.; Mphego, M.; New, W.; Ngcebetsha, B.; Ngoasheng, K.; Niehaus, H.; Ntuli, P.; Nzama, A.; Obies, F.; Obrocka, M.; Ockards, M. T.; Olyn, C.; Oozeer, N.; Otto, A. J.; Padayachee, Y.; Passmoor, S.; Patel, A. A.; Paula, S.; Peens-Hough, A.; Pholoholo, B.; Prozesky, P.; Rakoma, S.; Ramaila, A. J. T.; Rammala, I.; Ramudzuli, Z. R.; Rasivhaga, M.; Ratcliffe, S.; Reader, H. C.; Renil, R.; Richter, L.; Robyntjies, A.; Rosekrans, D.; Rust, A.; Salie, S.; Sambu, N.; Schollar, C. T. G.; Schwardt, L.; Seranyane, S.; Sethosa, G.; Sharpe, C.; Siebrits, R.; Sirothia, S. K.; Slabber, M. J.; Smirnov, O.; Smith, S.; Sofeya, L.; Songqumase, N.; Spann, R.; Stappers, B.; Steyn, D.; Steyn, T. J.; Strong, R.; Struthers, A.; Stuart, C.; Sunnylall, P.; Swart, P. S.; Taljaard, B.; Tasse, C.; Taylor, G.; Theron, I. P.; Thondikulam, V.; Thorat, K.; Tiplady, A.; Toruvanda, O.; van Aardt, J.; van Balla, T.; van den Heever, L.; van der Byl, A.; van der Merwe, C.; van der Merwe, P.; van Niekerk, P. C.; van Rooyen, R.; van Staden, J. P.; van Tonder, V.; van Wyk, R.; Wait, I.; Walker, A. L.; Wallace, B.; Welz, M.; Williams, L. P.; Xaia, B.; Young, N.; Zitha, S.

    2018-04-01

    New radio (MeerKAT and Parkes) and X-ray (XMM-Newton, Swift, Chandra, and NuSTAR) observations of PSR J1622–4950 indicate that the magnetar, in a quiescent state since at least early 2015, reactivated between 2017 March 19 and April 5. The radio flux density, while variable, is approximately 100× larger than during its dormant state. The X-ray flux one month after reactivation was at least 800× larger than during quiescence, and has been decaying exponentially on a 111 ± 19 day timescale. This high-flux state, together with a radio-derived rotational ephemeris, enabled for the first time the detection of X-ray pulsations for this magnetar. At 5%, the 0.3–6 keV pulsed fraction is comparable to the smallest observed for magnetars. The overall pulsar geometry inferred from polarized radio emission appears to be broadly consistent with that determined 6–8 years earlier. However, rotating vector model fits suggest that we are now seeing radio emission from a different location in the magnetosphere than previously. This indicates a novel way in which radio emission from magnetars can differ from that of ordinary pulsars. The torque on the neutron star is varying rapidly and unsteadily, as is common for magnetars following outburst, having changed by a factor of 7 within six months of reactivation.

  20. THE RISE OF AN IONIZED WIND IN THE NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY Mrk 335 OBSERVED BY XMM-NEWTON AND HST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longinotti, A. L.; Krongold, Y.; Kriss, G. A.; Ely, J.; Gallo, L.; Grupe, D.; Komossa, S.; Mathur, S.; Pradhan, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present the discovery of an outflowing ionized wind in the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 335. Despite having been extensively observed by most of the largest X-ray observatories in the last decade, this bright source was not known to host warm absorber gas until recent XMM-Newton observations in combination with a long-term Swift monitoring program have shown extreme flux and spectral variability. High-resolution spectra obtained by the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) detector reveal that the wind consists of three distinct ionization components, all outflowing at a velocity of ∼5000 km s –1 . This wind is clearly revealed when the source is observed at an intermediate flux state (2-5 × 10 –12 erg cm –2 s –1 ). The analysis of multi-epoch RGS spectra allowed us to compare the absorber properties at three very different flux states of the source. No correlation between the warm absorber variability and the X-ray flux has been determined. The two higher ionization components of the gas (log ξ ∼ 2.3 and 3.3) may be consistent with photoionization equilibrium, but we can exclude this for the only ionization component that is consistently present in all flux states (log ξ ∼ 1.8). We have included archival, non-simultaneous UV data from Hubble Space Telescope (FOS, STIS, COS) with the aim of searching for any signature of absorption in this source that so far was known for being absorption-free in the UV band. In the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) spectra obtained a few months after the X-ray observations, we found broad absorption in C IV lines intrinsic to the active galactic nucleus and blueshifted by a velocity roughly comparable to the X-ray outflow. The global behavior of the gas in both bands can be explained by variation of the covering factor and/or column density, possibly due to transverse motion of absorbing clouds moving out of the line of sight at broad line region scale.

  1. A combined HST and XMM-Newton campaign for the magnetic O9.7 V star HD 54879. Constraining the weak-wind problem of massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenar, T.; Oskinova, L. M.; Järvinen, S. P.; Luckas, P.; Hainich, R.; Todt, H.; Hubrig, S.; Sander, A. A. C.; Ilyin, I.; Hamann, W.-R.

    2017-10-01

    Context. HD 54879 (O9.7 V) is one of a dozen O-stars for which an organized atmospheric magnetic field has been detected. Despite their importance, little is known about the winds and evolution of magnetized massive stars. Aims: To gain insights into the interplay between atmospheres, winds, and magnetic fields of massive stars, we acquired UV and X-ray data of HD 54879 using the Hubble Space Telescope and the XMM-Newton satellite. In addition, 35 optical amateur spectra were secured to study the variability of HD 54879. Methods: A multiwavelength (X-ray to optical) spectral analysis is performed using the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) model atmosphere code and the xspec software. Results: The photospheric parameters (T∗ = 30.5 kK, log g = 4.0 [cm s-2], log L = 4.45 [L⊙]) are typical for an O9.7 V star. The microturbulent, macroturbulent, and projected rotational velocities are lower than previously suggested (ξph,vmac,vsini ≤ 4 km s-1). An initial mass of 16 M⊙ and an age of 5 Myr are inferred from evolutionary tracks. We derive a mean X-ray emitting temperature of log TX = 6.7 [K] and an X-ray luminosity of LX = 1 × 1032 erg s-1. Short- and long-scale variability is seen in the Hα line, but only a very long period of P ≈ 5 yr could be estimated. Assessing the circumstellar density of HD 54879 using UV spectra, we can roughly estimate the mass-loss rate HD 54879 would have in the absence of a magnetic field as log ṀB = 0 ≈ -9.0 [M⊙ yr-1]. The magnetic field traps the stellar wind up to the Alfvén radius rA ≳ 12 R∗, implying that its true mass-loss rate is log Ṁ ≲ -10.2 [M⊙ yr-1]. Hence, density enhancements around magnetic stars can be exploited to estimate mass-loss rates of non-magnetic stars of similar spectral types, essential for resolving the weak wind problem. Conclusions: Our study confirms that strongly magnetized stars lose little or no mass, and supplies important constraints on the weak-wind problem of massive main sequence

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: XMM-Newton FOV brightest serendipitous sources (Marelli+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelli, M.; Pizzocaro, D.; de, Luca A.; Gastaldello, F.; Caraveo, P.; Parkinson, P. S.

    2018-02-01

    Our deep XMM-Newton observation of PSR J2055+2539, lasting 136.2 ks, was performed on 2013 May 1 (ObsID 0724090101). The PN camera (Struder et al. 2001AJ....121.1413P) of the EPIC instrument was operating in Large Window mode, with a time resolution of 47.7 ms on a 27'x13' field of view (FOV). The high time resolution, combined with the large FOV, allows for both the timing analysis of the J2055 pulsar and the spatial analysis of the nebular structures. The Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) detectors (Turner et al. 2001A&A...365L..27T) were set in full-frame mode (2.6 s time resolution on a 15' radius FOV). The thin optical filter was used for both PN and MOSs. We also analyzed XMM-Newton observations 0605470401 and 0605470901, taken on 2009 October 26 and on 2010 April 21, and lasting 24.5 and 17.9 ks, respectively. (1 data file).

  3. A cluster in a crowded environment: XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of A3558

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, M.; Ghizzardi, S.; Molendi, S.; Finoguenov, A.

    2007-03-01

    Combining XMM-Newton and Chandra data, we have performed a detailed study of Abell 3558. Our analysis shows that its dynamical history is more complicated than previously thought. We have found some traits typical of cool core clusters (surface brightness peaked at the center, peaked metal abundance profile) and others that are more common in merging clusters, like deviations from spherical symmetry in the thermodynamic quantities of the ICM. This last result has been achieved with a new technique for deriving temperature maps from images. We have also detected a cold front and, with the combined use of XMM-Newton and Chandra, we have characterized its properties, such as the speed and the metal abundance profile across the edge. This cold front is probably due to the sloshing of the core, induced by the perturbation of the gravitational potential associated with a past merger. The hydrodynamic processes related to this perturbation have presumably produced a tail of lower entropy, higher pressure and metal rich ICM, which extends behind the cold front for~500 kpc. The unique characteristics of A3558 are probably due to the very peculiar environment in which it is located: the core of the Shapley supercluster. Appendices A and B are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. X-ray/UV variability and the origin of soft X-ray excess emission from II Zw 177

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Main

    We study a detailed broad-band X-ray/UV emission from the narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy II Zw 177 based on two XMM-Newton and single Swift/XRT observations. Both XMM-Newton observations show the soft X-ray excess emission below 2 keV when the best-fit 2 - 10 keV power law is extrapolated down to 0.3 keV. We find the blurred reflection from an ionized accretion disc and Comptonized disc emission both describe the observed soft excess well. We find a remarkable trend of decreasing UV flux with increasing soft X-ray excess and power law emission. We suggest that this could be due to that the external edge of corona hide a fraction of accretion disk. Co-Author: Prof. Gulab C. Dewangan (IUCAA), Prof. Ranjeev Misra (IUCAA), Pramod Kumar (Nanded university)

  5. X-ray shout echoing through space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    a flash of X-rays hi-res Size hi-res: 3991 Kb Credits: ESA, S. Vaughan (University of Leicester) EPIC camera shows the expanding rings caused by a flash of X-rays XMM-Newton's X-ray EPIC camera shows the expanding rings caused by a flash of X-rays scattered by dust in our Galaxy. The X-rays were produced by a powerful gamma-ray burst that took place on 3 December 2003. The slowly fading afterglow of the gamma-ray burst is at the centre of the expanding rings. Other, unrelated, X-ray sources can also be seen. The time since the gamma-ray explosion is shown in each panel in hours. At their largest size, the rings would appear in the sky about five times smaller than the full moon. a flash of X-rays hi-res Size hi-res: 2153 Kb Credits: ESA, S. Vaughan (University of Leicester) EPIC camera shows the expanding rings caused by a flash of X-rays (Please choose "hi-res" version for animation) XMM-Newton's X-ray EPIC camera shows the expanding rings caused by a flash of X-rays scattered by dust in our Galaxy. The X-rays were produced by a powerful gamma-ray burst that took place on 3 December 2003. The slowly fading afterglow of the gamma-ray burst is at the centre of the expanding rings. Other, unrelated, X-ray sources can also be seen. The time since the gamma-ray explosion is shown in each panel in seconds. At their largest size, the rings would appear in the sky about five times smaller than the full moon. This echo forms when the powerful radiation of a gamma-ray burst, coming from far away, crosses a slab of dust in our Galaxy and is scattered by it, like the beam of a lighthouse in clouds. Using the expanding rings to precisely pin-point the location of this dust, astronomers can identify places where new stars and planets are likely to form. On 3 December 2003 ESA's observatory, Integral, detected a burst of gamma rays, lasting about 30 seconds, from the direction of a distant galaxy. Within minutes of the detection, thanks to a sophisticated alert network, many

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: XMM-Newton slew survey Source Catalogue, version 2.0 (XMM-SSC, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    XMM-SSC

    2018-01-01

    XMMSL2 is the second catalogue of X-ray sources found in slew data taken from the European Space Agency's (ESA) XMM-Newton observatory, and has been constructed by members of the XMM SOC and the EPIC consortium on behalf of ESA. This release uses results of work which has been carried out within the framework of the EXTraS project ("Exploring the X-ray variable and Transient Sky"), funded from the EU's Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement no.607452. This is the first release of XMMSL2 which contains data taken between revolutions 314 and 2758. The previous catalogue was called XMMSL1_Delta6 and contained slews up to revolution 2441. The release includes two FITS files. A full catalogue (xmmsl2_total.fits.gz), containing 72352 detections found with a likelihood of DETML>8 and a "clean" catalogue (xmmsl2clean.fits.gz) where all known bad sources have been removed and where the detection limit has been raised to DETML>10.5 in general and DETML>15.5 for sources found in images with a higher than usual background. Efforts have been made to identify spurious detections and 3017 have been flagged as such in the full catalogue. (3 data files).

  7. A study of the dynamical state of the hot plasma in galaxy clusters using XMM-Newton data and numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solovyeva, Lilia

    2008-01-01

    Cluster of galaxies are the largest and youngest objects in the Universe and these objects are very interesting for study the cosmology. In this moment with the capacity of the instruments (XMM-Newton, Chandra) and with numerical simulations it is possible to study the dynamical state of gas in the cluster during their formation. And plus, now, we have the possibility to study the cluster in different wavelengths (optics, radio, X-ray). Our study helps us to understand the physics processes in clusters. In our work we studied the galaxy cluster around the maximum core collapse. We used the X-ray data, how the first indicators of dynamical state of gas. After with the help of numerical simulation and optics data we performed the completed analysis with the proposition of merger scenario possible. We performed the detailed analysis of two clusters (CL0016+16 and A548b), these clusters presents the signature of major merger and also we studied the cluster from numerical simulation (Cluster 6) around the major merger. (author) [fr

  8. XMM-Newton and Chandra Observations of the Remarkable Dynamics of the Intracluster Medium and Radio Sources in the Clusters Abell 2061 and 3667

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarazin, C.; Hogge, T.; Chatzikos, M.; Wik, D.; Giacintucci, S.; Clarke, T.; Wong, K.; Gitti, M.; Finoguenov, A.

    2014-07-01

    XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of remarkable dynamic structures in the X-ray gas and connected radio sources in three clusters are presented. Abell 2061 is a highly irregular, merging cluster in the Corona Borealis supercluster. X-ray observations show that there is a plume of very cool gas (˜1 keV) to the NE of the cluster, and a hot (7.6 keV) shock region just NE of the center. There is a very bright radio relic to the far SW of the cluster, and a central radio halo/relic with an extension to the NE. Comparison to SLAM simulations show that this is an offset merger of a ˜5 × 10^{13} M⊙ subcluster with a ˜2.5 × 10^{14} M⊙ cluster seen after first core passage. The plume is the cool-core gas from the subcluster, which has been ``slingshot'' to the NE of the cluster. The plume gas is now falling back into the cluster center, and shocks when it hits the central gas. The model predicts a strong shock to the SW at the location of the bright radio relic, and another shock at the NE radio extension. Time permitting, the observations of Abell 2626 and Abell 3667 will also be presented.

  9. The galactic luminous supersoft X-ray source RXJ0925.7-4758 / MR ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nandita Prodhani

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... White dwarf; luminous supersoft X-ray source; luminosity; absorption edge. PACS Nos 97.80.Jp; 97.10.Ri; 98.35.Mp; 97.80.Fk. 1. Introduction. For the last few decades, Einstein observatory, Roent- gen Satellite (ROSAT), ASCA, CHANDRA, XMM-. Newton, SWIFT, SUZAKU and other ingenious devices.

  10. Finding AGN in Deep X-ray Flux States with Swift

    OpenAIRE

    Grupe, Dirk; Komossa, S.; Bush, Mason; Pruett, Chelsea; Ernst, Sonny; Barber, Taylor; Carter, Jen; Schartel, Norbert; Rodriguez, Pedro; Santos-Lleó, Maria

    2015-01-01

    We report on our ongoing project of finding Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) that go into deep X-ray flux states detected by Swift. Swift is performing an extensive study on the flux and spectral variability of AGN using Guest Investigator and team fill-in programs followed by triggering XMM_Newton for deeper follow-up observations. So far this program has been very successful and has led to a number of XMM-Newton follow up observations, including Mkn 335, PG 0844+349, and RX J2340.8-5329. Recent...

  11. The Broadband Spectral Variability of MCG-6-30-15 Observed by NUSTAR and XMM-NEWTON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Miniutti, G.

    2014-01-01

    MCG-6-30-15, at a distance of 37 Mpc (z = 0.008), is the archetypical Seyfert 1 galaxy showing very broad Fe K alpha emission. We present results from a joint NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observational campaign that, for the first time, allows a sensitive, time-resolved spectral analysis from 0.35 keV u...

  12. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of NGC 1365: Extreme absorption variability and a constant inner accretion disk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, D. J.; Risaliti, G.; Harrison, F. A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a spectral analysis of four coordinated NuSTAR+XMM-Newton observations of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1365. These exhibit an extreme level of spectral variability, which is primarily due to variable line-of-sight absorption, revealing relatively unobscured states in this source for the first...

  13. Observational study with XMM-Newton of the physics of the formation of cosmic structure: from galaxies to merging of nearby galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belsole, Elena

    2002-01-01

    In this work, three types of structure are analysed for the first time using data from the XMM-Newton satellite. Firstly, I present a study of the compact galaxy group HCG 16. Galaxy groups can be thought of as the building blocks of larger structures, and it is thus fundamental to understand their properties as isolated systems. HCG 16 is composed entirely of spiral galaxies and its nature as a true compact group in three dimensions has been much debated. The XMM Newton observation of this object has allowed us to definitively detect diffuse gas trapped in the potential well of this group, reaching out to a distance of 135 h_5_0"-"1 kpc. This gas has a temperature of 0.5 keV and a non-zero metallicity. The measured bolometric luminosity is 9.6 x 10"4"0 erg s"-"1, but this may be only a small fraction of the real luminosity because of detection limits due to the high background. Despite its extreme nature, HCG 16 obeys the observed relation between luminosity and X-ray temperature. The properties of the diffuse gas confirm that the group is truly gravitationally bound, even though it may not yet have had enough time to relax. These results reopen the debate concerning the nature of spiral-dominated galaxy groups and their cosmological role as a potentially large reservoir of baryons in the Universe. The second part of this thesis is devoted to a discussion of the X-ray emission from the centre of the galaxy cluster Virgo, and the central galaxy of the cluster, M87. The detailed study of this object is possible because of its closeness to us. The new XMM-Newton observations have allowed a precise study of the central region of which the spectra of the core and knot A of the jet were obtained for the first time in X-ray. These two sources show non-thermal emission very likely due to synchrotron radiation. The power released by the central engine produces a structure at larger scales which is observable in X-ray to radio wavelengths. In this work I have studied the

  14. Spatially resolved spectroscopy analysis of the XMM-Newton large program on SN1006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang-Tao; Decourchelle, Anne; Miceli, Marco; Vink, Jacco; Bocchino, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    We perform analysis of the XMM-Newton large program on SN1006 based on our newly developed methods of spatially resolved spectroscopy analysis. We extract spectra from low and high resolution meshes. The former (3596 meshes) is used to roughly decompose the thermal and non-thermal components and characterize the spatial distributions of different parameters, such as temperature, abundances of different elements, ionization age, and electron density of the thermal component, as well as photon index and cutoff frequency of the non-thermal component. On the other hand, the low resolution meshes (583 meshes) focus on the interior region dominated by the thermal emission and have enough counts to well characterize the Si lines. We fit the spectra from the low resolution meshes with different models, in order to decompose the multiple plasma components at different thermal and ionization states and compare their spatial distributions. In this poster, we will present the initial results of this project.

  15. A Search for New Galactic Magnetars in Archival Chandra and XMM-Newton Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muno, M. P.; Gaensler, B. M.; Nechita, A.; Miller, J. M.; Slane, P. O.

    2008-06-01

    We present constraints on the number of Galactic magnetars, which we have established by searching for sources with periodic variability in 506 archival Chandra observations and 441 archival XMM-Newton observations of the Galactic plane (| b| fall within our survey, then there are 59+ 92-32 in the Galaxy. Barely detectable magnetars (LX = 3 × 1033 ergs s-1 and Arms = 15% ) could have been identified throughout ≈0.4% of the spiral arms. The lack of new examples implies that birth rate of magnetars is between 0.003 and 0.06 yr-1. Therefore, the birth rate of magnetars is at least 10% of that for normal radio pulsars, and could exceed that value, unless transient magnetars are active for gtrsim105 yr.

  16. Constraints on decaying Dark Matter from XMM-Newton observations of M31

    CERN Document Server

    Boyarsky, Alexey; Ruchayskiy, Oleg; Savchenko, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    We derive constraints on parameters of the radiatively decaying Dark Matter (DM) particles, using XMM-Newton EPIC spectra of the Andromeda galaxy (M31). Using the observations of the outer (5'-13') parts of M31 we improve the existing constraints. For the case of sterile neutrino DM, combining our constraints with the latest computation of abundances of sterile neutrino in the Dodelson-Widrow (DW) scenario, we obtain the lower mass limit m_s 5.6 kev), we argue that the scenario in which all the DM is produced via DW mechanism is ruled out. We discuss however other production mechanisms and note that the sterile neutrino remains a viable candidate of Dark Matter, either warm or cold.

  17. Measuring Quasar Spin via X-ray Continuum Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Matthew; Pooley, David; Rappaport, Saul; Steiner, Jack

    2018-01-01

    We have identified several quasars whose X-ray spectra appear very soft. When fit with power-law models, the best-fit indices are greater than 3. This is very suggestive of thermal disk emission, indicating that the X-ray spectrum is dominated by the disk component. Galactic black hole binaries in such states have been successfully fit with disk-blackbody models to constrain the inner radius, which also constrains the spin of the black hole. We have fit those models to XMM-Newton spectra of several of our identified soft X-ray quasars to place constraints on the spins of the supermassive black holes.

  18. X-ray and Optical Explorations of Spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M.; Al Noori, H.; Torres, R.; Russell, D.; Mclaughlin, M.; Gentile, P.

    2017-10-01

    Black widows and redbacks are binary systems consisting of a millisecond pulsar in a close binary with a companion which is having matter driven off of its surface by the pulsar wind. X-rays due to an intrabinary shock have been observed from many of these systems, as well as orbital variations in the optical emission from the companion due to heating and tidal distortion. We have been systematically studying these systems in radio, optical and X-rays. Here we will present an overview of X-ray and optical studies of these systems, including new XMM-Newton data obtained from several of these systems, along with new optical photometry.

  19. The peculiar isolated neutron star in the Carina Nebula. Deep XMM-Newton and ESO-VLT observations of 2XMM J104608.7-594306

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, A. M.; Motch, C.; Turolla, R.; Schwope, A.; Pilia, M.; Treves, A.; Popov, S. B.; Janot-Pacheco, E.

    2012-08-01

    While fewer in number than the dominant rotation-powered radio pulsar population, peculiar classes of isolated neutron stars (INSs) - which include magnetars, the ROSAT-discovered "Magnificent Seven" (M7), rotating radio transients (RRATs), and central compact objects in supernova remnants (CCOs) - represent a key element in understanding the neutron star phenomenology. We report the results of an observational campaign to study the properties of the source 2XMM J104608.7-594306, a newly discovered thermally emitting INS. The evolutionary state of the neutron star is investigated by means of deep dedicated observations obtained with the XMM-Newton Observatory, the ESO Very Large Telescope, as well as publicly available γ-ray data from the Fermi Space Telescope and the AGILE Mission. The observations confirm previous expectations and reveal a unique type of object. The source, which is likely within the Carina Nebula (NH = 2.6 × 1021 cm-2), has a spectrum that is both thermal and soft, with kT∞ = 135 eV. Non-thermal (magnetospheric) emission is not detected down to 1% (3σ, 0.1-12 keV) of the source luminosity. Significant deviations (absorption features) from a simple blackbody model are identified in the spectrum of the source around energies 0.6 keV and 1.35 keV. While the former deviation is likely related to a local oxygen overabundance in the Carina Nebula, the latter can only be accounted for by an additional spectral component, which is modelled as a Gaussian line in absorption with EW = 91 eV and σ = 0.14 keV (1σ). Furthermore, the optical counterpart is fainter than mV = 27 (2σ) and no γ-ray emission is significantly detected by either the Fermi or AGILE missions. Very interestingly, while these characteristics are remarkably similar to those of the M7 or the only RRAT so far detected in X-rays, which all have spin periods of a few seconds, we found intriguing evidence of very rapid rotation, P = 18.6 ms, at the 4σ confidence level. We interpret

  20. New Insights Into The X-ray Properties Of NGC 1672

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Leigh; Roberts, T.; Brandt, N.; Colbert, E.; Levan, A.; Zezas, A.; Ward, M.

    2006-09-01

    We present the first results of new Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations of the barred spiral galaxy NGC1672. Previously classified as a Seyfert galaxy, the new combined X-ray imaging and spectral information provides evidence that the nucleus of the galaxy may be almost entirely starburst in nature, presumably triggered and sustained by gas and dust driven to the central region along the galactic bar.

  1. On-the-fly Data Reprocessing and Analysis Capabilities from the XMM-Newton Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, A.; Sarmiento, M.; Colomo, E.; Loiseau, N.; Salgado, J.; Gabriel, C.

    2017-10-01

    The XMM-Newton Science Archive (XSA) includes since last release the possibility to perform on-the-fly data processing with SAS through the Remote Interface for Science Analysis (RISA) server. It enables scientists to analyse data without any download and installation of data and software. The analysis options presently available include extraction of spectra and light curves of user-defined EPIC source regions and full reprocessing of data for which currently archived pipeline products were processed with older SAS versions or calibration files. The current pipeline is fully aligned with the most recent SAS and calibration, while the last full reprocessing of the archive was performed in 2013. The on-the-fly data processing functionality in this release is an experimental version and we invite the community to test and let us know their results. Known issues and workarounds are described in the 'Watchouts' section of the XSA web page. Feedback on how this functionality should evolve will be highly appreciated.

  2. Suzaku and XMM-Newton observations of the North Polar Spur: Charge exchange or ISM absorption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liyi; Mao, Junjie; Costantini, Elisa; Kaastra, Jelle

    2016-10-01

    By revisiting the Suzaku and XMM-Newton data of the North Polar Spur, we discovered that the spectra are inconsistent with the traditional model consisting of pure thermal emission and neutral absorption. The most prominent discrepancies are the enhanced O vii and Ne ix forbidden-to-resonance ratios, and a high O viii Lyβ line relative to other Lyman series. A collisionally ionized absorption model can naturally explain both features, while a charge exchange component can only account for the former. By including the additional ionized absorption, the plasma in the North Polar Spur can be described by a single-phase collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE) component with a temperature of 0.25 keV, and nitrogen, oxygen, neon, magnesium, and iron abundances of 0.4-0.8 solar. The abundance pattern of the North Polar Spur is well in line with those of the Galactic halo stars. The high nitrogen-to-oxygen ratio reported in previous studies can be migrated to the large transmission of the O viii Lyα line. The ionized absorber is characterized by a balance temperature of 0.17-0.20 keV and a column density of 3-5 × 1019 cm-2. Based on the derived abundances and absorption, we speculate that the North Polar Spur is a structure in the Galactic halo, so that the emission is mostly absorbed by the Galactic interstellar medium in the line of sight.

  3. X-Ray Optics: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, William W.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray astronomy started with a small collimated proportional counter atop a rocket in the early 1960s. It was immediately recognized that focusing X-ray optics would drastically improve both source location accuracy and source detection sensitivity. In the past 5 decades, X-ray astronomy has made significant strides in achieving better angular resolution, large photon collection area, and better spectral and timing resolutions, culminating in the three currently operating X-ray observatories: Chandra, XMM/Newton, and Suzaku. In this talk I will give a brief history of X-ray optics, concentrating on the characteristics of the optics of these three observatories. Then I will discuss current X-ray mirror technologies being developed in several institutions. I will end with a discussion of the optics for the International X-ray Observatory that I have been developing at Goddard Space Flight Center.

  4. XMM-NEWTON/SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY: STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY IN GALAXY CLUSTERS AND CONSTRAINTS ON THE MATTER-DENSITY PARAMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagana, Tatiana F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Departamento de Astronomia, Cidade Universitaria, CEP:05508-090, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zhang Yuying; Reiprich, Thomas H.; Schneider, Peter [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Bonn, 53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2011-12-10

    It is believed that the global baryon content of clusters of galaxies is representative of the matter distribution of the universe, and can, therefore, be used to reliably determine the matter-density parameter {Omega}{sub m}. This assumption is challenged by the growing evidence from optical and X-ray observations that the total baryon mass fraction increases toward rich clusters. In this context, we investigate the dependence of stellar and total baryon mass fractions as a function of mass. To do so, we used a subsample of 19 clusters extracted from the X-ray flux-limited sample HIFLUGCS that have available Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 data. From the optical analysis we derived the stellar masses. Using XMM-Newton we derived the gas masses. Then, adopting a scaling relation we estimate the total masses. Adding the gas and the stellar mass fractions we obtain the total baryonic content that we find to increase with cluster mass, reaching seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP7) prediction for clusters with M{sub 500} = 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} M{sub Sun }. We observe a decrease of the stellar mass fraction (from 4.5% to {approx}1.0%) with increasing total mass where our findings for the stellar mass fraction agree with previous studies. This result suggests a difference in the number of stars formed per unit of halo mass, though with a large scatter for low-mass systems. That is, the efficiency of star formation varies on a cluster scale that lower mass systems are likely to have higher star formation efficiencies. It follows immediately that the dependence of the stellar mass fraction on total mass results in an increase of the mass-to-light ratio from lower to higher mass systems. We also discuss the consequences of these results in the context of determining the cosmic matter-density parameter {Omega}{sub m}.

  5. SPIDERS: selection of spectroscopic targets using AGN candidates detected in all-sky X-ray surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwelly, T.; Salvato, M.; Merloni, A.; Brusa, M.; Buchner, J.; Anderson, S. F.; Boller, Th.; Brandt, W. N.; Budavári, T.; Clerc, N.; Coffey, D.; Del Moro, A.; Georgakakis, A.; Green, P. J.; Jin, C.; Menzel, M.-L.; Myers, A. D.; Nandra, K.; Nichol, R. C.; Ridl, J.; Schwope, A. D.; Simm, T.

    2017-07-01

    SPIDERS (SPectroscopic IDentification of eROSITA Sources) is a Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV) survey running in parallel to the Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) cosmology project. SPIDERS will obtain optical spectroscopy for large numbers of X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) and galaxy cluster members detected in wide-area eROSITA, XMM-Newton and ROSAT surveys. We describe the methods used to choose spectroscopic targets for two sub-programmes of SPIDERS X-ray selected AGN candidates detected in the ROSAT All Sky and the XMM-Newton Slew surveys. We have exploited a Bayesian cross-matching algorithm, guided by priors based on mid-IR colour-magnitude information from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer survey, to select the most probable optical counterpart to each X-ray detection. We empirically demonstrate the high fidelity of our counterpart selection method using a reference sample of bright well-localized X-ray sources collated from XMM-Newton, Chandra and Swift-XRT serendipitous catalogues, and also by examining blank-sky locations. We describe the down-selection steps which resulted in the final set of SPIDERS-AGN targets put forward for spectroscopy within the eBOSS/TDSS/SPIDERS survey, and present catalogues of these targets. We also present catalogues of ˜12 000 ROSAT and ˜1500 XMM-Newton Slew survey sources that have existing optical spectroscopy from SDSS-DR12, including the results of our visual inspections. On completion of the SPIDERS programme, we expect to have collected homogeneous spectroscopic redshift information over a footprint of ˜7500 deg2 for >85 per cent of the ROSAT and XMM-Newton Slew survey sources having optical counterparts in the magnitude range 17 < r < 22.5, producing a large and highly complete sample of bright X-ray-selected AGN suitable for statistical studies of AGN evolution and clustering.

  6. Planetary X-ray studies: past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella

    2016-07-01

    Our solar system is a fascinating physics laboratory and X-ray observations are now firmly established as a powerful diagnostic tool of the multiple processes taking place in it. The science that X-rays reveal encompasses solar, space plasma and planetary physics, and the response of bodies in the solar system to the impact of the Sun's activity. This talk will review what we know from past observations and what we expect to learn in the short, medium and long term. Observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton have demonstrated that the origin of Jupiter's bright soft X-ray aurorae lies in the Charge eXchange (CX) process, likely to involve the interaction with atmospheric neutrals of local magnetospheric ions, as well as those carried in the solar wind. At higher energies electron bremsstrahlung is thought to be the X-ray emitting mechanism, while the whole planetary disk acts as a mirror for the solar X-ray flux via Thomson and fluorescent scattering. This 'X-ray mirror' phenomenon is all that is observed from Saturn's disk, which otherwise lacks X-ray auroral features. The Earth's X-ray aurora is bright and variable and mostly due to electron bremsstrahlung and line emission from atmospheric species. Un-magnetised planets, Venus and Mars, do not show X-ray aurorae but display the interesting combination of mirroring the solar X-ray flux and producing X-rays by Solar Wind Charge eXchange (SWCX) in their exospheres. These processes respond to different solar stimulation (photons and solar wind plasma respectively) hence their relative contributions are seen to vary according to the Sun's output. Present and future of planetary X-ray studies are very bright. We are preparing for the arrival of the Juno mission at Jupiter this summer and for coordinated observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton on the approach and later during Juno's orbital phase. These will allow direct correlation of the local plasma conditions with the X-ray emissions and the establishment of the

  7. Bright X-ray transient in the LMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, R.; Read, A. M.; Li, D. Y.

    2018-01-01

    We report a bright X-ray transient in the LMC from an XMM-Newton slew made on 5th January 2018. The source, XMMSL2 J053629.4-675940, had a soft X-ray (0.2-2 keV) count rate in the EPIC-pn detector, medium filter of 1.82+/-0.56 c/s, equivalent to a flux Fx=2.3+/-0.7E-12 ergs/s/cm2 for a nominal spectrum of a power-law of slope 2 absorbed by a column NH=3E20 cm^-2.

  8. NuSTAR Observations of the Compton-Thick Active Galactic Nucleus and Ultraluminous X-Ray Source Candidate in NGC 5643

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Annuar, A.; Gandhi, P.; Alexander, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    We present two Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observations of the local Seyfert 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) and an ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) candidate in NGC 5643. Together with archival data from Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Swift-BAT, we perform a high-quality broadband s...

  9. OBSERVATIONS OF X-RAY OSCILLATIONS IN ξ BOO: EVIDENCE OF A FAST-KINK MODE IN THE STELLAR LOOPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, J. C.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2009-01-01

    We report the observations of X-ray oscillations during the flare in a cool active star ξ Boo for the first time. ξ Boo was observed by EPIC/MOS of the XMM-Newton satellite. The X-ray light curve is investigated with wavelet and periodogram analyses. Both analyses clearly show oscillations of the period of ∼1019 s. We interpret these oscillations as a fundamental fast-kink mode of magnetoacoustic waves.

  10. X-rays from stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güdel, Manuel

    2004-07-01

    Spectroscopic studies available from Chandra and XMM-Newton play a pivotal part in the understanding of the physical processes in stellar (magnetic and non-magnetic) atmospheres. It is now routinely possible to derive densities and to study the influence of ultraviolet radiation fields, both of which can be used to infer the geometry of the radiating sources. Line profiles provide important information on bulk mass motions and attenuation by neutral matter, e.g. in stellar winds. The increased sensitivity has revealed new types of X-ray sources in systems that were thought to be unlikely places for X-rays: flaring brown dwarfs, including rather old, non-accreting objects, and terminal shocks in jets of young stars are important examples. New clues concerning the role of stellar high-energy processes in the modification of the stellar environment (ionization, spallation, etc.) contribute significantly to our understanding of the "astro-ecology" in forming planetary systems. Technological limitations are evident. The spectral resolution has not reached the level where bulk mass motions in cool stars become easily measurable. Higher resolution would also be important to perform X-ray "Doppler imaging" in order to reconstruct the 3-D distribution of the X-ray sources around a rotating star. Higher sensitivity will be required to perform high-resolution spectroscopy of weak sources such as brown dwarfs or embedded pre-main-sequence sources. A new generation of satellites such as Constellation-X or XEUS should pursue these goals.

  11. A systematic analysis of the XMM-Newton background: IV. Origin of the unfocused and focused components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaldello, F.; Ghizzardi, S.; Marelli, M.; Salvetti, D.; Molendi, S.; De Luca, A.; Moretti, A.; Rossetti, M.; Tiengo, A.

    2017-12-01

    We show the results obtained in the FP7 European program EXTraS and in the ESA R&D ATHENA activity AREMBES aimed at a deeper understanding of the XMM-Newton background to better design the ATHENA mission. Thanks to an analysis of the full EPIC archive coupled to the information obtained by the Radiation Monitor we show the cosmic ray origin of the unfocused particle background and its anti-correlation with the solar activity. We show the first results of the effort to obtain informations about the particle component of the soft proton focused background.

  12. X-rays from HD 100546- A Young Herbig Star Orbited by Giant Protoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Stephen

    A protoplanetary system consisting of at least two giant planets has beendetected orbiting the young nearby Herbig Be star HD 100546. The inner protoplanet orbits inside a gap within 14 AU of the star and is exposed to strong stellar UV and X-ray radiation. The detection of very warm disk gas provides evidence that stellar heating is affecting physical conditions in the planet-forming environment. We obtained a deep 74 ksec X-ray observation of HD 100546 in 2015 with XMM-Newton yielding an excellent-quality spectrum. We propose here to analyze the XMM-Newton data to determine the X-ray ionization and heating rates in the disk. X-ray ionization and heating affect the thermal and chemical structure of the disk and are key parameters for constructing realistic planet formation models. We are requesting ADAP funding to support the analysis and publication of this valuable XMM-Newton data set, which is now in the public archive.

  13. Non-thermal emission in the core of Perseus: results from a long XMM-Newton observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molendi, S.; Gastaldello, F.

    2009-01-01

    We employ a long XMM-Newton observation of the core of the Perseus cluster to validate claims of a non-thermal component discovered with Chandra. From a meticulous analysis of our dataset, which includes a detailed treatment of systematic errors, we find the 2-10 keV surface brightness of the non-thermal component to be less than about 5 × 10-16 erg~cm-2 s-1 arcsec-2. The most likely explanation for the discrepancy between the XMM-Newton and Chandra estimates is a problem in the effective area calibration of the latter. Our EPIC-based magnetic field lower limits do not disagree with Faraday rotation measure estimates on a few cool cores and with a minimum energy estimate on Perseus. In the not too distant future Simbol-X may allow detection of non-thermal components with intensities more than 10 times lower than those that can be measured with EPIC; nonetheless even the exquisite sensitivity within reach for Simbol-X might be insufficient to detect the IC emission from Perseus.

  14. Simultaneous NuSTAR and XMM-Newton 0.5-80 keV spectroscopy of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy SWIFT J2127.4+5654

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Kara, E.

    2014-01-01

    We present a broad-band spectral analysis of the joint XMM-Newton and Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array observational campaign of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 SWIFT J2127.4+5654, consisting of 300 ks performed during three XMM-Newton orbits. We detect a relativistic broadened iron Kα line...

  15. X-ray Observations of Eight Young Open Star Clusters: I ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    XMM-Newton View of Eight Young Open Star Clusters. 395 ... Multi-wavelength surveys of young open clusters provide an effective way to iden- tify young cluster .... First, the input images were built in two energy ranges, a soft band (0.3–2.0 keV) and ..... 3.2 Color-magnitude diagram of X-ray sources with NIR counterparts.

  16. Finding X-ray counterparts for unidentified sources in the 105 months BAT survey - 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, J. B.; Bassani, L.; Malizia, A.; Masetti, N.; Ubertini, P.

    2018-02-01

    We provide X-ray counterparts for the unidentified Swift/BAT sources listed in the 105 month catalogue (Oh et al. 2018, ApJS in press). These associations were found by cross-correlating the list of U1,U2 and U3 sources with the ROSAT Bright (RASSBSC, Voges et al. 1999, A & A, 349, 389) and the XMM-Newton Slew (XMMSlew, Saxton et al. 2008, A & A, 480, 611) catalogues.

  17. Finding X-ray counterparts for unidentified sources in the 105 months BAT survey - 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, J. B.; Bassani, L.; Malizia, A.; Masetti, N.; Ubertini, P.

    2018-02-01

    We provide X-ray counterparts for unidentified Swift/BAT sources in the 105 month catalogue (Oh et al. 2018, ApJS in press). They were found by cross-correlating the list of U1,U2 and U3 sources with the ROSAT Bright (RASSBSC, Voges et al. 1999, A & A, 349, 389) and XMM-Newton Slew (XMMSlew, Saxton et al. 2008, A & A, 480, 611) catalogues and optically identified as reported in Atel #11340.

  18. XMM-NEWTON MONITORING OF THE CLOSE PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE BINARY AK SCO. EVIDENCE OF TIDE-DRIVEN FILLING OF THE INNER GAP IN THE CIRCUMBINARY DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez de Castro, Ana Ines [S. D. Astronomia y Geodesia and Instituto de Matematica Interdisciplinar, Fac. de CC Matematicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Lopez-Santiago, Javier [Departamento de Astrofisica, Fac de CC Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Talavera, Antonio [European Space Astronomy Center, Villanueva de la Canada, E-28691, Madrid (Spain); Sytov, A. Yu.; Bisikalo, D. [Institute of Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyatnitskaya St. 48, 109017 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-03-20

    AK Sco stands out among pre-main-sequence binaries because of its prominent ultraviolet excess, the high eccentricity of its orbit, and the strong tides driven by it. AK Sco consists of two F5-type stars that get as close as 11 R{sub *} at periastron passage. The presence of a dense (n{sub e} {approx} 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}) extended envelope has been unveiled recently. In this article, we report the results from an XMM-Newton-based monitoring of the system. We show that at periastron, X-ray and UV fluxes are enhanced by a factor of {approx}3 with respect to the apastron values. The X-ray radiation is produced in an optically thin plasma with T {approx} 6.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K and it is found that the N{sub H} column density rises from 0.35 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} at periastron to 1.11 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} at apastron, in good agreement with previous polarimetric observations. The UV emission detected in the Optical Monitor band seems to be caused by the reprocessing of the high-energy magnetospheric radiation on the circumstellar material. Further evidence of the strong magnetospheric disturbances is provided by the detection of line broadening of 278.7 km s{sup -1} in the N V line with Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. Numerical simulations of the mass flow from the circumbinary disk to the components have been carried out. They provide a consistent scenario with which to interpret AK Sco observations. We show that the eccentric orbit acts like a gravitational piston. At apastron, matter is dragged efficiently from the inner disk border, filling the inner gap and producing accretion streams that end as ring-like structures around each component of the system. At periastron, the ring-like structures come into contact, leading to angular momentum loss, and thus producing an accretion outburst.

  19. Measuring the black hole mass in ultraluminous X-ray sources with the X-ray scaling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, I.; Gliozzi, M.; Satyapal, S.; Titarchuk, L.

    2018-01-01

    In our recent work, we demonstrated that a novel X-ray scaling method, originally introduced for Galactic black holes (BH), could be reliably extended to estimate the mass of supermassive black holes accreting at moderate to high level. Here, we apply this X-ray scaling method to ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) to constrain their MBH. Using 49 ULXs with multiple XMM-Newton observations, we infer that ULXs host both stellar mass BHs and intermediate mass BHs. The majority of the sources of our sample seem to be consistent with the hypothesis of highly accreting massive stellar BHs with MBH ∼ 100 M⊙. Our results are in general agreement with the MBH values obtained with alternative methods, including model-independent variability methods. This suggests that the X-ray scaling method is an actual scale-independent method that can be applied to all BH systems accreting at moderate-high rate.

  20. The universe in X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Hasinger, Günther

    2008-01-01

    In the last 45 years, X-ray astronomy has become an integral part of modern astrophysics and cosmology. There is a wide range of astrophysical objects and phenomena, where X-rays provide crucial diagnostics. In particular they are well suited to study hot plasmas and matter under extreme physical conditions in compact objects. This book summarizes the present status of X-ray astronomy in terms of observational results and their astrophysical interpretation. It is written for students, astrophysicists as well a growing community of physicists interested in the field. An introduction including historical material is followed by chapters on X-ray astronomical instrumentation. The next two parts summarize in 17 chapters the present knowledge on various classes of X-ray sources in the galactic and extragalactic realm. While the X-ray astronomical highlights discussed in this book are mainly based on results from ROSAT, ASCA, RXTE, BeppoSAX, Chandra and XMM-Newton, a final chapter provides an outlook on observation...

  1. Solar and Stellar X-ray Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, P. C. H.; SADE Team

    2004-05-01

    Stern et al. have shown that Yohkoh-SXT full disk X-ray irradiance shows an 11 year cycle with an max/min amplitude ratio of a factor 30. Similar cyclic X-ray variation in Sun-like stars observed by ROSAT and its predecessors is observed in only a few cases and limited to a factor two or three. We will show, by means of detailed bandpass comparisons, that this discrepancy cannot be ascribed to the differences in energy response between SXT and the stellar soft X-ray detectors. Is the Sun exceptional? After centuries of geocentric and heliocentric worldviews we find this a difficult proposition to entertain. But perhaps the Sun is a member of a small class of late-type stars with large amplitudes in their X-ray cycles. The stellar X-ray observations listed in the HEASARC catalog are too sparse to verify this hypothesis. To resolve these and related questions we have proposed a small low-cost stellar X-ray spectroscopic imager originally called SADE to obtain regular time series from late and early-type stars and accretion disks. This instrument is complimentary to the much more advanced Chandra and XMM-Newton observatories, and allows them to focus on those sources that require their full spatial and spectral resolution. We will describe the basic design and spectroscopic capability of SADE and show it meets the mission requirements.

  2. Resolved Companions of Cepheids: Testing the Candidates with X-Ray Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Pillitteri, Ignazio; Wolk, Scott; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan; Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Mason, Brian D.

    2016-04-01

    We have made XMM-Newton observations of 14 Galactic Cepheids that have candidate resolved (≥5″) companion stars based on our earlier HST Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging survey. Main-sequence stars that are young enough to be physical companions of Cepheids are expected to be strong X-ray producers in contrast to field stars. XMM-Newton exposures were set to detect essentially all companions hotter than spectral type M0 (corresponding to 0.5 M⊙). The large majority of our candidate companions were not detected in X-rays, and hence are not confirmed as young companions. One resolved candidate (S Nor #4) was unambiguously detected, but the Cepheid is a member of a populous cluster. For this reason, it is likely that S Nor #4 is a cluster member rather than a gravitationally bound companion. Two further Cepheids (S Mus and R Cru) have X-ray emission that might be produced by either the Cepheid or the candidate resolved companion. A subsequent Chandra observation of S Mus shows that the X-rays are at the location of the Cepheid/spectroscopic binary. R Cru and also V659 Cen (also X-ray bright) have possible companions closer than 5″ (the limit for this study) which are the likely sources of X-rays. One final X-ray detection (V473 Lyr) has no known optical companion, so the prime suspect is the Cepheid itself. It is a unique Cepheid with a variable amplitude. The 14 stars that we observed with XMM constitute 36% of the 39 Cepheids found to have candidate companions in our HST/WFC3 optical survey. No young probable binary companions were found with separations of ≥5″ or 4000 au. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and the USA (NASA).

  3. X-ray Emission Line Spectroscopy of Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daniel

    What are the origins of the diffuse soft X-ray emission from non-AGN galaxies? Preliminary analysis of XMM-Newton RGS spectra shows that a substantial fraction of the emission cannot arise from optically-thin thermal plasma, as commonly assumed, and may originate in charge exchange at the interface with neutral gas. We request the support for a comprehensive observing, data analysis, and modeling program to spectroscopically determine the origins of the emission. First, we will use our scheduled XMM-Newton AO-10 368 ks observations of the nearest compact elliptical galaxy M32 to obtain the first spectroscopic calibration of the cumulative soft X-ray emission from the old stellar population and will develop a spectral model for the charge exchange, as well as analysis tools to measure the spatial and kinematic properties of the X-ray line- emitting plasma. Second, we will characterize the truly diffuse emission from the hot plasma and/or its interplay with the neutral gas in a sample of galactic spheroids and active star forming/starburst regions in nearby galaxies observed by XMM-Newton. In particular, we will map out the spatial distributions of key emission lines and measure (or tightly constrain) the kinematics of hot plasma outflows for a few X-ray-emitting regions with high-quality RGS data. For galaxies with insufficient counting statistics in individual emission lines, we will conduct a spectral stacking analysis to constrain the average properties of the X-ray-emitting plasma. We will use the results of these X-ray spectroscopic analyses, together with complementary X-ray CCD imaging/spectral data and observations in other wavelength bands, to test the models of the emission. In addition to the charge exchange, alternative scenarios such as resonance scattering and relic AGN photo-ionization will also be examined for suitable regions. These studies are important to the understanding of the relationship between the diffuse soft X-ray emission and various

  4. The changing source of X-ray reflection in the radio-intermediate Seyfert 1 galaxy III Zw 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, A. G.; Waddell, S. G. H.; Gallo, L. C.

    2018-03-01

    We report on X-ray observations of the radio-intermediate, X-ray bright Seyfert 1 galaxy, III Zw 2, obtained with XMM-Newton, Suzaku, and Swift over the past 17 yr. The source brightness varies significantly over yearly time-scales, but more modestly over periods of days. Pointed observations with XMM-Newton in 2000 and Suzaku in 2011 show spectral differences despite comparable X-ray fluxes. The Suzaku spectra are consistent with a power-law continuum and a narrow Gaussian emission feature at ˜6.4 keV, whereas the earlier XMM-Newton spectrum requires a broader Gaussian profile and soft-excess below ˜2 keV. A potential interpretation is that the primary power-law emission, perhaps from a jet base, preferentially illuminates the inner accretion disc in 2000, but the distant torus in 2011. The interpretation could be consistent with the hypothesized precessing radio jet in III Zw 2 that may have originated from disc instabilities due to an ongoing merging event.

  5. New insights into the X-ray properties of nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC 1672

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, L. P.; Brnadt, W. N.; Colbert, E. J. M.; Levan, A. J.; Roberts, T. P.; Ward, M. J.; Zezas, A.

    2008-02-01

    We present some preliminary results from new Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations of the nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC1672. It shows dramatic nuclear and extra-nuclear star formation activity, including starburst regions located near each end of its strong bar, both of which host ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). With the new high-spatial-resolution Chandra imaging, we show for the first time that NGC1672 possesses a faint ($L(X)~10^39 erg/s), hard central X-ray source surrounded by an X-ray bright circumnuclear starburst ring that dominates the X-ray emission in the region. The central source may represent low-level AGN activity, or alternatively the emission from X-ray binaries associated with star-formation in the nucleus.

  6. Joint XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the NGC 1407/1400 complex: A tail of an early-type galaxy and a tale of a nearby merging group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yuanyuan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Gu, Liyi [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); White III, Raymond E.; Irwin, Jimmy, E-mail: yuanyuas@uci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2014-05-10

    The nearby group centered on its bright central galaxy NGC 1407 has been suggested by previous kinematic studies to be an unusually dark system. It is also known for hosting a bright galaxy, NGC 1400, with a large radial velocity (1200 km s{sup –1}) with respect to the group center. Previous ROSAT X-ray observations revealed an extended region of enhanced surface brightness just eastward of NGC 1400. We investigate the NGC 1407/1400 complex with XMM-Newton and Chandra observations. We find that the temperature and metallicity of the enhanced region are different (cooler and more metal rich) than those of the surrounding group gas but are consistent with those of the interstellar medium (ISM) in NGC 1400. The relative velocity of NGC 1400 is large enough that much of its ISM could have been ram pressure stripped while plunging through the group atmosphere. We conclude that the enhanced region is likely to be hot gas stripped from the ISM of NGC 1400. We constrain the motion of NGC 1400 using the pressure jump at its associated stagnation front and the total mass profile of the NGC 1407 group. We conclude that NGC 1400 is moving within ∼30° of the line of sight with Mach number M≲3. We do not detect any obvious shock features in this complex, perhaps because of the high line-of-sight motion of NGC 1400. With an XMM-Newton pointing on the relatively relaxed eastern side of NGC 1407, we derive a hydrostatic mass for this group of ∼1 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉} within 100 kpc. The total mass extrapolated to the virial radius (681 kpc) is 3.8 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉}, which puts an upper limit of ∼300 M{sub ⊙}/L{sub B{sub ⊙}} on the mass-to-light ratio of this group. This suggests that the NGC 1407 group is not an unusually dark group.

  7. AN ULTRASOFT X-RAY FLARE FROM 3XMM J152130.7+074916: A TIDAL DISRUPTION EVENT CANDIDATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Dacheng [Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Maksym, Peter W.; Irwin, Jimmy A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Komossa, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Webb, Natalie A.; Godet, Olivier; Barret, Didier [CNRS, IRAP, 9 avenue du Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Grupe, Dirk [Space Science Center, Morehead State University, 235 Martindale Drive, Morehead, KY 40351 (United States); Gwyn, Stephen D. J., E-mail: dacheng.lin@unh.edu [Canadian Astronomy Data Centre, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, British Columbia, V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2015-09-20

    We report on the discovery of an ultrasoft X-ray transient source, 3XMM J152130.7+074916. It was serendipitously detected in an XMM-Newton observation on 2000 August 23, and its location is consistent with the center of the galaxy SDSS J152130.72+074916.5 (z = 0.17901 and d{sub L} = 866 Mpc). The high-quality X-ray spectrum can be fitted with a thermal disk with an apparent inner disk temperature of 0.17 keV and a rest-frame 0.24–11.8 keV unabsorbed luminosity of ∼5 × 10{sup 43} erg s{sup −1}, subject to a fast-moving warm absorber. Short-term variability was also clearly observed, with the spectrum being softer at lower flux. The source was covered but not detected in a Chandra observation on 2000 April 3, a Swift observation on 2005 September 10, and a second XMM-Newton observation on 2014 January 19, implying a large variability (>260) of the X-ray flux. The optical spectrum of the candidate host galaxy, taken ∼11 years after the XMM-Newton detection, shows no sign of nuclear activity. This, combined with its transient and ultrasoft properties, leads us to explain the source as tidal disruption of a star by the supermassive black hole in the galactic center. We attribute the fast-moving warm absorber detected in the first XMM-Newton observation to the super-Eddington outflow associated with the event and the short-term variability to a disk instability that caused fast change of the inner disk radius at a constant mass accretion rate.

  8. Revising the Local Bubble Model due to Solar Wind Charge Exchange X-ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Robin L.

    2009-03-01

    The hot Local Bubble surrounding the solar neighborhood has been primarily studied through observations of its soft X-ray emission. The measurements were obtained by attributing all of the observed local soft X-rays to the bubble. However, mounting evidence shows that the heliosphere also produces diffuse X-rays. The source is solar wind ions that have received an electron from another atom. The presence of this alternate explanation for locally produced diffuse X-rays calls into question the existence and character of the Local Bubble. This article addresses these questions. It reviews the literature on solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) X-ray production, finding that SWCX accounts for roughly half of the observed local 1/4 keV X-rays found at low latitudes. This article also makes predictions for the heliospheric O VI column density and intensity, finding them to be smaller than the observational error bars. Evidence for the continued belief that the Local Bubble contains hot gas includes the remaining local 1/4 keV intensity, the observed local O VI column density, and the need to fill the local region with some sort of plasma. If the true Local Bubble is half as bright as previously thought, then its electron density and thermal pressure are 1/sqrt{2} as great as previously thought, and its energy requirements and emission measure are 1/2 as great as previously thought. These adjustments can be accommodated easily, and, in fact, bring the Local Bubble’s pressure more in line with that of the adjacent material. Suggestions for future work are made.

  9. Chandra X-ray Observations of Jovian Low-latitude Emissions: Morphological, Temporal, and Spectral Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Cravens, Thomas E.; Waiate J. Hunter, Jr.; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Ford, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Chandra observed X-rays from Jupiter during 24-26 February 2003 for about 40 hours with the ACIS-S and HRC-I instruments. The analysis of Jovian low-latitude "disk" Xray emissions are presented and compared with the high-latitude "auroral" emissions. We report the first Chandra ACIS-S measured X-ray spectrum (0.3-2 keV) of Jupiter's low-latitude disk The disk X-ray emission is harder and extends to higher energies than the auroral spectrum. The temporal variation in the Jovian disk X-rays is on an average consistent with those in the solar X-rays observed by GOES, and TIMED/SSE. Contrary to the auroral X-rays, the disk emissions are uniformly distributed over Jupiter; no indication of longitudinal dependence or correlation with surface magneh field strength is visible. Also, unlike the approx. 40 +/- 20 min periodic oscillations seen in the auroral X-ray emissions, the disk emissions do not show any periodic oscillations. The disk spectrum seems to be consistent with resonant and fluorescent scattering of solar X-rays by the Jovian upper atmosphere. Jupiter's disk is found to be about 50% dimmer in soft X-rays in February 2003 compared that in December 2000, which is consistent with the decrease in solar activity. No evidence of lightning-induced X-rays is seen in the Chandra X-ray data. The Jovian disk spectra observed with Chandra-ACIS is stronger than that observed with XMM-Newton two months later during April 28-29, 2003. The XMM-Newton Xray image of Jupiter shows evidence of limb darkening on the anti-sunward side as seen from Earth, as well as an asymmetry with respect to the subsolar point: suggesting a solar driven process.

  10. News on the X-ray emission from hot subdwarf stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palombara Nicola La

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In latest years, the high sensitivity of the instruments on-board the XMM-Newton and Chandra satellites allowed us to explore the properties of the X-ray emission from hot subdwarf stars. The small but growing sample of X-ray detected hot subdwarfs includes binary systems, in which the X-ray emission is due to wind accretion onto a compact companion (white dwarf or neutron star, as well as isolated sdO stars, in which X-rays are probably due to shock instabilities in the wind. X-ray observations of these low-mass stars provide information which can be useful for our understanding of the weak winds of this type of stars and can lead to the discovery of particularly interesting binary systems. Here we report the most recent results we have recently obtained in this research area.

  11. TRACING THE LOWEST PROPELLER LINE IN MAGELLANIC HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christodoulou, Dimitris M.; Laycock, Silas G. T.; Yang, Jun; Fingerman, Samuel, E-mail: dimitris_christodoulou@uml.edu, E-mail: silas_laycock@uml.edu, E-mail: jun_yang@uml.edu, E-mail: fingerman.samuel@gmail.com [Lowell Center for Space Science and Technology, 600 Suffolk Street, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States)

    2016-09-20

    We have combined the published observations of high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) pulsars in the Magellanic Clouds with a new processing of the complete archival data sets from the XMM-Newton and Chandra observatories in an attempt to trace the lowest propeller line below which accretion to polar caps is inhibited by the centrifugal force and the pulsations from the most weakly magnetized pulsars cease. Previously published data reveal that some of the faster-spinning pulsars with spin periods of P {sub S} < 12 s, detected at relatively low X-ray luminosities L {sub X} , appear to define such a line in the P {sub S} – L {sub X} diagram, characterized by a magnetic moment of μ = 3 × 10{sup 29} G cm{sup 3}. This value implies the presence of surface magnetic fields of B ≥ 3 × 10{sup 11} G in the compact objects of this class. Only a few quiescent HMXBs are found below the propeller line: LXP4.40 and SXP4.78, for which XMM-Newton and Chandra null detections respectively placed firm upper limits on their X-ray fluxes in deep quiescence; and A0538-66, for which many sub-Eddington detections have never measured any pulsations. On the other hand, the data from the XMM-Newton and Chandra archives show clearly that, during routine observation cycles, several sources have been detected below the propeller line in extremely faint, nonpulsating states that can be understood as the result of weak magnetospheric emission when accretion to the poles is centrifugally stalled or severely diminished. We also pay attention to the anomalous X-ray pulsar CXOU J010043.1-721134 that was reported in HMXB surveys. Its pulsations and locations near and above the propeller line indicate that this pulsar could be accreting from a fossil disk.

  12. X-ray aspects of the DAFT/FADA clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guennou, L.; Durret, F.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Adami, C.

    2012-12-01

    We have undertaken the DAFT/FADA survey with the aim of applying constraints on dark energy based on weak lensing tomography as well as obtaining homogeneous and high quality data for a sample of 91 massive clusters in the redshift range [0.4,0.9] for which there are HST archive data. We have analysed the XMM-Newton data available for 42 of these clusters to derive their X-ray temperatures and luminosities and search for substructures. This study was coupled with a dynamical analysis for the 26 clusters having at least 30 spectroscopic galaxy redshifts in the cluster range. We present preliminary results on the coupled X-ray and dynamical analyses of these clusters.

  13. Characterizing the X-ray Emission in Small Magellanic Cloud Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Nicole; Auchettl, Katie; Lopez, Laura

    2018-01-01

    The Small Magellanic Cloud is a close, metal-poor galaxy with active star formation, and it has a diverse population of 24 supernova remnants (SNRs) that have been identified at several wavelengths. Past work has characterized the X-ray emission in these sources separately and aimed to constrain their explosive origins from observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton. Three SNRs have possible evidence for Type Ia explosions based on strong Fe-L emission in their X-ray spectra, although the environments and intermediate-mass element abundances are more consistent with those of core-collapse SNe. In this poster, we analyze the archival Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the SMC SNR sample, and we model the sources' X-ray spectra in a systematic way to derive the plasma properties and to constrain the nature of the explosions. In one SNR, we note the presence of an X-ray binary near the source's geometric center, suggesting the compact object was produced in the SN explosion. As one of only three SNRs known in the Local Group to host a binary system, this source is worthy of follow-up investigations to probe explosions of massive stars in binary systems.

  14. On the Detectability of CO Molecules in the Interstellar Medium via X-Ray Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachimi, Katerine; Gatuzz, Efrain; Garcia, Javier; Kallman, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the detectability of CO molecules in the Galactic interstellar medium using high-resolution X-ray spectra obtained with the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer. We analysed 10 bright low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) to study the CO contribution in their line of sights. A total of 25 observations were fitted with the ISMabs X-ray absorption model which includes photoabsorption cross-sections for Oi, Oii, Oiii and CO. We performed a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation analysis of the goodness of fit in order to estimate the significance of the CO detection. We determine that the statistical analysis prevents a significant detection of CO molecular X-ray absorption features, except for the lines of sight towards XTE J1718-330 and 4U 1636-53. In the case of XTE J1817-330, this is the first report of the presence of CO along its line of sight. Our results reinforce the conclusion that molecules have a minor contribution to the absorption features in the O K-edge spectral region. We estimate a CO column density lower limit to perform a significant detection with XMM-Newton of N(CO) greater than 6 x 10(exp 16) per sq cm for typical exposure times.

  15. Active x-ray optics for high resolution space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doel, Peter; Atkins, Carolyn; Brooks, D.; Feldman, Charlotte; Willingale, Richard; Button, Tim; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Meggs, Carl; James, Ady; Willis, Graham; Smith, Andy

    2017-11-01

    The Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project started in April 2006 and will end in October 2010. The aim is to develop new technologies in the field of X-ray focusing, in particular the application of active and adaptive optics. While very major advances have been made in active/adaptive astronomical optics for visible light, little was previously achieved for X-ray optics where the technological challenges differ because of the much shorter wavelengths involved. The field of X-ray astronomy has been characterized by the development and launch of ever larger observatories with the culmination in the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton and NASA's Chandra missions which are currently operational. XMM-Newton uses a multi-nested structure to provide modest angular resolution ( 10 arcsec) but large effective area, while Chandra sacrifices effective area to achieve the optical stability necessary to provide sub-arc second resolution. Currently the European Space Agency (ESA) is engaged in studies of the next generation of X-ray space observatories, with the aim of producing telescopes with increased sensitivity and resolution. To achieve these aims several telescopes have been proposed, for example ESA and NASA's combined International X-ray Observatory (IXO), aimed at spectroscopy, and NASA's Generation-X. In the field of X-ray astronomy sub 0.2 arcsecond resolution with high efficiency would be very exciting. Such resolution is unlikely to be achieved by anything other than an active system. The benefits of a such a high resolution would be important for a range of astrophysics subjects, for example the potential angular resolution offered by active X-ray optics could provide unprecedented structural imaging detail of the Solar Wind bowshock interaction of comets, planets and similar objects and auroral phenomena throughout the Solar system using an observing platform in low Earth orbit. A major aim of the SXO project was to investigate the production of thin

  16. X-ray time lags in PG 1211+143

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobban, A. P.; Vaughan, S.; Pounds, K.; Reeves, J. N.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the X-ray time lags of a recent ˜630 ks XMM-Newton observation of PG 1211+143. We find well-correlated variations across the XMM-Newton EPIC bandpass, with the first detection of a hard lag in this source with a mean time delay of up to ˜3 ks at the lowest frequencies. We find that the energy-dependence of the low-frequency hard lag scales approximately linearly with log(E) when averaged over all orbits, consistent with the propagating fluctuations model. However, we find that the low-frequency lag behaviour becomes more complex on time-scales longer than a single orbit, suggestive of additional modes of variability. We also detect a high-frequency soft lag at ˜10-4 Hz with the magnitude of the delay peaking at ≲ 0.8 ks, consistent with previous observations, which we discuss in terms of small-scale reverberation.

  17. An XMM-Newton Study of the Bright Ultrasoft Narrow-Line Quasar NAB 0205+024

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Niel

    2004-01-01

    The broad-band X-ray continuum of NAB 0205424 is well constrained due to the excellent photon statistics obtained (about 97,700 counts), and its impressive soft X-ray excess is clearly apparent. The hard X-ray power law has become notably steeper than when NAB 0205424 was observed with ASCA, attesting to the presence of significant X-ray spectral variability. A strong and broad emission feature is detected from about 5 to 6.4 keV, and we have modeled this as a relativistic line emitted close to the black hole from a narrow annulus of the accretion disk. Furthermore, a strong X-ray flare is detected with a hard X-ray spectrum; this flare may be responsible for illuminating the inner line-emitting part of the accretion disk. The combined observational results can be broadly interpreted in terms of the "thundercloud model proposed by Merloni & Fabian (2001).

  18. Classification of X-ray sources in the direction of M31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilopoulos, G.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Pietsch, W.

    2012-01-01

    M31 is our nearest spiral galaxy, at a distance of 780 kpc. Identification of X-ray sources in nearby galaxies is important for interpreting the properties of more distant ones, mainly because we can classify nearby sources using both X-ray and optical data, while more distant ones via X-rays alone. The XMM-Newton Large Project for M31 has produced an abundant sample of about 1900 X-ray sources in the direction of M31. Most of them remain elusive, giving us little signs of their origin. Our goal is to classify these sources using criteria based on properties of already identified ones. In particular we construct candidate lists of high mass X-ray binaries, low mass X-ray binaries, X-ray binaries correlated with globular clusters and AGN based on their X-ray emission and the properties of their optical counterparts, if any. Our main methodology consists of identifying particular loci of X-ray sources on X-ray hardness ratio diagrams and the color magnitude diagrams of their optical counterparts. Finally, we examined the X-ray luminosity function of the X-ray binaries populations.

  19. A Long Decay of X-Ray Flux and Spectral Evolution in the Supersoft Active Galactic Nucleus GSN 069

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, X. W.; Wang, S. S.; Dou, L. M.; Jiang, N.; Wang, J. X.; Wang, T. G.

    2018-04-01

    GSN 069 is an optically identified very low-mass active galactic nuclei (AGN) that shows supersoft X-ray emission. The source is known to exhibit a huge X-ray outburst, with flux increased by more than a factor of ∼240 compared to the quiescence state. We report its long-term evolution in the X-ray flux and spectral variations over a timescale of ∼decade, using both new and archival X-ray observations from the XMM-Newton and Swift. The new Swift observations detected the source in its lowest level of X-ray activity since the outburst, a factor of ∼4 lower in the 0.2–2 keV flux than that obtained with the XMM-Newton observations nearly eight years ago. Combining with the historical X-ray measurements, we find that the X-ray flux is decreasing slowly. There seemed to be spectral softening associated with the drop of X-ray flux. In addition, we find evidence for the presence of a weak, variable, hard X-ray component, in addition to the dominant thermal blackbody emission reported before. The long decay of X-ray flux and spectral evolution, as well as the supersoft X-ray spectra, suggest that the source could be a tidal disruption event (TDE), though a highly variable AGN cannot be fully ruled out. Further continued X-ray monitoring would be required to test the TDE interpretation, by better determining the flux evolution in the decay phase.

  20. X-RAY DETECTION OF THE CLUSTER CONTAINING THE CEPHEID S MUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Pillitteri, Ignazio; Wolk, Scott; Karovska, Margarita; DePasquale, Joseph; Tingle, Evan [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS 4, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Villanova University, 800 Lancaster Avenue, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Schaefer, Gail H., E-mail: nevans@cfa.harvard.edu [The CHARA Array of Georgia State University, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States)

    2014-04-20

    The galactic Cepheid S Muscae has recently been added to the important list of Cepheids linked to open clusters, in this case the sparse young cluster ASCC 69. Low-mass members of a young cluster are expected to have rapid rotation and X-ray activity, making X-ray emission an excellent way to discriminate them from old field stars. We have made an XMM-Newton observation centered on S Mus and identified a population of X-ray sources whose near-IR Two Micron All Sky Survey counterparts lie at locations in the J, (J – K) color-magnitude diagram consistent with cluster membership at the distance of S Mus. Their median energy and X-ray luminosity are consistent with young cluster members as distinct from field stars. These strengthen the association of S Mus with the young cluster, making it a potential Leavitt law (period-luminosity relation) calibrator.

  1. Magnetar-like X-Ray Bursts Suppress Pulsar Radio Emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archibald, R. F.; Lyutikov, M.; Kaspi, V. M.; Tendulkar, S. P. [Department of Physics and McGill Space Institute, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Burgay, M.; Possenti, A. [INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, Via della Scienza 5, I-09047 Selargius (Italy); Esposito, P.; Rea, N. [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Israel, G. [INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy); Kerr, M. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Sarkissian, J. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Parkes Observatory, P.O. Box 276, Parkes, NSW 2870 (Australia); Scholz, P., E-mail: archibald@astro.utoronto.ca [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, P.O. Box 248, Penticton, BC V2A 6J9 (Canada)

    2017-11-10

    Rotation-powered pulsars and magnetars are two different observational manifestations of neutron stars: rotation-powered pulsars are rapidly spinning objects that are mostly observed as pulsating radio sources, while magnetars, neutron stars with the highest known magnetic fields, often emit short-duration X-ray bursts. Here, we report simultaneous observations of the high-magnetic-field radio pulsar PSR J1119−6127 at X-ray, with XMM-Newton and NuSTAR , and at radio energies with the Parkes radio telescope, during a period of magnetar-like bursts. The rotationally powered radio emission shuts off coincident with the occurrence of multiple X-ray bursts and recovers on a timescale of ∼70 s. These observations of related radio and X-ray phenomena further solidify the connection between radio pulsars and magnetars and suggest that the pair plasma produced in bursts can disrupt the acceleration mechanism of radio-emitting particles.

  2. X-Ray Detection of the Cluster Containing the Cepheid S Mus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Pillitteri, Ignazio; Wolk, Scott; Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Karovska, Margarita; DePasquale, Joseph; Tingle, Evan

    2014-04-01

    The galactic Cepheid S Muscae has recently been added to the important list of Cepheids linked to open clusters, in this case the sparse young cluster ASCC 69. Low-mass members of a young cluster are expected to have rapid rotation and X-ray activity, making X-ray emission an excellent way to discriminate them from old field stars. We have made an XMM-Newton observation centered on S Mus and identified a population of X-ray sources whose near-IR Two Micron All Sky Survey counterparts lie at locations in the J, (J - K) color-magnitude diagram consistent with cluster membership at the distance of S Mus. Their median energy and X-ray luminosity are consistent with young cluster members as distinct from field stars. These strengthen the association of S Mus with the young cluster, making it a potential Leavitt law (period-luminosity relation) calibrator.

  3. X-RAY DETECTION OF THE CLUSTER CONTAINING THE CEPHEID S MUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Pillitteri, Ignazio; Wolk, Scott; Karovska, Margarita; DePasquale, Joseph; Tingle, Evan; Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.

    2014-01-01

    The galactic Cepheid S Muscae has recently been added to the important list of Cepheids linked to open clusters, in this case the sparse young cluster ASCC 69. Low-mass members of a young cluster are expected to have rapid rotation and X-ray activity, making X-ray emission an excellent way to discriminate them from old field stars. We have made an XMM-Newton observation centered on S Mus and identified a population of X-ray sources whose near-IR Two Micron All Sky Survey counterparts lie at locations in the J, (J – K) color-magnitude diagram consistent with cluster membership at the distance of S Mus. Their median energy and X-ray luminosity are consistent with young cluster members as distinct from field stars. These strengthen the association of S Mus with the young cluster, making it a potential Leavitt law (period-luminosity relation) calibrator

  4. Revised and new national reference values for X-ray diagnostic examinations per 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    NRPA has revised the national reference values given in the Guide 5b and established reference values for 10 new investigations. The revision / creation is based on new national dose distributions obtained in the period 2006-2009. Reference values are effective from 27 April 2010. (AG)

  5. X-ray pore optic developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Kotska; Bavdaz, Marcos; Collon, Maximilien; Beijersbergen, Marco; Kraft, Stefan; Fairbend, Ray; Séguy, Julien; Blanquer, Pascal; Graue, Roland; Kampf, Dirk

    2017-11-01

    In support of future x-ray telescopes ESA is developing new optics for the x-ray regime. To date, mass and volume have made x-ray imaging technology prohibitive to planetary remote sensing imaging missions. And although highly successful, the mirror technology used on ESA's XMM-Newton is not sufficient for future, large, x-ray observatories, since physical limits on the mirror packing density mean that aperture size becomes prohibitive. To reduce telescope mass and volume the packing density of mirror shells must be reduced, whilst maintaining alignment and rigidity. Structures can also benefit from a modular optic arrangement. Pore optics are shown to meet these requirements. This paper will discuss two pore optic technologies under development, with examples of results from measurement campaigns on samples. One activity has centred on the use of coated, silicon wafers, patterned with ribs, that are integrated onto a mandrel whose form has been polished to the required shape. The wafers follow the shape precisely, forming pore sizes in the sub-mm region. Individual stacks of mirrors can be manufactured without risk to, or dependency on, each other and aligned in a structure from which they can also be removed without hazard. A breadboard is currently being built to demonstrate this technology. A second activity centres on glass pore optics. However an adaptation of micro channel plate technology to form square pores has resulted in a monolithic material that can be slumped into an optic form. Alignment and coating of two such plates produces an x-ray focusing optic. A breadboard 20cm aperture optic is currently being built.

  6. SERENDIPITOUS DETECTION OF X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE HOT BORN-AGAIN CENTRAL STAR OF THE PLANETARY NEBULA K 1-16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montez, Rodolfo Jr. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Kastner, Joel H., E-mail: rodolfo.montez.jr@gmail.com, E-mail: jhk@cis.rit.edu [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2013-03-20

    We report the serendipitous detection of point-like X-ray emission from the hot, PG1159-type central star of the planetary nebula (CSPN) K 1-16 by the XMM-Newton and Chandra X-Ray Observatories. The CSPN lies superimposed on a galaxy cluster that includes an X-ray-bright quasar, but we have successfully isolated the CSPN X-ray emission from the strong diffuse background contributed by the quasar and intracluster gas. We have modeled the XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray data, taking advantage of the contrasting detection efficiencies of the two observatories to better constrain the low-energy spectral response of Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer. We find that the CSPN X-ray spectrum is well characterized by the combination of a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmosphere with T{sub *} {approx} 135 kK and a carbon-rich, optically thin thermal plasma with T{sub X} {approx} 1 MK. These results for X-ray emission from the K 1-16 CSPN, combined with those obtained for other PG1159-type objects, lend support to the 'born-again' scenario for Wolf-Rayet and PG1159 CSPNe, wherein a late helium shell flash dredges up carbon-rich intershell material and ejects this material into the circumstellar environment.

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE X-RAY LIGHT CURVE OF THE {gamma} Cas-LIKE B1e STAR HD 110432

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Myron A. [Catholic University of America, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lopes de Oliveira, Raimundo [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Marechal Rondon s/n, 49100-000 Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Motch, Christian, E-mail: msmith@stsci.edu [Observatoire Astronomique, Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France)

    2012-08-10

    HD 110432 (BZ Cru; B1Ve) is the brightest member of a small group of '{gamma} Cas analogs' that emit copious hard X-ray flux, punctuated by ubiquitous 'flares'. To characterize the X-ray time history of this star, we made a series of six RXTE multi-visit observations in 2010 and an extended observation with the XMM-Newton in 2007. We analyzed these new light curves along with three older XMM-Newton observations from 2002 to 2003. Distributed over five months, the RXTE observations were designed to search for long X-ray modulations over a few months. These observations indeed suggest the presence of a long cycle with P Almost-Equal-To 226 days and an amplitude of a factor of two. We also used X-ray light curves constructed from XMM-Newton observations to characterize the lifetimes, strengths, and interflare intervals of 1615 flare-like events in the light curves. After accounting for false positive events, we infer the presence of 955 (2002-2003) and 386 (2007) events we identified as flares. Similarly, as a control we measured the same attributes for an additional group of 541 events in XMM-Newton light curves of {gamma} Cas, which, after a similar correction, yielded 517 flares. We found that the flare properties of HD 110432 are mostly similar to our control group. In both cases the distribution of flare strengths are best fit with log-linear relations. Both the slopes of these distributions and the flaring frequencies themselves exhibit modest fluctuations. We discovered that some flares in the hard X-ray band of HD 110432 were weak or unobserved in the soft band and vice versa. The light curves also occasionally show rapid curve drop-offs that are sustained for hours. We discuss the existence of the long cycle and these flare properties in the backdrop of two rival scenarios to produce hard X-rays, a magnetic star-disk interaction, and the accretion of blobs onto a secondary white dwarf.

  8. X-Ray Brightening and UV Fading of Tidal Disruption Event ASASSN-15oi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezari, S.; Cenko, S. B.; Arcavi, I.

    2017-12-01

    We present late-time observations by Swift and XMM-Newton of the tidal disruption event (TDE) ASASSN-15oi that reveal that the source brightened in the X-rays by a factor of ∼10 one year after its discovery, while it faded in the UV/optical by a factor of ∼100. The XMM-Newton observations measure a soft X-ray blackbody component with {{kT}}{bb}∼ 45 {eV}, corresponding to radiation from several gravitational radii of a central ∼ {10}6 {M}ȯ black hole. The last Swift epoch taken almost 600 days after discovery shows that the X-ray source has faded back to its levels during the UV/optical peak. The timescale of the X-ray brightening suggests that the X-ray emission could be coming from delayed accretion through a newly forming debris disk and that the prompt UV/optical emission is from the prior circularization of the disk through stream–stream collisions. The lack of spectral evolution during the X-ray brightening disfavors ionization breakout of a TDE “veiled” by obscuring material. This is the first time a TDE has been shown to have a delayed peak in soft X-rays relative to the UV/optical peak, which may be the first clear signature of the real-time assembly of a nascent accretion disk, and provides strong evidence for the origin of the UV/optical emission from circularization, as opposed to reprocessed emission of accretion radiation.

  9. TRACING THE REVERBERATION LAG IN THE HARD STATE OF BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marco, B.; Ponti, G.; Nandra, K.; Muñoz-Darias, T.

    2015-01-01

    We report results obtained from a systematic analysis of X-ray lags in a sample of black hole X-ray binaries, with the aim of assessing the presence of reverberation lags and studying their evolution during outburst. We used XMM-Newton and simultaneous Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations to obtain broadband energy coverage of both the disk and the hard X-ray Comptonization components. In most cases the detection of reverberation lags is hampered by low levels of variability-power signal-to-noise ratio (typically when the source is in a soft state) and/or short exposure times. The most detailed study was possible for GX 339-4 in the hard state, which allowed us to characterize the evolution of X-ray lags as a function of luminosity in a single source. Over all the sampled frequencies (∼0.05–9 Hz), we observe the hard lags intrinsic to the power-law component, already well known from previous RXTE studies. The XMM-Newton soft X-ray response allows us to detail the disk variability. At low frequencies (long timescales) the disk component always leads the power-law component. On the other hand, a soft reverberation lag (ascribable to thermal reprocessing) is always detected at high frequencies (short timescales). The intrinsic amplitude of the reverberation lag decreases as the source luminosity and the disk fraction increase. This suggests that the distance between the X-ray source and the region of the optically thick disk where reprocessing occurs gradually decreases as GX 339-4 rises in luminosity through the hard state, possibly as a consequence of reduced disk truncation

  10. RESOLVED COMPANIONS OF CEPHEIDS: TESTING THE CANDIDATES WITH X-RAY OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Pillitteri, Ignazio; Wolk, Scott; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS 4, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Villanova University, 800 Lancaster Ave., Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Schaefer, Gail H. [The CHARA Array of Georgia State University, Mount Wilson, California 91023 (United States); Mason, Brian D., E-mail: nevans@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: heb11@psu.edu, E-mail: schaefer@chara-array.org [US Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    We have made XMM-Newton observations of 14 Galactic Cepheids that have candidate resolved (≥5″) companion stars based on our earlier HST Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging survey. Main-sequence stars that are young enough to be physical companions of Cepheids are expected to be strong X-ray producers in contrast to field stars. XMM-Newton exposures were set to detect essentially all companions hotter than spectral type M0 (corresponding to 0.5 M{sub ⊙}). The large majority of our candidate companions were not detected in X-rays, and hence are not confirmed as young companions. One resolved candidate (S Nor #4) was unambiguously detected, but the Cepheid is a member of a populous cluster. For this reason, it is likely that S Nor #4 is a cluster member rather than a gravitationally bound companion. Two further Cepheids (S Mus and R Cru) have X-ray emission that might be produced by either the Cepheid or the candidate resolved companion. A subsequent Chandra observation of S Mus shows that the X-rays are at the location of the Cepheid/spectroscopic binary. R Cru and also V659 Cen (also X-ray bright) have possible companions closer than 5″ (the limit for this study) which are the likely sources of X-rays. One final X-ray detection (V473 Lyr) has no known optical companion, so the prime suspect is the Cepheid itself. It is a unique Cepheid with a variable amplitude. The 14 stars that we observed with XMM constitute 36% of the 39 Cepheids found to have candidate companions in our HST/WFC3 optical survey. No young probable binary companions were found with separations of ≥5″ or 4000 au.

  11. RESOLVED COMPANIONS OF CEPHEIDS: TESTING THE CANDIDATES WITH X-RAY OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Pillitteri, Ignazio; Wolk, Scott; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan; Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Mason, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    We have made XMM-Newton observations of 14 Galactic Cepheids that have candidate resolved (≥5″) companion stars based on our earlier HST Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging survey. Main-sequence stars that are young enough to be physical companions of Cepheids are expected to be strong X-ray producers in contrast to field stars. XMM-Newton exposures were set to detect essentially all companions hotter than spectral type M0 (corresponding to 0.5 M ⊙ ). The large majority of our candidate companions were not detected in X-rays, and hence are not confirmed as young companions. One resolved candidate (S Nor #4) was unambiguously detected, but the Cepheid is a member of a populous cluster. For this reason, it is likely that S Nor #4 is a cluster member rather than a gravitationally bound companion. Two further Cepheids (S Mus and R Cru) have X-ray emission that might be produced by either the Cepheid or the candidate resolved companion. A subsequent Chandra observation of S Mus shows that the X-rays are at the location of the Cepheid/spectroscopic binary. R Cru and also V659 Cen (also X-ray bright) have possible companions closer than 5″ (the limit for this study) which are the likely sources of X-rays. One final X-ray detection (V473 Lyr) has no known optical companion, so the prime suspect is the Cepheid itself. It is a unique Cepheid with a variable amplitude. The 14 stars that we observed with XMM constitute 36% of the 39 Cepheids found to have candidate companions in our HST/WFC3 optical survey. No young probable binary companions were found with separations of ≥5″ or 4000 au

  12. X-ray pulsars in nearby irregular galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun

    2018-01-01

    The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Irregular Galaxy IC 10 are valuable laboratories to study the physical, temporal and statistical properties of the X-ray pulsar population with multi-satellite observations, in order to probe fundamental physics. The known distance of these galaxies can help us easily categorize the luminosity of the pulsars and their age difference can be helpful for for studying the origin and evolution of compact objects. Therefore, a complete archive of 116 XMM-Newton PN, 151 Chandra (Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer) ACIS, and 952 RXTE PCA observations for the pulsars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) were collected and analyzed, along with 42 XMM-Newton and 30 Chandra observations for the Large Magellanic Cloud, spanning 1997-2014. From a sample of 67 SMC pulsars we generate a suite of products for each pulsar detection: spin period, flux, event list, high time-resolution light-curve, pulse-profile, periodogram, and X-ray spectrum. Combining all three satellites, I generated complete histories of the spin periods, pulse amplitudes, pulsed fractions and X-ray luminosities. Many of the pulsars show variations in pulse period due to the combination of orbital motion and accretion torques. Long-term spin-up/down trends are seen in 28/25 pulsars respectively, pointing to sustained transfer of mass and angular momentum to the neutron star on decadal timescales. The distributions of pulse detection and flux as functions of spin period provide interesting findings: mapping boundaries of accretion-driven X-ray luminosity, and showing that fast pulsars (P<10 s) are rarely detected, which yet are more prone to giant outbursts. In parallel we compare the observed pulse profiles to our general relativity (GR) model of X-ray emission in order to constrain the physical parameters of the pulsars.In addition, we conduct a search for optical counterparts to X-ray sources in the local dwarf galaxy IC 10 to form a comparison

  13. Oxygen, Neon, and Iron X-Ray Absorption in the Local Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatuzz, Efrain; Garcia, Javier; Kallman, Timothy R.; Mendoza, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed study of X-ray absorption in the local interstellar medium by analyzing the X-ray spectra of 24 galactic sources obtained with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer and the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer. Methods. By modeling the continuum with a simple broken power-law and by implementing the new ISMabs X-ray absorption model, we have estimated the total H, O, Ne, and Fe column densities towards the observed sources. Results. We have determined the absorbing material distribution as a function of source distance and galactic latitude longitude. Conclusions. Direct estimates of the fractions of neutrally, singly, and doubly ionized species of O, Ne, and Fe reveal the dominance of the cold component, thus indicating an overall low degree of ionization. Our results are expected to be sensitive to the model used to describe the continuum in all sources.

  14. A new detection of an UFO in the X-ray spectrum of a lensed QSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadina, M.

    2017-10-01

    The discovery of the "M_{SMBH}-σ relation" indicated that a connection between the central black-hole and the hosting galaxies acted during the cosmic time. With the discovery in X-rays of the ultra-fast outflows in nearby AGN, we have most probably probed one of the ingredients that are needed to build-up this mechanism. At high-z, however, such measurements were possible only in an handful of objects and this was possible mainly for the presence of gravitational lenses that magnified otherwise X-ray weak QSO. Following this, we proposed a program to use XMM-Newton and gravitational lenses as telescopes to point bright, lensed and distant QSO to characterize in detail their X-ray spectrum and to detect blushifted absorption lines at E˜7-10 keV (rest frame). Here we present the preliminary results obtained for the z=2.64 QSO MG J0414+0534.

  15. The Secret Lives of Cepheids: δ Cep—The Prototype of a New Class of Pulsating X-Ray Variable Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Scott G.; Guinan, Edward F.; Harper, Graham M.; Cuntz, Manfred; Remage Evans, Nancy; Neilson, Hilding R.; Fawzy, Diaa E.

    2017-03-01

    From our Secret Lives of Cepheids program, the prototype Classical Cepheid, δ Cep, is found to be an X-ray source with periodic pulsation-modulated X-ray variations. This finding complements our earlier reported phase-dependent FUV-UV emissions of the star that increase ˜10-20 times with highest fluxes at ˜ 0.90{--}0.95φ , just prior to maximum brightness. Previously δ Cep was found as potentially X-ray variable, using XMM-Newton observations. Additional phase-constrained data were secured with Chandra near X-ray emission peak, to determine if the emission and variability were pulsation-phase-specific to δ Cep and not transient or due to a possible coronally active, cool companion. The Chandra data were combined with prior XMM-Newton observations, and were found to very closely match the previously observed X-ray behavior. From the combined data set, a ˜4 increase in X-ray flux is measured, reaching a peak {L}{{X}} = 1.7 × 1029 erg s-1 near 0.45ϕ. The precise X-ray flux phasing with the star’s pulsation indicates that the emissions arise from the Cepheid and not from a companion. However, it is puzzling that the maximum X-ray flux occurs ˜0.5ϕ (˜3 days) later than the FUV-UV maximum. There are several other potential Cepheid X-ray detections with properties similar to δ Cep, and comparable X-ray variability is indicated for two other Cepheids: β Dor and V473 Lyr. X-ray generating mechanisms in δ Cep and other Cepheids are discussed. If additional Cepheids are confirmed to show phased X-ray variations, then δ Cep will be the prototype of a new class of pulsation-induced X-ray variables.

  16. Simultaneous broadband observations and high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of the transitional millisecond pulsar PSR J1023+0038

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coti Zelati, F.; Campana, S.; Braito, V.; Baglio, M. C.; D'Avanzo, P.; Rea, N.; Torres, D. F.

    2018-03-01

    We report on the first simultaneous XMM-Newton, NuSTAR, and Swift observations of the transitional millisecond pulsar PSR J1023+0038 in the X-ray active state. Our multi-wavelength campaign allowed us to investigate with unprecedented detail possible spectral variability over a broad energy range in the X-rays, as well as correlations and lags among emissions in different bands. The soft and hard X-ray emissions are significantly correlated, with no lags between the two bands. On the other hand, the X-ray emission does not correlate with the UV emission. We refine our model for the observed mode switching in terms of rapid transitions between a weak propeller regime and a rotation-powered radio pulsar state, and report on a detailed high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy using all XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer data acquired since 2013. We discuss our results in the context of the recent discoveries on the system and of the state of the art simulations on transitional millisecond pulsars, and show how the properties of the narrow emission lines in the soft X-ray spectrum are consistent with an origin within the accretion disc.

  17. X-RAY AND RADIO EMISSION FROM TYPE IIn SUPERNOVA SN 2010jl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Poonam [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Pune University Campus, Pune 411 007 (India); Chevalier, Roger A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Chugai, Nikolai [Institute of Astronomy of Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyatnitskaya St. 48, 109017 Moscow (Russian Federation); Fransson, Claes [Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Soderberg, Alicia M., E-mail: poonam@ncra.tifr.res.in [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St., MS-20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-09-01

    We present all X-ray and radio observations of the Type IIn supernova SN 2010jl. The X-ray observations cover a period up to day 1500 with Chandra, XMM-Newton, NuSTAR, and Swift-X-ray Telescope (XRT). The Chandra observations after 2012 June, the XMM-Newton observation in 2013 November, and most of the Swift-XRT observations until 2014 December are presented for the first time. All the spectra can be fitted by an absorbed hot thermal model except for Chandra spectra on 2011 October and 2012 June when an additional component is needed. Although the origin of this component is uncertain, it is spatially coincident with the supernova and occurs when there are changes to the supernova spectrum in the energy range close to that of the extra component, indicating that the emission is related to the supernova. The X-ray light curve shows an initial plateau followed by a steep drop starting at day ∼300. We attribute the drop to a decrease in the circumstellar density. The column density to the X-ray emission drops rapidly with time, showing that the absorption is in the vicinity of the supernova. We also present Very Large Array radio observations of SN 2010jl. Radio emission was detected from SN 2010jl from day 570 onwards. The radio light curves and spectra suggest that the radio luminosity was close to its maximum at the first detection. The velocity of the shocked ejecta derived assuming synchrotron self-absorption is much less than that estimated from the optical and X-ray observations, suggesting that free–free absorption dominates.

  18. A Massive X-ray Outflow From The Quasar PDS 456

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, J. N.; O'Brien, P. T.; Ward, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    We report on XMM-Newton spectroscopic observations of the luminous, radio-quiet quasar PDS 456. The hard X-ray spectrum of PDS 456 shows a deep absorption trough (constituting 50% of the continuum) at energies above 7 keV in the quasar rest frame, which can be attributed to a series of blue-shifted K-shell absorption edges due to highly ionized iron. The higher resolution soft X-ray grating RGS spectrum exhibits a broad absorption line feature near 1 keV, which can be modeled by a blend of L-shell transitions from highly ionized iron (Fe XVII - XXIV). An extreme outflow velocity of approx. 50000 km/s is required to model the K and L shell iron absorption present in the XMM-Newton data. Overall, a large column density (N(sub H) = 5 x 10(exp 23)/sq cm) of highly ionized gas (log xi = 2.5) is required in PDS 456. A large mass outflow rate of approx. 10 solar mass/year (assuming a conservative outflow covering factor of 0.1 steradian) is derived, which is of the same order as the overall mass accretion rate in PDS 456. This represents a substantial fraction (approx. 10%) of the quasar energy budget, whilst the large column and outflow velocity place PDS 456 towards the extreme end of the broad absorption line quasar population.

  19. DISCOVERY OF X-RAY PULSATION FROM THE GEMINGA-LIKE PULSAR PSR J2021+4026

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, L. C. C. [General Education Center, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Hui, C. Y.; Seo, K. A., E-mail: cyhui@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hu, C. P.; Chou, Y. [Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China); Wu, J. H. K.; Huang, R. H. H. [Institute of Astronomy, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Trepl, L. [Astrophysikalisches Institut und Universitaets-Sternwarte, Universitaet Jena, Schillergaesschen 2-3, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Takata, J.; Wang, Y.; Cheng, K. S. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2013-06-10

    We report the discovery of an X-ray periodicity of {approx}265.3 ms from a deep XMM-Newton observation of the radio-quiet {gamma}-ray pulsar, PSR J2021+4026, located at the edge of the supernova remnant G78.2+2.1 ({gamma}-Cygni). The detected frequency is consistent with the {gamma}-ray pulsation determined by the observation of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope at the same epoch. The X-ray pulse profile resembles the modulation of a hot spot on the surface of the neutron star. The phase-averaged spectral analysis also suggests that the majority of the observed X-rays have thermal origins. This is the third member in the class of radio-quiet pulsars with significant pulsations detected from both X-ray and {gamma}-ray regimes.

  20. Quantification of the In Vitro Radiosensitivity of Mung Bean Sprout Elongation to 6MV X-Ray: A Revised Target Model Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu Hwei Wang

    Full Text Available In this study, a revised target model for quantifying the in vitro radiosensitivity of mung bean sprout elongation to 6-MV X-rays was developed. The revised target model, which incorporated the Poisson prediction for a low probability of success, provided theoretical estimates that were highly consistent with the actual data measured in this study. The revised target model correlated different in vitro radiosensitivities to various effective target volumes and was successfully confirmed by exposing mung beans in various elongation states to various doses of 6-MV X-rays. For the experiment, 5,000 fresh mung beans were randomly distributed into 100 petri dishes, which were randomly divided into ten groups. Each group received an initial watering at a different time point prior to X-ray exposure, resulting in different effective target volumes. The bean sprouts were measured 70 hr after X-ray exposure, and the average length of the bean sprouts in each group was recorded as an index of the mung bean in vitro radiosensitivity. Mung beans that received an initial watering either six or sixteen hours before X-ray exposure had the shortest sprout length, indicating that the maximum effective target volume was formed within that specific time period. The revised target model could be also expanded to interpret the "two-hit" model of target theory, although the experimental data supported the "one-hit" model. If the "two-hit" model was sustained, theoretically, the target size would be 2.14 times larger than its original size to produce the same results.

  1. X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy: the Potential of Astrophysics-developed Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, M.; Allen, B.; Hong, J.; Grindlay, J.; Kraft, R.; Binzel, R. P.; Masterton, R.

    2012-12-01

    X-ray fluorescence from the surface of airless bodies has been studied since the Apollo X-ray fluorescence experiment mapped parts of the lunar surface in 1971-1972. That experiment used a collimated proportional counter with a resolving power of ~1 and a beam size of ~1degree. Filters separated only Mg, Al and SI lines. We review progress in X-ray detectors and imaging for astrophysics and show how these advances enable much more powerful use of X-ray fluorescence for the study of airless bodies. Astrophysics X-ray instrumentation has developed enormously since 1972. Low noise, high quantum efficiency, X-ray CCDs have flown on ASCA, XMM-Newton, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, Swift and Suzaku, and are the workhorses of X-ray astronomy. They normally span 0.5 to ~8 keV with an energy resolution of ~100 eV. New developments in silicon based detectors, especially individual pixel addressable devices, such as CMOS detectors, can withstand many orders of magnitude more radiation than conventional CCDs before degradation. The capability of high read rates provides dynamic range and temporal resolution. Additionally, the rapid read rates minimize shot noise from thermal dark current and optical light. CMOS detectors can therefore run at warmer temperatures and with ultra-thin optical blocking filters. Thin OBFs mean near unity quantum efficiency below 1 keV, thus maximizing response at the C and O lines.such as CMOS detectors, promise advances. X-ray imaging has advanced similarly far. Two types of imager are now available: specular reflection and coded apertures. X-ray mirrors have been flown on the Einstein Observatory, XMM-Newton, Chandra and others. However, as X-ray reflection only occurs at small (~1degree) incidence angles, which then requires long focal lengths (meters), mirrors are not usually practical for planetary missions. Moreover the field of view of X-ray mirrors is comparable to the incident angle, so can only image relatively small regions. More useful

  2. DISCOVERY OF AN ULTRASOFT X-RAY TRANSIENT SOURCE IN THE 2XMM CATALOG: A TIDAL DISRUPTION EVENT CANDIDATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Dacheng; Webb, Natalie A.; Barret, Didier; Carrasco, Eleazar R.; Grupe, Dirk; Farrell, Sean A.

    2011-01-01

    We have discovered an ultrasoft X-ray transient source, 2XMMi J184725.1-631724, which was detected serendipitously in two XMM-Newton observations in the direction of the center of the galaxy IC 4765-f01-1504 at a redshift of 0.0353. These two observations were separated by 211 days, with the 0.2-10 keV absorbed flux increasing by a factor of about nine. Their spectra are best described by a model dominated by a thermal disk or a single-temperature blackbody component (contributing ∼>80% of the flux) plus a weak power-law component. The thermal emission has a temperature of a few tens of eV, and the weak power-law component has a photon index of ∼3.5. Similar to the black hole X-ray binaries in the thermal state, our source exhibits an accretion disk whose luminosity appears to follow the L∝T 4 relation. This would indicate that the black hole mass is about 10 5 -10 6 M sun using the best-fitting inner disk radius. Both XMM-Newton observations show variability of about 21% on timescales of hours, which can be explained as due to fast variations in the mass accretion rate. The source was not detected by ROSAT in an observation in 1992, indicating a variability factor of ∼>64 over longer timescales. The source was not detected again in X-rays in a Swift observation in 2011 February, implying a flux decrease by a factor of ∼>12 since the last XMM-Newton observation. The transient nature, in addition to the extreme softness of the X-ray spectra and the inactivity of the galaxy implied by the lack of strong optical emission lines, makes it a candidate tidal disruption event. If this is the case, the first XMM-Newton observation would have been in the rising phase and the second one in the decay phase.

  3. X-ray Modeling of Classical Novae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Peter

    2010-01-01

    It has been observed and theoretically supported in the last decade that the peak of the spectral energy distribution of classical novae gradually shifts to higher energies at constant bolometric luminosity after a nova event. For this reason, comprehensive evolutionary studies require spectral analysis in multiple spectral bands. After a nova explosion, the white dwarf can maintain stable surface hydrogen burning, the duration of which strongly correlates with the white dwarf mass. During this stage the peak of the luminosity is in the soft X-ray band (15 - 60 Angstroms). By extending the modeling range of TLUSTY/SYNSPEC, I analyse the luminosity and abundance evolution of classical novae. Model atoms required for this work were built using atomic data from NIST/ASD and TOPBASE. The accurate but incomplete set of energy levels and radiative transitions in NIST were completed with calculated data from TOPBASE. Synthetic spectra were then compared to observed data to derive stellar parameters. I show the capabilities and validity of this project on the example of V4743 Sgr. This nova was observed with both Chandra and XMM-Newton observatories and has already been modeled by several scientific groups (PHOENIX, TMAP).

  4. A deep X-ray view of the bare AGN Ark 120. III. X-ray timing analysis and multiwavelength variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobban, A. P.; Porquet, D.; Reeves, J. N.; Markowitz, A.; Nardini, E.; Grosso, N.

    2018-03-01

    We present the spectral/timing properties of the bare Seyfert galaxy Ark 120 through a deep ˜420 ks XMM-Newton campaign plus recent NuSTAR observations and a ˜6-month Swift monitoring campaign. We investigate the spectral decomposition through fractional rms, covariance and difference spectra, finding the mid- to long-time-scale (˜day-year) variability to be dominated by a relatively smooth, steep component, peaking in the soft X-ray band. Additionally, we find evidence for variable Fe K emission redward of the Fe Kα core on long time-scales, consistent with previous findings. We detect a clearly defined power spectrum which we model with a power law with a slope of α ˜ 1.9. By extending the power spectrum to lower frequencies through the inclusion of Swift and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer data, we find tentative evidence of a high-frequency break, consistent with existing scaling relations. We also explore frequency-dependent Fourier time lags, detecting a negative (`soft') lag for the first time in this source with the 0.3-1 keV band lagging behind the 1-4 keV band with a time delay, τ, of ˜900 s. Finally, we analyse the variability in the optical and ultraviolet (UV) bands using the Optical/UV Monitor onboard XMM-Newton and the Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope onboard Swift and search for time-dependent correlations between the optical/UV/X-ray bands. We find tentative evidence for the U-band emission lagging behind the X-rays with a time delay of τ = 2.4 ± 1.8 d, which we discuss in the context of disc reprocessing.

  5. Further constraints on neutron star crustal properties in the low-mass X-ray binary 1RXS J180408.9-342058

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, A. S.; Wijnands, R.; Degenaar, N.; Ootes, L.; Page, D.

    2018-05-01

    We report on two new quiescent XMM-Newton observations (in addition to the earlier Swift/XRT and XMM-Newton coverage) of the cooling neutron star crust in the low-mass X-ray binary 1RXS J180408.9-342058. Its crust was heated during the ˜4.5 month accretion outburst of the source. From our quiescent observations, fitting the spectra with a neutron star atmosphere model, we found that the crust had cooled from ˜100 to ˜73 eV from ˜8 to ˜479 d after the end of its outburst. However, during the most recent observation, taken ˜860 d after the end of the outburst, we found that the crust appeared not to have cooled further. This suggested that the crust had returned to thermal equilibrium with the neutron star core. We model the quiescent thermal evolution with the theoretical crustal cooling code NSCool and find that the source requires a shallow heat source, in addition to the standard deep crustal heating processes, contributing ˜0.9 MeV per accreted nucleon during outburst to explain its observed temperature decay. Our high quality XMM-Newton data required an additional hard component to adequately fit the spectra. This slightly complicates our interpretation of the quiescent data of 1RXS J180408.9-342058. The origin of this component is not fully understood.

  6. A LINK BETWEEN X-RAY EMISSION LINES AND RADIO JETS IN 4U 1630-47?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, Joseph [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Coriat, Mickaël [Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Fender, Rob; Broderick, Jess W. [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Lee, Julia C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ponti, Gabriele [Max Planck Institute fur Extraterrestriche Physik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Tzioumis, Anastasios K.; Edwards, Philip G., E-mail: neilsenj@bu.edu [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)

    2014-03-20

    Recently, Díaz Trigo et al. reported an XMM-Newton detection of relativistically Doppler-shifted emission lines associated with steep-spectrum radio emission in the stellar-mass black hole candidate 4U 1630-47 during its 2012 outburst. They interpreted these lines as indicative of a baryonic jet launched by the accretion disk. Here we present a search for the same lines earlier in the same outburst using high-resolution X-ray spectra from the Chandra HETGS. While our observations (eight months prior to the XMM-Newton campaign) also coincide with detections of steep spectrum radio emission by the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we find no evidence for any relativistic X-ray emission lines. Indeed, despite ∼5 × brighter radio emission, our Chandra spectra allow us to place an upper limit on the flux in the blueshifted Fe XXVI line that is ≳ 20 × weaker than the line observed by Díaz Trigo et al. We explore several scenarios that could explain our differing results, including variations in the geometry of the jet or a mass-loading process or jet baryon content that evolves with the accretion state of the black hole. We also consider the possibility that the radio emission arises in an interaction between a jet and the nearby interstellar medium, in which case the X-ray emission lines might be unrelated to the radio emission.

  7. Discovery of Periodic Dips in the Brightest Hard X-Ray Source of M31 with EXTraS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelli, Martino; Tiengo, Andrea; De Luca, Andrea; Salvetti, David; Saronni, Luca; Sidoli, Lara; Paizis, Adamantia; Salvaterra, Ruben; Belfiore, Andrea; Israel, Gianluca; Haberl, Frank; D’Agostino, Daniele

    2017-12-01

    We performed a search for eclipsing and dipping sources in the archive of the EXTraS project—a systematic characterization of the temporal behavior of XMM-Newton point sources. We discovered dips in the X-ray light curve of 3XMM J004232.1+411314, which has been recently associated with the hard X-ray source dominating the emission of M31. A systematic analysis of XMM-Newton observations revealed 13 dips in 40 observations (total exposure time of ∼0.8 Ms). Among them, four observations show two dips, separated by ∼4.01 hr. Dip depths and durations are variable. The dips occur only during low-luminosity states ({L}0.2{--12}< 1× {10}38 erg s‑1), while the source reaches {L}0.2{--12}∼ 2.8× {10}38 erg s‑1. We propose that this system is a new dipping low-mass X-ray binary in M31 seen at high inclination (60°–80°) the observed dipping periodicity is the orbital period of the system. A blue HST source within the Chandra error circle is the most likely optical counterpart of the accretion disk. The high luminosity of the system makes it the most luminous (not ULX) dipper known to date.

  8. A LINK BETWEEN X-RAY EMISSION LINES AND RADIO JETS IN 4U 1630-47?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilsen, Joseph; Coriat, Mickaël; Fender, Rob; Broderick, Jess W.; Lee, Julia C.; Ponti, Gabriele; Tzioumis, Anastasios K.; Edwards, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Díaz Trigo et al. reported an XMM-Newton detection of relativistically Doppler-shifted emission lines associated with steep-spectrum radio emission in the stellar-mass black hole candidate 4U 1630-47 during its 2012 outburst. They interpreted these lines as indicative of a baryonic jet launched by the accretion disk. Here we present a search for the same lines earlier in the same outburst using high-resolution X-ray spectra from the Chandra HETGS. While our observations (eight months prior to the XMM-Newton campaign) also coincide with detections of steep spectrum radio emission by the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we find no evidence for any relativistic X-ray emission lines. Indeed, despite ∼5 × brighter radio emission, our Chandra spectra allow us to place an upper limit on the flux in the blueshifted Fe XXVI line that is ≳ 20 × weaker than the line observed by Díaz Trigo et al. We explore several scenarios that could explain our differing results, including variations in the geometry of the jet or a mass-loading process or jet baryon content that evolves with the accretion state of the black hole. We also consider the possibility that the radio emission arises in an interaction between a jet and the nearby interstellar medium, in which case the X-ray emission lines might be unrelated to the radio emission

  9. BROADBAND X-RAY PROPERTIES OF THE GAMMA-RAY BINARY 1FGL J1018.6–5856

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Hongjun; Bellm, Eric; Fuerst, Felix; Harrison, Fiona A.; Bhalerao, Varun; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Tomsick, John A.; Christensen, Finn E.; Hailey, Charles J.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2015-01-01

    We report on NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Swift observations of the gamma-ray binary 1FGL J1018.6–5856. We measure the orbital period to be 16.544 ± 0.008 days using Swift data spanning 1900 days. The orbital period is different from the 2011 gamma-ray measurement which was used in the previous X-ray study of An et al. using ∼400 days of Swift data, but is consistent with a new gamma-ray solution reported in 2014. The light curve folded on the new period is qualitatively similar to that reported previously, having a spike at phase 0 and broad sinusoidal modulation. The X-ray flux enhancement at phase 0 occurs more regularly in time than was previously suggested. A spiky structure at this phase seems to be a persistent feature, although there is some variability. Furthermore, we find that the source flux clearly correlates with the spectral hardness throughout all orbital phases, and that the broadband X-ray spectra measured with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Swift are well fit with an unbroken power-law model. This spectrum suggests that the system may not be accretion-powered

  10. DETECTING THE WARM-HOT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM THROUGH X-RAY ABSORPTION LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Yangsen; Shull, J. Michael; Cash, Webster [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Wang, Q. Daniel, E-mail: yaoys@colorado.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    The warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) at temperatures 10{sup 5}-10{sup 7} K is believed to contain 30%-50% of the baryons in the local universe. However, all current X-ray detections of the WHIM at redshifts z > 0 are of low statistical significance ({approx}< 3{sigma}) and/or controversial. In this work, we aim to establish the detection limits of current X-ray observatories and explore requirements for next-generation X-ray telescopes for studying the WHIM through X-ray absorption lines. We analyze all available grating observations of Mrk 421 and obtain spectra with signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) of {approx}90 and 190 per 50 mA spectral bin from Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, respectively. Although these spectra are two of the best ever collected with Chandra and XMM-Newton, we cannot confirm the two WHIM systems reported by Nicastro et al. in 2005. Our bootstrap simulations indicate that spectra with such high S/N cannot constrain the WHIM with O VII column densities N{sub Ovii}{approx}10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} (corresponding to an equivalent width of 2.5 mA for a Doppler velocity of 50 km s{sup -1}) at {approx}> 3{sigma} significance level. The simulation results also suggest that it would take >60 Ms for Chandra and 140 Ms for XMM-Newton to measure the N{sub Ovii} at {>=}4{sigma} from a spectrum of a background QSO with flux of {approx}0.2 mCrab (1 Crab = 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} at 0.5-2 keV). Future X-ray spectrographs need to be equipped with spectral resolution R {approx} 4000 and effective area A {>=} 100 cm{sup 2} to accomplish the similar constraints with an exposure time of {approx}2 Ms and would require {approx}11 Ms to survey the 15 QSOs with flux {approx}> 0.2 mCrab along which clear intergalactic O VI absorbers have been detected.

  11. X-RAY EMISSION FROM MAGNETIC MASSIVE STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazé, Yaël; Petit, Véronique; Rinbrand, Melanie; Owocki, Stan; Cohen, David; Ud-Doula, Asif; Wade, Gregg A.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetically confined winds of early-type stars are expected to be sources of bright and hard X-rays. To clarify the systematics of the observed X-ray properties, we have analyzed a large series of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, corresponding to all available exposures of known massive magnetic stars (over 100 exposures covering ∼60% of stars compiled in the catalog of Petit et al.). We show that the X-ray luminosity is strongly correlated with the stellar wind mass-loss rate, with a power-law form that is slightly steeper than linear for the majority of the less luminous, lower- M-dot B stars and flattens for the more luminous, higher- M-dot O stars. As the winds are radiatively driven, these scalings can be equivalently written as relations with the bolometric luminosity. The observed X-ray luminosities, and their trend with mass-loss rates, are well reproduced by new MHD models, although a few overluminous stars (mostly rapidly rotating objects) exist. No relation is found between other X-ray properties (plasma temperature, absorption) and stellar or magnetic parameters, contrary to expectations (e.g., higher temperature for stronger mass-loss rate). This suggests that the main driver for the plasma properties is different from the main determinant of the X-ray luminosity. Finally, variations of the X-ray hardnesses and luminosities, in phase with the stellar rotation period, are detected for some objects and they suggest that some temperature stratification exists in massive stars' magnetospheres

  12. X-ray Luminosity and Absorption Column Fluctuations in the H2O Maser Galaxy NGC 4258 from Weeks to Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argon, A.

    2004-01-01

    The authors report monitoring of the 0.3-10 keV spectrum of NGC 4258 with the XMM-Newton observatory at five epochs over 1.5 years. They also report reprocessing of an overlapping four epoch series of archival Chandra observations (0.5-10 keV). By including earlier ASCA and Beppo-SAX observations, they present a new, nine year time-series of models fit to the X-ray spectrum of NGC 4258. They model the Chandra and XMM-Newton data self-consistently with partially absorbed, hard power-law, soft thermal plasma, and soft power-law components. Over the nine years, the photo-electric absorbing column (∼ 10 23 cm -2 ) did not vary detectably, except for a ∼ 40% drop between two ASCA epochs separated by 3 years (in 1993 and 1996) and a ∼ 60% rise between two XMM-Newton epochs separated by just 5 months (in 2001 and 2002). In contrast, factor of 2-3 changes are seen in absorbed flux on the timescale of years. These are uncorrelated with changes in absorbing column and indicative of central engine variability. The most rapid change in luminosity (5-10 keV) that the authors detect (with XMM-Newton and Chandra) is on the order of 30% over 19 days. The warped disk that is a known source of H 2 O maser emission in NGC 4258 is believed to cross the line of sight to the central engine. They propose that the variations in absorbing column arise from inhomogeneities in the rotating disk, as they sweep across the line of sight. They estimate that the inhomogeneities are ∼ 10 15 cm in size

  13. Unusual Black Hole Binary LMC X-3: A Transient High-Mass X-Ray Binary That Is Almost Always On?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpin, Trevor J.; Boyd, Patricia T.; Smale, Alan P.; Valencic, Lynne A.

    2017-01-01

    We have analyzed a rich, multimission, multiwavelength data set from the black hole X-ray binary (BHXB) LMC X-3, covering a new anomalous low state (ALS), during which the source flux falls to an unprecedentedly low and barely detectable level, and a more normal low state. Simultaneous X-ray and UV/optical monitoring data from Swift are combined with pointed observations from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and X-ray Multi- Mirror Mission (XMM-Newton) and light curves from the Monitor of All-Sky X-ray Image (MAXI) instrument to compare the source characteristics during the ALS with those seen during the normal low state. An XMM-Newton spectrum obtained during the ALS can be modeled using an absorbed power law with Gamma = 1.41‚+/- 0.65 and a luminosity of 7.97 x 10(exp 33) erg/s (0.6-5 keV). The Swift X-ray and UV light curves indicate an X-ray lag of approx. 8 days as LMC X-3 abruptly exits the ALS, suggesting that changes in the mass accretion rate from the donor drive the X-ray lag. The normal low state displays an asymmetric profile in which the exit occurs more quickly than the entry, with minimum X-ray flux a factor of approx. 4300 brighter than during the ALS. The UV brightness of LMC X-3 in the ALS is also fainter and less variable than during normal low states. The existence of repeated ALSs in LMC X-3, as well as a comparison with other BHXBs, implies that it is very close to the transient/persistent X-ray source dividing line. We conclude that LMC X-3 is a transient source that is almost always "on."

  14. The Extended X-ray Nebula of PSR J1420-6048

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Etten, Adam; Romani, Roger W.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-19

    The vicinity of the unidentified EGRET source 3EG J1420-6038 has undergone extensive study in the search for counterparts, revealing the energetic young pulsar PSR J1420-6048 and its surrounding wind nebula as a likely candidate for at least part of the emission from this bright and extended gamma-ray source. We report on new Suzaku observations of PSR J1420-6048, along with analysis of archival XMM Newton data. The low background of Suzaku permits mapping of the extended X-ray nebula, indicating a tail stretching {approx} 8 minutes north of the pulsar. The X-ray data, along with archival radio and VHE data, hint at a pulsar birthsite to the North, and yield insights into its evolution and the properties of the ambient medium. We further explore such properties by modeling the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the extended nebula.

  15. ON THE ANTICORRELATION BETWEEN GALAXY LIGHT CONCENTRATION AND X-RAY-TO-OPTICAL FLUX RATIO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povic, M.; Perez Garcia, A. M.; Bongiovanni, A.; Fernandez Lorenzo, M.; Lara-Lopez, M. A.; Sanchez-Portal, M.; Cepa, J.; Gonzalez-Serrano, J. I.; Alfaro, E. J.

    2009-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) play an important role in many aspects of modern cosmology, and of particular interest is the issue of the interplay between AGNs and their host galaxy. Using X-ray and optical data sets, we have explored the properties of a large sample of AGNs in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey field, and studied their evolution in relation with the evolution of their host galaxy. We present here an anticorrelation between X-ray-to-optical flux (X/O) ratio and galaxy light concentration (C), which has been found for the first time and might suggest that early-type galaxies, having poor matter supply to feed the AGN activity, have lower Eddington rates than those of late-type galaxies.

  16. Lightweight and High-Resolution Single Crystal Silicon Optics for X-ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, William W.; Biskach, Michael P.; Chan, Kai-Wing; Mazzarella, James R.; McClelland, Ryan S.; Riveros, Raul E.; Saha, Timo T.; Solly, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    We describe an approach to building mirror assemblies for next generation X-ray telescopes. It incorporates knowledge and lessons learned from building existing telescopes, including Chandra, XMM-Newton, Suzaku, and NuSTAR, as well as from our direct experience of the last 15 years developing mirror technology for the Constellation-X and International X-ray Observatory mission concepts. This approach combines single crystal silicon and precision polishing, thus has the potential of achieving the highest possible angular resolution with the least possible mass. Moreover, it is simple, consisting of several technical elements that can be developed independently in parallel. Lastly, it is highly amenable to mass production, therefore enabling the making of telescopes of very large photon collecting areas.

  17. Restablished Accretion in Post-outburst Classical Novae Revealed by X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernanz, Margarita; Ferri, Carlo; Sala, Glòria

    2009-05-01

    Classical novae are explosions on accreting white dwarfs (hereinafter WDs) in cataclysmic variables (hereinafter CVs) a hydrogen thermonuclear runaway on top of the WD is responsible for the outburst. X-rays provide a unique way to study the turn-off of H-burning, because super soft X-rays reveal the hot WD photosphere, but also to understand how accretion is established again in the binary system. Observations with XMM-Newton of some post-outburst novae have revealed such a process, but a coverage up to larger energies -as Simbol-X will provide- is fundamental to well understand the characteristics of the binary system and of the nova ejecta. We present a brief summary of our results up to now and prospects for the Simbol-X mission.

  18. On the nature of the ultraluminous X-ray transient in Cen~A (NGC 5128)

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Kajal K.; Finger, Mark H.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Tennant, Allyn F.; Wu, Kinwah

    2005-01-01

    We combine 9 ROSAT, 9 Chandra, and 2 XMM-Newton observations of the Cen~A galaxy to obtain the X-ray light curve of 1RXH J132519.8-430312 (=CXOU J132519.9$-$430317) spanning 1990 to 2003. The source reached a peak 0.1-2.4 keV flux F_X>10^{-12} ergs cm^{-2} s^{-1} during a 10~day span in 1995 July. The inferred peak isotropic luminosity of the source therefore exceeded 3 10^{39} ergs s^{-1}, which places the source in the class of ultra-luminous X-ray sources. Coherent pulsations at 13.264 Hz ...

  19. The 7 keV axion dark matter and the X-ray line signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higaki, Tetsutaro [KEK, Tsukuba (Japan). Theory Center; Jeong, Kwang Sik [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Takahashi, Fuminobu [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). Kavli IPMU, TODIAS

    2014-03-15

    We propose a scenario where the saxion dominates the energy density of the Universe and reheats the standard model sector via the dilatonic coupling, while its axionic partner contributes to dark matter decaying into photons via the same operator in supersymmetry. Interestingly, for the axion mass m{sub a} ≅ 7 keV and the decay constant f{sub a} ≅10{sup 14-15} GeV, the recently discovered X-ray line at 3.5 keV in the XMM Newton X-ray observatory data can be explained. We discuss various cosmological aspects of the 7 keV axion dark matter such as the production of axion dark matter, the saxion decay process, hot dark matter and isocurvature constraints on the axion dark matter, and the possible baryogenesis scenarios.

  20. X-RAY PULSATIONS FROM THE RADIO-QUIET GAMMA-RAY PULSAR IN CTA 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caraveo, P. A.; De Luca, A.; Marelli, M.; Bignami, G. F.; Ray, P. S.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Kanbach, G.

    2010-01-01

    Prompted by the Fermi-LAT discovery of a radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsar inside the CTA 1 supernova remnant, we obtained a 130 ks XMM-Newton observation to assess the timing behavior of this pulsar. Exploiting both the unprecedented photon harvest and the contemporary Fermi-LAT timing measurements, a 4.7σ single-peak pulsation is detected, making PSR J0007+7303 the second example, after Geminga, of a radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsar also seen to pulsate in X-rays. Phase-resolved spectroscopy shows that the off-pulse portion of the light curve is dominated by a power-law, non-thermal spectrum, while the X-ray peak emission appears to be mainly of thermal origin, probably from a polar cap heated by magnetospheric return currents, pointing to a hot spot varying throughout the pulsar rotation.

  1. The 7 keV axion dark matter and the X-ray line signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higaki, Tetsutaro; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa

    2014-03-01

    We propose a scenario where the saxion dominates the energy density of the Universe and reheats the standard model sector via the dilatonic coupling, while its axionic partner contributes to dark matter decaying into photons via the same operator in supersymmetry. Interestingly, for the axion mass m a ≅ 7 keV and the decay constant f a ≅10 14-15 GeV, the recently discovered X-ray line at 3.5 keV in the XMM Newton X-ray observatory data can be explained. We discuss various cosmological aspects of the 7 keV axion dark matter such as the production of axion dark matter, the saxion decay process, hot dark matter and isocurvature constraints on the axion dark matter, and the possible baryogenesis scenarios.

  2. Improvement way for mobile X-ray examinations by rule revision about safety management of diagnosis radiation occurrence system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jun Gu; Kim, Gyeong Su; Kim, Byeong Gi; Ahn, Nam Jun; Kim, Hyeong Sun; Kim, Sang Geon; Lim, Si Eun

    2007-01-01

    A safety management rule of the diagnosis radiation system which opened a court 2006 February 10th was promulgated for safety of the radiation worker, patients and patients' family members. The purpose of this study is to minimize injury by radiation that can happen to patients and people around a sick ward when managing mobile X-ray system. This study analyzed sickroom environment of mobile X-ray examination and the statistical data of the Konkuk medical Information System (KIS) and the Picture Archiving Communication System (PACS). This study also investigated patient conditions, infection, relation information and related data, when the sickroom mobile X-ray examination is used. Through data analysis, many problems were expected such as restriction of space side, manpower and expense of business side, satisfaction degree decline of patient and protector of operation side. Therefore, we tried to restrict examination of multi bed sickroom, and to use treatment room in each ward to solve problem mentioned. As a result, the whole sickroom mobile X-ray examination rate decreased to near 50%, and mobile X-ray examination rate for inpatients decreased to more than 85%. This study shows that several attempts we did should be helpful for manpower, patients satisfaction and expenses. Also, they should protect patients in sickroom from unnecessary radiation exposure and could minimize inconvenience of patients and their family members from x-ray examination

  3. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton Observations of Luminous, Heavily Obscured, WISE-Selected Quasars at z ~ 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stern, D.; Lansbury, G. B.; Assef, Roberto J.

    2014-01-01

    at rest-frame 1.5um. We designed our X-ray observations to obtain robust detections for gas column densities N(H)... (W3) and 22um (W4), are extremely rare, with only ~1000 so-called W1W2-dropouts across the extragalactic sky. Optical spectroscopy reveals typical redshifts of z~2 for this population, implying rest-frame mid-IR luminosities of L(6um)~6e46 erg/s and bolometric luminosities that can exceed L(bol)~1e14...

  4. Automatic classification of time-variable X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Kitty K.; Farrell, Sean; Murphy, Tara; Gaensler, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    To maximize the discovery potential of future synoptic surveys, especially in the field of transient science, it will be necessary to use automatic classification to identify some of the astronomical sources. The data mining technique of supervised classification is suitable for this problem. Here, we present a supervised learning method to automatically classify variable X-ray sources in the Second XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalog (2XMMi-DR2). Random Forest is our classifier of choice since it is one of the most accurate learning algorithms available. Our training set consists of 873 variable sources and their features are derived from time series, spectra, and other multi-wavelength contextual information. The 10 fold cross validation accuracy of the training data is ∼97% on a 7 class data set. We applied the trained classification model to 411 unknown variable 2XMM sources to produce a probabilistically classified catalog. Using the classification margin and the Random Forest derived outlier measure, we identified 12 anomalous sources, of which 2XMM J180658.7–500250 appears to be the most unusual source in the sample. Its X-ray spectra is suggestive of a ultraluminous X-ray source but its variability makes it highly unusual. Machine-learned classification and anomaly detection will facilitate scientific discoveries in the era of all-sky surveys.

  5. Automatic classification of time-variable X-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Kitty K.; Farrell, Sean; Murphy, Tara; Gaensler, B. M. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2014-05-01

    To maximize the discovery potential of future synoptic surveys, especially in the field of transient science, it will be necessary to use automatic classification to identify some of the astronomical sources. The data mining technique of supervised classification is suitable for this problem. Here, we present a supervised learning method to automatically classify variable X-ray sources in the Second XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalog (2XMMi-DR2). Random Forest is our classifier of choice since it is one of the most accurate learning algorithms available. Our training set consists of 873 variable sources and their features are derived from time series, spectra, and other multi-wavelength contextual information. The 10 fold cross validation accuracy of the training data is ∼97% on a 7 class data set. We applied the trained classification model to 411 unknown variable 2XMM sources to produce a probabilistically classified catalog. Using the classification margin and the Random Forest derived outlier measure, we identified 12 anomalous sources, of which 2XMM J180658.7–500250 appears to be the most unusual source in the sample. Its X-ray spectra is suggestive of a ultraluminous X-ray source but its variability makes it highly unusual. Machine-learned classification and anomaly detection will facilitate scientific discoveries in the era of all-sky surveys.

  6. Identification of Hard X-ray Sources in Galactic Globular Clusters: Simbol-X Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servillat, M.

    2009-05-01

    Globular clusters harbour an excess of X-ray sources compared to the number of X-ray sources in the Galactic plane. It has been proposed that many of these X-ray sources are cataclysmic variables that have an intermediate magnetic field, i.e. intermediate polars, which remains to be confirmed and understood. We present here several methods to identify intermediate polars in globular clusters from multiwavelength analysis. First, we report on XMM-Newton, Chandra and HST observations of the very dense Galactic globular cluster NGC 2808. By comparing UV and X-ray properties of the cataclysmic variable candidates, the fraction of intermediate polars in this cluster can be estimated. We also present the optical spectra of two cataclysmic variables in the globular cluster M 22. The HeII (4868 Å) emission line in these spectra could be related to the presence of a magnetic field in these objects. Simulations of Simbol-X observations indicate that the angular resolution is sufficient to study X-ray sources in the core of close, less dense globular clusters, such as M 22. The sensitivity of Simbol-X in an extended energy band up to 80 keV will allow us to discriminate between hard X-ray sources (such as magnetic cataclysmic variables) and soft X-ray sources (such as chromospherically active binaries).

  7. NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Observation of the Gamma-Ray Binary Candidate HESS J1832–093

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Kaya; Gotthelf, E. V.; Hailey, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    −093, is detected up to ~30 keV and is well-described by an absorbed power-law model with a best-fit photon index . A re-analysis of archival Chandra and XMM-Newton data finds that the long-term X-ray flux increase of XMMU J183245−0921539 is (90% C.L.), much less than previously reported. A search for a pulsar spin...... of XMMU J183245−0921539 are most consistent with a non-accreting binary generating synchrotron X-rays from particle acceleration in the shock formed as a result of the pulsar and stellar wind collision. We also report on three nearby hard X-ray sources, one of which may be associated with diffuse emission...

  8. pnCCD for photon detection from near-infrared to X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meidinger, Norbert; Andritschke, Robert; Hartmann, Robert; Herrmann, Sven; Holl, Peter; Lutz, Gerhard; Strueder, Lothar

    2006-01-01

    A pnCCD is a special type of charge-coupled device developed for spectroscopy and imaging of X-rays with high time resolution and quantum efficiency. Its most famous application is the operation on the XMM-Newton satellite, an X-ray astronomy mission that was launched by the European space agency in 1999. The excellent performance of the focal plane camera has been maintained for more than 6 years in orbit. The energy resolution in particular has shown hardly any degradation since launch. In order to satisfy the requirements of future X-ray astronomy missions as well as those of ground-based experiments, a new type of pnCCD has been developed. This 'frame-store pnCCD' shows an enhanced performance compared to the XMM-Newton type of pnCCD. Now, more options in device design and operation are available to tailor the detector to its respective application. Part of this concept is a programmable analog signal processor, which has been developed for the readout of the CCD signals. The electronic noise of the new detector has a value of only 2 electrons equivalent noise charge (ENC), which is less than half of the figure achieved for the XMM-Newton-type pnCCD. The energy resolution for the Mn-K α line at 5.9 keV is approximately 130 eV FWHM. We have close to 100% quantum efficiency for both low- and high-energy photon detection (e.g. the C-K line at 277 eV, and the Ge-K α line at 10 keV, respectively). Very high frame rates of 1000 images/s have been achieved due to the ultra-fast readout accomplished by the parallel architecture of the pnCCD and the analog signal processor. Excellent spectroscopic performance is shown even at the relatively high operating temperature of -25 deg. C that can be achieved by a Peltier cooler. The applications of the low-noise and fast pnCCD detector are not limited to the detection of X-rays. With an anti-reflective coating deposited on the photon entrance window, we achieve high quantum efficiency also for near-infrared and optical

  9. The supersoft X-ray source in V5116 Sagittarii. I. The high resolution spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, G.; Ness, J. U.; Hernanz, M.; Greiner, J.

    2017-05-01

    Context. Classical nova explosions occur on the surface of an accreting white dwarf in a binary system. After ejection of a fraction of the envelope and when the expanding shell becomes optically thin to X-rays, a bright source of supersoft X-rays arises, powered by residual H burning on the surface of the white dwarf. While the general picture of the nova event is well established, the details and balance of accretion and ejection processes in classical novae are still full of unknowns. The long-term balance of accreted matter is of special interest for massive accreting white dwarfs, which may be promising supernova Ia progenitor candidates. Nova V5116 Sgr 2005b was observed as a bright and variable supersoft X-ray source by XMM-Newton in March 2007, 610 days after outburst. The light curve showed a periodicity consistent with the orbital period. During one third of the orbit the luminosity was a factor of seven brighter than during the other two thirds of the orbital period. Aims: In the present work we aim to disentangle the X-ray spectral components of V5116 Sgr and their variability. Methods: We present the high resolution spectra obtained with XMM-Newton RGS and Chandra LETGS/HRC-S in March and August 2007. Results: The grating spectrum during the periods of high-flux shows a typical hot white dwarf atmosphere dominated by absorption lines of N VI and N VII. During the low-flux periods, the spectrum is dominated by an atmosphere with the same temperature as during the high-flux period, but with several emission features superimposed. Some of the emission lines are well modeled with an optically thin plasma in collisional equilibrium, rich in C and N, which also explains some excess in the spectra of the high-flux period. No velocity shifts are observed in the absorption lines, with an upper limit set by the spectral resolution of 500 km s-1, consistent with the expectation of a non-expanding atmosphere so late in the evolution of the post-nova. Based on

  10. The X-ray eclipse geometry of the super-soft X-ray source CAL 87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, T.; Lopes de Oliveira, R. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Marechal Rondon s/n, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Borges, B. W., E-mail: tribeiro@ufs.br, E-mail: rlopes@ufs.br, E-mail: bernardo@astro.ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Araranguá, 88905-120 Araranguá, SC (Brazil)

    2014-09-01

    We explore XMM-Newton observations of the eclipsing super-soft X-ray source CAL 87 in order to map the accretion structures of the system. Indirect imaging techniques were applied in X-ray light curves to provide eclipse maps. The surface brightness distribution exhibits an extended and symmetric emission, and a feature is revealed from the hardest X-rays that is likely due to a bright spot. A rate of P-dot =(+6±2)×10{sup −10} for changes in the orbital period of the system was derived from the eclipses. There is no significant variation of the emission lines even during eclipses, arguing that the lines are formed in an extended region. The continuum emission dominates the decrease in flux that is observed during eclipses. The O VIII Lyα line reveals a broadening velocity that is estimated to be 365{sub −69}{sup +65} km s{sup –1} (at 1σ), marginal evidence for asymmetry in its profile, and sometimes shows evidence of double-peaked emission. Together, the results support that the wind-driven mass transfer scenario is running in CAL 87.

  11. Studying The Spectral Shape And The X-ray/uv Variability Of Active Galactic Nuclei With Data From Swift And Xmm Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turriziani, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Many efforts have been made in understanding the underlying origin of variability in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), but at present they could give still no conclusive answers. Since a deeper knowledge of variability will enable to understand better the accretion process onto supermassive black holes, I built the first ensemble struction function analysis of the X-ray variability of samples of quasars with data from Swift and XMM-Newton archives in order to study the average properties of their variability. Moreover, it is known that UV and X-ray luminosities of quasars are correlated and recent studies quantified this relation across 5 orders of magnitude. In this context, I presents results on the X-ray/UV ratio from simultaneous observations in UV and X-ray bands of a sample of quasars with data from XMM-Newton archive. Lastly, I will present a complete sample of Swift/SDSS faint blazars and other non-thermal dominated AGNs. I used this sample to calculate the general statistical properties of faint blazars and radio galaxies and in particular their Radio LogN-LogS with fluxes down to 10 mJy, in order to gain knowledge on the contribution to Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and gamma-ray background radiation from the faint tail of the radio population. I acknowledge financial support through Grant ASI I/088/06/0.

  12. X-ray study of bow shocks in runaway stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Becker, M.; del Valle, M. V.; Romero, G. E.; Peri, C. S.; Benaglia, P.

    2017-11-01

    Massive runaway stars produce bow shocks through the interaction of their winds with the interstellar medium, with the prospect for particle acceleration by the shocks. These objects are consequently candidates for non-thermal emission. Our aim is to investigate the X-ray emission from these sources. We observed with XMM-Newton a sample of five bow shock runaways, which constitutes a significant improvement of the sample of bow shock runaways studied in X-rays so far. A careful analysis of the data did not reveal any X-ray emission related to the bow shocks. However, X-ray emission from the stars is detected, in agreement with the expected thermal emission from stellar winds. On the basis of background measurements we derive conservative upper limits between 0.3 and 10 keV on the bow shocks emission. Using a simple radiation model, these limits together with radio upper limits allow us to constrain some of the main physical quantities involved in the non-thermal emission processes, such as the magnetic field strength and the amount of incident infrared photons. The reasons likely responsible for the non-detection of non-thermal radiation are discussed. Finally, using energy budget arguments, we investigate the detectability of inverse Compton X-rays in a more extended sample of catalogued runaway star bow shocks. From our analysis we conclude that a clear identification of non-thermal X-rays from massive runaway bow shocks requires one order of magnitude (or higher) sensitivity improvement with respect to present observatories.

  13. High-Resolution and Lightweight X-ray Optics for the X-Ray Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, William

    Envisioned in "Enduring Quest, Daring Visions" and under study by NASA as a potential major mission for the 2020s, the X-ray Surveyor mission will likely impose three requirements on its optics: (1) high angular resolution: 0.5 PSF, (2) large effective area: e10,000 cm2 or more, and (3) affordable production cost: $500M. We propose a technology that can meet these requirements by 2020. It will help the X-ray Surveyor secure the endorsement of the coming decadal survey and enable its implementation following WFIRST. The technology comprises four elements: (1) fabrication of lightweight single crystal silicon mirrors, (2) coating these mirrors with iridium to maximize effective area without figure degradation, (3) alignment and bonding of these mirrors to form meta-shells that will be integrated to make a mirror assembly, and (4) systems engineering to ensure that the mirror assembly meet all science performance and spaceflight environmental requirements. This approach grows out of our existing approach based on glass slumping. Using glass slumping technology, we have been able to routinely build and test mirror modules of 10half-power diameter (HPD). While comparable in HPD to XMM-Newtons electroformed nickel mirrors, these mirror modules are 10 times lighter. Likewise, while comparable in weight to Suzakus epoxy-replicated aluminum foil mirrors, these modules have 10 times better HPD. These modules represent the current state of the art of lightweight X-ray optics. Although both successful and mature, the glass slumping technology has reached its limit and cannot achieve sub-arc second HPD. Therefore, we are pursuing the new approach based on polishing single crystal silicon. The new approach will enable the building and testing of mirror modules, called meta-shells, capable of 3HPD by 2018 and 1HPD by 2020, and has the potential to reach diffraction limits ( 0.1) in the 2020s.

  14. Detailed high-energy characteristics of AXP 4U 0142+61: Multi-year observations with INTEGRAL, RXTE, XMM-Newton, and ASCA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, P.R.; Kuiper, L.; Hermsen, W.; Kaspi, V.M.; Dib, R.; Knödlseder, J.; Gavriil, F.P.

    2008-01-01

    4U 0142+61 is one of the Anomalous X-ray Pulsars exhibiting hard X-ray emission above 10 keV discovered with INTEGRAL. In this paper we present detailed spectral and temporal characteristics both in the hard X-ray (> 10 keV) and soft X-ray (<10 keV) domains obtained using data from INTEGRAL,

  15. THE RHYTHM OF FAIRALL 9. I. OBSERVING THE SPECTRAL VARIABILITY WITH XMM-NEWTON AND NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohfink, A. M.; Pinto, C.; Alston, W.; Fabian, A. C.; Kara, E.; Parker, M. L. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Reynolds, C. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland College Park, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Christensen, F. E.; Hailey, C. J. [Danish Technical University, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Harrison, F. A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Matt, G. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Stern, D.; Walton, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Zhang, W. W., E-mail: alohfink@ast.cam.ac.uk [X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, 20771 (United States)

    2016-04-10

    We present a multi-epoch X-ray spectral analysis of the Seyfert 1 galaxy Fairall 9. Our analysis shows that Fairall 9 displays unique spectral variability in that its ratio residuals to a simple absorbed power law in the 0.5–10 keV band remain constant with time in spite of large variations in flux. This behavior implies an unchanging source geometry and the same emission processes continuously at work at the timescale probed. With the constraints from NuSTAR on the broad-band spectral shape, it is clear that the soft excess in this source is a superposition of two different processes, one being blurred ionized reflection in the innermost parts of the accretion disk, and the other a continuum component such as a spatially distinct Comptonizing region. Alternatively, a more complex primary Comptonization component together with blurred ionized reflection could be responsible.

  16. Characterizing X-Ray and Radio Emission in the Black Hole X-Ray Binary V404 Cygni During Quiescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Vikram; Loh, Alan; Corbel, Stephane; Tomsick, John A.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Walton, Dominic J.; Barret, Didier; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present results from multi-wavelength simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of the black hole X-ray binary V404 Cyg in quiescence. Our coverage with NuSTAR provides the very first opportunity to study the X-ray spectrum of V404 Cyg at energies above 10 keV. The unabsorbed broadband (0.3-30 keV) quiescent luminosity of the source is 8.9 x 10(exp 32) erg per sec for a distance of 2.4 kpc. The source shows clear variability on short timescales (an hour to a couple of hours) in the radio, soft X-ray, and hard X-ray bands in the form of multiple flares. The broadband X-ray spectra obtained from XMM-Newton and NuSTAR can be characterized with a power-law model having a photon index of gamma = 2.12 +/- 0.07 (90% confidence errors); however, residuals at high energies indicate spectral curvature significant at a 3 sigma confidence level with the e-folding energy of the cutoff as 20(sub -7)(sup +20) keV. Such curvature can be explained using synchrotron emission from the base of a jet outflow. Radio observations using the VLA reveal that the spectral index evolves on very fast timescales (as short as 10 minutes), switching between optically thick and thin synchrotron emission, possibly due to instabilities in the compact jet or stochastic instabilities in the accretion rate. We explore different scenarios to explain this very fast variability.

  17. Skull x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - head; X-ray - skull; Skull radiography; Head x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  18. Neck x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - neck; Cervical spine x-ray; Lateral neck x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored so that the lowest amount of radiation is used to produce the image. Pregnant women and ...

  19. On the Absence of Non-thermal X-Ray Emission around Runaway O Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toalá, J. A. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (ASIAA), Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Oskinova, L. M. [Institute for Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Ignace, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Theoretical models predict that the compressed interstellar medium around runaway O stars can produce high-energy non-thermal diffuse emission, in particular, non-thermal X-ray and γ -ray emission. So far, detection of non-thermal X-ray emission was claimed for only one runaway star, AE Aur. We present a search for non-thermal diffuse X-ray emission from bow shocks using archived XMM-Newton observations for a clean sample of six well-determined runaway O stars. We find that none of these objects present diffuse X-ray emission associated with their bow shocks, similarly to previous X-ray studies toward ζ Oph and BD+43°3654. We carefully investigated multi-wavelength observations of AE Aur and could not confirm previous findings of non-thermal X-rays. We conclude that so far there is no clear evidence of non-thermal extended emission in bow shocks around runaway O stars.

  20. X-ray emission of the hot gas and of accelerated particles in supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acero, F.

    2008-09-01

    The current observations seem to support the theory that the shock wave of supernova remnants accelerate electrons (representing about 1% of cosmic rays) of the interstellar medium up to energies of about 10 15 eV. However there is still no solid evidence that supernova remnants also accelerate protons (major component of cosmic rays). The X-ray observations of those supernova remnants with the satellite XMM-Newton can provide crucial information on the acceleration mechanisms and on this population of accelerated particles. This thesis presents the X-ray analysis of the supernova remnants RX J1713.7-3946 and SN 1006 for which it has been shown that they accelerate electrons efficiently. As a result, these objects are very good targets to compare the theoretical models of acceleration to the observation. For the first object, I constructed through new XMM-Newton observations, the first high-angular resolution mosaic of the entire supernova remnant. I then compared the X- and gamma-ray emission of this object in order to understand the nature of the gamma-ray emission. This spectral and morphological comparison allowed me to discuss the two possible origins of the gamma-ray radiation (issued by electrons or by protons). For SN 1006, I studied the density of the ambient medium in which the shock wave propagates. This density is a key parameter for the hydrodynamical evolution of the remnant and for studying a future gamma-ray emission. The study of X-ray emission of the gas heated by the shock wave allowed me to better estimate of the value of the density so far poorly constrained for this object. (author)

  1. Development of the focal plane PNCCD camera system for the X-ray space telescope eROSITA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meidinger, Norbert; Andritschke, Robert; Ebermayer, Stefanie; Elbs, Johannes; Haelker, Olaf; Hartmann, Robert; Herrmann, Sven; Kimmel, Nils; Schaechner, Gabriele; Schopper, Florian; Soltau, Heike; Strueder, Lothar; Weidenspointner, Georg

    2010-01-01

    A so-called PNCCD, a special type of CCD, was developed twenty years ago as focal plane detector for the XMM-Newton X-ray astronomy mission of the European Space Agency ESA. Based on this detector concept and taking into account the experience of almost ten years of operation in space, a new X-ray CCD type was designed by the 'MPI semiconductor laboratory' for an upcoming X-ray space telescope, called eROSITA (extended Roentgen survey with an imaging telescope array). This space telescope will be equipped with seven X-ray mirror systems of Wolter-I type and seven CCD cameras, placed in their foci. The instrumentation permits the exploration of the X-ray universe in the energy band from 0.3 up to 10 keV by spectroscopic measurements with a time resolution of 50 ms for a full image comprising 384x384 pixels. Main scientific goals are an all-sky survey and investigation of the mysterious 'Dark Energy'. The eROSITA space telescope, which is developed under the responsibility of the 'Max-Planck-Institute for extraterrestrial physics', is a scientific payload on the new Russian satellite 'Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma' (SRG). The mission is already approved by the responsible Russian and German space agencies. After launch in 2012 the destination of the satellite is Lagrange point L2. The planned observational program takes about seven years. We describe the design of the eROSITA camera system and present important test results achieved recently with the eROSITA prototype PNCCD detector. This includes a comparison of the eROSITA detector with the XMM-Newton detector.

  2. Long term X-ray variability characteristics of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy RE J1034+396

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, K.; Chitnis, V. R.; Rao, A. R.; Singh, K. P.; Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Dewangan, G. C.; Chakraborty, S.; Chandra, S.; Stewart, G. C.; Mukerjee, K.; Dey, R. K.

    2018-05-01

    We present the results of our study of the long term X-ray variability characteristics of the Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxy RE J1034+396. We use data obtained from the AstroSat satellite along with the light curves obtained from XMM-Newton and Swift-XRT. We use the 0.3 - 7.0 keV and 3 - 20 keV data, respectively, from the SXT and the LAXPC of AstroSat. The X-ray spectra in the 0.3 - 20 keV region are well fit with a model consisting of a power-law and a soft excess described by a thermal-Compton emission with a large optical depth, consistent with the earlier reported results. We have examined the X-ray light curves in the soft and hard X-ray bands of SXT and LAXPC, respectively, and find that the variability is slightly larger in the hard band. To investigate the variability characteristics of this source at different time scales, we have used X-ray light curves obtained from XMM-Newton data (200 s to 100 ks range) and Swift-XRT data (1 day to 100 day range) and find that there are evidences to suggest that the variability sharply increases at longer time scales. We argue that the mass of the black hole in RE J1034+396 is likely to be ˜3 × 106 M⊙, based on the similarity of the observed QPO to the high frequency QPO seen in the Galactic black hole binary, GRS 1915+105.

  3. Testing the Paradigm that Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources as a Class Represent Accreting Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghea, C. T.; Weaver, K. A.; Colbert, E. J. M.; Roberts, T. P.

    2008-11-01

    To test the idea that ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in external galaxies represent a class of accreting intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs), we have undertaken a program to identify ULXs and a lower luminosity X-ray comparison sample with the highest quality data in the Chandra archive. We establish as a general property of ULXs that the most X-ray-luminous objects possess the flattest X-ray spectra (in the Chandra bandpass). No prior sample studies have established the general hardening of ULX spectra with luminosity. This hardening occurs at the highest luminosities (absorbed luminosity >=5 × 1039 erg s-1) and is in line with recent models arguing that ULXs are actually stellar mass black holes. From spectral modeling, we show that the evidence originally taken to mean that ULXs are IMBHs—i.e., the "simple IMBH model"—is nowhere near as compelling when a large sample of ULXs is looked at properly. During the last couple of years, XMM-Newton spectroscopy of ULXs has to a large extent begun to negate the simple IMBH model based on fewer objects. We confirm and expand these results, which validates the XMM-Newton work in a broader sense with independent X-ray data. We find that (1) cool-disk components are present with roughly equal probability and total flux fraction for any given ULX, regardless of luminosity, and (2) cool-disk components extend below the standard ULX luminosity cutoff of 1039 erg s-1, down to our sample limit of 1038.3 erg s-1. The fact that cool-disk components are not correlated with luminosity damages the argument that cool disks indicate IMBHs in ULXs, for which strong statistical support was never found.

  4. Super-Eddington accretion on to the neutron star NGC 7793 P13: Broad-band X-ray spectroscopy and ultraluminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, D. J.; Fürst, F.; Harrison, F. A.; Stern, D.; Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Brightman, M.; Fabian, A. C.; Middleton, M. J.; Ptak, A.; Tao, L.

    2018-02-01

    We present a detailed, broad-band X-ray spectral analysis of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) pulsar NGC 7793 P13, a known super-Eddington source, utilizing data from the XMM-Newton, NuSTAR and Chandra observatories. The broad-band XMM-Newton+NuSTAR spectrum of P13 is qualitatively similar to the rest of the ULX sample with broad-band coverage, suggesting that additional ULXs in the known population may host neutron star accretors. Through time-averaged, phase-resolved and multi-epoch studies, we find that two non-pulsed thermal blackbody components with temperatures ∼0.5 and 1.5 keV are required to fit the data below 10 keV, in addition to a third continuum component which extends to higher energies and is associated with the pulsed emission from the accretion column. The characteristic radii of the thermal components appear to be comparable, and are too large to be associated with the neutron star itself, so the need for two components likely indicates the accretion flow outside the magnetosphere is complex. We suggest a scenario in which the thick inner disc expected for super-Eddington accretion begins to form, but is terminated by the neutron star's magnetic field soon after its onset, implying a limit of B ≲ 6 × 1012 G for the dipolar component of the central neutron star's magnetic field. Evidence of similar termination of the disc in other sources may offer a further means of identifying additional neutron star ULXs. Finally, we examine the spectrum exhibited by P13 during one of its unusual 'off' states. These data require both a hard power-law component, suggesting residual accretion on to the neutron star, and emission from a thermal plasma, which we argue is likely associated with the P13 system.

  5. Atomic Physics Measurements in Support of X-ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiersdorfer, Peter; Brown, G. V.; Kelley, R. E.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leutenegger, M.; Porter, F. S.; Obst, M.; Lepson, J. K.; Desai, P.; Gu, M. F.

    2010-10-01

    X-ray astronomy has been a voracious consumer of atomic data, especially after the launch of the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray Observatories, which have produced very high-resolution grating spectra of point sources. One of the important issues has been to understand the physics underlying the Fe L-shell spectra, and the Fe XVII spectrum in particular. A lot of progress has been made, including measurements of the electron-impact and resonance excitation cross sections, which now provides a rather clear picture of the production mechanism of the Fe XVII spectrum. Recent measurements of the radiative rates provide additional information on the deexcitation channels, while investigations of dielectronic satellite transitions provide a measure of the electron temperature. Many questions, however, still remain. Work at LLNL was performed under the auspices of DOE under contract DE-AC53-07NA27344 and supported by NASA's APRA program under contracts NNH07AF81I and NNG06WF08I. Part of this work was supported by Chandra Cycle 10 Award AR9-0002X.

  6. X-Ray Morphological Analysis of the Planck ESZ Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovisari, Lorenzo; Forman, William R.; Jones, Christine; Andrade-Santos, Felipe; Randall, Scott; Kraft, Ralph [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ettori, Stefano [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Arnaud, Monique; Démoclès, Jessica; Pratt, Gabriel W. [Laboratoire AIM, IRFU/Service d’Astrophysique—CEA/DRF—CNRS—Université Paris Diderot, Bât. 709, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2017-09-01

    X-ray observations show that galaxy clusters have a very large range of morphologies. The most disturbed systems, which are good to study how clusters form and grow and to test physical models, may potentially complicate cosmological studies because the cluster mass determination becomes more challenging. Thus, we need to understand the cluster properties of our samples to reduce possible biases. This is complicated by the fact that different experiments may detect different cluster populations. For example, Sunyaev–Zeldovich (SZ) selected cluster samples have been found to include a greater fraction of disturbed systems than X-ray selected samples. In this paper we determine eight morphological parameters for the Planck Early Sunyaev–Zeldovich (ESZ) objects observed with XMM-Newton . We found that two parameters, concentration and centroid shift, are the best to distinguish between relaxed and disturbed systems. For each parameter we provide the values that allow selecting the most relaxed or most disturbed objects from a sample. We found that there is no mass dependence on the cluster dynamical state. By comparing our results with what was obtained with REXCESS clusters, we also confirm that the ESZ clusters indeed tend to be more disturbed, as found by previous studies.

  7. HIGH-RESOLUTION X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY REVEALS THE SPECIAL NATURE OF WOLF-RAYET STAR WINDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oskinova, L. M.; Hamann, W.-R. [Institute for Physics and Astronomy, University Potsdam, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Gayley, K. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52245 (United States); Huenemoerder, D. P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 70 Vassar St., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ignace, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37663 (United States); Pollock, A. M. T., E-mail: lida@astro.physik.uni-potsdam.de [European Space Agency XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, Apartado 78, Villanueva de la Canada, 28691 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-03-10

    We present the first high-resolution X-ray spectrum of a putatively single Wolf-Rayet (WR) star. 400 ks observations of WR 6 by the XMM-Newton telescope resulted in a superb quality high-resolution X-ray spectrum. Spectral analysis reveals that the X-rays originate far out in the stellar wind, more than 30 stellar radii from the photosphere, and thus outside the wind acceleration zone where the line-driving instability (LDI) could create shocks. The X-ray emitting plasma reaches temperatures up to 50 MK and is embedded within the unshocked, 'cool' stellar wind as revealed by characteristic spectral signatures. We detect a fluorescent Fe line at Almost-Equal-To 6.4 keV. The presence of fluorescence is consistent with a two-component medium, where the cool wind is permeated with the hot X-ray emitting plasma. The wind must have a very porous structure to allow the observed amount of X-rays to escape. We find that neither the LDI nor any alternative binary scenario can explain the data. We suggest a scenario where X-rays are produced when the fast wind rams into slow 'sticky clumps' that resist acceleration. Our new data show that the X-rays in single WR star are generated by some special mechanism different from the one operating in the O-star winds.

  8. Detailed high-energy characteristics of AXP 1RXS J170849-400910: Probing the magnetosphere using INTEGRAL, RXTE, and XMM-Newton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, P.R.; Kuiper, L.; Hermsen, W.

    2008-01-01

    1RXS J170849-400910 is one of four anomalous X-ray pulsars which emit persistent luminous radiation in soft X-rays (10 keV) as well as in hard X-rays (>10 keV). In this paper we present detailed spectral and temporal characteristics over the whole X-ray band. For this purpose data have been used

  9. Optical, Near-IR, and X-Ray Observations of SN 2015J and Its Host Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucita, A. A.; De Paolis, F.; Saxton, R.; Testa, V.; Strafella, F.; Read, A.; Licchelli, D.; Ingrosso, G.; Convenga, F.; Boutsia, K.

    2017-12-01

    SN 2015J was discovered on 2015 April 27th and is classified as an SN IIn. At first, it appeared to be an orphan SN candidate, I.e., without any clear identification of its host galaxy. Here, we present an analysis of the observations carried out by the VLT 8 m class telescope with the FORS2 camera in the R band and the Magellan telescope (6.5 m) equipped with the IMACS Short-Camera (V and I filters) and the FourStar camera (Ks filter). We show that SN 2015J resides in what appears to be a very compact galaxy, establishing a relation between the SN event and its natural host. We also present and discuss archival and new X-ray data centered on SN 2015J. At the time of the supernova explosion, Swift/XRT observations were made and a weak X-ray source was detected at the location of SN 2015J. Almost one year later, the same source was unambiguously identified during serendipitous observations by Swift/XRT and XMM-Newton, clearly showing an enhancement of the 0.3-10 keV band flux by a factor ≃ 30 with respect to the initial state. Swift/XRT observations show that the source is still active in the X-rays at a level of ≃ 0.05 counts s-1. The unabsorbed X-ray luminosity derived from the XMM-Newton slew and SWIFT observations, {L}x≃ 5× {10}41 erg s-1, places SN 2015J among the brightest young supernovae in X-rays. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA, with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla-Paranal Observatory under program ID 298.D-5016(A), and with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. We also acknowledge the use of public data from the Swift data archive.

  10. Reconstruction of the two-dimensional gravitational potential of galaxy clusters from X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernin, C.; Bartelmann, M.; Huber, K.; Dekel, A.; Hurier, G.; Majer, C. L.; Meyer, S.; Zinger, E.; Eckert, D.; Meneghetti, M.; Merten, J.

    2018-06-01

    Context. The mass of galaxy clusters is not a direct observable, nonetheless it is commonly used to probe cosmological models. Based on the combination of all main cluster observables, that is, the X-ray emission, the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) signal, the velocity dispersion of the cluster galaxies, and gravitational lensing, the gravitational potential of galaxy clusters can be jointly reconstructed. Aims: We derive the two main ingredients required for this joint reconstruction: the potentials individually reconstructed from the observables and their covariance matrices, which act as a weight in the joint reconstruction. We show here the method to derive these quantities. The result of the joint reconstruction applied to a real cluster will be discussed in a forthcoming paper. Methods: We apply the Richardson-Lucy deprojection algorithm to data on a two-dimensional (2D) grid. We first test the 2D deprojection algorithm on a β-profile. Assuming hydrostatic equilibrium, we further reconstruct the gravitational potential of a simulated galaxy cluster based on synthetic SZ and X-ray data. We then reconstruct the projected gravitational potential of the massive and dynamically active cluster Abell 2142, based on the X-ray observations collected with XMM-Newton and the SZ observations from the Planck satellite. Finally, we compute the covariance matrix of the projected reconstructed potential of the cluster Abell 2142 based on the X-ray measurements collected with XMM-Newton. Results: The gravitational potentials of the simulated cluster recovered from synthetic X-ray and SZ data are consistent, even though the potential reconstructed from X-rays shows larger deviations from the true potential. Regarding Abell 2142, the projected gravitational cluster potentials recovered from SZ and X-ray data reproduce well the projected potential inferred from gravitational-lensing observations. We also observe that the covariance matrix of the potential for Abell 2142

  11. Phase-dependent absorption features in X-ray spectra of X-ray Dim Isolated Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghese, A.; Rea, N.; Coti Zelati, F.; Turolla, R.; Tiengo, A.; Zane, S.

    2017-12-01

    A detailed phase-resolved spectroscopy of archival XMM-Newton observations of X-ray Dim Isolated Neutron Stars (XDINSs) led to the discovery of narrow and strongly phase-dependent absorption features in two of these sources. The first was discovered in the X-ray spectrum of RX J0720.4-3125, followed by a new possible candidate in RX J1308.6+2127. Both spectral lines have similar properties: they are detected for only ˜ 20% of the rotational cycle and appear to be stable over the timespan covered by the observations. We performed Monte Carlo simulations to test the significance of these phase-variable features and in both cases the outcome has confirmed the detection with a confidence level > 4.6σ. Because of the narrow width and the strong dependence on the pulsar rotational phase, the most likely interpretation for these spectral features is in terms of resonant proton cyclotron absorption scattering in a confined high-B structure close to the stellar surface. Within the framework of this interpretation, our results provide evidence for deviations from a pure dipole magnetic field on small scales for highly magnetized neutron stars and support the proposed scenario of XDINSs being aged magnetars, with a strong non-dipolar crustal B-field component.

  12. A DEEP X-RAY VIEW OF THE BARE AGN ARK 120. I. REVEALING THE SOFT X-RAY LINE EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V. [Center for Space Science and Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Porquet, D. [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l’Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Nardini, E. [Astrophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Lobban, A. [Dept of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Turner, T. J., E-mail: jreeves@umbc.edu, E-mail: j.n.reeves@keele.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States)

    2016-09-10

    The Seyfert 1 galaxy Ark 120 is a prototype example of the so-called class of bare nucleus active galactic nuclei (AGNs), whereby there is no known evidence for the presence of ionized gas along the direct line of sight. Here deep (>400 ks exposure), high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of Ark 120 is presented from XMM-Newton observations that were carried out in 2014 March, together with simultaneous Chandra /High Energy Transmission Grating exposures. The high-resolution spectra confirmed the lack of intrinsic absorbing gas associated with Ark 120, with the only X-ray absorption present originating from the interstellar medium (ISM) of our own Galaxy, with a possible slight enhancement of the oxygen abundance required with respect to the expected ISM values in the solar neighborhood. However, the presence of several soft X-ray emission lines are revealed for the first time in the XMM-Newton RGS spectrum, associated with the AGN and arising from the He- and H-like ions of N, O, Ne, and Mg. The He-like line profiles of N, O, and Ne appear velocity broadened, with typical FWHMs of ∼5000 km s{sup −1}, whereas the H-like profiles are unresolved. From the clean measurement of the He-like triplets, we deduce that the broad lines arise from a gas of density n {sub e} ∼ 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3}, while the photoionization calculations infer that the emitting gas covers at least 10% of 4 π steradian. Thus the broad soft X-ray profiles appear coincident with an X-ray component of the optical–UV broad-line region on sub-parsec scales, whereas the narrow profiles originate on larger parsec scales, perhaps coincident with the AGN narrow-line region. The observations show that Ark 120 is not intrinsically bare and substantial X-ray-emitting gas exists out of our direct line of sight toward this AGN.

  13. A Catalog of Candidate Intermediate-Luminosity X-Ray Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E. J. M.; Ptak, A. F.

    2002-11-01

    ROSAT, and now Chandra, X-ray images allow studies of extranuclear X-ray point sources in galaxies other than our own. X-ray observations of normal galaxies with ROSAT and Chandra have revealed that off-nuclear, compact, intermediate-luminosity (LX[2-10keV]>=1039.0 ergs s-1) X-ray objects (IXOs, a.k.a. ULXs [ultraluminous X-ray sources]) are quite common. Here we present a catalog and finding charts for 87 IXOs in 54 galaxies, derived from all of the ROSAT HRI imaging data for galaxies with cz<=5000 km s-1 from the Third Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies. We have defined the cutoff LX for IXOs so that it is well above the Eddington luminosity of a 1.4 Msolar black hole (1038.3 ergs s-1), so as not to confuse IXOs with ``normal'' black hole X-ray binaries. This catalog is intended to provide a baseline for follow-up work with Chandra and XMM-Newton, and with space- and ground-based survey work at wavelengths other than X-ray. We demonstrate that elliptical galaxies with IXOs have a larger number of IXOs per galaxy than nonelliptical galaxies with IXOs and note that they are not likely to be merely high-mass X-ray binaries with beamed X-ray emission, as may be the case for IXOs in starburst galaxies. Approximately half of the IXOs with multiple observations show X-ray variability, and many (19) of the IXOs have faint optical counterparts in DSS optical B-band images. Follow-up observations of these objects should be helpful in identifying their nature.

  14. A PILOT DEEP SURVEY FOR X-RAY EMISSION FROM fuvAGB STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Sanz-Forcada, J.; Sánchez Contreras, C. [Astrobiology Center (CSIC-INTA), ESAC campus, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Stute, M. [Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, D-72076, Tübingen (Germany)

    2015-09-01

    We report the results of a pilot survey for X-ray emission from a newly discovered class of AGB stars with far-ultraviolet excesses (fuvAGB stars) using XMM-Newton and Chandra. We detected X-ray emission in three of six fuvAGB stars observed—the X-ray fluxes are found to vary in a stochastic or quasi-periodic manner on roughly hour-long timescales, and simultaneous UV observations using the Optical Monitor on XMM for these sources show similar variations in the UV flux. These data, together with previous studies, show that X-ray emission is found only in fuvAGB stars. From modeling the spectra, we find that the observed X-ray luminosities are ∼(0.002–0.2) L{sub ⊙} and the X-ray-emitting plasma temperatures are ∼(35–160) × 10{sup 6} K. The high X-ray temperatures argue against the emission arising in stellar coronae, or directly in an accretion shock, unless it occurs on a WD companion. However, none of the detected objects is a known WD-symbiotic star, suggesting that if WD companions are present, they are relatively cool (<20,000 K). In addition, the high X-ray luminosities specifically argue against emission originating in the coronae of main-sequence companions. We discuss several models for the X-ray emission and its variability and find that the most likely scenario for the origin of the X-ray (and FUV) emission involves accretion activity around a companion star, with confinement by strong magnetic fields associated with the companion and/or an accretion disk around it.

  15. A revised partiality model and post-refinement algorithm for X-ray free-electron laser data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginn, Helen Mary [Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Brewster, Aaron S.; Hattne, Johan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Evans, Gwyndaf; Wagner, Armin [Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Fermi Avenue, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Grimes, Jonathan M. [Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Fermi Avenue, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Sauter, Nicholas K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sutton, Geoff [Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Stuart, David Ian, E-mail: dave@strubi.ox.ac.uk [Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Fermi Avenue, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-23

    An updated partiality model and post-refinement algorithm for XFEL snapshot diffraction data is presented and confirmed by observing anomalous density for S atoms at an X-ray wavelength of 1.3 Å. Research towards using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) data to solve structures using experimental phasing methods such as sulfur single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) has been hampered by shortcomings in the diffraction models for X-ray diffraction from FELs. Owing to errors in the orientation matrix and overly simple partiality models, researchers have required large numbers of images to converge to reliable estimates for the structure-factor amplitudes, which may not be feasible for all biological systems. Here, data for cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus type 17 (CPV17) collected at 1.3 Å wavelength at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) are revisited. A previously published definition of a partiality model for reflections illuminated by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) pulses is built upon, which defines a fraction between 0 and 1 based on the intersection of a reflection with a spread of Ewald spheres modelled by a super-Gaussian wavelength distribution in the X-ray beam. A method of post-refinement to refine the parameters of this model is suggested. This has generated a merged data set with an overall discrepancy (by calculating the R{sub split} value) of 3.15% to 1.46 Å resolution from a 7225-image data set. The atomic numbers of C, N and O atoms in the structure are distinguishable in the electron-density map. There are 13 S atoms within the 237 residues of CPV17, excluding the initial disordered methionine. These only possess 0.42 anomalous scattering electrons each at 1.3 Å wavelength, but the 12 that have single predominant positions are easily detectable in the anomalous difference Fourier map. It is hoped that these improvements will lead towards XFEL experimental phase determination and structure determination by sulfur SAD and will

  16. X-Ray Study of Variable Gamma-Ray Pulsar PSR J2021+4026

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. H.; Takata, J.; Hu, C.-P.; Lin, L. C. C.; Zhao, J.

    2018-04-01

    PSR J2021+4026 showed a sudden decrease in the gamma-ray emission at the glitch that occurred around 2011 October 16, and a relaxation of the flux to the pre-glitch state at around 2014 December. We report X-ray analysis results of the data observed by XMM-Newton on 2015 December 20 in the post-relaxation state. To examine any change in the X-ray emission, we compare the properties of the pulse profiles and spectra at the low gamma-ray flux state and at the post-relaxation state. The phase-averaged spectra for both states can be well described by a power-law component plus a blackbody component. The former is dominated by unpulsed emission and probably originated from the pulsar wind nebula as reported by Hui et al. The emission property of the blackbody component is consistent with the emission from the polar cap heated by the back-flow bombardment of the high-energy electrons or positrons that were accelerated in the magnetosphere. We found no significant change in the X-ray emission properties between two states. We suggest that the change of the X-ray luminosity is at an order of ∼4%, which is difficult to measure with the current observations. We model the observed X-ray light curve with the heated polar cap emission, and we speculate that the observed large pulsed fraction is owing to asymmetric magnetospheric structure.

  17. Outburst of the 2 s Anomalous X-ray Pulsar 1E 1547.0-5408

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, J. P.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Camilo, F.; Reynolds, J.; Ransom, S. M.

    2008-01-01

    Following our discovery of radio pulsations from the newly recognized anomalous X-ray pulsar (AXP) 1E 1547.0-5408, we initiated X-ray monitoring with the Swift X-ray telescope and obtained a single target-of-opportunity observation with the Newton X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission (XMM-Newton). In comparison with its historic minimum flux of 3 x 10(exp -l3)ergs/sq cm/s, the source was found to be in a record high state, f(sub x)(1-8 keV) = 5 x 10(exp -12)ergs/sq cm/s, or L(sub x) = 1.7 x 10(exp 35)(d/9 kpc )(sup 2)ergs/s, and declining by 25% in 1 month. Extrapolating the decay, we bound the total energy in this outburst to 1042 ergs pulsar, which may indicate a nearly aligned rotator. As also inferred from the transient behavior of XTE J18 10-197, the only other AXP known to emit in the radio, the magnetic field rearrangement responsible for this X-ray outburst of 1E 1547.0-5408 is probably the cause of its radio turn-on.

  18. X-ray telescope mirrors made of slumped glass sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, A.; Breunig, E.; Friedrich, P.; Proserpio, L.

    2017-11-01

    For several decades, the field of X-ray astronomy has been playing a major role in understanding the processes in our universe. From binary stars and black holes up to galaxy clusters and dark matter, high energetic events have been observed and analysed using powerful X-ray telescopes like e.g. Rosat, Chandra, and XMM-Newton [1,2,3], giving us detailed and unprecedented views of the high-energy universe. In November 2013, the theme of "The Hot and Energetic Universe" was rated as of highest importance for future exploration and in June 2014 the ATHENA Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics was selected by ESA for the second large science mission (L2) in the ESA Cosmic Vision program, with launch foreseen in 2028 [4]. By combining a large X-ray telescope with state-of-the-art scientific instruments, ATHENA will address key questions in astrophysics, including: How and why does ordinary matter assemble into the galaxies and galactic clusters that we see today? How do black holes grow and influence their surroundings? In order to answer these questions, ATHENA needs a powerful mirror system which exceed the capabilities of current missions, especially in terms of collecting area. However, current technologies have reached the mass limits of the launching rocket, creating the need for more light-weight mirror systems in order to enhance the effective area without increasing the telescope mass. Hence new mirror technologies are being developed which aim for low-weight systems with large collecting areas. Light material like glass can be used, which are shaped to form an X-ray reflecting system via the method of thermal glass slumping.

  19. Evidence for Intermediate Polars as the Origin of the Galactic Center Hard X-ray Emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Perez, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    ⊙. Here we use broadband NuSTAR observations of two IPs: TV Columbae, which has a fairly typical but widely varying reported mass of MWD ≈ 0.5-1.0M⊙, and IGR J17303-0601, with a heavy reported mass of MWD ≈ 1.0-1.2M⊙. We investigate how varying spectral models and observed energy ranges influences...... estimated white dwarf mass. Observations of the inner 10 pc can be accounted for by IPs with 〈MWD〉≈0.9M⊙, consistent with that of the CV population in general and the X-ray observed field IPs in particular. The lower mass derived by Chandra and XMM-Newton appears to be an artifact of narrow energy...

  20. NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of the Jovian magnetosphere during Juno perijove and apojove intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, W.; Mori, K.; Hailey, C. J.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Grefenstette, B.; Jackman, C. M.; Hord, B. J.; Ray, L. C.

    2017-12-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is the first focusing hard X-ray telescope operating in the 3-79 keV band with sub-arcminute angular resolution (18" FWHM). For the first time, NuSTAR provides sufficient sensitivity to detect/resolve hard X-ray emission from Jupiter above 10 keV, since the in-situ Ulysses observation failed to detect X-ray emission in the 27-48 keV band [Hurley et al. 1993]. The initial, exploratory NuSTAR observation of Jupiter was performed in February 2015 with 100 ksec exposure. NuSTAR detected hard X-ray emission (E > 10 keV) from the south polar region at a marginally significance of 3 sigma level [Mori et al. 2016, AAS meeting poster]. This hard X-ray emission is likely an extension of the non-thermal bremsstrahlung component detected up to 7 keV by XMM-Newton [Branduardi-Raymont et al. 2007]. The Ulysses non-detection suggests there should be a spectral cutoff between 7 and 27 keV. Most intriguingly, the NuSTAR detection of hard X-ray emission from the south aurora is in contrast to the 2003 XMM-Newton observations where soft X-ray emission below 8 keV was seen from both the north and south poles [Gladstone et al. 2002]. Given the marginal, but tantalizing, hard X-ray detection of the southern Jovian aurora, a series of NuSTAR observations with total exposure of nearly half a million seconds were approved in the NuSTAR GO and DDT program. These NuSTAR observations coincided with one Juno apojove (in June 2017) and three perijoves (in May, July and September 2017), also joining the multi-wavelength campaigns of observing Jupiter coordinating with Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray telescope (below 10 keV) and HST. We will present NuSTAR imaging, spectral and timing analysis of Jupiter. NuSTAR imaging analysis will map hard X-ray emission in comparison with soft X-ray and UV images. In addition to investigating any distinctions between the soft and hard X-ray morphology of the Jovian aurorae, we will probe whether hard X-ray

  1. X-rays Provide a New Way to Investigate Exploding Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The European Space Agency's X-ray observatory XMM-Newton has revealed a new class of exploding stars - where the X-ray emission 'lives fast and dies young'. The identification of this particular class of explosion gives astronomers a valuable new constraint to help them understand stellar explosions. Exploding stars called novae remain a puzzle to astronomers. "Modelling these outbursts is very difficult," says Wolfgang Pietsch, Max Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik. Now, ESA's XMM-Newton and NASA's Chandra have provided valuable information about when individual novae emit X-rays. Between July 2004 and February 2005, the X-ray observatories watched the heart of the nearby Andromeda Galaxy, known to astronomers as M31. During that time, Pietsch and his colleagues monitored novae, looking for the X-rays. X-ray Image of Andromeda Galaxy (M31) Chandra X-ray Image of Andromeda Galaxy (M31) They detected that eleven out of the 34 novae that had exploded in the galaxy during the previous year were shining X-rays into space. "X-rays are an important window onto novae. They show the atmosphere of the white dwarf," says Pietsch. White dwarfs are hot stellar corpses left behind after the rest of the star has been ejected into space. A typical white dwarf contains about the mass of the Sun, in a spherical volume little bigger than the Earth. It has a strong pull of gravity and, if it is in orbit around a normal star, can rip gas from it. This material builds up on the surface of the white dwarf until it reaches sufficient density to nuclear detonate. The resultant explosion creates a nova. However, these particular events are not strong enough to destroy the underlying white dwarf. The X-ray emission becomes visible some time after the detonation, when the matter ejected by the nova thins out enough to allow astronomers to peer down to the nuclear burning white dwarf atmosphere beneath. At the end of the process, the X-ray emission stops when the fuel is

  2. NUCLEAR X-RAY PROPERTIES OF THE PECULIAR RADIO-LOUD HIDDEN AGN 4C+29.30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolewska, M. A.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Migliori, G.; Evans, D.; Stawarz, Ł.; Jamrozy, M.; Cheung, C. C.

    2012-01-01

    We present results from a study of nuclear emission from a nearby radio galaxy, 4C+29.30, over a broad 0.5-200 keV X-ray band. This study used new XMM-Newton (∼17 ks) and Chandra (∼300 ks) data, and archival Swift/BAT data from the 58 month catalog. The hard (>2 keV) X-ray spectrum of 4C+29.30 can be decomposed into an intrinsic hard power law (Γ ∼ 1.56) modified by a cold absorber with an intrinsic column density N H,z ∼ 5 × 10 23 cm –2 , and its reflection (|Ω/2π| ∼ 0.3) from a neutral matter including a narrow iron Kα emission line at a rest-frame energy ∼6.4 keV. The reflected component is less absorbed than the intrinsic one with an upper limit on the absorbing column of N refl H,z 22 cm –2 . The X-ray spectrum varied between the XMM-Newton and Chandra observations. We show that a scenario invoking variations of the normalization of the power law is favored over a model with variable intrinsic column density. X-rays in the 0.5-2 keV band are dominated by diffuse emission modeled with a thermal bremsstrahlung component with temperature ∼0.7 keV, and contain only a marginal contribution from the scattered power-law component. We hypothesize that 4C+29.30 belongs to a class of 'hidden' active galactic nuclei containing a geometrically thick torus. However, unlike the majority of hidden AGNs, 4C+29.30 is radio-loud. Correlations between the scattering fraction and Eddington luminosity ratio, and between black hole mass and stellar velocity dispersion, imply that 4C+29.30 hosts a black hole with ∼10 8 M ☉ mass.

  3. Estimating photometric redshifts for X-ray sources in the X-ATLAS field using machine-learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountrichas, G.; Corral, A.; Masoura, V. A.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Ruiz, A.; Georgakakis, A.; Carrera, F. J.; Fotopoulou, S.

    2017-12-01

    We present photometric redshifts for 1031 X-ray sources in the X-ATLAS field using the machine-learning technique TPZ. X-ATLAS covers 7.1 deg2 observed with XMM-Newton within the Science Demonstration Phase of the H-ATLAS field, making it one of the largest contiguous areas of the sky with both XMM-Newton and Herschel coverage. All of the sources have available SDSS photometry, while 810 additionally have mid-IR and/or near-IR photometry. A spectroscopic sample of 5157 sources primarily in the XMM/XXL field, but also from several X-ray surveys and the SDSS DR13 redshift catalogue, was used to train the algorithm. Our analysis reveals that the algorithm performs best when the sources are split, based on their optical morphology, into point-like and extended sources. Optical photometry alone is not enough to estimate accurate photometric redshifts, but the results greatly improve when at least mid-IR photometry is added in the training process. In particular, our measurements show that the estimated photometric redshifts for the X-ray sources of the training sample have a normalized absolute median deviation, nmad ≈ 0.06, and a percentage of outliers, η = 10-14%, depending upon whether the sources are extended or point like. Our final catalogue contains photometric redshifts for 933 out of the 1031 X-ray sources with a median redshift of 0.9. The table of the photometric redshifts is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/608/A39

  4. A multiwavelength study of SXP 1062, the long-period X-ray pulsar associated with a supernova remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Galán, A.; Oskinova, L. M.; Popov, S. B.; Haberl, F.; Kühnel, M.; Gallagher, J.; Schurch, M. P. E.; Guerrero, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    SXP 1062 is a Be X-ray binary (BeXB) located in the Small Magellanic Cloud. It hosts a long-period X-ray pulsar and is likely associated with the supernova remnant MCSNR J0127-7332. In this work we present a multiwavelength view on SXP 1062 in different luminosity regimes. We consider monitoring campaigns in optical (OGLE survey) and X-ray (Swift telescope). During these campaigns a tight coincidence of X-ray and optical outbursts is observed. We interpret this as typical Type I outbursts as often detected in BeXBs at periastron passage of the neutron star (NS). To study different X-ray luminosity regimes in depth, during the source quiescence we observed it with XMM-Newton while Chandra observations followed an X-ray outburst. Nearly simultaneously with Chandra observations in X-rays, in optical the RSS/SALT telescope obtained spectra of SXP 1062. On the basis of our multiwavelength campaign we propose a simple scenario where the disc of the Be star is observed face-on, while the orbit of the NS is inclined with respect to the disc. According to the model of quasi-spherical settling accretion our estimation of the magnetic field of the pulsar in SXP 1062 does not require an extremely strong magnetic field at the present time.

  5. High-energy observations of the state transition of the X-ray nova and black hole candidate XTE J1720-318

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bel, M.C.; Rodriguez, J.; Sizun, P.

    2004-01-01

    We report the results of extensive high-energy observations of the X-ray transient and black hole candidate XTE J1720-318 performed with INTEGRAL, XMM-Newton and RXTE. The source, which underwent an X-ray outburst in 2003 January, was observed in February in a spectral state dominated by a soft......, typical of a black-hole binary in the so-called High/Soft State. We then followed the evolution of the source outburst over several months using the INTEGRAL Galactic Centre survey observations. The source became active again at the end of March: it showed a clear transition towards a much harder state...... of the black hole X-ray novae class which populate our galactic bulge and we discuss its properties in the frame of the spectral models used for transient black hole binaries....

  6. Complex UV/X-ray variability of 1H 0707-495

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, P. K.; Dewangan, G. C.; Papadakis, I. E.; Patil, M. K.; Pal, Main; Kembhavi, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    We study the relationship between the UV and X-ray variability of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0707-495. Using a year-long Swift monitoring and four long XMM-Newton observations, we perform cross-correlation analyses of the UV and X-ray light curves, on both long and short time-scales. We also perform time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy on 1-2 ks scale, and study the relationship between the UV emission and the X-ray spectral components - soft X-ray excess and a power law. We find that the UV and X-ray variations anticorrelate on short, and possibly on long time-scales as well. Our results rule out reprocessing as the dominant mechanism for the UV variability, as well as the inward propagating fluctuations in the accretion rate. Absence of a positive correlation between the photon index and the UV flux suggests that the observed UV emission is unlikely to be the seed photons for the thermal Comptonization. We find a strong correlation between the continuum flux and the soft-excess temperature which implies that the soft excess is most likely the reprocessed X-ray emission in the inner accretion disc. Strong X-ray heating of the innermost regions in the disc, due to gravitational light bending, appears to be an important effect in 1H 0707-495, giving rise to a significant fraction of the soft excess as reprocessed thermal emission. We also find indications for a non-static, dynamic X-ray corona, where either the size or height (or both) vary with time.

  7. X-ray Binaries in the Central Region of M31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudolyubov, Sergey P.; Priedhorsky, W. C.; Cordova, F. A.

    2006-09-01

    We present the results of the systematic survey of X-ray sources in the central region of M31 using the data of XMM-Newton observations. The spectral properties and variability of 124 bright X-ray sources were studied in detail. We found that more than 80% of sources observed in two or more observations show significant variability on the time scales of days to years. At least 50% of the sources in our sample are spectrally variable. The fraction of variable sources in our survey is much higher than previously reported from Chandra survey of M31, and is remarkably close to the fraction of variable sources found in M31 globular cluster X-ray source population. We present spectral distribution of M31 X-ray sources, based on the spectral fitting with a power law model. The distribution of spectral photon index has two main peaks at 1.8 and 2.3, and shows clear evolution with source luminosity. Based on the similarity of the properties of M31 X-ray sources and their Galactic counterparts, we expect most of X-ray sources in our sample to be accreting binary systems with neutron star and black hole primaries. Combining the results of X-ray analysis (X-ray spectra, hardness-luminosity diagrams and variability) with available data at other wavelengths, we explore the possibility of distinguishing between bright neutron star and black hole binary systems, and identify 7% and 25% of sources in our sample as a probable black hole and neutron star candidates. Finally, we compare the M31 X-ray source population to the source populations of normal galaxies of different morphological type. Support for this work was provided through NASA Grant NAG5-12390. Part of this work was done during a summer workshop ``Revealing Black Holes'' at the Aspen Center for Physics, S. T. is grateful to the Center for their hospitality.

  8. Connecting optical and X-ray tracers of galaxy cluster relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ian D.; Parker, Laura C.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, Julie

    2018-04-01

    Substantial effort has been devoted in determining the ideal proxy for quantifying the morphology of the hot intracluster medium in clusters of galaxies. These proxies, based on X-ray emission, typically require expensive, high-quality X-ray observations making them difficult to apply to large surveys of groups and clusters. Here, we compare optical relaxation proxies with X-ray asymmetries and centroid shifts for a sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey clusters with high-quality, archival X-ray data from Chandra and XMM-Newton. The three optical relaxation measures considered are the shape of the member-galaxy projected velocity distribution - measured by the Anderson-Darling (AD) statistic, the stellar mass gap between the most-massive and second-most-massive cluster galaxy, and the offset between the most-massive galaxy (MMG) position and the luminosity-weighted cluster centre. The AD statistic and stellar mass gap correlate significantly with X-ray relaxation proxies, with the AD statistic being the stronger correlator. Conversely, we find no evidence for a correlation between X-ray asymmetry or centroid shift and the MMG offset. High-mass clusters (Mhalo > 1014.5 M⊙) in this sample have X-ray asymmetries, centroid shifts, and Anderson-Darling statistics which are systematically larger than for low-mass systems. Finally, considering the dichotomy of Gaussian and non-Gaussian clusters (measured by the AD test), we show that the probability of being a non-Gaussian cluster correlates significantly with X-ray asymmetry but only shows a marginal correlation with centroid shift. These results confirm the shape of the radial velocity distribution as a useful proxy for cluster relaxation, which can then be applied to large redshift surveys lacking extensive X-ray coverage.

  9. X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enema. What you can expect During the X-ray X-rays are performed at doctors' offices, dentists' offices, ... as those using a contrast medium. Your child's X-ray Restraints or other techniques may be used to ...

  10. Abdominal x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  11. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the ... treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray ...

  12. Meta-shell Approach for Constructing Lightweight and High Resolution X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Ryan S.

    2016-01-01

    Lightweight and high resolution optics are needed for future space-based x-ray telescopes to achieve advances in high-energy astrophysics. Past missions such as Chandra and XMM-Newton have achieved excellent angular resolution using a full shell mirror approach. Other missions such as Suzaku and NuSTAR have achieved lightweight mirrors using a segmented approach. This paper describes a new approach, called meta-shells, which combines the fabrication advantages of segmented optics with the alignment advantages of full shell optics. Meta-shells are built by layering overlapping mirror segments onto a central structural shell. The resulting optic has the stiffness and rotational symmetry of a full shell, but with an order of magnitude greater collecting area. Several meta-shells so constructed can be integrated into a large x-ray mirror assembly by proven methods used for Chandra and XMM-Newton. The mirror segments are mounted to the meta-shell using a novel four point semi-kinematic mount. The four point mount deterministically locates the segment in its most performance sensitive degrees of freedom. Extensive analysis has been performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the four point mount and meta-shell approach. A mathematical model of a meta-shell constructed with mirror segments bonded at four points and subject to launch loads has been developed to determine the optimal design parameters, namely bond size, mirror segment span, and number of layers per meta-shell. The parameters of an example 1.3 m diameter mirror assembly are given including the predicted effective area. To verify the mathematical model and support opto-mechanical analysis, a detailed finite element model of a meta-shell was created. Finite element analysis predicts low gravity distortion and low thermal distortion. Recent results are discussed including Structural Thermal Optical Performance (STOP) analysis as well as vibration and shock testing of prototype meta-shells.

  13. PATCHY ACCRETION DISKS IN ULTRA-LUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Webb, N. A. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F- 31100 Toulouse (France); Harrison, F. A.; Walton, D. J.; Rana, V. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fabian, A. C., E-mail: jonmm@umich.edu [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-10

    The X-ray spectra of the most extreme ultra-luminous X-ray sources—those with L ≥ 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}—remain something of a mystery. Spectral roll-over in the 5-10 keV band was originally detected in the deepest XMM-Newton observations of the brightest sources; this is confirmed in subsequent NuSTAR spectra. This emission can be modeled via Comptonization, but with low electron temperatures (kT{sub e} ≅ 2 keV) and high optical depths (τ ≅ 10) that pose numerous difficulties. Moreover, evidence of cooler thermal emission that can be fit with thin disk models persists, even in fits to joint XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations. Using NGC 1313 X-1 as a test case, we show that a patchy disk with a multiple temperature profile may provide an excellent description of such spectra. In principle, a number of patches within a cool disk might emit over a range of temperatures, but the data only require a two-temperature profile plus standard Comptonization, or three distinct blackbody components. A mechanism such as the photon bubble instability may naturally give rise to a patchy disk profile, and could give rise to super-Eddington luminosities. It is possible, then, that a patchy disk (rather than a disk with a standard single-temperature profile) might be a hallmark of accretion disks close to or above the Eddington limit. We discuss further tests of this picture and potential implications for sources such as narrow-line Seyfert-1 galaxies and other low-mass active galactic nuclei.

  14. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Gursky, H.

    1974-01-01

    This text contains ten chapters and three appendices. Following an introduction, chapters two through five deal with observational techniques, mechanisms for the production of x rays in a cosmic setting, the x-ray sky and solar x-ray emission. Chapters six through ten include compact x-ray sources, supernova remnants, the interstellar medium, extragalactic x-ray sources and the cosmic x-ray background. Interactions of x rays with matter, units and conversion factors and a catalog of x-ray sources comprise the three appendices. (U.S.)

  15. SYSTEMATIC UNCERTAINTIES IN THE SPECTROSCOPIC MEASUREMENTS OF NEUTRON STAR MASSES AND RADII FROM THERMONUCLEAR X-RAY BURSTS. III. ABSOLUTE FLUX CALIBRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Güver, Tolga [Istanbul University, Science Faculty, Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Beyazıt, 34119, Istanbul (Turkey); Özel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Marshall, Herman [Center for Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Guainazzi, Matteo [European Space Astronomy Centre of ESA, P.O. Box 78, Villanueva de la Cañada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); Díaz-Trigo, Maria [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2016-09-20

    Many techniques for measuring neutron star radii rely on absolute flux measurements in the X-rays. As a result, one of the fundamental uncertainties in these spectroscopic measurements arises from the absolute flux calibrations of the detectors being used. Using the stable X-ray burster, GS 1826–238, and its simultaneous observations by Chandra HETG/ACIS-S and RXTE /PCA as well as by XMM-Newton EPIC-pn and RXTE /PCA, we quantify the degree of uncertainty in the flux calibration by assessing the differences between the measured fluxes during bursts. We find that the RXTE /PCA and the Chandra gratings measurements agree with each other within their formal uncertainties, increasing our confidence in these flux measurements. In contrast, XMM-Newton EPIC-pn measures 14.0 ± 0.3% less flux than the RXTE /PCA. This is consistent with the previously reported discrepancy with the flux measurements of EPIC-pn, compared with EPIC MOS1, MOS2, and ACIS-S detectors. We also show that any intrinsic time-dependent systematic uncertainty that may exist in the calibration of the satellites has already been implicity taken into account in the neutron star radius measurements.

  16. X-Ray Emission from Active Galactic Nuclei with Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewangan, G. C.; Mathur, S.; Griffiths, R. E.; Rao, A. R.

    2008-12-01

    We present a systematic X-ray study of eight active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with intermediate-mass black holes (MBH ~ 8-95 × 104 M⊙) based on 12 XMM-Newton observations. The sample includes the two prototype AGNs in this class—NGC 4395 and POX 52 and six other AGNs discovered with the Sloan Digitized Sky Survey. These AGNs show some of the strongest X-ray variability, with the normalized excess variances being the largest and the power density break timescales being the shortest observed among radio-quiet AGNs. The excess-variance-luminosity correlation appears to depend on both the BH mass and the Eddington luminosity ratio. The break timescale-black hole mass relations for AGN with IMBHs are consistent with that observed for massive AGNs. We find that the FWHM of the Hβ/Hα line is uncorrelated with the BH mass, but shows strong anticorrelation with the Eddington luminosity ratio. Four AGNs show clear evidence for soft X-ray excess emission (kTin ~ 150-200 eV). X-ray spectra of three other AGNs are consistent with the presence of the soft excess emission. NGC 4395 with lowest L/LEdd lacks the soft excess emission. Evidently small black mass is not the primary driver of strong soft X-ray excess emission from AGNs. The X-ray spectral properties and optical-to-X-ray spectral energy distributions of these AGNs are similar to those of Seyfert 1 galaxies. The observed X-ray/UV properties of AGNs with IMBHs are consistent with these AGNs being low-mass extensions of more massive AGNs, those with high Eddington luminosity ratio looking more like narrow-line Seyfert 1 s and those with low L/LEdd looking more like broad-line Seyfert 1 galaxies.

  17. RADIO AND X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF SN 2006jd: ANOTHER STRONGLY INTERACTING TYPE IIn SUPERNOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Poonam [Department of Physics, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON K7K 7B4 (Canada); Chevalier, Roger A.; Irwin, Christopher M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Chugai, Nikolai [Institute of Astronomy of Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyatnitskaya Street 48, 109017 Moscow (Russian Federation); Fransson, Claes [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Soderberg, Alicia M. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS-20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chakraborti, Sayan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1 Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India); Immler, Stefan, E-mail: Poonam.Chandra@rmc.ca [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-08-20

    We report four years of radio and X-ray monitoring of the Type IIn supernova SN 2006jd at radio wavelengths with the Very Large Array, Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, and Expanded Very Large Array; at X-ray wavelengths with Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Swift-XRT. We assume that the radio and X-ray emitting particles are produced by shock interaction with a dense circumstellar medium. The radio emission shows an initial rise that can be attributed to free-free absorption by cool gas mixed into the nonthermal emitting region; external free-free absorption is disfavored because of the shape of the rising light curves and the low gas column density inferred along the line of sight to the emission region. The X-ray luminosity implies a preshock circumstellar density {approx}10{sup 6} cm{sup -3} at a radius r {approx} 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm, but the column density inferred from the photoabsorption of X-rays along the line of sight suggests a significantly lower density. The implication may be an asymmetry in the interaction. The X-ray spectrum shows Fe line emission at 6.9 keV that is stronger than is expected for the conditions in the X-ray emitting gas. We suggest that cool gas mixed into the hot gas plays a role in the line emission. Our radio and X-ray data both suggest the density profile is flatter than r{sup -2} because of the slow evolution of the unabsorbed emission.

  18. Polarization and long-term variability of Sgr A* X-ray echo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churazov, E.; Khabibullin, I.; Ponti, G.; Sunyaev, R.

    2017-06-01

    We use a model of the molecular gas distribution within ˜100 pc from the centre of the Milky Way (Kruijssen, Dale & Longmore) to simulate time evolution and polarization properties of the reflected X-ray emission, associated with the past outbursts from Sgr A*. While this model is too simple to describe the complexity of the true gas distribution, it illustrates the importance and power of long-term observations of the reflected emission. We show that the variable part of X-ray emission observed by Chandra and XMM-Newton from prominent molecular clouds is well described by a pure reflection model, providing strong support of the reflection scenario. While the identification of Sgr A* as a primary source for this reflected emission is already a very appealing hypothesis, a decisive test of this model can be provided by future X-ray polarimetric observations, which will allow placing constraints on the location of the primary source. In addition, X-ray polarimeters (like, e.g. XIPE) have sufficient sensitivity to constrain the line-of-sight positions of molecular complexes, removing major uncertainty in the model.

  19. X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE WOLF-RAYET BUBBLE S 308

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toala, J. A.; Guerrero, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, IAA-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Chu, Y.-H.; Gruendl, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Arthur, S. J. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Morelia, Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Smith, R. C. [NOAO/CTIO, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Snowden, S. L., E-mail: toala@iaa.es [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    The Wolf-Rayet (WR) bubble S 308 around the WR star HD 50896 is one of the only two WR bubbles known to possess X-ray emission. We present XMM-Newton observations of three fields of this WR bubble that, in conjunction with an existing observation of its northwest quadrant, map most of the nebula. The X-ray emission from S 308 displays a limb-brightened morphology, with a central cavity {approx}22' in size and a shell thickness of {approx}8'. This X-ray shell is confined by the optical shell of ionized material. The spectrum is dominated by the He-like triplets of N VI at 0.43 keV and O VII at 0.57 keV, and declines toward high energies, with a faint tail up to 1 keV. This spectrum can be described by a two-temperature optically thin plasma emission model (T{sub 1} {approx} 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K, T{sub 2} {approx} 13 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K), with a total X-ray luminosity {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1} at the assumed distance of 1.5 kpc.

  20. X-ray and optical substructures of the DAFT/FADA survey clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guennou, L.; Durret, F.; Adami, C.; Lima Neto, G. B.

    2013-04-01

    We have undertaken the DAFT/FADA survey with the double aim of setting constraints on dark energy based on weak lensing tomography and of obtaining homogeneous and high quality data for a sample of 91 massive clusters in the redshift range 0.4-0.9 for which there were HST archive data. We have analysed the XMM-Newton data available for 42 of these clusters to derive their X-ray temperatures and luminosities and search for substructures. Out of these, a spatial analysis was possible for 30 clusters, but only 23 had deep enough X-ray data for a really robust analysis. This study was coupled with a dynamical analysis for the 26 clusters having at least 30 spectroscopic galaxy redshifts in the cluster range. Altogether, the X-ray sample of 23 clusters and the optical sample of 26 clusters have 14 clusters in common. We present preliminary results on the coupled X-ray and dynamical analyses of these 14 clusters.

  1. XAssist: A System for the Automation of X-ray Astrophysics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, A.

    2004-08-01

    XAssist is a NASA AISR-funded project for the automation of X-ray astrophysics. It is capable of data reprocessing, source detection, and preliminary spatial, temporal and spectral analysis for each source with sufficient counts. The bulk of the system is written in Python, which in turn drives underlying software (CIAO for Chandra data, etc.). Future work will include a GUI (mainly for beginners and status monitoring) and the exposure of at least some functionality as web services. The latter will help XAssist to eventually become part of the VO, making advanced queries possible, such as determining the X-ray fluxes of counterparts to HST or SDSS sources (including the use of unpublished X-ray data), and add the ability of ``on-the-fly'' X-ray processing. Pipelines are running on Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of galaxies to demonstrate XAssist's capabilities, and the results are available online (in real time) at http://www.xassist.org. XAssist itself as well as various associated projects are available for download.

  2. X-ray grating observations of recurrent nova T Pyxidis during the 2011 outburst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Orio, Marina [Astronomy Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 N. Charter St., WI 53711 (United States); Page, Kim L.; Osborne, Julian P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Ciroi, Stefano; Cracco, Valentina; Di Mille, Francesco [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Padova University, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Maxwell, Michael [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-10

    The recurrent nova T Pyx was observed with the X-ray gratings of Chandra and XMM-Newton, 210 and 235 days, respectively, after the discovery of the 2011 April 14 outburst. The X-ray spectra show prominent emission lines of C, N, and O, with broadening corresponding to an FWHM of ∼2000-3000 km s{sup –1}, and line ratios consistent with high-density plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium. On day 210 we also measured soft X-ray continuum emission that appears to be consistent with a white dwarf (WD) atmosphere at a temperature ∼420,000 K, partially obscured by anisotropic, optically thick ejecta. The X-ray continuum emission is modulated with the photometric and spectroscopic period observed in quiescence. The continuum at day 235 indicated a WD atmosphere at a consistent effective temperature of 25 days earlier, but with a lower flux. The effective temperature indicates a mass of ∼1 M {sub ☉}. The conclusion of partial WD obscuration is supported by the complex geometry of non-spherically symmetric ejecta confirmed in recent optical spectra obtained with the Southern African Large Telescope in November and December of 2012. These spectra exhibited prominent [O III] nebular lines with velocity structures typical of bipolar ejecta.

  3. X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE WOLF-RAYET BUBBLE S 308

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toalá, J. A.; Guerrero, M. A.; Chu, Y.-H.; Gruendl, R. A.; Arthur, S. J.; Smith, R. C.; Snowden, S. L.

    2012-01-01

    The Wolf-Rayet (WR) bubble S 308 around the WR star HD 50896 is one of the only two WR bubbles known to possess X-ray emission. We present XMM-Newton observations of three fields of this WR bubble that, in conjunction with an existing observation of its northwest quadrant, map most of the nebula. The X-ray emission from S 308 displays a limb-brightened morphology, with a central cavity ∼22' in size and a shell thickness of ∼8'. This X-ray shell is confined by the optical shell of ionized material. The spectrum is dominated by the He-like triplets of N VI at 0.43 keV and O VII at 0.57 keV, and declines toward high energies, with a faint tail up to 1 keV. This spectrum can be described by a two-temperature optically thin plasma emission model (T 1 ∼ 1.1 × 10 6 K, T 2 ∼ 13 × 10 6 K), with a total X-ray luminosity ∼2 × 10 33 erg s –1 at the assumed distance of 1.5 kpc.

  4. The X-ray mirror telescope and the pn-CCD detector of CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Kuster, M; Englhauser, J; Franz, J; Friedrich, P; Hartmann, R; Kang, D; Kotthaus, R; Lutz, Gerhard; Moralez, J; Serber, W; Strüder, L

    2004-01-01

    The Cern Axion Solar Telescope - CAST - uses a prototype 9 Tesla LHC superconducting dipole magnet to search for a hypothetical pseudoscalar particle, the axion, which was proposed by theory in the 1980s to solve the strong CP problem and which could be a dark matter candidate. In CAST a strong magnetic field is used to convert the solar axions to detectable photons via inverse Primakoff effect. The resulting X-rays are thermally distributed in the energy range of 1-7 keV and can be observed with conventional X-ray detectors. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a pn-CCD detector originally developed for XMM-Newton combined with a Wolter I type X-ray mirror system. The combination of a focusing X-ray optics and a state of the art pn-CCD detector which combines high quantum efficiency, good spacial and energy resolution, and low background improves the sensitivity of the CAST experiment such that for the first time the axion photon coupling constant can be probed beyond the best astrophysical constrai...

  5. X-Ray Variability Characteristics of the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 3783

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, A.

    2005-12-01

    We have characterized the energy-dependent X-ray variability properties of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3783 using archival XMM-Newton and Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer data. The high-frequency fluctuation power spectral density function (PSD) slope is consistent with flattening toward higher energies. Light-curve cross-correlation functions yield no significant lags, but peak coefficients generally decrease as energy separation of the bands increases on both short and long timescales. We have measured the coherence between various X-ray bands over the temporal frequency range of 6×10-8-1×10-4 Hz; this range includes the temporal frequency of the low-frequency PSD break tentatively detected by Markowitz et al. and includes the lowest temporal frequency over which coherence has been measured in any active galactic nucleus to date. Coherence is generally near unity at these temporal frequencies, although it decreases slightly as energy separation of the bands increases. Temporal frequency-dependent phase lags are detected on short timescales; phase lags are consistent with increasing as energy separation increases or as temporal frequency decreases. All of these results are similar to those obtained previously for several Seyfert galaxies and stellar mass black hole systems. Qualitatively, these results are consistent with the variability models of Kotov et al. and Lyubarskii, wherein the X-ray variability is due to inwardly propagating variations in the local mass accretion rate.

  6. DETECTION OF X-RAYS FROM THE SYMBIOTIC STAR V1329 Cyg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stute, Matthias; Luna, Gerardo J. M.; Sokoloski, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    We report the detection of X-ray emission from the symbiotic star V1329 Cyg with XMM-Newton. The spectrum from the EPIC pn, MOS1, and MOS2 instruments consists of a two-temperature plasma with k T 1 = 0.11 +0.02 -0.02 keV and k T 2 = 0.93 +0.12 -0.14 keV. Unlike the vast majority of symbiotic stars detected in X-rays, the soft component of the spectrum seems to be absorbed only by interstellar material. The shock velocities corresponding to the observed temperatures are about 300 km s -1 and about 900 km s -1 . We did not find either periodic or aperiodic X-ray variability, with upper limits on the amplitudes of such variations being 46% and 16% (rms), respectively. We also did not find any ultraviolet variability with an rms amplitude of more than approximately 1%. The derived velocities and the unabsorbed nature of the soft component of the X-ray spectrum suggest that some portion of the high energy emission could originate in shocks within a jet and beyond the symbiotic nebula. The lower velocity is consistent with the expansion velocity of the extended structure present in Hubble Space Telescope observations. The higher velocity could be associated with an internal shock at the base of the jet or with shocks in the accretion region.

  7. Revising the lower statistical limit of x-ray grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschner, Mathias; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Willner, Marian; Chabior, Michael; Herzen, Julia; Noël, Peter B; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2017-01-01

    Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography (PCCT) is currently investigated as an interesting extension of conventional CT, providing high soft-tissue contrast even if examining weakly absorbing specimen. Until now, the potential for dose reduction was thought to be limited compared to attenuation CT, since meaningful phase retrieval fails for scans with very low photon counts when using the conventional phase retrieval method via phase stepping. In this work, we examine the statistical behaviour of the reverse projection method, an alternative phase retrieval approach and compare the results to the conventional phase retrieval technique. We investigate the noise levels in the projections as well as the image quality and quantitative accuracy of the reconstructed tomographic volumes. The results of our study show that this method performs better in a low-dose scenario than the conventional phase retrieval approach, resulting in lower noise levels, enhanced image quality and more accurate quantitative values. Overall, we demonstrate that the lower statistical limit of the phase stepping procedure as proposed by recent literature does not apply to this alternative phase retrieval technique. However, further development is necessary to overcome experimental challenges posed by this method which would enable mainstream or even clinical application of PCCT.

  8. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed x-ray exams and use a very small dose of ... of the inside of the chest. A chest x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and ...

  9. AGNs with discordant optical and X-ray classification are not a physical family: diverse origin in two AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordovás-Pascual, I.; Mateos, S.; Carrera, F. J.; Wiersema, K.; Barcons, X.; Braito, V.; Caccianiga, A.; Del Moro, A.; Della Ceca, R.; Severgnini, P.

    2017-07-01

    Approximately 3-17 per cent of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) without detected rest-frame UV/optical broad emission lines (type-2 AGN) do not show absorption in X-rays. The physical origin behind the apparently discordant optical/X-ray properties is not fully understood. Our study aims at providing insight into this issue by conducting a detailed analysis of the nuclear dust extinction and X-ray absorption properties of two AGNs with low X-ray absorption and with high optical extinction, for which a rich set of high-quality spectroscopic data is available from XMM-Newton archive data in X-rays and XSHOOTER proprietary data at UV-to-NIR wavelengths. In order to unveil the apparent mismatch, we have determined the AV/NH and both the supermassive black hole and the host galaxy masses. We find that the mismatch is caused in one case by an abnormally high dust-to-gas ratio that makes the UV/optical emission to appear more obscured than in the X-rays. For the other object, we find that the dust-to-gas ratio is similar to the Galactic one but the AGN is hosted by a very massive galaxy so that the broad emission lines and the nuclear continuum are swamped by the star light and difficult to detect.

  10. Contrasting Behaviour from Two Be/X-ray Binary Pulsars: Insights into Differing Neutron Star Accretion Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, L. J.; Drave, S. P.; Hill, A. B.; Coe, M. J.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Bird, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present the identification of two periodic X-ray signals coming from the direction of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). On detection with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), the 175.4 s and 85.4 s pulsations were considered to originate from new Be/X-ray binary (BeXRB) pulsars with unknown locations. Using rapid follow-up INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton observations, we show the first pulsar (designated SXP175) to be coincident with a candidate high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) in the northern bar region of the SMC undergoing a small Type II outburst. The orbital period (87d) and spectral class (B0-B0.5IIIe) of this system are determined and presented here for the first time. The second pulsar is shown not to be new at all, but is consistent with being SXP91.1 - a pulsar discovered at the very beginning of the 13 year long RXTE key monitoring programme of the SMC. Whilst it is theoretically possible for accreting neutron stars to change spin period so dramatically over such a short time, the X-ray and optical data available for this source suggest this spin-up is continuous during long phases of X-ray quiescence, where accretion driven spin-up of the neutron star should be minimal.

  11. X-ray sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, M.; Koubsky, P.

    1977-01-01

    The history is described of the discoveries of X-ray sources in the sky. The individual X-ray detectors are described in more detail, i.e., gas counters, scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors, and the principles of X-ray spectrometry and of radiation collimation aimed at increased resolution are discussed. Currently, over 200 celestial X-ray sources are known. Some were identified as nebulae, in some pulsations were found or the source was identified as a binary star. X-ray bursts of novae were also observed. The X-ray radiation is briefly mentioned of spherical star clusters and of extragalactic X-ray sources. (Oy)

  12. A Link Between X-ray Emission Lines and Radio Jets in 4U 1630-47?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilsen, Joseph; Coriat, Mickaël; Fender, Rob; Lee, Julia C.; Ponti, Gabriele; Tzioumis, A.; Edwards, Phillip; Broderick, Jess

    2014-06-01

    Recently, Díaz Trigo et al. reported an XMM-Newton detection of relativistically Doppler-shifted emission lines associated with steep-spectrum radio emission in the stellar-mass black hole candidate 4U 1630-47 during its 2012 outburst. They interpreted these lines as indicative of a baryonic jet launched by the accretion disk. We present a search for the same lines earlier in the same outburst using high-resolution X-ray spectra from the Chandra HETGS. While our observations (eight months prior to the XMM-Newton campaign) also coincide with detections of steep spectrum radio emission by the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we find a strong disk wind but no evidence for any relativistic X-ray emission lines. Indeed, despite ˜5× brighter radio emission, our Chandra spectra allow us to place an upper limit on the flux in the blueshifted Fe XXVI line that is ˜20× weaker than the line observed by Díaz Trigo et al. Thus we can conclusively say that radio emission is not universally associated with relativistically Doppler-shifted emission lines in 4U 1630-47. We explore several scenarios that could explain our differing results, including variations in the geometry of the jet or a mass-loading process or jet baryon content that evolves with the accretion state of the black hole. We also consider the possibility that the radio emission arises in an interaction between a jet and the nearby ISM, in which case the X-ray emission lines might be unrelated to the radio emission.

  13. SUZAKU OBSERVATION OF STRONG FLUORESCENT IRON LINE EMISSION FROM THE YOUNG STELLAR OBJECT V1647 ORI DURING ITS NEW X-RAY OUTBURST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Grosso, Nicolas; Kastner, Joel H.; Richmond, Michael; Weintraub, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The Suzaku X-ray satellite observed the young stellar object (YSO) V1647 Ori on 2008 October 8 during the new mass accretion outburst reported in 2008 August. During the 87 ks observation with a net exposure of 40 ks, V1647 Ori showed a high level of X-ray emission with a gradual decrease in flux by a factor of 5 and then displayed an abrupt flux increase by an order of magnitude. Such enhanced X-ray variability was also seen in XMM-Newton observations in 2004 and 2005 during the 2003-2005 outburst, but has rarely been observed for other YSOs. The spectrum clearly displays emission from Helium-like iron, which is a signature of hot plasma (kT ∼ 5 keV). It also shows a fluorescent iron Kα line with a remarkably large equivalent width (EW) of ∼600 eV. Such a large EW suggests that a part of the incident X-ray emission that irradiates the circumstellar material and/or the stellar surface is hidden from our line of sight. XMM-Newton spectra during the 2003-2005 outburst did not show a strong fluorescent iron Kα line, so that the structure of the circumstellar gas very close to the stellar core that absorbs and re-emits X-ray emission from the central object may have changed in between 2005 and 2008. This phenomenon may be related to changes in the infrared morphology of McNeil's nebula between 2004 and 2008.

  14. Laboratory Calibration of X-ray Velocimeters for Radiation Driven Winds and Outflows Surrounding X-ray Binaries and Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Graf, A.; Hell, N.; Liedahl, D.; Magee, E. W.; Träbert, E.; Beilmann, C.; Bernitt, S.; Crespo-Lopez-Urritiua, J.; Eberle, S.; Kubicek, K.; Mäckel, V.; Rudolph, J.; Steinbrügge, R.; Ullrich, J.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leutenegger, M.; Porter, F. S.; Rasmussen, A.; Simon, M.; Epp, S.

    2011-09-01

    High resolution measurements of X-ray absorption and fluorescence by radiation driven winds and outflows surrounding X-ray binaries and AGN provide a powerful means for measuring wind velocities. The accuracy of these X-ray velocimeters is limited by the accuracy of atomic data. For example, in the case of the high mass X-ray binary Vela X-1 the uncertainty in the calculated transition wavelengths of the K alpha lines produced by photoionization and photoexcitation of Si L-shell ions is comparable to the likely Doppler shifts, making it impossible to determine a reliable velocity. Similar problems also exist in the case of absorption of X-rays by M-shell Fe ions, which produces in some AGN the so-called unresolved transition array across the 15-17 angstrom band. In this case, there is a 15-45 milliangstrom variation among different wavelength calculations. The uncertainty in the calculations makes it impossible to reliably determine the true velocity structure of the outflow, and in turn, prevents a reliable determination of the mass-loss rate of the AGN. We present results of a recent series of laboratory experiments conducted using an electron beam ion trap coupled with the LCLS X-ray free electron laser and the BESSY-II synchrotron and designed to calibrate the velocimeters provided by high resolution instruments on Chandra and XMM-Newton. We also present results of resonant photoexcitation measurements of the transition wavelength of an Fe XVI satellite line 'coincident' with the 2p-3d Fe XVII line 3D at 15.26 angstroms. This line has never been resolved using emission spectroscopy and its measurement confirms the intensity of line 3D is sensitive to the relative abundance of Fe XVI and XVII and thus temperature. Work at LLNL was performed under the auspices of DOE under contract DE-AC53-07NA27344 and supported by NASA's APRA program.

  15. X-ray Discovery Points to Location of Missing Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Using observations with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and ESA's XMM-Newton, astronomers have announced a robust detection of a vast reservoir of intergalactic gas about 400 million light years from Earth. This discovery is the strongest evidence yet that the "missing matter" in the nearby Universe is located in an enormous web of hot, diffuse gas. This missing matter — which is different from dark matter -- is composed of baryons, the particles, such as protons and neutrons, that are found on the Earth, in stars, gas, galaxies, and so on. A variety of measurements of distant gas clouds and galaxies have provided a good estimate of the amount of this "normal matter" present when the universe was only a few billion years old. However, an inventory of the much older, nearby universe has turned up only about half as much normal matter, an embarrassingly large shortfall. The mystery then is where does this missing matter reside in the nearby Universe? This latest work supports predictions that it is mostly found in a web of hot, diffuse gas known as the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM). Scientists think the WHIM is material left over after the formation of galaxies, which was later enriched by elements blown out of galaxies. "Evidence for the WHIM is really difficult to find because this stuff is so diffuse and easy to see right through," said Taotao Fang of the University of California at Irvine and lead author of the latest study. "This differs from many areas of astronomy where we struggle to see through obscuring material." To look for the WHIM, the researchers examined X-ray observations of a rapidly growing supermassive black hole known as an active galactic nucleus, or AGN. This AGN, which is about two billion light years away, generates immense amounts of X-ray light as it pulls matter inwards. Lying along the line of sight to this AGN, at a distance of about 400 million light years, is the so-called Sculptor Wall. This "wall", which is a large diffuse

  16. The X-Ray Weakness of GPS Radio Galaxies: A Volume-Limited Complete Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor); Siemiginowska, Aneta (Principal Investigator)

    2004-01-01

    The XMM observations of Mkn 668 have been analyzed. We found soft X-ray signatures of a hot plasma (kT approximately 10^7 approximately K) and a hard X-ray emission from the nucleus. The X-ray spectrum above 2.5 approximately keV is characterized by a very flat (observed photon index, Gamma approximately 0.5) power-law continuum, alongside with a strong Fe-K-alpha neutral iron fluorescent line (EW approximately 600 approximately eV). The best explanation for the origin of this high energy X-ray emission is in terms of the Compton-reflection of the nuclear emission. The primary X-ray emission is obscured by a Compton-thick (N_H approximately 10^24 approximately cm-2) matter which becomes transparent at higher energies. The observed above 2.5-keV X-rays are mostly due to reflection which is indicated by a strong Fe-K-alpha line. This represents the second hard X-ray detection of the GPS galaxy ever (the first one being 1345+125; O Dea et al. 2000). Interestingly, the both such trend is confirmed by our on going XMM-Newton observations of a larger GPS sample, it would lead us to looking into the question on how the dense nuclear environment impacts the nature and evolution of a GPS source, and more generally, on the history of radio power in the universe. The paper summarizing the results has been submitted to Astronomy and Astrophysics in December 2003.

  17. LoCuSS: The infall of X-ray groups onto massive clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, C. P.; Finoguenov, A.; Smith, G. P.; Babul, A.; Egami, E.; Mazzotta, P.; Okabe, N.; Pereira, M. J.; Bianconi, M.; McGee, S. L.; Ziparo, F.; Campusano, L. E.; Loyola, C.

    2018-03-01

    Galaxy clusters are expected to form hierarchically in a ΛCDM universe, growing primarily through mergers with lower mass clusters and the continual accretion of group-mass halos. Galaxy clusters assemble late, doubling their masses since z ˜ 0.5, and so the outer regions of clusters should be replete with accreting group-mass systems. We present an XMM-Newton survey to search for X-ray groups in the infall regions of 23 massive galaxy clusters ( ˜ 1015 M⊙) at z ˜ 0.2, identifying 39 X-ray groups that have been spectroscopically confirmed to lie at the cluster redshift. These groups have mass estimates in the range 2 × 1013 - 7 × 1014 M⊙, and group-to-cluster mass ratios as low as 0.02. The comoving number density of X-ray groups in the infall regions is ˜25 × higher than that seen for isolated X-ray groups from the XXL survey. The average mass per cluster contained within these X-ray groups is 2.2 × 1014 M⊙, or 19 ± 5% of the mass within the primary cluster itself. We estimate that ˜1015 M⊙ clusters increase their masses by 16 ± 4% between z = 0.223 and the present day due to the accretion of groups with M200 ≥ 1013.2 M⊙. This represents about half of the expected mass growth rate of clusters at these late epochs. The other half is likely to come from smooth accretion of matter not bound within halos. The mass function of the infalling X-ray groups appears significantly top heavy with respect to that of "field" X-ray systems, consistent with expectations from numerical simulations, and the basic consequences of collapsed massive dark matter halos being biased tracers of the underlying large-scale density distribution.

  18. PRIMUS: INFRARED AND X-RAY AGN SELECTION TECHNIQUES AT 0.2 < z < 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, Alexander J.; Coil, Alison L.; Aird, James; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Department of Physics, University of California, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Moustakas, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Blanton, Michael R. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Cool, Richard J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard College Observatory, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wong, Kenneth C. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Zhu Guangtun [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    We present a study of Spitzer/IRAC and X-ray active galactic nucleus (AGN) selection techniques in order to quantify the overlap, uniqueness, contamination, and completeness of each. We investigate how the overlap and possible contamination of the samples depend on the depth of both the IR and X-ray data. We use Spitzer/IRAC imaging, Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray imaging, and spectroscopic redshifts from the PRism MUlti-object Survey to construct galaxy and AGN samples at 0.2 < z < 1.2 over 8 deg{sup 2}. We construct samples over a wide range of IRAC flux limits (SWIRE to GOODS depth) and X-ray flux limits (10 ks to 2 Ms). We compare IR-AGN samples defined using both the IRAC color selection of Stern et al. and Donley et al. with X-ray-detected AGN samples. For roughly similar depth IR and X-ray surveys, we find that {approx}75% of IR-selected AGNs are also identified as X-ray AGNs. This fraction increases to {approx}90% when comparing against the deepest X-ray data, indicating that at most {approx}10% of IR-selected AGNs may be heavily obscured. The IR-AGN selection proposed by Stern et al. suffers from contamination by star-forming galaxies at various redshifts when using deeper IR data, though the selection technique works well for shallow IR data. While similar overall, the IR-AGN samples preferentially contain more luminous AGNs, while the X-ray AGN samples identify a wider range of AGN accretion rates including low specific accretion rate AGNs, where the host galaxy light dominates at IR wavelengths. The host galaxy populations of the IR and X-ray AGN samples have similar rest-frame colors and stellar masses; both selections identify AGNs in blue, star-forming and red, quiescent galaxies.

  19. NEW X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE GEMINGA PULSAR WIND NEBULA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, George G.; Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Zavlin, Vyacheslav E.

    2010-01-01

    Previous observations of the middle-aged pulsar Geminga with XMM-Newton and Chandra have shown an unusual pulsar wind nebula (PWN), with a 20'' long central (axial) tail directed opposite to the pulsar's proper motion and two 2' long, bent lateral (outer) tails. Here, we report on a deeper Chandra observation (78 ks exposure) and a few additional XMM-Newton observations of the Geminga PWN. The new Chandra observation has shown that the axial tail, which includes up to three brighter blobs, extends at least 50'' (i.e., 0.06d 250 pc) from the pulsar (d 250 is the distance scaled to 250 pc). It also allowed us to image the patchy outer tails and the emission in the immediate vicinity of the pulsar with high resolution. The PWN luminosity, L 0.3-8 k eV ∼ 3 x 10 29 d 2 250 erg s -1 , is lower than the pulsar's magnetospheric luminosity by a factor of 10. The spectra of the PWN elements are rather hard (photon index Γ ∼ 1). Comparing the two Chandra images, we found evidence of PWN variability, including possible motion of the blobs along the axial tail. The X-ray PWN is the synchrotron radiation from relativistic particles of the pulsar wind (PW); its morphology is connected with the supersonic motion of Geminga. We speculate that the outer tails are either a sky projection of the limb-brightened boundary of a shell formed in the region of contact discontinuity, where the wind bulk flow is decelerated by shear instability, or polar outflows from the pulsar bent by the ram pressure from the interstellar medium. In the former case, the axial tail may be a jet emanating along the pulsar's spin axis, perhaps aligned with the direction of motion. In the latter case, the axial tail may be the shocked PW collimated by ram pressure.

  20. X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF BOW SHOCKS AROUND RUNAWAY O STARS. THE CASE OF ζ OPH AND BD+43°3654

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toalá, J. A.; Guerrero, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, IAA-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Oskinova, L. M.; González-Galán, A. [Institute for Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Ignace, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States); Pohl, M., E-mail: toala@iaa.es [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (ASIAA), Taipei 10617,Taiwan (China)

    2016-04-20

    Non-thermal radiation has been predicted within bow shocks around runaway stars by recent theoretical works. We present X-ray observations toward the runaway stars ζ Oph by Chandra and Suzaku and of BD+43°3654 by XMM-Newton to search for the presence of non-thermal X-ray emission. We found no evidence of non-thermal emission spatially coincident with the bow shocks; nonetheless, diffuse emission was detected in the vicinity of ζ Oph. After a careful analysis of its spectral characteristics, we conclude that this emission has a thermal nature with a plasma temperature of T ≈ 2 × 10{sup 6} K. The cometary shape of this emission seems to be in line with recent predictions of radiation-hydrodynamic models of runaway stars. The case of BD+43°3654 is puzzling, as non-thermal emission has been reported in a previous work for this source.

  1. X-ray monitoring of the radio and γ-ray loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy PKS2004–447

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreikenbohm A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present preliminary results of the X-ray analysis of XMM-Newton and Swift observations as part of a multi-wavelength monitoring campaign in 2012 of the radio-loud narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy PKS 2004–447. The source was recently detected in γ-rays by Fermi/LAT among only four other galaxies of that type. The 0:5 – 10 keV X-ray spectrum is well-described by a simple absorbed powerlaw (Γ ∼ 1.6. The source brightness exhibits variability on timescales of months to years with indications for spectral variability, which follows a “bluer-when-brighter” behaviour, similar to blazars.

  2. PROPERTIES OF THE 24 DAY MODULATION IN GX 13+1 FROM NEAR-INFRARED AND X-RAY OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbet, Robin H. D.; Pearlman, Aaron B.; Buxton, Michelle; Levine, Alan M.

    2010-01-01

    A 24 day period for the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) GX 13+1 was previously proposed on the basis of seven years of RXTE All-Sky Monitor (ASM) observations and it was suggested that this was the orbital period of the system. This would make it one of the longest known orbital periods for a Galactic LMXB powered by Roche lobe overflow. We present here the results of (1) K-band photometry obtained with the SMARTS Consortium CTIO 1.3 m telescope on 68 nights over a 10 month interval; (2) continued monitoring with the RXTE ASM, analyzed using a semi-weighted power spectrum instead of the data filtering technique previously used; and (3) Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) hard X-ray observations. Modulation near 24 days is seen in both the K band and additional statistically independent ASM X-ray observations. However, the modulation in the ASM is not strictly periodic. The periodicity is also not detected in the Swift BAT observations, but modulation at the same relative level as seen with the ASM cannot be ruled out. If the 24 day period is the orbital period of system, this implies that the X-ray modulation is caused by structure that is not fixed in location. A possible mechanism for the X-ray modulation is the dipping behavior recently reported from XMM-Newton observations.

  3. Steep Hard-X-ray Spectra Indicate Extremely High Accretion Rates in Weak Emission-Line Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlar, Andrea; Shemmer, Ohad; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. Niel; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan, Xiaohui; Luo, Bin; Plotkin, Richard; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Wu, Jianfeng

    2018-06-01

    We present XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy of ten weak emission-line quasars (WLQs) at 0.928 ≤ z ≤ 3.767, six of which are radio quiet and four which are radio intermediate. The new X-ray data enabled us to measure the hard-X-ray power-law photon index (Γ) in each source with relatively high accuracy. These measurements allowed us to confirm previous reports that WLQs have steeper X-ray spectra, therefore indicating higher accretion rates with respect to "typical" quasars. A comparison between the Γ values of our radio-quiet WLQs and those of a carefully-selected, uniform sample of 84 quasars shows that the first are significantly higher, at the ≥ 3σ level. Collectively, the four radio-intermediate WLQs have lower Γ values with respect to the six radio-quiet WLQs, as may be expected if the spectra of the first group are contaminated by X-ray emission from a jet. These results suggest that, in the absence of significant jet emission along our line of sight, WLQs constitute the extreme high end of the accretion rate distribution in quasars. We detect soft excess emission in our lowest-redshift radio-quiet WLQ, in agreement with previous findings suggesting that the prominence of this feature is associated with a high accretion rate. We have not detected signatures of Compton reflection, Fe Kα lines, or strong variability between two X-ray epochs in any of our WLQs.

  4. The simulated spectrum of the OGRE X-ray EM-CCD camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M.; Soman, M.; Holland, A.; Lumb, D.; Tutt, J.; McEntaffer, R.; Schultz, T.; Holland, K.

    2017-12-01

    The X-ray astronomical telescopes in use today, such as Chandra and XMM-Newton, use X-ray grating spectrometers to probe the high energy physics of the Universe. These instruments typically use reflective optics for focussing onto gratings that disperse incident X-rays across a detector, often a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD). The X-ray energy is determined from the position that it was detected on the CCD. Improved technology for the next generation of X-ray grating spectrometers has been developed and will be tested on a sounding rocket experiment known as the Off-plane Grating Rocket Experiment (OGRE). OGRE aims to capture the highest resolution soft X-ray spectrum of Capella, a well-known astronomical X-ray source, during an observation period lasting between 3 and 6 minutes whilst proving the performance and suitability of three key components. These three components consist of a telescope made from silicon mirrors, gold coated silicon X-ray diffraction gratings and a camera that comprises of four Electron-Multiplying (EM)-CCDs that will be arranged to observe the soft X-rays dispersed by the gratings. EM-CCDs have an architecture similar to standard CCDs, with the addition of an EM gain register where the electron signal is amplified so that the effective signal-to-noise ratio of the imager is improved. The devices also have incredibly favourable Quantum Efficiency values for detecting soft X-ray photons. On OGRE, this improved detector performance allows for easier identification of low energy X-rays and fast readouts due to the amplified signal charge making readout noise almost negligible. A simulation that applies the OGRE instrument performance to the Capella soft X-ray spectrum has been developed that allows the distribution of X-rays onto the EM-CCDs to be predicted. A proposed optical model is also discussed which would enable the missions minimum success criteria's photon count requirement to have a high chance of being met with the shortest possible

  5. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a ... posted: How to Obtain and Share ...

  6. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey Rubin, a radiologist ... about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot org. Thank you for your time! Spotlight Recently posted: ...

  7. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sell, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    A diagnostic x-ray device, readily convertible between conventional radiographic and tomographic operating modes, is described. An improved drive system interconnects and drives the x-ray source and the imaging device through coordinated movements for tomography

  8. X-ray - skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003381.htm X-ray - skeleton To use the sharing features on this ... Degenerative bone conditions Osteomyelitis Risks There is low radiation exposure. X-rays machines are set to provide the smallest ...

  9. AN X-RAY INVESTIGATION OF THREE SUPERNOVA REMNANTS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimek, Matthew D.; Points, S. D.; Smith, R. C.; Shelton, R. L.; Williams, R.

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated three supernova remnants (SNRs) in the LMC using multi-wavelength data. These SNRs are generally fainter than the known sample (see Section 4) and may represent a previously missed population. One of our SNRs is the second LMC remnant analyzed which is larger than any Galactic remnant for which a definite size has been established. The analysis of such a large remnant contributes to the understanding of the population of highly evolved SNRs. We have obtained X-ray images and spectra of three of these recently identified SNRs using the XMM-Newton observatory. These data, in conjunction with pre-existing optical emission-line images and spectra, were used to determine the physical conditions of the optical- and X-ray-emitting gas in the SNRs. We have compared the morphologies of the SNRs in the different wavebands. The physical properties of the warm ionized shell were determined from the Hα surface brightness and the SNR expansion velocity. The X-ray spectra were fit with a thermal plasma model and the physical conditions of the hot gas were derived from the model fits. Finally, we have compared our observations with simulations of SNR evolution.

  10. THE X-RAY POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY FUNCTION OF THE SEYFERT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS NGC 7469

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowitz, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the broadband X-ray power spectral density (PSD) function of the X-ray-luminous Seyfert 1.2 NGC 7469, measured from Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer monitoring data and two XMM-Newton observations. We find significant evidence for a turnover in the 2-10 keV PSD at a temporal frequency of 2.0 +3.0 -0.8 x 10 -6 Hz or 1.0 +3.0 -0.6 x 10 -6 Hz, depending on the exact form of the break (sharply broken or slowly bending power law, respectively). The 'surrogate' Monte Carlo method of Press et al. was used to map out the probability distributions of PSD model parameters and obtain reliable uncertainties (68% confidence limits quoted here). The corresponding break timescale of 5.8 ± 3.5 days or 11.6 +17.5 -8.7 days, respectively, is consistent with the empirical relation between PSD break timescale, black hole mass, and bolometric luminosity of McHardy et al. Compared to the 2-10 keV PSD, the 10-20 keV PSD has a much flatter shape at high temporal frequencies, and no PSD break is significantly detected, suggesting an energy-dependent evolution not unlike that exhibited by several Galactic black hole systems.

  11. A DETAILED X-RAY INVESTIGATION OF PSR J2021+4026 AND THE γ-CYGNI SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, C. Y.; Seo, K. A. [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lin, L. C. C.; Huang, R. H. H.; Wu, J. H. K.; Kong, A. K. H. [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Hu, C. P.; Chou, Y. [Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China); Trepl, L. [Astrophysikalisches Institut und Universitäts-Sternwarte, Universität Jena, Schillergäßchen 2-3, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Takata, J.; Wang, Y.; Cheng, K. S., E-mail: cyhui@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

    2015-01-20

    We have investigated the field around the radio-quiet γ-ray pulsar, PSR J2021+4026, with a ∼140 ks XMM-Newton observation and ∼56 ks archival Chandra data. Through analyzing the pulsed spectrum, we show that the X-ray pulsation is purely thermal in nature, which suggests that the pulsation originated from a hot polar cap with T ∼ 3 × 10{sup 6} K on the surface of a rotating neutron star. On the other hand, the power-law (PL) component that dominates the pulsar emission in the hard band is originated from off-pulse phases, which possibly comes from a pulsar wind nebula. In re-analyzing the Chandra data, we have confirmed the presence of a bow-shock nebula that extends from the pulsar to the west by ∼10 arcsec. The orientation of this nebular feature suggests that the pulsar is probably moving eastward, which is consistent with the speculated proper motion by extrapolating from the nominal geometrical center of the supernova remnant (SNR) G78.2+2.1 to the current pulsar position. For G78.2+2.1, our deep XMM-Newton observation also enables a study of the central region and part of the southeastern region with superior photon statistics. The column absorption derived for the SNR is comparable to that for PSR J2021+4026, which supports their association. The remnant emission in both of the examined regions is in a non-equilibrium ionization state. Also, the elapsed time of both regions after shock-heating is apparently shorter than the Sedov age of G78.2+2.1. This might suggest that the reverse shock has reached the center not long ago. Apart from PSR J2021+4026 and G78.2+2.1, we have also serendipitously detected an X-ray flash-like event, XMM J202154.7+402855, from this XMM-Newton observation.

  12. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I’d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most ... far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot org. Thank you for your time! ...

  13. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed ...

  14. Toward the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background: Evolution of X-ray luminosity and absorption functions of active galactic nuclei including Compton-thick populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Yoshihiro [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Akiyama, Masayuki [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Hasinger, Günther [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive Honolulu, HI 96822-1839 (United States); Miyaji, Takamitsu [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Watson, Michael G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-10

    We present the most up to date X-ray luminosity function (XLF) and absorption function of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over the redshift range from 0 to 5, utilizing the largest, highly complete sample ever available obtained from surveys performed with Swift/BAT, MAXI, ASCA, XMM-Newton, Chandra, and ROSAT. The combined sample, including that of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey, consists of 4039 detections in the soft (0.5-2 keV) and/or hard (>2 keV) band. We utilize a maximum likelihood method to reproduce the count rate versus redshift distribution for each survey, by taking into account the evolution of the absorbed fraction, the contribution from Compton-thick (CTK) AGNs, and broadband spectra of AGNs, including reflection components from tori based on the luminosity- and redshift-dependent unified scheme. We find that the shape of the XLF at z ∼ 1-3 is significantly different from that in the local universe, for which the luminosity-dependent density evolution model gives much better description than the luminosity and density evolution model. These results establish the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background (XRB), which well reproduces the source counts, the observed fractions of CTK AGNs, and the spectrum of the hard XRB. The number ratio of CTK AGNs to the absorbed Compton-thin (CTN) AGNs is constrained to be ≈0.5-1.6 to produce the 20-50 keV XRB intensity within present uncertainties, by assuming that they follow the same evolution as CTN AGNs. The growth history of supermassive black holes is discussed based on the new AGN bolometric luminosity function.

  15. Anatomy of the AGN in NGC 5548. IX. Photoionized emission features in the soft X-ray spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Junjie; Kaastra, J. S.; Mehdipour, M.; Gu, Liyi; Costantini, E.; Kriss, G. A.; Bianchi, S.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Behar, E.; Di Gesu, L.; Ponti, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Ebrero, J.

    2018-04-01

    The X-ray narrow emission line region (NELR) of the archetypal Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 has been interpreted as a single-phase photoionized plasma that is absorbed by some of the warm absorber components. This scenario requires those overlaying warm absorber components to have larger distance (to the central engine) than the X-ray NELR, which is not fully consistent with the distance estimates found in the literature. Therefore, we reanalyze the high-resolution spectra obtained in 2013-2014 with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) aboard XMM-Newton to provide an alternative interpretation of the X-ray narrow emission features. We find that the X-ray narrow emission features in NGC 5548 can be described by a two-phase photoionized plasma with different ionization parameters (logξ = 1.3 and 0.1) and kinematics (vout = -50 and -400 km s-1), and no further absorption by the warm absorber components. The X-ray and optical NELR might be the same multi-phase photoionized plasma. Both X-ray and optical NELR have comparable distances, asymmetric line profiles, and the underlying photoionized plasma is turbulent and compact in size. The X-ray NELR is not the counterpart of the UV/X-ray absorber outside the line of sight because their distances and kinematics are not consistent. In addition, X-ray broad emission features that we find in the spectrum can be accounted for by a third photoionized emission component. The RGS spectrum obtained in 2016 is analyzed as well, where the luminosity of most prominent emission lines (the O VII forbidden line and O VIII Lyα line) are the same (at a 1σ confidence level) as in 2013-2014.

  16. X-ray-bright optically faint active galactic nuclei in the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam wide survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Yuichi; Suganuma, Makoto; Akiyama, Masayuki; Greene, Jenny E.; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Nagao, Tohru; Noda, Hirofumi; Toba, Yoshiki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Takuji

    2018-01-01

    We construct a sample of X-ray-bright optically faint active galactic nuclei by combining Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam, XMM-Newton, and infrared source catalogs. Fifty-three X-ray sources satisfying i-band magnitude fainter than 23.5 mag and X-ray counts with the EPIC-PN detector larger than 70 are selected from 9.1 deg2, and their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and X-ray spectra are analyzed. Forty-four objects with an X-ray to i-band flux ratio FX/Fi > 10 are classified as extreme X-ray-to-optical flux sources. Spectral energy distributions of 48 among 53 are represented by templates of type 2 AGNs or star-forming galaxies and show the optical signature of stellar emission from host galaxies in the source rest frame. Infrared/optical SEDs indicate a significant contribution of emission from dust to the infrared fluxes, and that the central AGN is dust obscured. The photometric redshifts determined from the SEDs are in the range of 0.6-2.5. The X-ray spectra are fitted by an absorbed power-law model, and the intrinsic absorption column densities are modest (best-fit log NH = 20.5-23.5 cm-2 in most cases). The absorption-corrected X-ray luminosities are in the range of 6 × 1042-2 × 1045 erg s-1. Twenty objects are classified as type 2 quasars based on X-ray luminsosity and NH. The optical faintness is explained by a combination of redshifts (mostly z > 1.0), strong dust extinction, and in part a large ratio of dust/gas.

  17. Matching microlensing events with X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartore, N.; Treves, A.

    2012-03-01

    Aims: The detection of old neutron stars and stellar mass black holes in isolation is one of the most sought after goals of compact object astrophysics. Microlensing surveys may help in achieving this aim because the lensing mechanism is independent of the emission properties of the lens. Several black hole candidates have indeed been detected by means of microlensing observations have been reported in the literature. The identification of counterparts, especially in the X-rays, would be a strong argument in favor of the compact nature of these lenses. Methods: We perform a cross-correlation between the catalogs of microlensing events produced by the OGLE, MACHO, and MOA teams, and those of X-rays sources from the data acquired by the XMM-Newton and Chandra satellites. On the basis of our previous work, we select only microlensing events with durations longer than one hundred days, which should contain a large fraction of lenses as compact objects. Our matching criterion takes into account the positional coincidence on the sky. Results: We find a single match between a microlensing event, OGLE-2004-BLG-081 (tE ~ 103 days), and the X-ray source 2XMM J180540.5-273427. The angular separation is ~0.5 arcsec, i.e. well within the 90% error box of the X-ray source. The hardness ratios reported in the 2XMM catalog imply that it has a hard spectrum with a peak between 2 keV and 4.5 keV or it has a softer but highly absorbed spectrum. Moreover, the microlensing event is not fully constrained, and other authors propose a possible association of the source star with either a flaring cataclysmic variable or a RS Canum Venaticorum-like star. Conclusions: The very small angular separation (within uncertainties) is a strong indicator that 2XMM J180540.5-273427 is the X-ray counterpart of the OGLE event. However, the uncertainties in the nature of both the lensed system and the lens itself challenge the interpretation of 2XMM J180540.5-273427 as the first confirmed isolated black

  18. Jupiter's X-ray Auroral Pulsations and Spectra During Juno Perijove 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, W.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Ray, L. C.; Jackman, C. M.; Kraft, R.; Gladstone, R.; Yao, Z.; Rae, J.; Gray, R.; Elsner, R.; Grodent, D. C.; Nichols, J. D.; Ford, P. G.; Ness, J. U.; Kammer, J.; Rodriguez, P.

    2017-12-01

    Jupiter's X-ray aurora is concentrated into a bright and dynamic hot spot that is produced by precipitating 10 MeV ions [Gladstone et al. 2002; Elsner et al. 2005; Branduardi-Raymont et al. 2007]. These highly energetic emissions exhibit pulsations over timescales of 10s of minutes and change morphology, intensity and precipitating particle populations from observation to observation and pole to pole [e.g. Dunn et al. 2016; in-press]. The acceleration process/es that allow Jupiter to produce these high-energy ion charge exchange emissions are not well understood, but are concentrated in the most poleward regions of the aurora, where field lines map to the outer magnetosphere and possibly beyond [Vogt et al. 2015; Kimura et al. 2016]. On July 11th 2017, NASA's Juno spacecraft conducted its 7th perijove flyby of Jupiter and is predicted to have flown directly through field lines that map to the Northern and Southern X-ray hot spots. During this unique flight, the XMM-Newton observatory conducted 40 hours of continuous time-tagged X-ray observations. We present the results from these X-ray observations, showing that Jupiter's X-ray aurora varies significantly from one planetary rotation to the next and that the spectral signatures, indicative of the precipitating ion and electron populations producing the emission, also vary. We measure the Doppler broadening of the spectral lines to calculate the ion energies at the point when they impact the ionosphere, in order that these might be compared with in-situ data to constrain Jovian auroral acceleration processes. Finally, we compare X-ray signatures from the last decade of observations with UV polar emissions at similar times to further enrich multi-wavelength connections and deepen our understanding of how Jupiter is able to generate its highly energetic polar auroral precipitations.

  19. Analysis of the charge collection process in solid state X-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmel, Nils

    2009-02-12

    Physics with X-rays spans from observing large scales in X-ray astronomy down to small scales in material structure analyses with synchrotron radiation. Both fields of research require imaging detectors featuring spectroscopic resolution for X-rays in an energy range of 0.1 keV to 20.0 keV. Originally driven by the need for an imaging spectrometer on ESA's X-ray astronomy satellite mission XMM-Newton, X-ray pnCCDs were developed at the semiconductor laboratory of the Max-Planck-Institute. The pnCCD is a pixel array detector made of silicon. It is sensitive over a wide band from near infrared- over optical- and UV-radiation up to X-rays. This thesis describes the dynamics of signal electrons from the moment after their generation until their collection in the potential minima of the pixel structure. Experimentally, a pinhole array was used to scan the pnCCD surface with high spatial resolution. Numerical simulations were used as a tool for the modeling of the electrical conditions inside the pnCCD. The results predicted by the simulations were compared with the measurements. Both, experiment and simulation, helped to establish a model for the signal charge dynamics in the energy range from 0.7 keV to 5.5 keV. More generally, the presented work has enhanced the understanding of the detector system on the basis of a physical model. The developed experimental and theoretical methods can be applied to any type of array detector which is based on the full depletion of a semiconductor substrate material. (orig.)

  20. A HARD X-RAY POWER-LAW SPECTRAL CUTOFF IN CENTAURUS X-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Nowak, Michael A. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Grefenstette, Brian W.; Fürst, Felix; Harrison, Fiona A.; Rana, Vikram [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Psaltis, Dimitrios [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier [Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Christensen, Finn E. [Division of Astrophysics, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Kaspi, Victoria M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, PQ H3A 2T8 (Canada); Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wik, Daniel R.; Zhang, William W. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wilms, Jörn, E-mail: deepto@mit.edu [Dr. Karl-Remeis-Sternwarte and Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, D-96049 Bamberg (Germany)

    2014-12-20

    The low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Cen X-4 is the brightest and closest (<1.2 kpc) quiescent neutron star transient. Previous 0.5-10 keV X-ray observations of Cen X-4 in quiescence identified two spectral components: soft thermal emission from the neutron star atmosphere and a hard power-law tail of unknown origin. We report here on a simultaneous observation of Cen X-4 with NuSTAR (3-79 keV) and XMM-Newton (0.3-10 keV) in 2013 January, providing the first sensitive hard X-ray spectrum of a quiescent neutron star transient. The 0.3-79 keV luminosity was 1.1×10{sup 33} D{sub kpc}{sup 2} erg s{sup –1}, with ≅60% in the thermal component. We clearly detect a cutoff of the hard spectral tail above 10 keV, the first time such a feature has been detected in this source class. We show that thermal Comptonization and synchrotron shock origins for the hard X-ray emission are ruled out on physical grounds. However, the hard X-ray spectrum is well fit by a thermal bremsstrahlung model with kT{sub e} = 18 keV, which can be understood as arising either in a hot layer above the neutron star atmosphere or in a radiatively inefficient accretion flow. The power-law cutoff energy may be set by the degree of Compton cooling of the bremsstrahlung electrons by thermal seed photons from the neutron star surface. Lower thermal luminosities should lead to higher (possibly undetectable) cutoff energies. We compare Cen X-4's behavior with PSR J1023+0038, IGR J18245–2452, and XSS J12270–4859, which have shown transitions between LMXB and radio pulsar modes at a similar X-ray luminosity.

  1. A Non-thermal Pulsed X-Ray Emission of AR Scorpii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, J.; Hu, C.-P.; Lin, L. C. C.; Tam, P. H. T.; Pal, P. S.; Hui, C. Y.; Kong, A. K. H.; Cheng, K. S.

    2018-02-01

    We report the analysis result of UV/X-ray emission from AR Scorpii, which is an intermediate polar (IP) composed of a magnetic white dwarf and an M-type star, with the XMM-Newton data. The X-ray/UV emission clearly shows a large variation over the orbit, and their intensity maximum (or minimum) is located at the superior conjunction (or inferior conjunction) of the M star orbit. The hardness ratio of the X-ray emission shows a small variation over the orbital phase and shows no indication of the absorption by an accretion column. These properties are naturally explained by the emission from the M star surface rather than that from the accretion column on the white dwarf’s (WD) star, which is similar to usual IPs. Additionally, the observed X-ray emission also modulates with the WD’s spin with a pulse fraction of ∼14%. The peak position is aligned in the optical/UV/X-ray band. This supports the hypothesis that the electrons in AR Scorpii are accelerated to a relativistic speed and emit non-thermal photons via the synchrotron radiation. In the X-ray bands, evidence of the power-law spectrum is found in the pulsed component, although the observed emission is dominated by the optically thin thermal plasma emissions with several different temperatures. It is considered that the magnetic dissipation/reconnection process on the M star surface heats up the plasma to a temperature of several keV and also accelerates the electrons to the relativistic speed. The relativistic electrons are trapped in the WD’s closed magnetic field lines by the magnetic mirror effect. In this model, the observed pulsed component is explained by the emissions from the first magnetic mirror point.

  2. Analysis of the charge collection process in solid state X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, Nils

    2009-01-01

    Physics with X-rays spans from observing large scales in X-ray astronomy down to small scales in material structure analyses with synchrotron radiation. Both fields of research require imaging detectors featuring spectroscopic resolution for X-rays in an energy range of 0.1 keV to 20.0 keV. Originally driven by the need for an imaging spectrometer on ESA's X-ray astronomy satellite mission XMM-Newton, X-ray pnCCDs were developed at the semiconductor laboratory of the Max-Planck-Institute. The pnCCD is a pixel array detector made of silicon. It is sensitive over a wide band from near infrared- over optical- and UV-radiation up to X-rays. This thesis describes the dynamics of signal electrons from the moment after their generation until their collection in the potential minima of the pixel structure. Experimentally, a pinhole array was used to scan the pnCCD surface with high spatial resolution. Numerical simulations were used as a tool for the modeling of the electrical conditions inside the pnCCD. The results predicted by the simulations were compared with the measurements. Both, experiment and simulation, helped to establish a model for the signal charge dynamics in the energy range from 0.7 keV to 5.5 keV. More generally, the presented work has enhanced the understanding of the detector system on the basis of a physical model. The developed experimental and theoretical methods can be applied to any type of array detector which is based on the full depletion of a semiconductor substrate material. (orig.)

  3. Broadband X-Ray Spectral Analysis of the Double-nucleus Luminous Infrared Galaxy Mrk 463

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Satoshi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Oda, Saeko; Tanimoto, Atsushi; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Terashima, Yuichi; Ricci, Claudio

    2018-05-01

    We present a broadband (0.4–70 keV) X-ray spectral analysis of the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) system Mrk 463 observed with Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), Chandra, and XMM-Newton, which contains double active galactic nuclei (AGNs; Mrk 463E and Mrk 463W) with a separation of ∼3.8 kpc. Detecting their transmitted hard X-ray >10 keV continua with NuSTAR, we confirm that Mrk 463E and Mrk 463W have AGNs with intrinsic luminosities of (1.6–2.2) × 1043 and (0.5–0.6) × 1043 erg s‑1 (2–10 keV) obscured by hydrogen column densities of 8 × 1023 and 3 × 1023 cm‑2, respectively. Both nuclei show strong reflection components from cold matter. The luminosity ratio between X-ray (2–10 keV) and [O IV] 25.89 μm of Mrk 463E is ∼5 times smaller than those of normal Seyfert galaxies, suggesting that the intrinsic SED is X-ray weak relative to the UV luminosity. In fact, the bolometric AGN luminosity of Mrk 463E estimated from L‧-band (3.8 μm), [O IV] 25.89 μm, and [Ne V] 14.32 μm lines indicate a large bolometric-to-X-ray luminosity ratio, κ 2–10 keV ≈ 110–410, and a high Eddington ratio, λ Edd ∼ 0.4–0.8. We suggest that the merger triggered a rapid growth of the black hole in Mrk 463E, which is not yet deeply “buried” by circumnuclear dust. By contrast, the L‧-band luminosity of Mrk 463W is unusually small relative to the X-ray luminosity, suggesting that the Eddington ratio is low (activity.

  4. Flash X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Generation of quasi-monochromatic X-ray by production of weakly ionized line plasma (flash X-ray), high-speed imaging by the X-ray and high-contrast imaging by the characteristic X-ray absorption are described. The equipment for the X-ray is consisted from the high-voltage power supply and condenser, turbo molecular pump, and plasma X-ray tube. The tube has a long linear anticathode to produce the line plasma and flash X-ray at 20 kA current at maximum. X-ray spectrum is measured by the imaging plate equipped in the computed radiography system after diffracted by a LiF single crystal bender. Cu anticathode generates sharp peaks of K X-ray series. The tissue images are presented for vertebra, rabbit ear and heart, and dog heart by X-ray fluoroscopy with Ce anticathode. Generation of K-orbit characteristic X-ray with extremely low bremsstrahung is to be attempted for medical use. (N.I.)

  5. X-ray sources associated with young stellar objects in the star formation region CMa R1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, Thais; Gregorio-Hetem, Jane; Montmerle, Thierry

    2013-07-01

    In previous works we studied the star formation scenario in the molecular cloud Canis Major R1 (CMa R1), derived from the existence of young stellar population groups near the Be stars Z CMa and GU CMa. Using data from the ROSAT X-ray satellite, having a field-of-view of ~ 1° in diameter, Gregorio-Hetem et al. (2009) discovered in this region young stellar objects mainly grouped in two clusters of different ages, with others located in between. In order to investigate the nature of these objects and to test a possible scenario of sequential star formation in this region, four fields (each 30 arcmin diameter, with some overlap) have been observed with the XMM-Newton satellite, with a sensitivity about 10 times better than ROSAT. The XMM-Newton data are currently under analysis. Preliminary results indicate the presence of about 324 sources, most of them apparently having one or more near-infrared counterparts showing typical colors of young stars. The youth of the X-ray sources was also confirmed by X-ray hardness ratio diagrams (XHRD), in different energy bands, giving an estimate of their Lx/Lbol ratios. In addition to these results, we present a detailed study of the XMM field covering the cluster near Z CMa. Several of these sources were classified as T Tauri and Herbig Ae/Be stars, using optical spectroscopy obtained with Gemini telescopes, in order to validate the use of XHRD applied to the entire sample. This classification is also used to confirm the relation between the luminosities in the near-infrared and X-ray bands expected for the T Tauri stars in CMa R1. In the present work we show the results of the study based on the spectra of about 90 sources found nearby Z CMa. We checked that the X-ray spectra (0.3 to 10 keV) of young objects is different from that observed in field stars and extragalactic objects. Some of the candidates also have light curve showing flares that are typical of T Tauri stars, which confirms the young nature of these X-ray

  6. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culhane, J.L.; Sanford, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray astronomy has been established as a powerful means of observing matter in its most extreme form. The energy liberated by sources discovered in our Galaxy has confirmed that collapsed stars of great density, and with intense gravitational fields, can be studied by making observations in the X-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The astronomical objects which emit detectable X-rays include our own Sun and extend to quasars at the edge of the Universe. This book describes the history, techniques and results obtained in the first twenty-five years of exploration. Space rockets and satellites are essential for carrying the instruments above the Earth's atmosphere where it becomes possible to view the X-rays from stars and nebulae. The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: the birth of X-ray astronomy; the nature of X-radiation; X-rays from the Sun; solar-flare X-rays; X-rays from beyond the solar system; supernovae and their remnants; X-rays from binary stars; white dwarfs and neutron stars; black holes; X-rays from galaxies and quasars; clusters of galaxies; the observatories of the future. (author)

  7. A POPULATION OF X-RAY WEAK QUASARS: PHL 1811 ANALOGS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jianfeng; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Hall, Patrick B.; Gibson, Robert R.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Richards, Gordon T.; Shemmer, Ohad; Just, Dennis W.

    2011-01-01

    We report the results from Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of a sample of 10 type 1 quasars selected to have unusual UV emission-line properties (weak and blueshifted high-ionization lines; strong UV Fe emission) similar to those of PHL 1811, a confirmed intrinsically X-ray weak quasar. These quasars were identified by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey at high redshift (z ∼ 2.2); eight are radio quiet while two are radio intermediate. All of the radio-quiet PHL 1811 analogs, without exception, are notably X-ray weak by a mean factor of ∼13. These sources lack broad absorption lines and have blue UV/optical continua, supporting the hypothesis that they are intrinsically X-ray weak like PHL 1811 itself. However, their average X-ray spectrum appears to be harder than those of typical quasars, which may indicate the presence of heavy intrinsic X-ray absorption. Our sample of radio-quiet PHL 1811 analogs supports a connection between an X-ray weak spectral energy distribution and PHL 1811-like UV emission lines; this connection provides an economical way to identify X-ray weak type 1 quasars. The fraction of radio-quiet PHL 1811 analogs in the radio-quiet quasar population is estimated to be ∼< 1.2%. We have investigated correlations between relative X-ray brightness and UV emission-line properties (e.g., C IV equivalent width and blueshift) for a sample combining our radio-quiet PHL 1811 analogs, PHL 1811 itself, and typical type 1 quasars. These correlation analyses suggest that PHL 1811 analogs may have extreme wind-dominated broad emission-line regions. Observationally, the radio-quiet PHL 1811 analogs appear to be a subset (∼30%) of radio-quiet weak-line quasars (WLQs). The existence of a subset of quasars in which high-ionization 'shielding gas' covers most of the broad emission-line region (BELR), but little more than the BELR, could potentially unify the PHL 1811 analogs and WLQs. The two radio-intermediate PHL 1811 analogs are X-ray bright. X-ray

  8. IGR J17329-2731: The birth of a symbiotic X-ray binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzo, E.; Bahramian, A.; Ferrigno, C.; Sanna, A.; Strader, J.; Lewis, F.; Russell, D. M.; di Salvo, T.; Burderi, L.; Riggio, A.; Papitto, A.; Gandhi, P.; Romano, P.

    2018-05-01

    We report on the results of the multiwavelength campaign carried out after the discovery of the INTEGRAL transient IGR J17329-2731. The optical data collected with the SOAR telescope allowed us to identify the donor star in this system as a late M giant at a distance of 2.7-1.2+3.4 kpc. The data collected quasi-simultaneously with XMM-Newton and NuSTAR showed the presence of a modulation with a period of 6680 ± 3 s in the X-ray light curves of the source. This unveils that the compact object hosted in this system is a slowly rotating neutron star. The broadband X-ray spectrum showed the presence of a strong absorption (≫1023 cm-2) and prominent emission lines at 6.4 keV, and 7.1 keV. These features are usually found in wind-fed systems, in which the emission lines result from the fluorescence of the X-rays from the accreting compact object on the surrounding stellar wind. The presence of a strong absorption line around 21 keV in the spectrum suggests a cyclotron origin, thus allowing us to estimate the neutron star magnetic field as 2.4 × 1012 G. All evidencethus suggests IGR J17329-2731 is a symbiotic X-ray binary. As no X-ray emission was ever observed from the location of IGR J17329-2731 by INTEGRAL (or other X-ray facilities) during the past 15 yr in orbit and considering that symbiotic X-ray binaries are known to be variable but persistent X-ray sources, we concluded that INTEGRAL caught the first detectable X-ray emission from IGR J17329-2731 when the source shined as a symbiotic X-ray binary. The Swift XRT monitoring performed up to 3 months after the discovery of the source, showed that it maintained a relatively stable X-ray flux and spectral properties.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: X-ray line ratios for diverse ion collisions (Mullen+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, P. D.; Cumbee, R. S.; Lyons, D.; Gu, L.; Kaastra, J.; Shelton, R. L.; Stancil, P. C.

    2018-03-01

    Charge exchange (CX) has emerged in X-ray emission modeling as a significant process that must be considered in many astrophysical environments- particularly comets. Comets host an interaction between solar wind ions and cometary neutrals to promote solar wind charge exchange (SWCX). X-ray observatories provide astronomers and astrophysicists with data for many X-ray emitting comets that are impossible to accurately model without reliable CX data. Here, we utilize a streamlined set of computer programs that incorporate the multi-channel Landau-Zener theory and a cascade model for X-ray emission to generate cross sections and X-ray line ratios for a variety of bare and non-bare ion single electron capture (SEC) collisions. Namely, we consider collisions between the solar wind constituent bare and H-like ions of C, N, O, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, and Si and the cometary neutrals H2O, CO, CO2, OH, and O. To exemplify the application of this data, we model the X-ray emission of Comet C/2000 WM1 (linear) using the CX package in SPEX and find excellent agreement with observations made with the XMM-Newton RGS detector. Our analyses show that the X-ray intensity is dominated by SWCX with H, while H2O plays a secondary role. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that CX cross sections have been implemented into a X-ray spectral fitting package to determine the H to H2O ratio in cometary atmospheres. The CX data sets are incorporated into the modeling packages SPEX and Kronos. (1 data file).

  10. RADIO-QUIET AND RADIO-LOUD PULSARS: SIMILAR IN GAMMA-RAYS BUT DIFFERENT IN X-RAYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marelli, M.; Mignani, R. P.; Luca, A. De; Salvetti, D. [INAF—Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133, Milano (Italy); Parkinson, P. M. Saz [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Hartog, P. R. Den [Stanford University HEPL/KIPAC, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Wolff, M. T., E-mail: marelli@iasf-milano.inaf.it [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    We present new Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of a sample of eight radio-quiet (RQ) γ-ray pulsars detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. For all eight pulsars we identify the X-ray counterpart, based on the X-ray source localization and the best position obtained from γ-ray pulsar timing. For PSR J2030+4415 we found evidence for a ∼10″-long pulsar wind nebula. Our new results consolidate the work from Marelli et al. and confirm that, on average, the γ-ray-to-X-ray flux ratios (F{sub γ}/F{sub X}) of RQ pulsars are higher than for the radio-loud (RL) ones. Furthermore, while the F{sub γ}/F{sub X} distribution features a single peak for the RQ pulsars, the distribution is more dispersed for the RL ones, possibly showing two peaks. We discuss possible implications of these different distributions based on current models for pulsar X-ray emission.

  11. NuSTAR Search for Hard X-ray Emission from the Star Formation Regions in Sh2-104

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthelf, Eric V.

    2016-04-01

    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of Sh2-104, a compact Hii region containing several young massive stellar clusters (YMSCs). We have detected distinct hard X-ray sources coincident with localized VERITAS TeV emission recently resolved from the giant gamma-ray complex MGRO J2019+37 in the Cygnus region. Faint, diffuse X-ray emission coincident with the eastern YMSC in Sh2-104 is likely the result of colliding winds of component stars. Just outside the radio shell of Sh2-104 lies 3XMM J201744.7+365045 and nearby nebula NuSTAR J201744.3+364812, whose properties are most consistent with extragalactic objects. The combined XMM-Newton and NuSTAR spectrum of 3XMM J201744.7+365045 is well-fit to an absorbed power-law model with NH = (3.1+/-1.0)E22 1/cm^2 and photon index Gamma = 2.1+/-0.1. Based on possible long-term flux variation and lack of detected pulsations (Sh2-104 will help identify the nature of the X-ray sources and their relation to MGRO J2019+37.

  12. Modelling the effect of absorption from the interstellar medium on transient black hole X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckersall, A. J.; Vaughan, S.; Wynn, G. A.

    2017-10-01

    All observations of Galactic X-ray binaries are affected by absorption from gas and dust in the interstellar medium (ISM) which imprints narrow (line) and broad (photoelectric edges) features on the continuum emission spectrum of the binary. Any spectral model used to fit data from a Galactic X-ray binary must therefore take account of these features; when the absorption is strong (as for most Galactic sources) it becomes important to accurately model the ISM absorption in order to obtain unbiased estimates of the parameters of the (emission) spectrum of the binary system. In this paper, we present analysis of some of the best spectroscopic data from the XMM-Newton RGS instrument using the most up-to-date photoabsorption model of the gaseous ISM ISMabs. We calculate column densities for H, O, Ne and Fe for seven transient black hole X-ray binary systems. We find that the hydrogen column densities in particular can vary greatly from those presented elsewhere in the literature. We assess the impact of using inaccurate column densities and older X-ray absorption models on spectral analysis using simulated data. We find that poor treatment of absorption can lead to large biases in inferred disc properties and that an independent analysis of absorption parameters can be used to alleviate such issues.

  13. X-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faigel, G.; Tegze, M.; Belakhovsky, M.; Marchesini, S.; Bortel, G.

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade holographic methods using hard X-rays were developed. They are able to resolve atomic distances, and can give the 3D arrangement of atoms around a selected element. Therefore, hard X-ray holography has potential applications in chemistry, biology and physics. In this article we give a general description of these methods and discuss the developments in the experimental technique. The capabilities of hard X-ray holography are demonstrated by examples

  14. X-ray spectral variability of Seyfert 2 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-García, L.; Masegosa, J.; González-Martín, O.; Márquez, I.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Variability across the electromagnetic spectrum is a property of active galactic nuclei (AGN) that can help constrain the physical properties of these galaxies. Nonetheless, the way in which the changes happen and whether they occur in the same way in every AGN are still open questions. Aims: This is the third in a series of papers with the aim of studying the X-ray variability of different families of AGN. The main purpose of this work is to investigate the variability pattern(s) in a sample of optically selected Seyfert 2 galaxies. Methods: We use the 26 Seyfert 2s in the Véron-Cetty and Véron catalog with data available from Chandra and/or XMM-Newton public archives at different epochs, with timescales ranging from a few hours to years. All the spectra of the same source were simultaneously fitted, and we let different parameters vary in the model. Whenever possible, short-term variations from the analysis of the light curves and/or long-term UV flux variations were studied. We divided the sample into Compton-thick and Compton-thin candidates to account for the degree of obscuration. When transitions between Compton-thick and thin were obtained for different observations of the same source, we classified it as a changing-look candidate. Results: Short-term variability at X-rays was studied in ten cases, but variations are not found. From the 25 analyzed sources, 11 show long-term variations. Eight (out of 11) are Compton-thin, one (out of 12) is Compton-thick, and the two changing-look candidates are also variable. The main driver for the X-ray changes is related to the nuclear power (nine cases), while variations at soft energies or related to absorbers at hard X-rays are less common, and in many cases these variations are accompanied by variations in the nuclear continuum. At UV frequencies, only NGC 5194 (out of six sources) is variable, but the changes are not related to the nucleus. We report two changing-look candidates, MARK 273 and NGC 7319

  15. Providing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides an apparatus for providing x-rays to an object that may be in an ordinary environment such as air at approximately atmospheric pressure. The apparatus comprises: means (typically a laser beam) for directing energy onto a target to produce x-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity at the target; a fluid-tight enclosure around the target; means for maintaining the pressure in the first enclosure substantially below atmospheric pressure; a fluid-tight second enclosure adjoining the first enclosure, the common wall portion having an opening large enough to permit x-rays to pass through but small enough to allow the pressure reducing means to evacuate gas from the first enclosure at least as fast as it enters through the opening; the second enclosure filled with a gas that is highly transparent to x-rays; the wall of the second enclosure to which the x-rays travel having a portion that is highly transparent to x-rays (usually a beryllium or plastic foil), so that the object to which the x-rays are to be provided may be located outside the second enclosure and adjacent thereto and thus receive the x-rays substantially unimpeded by air or other intervening matter. The apparatus is particularly suited to obtaining EXAFS (extended x-ray fine structure spectroscopy) data on a material

  16. Heavy X-ray obscuration in the most luminous galaxies discovered by WISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vito, F.; Brandt, W. N.; Stern, D.; Assef, R. J.; Chen, C.-T. J.; Brightman, M.; Comastri, A.; Eisenhardt, P.; Garmire, G. P.; Hickox, R.; Lansbury, G.; Tsai, C.-W.; Walton, D. J.; Wu, J. W.

    2018-03-01

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) are hyperluminous (L8-1000 μm > 1013 L⊙) infrared galaxies with extremely high (up to hundreds of K) dust temperatures. The sources powering both their extremely high luminosities and dust temperatures are thought to be deeply buried and rapidly accreting supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Hot DOGs could therefore represent a key evolutionary phase in which the SMBH growth peaks. X-ray observations can be used to study their obscuration levels and luminosities. In this work, we present the X-ray properties of the 20 most luminous (Lbol ≳ 1014 L⊙) known hot DOGs at z = 2-4.6. Five of them are covered by long-exposure (10-70 ks) Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, with three being X-ray detected, and we study their individual properties. One of these sources (W0116-0505) is a Compton-thick candidate, with column density NH = (1.0-1.5) × 1024 cm-2 derived from X-ray spectral fitting. The remaining 15 hot DOGs have been targeted by a Chandra snapshot (3.1 ks) survey. None of these 15 are individually detected; therefore, we applied a stacking analysis to investigate their average emission. From hardness ratio analysis, we constrained the average obscuring column density and intrinsic luminosity to be log NH (cm-2) > 23.5 and LX ≳ 1044 erg s-1, which are consistent with results for individually detected sources. We also investigated the LX-L6 μm and LX-Lbol relations, finding hints that hot DOGs are typically X-ray weaker than expected, although larger samples of luminous obscured quasi-stellar objects are needed to derive solid conclusions.

  17. Testing warm Comptonization models for the origin of the soft X-ray excess in AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, P.-O.; Ursini, F.; De Rosa, A.; Bianchi, S.; Cappi, M.; Matt, G.; Dadina, M.; Malzac, J.

    2018-03-01

    The X-ray spectra of many active galactic nuclei (AGNs) show a soft X-ray excess below 1-2 keV on top of the extrapolated high-energy power law. The origin of this component is uncertain. It could be a signature of relativistically blurred, ionized reflection or the high-energy tail of thermal Comptonization in a warm (kT 1 keV), optically thick (τ ≃ 10-20) corona producing the optical/UV to soft X-ray emission. The purpose of the present paper is to test the warm corona model on a statistically significant sample of unabsorbed, radio-quiet AGNs with XMM-Newton archival data, providing simultaneous optical/UV and X-ray coverage. The sample has 22 objects and 100 observations. We use two thermal Comptonization components to fit the broadband spectra, one for the warm corona emission and one for the high-energy continuum. In the optical/UV, we also include the reddening, the small blue bump, and the Galactic extinction. In the X-rays, we include a warm absorber and a neutral reflection. The model gives a good fit (reduced χ2 uniformly distributed in the 0.1-1 keV range, while the optical depth is in the range 10-40. These values are consistent with a warm corona covering a large fraction of a quasi-passive accretion disk, i.e., that mostly reprocesses the warm corona emission. The disk intrinsic emission represents no more than 20% of the disk total emission. According to this interpretation, most of the accretion power would be released in the upper layers of the accretion flow.

  18. Adaptive grazing incidence optics for the next generation of x-ray observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, C.; Pearson, D.; Plinta, A.; Metro, B.; Lintz, E.; Shropshire, D.; Danner, R.

    2010-09-01

    Advances in X-ray astronomy require high spatial resolution and large collecting area. Unfortunately, X-ray telescopes with grazing incidence mirrors require hundreds of concentric mirror pairs to obtain the necessary collecting area, and these mirrors must be thin shells packed tightly together... They must also be light enough to be placed in orbit with existing launch vehicles, and able to be fabricated by the thousands for an affordable cost. The current state of the art in X-ray observatories is represented by NASA's Chandra X-ray observatory with 0.5 arc-second resolution, but only 400 cm2 of collecting area, and by ESA's XMM-Newton observatory with 4,300 cm2 of collecting area but only 15 arc-second resolution. The joint NASA/ESA/JAXA International X-ray Observatory (IXO), with {15,000 cm2 of collecting area and 5 arc-second resolution which is currently in the early study phase, is pushing the limits of passive mirror technology. The Generation-X mission is one of the Advanced Strategic Mission Concepts that NASA is considering for development in the post-2020 period. As currently conceived, Gen-X would be a follow-on to IXO with a collecting area >= 50 m2, a 60-m focal length and 0.1 arc-second spatial resolution. Gen-X would be launched in {2030 with a heavy lift Launch Vehicle to an L2 orbit. Active figure control will be necessary to meet the challenging requirements of the Gen-X optics. In this paper we present our adaptive grazing incidence mirror design and the results from laboratory tests of a prototype mirror.

  19. Tidal disruption of stars by supermassive black holes: The X-ray view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komossa S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The tidal disruption of stars by supermassive black holes produces luminous soft X-ray accretion flares in otherwise inactive galaxies. First events have been discovered in X-rays with the ROSAT observatory, and have more recently been detected with XMM-Newton, Chandra and Swift, and at other wavelengths. In X-rays, they typically appear as very soft, exceptionally luminous outbursts of radiation, which decline consistent with L ∝ t−5/3 on the timescale of months to years. They reach total amplitudes of decline up to factors 1000–6000 more than a decade after their initial high-states, and in low-state, their host galaxies are essentially X-ray inactive, optically inactive, and radio inactive. X-ray luminous tidal disruption events (TDEs represent a powerful new probe of accretion physics near the event horizon, and of relativistic effects. TDEs offer a new way of estimating black hole spin, and they are signposts of supermassive binary black holes and recoiling black holes. Once discovered in the thousands in upcoming sky surveys, their rates will probe stellar dynamics in distant galaxies, and they will uncover the – so far elusive – population of intermediate mass black holes in the universe, if they do exist. Further, the reprocessing of the flare into IR, optical and UV emission lines provides us with multiple new diagnostics of the properties of any gaseous material in the vicinity of the black hole (including the disrupted star itself and in the host galaxy. First candidate events of this kind have been reported recently.

  20. Determining the nature of faint X-ray sources from the ASCA Galactic center survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutovinov, A. A.; Revnivtsev, M. G.; Karasev, D. I.; Shimansky, V. V.; Burenin, R. A.; Bikmaev, I. F.; Vorob'ev, V. S.; Tsygankov, S. S.; Pavlinsky, M. N.

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of the the identification of six objects from the ASCA Galactic center and Galactic plane surveys: AX J173548-3207, AX J173628-3141, AX J1739.5-2910, AX J1740.4-2856, AX J1740.5-2937, and AX J1743.9-2846. Chandra, XMM-Newton, and XRT/Swift X-ray data have been used to improve the positions of the optical counterparts to these sources. Thereafter, we have carried out a series of spectroscopic observations of the established optical counterparts at the RTT-150 telescope. Analysis of X-ray and optical spectra as well as photometric measurements in a wide wavelength range based on optical and infrared catalogs has allowed the nature of the program sources to be determined. Two X-ray objects have been detected in the error circle of AX J173628-3141: one is a coronally active G star and the other may be a symbiotic star, a red giant with an accreting white dwarf. Three sources (AX J1739.5-2910, AX J1740.5-2937, AX J1743.9-2846) have turned out to be active G-K stars, presumably RS CVn objects, one (AX J1740.4-2856) is an M dwarf, and another one (AX J173548-3207) most likely a low-mass X-ray binary in its low state. The distances and corresponding luminosities of the sources in the soft X-ray band (0.5-10 keV) have been estimated; analysis of deep INTEGRAL Galactic center observations has not revealed a statistically significant flux at energies >20 keV from any of them.

  1. Search for thermal X-ray features from the Crab nebula with the Hitomi soft X-ray spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitomi Collaboration; Aharonian, Felix; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Akimoto, Fumie; Allen, Steven W.; Angelini, Lorella; Audard, Marc; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Axelsson, Magnus; Bamba, Aya; Bautz, Marshall W.; Blandford, Roger; Brenneman, Laura W.; Brown, Gregory V.; Bulbul, Esra; Cackett, Edward M.; Chernyakova, Maria; Chiao, Meng P.; Coppi, Paolo S.; Costantini, Elisa; de Plaa, Jelle; de Vries, Cor P.; den Herder, Jan-Willem; Done, Chris; Dotani, Tadayasu; Ebisawa, Ken; Eckart, Megan E.; Enoto, Teruaki; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Fabian, Andrew C.; Ferrigno, Carlo; Foster, Adam R.; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Gallo, Luigi C.; Gandhi, Poshak; Giustini, Margherita; Goldwurm, Andrea; Gu, Liyi; Guainazzi, Matteo; Haba, Yoshito; Hagino, Kouichi; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Harrus, Ilana M.; Hatsukade, Isamu; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Hayashi, Takayuki; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Hiraga, Junko S.; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hoshino, Akio; Hughes, John P.; Ichinohe, Yuto; Iizuka, Ryo; Inoue, Hajime; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Ishida, Manabu; Ishikawa, Kumi; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Kaastra, Jelle; Kallman, Tim; Kamae, Tsuneyoshi; Kataoka, Jun; Katsuda, Satoru; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Kitaguchi, Takao; Kitamoto, Shunji; Kitayama, Tetsu; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Kokubun, Motohide; Koyama, Katsuji; Koyama, Shu; Kretschmar, Peter; Krimm, Hans A.; Kubota, Aya; Kunieda, Hideyo; Laurent, Philippe; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Limousin, Olivier; Loewenstein, Michael; Long, Knox S.; Lumb, David; Madejski, Greg; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Maier, Daniel; Makishima, Kazuo; Markevitch, Maxim; Matsumoto, Hironori; Matsushita, Kyoko; McCammon, Dan; McNamara, Brian R.; Mehdipour, Missagh; Miller, Eric D.; Miller, Jon M.; Mineshige, Shin; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Miyazawa, Takuya; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Mori, Hideyuki; Mori, Koji; Mukai, Koji; Murakami, Hiroshi; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Nakagawa, Takao; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Nakamori, Takeshi; Nakashima, Shinya; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Nobukawa, Kumiko K.; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Noda, Hirofumi; Odaka, Hirokazu; Ohashi, Takaya; Ohno, Masanori; Okajima, Takashi; Ota, Naomi; Ozaki, Masanobu; Paerels, Frits; Paltani, Stéphane; Petre, Robert; Pinto, Ciro; Porter, Frederick S.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Safi-Harb, Samar; Saito, Shinya; Sakai, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Toru; Sato, Goro; Sato, Kosuke; Sato, Rie; Sato, Toshiki; Sawada, Makoto; Schartel, Norbert; Serlemtsos, Peter J.; Seta, Hiromi; Shidatsu, Megumi; Simionescu, Aurora; Smith, Randall K.; Soong, Yang; Stawarz, Łukasz; Sugawara, Yasuharu; Sugita, Satoshi; Szymkowiak, Andrew; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Takei, Yoh; Tamagawa, Toru; Tamura, Takayuki; Tanaka, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yasuo; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Tashiro, Makoto S.; Tawara, Yuzuru; Terada, Yukikatsu; Terashima, Yuichi; Tombesi, Francesco; Tomida, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Yohko; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Uchiyama, Hideki; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Ueda, Shutaro; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Uno, Shin'ichiro; Urry, C. Megan; Ursino, Eugenio; Watanabe, Shin; Werner, Norbert; Wilkins, Dan R.; Williams, Brian J.; Yamada, Shinya; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Yamauchi, Makoto; Yamauchi, Shigeo; Yaqoob, Tahir; Yatsu, Yoichi; Yonetoku, Daisuke; Zhuravleva, Irina; Zoghbi, Abderahmen; Tominaga, Nozomu; Moriya, Takashi J.

    2018-03-01

    The Crab nebula originated from a core-collapse supernova (SN) explosion observed in 1054 AD. When viewed as a supernova remnant (SNR), it has an anomalously low observed ejecta mass and kinetic energy for an Fe-core-collapse SN. Intensive searches have been made for a massive shell that solves this discrepancy, but none has been detected. An alternative idea is that SN 1054 is an electron-capture (EC) explosion with a lower explosion energy by an order of magnitude than Fe-core-collapse SNe. X-ray imaging searches were performed for the plasma emission from the shell in the Crab outskirts to set a stringent upper limit on the X-ray emitting mass. However, the extreme brightness of the source hampers access to its vicinity. We thus employed spectroscopic technique using the X-ray micro-calorimeter on board the Hitomi satellite. By exploiting its superb energy resolution, we set an upper limit for emission or absorption features from as yet undetected thermal plasma in the 2-12 keV range. We also re-evaluated the existing Chandra and XMM-Newton data. By assembling these results, a new upper limit was obtained for the X-ray plasma mass of ≲ 1 M⊙ for a wide range of assumed shell radius, size, and plasma temperature values both in and out of collisional equilibrium. To compare with the observation, we further performed hydrodynamic simulations of the Crab SNR for two SN models (Fe-core versus EC) under two SN environments (uniform interstellar medium versus progenitor wind). We found that the observed mass limit can be compatible with both SN models if the SN environment has a low density of ≲ 0.03 cm-3 (Fe core) or ≲ 0.1 cm-3 (EC) for the uniform density, or a progenitor wind density somewhat less than that provided by a mass loss rate of 10-5 M⊙ yr-1 at 20 km s-1 for the wind environment.

  2. From EXOSAT to the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive (HEASARC): X-ray Astronomy Comes of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nicholas E.

    2012-01-01

    In May 1983 the European Space Agency launched EXOSAT, its first X-ray astronomy observatory. Even though it lasted only 3 short years, this mission brought not only new capabilities that resulted in unexpected discoveries, but also a pioneering approach to operations and archiving that changed X-ray astronomy from observations led by small instrument teams, to an observatory approach open to the entire community through a guest observer program. The community use of the observatory was supported by a small dedicated team of scientists, the precursor to the data center activities created to support e.g. Chandra and XMM-Newton. The new science capabilities of EX OS AT included a 90 hr highly eccentric high earth orbit that allow unprecedented continuous coverage of sources as well as direct communication with the satellite that allowed real time decisions to respond to unexpected events through targets of opportunity. The advantages of this orbit demonstrated by EXOSAT resulted in Chandra and XMM-Newton selecting similar orbits. The three instruments on board the EXOSAT observatory were complementary, designed to give complete coverage over a wide energy band pass of 0.05-50 keY. An onboard processor could be programmed to give multiple data modes that could be optimized in response to science discoveries: These new capabilities resulted in many new discoveries including the first comprehensive study of AGN variability, new orbital periods in X-ray binaries and cataclysmic variables, new black holes, quasi-periodic oscillations from neutron stars and black holes and broad band X-ray spectroscopy. The EXOSAT team generated a well-organized database accessible worldwide over the nascent internet, allowing remote selection of data products, making samples and undertaking surveys from the data. The HEASARC was established by NASA at Goddard Space Flight Center in 1990 as the repository of NASA X-ray and Gamma-ray data. The proven EXOSAT database system became the core

  3. CALIBRATION OF THE NuSTAR HIGH-ENERGY FOCUSING X-RAY TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, Kristin K.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Forster, Karl; Fuerst, Felix; Rana, Vikram; Walton, Dominic J. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Markwardt, Craig B. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); An, Hongjun [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Bachetti, Matteo [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Kitaguchi, Takao [RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Bhalerao, Varun [Inter-University Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Boggs, Steve; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektronvej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Perri, Matteo; Puccetti, Simonetta [ASI Science Data Center, via Galileo Galilei, I-00044, Frascati (Italy); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); and others

    2015-09-15

    We present the calibration of the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) X-ray satellite. We used the Crab as the primary effective area calibrator and constructed a piece-wise linear spline function to modify the vignetting response. The achieved residuals for all off-axis angles and energies, compared to the assumed spectrum, are typically better than ±2% up to 40 keV and 5%–10% above due to limited counting statistics. An empirical adjustment to the theoretical two-dimensional point-spread function (PSF) was found using several strong point sources, and no increase of the PSF half-power diameter has been observed since the beginning of the mission. We report on the detector gain calibration, good to 60 eV for all grades, and discuss the timing capabilities of the observatory, which has an absolute timing of ±3 ms. Finally, we present cross-calibration results from two campaigns between all the major concurrent X-ray observatories (Chandra, Swift, Suzaku, and XMM-Newton), conducted in 2012 and 2013 on the sources 3C 273 and PKS 2155-304, and show that the differences in measured flux is within ∼10% for all instruments with respect to NuSTAR.

  4. X-Ray Observations of Magnetar SGR 0501+4516 from Outburst to Quiescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mong, Y.-L.; Ng, C.-Y.

    2018-01-01

    Magnetars are neutron stars having extreme magnetic field strengths. Study of their emission properties in quiescent state can help understand effects of a strong magnetic field on neutron stars. SGR 0501+4516 is a magnetar that was discovered in 2008 during an outburst, which has recently returned to quiescence. We report its spectral and timing properties measured with new and archival observations from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku. We found that the quiescent spectrum is best fit by a power-law plus two blackbody model, with temperatures of kT low ∼ 0.26 keV and kT high ∼ 0.62 keV. We interpret these two blackbody components as emission from a hotspot and the entire surface. The hotspot radius shrunk from 1.4 km to 0.49 km since the outburst, and there was a significant correlation between its area and the X-ray luminosity, which agrees well with the prediction by the twisted magnetosphere model. We applied the two-temperature spectral model to all magnetars in quiescence and found that it could be a common feature among the population. Moreover, the temperature of the cooler blackbody shows a general trend with the magnetar field strength, which supports the simple scenario of heating by magnetic field decay.

  5. EXTraS: Exploring the X-ray Transient and variable Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, A.; Salvaterra, R.; Tiengo, A.; D'Agostino, D.; Watson, M.; Haberl, F.; Wilms, J.

    2017-10-01

    The EXTraS project extracted all temporal domain information buried in the whole database collected by the EPIC cameras onboard the XMM-Newton mission. This included a search and characterisation of variability, both periodic and aperiodic, in hundreds of thousands of sources spanning more than eight orders of magnitude in time scale and six orders of magnitude in flux, as well as a search for fast transients, missed by standard image analysis. Phenomenological classification of variable sources, based on X-ray and multiwavelength information, has also been performed. All results and products of EXTraS are made available to the scientific community through a web public data archive. A dedicated science gateway will allow scientists to apply EXTraS pipelines on new observations. EXTraS is the most comprehensive analysis of variability, on the largest ever sample of soft X-ray sources. The resulting archive and tools disclose an enormous scientific discovery space to the community, with applications ranging from the search for rare events to population studies, with impact on the study of virtually all astrophysical source classes. EXTraS, funded within the EU/FP7 framework, is carried out by a collaboration including INAF (Italy), IUSS (Italy), CNR/IMATI (Italy), University of Leicester (UK), MPE (Germany) and ECAP (Germany).

  6. DETECTING THE WARM-HOT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM THROUGH X-RAY ABSORPTION LINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yangsen; Shull, J. Michael; Cash, Webster; Wang, Q. Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) at temperatures 10 5 -10 7 K is believed to contain 30%-50% of the baryons in the local universe. However, all current X-ray detections of the WHIM at redshifts z > 0 are of low statistical significance (∼ Ovii ∼10 15 cm -2 (corresponding to an equivalent width of 2.5 mÅ for a Doppler velocity of 50 km s –1 ) at ∼> 3σ significance level. The simulation results also suggest that it would take >60 Ms for Chandra and 140 Ms for XMM-Newton to measure the N Ovii at ≥4σ from a spectrum of a background QSO with flux of ∼0.2 mCrab (1 Crab = 2 × 10 –8 erg s –1 cm –2 at 0.5-2 keV). Future X-ray spectrographs need to be equipped with spectral resolution R ∼ 4000 and effective area A ≥ 100 cm 2 to accomplish the similar constraints with an exposure time of ∼2 Ms and would require ∼11 Ms to survey the 15 QSOs with flux ∼> 0.2 mCrab along which clear intergalactic O VI absorbers have been detected.

  7. New technology and techniques for x-ray mirror calibration at PANTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyberg, Michael J.; Budau, Bernd; Burkert, Wolfgang; Friedrich, Peter; Hartner, Gisela; Misaki, Kazutami; Mühlegger, Martin

    2008-07-01

    The PANTER X-ray Test Facility has been utilized successfully for developing and calibrating X-ray astronomical instrumentation for observatories such as ROSAT, Chandra, XMM-Newton, Swift, etc. Future missions like eROSITA, SIMBOL-X, or XEUS require improved spatial resolution and broader energy band pass, both for optics and for cameras. Calibration campaigns at PANTER have made use of flight spare instrumentation for space applications; here we report on a new dedicated CCD camera for on-ground calibration, called TRoPIC. As the CCD is similar to ones used for eROSITA (pn-type, back-illuminated, 75 μm pixel size, frame store mode, 450 μm micron wafer thickness, etc.) it can serve as prototype for eROSITA camera development. New techniques enable and enhance the analysis of measurements of eROSITA shells or silicon pore optics. Specifically, we show how sub-pixel resolution can be utilized to improve spatial resolution and subsequently the characterization of of mirror shell quality and of point spread function parameters in particular, also relevant for position reconstruction of astronomical sources in orbit.

  8. Monte-Carlo background simulations of present and future detectors in x-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenzer, C.; Kendziorra, E.; Santangelo, A.

    2008-07-01

    Reaching a low-level and well understood internal instrumental background is crucial for the scientific performance of an X-ray detector and, therefore, a main objective of the instrument designers. Monte-Carlo simulations of the physics processes and interactions taking place in a space-based X-ray detector as a result of its orbital environment can be applied to explain the measured background of existing missions. They are thus an excellent tool to predict and optimize the background of future observatories. Weak points of a design and the main sources of the background can be identified and methods to reduce them can be implemented and studied within the simulations. Using the Geant4 Monte-Carlo toolkit, we have created a simulation environment for space-based detectors and we present results of such background simulations for XMM-Newton's EPIC pn-CCD camera. The environment is also currently used to estimate and optimize the background of the future instruments Simbol-X and eRosita.

  9. OBSERVATIONS OF THE HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARY A 0535+26 IN QUIESCENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothschild, Richard; Markowitz, Alex; Hemphill, Paul; Caballero, Isabel; Pottschmidt, Katja; Kühnel, Matthias; Wilms, Jörn; Fürst, Felix; Doroshenko, Victor; Camero-Arranz, Ascension

    2013-01-01

    We have analyzed three observations of the high-mass X-ray binary A 0535+26 performed by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) three, five, and six months after the last outburst in 2011 February. We detect pulsations only in the second observation. The 3-20 keV spectra can be fit equally well with either an absorbed power law or absorbed thermal bremsstrahlung model. Reanalysis of two earlier RXTE observations made 4 yr after the 1994 outburst, original BeppoSAX observations 2 yr later, reanalysis of four EXOSAT observations made 2 yr after the last 1984 outburst, and a recent XMM-Newton observation in 2012 reveal a stacked, quiescent flux level decreasing from ∼2 to –11 erg cm –2 s –1 over 6.5 yr after outburst. The detection of pulsations during half of the quiescent observations would imply that accretion onto the magnetic poles of the neutron star continues despite the fact that the circumstellar disk may no longer be present. The accretion could come from material built up at the corotation radius or from an isotropic stellar wind.

  10. OBSERVATIONS OF THE HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARY A 0535+26 IN QUIESCENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothschild, Richard; Markowitz, Alex; Hemphill, Paul [University of California, San Diego, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Caballero, Isabel [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SAp -UMR AIM (7158) CNRS/CEA/Universite P. Diderot, Orme des Merisiers, Bat. 709, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Pottschmidt, Katja [CRESST, UMBC, and NASA GSFC, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kuehnel, Matthias; Wilms, Joern [Dr. Karl-Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Sternwartstr. 7, D-96049 Bamberg (Germany); Fuerst, Felix [Space Radiation Lab, MC 290-17 Cahill, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Doroshenko, Victor [Institut fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Sand 1, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Camero-Arranz, Ascension, E-mail: rrothschild@ucsd.edu [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai, (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Fac. de Ciencies, Torre C5, parell, 2a planta, E-08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-06-10

    We have analyzed three observations of the high-mass X-ray binary A 0535+26 performed by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) three, five, and six months after the last outburst in 2011 February. We detect pulsations only in the second observation. The 3-20 keV spectra can be fit equally well with either an absorbed power law or absorbed thermal bremsstrahlung model. Reanalysis of two earlier RXTE observations made 4 yr after the 1994 outburst, original BeppoSAX observations 2 yr later, reanalysis of four EXOSAT observations made 2 yr after the last 1984 outburst, and a recent XMM-Newton observation in 2012 reveal a stacked, quiescent flux level decreasing from {approx}2 to <1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} over 6.5 yr after outburst. The detection of pulsations during half of the quiescent observations would imply that accretion onto the magnetic poles of the neutron star continues despite the fact that the circumstellar disk may no longer be present. The accretion could come from material built up at the corotation radius or from an isotropic stellar wind.

  11. Complex Structure of Galaxy Cluster Abell 1689: Evidence for a Merger from X-Ray Data?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K

    2004-01-29

    Abell 1689 is a galaxy cluster at z = 0:183 where previous measurements of its mass using various techniques gave discrepant results. We present a new detailed measurement of the mass with the data based on X-ray observations with the European Photon Imaging Camera aboard the XMM-Newton Observatory, determined by using an unparameterized deprojection technique. Fitting the total mass profile to a Navarro-Frenk-White model yields halo concentration c = 7.2{sub -2.4}{sup +1.6} and r{sub 200} = 1.13 {+-} 0.21 h{sup -1} Mpc, corresponding to a mass which is less than half of what is found from gravitational lensing. Adding to the evidence of substructure from optical observations, X-ray analysis shows a highly asymmetric temperature profile and a non-uniform redshift distribution implying large scale relative motion of the gas. A lower than expected gas mass fraction f{sub gas} = 0.072 {+-} 0.008 (for a flat {Lambda}CDM cosmology) suggests a complex spatial and/or dynamical structure. We also find no signs of any additional absorbing component previously reported on the basis of the Chandra data, confirming the XMM low energy response using data from ROSAT.

  12. X-RAY AND INFRARED OBSERVATIONS OF TWO EXTERNALLY POLLUTED WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jura, M.; Zuckerman, B.; Muno, M. P.; Farihi, J.

    2009-01-01

    With XMM-Newton and the Spitzer Space Telescope, we obtain upper bounds to the X-ray fluxes from G29-38 and GD 362, and the 70 μm flux from G29-38. These data provide indirect evidence that G29-38 is accreting from a tidally disrupted asteroid: it is neither accreting large amounts of hydrogen and helium nor is its surrounding dusty disk being replenished from a reservoir of cold grains experiencing Poynting-Robertson drag. The upper bound to the X-ray flux from GD 362 is consistent with the estimated rate of mass accretion required to explain its pollution by elements heavier than helium. GD 362 also possesses 0.01 M + of hydrogen, an anomalously large amount for a white dwarf with a helium-dominated atmosphere. One possibility is that before the current disk was formed, this hydrogen was accreted either from ∼100 Ceres-like asteroids or one large object. An alternative scenario which simultaneously explains all of GD 362's distinctive properties is that we are witnessing the consequences of the tidal destruction of a single parent body that had internal water and was at least as massive as Callisto and probably as massive as Mars.

  13. X-ray interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, A.

    1980-01-01

    An improved type of amplitude-division x-ray interferometer is described. The wavelength at which the interferometer can operate is variable, allowing the instrument to be used to measure x-ray wavelength, and the angle of inclination is variable for sample investigation. (U.K.)

  14. Extremity x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003461.htm Extremity x-ray To use the sharing features on this page, ... in the body Risks There is low-level radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the ...

  15. X-rays utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebigan, F.

    1979-03-01

    The modality of X-ray utilization in different activities and economy is given. One presents firstly quantities and units used in radiation dosimetry and other fields. One gives the generation of X-rays, their properties as well as the elements of radiation protection. The utilization characteristics of these radiations in different fields are finally given. (author)

  16. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x- ...

  17. Complex optical/UV and X-ray variability of the Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0419-577

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Main; Dewangan, Gulab C.; Kembhavi, Ajit K.; Misra, Ranjeev; Naik, Sachindra

    2018-01-01

    We present detailed broad-band UV/optical to X-ray spectral variability of the Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0419-577 using six XMM-Newton observations performed during 2002-2003. These observations covered a large amplitude variability event in which the soft X-ray (0.3-2 keV) count rate increased by a factor of ∼4 in six months. The X-ray spectra during the variability are well described by a model consisting of a primary power law, blurred and distant reflection. The 2-10 keV power-law flux varied by a factor of ∼7 while the 0.3-2 keV soft X-ray excess flux derived from the blurred reflection component varied only by a factor of ∼2. The variability event was also observed in the optical and UV bands but the variability amplitudes were only at the 6-10 per cent level. The variations in the optical and UV bands appear to follow the variations in the X-ray band. During the rising phase, the optical bands appear to lag behind the UV band but during the declining phase, the optical bands appear to lead the UV band. Such behaviour is not expected in the reprocessing models where the optical/UV emission is the result of reprocessing of X-ray emission in the accretion disc. The delayed contribution of the broad emission lines in the UV band or the changes in the accretion disc/corona geometry combined with X-ray reprocessing may give rise to the observed behaviour of the variations.

  18. X-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    X-rays diffracted from a well-ordered protein crystal create sharp patterns of scattered light on film. A computer can use these patterns to generate a model of a protein molecule. To analyze the selected crystal, an X-ray crystallographer shines X-rays through the crystal. Unlike a single dental X-ray, which produces a shadow image of a tooth, these X-rays have to be taken many times from different angles to produce a pattern from the scattered light, a map of the intensity of the X-rays after they diffract through the crystal. The X-rays bounce off the electron clouds that form the outer structure of each atom. A flawed crystal will yield a blurry pattern; a well-ordered protein crystal yields a series of sharp diffraction patterns. From these patterns, researchers build an electron density map. With powerful computers and a lot of calculations, scientists can use the electron density patterns to determine the structure of the protein and make a computer-generated model of the structure. The models let researchers improve their understanding of how the protein functions. They also allow scientists to look for receptor sites and active areas that control a protein's function and role in the progress of diseases. From there, pharmaceutical researchers can design molecules that fit the active site, much like a key and lock, so that the protein is locked without affecting the rest of the body. This is called structure-based drug design.

  19. AN X-RAY VIEW OF THE JET CYCLE IN THE RADIO-LOUD AGN 3C120

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohfink, Anne M.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Tombesi, Francesco [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Marscher, Alan P. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Miller, Eric D.; Nowak, Michael A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Aller, Hugh; Aller, Margo F.; Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Brenneman, Laura W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA (United States); Fabian, Andrew C., E-mail: alohfink@astro.umd.edu [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-01

    We present a study of the central engine in the broad-line radio galaxy 3C120 using a multi-epoch analysis of a deep XMM-Newton observation and two deep Suzaku pointings (in 2012). In order to place our spectral data into the context of the disk-disruption/jet-ejection cycles displayed by this object, we monitor the source in the UV/X-ray bands, and in the radio band. We find three statistically acceptable spectral models: a disk-reflection model, a jet model, and a jet+disk model. Despite being good descriptions of the data, the disk-reflection model violates the radio constraints on the inclination, and the jet model has a fine-tuning problem, requiring a jet contribution exceeding that expected. Thus, we argue for a composite jet+disk model. Within the context of this model, we verify the basic predictions of the jet-cycle paradigm, finding a truncated/refilling disk during the Suzaku observations and a complete disk extending down to the innermost stable circular orbit during the XMM-Newton observation. The idea of a refilling disk is further supported by the detection of the ejection of a new jet knot approximately one month after the Suzaku pointings. We also discover a step-like event in one of the Suzaku pointings in which the soft band lags the hard band. We suggest that we are witnessing the propagation of a disturbance from the disk into the jet on a timescale set by the magnetic field.

  20. Discovery of Diffuse Hard X-ray Emission associated with Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoe, Y.; Miyoshi, Y.; Ishikawa, K.; Ohashi, T.; Terada, N.; Uchiyama, Y.; Negoro, H.

    2009-12-01

    Our discovery of diffuse hard (1-5 keV) X-ray emission around Jupiter is reported. Recent Chandra and XMM-Newton observations revealed several types of X-rays in the vicinity of Jupiter such as auroral and disk emission from Jupiter and faint diffuse X-rays from the Io Plasma Torus (see Bhardwaj et al. 2007 for review). To investigate possible diffuse hard X-ray emission around Jupiter with the highest sensitivity, we conducted data analysis of Suzaku XIS observations of Jupiter on Feb 2006. After removing satellite and planetary orbital motions, we detected a significant diffuse X-ray emission extending to ~6 x 3 arcmin with the 1-5 keV X-ray luminosity of ~3e15 erg/s. The emitting region very well coincided with the Jupiter's radiation belts. The 1-5 keV X-ray spectrum was represented by a simple power law model with a photon index of 1.4. Such a flat continuum strongly suggests non-thermal origin. Although such an emission can be originated from multiple background point sources, its possibility is quite low. We hence examined three mechanisms, assuming that the emission is truly diffuse: bremsstrahlung by keV electrons, synchrotron emission by TeV electrons, and inverse Compton scattering of solar photons by MeV electrons. The former two can be rejected because of the X-ray spectral shape and implausible existence of TeV electrons around Jupiter, respectively. The last possibility was found to be possible because tens MeV electrons, which have been confirmed in inner radiation belts (Bolton et al. 2002), can kick solar photons to the keV energy range and provide a simple power-law continuum. We estimated an average electron density from the X-ray luminosity assuming the oblate spheroid shaped emitting region with 8 x 8 x 4 Jovian radii. The necessary density was 0.02 1/cm3 for 50 MeV electrons. Hence, our results may suggest a new particle acceleration phenomenon around Jupiter.

  1. X-ray lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Elton, Raymond C

    2012-01-01

    The first in its field, this book is both an introduction to x-ray lasers and a how-to guide for specialists. It provides new entrants and others interested in the field with a comprehensive overview and describes useful examples of analysis and experiments as background and guidance for researchers undertaking new laser designs. In one succinct volume, X-Ray Lasers collects the knowledge and experience gained in two decades of x-ray laser development and conveys the exciting challenges and possibilities still to come._Add on for longer version of blurb_M>The reader is first introduced

  2. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, S.; Stagg, L.; Lambert, T.W.; Griswa, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    A patient support system for X-ray equipment in arteriographic studies of the heart is described in detail. The support system has been designed to overcome many of the practical problems encountered in using previous types of arteriographic X-ray equipment. The support system is capable of horizontal movement and, by a series of shafts attached to the main support system, the X-ray source and image intensifier or detector may be rotated through the same angle. The system is highly flexible and details are given of several possible operational modes. (U.K.)

  3. X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetten, N.R.; Houston, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    An ionization chamber for use in determining the spatial distribution of x-ray photons in tomography systems comprises a plurality of substantially parallel, planar anodes separated by parallel, planar cathodes and enclosed in a gas of high atomic weight at a pressure from approximately 10 atmospheres to approximately 50 atmospheres. The cathode and anode structures comprise metals which are substantially opaque to x-ray radiation and thereby tend to reduce the resolution limiting effects of x-ray fluoresence in the gas. In another embodiment of the invention the anodes comprise parallel conductive bars disposed between two planar cathodes. Guard rings eliminate surface leakage currents between adjacent electrodes. 8 figures

  4. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray apparatus is described which has a shutter between the X-ray source and the patient. The shutter controls the level of radiation to which the patient is exposed instead of merely discontinuing the electric power supplied to the source. When the shutter is opened a radiation sensor senses the level of X-radiation. When a preset quantity of X-radiation has been measured an exposure control closes the shutter. Instead of using the radiation sensor, the integrated power supplied to the anode of the X-ray source may be measured. (author)

  5. THE JET HEATED X-RAY FILAMENT IN THE CENTAURUS A NORTHERN MIDDLE RADIO LOBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, R. P.; Forman, W. R.; Jones, C.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Murray, S. S.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Croston, J. H.; Birkinshaw, M.; Worrall, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    We present results from a 40 ks XMM-Newton observation of the X-ray filament coincident with the southeast edge of the Centaurus A Northern Middle Radio Lobe (NML). We find that the X-ray filament consists of five spatially resolved X-ray knots embedded in a continuous diffuse bridge. The spectrum of each knot is well fitted by a thermal model with temperatures ranging from 0.3 to 0.7 keV and subsolar elemental abundances. In four of the five knots, nonthermal models are a poor fit to the spectra, conclusively ruling out synchrotron or IC/CMB mechanisms for their emission. The internal pressures of the knots exceed that of the ambient interstellar medium or the equipartition pressure of the NML by more than an order of magnitude, demonstrating that they must be short lived (∼3 x 10 6 yr). Based on energetic arguments, it is implausible that these knots have been ionized by the beamed flux from the active galactic nucleus of Cen A or that they have been shock heated by supersonic inflation of the NML. In our view, the most viable scenario for the origin of the X-ray knots is that they are the result of cold gas shock heated by a direct interaction with the jet. The most plausible model of the NML is that it is a bubble from a previous nuclear outburst that is being re-energized by the current outburst. The northeast inner lobe and the large-scale jet are lossless channels through which the jet material rapidly travels to the NML in this scenario. We also report the discovery of a large-scale (at least 35 kpc radius) gas halo around Cen A.

  6. X-RAY ABSORPTION, NUCLEAR INFRARED EMISSION, AND DUST COVERING FACTORS OF AGNs: TESTING UNIFICATION SCHEMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos, S.; Carrera, F. J.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Hernán-Caballero, A.; Barcons, X. [Instituto de Física de Cantabria (CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria), E-39005, Santander (Spain); Ramos, A. Asensio; Almeida, C. Ramos [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Watson, M. G.; Blain, A. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Caccianiga, A.; Ballo, L. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via Brera 28, I-20121 Milano (Italy); Braito, V., E-mail: mateos@ifca.unican.es [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy)

    2016-03-10

    We present the distributions of the geometrical covering factors of the dusty tori (f{sub 2}) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using an X-ray selected complete sample of 227 AGNs drawn from the Bright Ultra-hard XMM-Newton Survey. The AGNs have z from 0.05 to 1.7, 2–10 keV luminosities between 10{sup 42} and 10{sup 46} erg s{sup −1}, and Compton-thin X-ray absorption. Employing data from UKIDSS, 2MASS, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer in a previous work, we determined the rest-frame 1–20 μm continuum emission from the torus, which we model here with the clumpy torus models of Nenkova et al. Optically classified type 1 and type 2 AGNs are intrinsically different, with type 2 AGNs having, on average, tori with higher f{sub 2} than type 1 AGNs. Nevertheless, ∼20% of type 1 AGNs have tori with large covering factors, while ∼23%–28% of type 2 AGNs have tori with small covering factors. Low f{sub 2} are preferred at high AGN luminosities, as postulated by simple receding torus models, although for type 2 AGNs the effect is certainly small. f{sub 2} increases with the X-ray column density, which implies that dust extinction and X-ray absorption take place in material that share an overall geometry and most likely belong to the same structure, the putative torus. Based on our results, the viewing angle, AGN luminosity, and also f{sub 2} determine the optical appearance of an AGN and control the shape of the rest-frame ∼1–20 μm nuclear continuum emission. Thus, the torus geometrical covering factor is a key ingredient of unification schemes.

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  9. X-ray examination apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2000-01-01

    The invention relates to an X-ray apparatus which includes an adjustable X-ray filter. In order to adjust an intensity profile of the X-ray beam, an X-ray absorbing liquid is transported to filter elements of the X-ray filter. Such transport is susceptible to gravitational forces which lead to an

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  13. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a very small ... of an abdominal x-ray? What is abdominal x-ray? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  14. The Causal Connection Between Disc and Power-Law Variability in Hard State Black Hole X-Ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttley, P.; Wilkinson, T.; Cassatella, P.; Wilms, J.; Pottschimdt, K.; Hanke, M.; Boeck, M.

    2010-01-01

    We use the XMM-Newton EPIC-pn instrument in timing mode to extend spectral time-lag studies of hard state black hole X-ray binaries into the soft X-ray band. \\Ve show that variations of the disc blackbody emission substantially lead variations in the power-law emission, by tenths of a second on variability time-scales of seconds or longer. The large lags cannot be explained by Compton scattering but are consistent with time-delays due to viscous propagation of mass accretion fluctuations in the disc. However, on time-scales less than a second the disc lags the power-law variations by a few ms, consistent with the disc variations being dominated by X-ray heating by the power-law, with the short lag corresponding to the light-travel time between the power-law emitting region and the disc. Our results indicate that instabilities in the accretion disc are responsible for continuum variability on time-scales of seconds or longer and probably also on shorter time-scales.

  15. Challenging the Forward Shock Model with the 80 Ms Follow up of the X-ray Afterglow of Gamma-Ray Burst 130427A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano De Pasquale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available GRB 130427A was the most luminous gamma-ray burst detected in the last 30 years. With an isotropic energy output of 8.5 × 10 53 erg and redshift of 0.34, it combined very high energetics with a relative proximity to Earth in an unprecedented way. Sensitive X-ray observatories such as XMM-Newton and Chandra have detected the afterglow of this event for a record-breaking baseline longer than 80 million seconds. The light curve displays a simple power-law over more than three decades in time. In this presentation, we explore the consequences of this result for a few models put forward so far to interpret GRB 130427A, and more in general the implication of this outcome in the context of the standard forward shock model.

  16. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disorders Video: The Basketball Game: An MRI Story Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey ...

  17. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also be useful to help diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  18. X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A form of x-ray tube is described which provides satisfactory focussing of the electron beam when the beam extends for several feet from gun to target. Such a tube can be used for computerised tomographic scanning. (UK)

  19. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breath, persistent cough, fever, chest pain or injury. It may also be useful to help diagnose and ... have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to ...

  20. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... An MRI Story Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray ... posted: How to Obtain and Share Your Medical Images Movement Disorders Video: The Basketball Game: An MRI ...

  1. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot ... Inc. (RSNA). To help ensure current and accurate information, we do not permit copying but encourage linking ...

  2. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Spotlight Recently posted: Pancreatic Cancer The Limitations of Online Dose Calculators Video: The ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  3. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exams and use a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ... chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs ...

  4. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. ...

  5. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... June is Men's Health Month Recently posted: Pancreatic Cancer The Limitations of Online Dose Calculators Video: The ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  6. X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masswig, I.

    1986-01-01

    The tkb market survey comparatively evaluates the X-ray sources and replacement tubes for stationary equipment currently available on the German market. It lists the equipment parameters of 235 commercially available X-ray sources and their replacement tubes and gives the criteria for purchase decisions. The survey has been completed with December 1985, and offers good information concerning medical and technical aspects as well as those of safety and maintenance. (orig.) [de

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken ... of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. ... x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is taken during x-ray examinations to ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray ( ... leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  13. Computation of the Transmitted and Polarized Scattered Fluxes by the Exoplanet HD 189733b in X-Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, Frédéric [Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences, Boční II 1401, CZ-14100 Prague (Czech Republic); Grosso, Nicolas, E-mail: frederic.marin@astro.unistra.fr [Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, UMR 7550, F-67000 Strasbourg (France)

    2017-02-01

    Thousands of exoplanets have been detected, but only one exoplanetary transit was potentially observed in X-rays from HD 189733A. What makes the detection of exoplanets so difficult in this band? To answer this question, we run Monte-Carlo radiative transfer simulations to estimate the amount of X-ray flux reprocessed by HD 189733b. Despite its extended evaporating atmosphere, we find that the X-ray absorption radius of HD 189733b at 0.7 keV, which is the mean energy of the photons detected in the 0.25–2 keV energy band by XMM-Newton , is ∼1.01 times the planetary radius for an atmosphere of atomic hydrogen and helium (including ions), and produces a maximum depth of ∼2.1% at ∼±46 minutes from the center of the planetary transit on the geometrically thick and optically thin corona. We compute numerically in the 0.25–2 keV energy band that this maximum depth is only of ∼1.6% at ∼±47 minutes from the transit center, and not very sensitive to the metal abundance, assuming that adding metals in the atmosphere would not dramatically change the density–temperature profile. Regarding a direct detection of HD 189733b in X-rays, we find that the amount of flux reprocessed by the exoplanetary atmosphere varies with the orbital phase, spanning between three and five orders of magnitude fainter than the flux of the primary star. Additionally, the degree of linear polarization emerging from HD 189733b is <0.003%, with maximums detected near planetary greatest elongations. This implies that both the modulation of the X-ray flux with the orbital phase and the scatter-induced continuum polarization cannot be observed with current X-ray facilities.

  14. X-RAY EMISSION FROM J1446–4701, J1311–3430, AND OTHER BLACK WIDOW PULSARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arumugasamy, Prakash; Pavlov, George G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Garmire, Gordon P., E-mail: pxa151@ucs.psu.edu [Huntingdon Institute for X-ray Astronomy, LLC, 10677 Franks Road, Huntingdon, PA 16652 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    We present the results of detailed X-ray analysis of two black-widow pulsars (BWPs), J1446–4701 and J1311–3430. PSR J1446–4701 is a BWP with orbital parameters near the median values of the sample of known BWPs. Its X-ray emission that was detected by XMM-Newton is well characterized by a soft power-law (PL) spectrum (photon index Γ ≈ 3), and it shows no significant orbital modulations. In view of a lack of radio eclipses and an optical non-detection, the system most likely has a low orbital inclination. PSR J1311–3430 is an extreme BWP with a very compact orbit and the lowest minimum mass companion. Our Chandra data confirm the hard Γ ≈ 1.3 emission seen in previous observations. Through phase-restricted spectral analysis, we found a hint (∼2.6σ) of spectral hardening around pulsar inferior conjunction. We also provide a uniform analysis of the 12 BWPs observed with Chandra and compare their X-ray properties. Pulsars with soft, Γ > 2.5 emission seem to have lower than average X-ray and γ-ray luminosities. We do not, however, see any other prominent correlation between the pulsar’s X-ray emission characteristics and any of its other properties. The contribution of the intra-binary shock to the total X-ray emission, if any, is not discernible in this sample of pulsars with shallow observations.

  15. On the Nature of the mHz X-Ray QPOs from ULX M82 X-1: Evidence for Timing-Spectral (anti) Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2013-01-01

    Using all the archival XMM-Newton X-ray (3-10 keV) observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) M82 X-1 we searched for a correlation between its variable mHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequency and its energy spectral power-law index. These quantities are known to correlate in stellar mass black holes (StMBHs) exhibiting Type-C QPOs (approx 0.2-15 Hz). The detection of such a correlation would strengthen the identification of its mHz QPOs as Type-C and enable a more reliable mass estimate by scaling its QPO frequencies to those of Type-C QPOs in StMBHs of known mass. We resolved the count rates of M82 X-1 and a nearby bright ULX (source 5/X42.3+59) through surface brightness modeling and identify observations in which M82 X-1 was at least as bright as source 5. Using only those observations, we detect QPOs in the frequency range of 36-210 mHz during which the energy spectral power-law index varied from 1.7-2.2. Interestingly, we find evidence for an anti-correlation (Pearsons correlation coefficient = -0.95) between the power-law index and the QPO centroid frequency. While such an anti-correlation is observed in StMBHs at high Type-C QPO frequencies (approx 5-15 Hz), the frequency range over which it holds in StMBHs is significantly smaller (factor of approx 1.5-3) than the QPO range reported here from M82 X-1 (factor of 6). However, it remains possible that contamination from source 5 can bias our result. Joint Chandra/XMM-Newton observations in the future can resolve this problem and confirm the timing-spectral anti-correlation reported here.

  16. Are X-ray emitting coronae around supermassive black holes outflowing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Teng; Wang, Jun-Xian; Yang, Huan; Zhu, Fei-Fan; Zhou, You-Yuan, E-mail: liuteng@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: jxw@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-03-10

    Hard X-ray emission in radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is believed to be produced via inverse Compton scattering by hot and compact coronae near the supermassive black hole. However, the origin and physical properties of the coronae, including geometry, kinematics, and dynamics, remain poorly known. In this work, taking [O IV] 25.89 μm emission line as an isotropic indicator of AGNs' intrinsic luminosity, we compare the intrinsic corona X-ray emission between Seyfert 1 and Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies, which are viewed at different inclinations according to the unification scheme. We compile a sample of 130 Compton-thin Seyfert galaxies with both [O IV] 25.89 μm line luminosities measured with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrometer and X-ray spectra observed by XMM-Newton, Chandra, Suzaku, or Swift. Known radio-loud sources are excluded. We fit the X-ray spectra to obtain the absorption-corrected 2-10 keV continuum luminosities. We find that Seyfert 1 galaxies are intrinsically brighter in intrinsic 2-10 keV emission by a factor of 2.8{sub −0.4}{sup +0.5} (2.2{sub −0.3}{sup +0.9} in Swift Burst Alert Telescope 14-195 keV emission), compared with Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies. The Seyfert 1 and Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies follow a statistically identical correlation between the absorption-corrected 2-10 keV luminosity and the 14-195 keV luminosity, indicating that our absorption correction to the 2-10 keV flux is sufficient. The difference in X-ray emission between the two populations is thus unlikely to be due to X-ray absorption, and instead implies an intrinsic anisotropy in the corona X-ray emission. This striking anisotropy of X-ray emission can be explained by a bipolar outflowing corona with a bulk velocity of ∼0.3-0.5c. This would provide a natural link between the so-called coronae and weak jets in these systems. Other consequences of outflowing coronae are also discussed.

  17. Deep Chandra Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud. II. Timing Analysis of X-Ray Pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, JaeSub; Antoniou, Vallia; Zezas, Andreas; Drake, Jeremy J.; Plucinsky, Paul P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Haberl, Frank [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbach straße, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Sasaki, Manami [Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Sternwartstrasse 7, 96049 Bamberg (Germany); Laycock, Silas, E-mail: jaesub@head.cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Lowell, MA 01854 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    We report the timing analysis results of X-ray pulsars from a recent deep Chandra survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We analyzed a total exposure of 1.4 Ms from 31 observations over a 1.2 deg{sup 2} region in the SMC under a Chandra X-ray Visionary Program. Using the Lomb–Scargle and epoch-folding techniques, we detected periodic modulations from 20 pulsars and a new candidate pulsar. The survey also covered 11 other pulsars with no clear sign of periodic modulation. The 0.5–8 keV X-ray luminosity ( L {sub X} ) of the pulsars ranges from 10{sup 34} to 10{sup 37} erg s{sup −1} at 60 kpc. All of the Chandra sources with L {sub X} ≳ 4 × 10{sup 35} erg s{sup −1} exhibit X-ray pulsations. The X-ray spectra of the SMC pulsars (and high-mass X-ray binaries) are in general harder than those of the SMC field population. All but SXP 8.02 can be fitted by an absorbed power-law model with a photon index of Γ ≲ 1.5. The X-ray spectrum of the known magnetar SXP 8.02 is better fitted with a two-temperature blackbody model. Newly measured pulsation periods of SXP 51.0, SXP 214, and SXP 701, are significantly different from the previous XMM-Newton and RXTE measurements. This survey provides a rich data set for energy-dependent pulse profile modeling. Six pulsars show an almost eclipse-like dip in the pulse profile. Phase-resolved spectral analysis reveals diverse spectral variations during pulsation cycles: e.g., for an absorbed power-law model, some exhibit an (anti)-correlation between absorption and X-ray flux, while others show more intrinsic spectral variation (i.e., changes in photon indices).

  18. X-Ray Absorption with Transmission X-Ray Microscopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, F.M.F.

    2016-01-01

    In this section we focus on the use of transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) to measure the XAS spectra. In the last decade a range of soft X-ray and hard X-ray TXM microscopes have been developed, allowing the measurement of XAS spectra with 10–100 nm resolution. In the hard X-ray range the TXM

  19. Textbook on X-ray diagnostics. Substantiated by Marianne Zimmer-Brossy. 6. new rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becht, Stefanie; Bittner, Roland C.; Ohmstede, Anke; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Rossdeutscher, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    The standard textbook on x-ray diagnostics has been revised by the MTRA team and radiologists: The book covers the following topics: General information: the profession of a radiologist, the x-ray department, radiation protection, quality assurance, basic physics, x-ray imaging, analog and digital image processing, archives, image interpretation. Skeleton diagnostics; Inner organs (thorax organs, neck, abdomen, gastrointestinal tract, colon, gall bladder and biliary tract): Special x-ray diagnostic methods: x-ray diagnostic of the female and male chest, x-ray diagnostics of bone joints (arthrography, and contrast media), x-ray diagnostics of the urinary-genital system, x-ray diagnostics of cavities and syrinx, x-ray diagnostics of arteries (arteriography, angiography), percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, x-ray diagnostics of veins (phlebography), x-ray diagnostics of lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes, x-ray diagnostics of spinal cord (myelography); Specific imaging methods: computerized tomography [de

  20. X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webley, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The object of the invention described is to provide an X-ray tube providing a scanned X-ray output which does not require a scanned electron beam. This is obtained by an X-ray tube including an anode which is rotatable about an axis, and a source of a beam of energy, for example an electron beam, arranged to impinge on a surface of the anode to generate X-radiation substantially at the region of incidence on the anode surface. The anode is rotatable about the axis to move the region of incidence over the surface. The anode is so shaped that the rotation causes the region of incidence to move in a predetermined manner relative to fixed parts of the tube so that the generated X-radiation is scanned in a predetermined manner relative to the tube. (UK)

  1. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Setti, G.

    1980-01-01

    This book contains the lectures, and the most important seminars held at the NATO meeting on X-Ray astronomy in Erice, July 1979. The meeting was an opportune forum to discuss the results of the first 8-months of operation of the X-ray satellite, HEAO-2 (Einstein Observatory) which was launched at the end of 1978. Besides surveying these results, the meeting covered extragalactic astronomy, including the relevant observations obtained in other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (ultra-violet, optical, infrared and radio). The discussion on galactic X-ray sources essentially covered classical binaries, globular clusters and bursters and its significance to extragalactic sources and to high energy astrophysics was borne in mind. (orig.)

  2. THE 31 DEG{sup 2} RELEASE OF THE STRIPE 82 X-RAY SURVEY: THE POINT SOURCE CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Urry, C. Megan; Ananna, Tonima; Civano, Francesca; Marchesi, Stefano; Pecoraro, Robert [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Physics Department, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Cappelluti, Nico; Comastri, Andrea; Brusa, Marcella [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Böhringer, Hans; Chon, Gayoung [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Glikman, Eilat [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT 05753 (United States); Richards, Gordon [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Cardamone, Carie [Department of Math and Science, Wheelock College, 200 Riverway, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Farrah, Duncan [Department of Physics MC 0435, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 850 West Campus Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Gilfanov, Marat [Max-Planck Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, Postfach 1317, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Green, Paul [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Komossa, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Lira, Paulina [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Santiago (Chile); Makler, Martin [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr Xavier Sigaud 150, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 22290-180 (Brazil); and others

    2016-02-01

    We release the next installment of the Stripe 82 X-ray survey point-source catalog, which currently covers 31.3 deg{sup 2} of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82 Legacy field. In total, 6181 unique X-ray sources are significantly detected with XMM-Newton (>5σ) and Chandra (>4.5σ). This catalog release includes data from XMM-Newton cycle AO 13, which approximately doubled the Stripe 82X survey area. The flux limits of the Stripe 82X survey are 8.7 × 10{sup −16} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, 4.7 × 10{sup −15} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, and 2.1 × 10{sup −15} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} in the soft (0.5–2 keV), hard (2–10 keV), and full bands (0.5–10 keV), respectively, with approximate half-area survey flux limits of 5.4 × 10{sup −15} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, 2.9 × 10{sup −14} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, and 1.7 × 10{sup −14} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. We matched the X-ray source lists to available multi-wavelength catalogs, including updated matches to the previous release of the Stripe 82X survey; 88% of the sample is matched to a multi-wavelength counterpart. Due to the wide area of Stripe 82X and rich ancillary multi-wavelength data, including coadded SDSS photometry, mid-infrared WISE coverage, near-infrared coverage from UKIDSS and VISTA Hemisphere Survey, ultraviolet coverage from GALEX, radio coverage from FIRST, and far-infrared coverage from Herschel, as well as existing ∼30% optical spectroscopic completeness, we are beginning to uncover rare objects, such as obscured high-luminosity active galactic nuclei at high-redshift. The Stripe 82X point source catalog is a valuable data set for constraining how this population grows and evolves, as well as for studying how they interact with the galaxies in which they live.

  3. Effects of Interstellar Dust Scattering on the X-ray Eclipses of the LMXB AX J1745.6-2901 in the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chichuan; Ponti, Gabriele; Haberl, Frank; Smith, Randall; Valencic, Lynne

    2018-04-01

    AX J1745.6-2901 is an eclipsing low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) in the Galactic Centre (GC). It shows significant X-ray excess emission during the eclipse phase, and its eclipse light curve shows an asymmetric shape. We use archival XMM-Newton and Chandra observations to study the origin of these peculiar X-ray eclipsing phenomena. We find that the shape of the observed X-ray eclipse light curves depends on both photon energy and the shape of the source extraction region, and also shows differences between the two instruments. By performing detailed simulations for the time-dependent X-ray dust scattering halo, as well as directly modelling the observed eclipse and non-eclipse halo profiles of AX J1745.6-2901, we obtained solid evidence that its peculiar eclipse phenomena are indeed caused by the X-ray dust scattering in multiple foreground dust layers along the line-of-sight (LOS). The apparent dependence on the instruments is caused by different instrumental point-spread-functions. Our results can be used to assess the influence of dust scattering in other eclipsing X-ray sources, and raise the importance of considering the timing effects of dust scattering halo when studying the variability of other X-ray sources in the GC, such as Sgr A⋆. Moreover, our study of halo eclipse reinforces the existence of a dust layer local to AX J1745.6-2901 as reported by Jin et al. (2017), as well as identifying another dust layer within a few hundred parsecs to Earth, containing up to several tens of percent LOS dust, which is likely to be associated with the molecular clouds in the Solar neighbourhood. The remaining LOS dust is likely to be associated with the molecular clouds located in the Galactic disk in-between.

  4. AGN Populations in Large-volume X-Ray Surveys: Photometric Redshifts and Population Types Found in the Stripe 82X Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananna, Tonima Tasnin; Salvato, Mara; LaMassa, Stephanie; Urry, C. Megan; Cappelluti, Nico; Cardamone, Carolin; Civano, Francesca; Farrah, Duncan; Gilfanov, Marat; Glikman, Eilat; Hamilton, Mark; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Lanzuisi, Giorgio; Marchesi, Stefano; Merloni, Andrea; Nandra, Kirpal; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Richards, Gordon T.; Timlin, John

    2017-11-01

    Multiwavelength surveys covering large sky volumes are necessary to obtain an accurate census of rare objects such as high-luminosity and/or high-redshift active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Stripe 82X is a 31.3 X-ray survey with Chandra and XMM-Newton observations overlapping the legacy Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 field, which has a rich investment of multiwavelength coverage from the ultraviolet to the radio. The wide-area nature of this survey presents new challenges for photometric redshifts for AGNs compared to previous work on narrow-deep fields because it probes different populations of objects that need to be identified and represented in the library of templates. Here we present an updated X-ray plus multiwavelength matched catalog, including Spitzer counterparts, and estimated photometric redshifts for 5961 (96% of a total of 6181) X-ray sources that have a normalized median absolute deviation, σnmad=0.06, and an outlier fraction, η = 13.7%. The populations found in this survey and the template libraries used for photometric redshifts provide important guiding principles for upcoming large-area surveys such as eROSITA and 3XMM (in X-ray) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (optical).

  5. Radio/X-ray monitoring of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 382. High-energy view with XMM-Newtonand NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursini, F.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Matt, G.; Bianchi, S.; Cappi, M.; Dadina, M.; Grandi, P.; Torresi, E.; Ballantyne, D. R.; De Marco, B.; De Rosa, A.; Giroletti, M.; Malzac, J.; Marinucci, A.; Middei, R.; Ponti, G.; Tortosa, A.

    2018-05-01

    We present the analysis of five joint XMM-Newton/NuSTARobservations, 20 ks each and separated by 12 days, of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 382. The data were obtained as part of a campaign performed in September-October 2016 simultaneously with VLBA. The radio data and their relation with the X-ray ones will be discussed in a following paper. The source exhibits a moderate flux variability in the UV/X-ray bands, and a limited spectral variability especially in the soft X-ray band. In agreement with past observations, we find the presence of a warm absorber, an iron Kα line with no associated Compton reflection hump, and a variable soft excess well described by a thermal Comptonization component. The data are consistent with a "two-corona" scenario, in which the UV emission and soft excess are produced by a warm (kT ≃ 0.6 keV), optically thick (τ ≃ 20) corona consistent with being a slab fully covering a nearly passive accretion disc, while the hard X-ray emission is due to a hot corona intercepting roughly 10% of the soft emission. These results are remarkably similar to those generally found in radio-quiet Seyferts, thus suggesting a common accretion mechanism.

  6. Flash x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Q.; Pellinen, D.

    1976-01-01

    The complementary techniques of flash x-ray radiography (FXR) and flash x-ray diffraction (FXD) provide access to a unique domain in nondestructive materials testing. FXR is useful in studies of macroscopic properties during extremely short time intervals, and FXD, the newer technique, is used in studies of microscopic properties. Although these techniques are similar in many respects, there are some substantial differences. FXD generally requires low-voltage, line-radiation sources and extremely accurate timing; FXR is usually less demanding. Phenomena which can be profitably studied by FXR often can also be studied by FXD to permit a complete materials characterization

  7. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    The deployment of detectors outside the deleterious effects of the atmosphere by sending them in space vehicles, has been explained. This has thrown open the entire spectrum of the electromagnetic and particle radiation to direct observations, thus enlarging the vistas of the field of astronomy and astrophysics. The discovery of strong emitters of X-rays such as SCO X-1, NorX-2, transient sources such as Cen X-2, Cen X-4, Cen X-1, Supernova remnants Tan X-1, etc., are reported. The background of the X-ray spectrum as measured during two rocket flights over Thumba, India is presented. (K.B.)

  8. X-ray masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, J.C.; Satchell, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    In semiconductor manufacture, where X-ray irradiation is used, a thin silicon membrane can be used as an X-ray mask. This membrane has areas on which are patterns to define the regions to be irradiated. These regions are of antireflection material. With the thin, in the order of 3 microns, membranes used, fragility is a problem. Hence a number of ribs of silicon are formed integral with the membrane, and which are relatively thick, 5 to 10 microns. The ribs may be formed by localised deeper boron deposition followed by a selective etch. (author)

  9. X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.; Whetten, N.R.

    1981-01-01

    An ionization chamber for use in determining the spatial distribution of x-ray photons in tomography systems comprises a plurality of substantially parallel, planar anodes separated by parallel, planar cathodes and enclosed in a gas of high atomic weight at a pressure from approximately 10 atmospheres to approximately 50 atmospheres. The cathode and anode structures comprise metals which are substantially opaque to x-ray radiation and thereby tend to reduce the resolution limiting effects of xray fluoresence in the gas. In another embodiment of the invention the anodes comprise parallel conductive bars disposed between two planar cathodes. Guard rings eliminate surface leakage currents between adjacent electrodes

  10. AtomDB: Expanding an Accessible and Accurate Atomic Database for X-ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Randall

    Since its inception in 2001, the AtomDB has become the standard repository of accurate and accessible atomic data for the X-ray astrophysics community, including laboratory astrophysicists, observers, and modelers. Modern calculations of collisional excitation rates now exist - and are in AtomDB - for all abundant ions in a hot plasma. AtomDB has expanded beyond providing just a collisional model, and now also contains photoionization data from XSTAR as well as a charge exchange model, amongst others. However, building and maintaining an accurate and complete database that can fully exploit the diagnostic potential of high-resolution X-ray spectra requires further work. The Hitomi results, sadly limited as they were, demonstrated the urgent need for the best possible wavelength and rate data, not merely for the strongest lines but for the diagnostic features that may have 1% or less of the flux of the strong lines. In particular, incorporation of weak but powerfully diagnostic satellite lines will be crucial to understanding the spectra expected from upcoming deep observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton, as well as the XARM and Athena satellites. Beyond incorporating this new data, a number of groups, both experimental and theoretical, have begun to produce data with errors and/or sensitivity estimates. We plan to use this to create statistically meaningful spectral errors on collisional plasmas, providing practical uncertainties together with model spectra. We propose to continue to (1) engage the X-ray astrophysics community regarding their issues and needs, notably by a critical comparison with other related databases and tools, (2) enhance AtomDB to incorporate a large number of satellite lines as well as updated wavelengths with error estimates, (3) continue to update the AtomDB with the latest calculations and laboratory measurements, in particular velocity-dependent charge exchange rates, and (4) enhance existing tools, and create new ones as needed to

  11. DIFFERENT TYPES OF ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES IN NGC 4631

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria, Roberto; Ghosh, Kajal K.

    2009-01-01

    We have re-examined the most luminous X-ray sources in the starburst galaxy NGC 4631, using XMM-Newton, Chandra, and ROSAT data. The most interesting source is a highly variable supersoft ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX). We suggest that its bolometric luminosity ∼ a few 10 39 erg s -1 in the high/supersoft state: this is an order of magnitude lower than estimated in previous studies, thus reducing the need for extreme or exotic scenarios. Moreover, we find that this source was in a noncanonical low/soft (kT ∼ 0.1-0.3 keV) state during the Chandra observation. By comparing the high and low state, we argue that the spectral properties may not be consistent with the expected behavior of an accreting intermediate-mass black hole. We suggest that recurrent super-Eddington outbursts with photospheric expansion from a massive white dwarf (M wd ∼> 1.3 M sun ), powered by nonsteady nuclear burning, may be a viable possibility, in alternative to the previously proposed scenario of a super-Eddington outflow from an accreting stellar-mass black hole. The long-term average accretion rate required for nuclear burning to power such white-dwarf outbursts in this source and perhaps in other supersoft ULXs is ∼(5-10) x 10 -6 M sun yr -1 : this is comparable to the thermal-timescale mass transfer rate invoked to explain the most luminous hard-spectrum ULXs (powered by black hole accretion). The other four most luminous X-ray sources in NGC 4631 (three of which can be classified as ULXs) appear to be typical accreting black holes, in four different spectral states: high/soft, convex-spectrum, power-law with soft excess, and simple power-law. None of them require masses ∼>50 M sun .

  12. Spectral modeling of the charge-exchange X-ray emission from M82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shuinai; Ji, Li; Zhou, Xin [Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing 210008 (China); Wang, Q. Daniel [Astronomy Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Smith, Randall K.; Foster, Adam R., E-mail: snzhang@pmo.ac.cn [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-10-10

    It has been proposed that the charge-exchange (CX) process at the interface between hot and cool interstellar gases could contribute significantly to the observed soft X-ray emission in star-forming galaxies. We analyze the XMM-Newton/reflection grating spectrometer (RGS) spectrum of M82 using a newly developed CX model combined with a single-temperature thermal plasma to characterize the volume-filling hot gas. The CX process is largely responsible for not only the strongly enhanced forbidden lines of the Kα triplets of various He-like ions but also good fractions of the Lyα transitions of C VI (∼87%), O VIII, and N VII (≳50%) as well. In total about a quarter of the X-ray flux in the RGS 6-30 Å band originates in the CX. We infer an ion incident rate of 3 × 10{sup 51} s{sup –1} undergoing CX at the hot and cool gas interface and an effective area of the interface of ∼2 × 10{sup 45} cm{sup 2} that is one order of magnitude larger than the cross section of the global biconic outflow. With the CX contribution accounted for, the best-fit temperature of the hot gas is 0.6 keV, and the metal abundances are approximately solar. We further show that the same CX/thermal plasma model also gives an excellent description of the EPIC-pn spectrum of the outflow Cap, projected at 11.6 kpc away from the galactic disk of M82. This analysis demonstrates that the CX is potentially an important contributor to the X-ray emission from starburst galaxies and also an invaluable tool to probe the interface astrophysics.

  13. A SUZAKU SEARCH FOR NONTHERMAL EMISSION AT HARD X-RAY ENERGIES IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wik, Daniel R.; Sarazin, Craig L.; Finoguenov, Alexis; Matsushita, Kyoko; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Clarke, Tracy E.

    2009-01-01

    The brightest cluster radio halo known resides in the Coma cluster of galaxies. The relativistic electrons producing this diffuse synchrotron emission should also produce inverse Compton emission that becomes competitive with thermal emission from the intracluster medium (ICM) at hard X-ray energies. Thus far, claimed detections of this emission in Coma are controversial. We present a Suzaku HXD-PIN observation of the Coma cluster in order to nail down its nonthermal hard X-ray content. The contribution of thermal emission to the HXD-PIN spectrum is constrained by simultaneously fitting thermal and nonthermal models to it and a spatially equivalent spectrum derived from an XMM-Newton mosaic of the Coma field. We fail to find statistically significant evidence for nonthermal emission in the spectra which are better described by only a single- or multitemperature model for the ICM. Including systematic uncertainties, we derive a 90% upper limit on the flux of nonthermal emission of 6.0 x 10 -12 erg s -1 cm -2 (20-80 keV, for Γ = 2.0), which implies a lower limit on the cluster-averaged magnetic field of B>0.15 μG. Our flux upper limit is 2.5 times lower than the detected nonthermal flux from RXTE and BeppoSAX. However, if the nonthermal hard X-ray emission in Coma is more spatially extended than the observed radio halo, the Suzaku HXD-PIN may miss some fraction of the emission. A detailed investigation indicates that ∼50%-67% of the emission might go undetected, which could make our limit consistent with that of Rephaeli and Gruber and Fusco-Femiano et al. The thermal interpretation of the hard Coma spectrum is consistent with recent analyses of INTEGRAL and Swift data.

  14. Design and development of the SIMBOL-X hard x-ray optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareschi, G.; Attinà, P.; Basso, S.; Borghi, G.; Burkert, W.; Buzzi, R.; Citterio, O.; Civitani, M.; Conconi, P.; Cotroneo, V.; Cusumano, G.; Dell'Orto, E.; Freyberg, M.; Hartner, G. D.; Gorenstein, P.; Mattaini, E.; Mazzoleni, F.; Parodi, G.; Romaine, S.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Valtolina, R.; Valsecchi, G.; Vernani, D.

    2008-07-01

    The SIMBOL-X formation-flight X-ray mission will be operated by ASI and CNES in 2014, with a large participation of the French and Italian high energy astrophysics scientific community. Also German and US Institutions are contributing in the implementation of the scientific payload. Thanks to the formation-flight architecture, it will be possible to operate a long (20 m) focal length grazing incidence mirror module, formed by 100 confocal multilayer-coated Wolter I shells. This system will allow us to focus X-rays over a very broad energy band, from 0.5 keV up to 80 keV and beyond, with more than two orders of magnitude improvement in angular resolution (20 arcsec HEW) and sensitivity (0.5 µCrab on axis @30 keV) compared to non focusing detectors used so far. The X-ray mirrors will be realized by Ni electroforming replication, already successfully used for BeppoSAX, XMM-Newton, and JET-X/SWIFT; the thickness trend will be about two times less than for XMM, in order to save mass. Multilayer reflecting coatings will be implemented, in order to improve the reflectivity beyond 10 keV and to increase the field of view 812 arcmin at 30 keV). In this paper, the SIMBOL-X optics design, technology and implementation challenges will be discussed; it will be also reported on recent results obtained in the context of the SIMBOL-X optics development activities.

  15. X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE NEW UNUSUAL MAGNETAR SWIFT J1834.9–0846

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kargaltsev, Oleg; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Younes, George; Pavlov, George G.; Göğüş, Ersin; Lin, Lin; Kaneko, Yuki; Wachter, Stefanie; Griffith, Roger L.

    2012-01-01

    We present X-ray observations of the new transient magnetar Swift J1834.9–0846, discovered with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope on 2011 August 7. The data were obtained with Swift, Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), CXO, and XMM-Newton both before and after the outburst. Timing analysis reveals single peak pulsations with a period of 2.4823 s and an unusually high pulsed fraction, 85% ± 10%. Using the RXTE and CXO data, we estimated the period derivative, P-dot =8×10 -12 s s –1 , and confirmed the high magnetic field of the source, B = 1.4 × 10 14 G. The decay of the persistent X-ray flux, spanning 48 days, is consistent with a power law, F∝t –0.5 . In the CXO/Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer image, we find that the highly absorbed point source is surrounded by extended emission, which most likely is a dust scattering halo. Swift J1834.9–0846 is located near the center of the radio supernova remnant W41 and TeV source HESS J1834–087. An association with W41 would imply a source distance of about 4 kpc; however, any relation to the HESS source remains unclear, given the presence of several other candidate counterparts for the latter source in the field. Our search for an IR counterpart of Swift J1834.9–0846 revealed no source down to K s ∼ 19.5 within the 0.''6 CXO error circle.

  16. MN Lup: X-RAYS FROM A WEAKLY ACCRETING T TAURI STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Günther, H. M.; Wolk, S. J.; Wolter, U.; Robrade, J.

    2013-01-01

    Young T Tauri stars (TTS) are surrounded by an accretion disk, which over time disperses due to photoevaporation, accretion, and possibly planet formation. The accretion shock on the central star produces an UV/optical veiling continuum, line emission, and X-ray signatures. As the accretion rate decreases, the impact on the central star must change. In this article we study MN Lup, a young star where no indications of a disk are seen in IR observations. We present XMM-Newton and VLT/UVES observations, some of them taken simultaneously. The X-ray data show that MN Lup is an active star with L X /L bol close to the saturation limit. However, we find high densities (n e > 3 × 10 10 cm –3 ) in the X-ray grating spectrum. This can be well fitted using an accretion shock model with an accretion rate of 2 × 10 –11 M ☉ yr –1 . Despite the simple Hα line profile which has a broad component, but no absorption signatures as typically seen on accreting TTS, we find rotational modulation in Ca II K and in photospheric absorption lines. These line profile modulations do not clearly indicate the presence of a localized hot accretion spot on the star. In the Hα line we see a prominence in absorption about 2R * above the stellar surface—the first of its kind on a TTS. MN Lup is also the only TTS where accretion is seen, but no dust disk is detected that could fuel it. We suggest that MN Lup presents a unique and short-lived state in the disk evolution. It may have lost its dust disk only recently and is now accreting the remaining gas at a very low rate.

  17. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Panoramic Dental X-ray Panoramic dental x-ray uses a very small dose of ... x-ray , is a two-dimensional (2-D) dental x-ray examination that captures the entire mouth ...

  18. Subluminous X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of the first X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, by Giacconi et al. (1962), marked the birth of X-ray astronomy. Following that discovery, many additional X-ray sources where found with the first generation of X-ray rockets and observatories (e.g., UHURU and Einstein). The short-timescale

  19. X-Ray Exam: Pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Pelvis KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Ray Exam: Hip Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  20. X-Ray Exam: Forearm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Forearm KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  1. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  2. X-Ray Exam: Wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Wrist KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  3. Thoracic spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  4. X-Ray Exam: Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Finger KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  5. DISCOVERY OF X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE FIRST Be/BLACK HOLE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munar-Adrover, P.; Paredes, J. M.; Ribó, M. [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, IEEC-UB, Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Iwasawa, K. [ICREA, Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, IEEC-UB, Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Zabalza, V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Casares, J. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-05-10

    MWC 656 (=HD 215227) was recently discovered to be the first binary system composed of a Be star and a black hole (BH). We observed it with XMM-Newton, and detected a faint X-ray source compatible with the position of the optical star, thus proving it to be the first Be/BH X-ray binary. The spectrum analysis requires a model fit with two components, a blackbody plus a power law, with k{sub B}T=0.07{sub −0.03}{sup +0.04} keV and a photon index Γ = 1.0 ± 0.8, respectively. The non-thermal component dominates above ≅0.8 keV. The obtained total flux is F(0.3-5.5 keV)=(4.6{sub −1.1}{sup +1.3})×10{sup −14} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}. At a distance of 2.6 ± 0.6 kpc the total flux translates into a luminosity L {sub X} = (3.7 ± 1.7) × 10{sup 31} erg s{sup –1}. Considering the estimated range of BH masses to be 3.8-6.9 M {sub ☉}, this luminosity represents (6.7 ± 4.4) × 10{sup –8} L {sub Edd}, which is typical of stellar-mass BHs in quiescence. We discuss the origin of the two spectral components: the thermal component is associated with the hot wind of the Be star, whereas the power-law component is associated with emission from the vicinity of the BH. We also find that the position of MWC 656 in the radio versus X-ray luminosity diagram may be consistent with the radio/X-ray correlation observed in BH low-mass X-ray binaries. This suggests that this correlation might also be valid for BH high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) with X-ray luminosities down to ∼10{sup –8} L {sub Edd}. MWC 656 will allow the accretion processes and the accretion/ejection coupling at very low luminosities for BH HMXBs to be studied.

  6. CRL X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolchevsky, N.N.; Petrov, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed. (authors)

  7. X rays and condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daillant, J.

    1997-01-01

    After a historical review of the discovery and study of X rays, the various interaction processes between X rays and matter are described: Thomson scattering, Compton scattering, X-photon absorption through photoelectric effect, and magnetic scattering. X ray sources such as the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are described. The various X-ray applications are presented: imagery such as X tomography, X microscopy, phase contrast; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy; X-ray scattering and diffraction techniques

  8. NuSTAR Study of Hard X-ray Morphology and Spectroscopy G21.5-0.9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nynka, Melania; Hailey, Charles J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; An, Hongjun; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present NuSTAR high-energy X-ray observations of the pulsar wind nebula (PWN)/supernova remnant G21.5-0.9. We detect integrated emission from the nebula up to approx. 40 keV, and resolve individual spatial features over a broad X-ray band for the first time. The morphology seen by NuSTAR agrees well with that seen by XMM-Newton and Chandra below 10 keV. At high energies, NuSTAR clearly detects non-thermal emission up to approx. 20 keV that extends along the eastern and northern rim of the supernova shell. The broadband images clearly demonstrate that X-ray emission from the North Spur and Eastern Limb results predominantly from non-thermal processes. We detect a break in the spatially integrated X-ray spectrum at approx. 9 keV that cannot be reproduced by current spectral energy distribution models, implying either a more complex electron injection spectrum or an additional process such as diffusion compared to what has been considered in previous work. We use spatially resolved maps to derive an energy-dependent cooling length scale, E(sup m) is directly proportional to L(E) with m = -0.21 plus or minus 0.01. We find this to be inconsistent with the model for the morphological evolution with energy described by Kennel & Coroniti. This value, along with the observed steepening in power-law index between radio and X-ray, can be quantitatively explained as an energy-loss spectral break in the simple scaling model of Reynolds, assuming particle advection dominates over diffusion. This interpretation requires a substantial departure from spherical magnetohydrodynamic, magnetic-flux-conserving outflow, most plausibly in the form of turbulent magnetic-field amplification.

  9. Centre-excised X-ray luminosity as an efficient mass proxy for future galaxy cluster surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantz, Adam B.; Allen, Steven W.; Morris, R. Glenn; von der Linden, Anja

    2018-01-01

    The cosmological constraining power of modern galaxy cluster catalogues can be improved by obtaining low-scatter mass proxy measurements for even a small fraction of sources. In the context of large upcoming surveys that will reveal the cluster population down to the group scale and out to high redshifts, efficient strategies for obtaining such mass proxies will be valuable. In this work, we use high-quality weak-lensing and X-ray mass estimates for massive clusters in current X-ray-selected catalogues to revisit the scaling relations of the projected, centre-excised X-ray luminosity (Lce), which previous work suggests correlates tightly with total mass. Our data confirm that this is the case with Lce having an intrinsic scatter at fixed mass comparable to that of gas mass, temperature or YX. Compared to the other proxies, however, Lce is less susceptible to systematic uncertainties due to background modelling, and can be measured precisely with shorter exposures. This opens up the possibility of using Lce to estimate masses for large numbers of clusters discovered by new X-ray surveys (e.g. eROSITA) directly from the survey data, as well as for clusters discovered at other wavelengths with relatively short follow-up observations. We describe a simple procedure for making such estimates from X-ray surface brightness data, and comment on the spatial resolution required to apply this method as a function of cluster mass and redshift. We also explore the potential impact of Chandra and XMM-Newton follow-up observations over the next decade on dark energy constraints from new cluster surveys.

  10. X-ray evidence for ultra-fast outflows in Seyfert galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, Francesco; Braito, Valentina; Reeves, James; Cappi, Massimo; Dadina, Mauro

    2012-07-01

    X-ray evidence for massive, highly ionized, ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) has been recently reported in a number of AGNs through the detection of blue-shifted Fe XXV/XXVI absorption lines. We present the results of a comprehensive spectral analysis of a large sample of 42 local Seyferts observed with XMM-Newton. Similar results are also obtained from a Suzaku analysis of 5 radio galaxies. We find that UFOs are common phenomena, being present in >40% of the sources. Their outflow velocity distribution is in the range ˜0.03--0.3c, with mean value of ˜0.14c. The ionization parameter is very high, in the range logξ˜3--6 erg~s^{-1}~cm, and the associated column densities are also large, in the range ˜10^{22}--10^{24} cm^{-2}. Their location is constrained at ˜0.0003--0.03pc (˜10^2--10^4 r_s) from the central black hole, consistent with what is expected for accretion disk winds/outflows. The mass outflow rates are in the interval ˜0.01--1M_{⊙}~yr^{-1}. The associated mechanical power is also high, in the range ˜10^{43}--10^{45} erg/s, which indicates that UFOs are capable to provide a significant contribution to the AGN cosmological feedback.

  11. The Stochastic X-Ray Variability of the Accreting Millisecond Pulsar MAXI J0911-655

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bult, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this work, I report on the stochastic X-ray variability of the 340 hertz accreting millisecond pulsar MAXI J0911-655. Analyzing pointed observations of the XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observatories, I find that the source shows broad band-limited stochastic variability in the 0.01-10 hertz range with a total fractional variability of approximately 24 percent root mean square timing residuals in the 0.4 to 3 kiloelectronvolt energy band that increases to approximately 40 percent root mean square timing residuals in the 3 to 10 kiloelectronvolt band. Additionally, a pair of harmonically related quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) are discovered. The fundamental frequency of this harmonic pair is observed between frequencies of 62 and 146 megahertz. Like the band-limited noise, the amplitudes of the QPOs show a steep increase as a function of energy; this suggests that they share a similar origin, likely the inner accretion flow. Based on their energy dependence and frequency relation with respect to the noise terms, the QPOs are identified as low-frequency oscillations and discussed in terms of the Lense-Thirring precession model.

  12. X-ray beam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koller, T.J.; Randmer, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method of minimizing the preferential angular absorption of the divergent beam from an X-ray generator is described. The generator consists of an X-ray shielded housing with an X-ray transmissive window symmetrically placed in radial alignment with a focal spot area on a sloped target surface of an X-ray tube in the housing. The X-ray tube may be of the stationary anode type or of the rotating anode type. (U.K.)

  13. X-ray time and spectral variability as probes of ultraluminous x-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasham, Dheeraj Ranga Reddy

    A long-standing debate in the field of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs: luminosities > 3x1039 ergs s-1) is whether these objects are powered by stellar-mass black holes (mass range of 3-25 solar masses) undergoing hyper-accretion/emission or if they host the long-sought after class of intermediate-mass black holes (mass range of a few 100-1000 solar masses) accreting material at sub-Eddington rates. We present X-ray time and energy spectral variability studies of ULXs in order to understand their physical environments and accurately weigh their compact objects. A sample of ULXs exhibit quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) with centroid frequencies in the range of 10-200 mHz. The nature of the power density spectra (PDS) of these sources is qualitatively similar to stellar-mass black holes when they exhibit the so-called type-C low-frequency QPOs (frequency range of 0.2-15 Hz). However, the crucial difference is that the characteristic frequencies within the PDS of ULXs, viz., the break frequencies and the centroid frequencies of the QPOs, are scaled down by a factor of approximately 10-100 compared to stellar-mass black holes. It has thus been argued that the ULX mHz QPOs are the type-C low-frequency QPO analogs of stellar-mass black holes and that the observed difference in the frequencies (a fewx0.01 Hz compared with a few Hz) is due to the presence of intermediate-mass black holes ( MULX = (QPOstellar-mass black hole }/QPOULX)xM stellar-mass black hole, where M and QPO are the mass and the QPO frequency, respectively) within these ULXs. We analyzed all the archival XMM-Newton X-ray data of ULXs NGC 5408 X-1 and M82 X-1 in order to test the hypothesis that the ULX mHz QPOs are the type-C analogs by searching for a correlation between the mHz QPO frequency and the energy spectral power-law index as type-C QPOs show such a dependence. From our multi-epoch timing and spectral analysis of ULXs NGC 5408 X-1 and M82 X-1, we found that the mHz QPOs of these sources vary

  14. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos ... x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used to ...

  15. X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonse, U.

    1979-11-01

    The author describes several possibilities for the production of X-radiation. Especially he discusses the use of bremsstrahlung at electron impact on solid targets and the synchrotron radiation. He presents some equations for the calculation of X-ray intensities. Especially the X-radiation from the DORIS storage ring is discussed. (HSI)

  16. Medical x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli; Gui Ah Auu; Husaini Salleh; Idris Besar; Mohd Ashhar Khalid; Muhammad Jamal Md Isa; Shaharuddin Mohd; Siti Najila Mohd Janib; Mohamed Ali Abdul Khader; Mahalatchimi Dave; Mohd Fazly Abdul Rahim; Ng Chee Moon; Ram Piari; Teoh Hoon Heng; Lee Peter

    2004-01-01

    This book describes the fundamental subject about medical radiography. It is a multidisciplinary field that requires cross professional input from scientists, engineers and medical doctors. However, it is presented in simple language to suit different levels of readers from x-ray operators and radiographers to physists, general practitioners and radiology specialists.The book is written in accordance to the requirements of the standard syllabus approved by the Ministry of Health Malaysia for the training of medical x-ray operator and general practitioners. In general, the content is not only designed to provide relevant and essential subject for related professionals in medical radiological services such as x-ray operator, radiographer and radiologists, but also to address those in associated radiological services including nurses, medical technologists and physicists.The book is organized and arranged sequentially into 3 parts for easy reference: Radiation safety; X-ray equipment and associated facilities; Radiography practices. With proper grasping of all these parts, the radiological services could be provided with confident and the highest professional standard. Thus, medical imaging with highest quality that can provide useful diagnostic information at minimum doses and at cost effective could be assured

  17. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... change into a gown. You may have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to ... You Sponsored by About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2018 ...

  18. EXTraS discovery of a 1.2-s X-ray pulsar in M31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, P.; Israel, G.; Belfiore, A.; Novara, G.; Sidoli, L.; Rodriguez Castillo, G.; De Luca, A.; Tiengo, A.; Haberl, F.; Salvaterra, R.

    2017-10-01

    A systematic search for periodic signals in the XMM-Newton's EPIC archive carried out within the EXTraS project resulted in the discovery of a 1.2-s flux modulation in 3XMM J004301.4+413017. It is the first accreting neutron star in M31 for which the spin period has been detected. Besides this distinction, 3XMM J0043 proved to be an interesting system. Doppler shifts of the spin modulation revealed an orbital motion with period of 1.27 d and the analysis of optical data shows that, while the source is likely associated to a globular cluster, a counterpart with V ˜ 22 outside the cluster cannot be excluded. The emission of the pulsar appears rather hard (most data are described by a power law with photon index <1) and, assuming the distance to M31, the 0.3-10 keV luminosity was variable, from ˜3×10^{37} to 2×10^{38} erg/s. Based on this, we discuss two main possible scenarios for 3X J0043: a peculiar low-mass X-ray binary, perhaps similar to 4U 1822-37 or 4U 1626-67, or an intermediate-mass X-ray binary akin Her X-1.

  19. Detection of Reflection Features in the Neutron Star Low-mass X-Ray Binary Serpens X-1 with NICER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlam, R. M.; Miller, J. M.; Arzoumanian, Z.; Bult, P. M.; Cackett, E. M.; Chakrabarty, D.; Enoto, T.; Fabian, A. C.; Gendreau, K. C.; Guillot, S.; Homan, J.; Jaisawal, G. K.; Keek, L.; La Marr, B.; Malacaria, C.; Markwardt, C. B.; Steiner, J. F.; Strohmayer, T. E.

    2018-05-01

    We present Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) observations of the neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binary Serpens X-1 during the early mission phase in 2017. With the high spectral sensitivity and low-energy X-ray passband of NICER, we are able to detect the Fe L line complex in addition to the signature broad, asymmetric Fe K line. We confirm the presence of these lines by comparing the NICER data to archival observations with XMM-Newton/Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) and NuSTAR. Both features originate close to the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO). When modeling the lines with the relativistic line model RELLINE, we find that the Fe L blend requires an inner disk radius of {1.4}-0.1+0.2 R ISCO and Fe K is at {1.03}-0.03+0.13 R ISCO (errors quoted at 90%). This corresponds to a position of {17.3}-1.2+2.5 km and {12.7}-0.4+1.6 km for a canonical NS mass ({M}NS}=1.4 {M}ȯ ) and dimensionless spin value of a = 0. Additionally, we employ a new version of the RELXILL model tailored for NSs and determine that these features arise from a dense disk and supersolar Fe abundance.

  20. STUDYING FAINT ULTRA-HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM AGN IN GOALS LIRGS WITH SWIFT/BAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koss, Michael; Casey, Caitlin M.; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Baumgartner, Wayne; Tueller, Jack; Markwardt, Craig

    2013-01-01

    We present the first analysis of the all-sky Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) ultra-hard X-ray (14-195 keV) data for a targeted list of objects. We find that the BAT data can be studied at three-times-fainter limits than in previous blind detection catalogs based on prior knowledge of source positions and using smaller energy ranges for source detection. We determine the active galactic nucleus (AGN) fraction in 134 nearby (z IR /L ☉ > 11.8) detected. The BAT AGN classification shows 97% (37/38) agreement with Chandra and XMM-Newton AGN classification using hardness ratios or detection of an iron Kα line. This confirms our statistical analysis and supports the use of the Swift/BAT all-sky survey to study fainter populations of any category of sources in the ultra-hard X-ray band. BAT AGNs in LIRGs tend to show higher column densities with 40% ± 9% showing 14-195 keV/2-10 keV hardness flux ratios suggestive of high or Compton-thick column densities (log N H > 24 cm –2 ), compared to only 12% ± 5% of non-LIRG BAT AGNs. We also find that using specific energy ranges of the BAT detector can yield additional sources over total band detections with 24% (5/21) of detections in LIRGs at 24-35 keV not detected at 14-195 keV.

  1. Simultaneous Constraints on the Mass and Radius of Aql X–1 from Quiescence and X-Ray Burst Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhaosheng [Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, 411105 (China); Falanga, Maurizio [International Space Science Institute, Hallerstrasse 6, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Chen, Li [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Qu, Jinlu [Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu, Renxin, E-mail: lizhaosheng@xtu.edu.cn [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2017-08-10

    The measurement of neutron star mass and radius is one of the most direct ways to distinguish between various dense matter equations of state. The mass and radius of accreting neutron stars hosted in low-mass X-ray binaries can be constrained by several methods, including photospheric radius expansion from type I X-ray bursts and from quiescent spectra. In this paper, we apply for the first time these two methods simultaneously to constrain the mass and radius of Aql X–1. The quiescent spectra from Chandra and XMM-Newton , and photospheric radius expansion bursts from RXTE are used. The determination of the mass and radius of Aql X–1 is also used to verify the consistency between the two methods and to narrow down the uncertainties of the neutron star mass and radius. It is found that the distance to Aql X–1 should be in the range of 4.0–5.75 kpc, based on the overlapping confidence regions between photospheric radius expansion burst and quiescent spectra methods. In addition, we show that the mass and radius determined for the compact star in Aql X–1 are compatible with strange star equations of state and conventional neutron star models.

  2. Multi-epoch analysis of the X-ray spectrum of the active galactic nucleus in NGC 5506

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shangyu; Guainazzi, Matteo; Ni, Qingling; Wang, Jingchun; Qian, Chenyang; Shi, Fangzheng; Wang, Yu; Bambi, Cosimo

    2018-05-01

    We present a multi-epoch X-ray spectroscopy analysis of the nearby narrow-line Seyfert I galaxy NGC 5506. For the first time, spectra taken by Chandra, XMM-Newton, Suzaku, and NuSTAR - covering the 2000-2014 time span - are analyzed simultaneously, using state-of-the-art models to describe reprocessing of the primary continuum by optical thick matter in the AGN environment. The main goal of our study is determining the spin of the supermassive black hole (SMBH). The nuclear X-ray spectrum is photoelectrically absorbed by matter with column density ≃ 3 × 1022 cm-2. A soft excess is present at energies lower than the photoelectric cut-off. Both photo-ionized and collisionally ionized components are required to fit it. This component is constant over the time-scales probed by our data. The spectrum at energies higher than 2 keV is variable. We propose that its evolution could be driven by flux-dependent changes in the geometry of the innermost regions of the accretion disk. The black hole spin in NGC ,5506 is constrained to be 0.93± _{ 0.04 }^{0.04} at 90% confidence level for one interesting parameter.

  3. On the Nature of the Hard X-Ray Sources SWIFT J1907.3-2050, IGR J12123-5802 and IGR J19552+0044

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, F.; deMartino, D; Mukai, K.; Falanga, M.; Andruchow, I.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J.-M.; Masetti, N.; GonzalezBuitrago, D. H.; Mouchet, M.; Tovmassian, G.

    2014-01-01

    The INTEGRAL and Swift hard X-ray surveys have identified a large number of new sources, among which many are proposed as Cataclysmic Variables (CVs). Here we present the first detailed study of three X-ray selected CVs, Swift J1907.3-2050, IGRJ12123-5802, and IGRJ19552+0044 based on XMM-Newton, Suzaku, Swift observations and ground based optical and archival nIR/IR data. Swift J1907.3-2050 is highly variable from hours to monthsyears at all wavelengths. No coherent X-ray pulses are detected but rather transient features. The X-ray spectrum reveals a multi-temperature optically thin plasma absorbed by complex neutral material and a soft black body component arising from a small area. These characteristics are remarkably similar to those observed in magnetic CVs. A supra-solar abundance of nitrogen could arise from nuclear processed material from the donor star. Swift J1907.3-2050 could be a peculiar magnetic CV with the second longest (20.82 h) binary period. IGRJ12123-5802 is variable in the X-rays on a timescale of approximately or greater than 7.6 h. No coherent pulsations are detected, but its spectral characteristics suggest that it could be a magnetic CV of the Intermediate Polar (IP) type. IGRJ19552+0044 shows two X-ray periods, approximately 1.38 h and approximately 1.69 h and a X-ray spectrum characterized by a multi-temperature plasma with little absorption.We derive a low accretion rate, consistent with a CV below the orbital period gap. Its peculiar nIR/IR spectrum suggests a contribution from cyclotron emission. It could either be a pre-polar or an IP with the lowest degree of asynchronism.

  4. X ray Production. Chapter 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowotny, R. [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    The differential absorption of X rays in tissues and organs, owing to their atomic composition, is the basis for the various imaging methods used in diagnostic radiology. The principles in the production of X rays have remained the same since their discovery. However, much refinement has gone into the design of X ray tubes to achieve the performance required for today’s radiological examinations. In this chapter, an outline of the principles of X ray production and a characterization of the radiation output of X ray tubes will be given. The basic processes producing X rays are dealt with in Section 1.4.

  5. X-ray filter for x-ray powder diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsheimer, John Jay; Conley, Raymond P.; Bouet, Nathalie C. D.; Dooryhee, Eric; Ghose, Sanjit

    2018-01-23

    Technologies are described for apparatus, methods and systems effective for filtering. The filters may comprise a first plate. The first plate may include an x-ray absorbing material and walls defining first slits. The first slits may include arc shaped openings through the first plate. The walls of the first plate may be configured to absorb at least some of first x-rays when the first x-rays are incident on the x-ray absorbing material, and to output second x-rays. The filters may comprise a second plate spaced from the first plate. The second plate may include the x-ray absorbing material and walls defining second slits. The second slits may include arc shaped openings through the second plate. The walls of the second plate may be configured to absorb at least some of second x-rays and to output third x-rays.

  6. X-ray refractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tur'yanskij, A.G.; Pirshin, I.V.

    2001-01-01

    Paper introduces a new circuit of X-ray refractometer to study angular and spectral features of refracted radiation within hard X-ray range. Refractometer incorporates two goniometers, two crystal-analyzers and three radiation detectors. The maximum distance between radiation source focal point and a receiving slit of the second goniometer is equal to 1.4 m. For the first time one obtained refraction patterns of fine-film specimens including C/Si stressed structure. Paper describes a new technique of refractometry via specimen oscillation at fixed position of a detecting device. Paper presents the measurement results of oscillation refraction patterns for specimens of melted quartz and ZnSe single crystal [ru

  7. X-ray radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronc, D.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: The most common form of radio therapy is X-ray therapy, where a beam of photons or their parent electrons break down hydrogen bonds within the body's cells and remove certain DNA information necessary for cell multiplication. This process can eradicate malignant cells leading to complete recovery, to the remission of some cancers, or at least to a degree of pain relief. The radiotherapy instrument is usually an electron linac, and the electrons are used either directly in 'electrotherapy' for some 10% of patients, or the electrons bombard a conversion target creating a broad beam of high energy photons or 'penetration X-rays'. The simplest machine consists of several accelerating sections at around 3 GHz, accelerating electrons to 6 MeV; a cooled tungsten target is used to produce a 4 Gray/min X-ray field which can be collimated into a rectangular shape at the patient position. This tiny linac is mounted inside a rotating isocentric gantry above the patient who must remain perfectly still. Several convergent beams can also be used to increase the delivered dose. More sophisticated accelerators operate at up to 18 MeV to increase penetration depths and decrease skin exposure. Alternatively, electrotherapy can be used with different energies for lower and variable penetration depths - approximately 0.5 cm per MeV. In this way surface tissue may be treated without affecting deeper and more critical anatomical regions. This type of linac, 1 to 2 metres long, is mounted parallel to the patient with a bending magnet to direct the beam to the radiotherapy system, which includes the target, thick movable collimator jaws, a beam field equalizer, dose rate and optical field simulation and energy controls. There are over 2000 acceleratorbased X-ray treatment units worldwide. Western countries have up to two units per million population, whereas in developing countries such as Bangladesh, the density is only one per 100 million. Several

  8. X-ray generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucarias, A; Shepherd, J W

    1982-09-08

    An X-ray tube has a tubular envelope with a cathode for directing an electron beam onto a focal spot area of a spaced anode target to generate X-rays. The target is mounted for axial rotation on one end of a rotor disposed in an end portion of the envelope and encircled by a stator of an alternating current induction motor. An annular shield of high permeability magnetic material extends transversely between the electron beam and the stator of the induction motor for shunting stray or fringe electromagnetic fields established by the stator away from the electron beam to avoid consequent lateral deflections of the electron and corresponding lateral movements of the focal spot area.

  9. X-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunsmuir, J.H.; Ferguson, S.R.; D'Amico, K.L.; Stokes, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe the application of a new high-resolution X-ray tomographic microscope to the study of porous media. The microscope was designed to exploit the properties of a synchrotron X-ray source to perform three dimensional tomography on millimeter sized objects with micron resolution and has been used in materials science studies with both synchrotron and conventional and synchrotron sources will be compared. In this work the authors have applied the microscope to measure the three dimensional structure of fused bead packs and berea sandstones with micron resolution and have performed preliminary studies of flow in these media with the microscope operated in a digital subtraction radiography mode. Computer graphics techniques have been applied to the data to visually display the structure of the pore body system. Tomographic imaging after flow experiments should detect the structure of the oil-water interface in the pore network and this work is ongoing

  10. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einstein, J.R.; Wei, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    We have been interested in structural elucidation by x-ray diffraction of compounds of biological interest. Understanding exactly how atoms are arranged in three-dimensional arrays as molecules can help explain the relationship between structure and functions. The species investigated may vary in size and shape; our recent studies included such diverse substances as antischistosomal drugs, a complex of cadmium with nucleic acid base, nitrate salts of adenine, and proteins

  11. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Chuji.

    1980-01-01

    A principal object of the present invention is to provide an X-ray apparatus which is such that the distance between the surface of the patient's table and the floor on which the apparatus is installed is sufficiently small in the horizontal position of the patient's table of the roentgenographical pedestal and that the rotation of the pedestal from the horizontal position to a tilted position and further to the vertical position of the table can be carried out smoothly. (auth)

  12. X-ray Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.; Zerlett, G.

    1983-01-01

    This commentary, presented as volume 2 of the Deutsches Strahlenschutzrecht (German legislation on radiation protection) deals with the legal provisions of the ordinance on the protection against harmful effects of X-radiation (X-ray Ordinance - RoeV), of March 1, 1973 (announced in BGBl.I, page 173), as amended by the ordinance on the protection against harmful effects of ionizing radiation, of October 13, 1976 (announced in BGBl. I, page 2905). Thus volume 2 completes the task started with volume 1, namely to present a comprehensive view and account of the body of laws governing radiation protection, a task which was thought useful as developments in the FRG led to regulations being split up into the X-ray Ordinance, and the Radiation Protection Ordinance. In order to present a well-balanced commentary on the X-ray Ordinance, it was necessary to discuss the provisions both from the legal and the medical point of view. This edition takes into account the Fourth Public Notice of the BMA (Fed. Min. of Labour and Social Affairs) concerning the implementation of the X-ray Ordinance of January 4, 1982, as well as court decisions and literature published in this field, until September 1982. In addition, the judgment of the Federal Constitutional Court, dated October 19, 1982, concerning the voidness of the law on government liability, and two decisions by the Federal High Court, dated November 23, 1982, concerning the right to have insight into medical reports - of great significance in practice - have been considered. This commentary therefore is up to date with current developments. (orig.) [de

  13. Producing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method of producing x-rays by directing radiant energy from a laser onto a target is described. Conversion efficiency of at least about 3 percent is obtained by providing the radiant energy in a low-power precursor pulse of approximately uniform effective intensity focused onto the surface of the target for about 1 to 30 nanoseconds so as to generate an expanding unconfined coronal plasma having less than normal solid density throughout and comprising a low-density (underdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is less than the laser radiation frequency and a higher-density (overdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is greater than the laser radiation frequency and, about 1 to 30 nanoseconds after the precursor pulse strikes the target, a higher-power main pulse focused onto the plasma for about 10 -3 to 30 nanoseconds and having such power density and total energy that the radiant energy is absorbed in the underdense region and conducted into the overdense region to heat it and thus to produce x-rays therefrom with the plasma remaining substantially below normal solid density and thus facilitating the substantial emission of x-rays in the form of spectral lines arising from nonequilibrium ionization states

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone ... bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... can be taken to the patient in a hospital bed or the emergency room. The x-ray ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  18. X-ray detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The object of the invention (an ionization chamber X-ray detector array for use with high speed computerised tomographic imaging apparatus) is to reduce the time required to produce a tomographic image. The detector array described determines the distribution of X-ray intensities in one or more flat, coplanar X-ray beams. It comprises three flat anode sheets parallel to the X-ray beam, a plurality of rod-like cathodes between the anodes, a detector gas between the electrodes and a means for applying a potential between the electrodes. Each of the X-ray sources is collimated to give a narrow, planar section of X-ray photons. Sets of X-ray sources in the array are pulsed simultaneously to obtain X-ray transmission data for tomographic image reconstruction. (U.K.)

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue shows up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... changes