WorldWideScience

Sample records for revised posttraumatic growth

  1. Posttraumatic growth in psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Mazor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Recent research has shown high rates of exposure to trauma among people with serious mental illness (SMI. In addition studies suggest that psychosis and mental illness-related experiences can be extremely traumatic. While some individuals develop full blown PTSD related to these experiences, it has been noted that some may also experience posttraumatic growth (PTG. However, few studies have examined PTG as a possible outcome in people who have experienced psychosis. Method: To further understand the relationships between psychosis and PTG, 121 participants were recruited from community mental health rehabilitation centers and administered trauma and psychiatric questionnaires. Results: High levels of traumatic exposure were found in the sample. Regarding our main focus of study we observed that people who endured psychosis can experience PTG, and that PTG is mediated by meaning making and coping self-efficacy appraisal. Psychotic symptoms were found to be a major obstacle to meaning making, coping self-efficacy, and PTG, whereas negative symptoms were found to be significantly related to PTG when mediated by meaning making and coping self-efficacy. Conclusion: The current research provides preliminary evidence for potential role of meaning making and coping self-efficacy as mediators of PTG in the clinical, highly traumatized population of people with SMI who have experienced psychosis. This may have both research as well as clinical practice relevance for the field of psychiatric rehabilitation.

  2. Posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth in breast cancer patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrouli, Natalia; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Potamianos, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer, potentially a traumatic stressor, may be accompanied by negative outcomes, such as posttraumatic stress disorder or positive changes, such as posttraumatic growth. The authors reviewed 24 studies published from 1990 to 2010 that measured posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth in women with breast cancer, in terms of frequency rates, factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth, and their interrelationships. A relatively small percentage of women experienced posttraumatic stress disorder, while the majority of them reported posttraumatic growth. Age, education, economic status, subjective appraisal of the threat of the disease, treatment, support from significant others, and positive coping strategies were among the most frequently reported factors associated with these phenomena. Moreover, posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth were not related. Future research should shed more light on posttraumatic growth and posttraumatic stress disorder among women with breast cancer, the parameters that influence them, and their possible relationship.

  3. Posttraumatic growth in Iranian cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    A Rahmani; R Mohammadian; C Ferguson; L Golizadeh; M Zirak; H Chavoshi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the level and determinants of posttraumatic growth in Iranian cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-correlational design study was conducted within a university-affiliated oncology hospital in Iran. A convenience sample of 450 patients with a definitive diagnosis of cancer of any type completed a demographic questionnaire and a posttraumatic growth inventory. Some disease-related information was obtained from patients′ medical records. Results: Th...

  4. Posttraumatic growth in Iranian cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, A; Mohammadian, R; Ferguson, C; Golizadeh, L; Zirak, M; Chavoshi, H

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the level and determinants of posttraumatic growth in Iranian cancer patients. This descriptive-correlational design study was conducted within a university-affiliated oncology hospital in Iran. A convenience sample of 450 patients with a definitive diagnosis of cancer of any type completed a demographic questionnaire and a posttraumatic growth inventory. Some disease-related information was obtained from patients' medical records. The mean of posttraumatic growth reported by participants was 76.1. There was a statistically significant association between experience of posttraumatic growth and age (r = - 0.21, P=0.001), education at university level (F = 8.9, P=0.001) and history of treatment by radiotherapy (t = 2.1, P=0.03). The findings of this study suggest that Iranian cancer patients experience a moderate to high level of posttraumatic growth and confirm the hypothesis that the level of posttraumatic growth in non-Western cancer patients is more than that of Western cancer patients. Although, assessing the reasons for this difference needs more investigations.

  5. Post-traumatic growth in parents after infants' neonatal intensive care unit hospitalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftyka, Anna; Rozalska-Walaszek, Ilona; Rosa, Wojciech; Rybojad, Beata; Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Hanna

    2017-03-01

    To determine the incidence and severity of post-traumatic growth in a group of parents of children hospitalised in the intensive care unit in the past. A premature birth or a birth with life-threatening conditions is a traumatic event for the parents and may lead to a number of changes, some of which are positive, known as post-traumatic growth. The survey covered 106 parents of 67 infants aged 3-12 months. An original questionnaire and standardised research tools were used in the study: Impact Event Scale - Revised, Perceived Stress Scale, COPE Inventory: Positive Reinterpretation and Growth, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, Post-traumatic Growth Inventory and Parent and Infant Characteristic Questionnaire. Due to a stepwise backward variables selection, we found three main factors that explain post-traumatic growth: post-traumatic stress symptoms, positive reinterpretation and growth and dichotomic variable infants' survival. This model explained 29% of the post-traumatic growth variation. Similar models that were considered separately for mothers and fathers showed no significantly better properties. Post-traumatic growth was related to a lesser extent to sociodemographic variables or the stressor itself, and related to a far greater extent to psychological factors. Our study highlights the fact that post-traumatic growth in the parents of neonates hospitalised in the neonatal intensive care units remains under-evaluated. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Trajectories of posttraumatic growth and depreciation after two major earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Emma M; Frazier, Patricia; Frankfurt, Sheila; Kuijer, Roeline G

    2015-03-01

    This study examined trajectories of posttraumatic growth or depreciation (i.e., positive or negative life change) in personal strength and relationships after 2 major earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand using group-based trajectory modeling. Participants completed questionnaires regarding posttraumatic growth or depreciation in personal strength and relationship domains 1 month after the first earthquake in September 2010 (N = 185) and 3 months (n = 156) and 12 months (n = 144) after the more severe February 2011 earthquake. Three classes of growth or depreciation patterns were found for both domains. For personal strength, most of the participants were grouped into a "no growth or depreciation" class and smaller proportions were grouped into either a "posttraumatic depreciation" or "posttraumatic growth" class. The 3 classes for relationships all reported posttraumatic growth, differing only in degree. None of the slopes were significant for any of the classes, indicating that levels of growth or depreciation reported after the first earthquake remained stable when assessed at 2 time points after the second earthquake. Multinomial logistic regression analyses examining pre- and postearthquake predictors of trajectory class membership revealed that those in the "posttraumatic growth" personal strength class were significantly younger and had significantly higher pre-earthquake mental health than those in the "posttraumatic depreciation" class. Sex was the only predictor of the relationship classes: No men were assigned to the "high posttraumatic growth" class. Implications and future directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Posttraumatic Growth Moderates Suicide Risk among Trauma Exposed Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheline, Kelly T.; Rosén, Lee A.

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the moderating role of posttraumatic growth on the relationship between traumatic life events and suicidal ideation and behavior, suicide risk, and college adjustment. The sample of 557 college students completed questionnaires measuring their severity and number of traumatic life events, posttraumatic growth, suicidal thoughts,…

  8. Posttraumatic Growth and Dyadic Adjustment among War Veterans and their Wives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Yael; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Solomon, Zahava

    2017-01-01

    The controversy regarding the nature of posttraumatic growth includes two main competing claims: one which argues that posttraumatic growth reflects authentic positive changes and the other which argues that posttraumatic growth reflects illusory defenses. While the former might suggest that posttraumatic growth enhances intimacy and close relationships, the latter might imply that posttraumatic growth hinders interpersonal relations. The present study aimed to test these claims by investigating the association between posttraumatic growth and dyadic adjustment over time at both the individual and dyadic levels, and the potential role of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Former prisoners of war and comparable war veterans and their wives (n = 229) were assessed twice, 30–31 (T1) and 35–38 (T2) years after the 1973 Yom Kippur War in Israel, with regard to posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms and dyadic adjustment. Results indicated that posttraumatic growth was associated with both elevated posttraumatic stress symptoms and low dyadic adjustment among both husbands and wives. Posttraumatic stress symptoms at T1 and T2 mediated the association between posttraumatic growth and dyadic adjustment. Wives' posttraumatic growth at T1 predicted posttraumatic growth and dyadic adjustment of the husbands at T2. The higher the wives' posttraumatic growth, the higher the posttraumatic growth and the lower the dyadic adjustment of the husbands in the subsequent measure. The findings suggest that posttraumatic growth reflects defensive beliefs which undermine marital relationships and that posttraumatic growth might be transmitted between spouses and implicated in the deterioration of the marital relationship over time. PMID:28713307

  9. Trait Resilience Moderates the Longitudinal Linkage between Adolescent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Posttraumatic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Liuhua; Wang, Yanli; Lin, Chongde; Chen, Chuansheng

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the longitudinal association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and posttraumatic growth (PTG) as well as the moderating role of trait resilience in that association. Participants completed measures of PTSD symptoms, PTG, and trait resilience at 12, 18, and 24 months after the Wenchuan earthquake.…

  10. Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress and Posttraumatic Growth in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koutná, Veronika; Jelínek, Martin; Blatný, Marek; Kepák, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2017), s. 1-11, č. článku 26. ISSN 2072-6694 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2421 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : posttraumatic stress * posttraumatic growth * benefit finding * childhood cancer survivors Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations)

  11. Posttraumatic Growth and Dyadic Adjustment among War Veterans and their Wives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Lahav

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The controversy regarding the nature of posttraumatic growth includes two main competing claims: one which argues that posttraumatic growth reflects authentic positive changes and the other which argues that posttraumatic growth reflects illusory defenses. While the former might suggest that posttraumatic growth enhances intimacy and close relationships, the latter might imply that posttraumatic growth hinders interpersonal relations. The present study aimed to test these claims by investigating the association between posttraumatic growth and dyadic adjustment over time at both the individual and dyadic levels, and the potential role of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Former prisoners of war and comparable war veterans and their wives (n = 229 were assessed twice, 30–31 (T1 and 35–38 (T2 years after the 1973 Yom Kippur War in Israel, with regard to posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms and dyadic adjustment. Results indicated that posttraumatic growth was associated with both elevated posttraumatic stress symptoms and low dyadic adjustment among both husbands and wives. Posttraumatic stress symptoms at T1 and T2 mediated the association between posttraumatic growth and dyadic adjustment. Wives' posttraumatic growth at T1 predicted posttraumatic growth and dyadic adjustment of the husbands at T2. The higher the wives' posttraumatic growth, the higher the posttraumatic growth and the lower the dyadic adjustment of the husbands in the subsequent measure. The findings suggest that posttraumatic growth reflects defensive beliefs which undermine marital relationships and that posttraumatic growth might be transmitted between spouses and implicated in the deterioration of the marital relationship over time.

  12. The effects of extraversion, social support on the posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth of adolescent survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xuji; Ying, Liuhua; Zhou, Xiao; Wu, Xinchun; Lin, Chongde

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among extraversion, social support, posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth among adolescent survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake. Six hundred thirty-eight participants were selected from the survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Participants completed four main questionnaires, including the Extraversion Subscale, the Social Support Scale, the Child PTSD Symptom Scale, and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. A bivariate correlation analysis revealed significant correlations among extraversion, social support, posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth. Extraversion had significant indirect effects on posttraumatic stress disorder (β = -.037, p posttraumatic growth (β = .077, p posttraumatic growth and a nonsignificant direct effect on posttraumatic stress disorder. Social support fully mediates the relationship between extraversion and posttraumatic stress disorder and partially mediates the relationship between extraversion and posttraumatic growth. Psychological interventions and care for survivors of the earthquake should include the various functions and sources of social support and how they serve to benefit individuals.

  13. Posttraumatic growth and dyadic adjustment among war veterans and their wives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahav, Yael; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Solomon, Zahava

    2017-01-01

    and dyadic levels, and the potential role of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Former prisoners of war and comparable war veterans and their wives (n = 229) were assessed twice, 30-31 (T1) and 35-38 (T2) years after the 1973 Yom Kippur War in Israel, with regard to posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress...... symptoms and dyadic adjustment. Results indicated that posttraumatic growth was associated with both elevated posttraumatic stress symptoms and low dyadic adjustment among both husbands and wives. Posttraumatic stress symptoms at T1 and T2 mediated the association between posttraumatic growth and dyadic...

  14. Exploring posttraumatic growth in Tamil children affected by the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exenberger, Silvia; Ramalingam, Panch; Höfer, Stefan

    2016-10-13

    Few studies explore posttraumatic growth (PTG) in children from Eastern cultures. To help address this gap, the present study examined PTG among 177 South Indian children aged 8-17 years who were affected by the 2004 Tsunami. The study identifies the underlying factor structure of the Tamil version of the Revised Posttraumatic Growth Inventory for Children (PTGI-C-R), and aims to explore the prevalence of PTG, the relationship between distress and growth, and gender and age differences in PTG. The results of the principal component analysis indicated a two-factor structure with an interpersonal and a person-centred dimension of growth. The total scores of the Tamil PTGI-C-R were positively associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and age. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between age and the person-centred growth subscale. Non-parametric tests found no gender differences in perceived growth. The role of socio-cultural factors on the nature of PTG is discussed. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. The Mediating Role Of Coping Styles In Personal, Environmental and Event Related Factors and Posttraumatic Growth Relationships Among Women With Breast Cancer (English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumrut Bellur

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Object: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of environmental, personal and event related factors on posttraumatic growth in breast cancer patients. Methods: The study was conducted with 134 women who are undergoing chemotherapy treatment or coming to the hospital for their routine controls. Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale, The Impact of Event Scale, Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, Ways of Coping Inventory, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, The General Self-Efficacy Scale-Turkish Form and Demographic Information Form was used. Results: Acoording to t-test analyses as the time passage from the diagnosis increases the perceived social support from the family members is increasing. Also while the group that had previous trauma experiences uses more helplessness coping styles, the group that had no previous trauma experience uses more problem focused coping style and showed greater posttraumatic growth. Results of the mediation analyses showed that problem focused coping has a mediator role in dyadic adjustment- posttraumatic growth; perceived social support from the family- posttraumatic growth; and self-efficacy- posttraumatic growth relationships. Discussion: The results of the current study are important in terms of developing new intervention programs that will help breast cancer patients to develop posttraumatic growth and also to better cope with cancer. This study is also important because the effect of marital adjustment and marital satisfaction on posttraumatic growth in breast cancer patients is an issue which is not well studied with Turkish sample.

  16. Neural Correlates of Posttraumatic Growth after Severe Motor Vehicle Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, Sirko; Zollner, Tanja; Maercker, Andreas; Karl, Anke

    2006-01-01

    Frontal brain asymmetry has been associated with emotion- and motivation-related constructs. The authors examined the relationship between frontal brain asymmetry and subjective perception of posttraumatic growth (PTG) after severe motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). Eighty-two survivors of MVAs completed self-report measures of PTG, trait and state…

  17. Positive Outcomes Following Bereavement: Paths to Posttraumatic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence G Calhoun

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent theory and research have drawn attention to the need to better understand the positive changes, termed posttraumatic growth, that often occur in bereaved individuals; even as negative emotions related to grief persist. We describe five dimensions of posttraumatic growth and present a model for understanding how the loss of a close other can eventually lead to a recognition of important positive personal changes. Loss, especially unexpected loss, disrupts an individual's beliefs about the world and initiates a process of rebuilding an understanding. During this process, many people come to realise their own strengths, appreciate the impact of their relationships, and have new spiritual insights. A strategy for facilitating growth during clinical work also is described.

  18. Post-traumatic growth among the UK veterans following treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Dominic; Palmer, E; Lock, R; Busuttil, W

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine levels of post-traumatic growth (PTG) in a sample of the UK veterans who had received treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The study followed-up 149 UK veterans after they had completed standardised treatment for PTSD provided by Combat Stress. Data had previously been collected on a range of mental health outcomes before treatment, and then repeated 6 months after the end of treatment. For the current study, participants completed the post-traumatic growth inventory (PTGI) measure. Analysis was conducted to explore levels of PTG and whether there were any relationships between pretreatment and post-treatment ratings of mental health and PTG. The mean score on the PTGI was 32.6. Evidence of a treatment effect on levels of PTG was observed. There appeared to be a relationship between improvements in symptoms of PTSD and depression and higher levels of PTG. This study observed the presence of PTG following exposure to traumatic events within a sample of the UK veterans following their treatment for PTSD. PTG scores were moderately low in comparison to similar studies in the USA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Coping and posttraumatic growth in women with limb amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutts, Lauren A; Bills, Sarah E; Erwin, Savannah R; Good, Jessica J

    2015-01-01

    While ample research has examined the psychological experiences of men with limb amputations, minimal research has examined the psychological experiences of women with limb amputations. The present study utilizes a qualitative design to examine coping and posttraumatic growth in women with limb amputations. Thirty women completed the posttraumatic growth inventory (PTGI) and provided open-ended responses about coping, social support, discrimination, support groups, and acceptance. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to discern emergent and superordinate themes in qualitative responses. Superordinate themes included social support (friendships/family and community), self-beliefs, resources, physical complications, spirituality, specific strategies, and acceptance. Concerns related specifically to participants' gender identity included appearance and motherhood. Overall, women reported moderate-to-high PTGI scores. The current findings address a void in the literature by illuminating the unique perspective of women with amputations. Future research should use quantitative methodology to expand on our research findings, as well as assess interventions to assist women adjusting to limb loss.

  20. Posttraumatic growth and hope in parents of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullmann, Stephanie E; Fedele, David A; Molzon, Elizabeth S; Mayes, Sunnye; Mullins, Larry L

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic growth (PTG), a positive change in values and major life goals experienced as a result of the struggle with a highly challenging life circumstance, has been shown to be related to the construct of hope, the belief that goals can be met. To date, no studies have examined the relationship between PTG and hope in parents of children with cancer. Participants were parents (N = 85) of children and adolescents (ages 2-18 years, M = 7.72 years) receiving treatment for cancer. Parents completed a demographic questionnaire, the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI), and Hope Scale (HS). Hope was found to be related to PTG in parents of children with cancer, with higher levels of hope associated with greater PTG. Exploratory analyses on the subscales of the PTGI revealed that hope was also related to higher scores on the Relating to Others, New Possibilities, Personal Strength, and Appreciation of Life subscales. Spiritual change was not related to hope in parents. Findings suggest that experiencing hope during the pediatric cancer experience may facilitate posttraumatic growth in parents. The construct of hope may be an important target of intervention for promoting positive adjustment in this population.

  1. Posttraumatic growth in cancer patients and partners--effects of role, gender and the dyad on couples' posttraumatic growth experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwahlen, Diana; Hagenbuch, Niels; Carley, Margaret I; Jenewein, Josef; Buchi, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about factors influencing positive effects in couples facing a cancer diagnosis. A heterogeneous sample of 224 couples from a multi-site study (four oncology units) completed questionnaire surveys including the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) as a measure of positive psychological effects. The data demonstrated that all three investigated factors--gender, role (patient vs partner) and the dyad (belonging to any of the 224 couples)--significantly contributed to variation in PTGI total scores and subscales. Variability between couples (factor dyad) appeared stronger than variability between patient and partner participants (factor role) and between male and female participants (factor gender). Role and gender analysis showed that patients demonstrated higher levels of posttraumatic growth than partners; and female participants scored higher on PTGI than males. Male patient-female partner pairs show greater association in their experience of posttraumatic growth than female patient-male partner pairs. Correlations also suggested that, regardless of the gender and role composition, patients and partners may experience parallel growth. Our findings indicate that positive psychological experiences may be shared by partners affected by cancer in similar ways as have been shown for negative psychological effects. Intra-couple similarities or processes may have a more important function in experiencing benefits than factors like gender or being the patient or the partner. These results underline the importance of a family approach to understanding negative and positive psychological effects of cancer. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Longitudinal cross-lagged relationships between mindfulness, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and posttraumatic growth in adolescents following the Yancheng tornado in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Guangzhe; Zhang, Na; Xu, Wei; Liu, Zhen; Zhou, Feng

    2018-08-01

    Treatment of posttraumatic stress symptoms and facilitation of posttraumatic growth are two encouraging areas of research, yet little is understood about the relationships between trait mindfulness, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and posttraumatic growth. Previous work suggests the linkages among these variables, but most studies have been conducted in adult samples. The aim of this study was to examine longitudinal cross-lagged relationships between mindfulness, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and posttraumatic growth among adolescent survivors of the 2016 Jiangsu tornado in China. Data was collected at two secondary schools located in Yancheng city, where the severe catastrophic damage occurred during the tornado. The sample included 247 adolescent survivors (59.5% girls) aged 12-14 years who were directly affected by the tornado. Participants self-reported their trait mindfulness, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and posttraumatic growth at two time points: 6-month (T1) and 9-month post-tornado (T2; attrition rate 17.4%). Cross-lagged structural equation modelling analyses were conducted. Results showed that posttraumatic stress symptoms at T1 significantly predicted reduced trait mindfulness at T2 but not posttraumatic growth; trait mindfulness at T1 did not significantly predict posttraumatic stress symptoms nor posttraumatic growth at T2; and posttraumatic growth at T1 did not predict trait mindfulness nor posttraumatic stress symptoms at T2. These findings suggested that posttraumatic stress symptoms may negatively influence the development of trait mindfulness in disaster-affected adolescents in China, and that posttraumatic growth may have unique implications for this young population which was not associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms or trait mindfulness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Posttraumatic growth and reduced suicidal ideation among adolescents at month 1 after the Sichuan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-nan; Lau, Joseph T F; Zhang, Jianxin; Mak, Winnie W S; Choi, Kai Chow; Lui, Wacy W S; Zhang, Jianxin; Chan, Emily Y Y

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated posttraumatic growth (PTG) and reduced suicidal ideation among Chinese adolescents at one month after the occurrence of the Sichuan Earthquake. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 3324 high school students in Chengdu, Sichuan. The revised Posttraumatic Growth Inventory for Children and the Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale assessed PTG and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that being in junior high grade 2, having probable PTSD, visiting affected areas, possessing a perceived sense of security from teachers, and being exposed to touching news reports and encouraging news reports were associated with probable PTG; the reverse was true for students in senior high grade 1 or senior high grade 2 who had experienced prior adversities. Among the 623 students (19.3% of all students) who had suicidal ideation prior to the earthquake, 57.4% self-reported reduced suicidal ideation when the pre-earthquake and post-earthquake situations were compared. Among these 623 students, the multivariate results showed that being females, perceived sense of security obtained from teachers and exposure to encouraging news reports were factors associated with reduced suicidal ideation; the reverse was true for experience of pre-earthquake corporal punishment and worry about severe earthquakes in the future. The study population was not directly hit by the earthquake. This study is cross-sectional and no baseline data were collected prior to the occurrence of the earthquake. The earthquake resulted in PTG and reduced suicidal ideation among adolescents. PTSD was associated with PTG. Special attention should be paid to teachers' support, contents of media reports, and students' experience of prior adversities. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Posttraumatic Growth and Shattered World Assumptions Among Ex-POWs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahav, Y.; Bellin, Elisheva S.; Solomon, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The controversy regarding the nature of posttraumatic growth (PTG) includes two main competing claims: one which argues that PTG reflects authentic positive changes and the other which argues that PTG reflects illusionary defenses. The former also suggests that PTG evolves from shattered...... world assumptions (WAs) and that the co-occurrence of high PTG and negative WAs among trauma survivors reflects reconstruction of an integrative belief system. The present study aimed to test these claims by investigating, for the first time, the mediating role of dissociation in the relation between...... PTG and WAs. Method: Former prisoners of war (ex-POWs; n = 158) and comparable controls (n = 106) were assessed 38 years after the Yom Kippur War. Results: Ex-POWs endorsed more negative WAs and higher PTG and dissociation compared to controls. Ex-POWs with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD...

  5. Posttraumatic growth in post-surgical coronary artery bypass graft patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Waight

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in posttraumatic growth has been applied to people with life-threatening illnesses to optimise recovery. There is a lack of research exploring posttraumatic growth in coronary artery bypass graft patients. This article describes the recovery experience of 14 coronary artery bypass graft patients (13 males and 1 female at their first outpatient review post-surgery. Grounded theory analysis was used to develop a model of distinct and shared pathways to growth depending on whether patients were symptomatic or asymptomatic pre-coronary artery bypass graft. Outcomes of posttraumatic growth in this sample included action-based healthy lifestyle growth and two forms of cognitive growth: appreciation of life and new possibilities. The model of posttraumatic growth developed in this study may be helpful in guiding future research into promoting posttraumatic growth and behaviour change in coronary artery bypass graft patients.

  6. Posttraumatic growth and adjustment to spinal cord injury: Moderated by posttraumatic depreciation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Simon; Joseph, Stephen; Geyh, Szilvia; Peter, Claudio

    2017-07-01

    Findings on the relationship of posttraumatic growth (PTG) with adjustment to potentially traumatic events are inconsistent, whereupon posttraumatic depreciation (PTD) has been suggested as a possible moderator. The objective of this study is to investigate the associations between PTG and PTD on one side and life satisfaction and indicators of mental and physical health on the other side in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). The primary study aim is to test whether PTD moderates the relationships of PTG and different adjustment indicators. A total of 141 patients administered to one of the four Swiss SCI rehabilitation centers completed questionnaires assessing PTG and PTD and different indicators of mental and physical health as well as life satisfaction at discharge from first rehabilitation. Correlational and regression methods were used to examine the research question. PTG and PTD were significantly positively correlated (rs = .47). PTD was significantly associated with lower mental and physical health and lower life satisfaction, with small to large effect sizes. PTD moderated the associations of PTG with symptoms of depression and life satisfaction (β of interaction term = -.18 and .24, respectively). PTG was significantly related to lower levels of symptoms of depression and higher life satisfaction in individuals experiencing moderate to high levels of PTD. In contrast, PTG was not significantly related to these outcomes in individuals with low PTD levels. The neglect of PTD in research partially explains mixed findings on the relationship of PTG and adjustment to potentially traumatic events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. The role of posttraumatic fear and social support in the relationship between trauma severity and posttraumatic growth among adolescent survivors of the Yaan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Wu, Xinchun; Li, Xin; Zhen, Rui

    2018-04-01

    Middle school students in Lushan county (N = 315) were assessed 6 months after the Yaan earthquake using a trauma severity questionnaire, a posttraumatic fear questionnaire, a social support questionnaire and a posttraumatic growth inventory to examine the effects of posttraumatic fear and social support in the relationship between trauma severity and posttraumatic growth (PTG). The results showed that posttraumatic fear mediated the relationship between trauma severity and PTG, and social support moderated the relationship between posttraumatic fear and PTG. These findings suggested that trauma severity could be positively associated with PTG in a direct way or in an indirect way through posttraumatic fear. Moreover, posttraumatic fear had a positive relation to PTG under the condition of high social support level, whereas the relation was non-significant when the level of social support was low. These results were discussed in terms of their implications for adolescents after trauma. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. Gender Differences in Self-Reported Posttraumatic Growth: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevsky, Tanya; Cann, Arnie; Calhoun, Lawrence G.; Tedeschi, Richard G.; Demakis, George J.

    2010-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the direction and magnitude of gender differences in self-reported posttraumatic growth. Results from 70 studies (N = 16,076) revealed a small to moderate gender difference (g = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.21 -0.32), with women reporting more posttraumatic growth than men. Moderator analyses were then conducted to…

  9. Post-Traumatic Growth in Mothers of Children with Autism: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Yan, Ting Ting; Barriball, K. Louise; While, Alison E.; Liu, Xiao Hong

    2015-01-01

    While the adverse effects of raising a child with autism are well demonstrated, there have been few reports of the post-traumatic growth of mothers of children with autism. The purpose of this research was to explore dimensions of post-traumatic growth in this population in Mainland China and identify the factors facilitating post-traumatic…

  10. The report of posttraumatic growth in Malaysian cancer patients : relationships with psychological distress and coping strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroevers, Maya J.; Teo, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The challenge of a cancer diagnosis may eventually lead to the experience of positive psychological changes, also referred to as posttraumatic growth. As most research on posttraumatic growth in cancer patients has been conducted in Western countries, little is known about the experience

  11. Changing for Better or Worse? Posttraumatic Growth Reported by Soldiers Deployed to Iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, I.M.; Lommen, M.J.J.; Sijbrandij, M.

    2015-01-01

    There has been increased interest in self-perceived posttraumatic growth, but few longitudinal studies have focused on its relationship with posttraumatic stress. Self-perceived growth is generally thought to facilitate adjustment, but some researchers have proposed that it reflects a dysfunctional

  12. Posttraumatic Growth and Resilience after a Prolonged War: A Study in Baghdad, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Heyder Kamil; Prihadi, Kususanto; Hashim, Sahabuddin

    2014-01-01

    Although traumatic events are usually associated with posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD), many study have also reported that exposure to traumatic events might also lead to psychological growth, known as posttraumatic growth (PTG). The main aim of this study is to investigate whether resilience has a significant role in developing PTG among…

  13. Nursing students' post-traumatic growth, emotional intelligence and psychological resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Cao, F; Cao, D; Liu, J

    2015-06-01

    Nursing students in the present sample who have experienced childhood adversity have a certain level of post-traumatic growth. If introduced into nursing curricula, emotional intelligence interventions may increase emotional coping resources and enhance social skills for nurses, which may benefit their long-term occupational health. As researchers consider personal resilience a strategy for responding to workplace adversity in nurses, resilience building should be incorporated into nursing education. This is a preliminary study that may guide future investigations of the curvilinear relationship rather than linear relationship between post-traumatic growth and positive factors in the special sample of nursing students. Resilience, emotional intelligence and post-traumatic growth may benefit nursing students' careers and personal well-being in clinical work. Developing both their emotional intelligence and resilience may assist their individual post-traumatic growth and enhance their ability to cope with clinical stress. To investigate the relationships among post-traumatic growth, emotional intelligence and psychological resilience in vocational school nursing students who have experienced childhood adversities, a cross-sectional research design with anonymous questionnaires was conducted and self-report data were analysed. The Childhood Adversities Checklist (Chinese version), Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, Emotional Intelligence Scale and the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale were used. Survey data were collected from 202 Chinese vocational school nursing students during 2011. Post-traumatic growth was associated with emotional intelligence and psychological resilience. Results indicated a curvilinear relationship between emotional intelligence and post-traumatic growth, and between psychological resilience and post-traumatic growth. Moderate-level emotional intelligence and psychological resilience were most associated with the greatest levels of growth

  14. The role of temperament in posttraumatic growth following death of a loved one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogińska-Bulik Nina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the role of temperament in posttraumatic growth among people who experienced a death of someone close. A group of 74 participants - mostly women (63.5%, aged 21 to 74 years (M=38.4; SD=15.5, who lost a parent, a child, a spouse or a partner, a sibling or a very close friend completed questionnaires measuring levels of posttraumatic growth (the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and temperamental traits (the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour - Temperament Inventory. Results revealed that increased appreciation of life and improved relations to others are the most prevalent areas of posttraumatic growth. Findings suggest that such temperamental traits, as emotional reactivity, and to a lesser extent briskness and endurance play significant role in posttraumatic growth.

  15. Posttraumatic growth and depreciation six years after the 2004 tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michélsen, Hans; Therup-Svedenlöf, Charlotte; Backheden, Magnus; Schulman, Abbe

    2017-01-01

    Background : Posttraumatic growth (PTG) has been reported after various types of potentially traumatic events, as a part of the personal recovery process among survivors. Even negative changes in survivors' life view, known as posttraumatic depreciation (PTD), have been identified as an additional aspect in the personal recovery processes. Objective : To examine how the type of exposure experienced by survivors of a natural disaster, the 2004 Southeast Asia tsunami, influenced self-reported PTG and PTD six years later (T2). Additionally, the study examined the relations between psychological distress and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) 14 months after the disaster (T1), to PTG and PTD, respectively at T2. Finally, the study examined whether psychological distress and PTSS (T1) could have a mediating effect on PTG and PTD at T2. Method : The participants were 848 tsunami survivors living in Stockholm, Sweden who responded to a questionnaire at 14 months (T1) and six years (T2) after the tsunami. The material was analysed using linear regression and pathway analysis. PTG and PTD were measured on separate scales. Results : The type of exposure was significant related to both PTG and PTD six years later (T2). Those experiencing a combination of various types of exposure (including threat to life and bereavement) reported higher scores for both PTG and PTD. There were significant positive correlations between PTSS at T1 and PTG /PTD at T2, and somewhat lower correlations between psychological distress at T1 and PTG/PTD at T2. Both PTSS and psychological distress at T1 were significant mediating variables for both PTG and PTD at T2. Conclusions : Studying survivors' various types of exposure and subsequent changed view of life - both PTG and PTD - resulted in a broadened understanding of the complexity of reactions and the recovery process among survivors.

  16. Posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth coexistence and the risk factors in Wenchuan earthquake survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhibin; Xu, Jiuping; Sui, Yan

    2016-03-30

    Various studies have assessed the negative and/or positive changes in the aftermath of traumatic events. Yet few of these have addressed the factors associated with the coexistence of both negative and positive changes after a devastating earthquake. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between the negative and positive changes and elucidate the risk factors of such changes one year after Wenchuan earthquake. A total of 2080 survivors from 19 counties participated in a self-report questionnaire survey which included the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Check list-Civilian, the posttraumatic growth PTG Inventory (PTGI). The prevalence of PTSD and moderate PTG was found to be 40.1% (95% CI [37.9% 42.3%]) and 51.1% (95% CI [48.9% 53.3%]). The PTSD and moderate PTG coexistence was 19.6% (95% CI [17.8% 21.4%]). PTSD symptom severity was significantly positively associated with the PTG score. Middle aged groups (31-40 and 41-50 years old, OR=2.323, 95% CI [1.059, 5.095] and OR=2.410, 95% CI [1.090, 5.329] respectively), those with lower income levels (OR=8.019, 95% CI [2.421, 26.558]), those living in temporary house (OR=1.946, 95% CI [1.280, 2.956]), and those who had had less social support (OR=1.109, 95% CI [1.076, 1.143]) had a significantly higher possibility for the presence of PTSD and moderate PTG coexistence. The results indicated the widespread positive changes in earthquake survivors. Better income levels and living conditions and higher social support were suggested to promote PTG in those with PTSD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Challenged and changed: Quiet ego and posttraumatic growth in mothers raising children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayment, Heidi A; Al-Kire, Rosemary; Brookshire, Kristina

    2018-03-01

    Posttraumatic growth theory posits that when life circumstances are perceived as stressful, secondary appraisal processes can be recruited in ways to facilitate both coping efforts and personal growth. Using a mixed-methods approach, we found mothers' most challenging experiences involved child behavior (e.g. aggression, communication, and social issues) and psychosocial impacts (e.g. lack of social support, perceived judgment of others, perceived loss, and personal distress). Descriptions of most rewarding experiences reflect posttraumatic growth frameworks including constructive perceptions about themselves, life, and their relationships as well as evidence for what Maercker and Zoellner call illusory types of posttraumatic growth. Quantitative data were subjected to a hierarchical regression analysis for self-reported posttraumatic growth and included mothers' demographics, child functioning, and psychosocial measures. As predicted, posttraumatic growth was positively associated with social support from mothers' most important network member and quiet ego characteristics, a type of eudaimonic motivation. Contrary to expectation, neither autism spectrum disorder-related rumination nor time since diagnosis (or their interaction) was associated with posttraumatic growth. Discussion focuses on the practical implications of our findings that posttraumatic growth-related coping includes both constructive and illusory forms and the importance of social support and eudaimonic motivation in facilitating positive forms of secondary coping.

  18. Posttraumatic growth, depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, post-migration stressors and quality of life in multi-traumatized psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorescu, Dinu-Stefan; Siqveland, Johan; Heir, Trond; Hauff, Edvard; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Lien, Lars

    2012-07-23

    Psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background have often been exposed to a variety of potentially traumatizing events, with numerous negative consequences for their mental health and quality of life. However, some patients also report positive personal changes, posttraumatic growth, related to these potentially traumatic events. This study describes posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, post-migration stressors, and their association with quality of life in an outpatient psychiatric population with a refugee background in Norway. Fifty five psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background participated in a cross-sectional study using clinical interviews to measure psychopathology (SCID-PTSD, MINI), and four self-report instruments measuring posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, and quality of life (PTGI-SF, IES-R, HSCL-25-depression scale, and WHOQOL-Bref) as well as measures of social integration, social network and employment status. All patients reported some degree of posttraumatic growth, while only 31% reported greater amounts of growth. Eighty percent of the patients had posttraumatic stress symptoms above the cut-off point, and 93% reported clinical levels of depressive symptoms. Quality of life in the four domains of the WHOQOL-Bref levels were low, well below the threshold for the'life satisfaction' standard proposed by Cummins. A hierarchic regression model including depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, posttraumatic growth, and unemployment explained 56% of the total variance found in the psychological health domain of the WHOQOL-Bref scale. Posttraumatic growth made the strongest contribution to the model, greater than posttraumatic stress symptoms or depressive symptoms. Post-migration stressors like unemployment, weak social network and poor social integration were moderately negatively correlated with posttraumatic growth and quality of life, and positively

  19. Posttraumatic growth, depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, post-migration stressors and quality of life in multi-traumatized psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background have often been exposed to a variety of potentially traumatizing events, with numerous negative consequences for their mental health and quality of life. However, some patients also report positive personal changes, posttraumatic growth, related to these potentially traumatic events. This study describes posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, post-migration stressors, and their association with quality of life in an outpatient psychiatric population with a refugee background in Norway. Methods Fifty five psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background participated in a cross-sectional study using clinical interviews to measure psychopathology (SCID-PTSD, MINI), and four self-report instruments measuring posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, and quality of life (PTGI-SF, IES-R, HSCL-25-depression scale, and WHOQOL-Bref) as well as measures of social integration, social network and employment status. Results All patients reported some degree of posttraumatic growth, while only 31% reported greater amounts of growth. Eighty percent of the patients had posttraumatic stress symptoms above the cut-off point, and 93% reported clinical levels of depressive symptoms. Quality of life in the four domains of the WHOQOL-Bref levels were low, well below the threshold for the’life satisfaction’ standard proposed by Cummins. A hierarchic regression model including depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, posttraumatic growth, and unemployment explained 56% of the total variance found in the psychological health domain of the WHOQOL-Bref scale. Posttraumatic growth made the strongest contribution to the model, greater than posttraumatic stress symptoms or depressive symptoms. Post-migration stressors like unemployment, weak social network and poor social integration were moderately negatively correlated with posttraumatic growth and

  20. Posttraumatic Growth and Depreciation as Independent Experiences and Predictors of Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Arnie; Calhoun, Lawrence G.; Tedeschi, Richard G.; Solomon, David T.

    2010-01-01

    Positive changes (posttraumatic growth [PTG]) and negative changes (posttraumatic depreciation [PTD]) were assessed using the PTGI-42 with persons reporting changes from a stressful event. PTG and PTD were uncorrelated, and PTG was much greater than PTD. PTG was positively related to disruption of core beliefs and recent deliberate rumination and…

  1. The Relationship Between Posttraumatic Cognitive Change, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Posttraumatic Growth Among Chinese Adolescents After the Yancheng Tornado: The Mediating Effect of Rumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Xu, Wei; Yuan, Guangzhe; An, Yuanyuan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the different cognitive processes involved in the development of posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSDs) and posttraumatic growth (PTG). One year after the Yancheng tornado, 455 middle school students were assessed to study how posttraumatic cognitive change (PCC) influenced PTSD and PTG among traumatized Chinese adolescents through the role of rumination. The results indicated that intrusive rumination partly mediated the relationship between PCC and PTSD, and deliberate rumination partly mediated the relationship between PCC and PTSD and completely mediated the relationship between PCC and PTG. These results suggest that the cognitive processes of PTSD and PTG are different. Furthermore, the study also suggests that PTSD and PTG can coexist in individuals. This study may offer some suggestions for clinical practice after traumatic events. PMID:29686638

  2. The Relationship Between Posttraumatic Cognitive Change, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Posttraumatic Growth Among Chinese Adolescents After the Yancheng Tornado: The Mediating Effect of Rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Xu, Wei; Yuan, Guangzhe; An, Yuanyuan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the different cognitive processes involved in the development of posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSDs) and posttraumatic growth (PTG). One year after the Yancheng tornado, 455 middle school students were assessed to study how posttraumatic cognitive change (PCC) influenced PTSD and PTG among traumatized Chinese adolescents through the role of rumination. The results indicated that intrusive rumination partly mediated the relationship between PCC and PTSD, and deliberate rumination partly mediated the relationship between PCC and PTSD and completely mediated the relationship between PCC and PTG. These results suggest that the cognitive processes of PTSD and PTG are different. Furthermore, the study also suggests that PTSD and PTG can coexist in individuals. This study may offer some suggestions for clinical practice after traumatic events.

  3. The Relationship Between Posttraumatic Cognitive Change, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Posttraumatic Growth Among Chinese Adolescents After the Yancheng Tornado: The Mediating Effect of Rumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the different cognitive processes involved in the development of posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSDs and posttraumatic growth (PTG. One year after the Yancheng tornado, 455 middle school students were assessed to study how posttraumatic cognitive change (PCC influenced PTSD and PTG among traumatized Chinese adolescents through the role of rumination. The results indicated that intrusive rumination partly mediated the relationship between PCC and PTSD, and deliberate rumination partly mediated the relationship between PCC and PTSD and completely mediated the relationship between PCC and PTG. These results suggest that the cognitive processes of PTSD and PTG are different. Furthermore, the study also suggests that PTSD and PTG can coexist in individuals. This study may offer some suggestions for clinical practice after traumatic events.

  4. Exposure to war traumatic experiences, post-traumatic stress disorder and post-traumatic growth among nurses in Gaza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamia, N A; Thabet, A A M; Vostanis, P

    2015-12-01

    What is known on the subject? This study builds on existing research on war-related factors that may affect health-care staff by particularly focusing on trauma exposure in both professional and everyday life, as well as on correlates of later positive psychological changes. What this paper adds to existing knowledge? It shows that one in five nursing staff working in Gaza experienced post-traumatic stress symptoms within the clinical range, 2 years after an incursion on Gaza and after being exposed to substantial trauma during this period. Participants appeared to develop a variety of post-traumatic growth responses following trauma exposure. Although nurses experienced traumatic events both as civilians and in their health-care capacity, personal exposure was strongly associated with PTSD symptoms. What are the implications for practice? Support to nursing and other health-care professionals in war situations should entail different levels, remain available well after an acute conflict, and take into consideration both personal and practice-related traumatic events. Mental health nursing practitioners can play a pivotal role in this. To establish the association between war traumatic experiences, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and post-traumatic growth among nurses in the Gaza Strip, 2 years after an incursion on Gaza, and during a period of ongoing trauma exposure. This study builds on existing evidence by considering exposure to personal and work-related traumatic events, and on factors associated with later positive psychological adaptation. The sample consisted of 274 randomly selected nurses in Gaza who completed the Gaza Traumatic Events Checklist, PTSD Checklist, and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Of the nurses, 19.7% reported full PTSD. There was a significant relationship between traumatic events and PTSD scores; as well as between community-related traumatic events and post-traumatic growth. Participants reported a range of traumatic

  5. Personality, posttraumatic stress and trauma type: factors contributing to posttraumatic growth and its domains in a Turkish community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Nuray Karanci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Posttraumatic growth (PTG is conceptualized as a positive transformation resulting from coping with and processing traumatic life events. This study examined the contributory roles of personality traits, posttraumatic stress (PTS severity and their interactions on PTG and its domains, as assessed with the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory Turkish form (PTGI-T. The study also examined the differences in PTG domains between survivors of accidents, natural disasters and unexpected loss of a loved one. Methods: The Basic Personality Traits Inventory, Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, and PTGI-T were administered to a large stratified cluster community sample of 969 Turkish adults in their home settings. Results: The results showed that conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness to experience significantly related to the total PTG and most of the domains. The effects of extraversion, neuroticism and openness to experience were moderated by the PTS severity for some domains. PTG in relating to others and appreciation of life domains was lower for the bereaved group. Conclusion: Further research should examine the mediating role of coping between personality and PTG using a longitudinal design.

  6. Growth Following Adversity: Positive Psychological Perspectives on Posttraumatic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Joseph

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of traumatic events is well documented within the clinical psychology literature where it is recognized that people who experience traumatic events may go on to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. At first glance one might ask what the relevance of positive psychology is to the study of trauma. But a number of literatures and philosophies throughout human history have conveyed the idea that there is personal gain to be found in suffering. The observation that stressful and traumatic events can provoke positive psychological changes is also contained in the major religions of Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism. Within existential philosophy and humanistic psychology it has also been recognized that positive changes can come about as a result of suffering. But it is only within the last decade that the topic of growth following adversity has become a focus for empirical work. In this paper I will provide an overview of the subject and the research we have conducted at the Centre for Trauma, Resilience, and Growth (CTRG.

  7. The affective tone of narration and posttraumatic growth in organ transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zięba Mariusz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to verify the hypothesis that positive affective tone of narratives is connected to the experience of posttraumatic growth among transplant patients. Kidney transplant patients (N = 51 and liver transplant patients (N = 48 participated in the study. In the first stage, about 10 weeks after transplant, the participants told two stories about important, freely chosen events from their lives. During the second meeting 10-12 months later we measured posttraumatic growth. Results indicated that the affective tone of narratives about past events was associated with the level of post-traumatic growth measured 10-12 months later. This proves that the affective tone of narratives about life, understood as a relatively constant individual characteristic, promote posttraumatic growth.

  8. Personally important posttraumatic growth in adolescents: The effect on self-esteem beyond commonly defined posttraumatic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taku, Kanako; McDiarmid, Leah

    2015-10-01

    Research on posttraumatic growth (PTG), positive psychological changes that may occur as a result of highly stressful life events, reveals adolescents are able to experience PTG. The current study tests individual differences among adolescents in relative importance of PTG and examines the relationships among personally important PTG, commonly defined PTG, and self-esteem. Adolescents (N = 145) with the mean age of 15.75 (SD = 1.13) completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and PTG Inventory, and then reported which items on the PTG Inventory were personally important to them. Results indicated within-scale differences in item importance on the PTG Inventory. Personally important PTG was a better predictor of adolescent self-esteem than commonly defined PTG, measured as total PTGI score or each of the five factors. These findings suggest future research should look at both short-term and long-term effects of personally important PTG as well as commonly defined PTG. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigating the Relationship Between Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Posttraumatic Growth Following Community Violence: The Role of Anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasshofer, David R; Peterson, Zoë D; Beagley, Marin C; Galovski, Tara E

    2017-10-05

    Past research has revealed that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by disturbances in emotional reactivity, including anger reactions. In turn, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and anger reactions have been shown to be independently associated with posttraumatic growth (PTG). As such, anger reactions may serve as a pathway of influence through which PTSS lead to PTG in trauma-exposed adults. The current study examined cross-sectional relationships among PTSS, anger reactions, and PTG in 318 participants who were exposed to the violent political protests in Ferguson, Missouri after the officer-involved shooting of Michael Brown. Specifically, anger reactions were examined as a pathway of influence through which PTSS contribute to PTG. PTSS positively predicted anger reactions and PTG. Further anger reactions were associated with PTG. Anger reactions were found to partially account for the relationship between PTSS and PTG; thus, PTSS affect PTG, in part, through anger reactions to traumatic events. These results indicate a more direct role of anger reactions in facilitating growth after the associated distress of community violence. On the basis of these findings, anger may be useful in galvanizing individuals to make positive change after traumatic events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Indian Ocean tsunami: relationships among posttraumatic stress, posttraumatic growth, resource loss, and coping at 3 and 15 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, David N; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Moller, Adam M; Kesavatana-Dohrs, Wiworn; Graham, James M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines variables associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) and posttraumatic growth among 2 independent samples of survivors following the Indian Ocean tsunami in Khao Lak, Thailand. Participants were exposed to unprecedented horror and loss of life and property. At 3 months participants (N = 248) were living in temporary shelters, and at 15 months a second sample (N = 255) was living in homes built after the tsunami. Prior traumatic experiences, life threat, loss of personal characteristic resources and condition resources, somatic problems, and social support accounted for close to half of the variance in PTS in each sample. At 3 months, emotion-focused coping and concerns about government favoritism also contributed to PTS. At 15 months, lack of prior disaster experience and loss of energy resources also contributed to PTS. Distress was higher among participants surveyed at 3 months than among those surveyed at 15 months. Posttraumatic growth was positively associated with social support and problem-focused coping in both samples. The findings support conservation of resources stress theory ( Hobfoll, 2012 ) and underscore how systemic issues affect mental health. The implications of the findings are discussed, as is the educational International Tsunami Museum designed by the first author to address systemic stressors.

  11. Client-centred therapy, post-traumatic stress disorder and post-traumatic growth: theoretical perspectives and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Stephen

    2004-03-01

    In practice it is not unusual for client-centred therapists to work with people who have experienced traumatic events. However, client-centred therapy is not usually considered within texts on traumatic stress and questions have been raised over the appropriateness of client-centred therapy with trauma survivors. The present study shows how, although he was writing well before the introduction of the term 'post-traumatic stress disorder', Carl Rogers provided a theory of therapy and personality that contains an account of threat-related psychological processes largely consistent with contemporary trauma theory. Rogers' theory provides the conceptual underpinnings to the client-centred and experiential ways of working with traumatized people. Furthermore, Rogers' theory provides an understanding of post-traumatic growth processes, and encourages therapists to adopt a more positive psychological perspective to their understanding of how people adjust to traumatic events.

  12. Correlation Between Posttraumatic Growth and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Based on Pearson Correlation Coefficient: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An-Nuo; Wang, Lu-Lu; Li, Hui-Ping; Gong, Juan; Liu, Xiao-Hong

    2017-05-01

    The literature on posttraumatic growth (PTG) is burgeoning, with the inconsistencies in the literature of the relationship between PTG and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms becoming a focal point of attention. Thus, this meta-analysis aims to explore the relationship between PTG and PTSD symptoms through the Pearson correlation coefficient. A systematic search of the literature from January 1996 to November 2015 was completed. We retrieved reports on 63 studies that involved 26,951 patients. The weighted correlation coefficient revealed an effect size of 0.22 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.18 to 0.25. Meta-analysis provides evidence that PTG may be positively correlated with PTSD symptoms and that this correlation may be modified by age, trauma type, and time since trauma. Accordingly, people with high levels of PTG should not be ignored, but rather, they should continue to receive help to alleviate their PTSD symptoms.

  13. The role of post-traumatic stress and post-traumatic growth on online information use in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellas-Grau, A; Sumalla, E C; Lleras, M; Vives, J; Sirgo, A; León, C; Rodríguez, A; Campos, G; Valverde, Y; Borràs, J M; Ochoa, C

    2018-05-08

    Changes perceived as both positive (e.g., post-traumatic growth [PTG]) and negative (e.g. post-traumatic stress symptoms [PTSS]) have been associated with intensive internet use among breast cancer survivors. In this multi-center study, we analyzed the role of PTG and PTSS on the amount of time spent looking for online cancer information, its content, and its psychological impact. PTSS and PTG were assessed in 182 breast cancer survivors using the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist and Post-traumatic Growth Inventory questionnaires. Subjects also completed a questionnaire about their behavior when looking for online illness-related information (i.e., time spent, type of contents, and psychological impact). PTSS positively correlated with the amount of time spent looking for cancer-related information, including both medical and psychosocial content. By contrast, PTG showed no relationships with the amount of time, but with a predominant search for cancer-related psychosocial information. The psychological impact of online information was associated with participants' levels of PTG and/or PTSS. Whereas PTG was related to a decrease of women's hope, PTSS was linked to the perception of being less conscious or inadequately informed about the illness, thereby increasing feelings of distress. PTSS and PTG show relationships with the amount of time spent online, the type of information accessed online, and the psychological impact of internet use. Health professionals should prescribe online information according to the psychological response to cancer. There is a need for professional-led online resources to provide patients with timely information as well as support sites to facilitate psychological adjustment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Post-traumatic Growth in Breast Cancer Patients: A Qualitative Phenomenological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahele Fallah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies about cancer-related trauma have shown that psychological reactions to the disease are not exclusively negative but most patients also report positive experiences. These positive perceptions are also called post-traumatic growth and benefit patients psychologically, spiritually, and physically. Therefore,we have conducted a study about how women with breast cancer perceive posttraumatic growth and the recognition of its dimensions in Iran.Methods: This qualitative study was conducted by using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. A total of 23 women with breast cancer who met the inclusion criteria were selected after which patients completed a researcher-generated open-ended questionnaire. Data were analyzed according to the guidelines for the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis and Smith method.Results: Participants’ perceptions in this study about post-traumatic growth included three themes: spiritual growth, appreciation of life, and increased personal strengths.Conclusion: Themes found in this study conformed to dimensions according to the Tedeschi and Calhoun theory of post-traumatic growth. However, relations with others were not found in the present study. We propose that interventions should be designed and implemented in order to facilitate and enhance post-traumatic growth.

  15. Factors associated with posttraumatic growth among parents of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Nao; Mori, Naoko; Ishimaru, Sae; Ohyama, Wataru; Yuza, Yuki; Kaneko, Takashi; Kanda, Eiichiro; Matsushima, Eisuke

    2017-09-01

    Parents of children with cancer are susceptible to psychological distress; however, many parents also report posttraumatic growth (PTG). The objective of this study was to explore the variables associated with PTG in parents of children with cancer who were either on treatment or off treatment. One hundred and nineteen parents (71 mothers and 48 fathers) of children with cancer completed self-report questionnaires, including the PTG Inventory, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Demographic data and children's medical information were also collected. Multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the variables associated with PTG. The mean age of participants was 41.4 years (SD = 6). Higher PTG Inventory scores were associated with parents' lower trait anxiety (P = .028), parents' sex (female; P = .004), treatment status (within 12 months from treatment end compared with on-treatment; P = .048), surgery (P = .007), and late effects (P = .01). Parents' PTG was associated with children's clinical characteristics, parents' sex, and parents' anxiety levels. When dealing with PTG, the parents' psychological characteristics and children's clinical characteristics should be considered. Particularly for parents with high trait anxiety, it is important to reduce anxiety first before addressing PTG. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Relationship termination in emerging adulthood: Coping strategies as predictors of posttraumatic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Zgaga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Relationship termination happens relatively often in emerging adulthood but is nevertheless as distressing then as it is later in life. We examined the relationship between coping strategies and posttraumatic growth in a sample of 260 emerging adults whose heterosexual romantic relationships were terminated at most two years before participating in the study. Participants completed The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, The COPE Inventory and Emotion Approach Coping scale. For the purposes of the study we also conceptualized a new coping inventory, related specifically to coping with relationship termination. While controlling for gender and age the coping strategies explained 34 % of variability in posttraumatic growth. Statistically significant predictors of posttraumatic growth were problem-oriented coping strategies, coping strategies, oriented towards emotions and other people, acceptance and positive self-motivation as well as coping strategies that allow some distancing from the stressor. Results indicate that posttraumatic growth is related to problem-oriented and also to emotion-oriented coping strategies, which is reasonable since relationship termination is a stressor that cannot be eliminated. It is important that an individual who is facing it can cope well with the unpleasant emotions deriving from relationship termination.

  17. Posttraumatic Growth in the Aftermath of Trauma: A Literature Review About Related Factors and Application Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Ramos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In the face of one traumatic event, individuals may perceive, along with the inherent negative responses, a number of positive changes, which reveal posttraumatic growth. This concept has increased its expression in literature over the years, and it has been recognized that people exposed to highly traumatic events, such as bereavement, war combat, disasters, disease or other stressful or life-threatening events, may perceive positive changes from the struggling with those events. Thus, this literature review aims at exploring the definition of posttraumatic growth, associated factors and application contexts. Method and Results: Electronic databases were used to search the relevant literature. Based on the analysis of empirical data, were found several studies that demonstrated a range of factors, such as distress, personality characteristics, self-disclosure, coping, social support, environmental characteristics, assumptive world, rumination, spirituality and optimism, that have contributed to the development of posttraumatic growth; however, some relationships remain inconclusive. Conclusion: Further research is required, to clarify the genesis and the development of posttraumatic growth, also, to extend the posttraumatic growth studies in health context, encompassing the patient as well as family and social network.

  18. Posttraumatic Growth in Youth Survivors of a Disaster: An Arts-Based Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Evidence that posttraumatic growth is a potential outcome in the process of recovery from trauma and natural disaster highlights the importance of social environmental factors that encourage a growth response in survivors. This art-based research project followed up on a group of youth survivors (N = 11) of the 2007 earthquake in the Ica region of…

  19. Urban Teens: Trauma, Posttraumatic Growth, and Emotional Distress among Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickovics, Jeanette R.; Meade, Christina S.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Milan, Stephanie; Lewis, Jessica B.; Ethier, Kathleen A.

    2006-01-01

    Urban teens face many traumas, with implications for potential growth and distress. This study examined traumatic events, posttraumatic growth, and emotional distress over 18 months among urban adolescent girls (N = 328). Objectives were to (a) describe types of traumatic events, (b) determine how type and timing of events relate to profiles of…

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Post-Traumatic Growth and Psychological Distress in Colorectal Cancer Survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Occhipinti

    Full Text Available The stability of post-traumatic growth over time and the relationship between post-traumatic growth and traditional distress outcomes remains unclear. We tracked post-traumatic growth in a population-based sample of colorectal cancer patients from soon after diagnosis to five years subsequently to assess the heterogeneity of a post-traumatic growth response to cancer over time and describe the simultaneous and longitudinal relationships between post-traumatic growth and psychological distress. 1966 colorectal patients who were five months post diagnosis were assessed six times over a five year period. There was considerable heterogeneity associated with both psychological distress and benefit finding scores over time. However, both for benefit finding and psychological distress, the variation in individual scores suggested an underlying positive linear trend and both lagged and lagged change components. Specifically, benefit finding and psychological distress are mutual leading indicators of each other. First, benefit finding served as a leading indicator of distress, in that increases in reported benefit finding from year to year predicted higher future increases in psychological distress. As well, in an inverse relationship, psychological distress served as a leading indicator of benefit finding, such that increases in reported distress from year to year predicted lower future increases in benefit finding. Post-traumatic growth may reflect patients coping efforts to enhance perceptions of wellbeing in response to escalating cancer-related threats, acting as harbinger of increasing trajectories of psychological distress. This explanation is consistent with a cognitive dissonance response in which threats to the integrity of the self then lead to a tendency to accentuate positive aspects of the self.

  1. Post-traumatic growth? Tavshed og tale i omgang med afmagt, angst og sorg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welz, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    What does it mean to speak of post-traumatic growth? The present article investigates the role of speech and silence in coping with anxiety, grief, and powerlessness. This issue will be discussed by analyzing David Grossman’s book Falling Out of Time, by bringing together different psychotherapeu......What does it mean to speak of post-traumatic growth? The present article investigates the role of speech and silence in coping with anxiety, grief, and powerlessness. This issue will be discussed by analyzing David Grossman’s book Falling Out of Time, by bringing together different...

  2. Work satisfaction and posttraumatic growth 1 year after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake: the perceived stress as a moderating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiuping; Wu, Wei

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the role of perceived stress as a possible moderating factor between posttraumatic growth (PTG) and work satisfaction. A stratified random sampling strategy was used to survey 2080 adult survivors of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, the Job Satisfaction Index Scale and the Perceived Stress Scale were used in the assessment of the posttraumatic growth, work satisfaction and perceived stress respectively, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used for the analysis. The findings highlight work satisfaction as an important factor in both the prediction of posttraumatic growth and for its moderating effect on perceived stress. Some demographic characteristics, such as gender, education level, and housing condition were found to also affect the survivors' posttraumatic growth. This conclusion indicates that managers should pay closer attention to their employees' psychological state after a disaster and medical practitioners should consider survivors' work status and perceived stress when dispensing mental health care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Elaboration on posttraumatic growth in youth exposed to terror: the role of religiosity and political ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Avital; Solomon, Zahava; Levine, Stephen Z

    2010-06-01

    This study aims to examine competing explanations of the relationship between religious and political ideology commitment with posttraumatic growth. Subjects were Israeli youth who were exposed to terror (n = 2,999) aged 13-15. Measures included: posttraumatic growth inventory, religious orientation, ideological commitment, objective and subjective exposure to terror. Both religiosity and political ideology mediated the effects of exposure and fear on growth. Political ideology but not religiosity, had a moderating effect, such that subjective fear was positively associated with growth only among those with stronger ideologies. Results support the contention of Terror Management Theory that cultural beliefs have beneficial effects on well being in the face of adversity and emphasize the role of cultural world as effecting growth, beyond trauma.

  4. Secondary traumatic stress and secondary posttraumatic growth in a sample of Dutch police family liaison officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, Maarten; Saan, M.C.; Bollen, Lidewij; Kuijpers, Karlijn

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated secondary traumatic stress (STS) and secondary posttraumatic growth (SPG) in a sample of Dutch police family liaison officers (N = 224). Our study had two aims: (a) to identify potential risk and protective factors for STS and (b) to investigate the association between STS

  5. Post-Traumatic Growth and Resilience in Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Patients: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greup, Suzanne R.; Kaal, Suzanne E. J.; Jansen, Rosemarie; Manten-Horst, Eveliene; Thong, Melissa S. Y.; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.; Prins, Judith B.; Husson, Olga

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the literature on post-traumatic growth (PTG) and resilience among adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients. A literature search in Embase, PsychInfo, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Cinahl was carried out. Thirteen articles

  6. Reliability and Validity of a Spanish Version of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Tzipi; Berger, Roni

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. This study was designed to adapt and validate a Spanish translation of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) for the assessment of positive life changes following the stressful experiences of immigration. Method. A cross-cultural equivalence model was used to pursue semantic, content, conceptual, and technical equivalence.…

  7. Post-traumatic stress disorder and post-traumatic growth in breast cancer patients--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Darshit; De Ieso, Paolo; Garvey, Gail; Thachil, Thanuja; Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Penniment, Michael; Jayaraj, Rama

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is potentially a traumatic stressor which may be associated with negative outcomes, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or positive changes, such as post-traumatic growth (PTG). This study aims to identify the core issues of BC related PTSD, PTG and psychological distress by interrogating the literature in BC survivors. We have also highlighted issues related to the assessment, diagnosis and clinical management of PTSD and PTG. The authors systematically reviewed studies published from 1985 to 2014 pertaining to PTSD, psychological distress and PTG in BC survivors with particular attention paid to incidence rates and causative factors. Multiple studies intimated that women with BC have evidence of PTSD at the initial stages of diagnosis, whereas PTG develops once patients undergo treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment of PTSD/PTG is paramount from literature review but the previously mentioned relationship between PTSD and PTG in BC patients could not be verified. It is evident from the literature that a small percentage of BC patients experience PTSD, while the majority experience PTG after BC diagnosis and treatment. Future research should include prospective studies focusing on high-risk patients, causative factors and the development of psychological interventions.

  8. Shared and unique predictors of post-traumatic growth and distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, Sharon; Mandl, Christine; Solomon, Zahava

    2011-03-01

    This prospective longitudinal study compared pretraumatic, peritraumatic, and post-traumatic predictors of post-traumatic growth (PTG) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A total of 103 Israeli former prisoners of the Yom Kippur War were followed over 30 years. Sociodemographic variables, trauma exposure, reactions in captivity, world assumptions, social support, and personality factors were assessed in 1991, and PTG and PTSD symptoms in 2003. Hierarchical regression modeling showed that although some predictors, namely, loss of control and active coping during captivity, predicted both PTG and PTSD, others predicted one outcome and not the other. Self-controllability predicted PTG while sociodemographic factors predicted PTSD when controlling for PTSD and PTG, respectively. The findings indicate that salutary and pathogenic trauma outcomes share some but not all precursors, underscoring their multifaceted relationship. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Posttraumatic Growth as a Response to Natural Disasters in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Melissa; Pfefferbaum, Betty

    2018-05-16

    This review examines factors thought to be associated with posttraumatic growth (PTG) (demographic variables, exposure, and family and social processes) among youth exposed to natural disasters, describes the relationship between PTG and posttraumatic stress, and discusses psychological processes (rumination and coping) linked to PTG. Guided by PTG theory and the literature on PTG in adults, research has revealed relationships between PTG and child, environmental, and family and social factors among youth though the results are mixed. Youth's subjective exposure to disasters, their level of posttraumatic stress following the disaster, and the type of psychological processes they employ to cope with the disaster appear to be associated with PTG. Research has garnered preliminary support for PTG in children exposed to natural disasters but additional research is needed to fully explicate these relationships and to understand how these relationships change over time.

  10. Original article Posttraumatic growth in patients after myocardial infarction: the role of cognitive coping and experience of life threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Łosiak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Posttraumatic growth is described as a process of restructuring of experience and positive changes in life attitudes. According to theoretical postulates, posttraumatic growth is a result of adaptive coping strategies that have cognitive character. The aim of the study was to evaluate relationships between posttraumatic growth, cognitive coping strategies and the severity of life threat experience in a group of patients who had experienced myocardial infarction. Participants and procedure Fifty-three patients who had experienced their first myocardial infarction (32 men and 21 women participated in the study and completed questionnaires measuring posttraumatic growth and cognitive coping strategies as well as a rating scale measuring the severity of life threat experience during the infarction. Results The results indicate that posttraumatic growth in general and in the aspect of changes in self, relationships or affirmation of life was related to cognitive coping strategies. In the case of spiritual changes, severity of life threat experience was significant while coping was not. Patients’ gender, age or post-myocardial infarction time appeared to be non-significant. Conclusions Generally, theories postulating that posttraumatic growth is a result of cognitive coping strategies found some support. Moreover, it may be concluded that posttraumatic growth appears only in some percentage of persons experiencing a specific trauma of myocardial infarction.

  11. Positive and negative outcomes of childhood cancer: is there a connection between posttraumatic stress and growth in childhood cancer survivors?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koutná, Veronika; Blatný, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 12 (2017), s. 1-15 E-ISSN 2375-1924 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : posttraumatic stress * posttraumatic growth * childhood cancer survivors Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) http://journals.ke-i.org/index.php/mra/article/view/1665/1635

  12. Positive and negative outcomes of childhood cancer: is there a connection between posttraumatic stress and growth in childhood cancer survivors?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koutná, Veronika; Blatný, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 12 (2017), s. 1-15 E-ISSN 2375-1924 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : posttraumatic stress * posttraumatic growth * childhood cancer survivors Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) http://journals.ke-i.org/index. php /mra/article/view/1665/1635

  13. Posttraumatic growth and religion in Rwanda: individual well-being vs. collective false consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Some scholars include changes in spirituality, such as a greater commitment to their religious beliefs or an enhanced understanding of spiritual matters, in the definition of posttraumatic growth; others conclude that questions of spirituality should be excluded from this definition. This article highlights the fundamental difference of religion to other domains of posttraumatic growth because religions are ideologies (and other domains of growth are not). As ideologies, it is argued that religions can affect different levels of identity in different ways. Based on testimonial evidence from Rwandan genocide survivors, the article demonstrates that although religious beliefs can bring existential comfort at the individual level, they can also lead to a state of false consciousness at the collective level. In Rwanda, the dominant religious ideology facilitated the spiritual and moral climate in which genocide became possible. Today, religious interpretations of the Rwandan Patriotic Front's (RPF) leadership provide spiritual backing to a government which has become increasingly authoritarian. PMID:25705116

  14. Randomized controlled trial of SecondStory, an intervention targeting posttraumatic growth, with bereaved adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepke, Ann Marie; Tsukayama, Eli; Forgeard, Marie; Blackie, Laura; Jayawickreme, Eranda

    2018-06-01

    People often report positive psychological changes after adversity, a phenomenon known as posttraumatic growth (PTG). Few PTG-focused interventions have been rigorously tested, and measurement strategies have had significant limitations. This study evaluated the effects of a new group-format psychosocial intervention, SecondStory, aimed at facilitating PTG by helping participants make meaning of the past and plan a purposeful future. In a randomized controlled trial, adults (N = 112, 64% women) bereaved within 5 years were randomly assigned to SecondStory or an active control, expressive writing. The primary outcome, PTG, was measured using two contrasting methods: the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, which asks participants retrospectively how much they believe they have changed due to struggling with adversity, and the Current-Standing Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, which tracks quantifiable change in participants' standing in PTG domains over time. Secondary outcomes included depression symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and life satisfaction. Outcomes were measured at 2-week intervals: pretest, posttest, and three follow-up occasions. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to assess whether SecondStory participants experienced greater gains in primary and/or secondary outcomes over the 8-week trial. Results indicated that SecondStory participants did not show significantly greater improvements than control participants on measures of PTG, posttraumatic stress, or life satisfaction, but they did show greater decreases in depression symptoms by the first follow-up. These findings suggest that SecondStory may not facilitate PTG more effectively than existing interventions but may be promising for addressing depression. Positive interventions may productively be refined to support people experiencing trauma and loss. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Post-traumatic stress symptoms and post-traumatic growth in 223 childhood cancer survivors: predictive risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eTremolada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available With modern therapies and supportive care, survival rates of childhood cancer have increased considerably. However, there are long-term psychological sequelae of these treatments that may not manifest until pediatric survivors are into adulthood. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in young adult survivors of childhood cancer ranges from 6.2% to 22%; associated risk factors are young age at the assessment, female gender, low education level and some disease-related factors. The aim of this study was to investigate, in adolescent and young adult (AYA survivors of childhood cancer, the incidence and severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS, and to identify the risk factors and the associated post-traumatic growth (PTG index.Participants were 223 AYA cancer survivors recruited during follow-up visits in the Oncohematology Clinic of the Department of Child and Woman’s Health, University of Padua. Data were collected from self-report questionnaires on PTSS incidence, PTG mean score, perceived social support, and medical and socio-demographic factors. Ex-patients’ mean age at the assessment was 19.33 years (SD = 3.01, 15-25, 123 males and 100 females, with a mean of years off-therapy of 9.64 (SD=4.17. Most (52.5% had survived an hematological disorder and 47.5% a solid tumor when they were aged, on average, 8.02 years (SD=4.40.The main results indicated a moderate presence of clinical (≥9 symptoms: 9.4% and sub-clinical PTSS (6-8 symptoms: 11.2%, with the avoidance criterion most often encountered. Re-experience symptoms and PTG mean score were significantly associated (r=0.24 p=0.0001. A hierarchical regression model (R2 = 0.08; F = 1.46; p = 0.05 identified female gender (β = 0.16; p = 0.05 and less perceived social support (β = -0.43; p = 0.05 as risk factors to developing PTSS. Another hierarchical regression model assessed the possible predictors of the PTG total score (R2 = 0.36; F = 9.1; p = 0.0001, with

  16. Siblings of people diagnosed with a mental disorder and posttraumatic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Avihay; Szymanski, Kate

    2013-10-01

    This study examines the potential for posttraumatic growth (PTG) for siblings of persons diagnosed with a mental disorder. Using the posttraumatic growth Inventory we compared siblings (N = 33) with a comparison group of participants who did not experience trauma (N = 30). Our group of participants who had a sibling diagnosed with a mental disorder by a mental health professional (N = 33) reported higher PTG scores with mostly large effect sizes on most of the inventory subscales. Participants who took an active role in care giving experienced less PTG than participants who did not. Having a sibling diagnosed with a mental disorder presents an opportunity to experience PTG. Implications for the therapeutic milieus are discussed.

  17. Centrality of positive and negative deployment memories predicts posttraumatic growth in danish veterans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staugaard, Søren Risløv; Johannessen, Kim Berg; Thomsen, Yvonne Duval

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to examine theoretically motivated predictors for the development of positive changes following potentially traumatic experiences (i.e., posttraumatic growth). Specifically, we wanted to examine the prediction that memories of highly negative......-sectional analyses of the data. RESULTS: The main findings were that the centrality of highly emotional memories from deployment predicted growth alongside openness to experience, combat exposure, and social support. Importantly, the centrality of both positive and negative memories predicted growth equally well...

  18. Posttraumatic growth, social acknowledgment as survivors, and sense of coherence in former German child soldiers of World War II

    OpenAIRE

    Forstmeier, Simon; Kuwert, P; Spitzer, C; Freyberger, H J; Maercker, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine posttraumatic growth and its predictors social acknowledgment as survivors, sense of coherence, trauma severity, and further factors in former child soldiers more than 60 years after deployment. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: University-based geropsychiatric center in Germany. Participants: 103 former German child soldiers of World War II, mean age 78 years, 96% experienced at least one war trauma. Measurement: Subjects completed the Posttraumatic Growth ...

  19. Evaluation of a modified version of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory-Short Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navjot Kaur

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Posttraumatic growth is the positive change resulting from traumatic experiences and is typically assessed with retrospective measures like the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI. The PTGI was designed to include reference to a specific traumatic event, making it difficult to implement, without change, in prospective survey studies. Thus, a modified Posttraumatic Growth Inventory–Short Form (PTGI-SF was included in a large prospective study of current and former U.S. military personnel. The current study provides preliminary psychometric data for this modified measure and its ability to assess psychological well-being at a single time point. Methods The study population (N = 135,843 was randomly and equally split into exploratory and confirmatory samples that were proportionately balanced on trauma criterion. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA were performed to assess the psychometric validity of the modified measure. The final model was also assessed in a subset of the confirmatory sample with a history of trauma using CFA. Results Results supported a single-factor model with two additional correlations between items assessing spirituality and items assessing compassion/appreciation for others. This model also fits among the subset with a history of trauma. The resulting measure was strongly associated with social support and personal mastery. Conclusions The modified PTGI-SF in this study captures psychological well-being in cross-sectional assessments, in addition to being able to measure posttraumatic growth with multiple assessments. Results indicate that the modified measure is represented by a single factor, but that items assessing spirituality and compassion/appreciation for others may be used alone to better capture these constructs.

  20. Health behaviour and posttraumatic growth in parents of childhood cancer survivors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slezáčková, Alena; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Kepák, T.; Vlčková, I.; Pilát, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2009), s. 366-367 ISSN 0887-0446. [Annual Conference of the European Health Psychology Society /23./. 23.09.2009-26.09.2009, Pisa] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/07/1384 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : health behaviour * posttraumatic growth * childhood cancer survivors Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  1. Psychological well-being and Posttraumatic growth in caregivers of cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eCormio

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAlthough research has shown that many cancer patients report positive life changes following cancer diagnosis, there are few data in the literature related to PTG in caregivers of cancer patients. However, the few studies available have shown that this kind of positive changes can also be experienced by family members. The aims of this study were to explore PTG in caregivers of cancer patients and to investigate correlations between the Posttraumatic growth, psychological status and QoL of caregivers and those of patients, taking into account also clinical and socio-demographic aspects.Methods We enrolled 60 patient/caregiver pairs in the Department of Medical Oncology of the National Research Center ‘Giovanni Paolo II’ in Bari. Both patients and caregivers were assessed using the following scales: Posttraumatic growth Inventory (PTGI; Hospital anxiety and depression scale; Short Form (36 Health Survey (SF-36; ECOG Performance Status. Clinical and socio-demographic data were collected. ResultsCaregivers showed significantly higher scores than patients in the dimension of personal strength. Furthermore, we found a significantly close association between anxiety and depression of caregivers with those of patients. Younger caregivers were better than older ones in terms of physical activity, vitality, mental health, and social activities. Although the degree of relationship with the patient has no significant effect on the dependent variables of the study, it was found that caregivers with a degree of kinship more distant to the patient have less physical pain than the closest relatives.ConclusionResults of the present study show that caregivers of cancer patients may experience post-traumatic growth as the result of their caregiver role. It would be interesting to investigate in future research which factor may mediate the presence of post-traumatic growth.

  2. The role of repetitive thought in determining posttraumatic growth and distress following interpersonal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allbaugh, Lucy Jane; Wright, Margaret O'Dougherty; Folger, Susan F

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive thought (RT) strategies have been linked to a range of negative outcomes following traumatic interpersonal events but are proposed to serve an adaptive function under particular circumstances. This study examined outcomes following RT within a transdiagnostic framework, and explored the potentially adaptive nature of trait-like and event-related RT. The centrality of a traumatic event to one's identity was explored as a context under which the adaptive nature of RT might change. Young adults with interpersonal violence experiences (N = 163) reported use of trait-like and event-related RT, centrality of the event, depressive, anxious, and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), posttraumatic depreciation and posttraumatic growth. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to examine main and moderating effects of four types of RT and event centrality on outcome variables. Centrality positively predicted depressive symptoms and PTSS, depreciation, and growth. Brooding RT positively predicted all negative outcomes. Reflecting RT positively predicted anxious symptoms and PTSS and depreciation. Only deliberate RT positively predicted growth. Centrality did not moderate any examined relationships. Findings highlight the importance of addressing specific types of RT in interventions with survivors and of considering centrality as a robust contributor to outcomes following interpersonal violence.

  3. Relationships between family resilience and posttraumatic growth in breast cancer survivors and caregiver burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Li, Yuli; Chen, Lijun; Li, Yurong; Qi, Weiye; Yu, Li

    2018-04-01

    To examine the relationships between family resilience and posttraumatic growth (PTG) of breast cancer survivors and caregiver burden among principal caregivers in China. Participants in this cross-sectional study comprised 108 women aged 26 to 74 years (M = 49, SD = 9) with early-stage breast cancer and 108 principal caregivers. Participants were recruited from a comprehensive cancer center of a public hospital in Shandong Province, China. The principal caregivers completed the Shortened Chinese Version of the Family Resilience Assessment Scale and the Chinese Version of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview; patients completed the Short Form of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and questions designed to obtain sociodemographic information. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to assess the adjusted association between family resilience and PTG and caregiver burden, while controlling for sociodemographics. Families showed a slightly elevated level of family resilience since the cancer experience, and patients showed a moderate degree of PTG. Principal caregivers reported moderate burden. The Shortened Chinese Version of the Family Resilience Assessment Scale total score was positively related to the Short Form of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory total score (β = .28, P Caregiver Burden Interview total score (β = -.28, P resilience impacts PTG of breast cancer survivors and caregiver burden. Our findings indicated the necessity of interventions to facilitate family resilience, promote PTG among breast cancer survivors, and decrease family members' caregiver burden. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. A confirmatory factor analysis of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Inventory of Complicated Grief-Revised: Are we measuring complicated grief or posttraumatic stress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Maja; Lasgaard, Mathias Kamp; Shevlin, Mark

    2010-01-01

      The Inventory of Complicated Grief Revised (ICG-R) assesses symptoms of complicated grief in bereaved individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the factorial structure of Complicated Grief (CG) and investigate the relationship between CG and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder through the asse......  The Inventory of Complicated Grief Revised (ICG-R) assesses symptoms of complicated grief in bereaved individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the factorial structure of Complicated Grief (CG) and investigate the relationship between CG and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder through...... and the three factors of PTSD, as defined by the DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994), were allowed to correlate provided the best fit. The results therefore indicate high levels of conceptual overlap among the dimensions of CG and PTSD....

  5. What makes a thriver? Unifying the concepts of post-traumatic and post-ecstatic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith eMangelsdorf

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The thriver model is a novel framework that unifies the concepts of posttraumatic and postecstatic growth. According to the model, it is not the quality of an event, but the way it is processed, that is critical for the occurrence of post-event growth. The model proposes that meaning making, supportive relationships, and positive emotions facilitate growth processes after positive as well as traumatic experiences. The tenability of these propositions was investigated in two dissimilar cultures. In study 1, participants from the USA (n=555 and India (n=599 answered an extended version of the Social Readjustment Rating Scale to rank the socioemotional impact of events. Results indicate that negative events are perceived as more impactful than positive ones in the USA, whereas the reverse is true in India. In study 2, participants from the USA (n=342 and India (n=341 answered questions about the thriver model’s main components. Results showed that posttraumatic and postecstatic growth are highly interrelated. All elements of the thriver model were key variables for the prediction of growth. Supportive relationships and positive emotions had a direct effect on growth, while meaning making mediated the direct effect of major life events.

  6. Psychological resilience and post-traumatic growth in disaster-exposed organisations: overview of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Samantha; Amlôt, R; Rubin, G J; Greenberg, N

    2018-02-02

    As disasters become increasingly prevalent, and reported on, a wealth of literature on post-disaster mental health has been published. Most published evidence focuses on symptoms of mental health problems (such as post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety) and psychosocial factors increasing the risk of such symptoms. However, a recent shift in the literature has moved to exploring resilience and the absence of adverse lasting mental health effects following a disaster. This paper undertakes a qualitative review of the literature to explore factors affecting psychological resilience, as well as the potential positive impact of experiencing a disaster (post-traumatic growth) by examining the literature on employees in disaster-exposed organisations. We identify several protective factors: training, experience, and perceived (personal) competence; social support; and effective coping strategies. Post-traumatic growth frequently appeared to occur at both personal and professional levels for those rescue staff after a disaster, giving employees a greater appreciation of life and their relationships, enhancing their self-esteem and providing a sense of accomplishment and better understanding of their work. Implications, in terms of how to build a resilient workforce, are discussed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Association between virtues and posttraumatic growth: preliminary evidence from a Chinese community sample after earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Duan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Relationship, vitality, and conscientiousness are three fundamental virtues that have been recently identified as important individual differences to health, well being, and positive development. This cross-sectional study attempted to explore the relationship between the three constructs and post-traumatic growth (PTG in three directions, including indirect trauma samples without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, direct trauma samples without PTSD, and direct trauma samples with PTSD.Methods. A total of 340 community participants from Sichuan Province, Mainland China involved in the study, most of which experienced Wenchuan and Lushan Earthquake. Participants were required to complete the self-reported questionnaire packages at one time point for obtaining their scores on virtues (Chinese Virtues Questionnaire, PTSD (PTSD Checklist-Specific, and PTG (Post-traumatic Growth Inventory-Chinese.Results. Significant and positive correlations between the three virtues and PTG were identified (r = .39–.56; p < .01. Further regression analysis by stepwise method reveled that: in the indirect trauma samples, vitality explained 32% variance of PTG. In reference to the direct trauma sample without PTSD, both relationship and conscientiousness explained 32% variance of PTG, whereas in the direct trauma sample with PTSD, only conscientiousness accounted for 31% the variance in PTG.Conclusion.This cross-sectional investigation partly revealed the roles of different virtues in trauma context. Findings suggest important implications for strengths-based treatment.

  8. Well-Being and Posttraumatic Growth Among Syrian Refugees in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizkalla, Niveen; Segal, Steven P

    2018-04-01

    The Syrian War has created a mass exodus of Syrian citizens to neighboring countries and exposed them to many atrocities. We explored factors affecting well-being and posttraumatic growth (PTG) of refugees residing in Jordan. Participants (N = 250) were surveyed via nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Outcome criteria included a global well-being rating and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Trauma exposure assessment included The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) and The War Events Questionnaire. Ordinary least squares regression examined associations between potential contributors to refugee well-being and PTG, including work, age, sex, income, education, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity, physical pain, health, NGO assistance, psychotic/affective mental disorder, and length of residence in Jordan. Mean participant score on the PTSD-HTQ scale was 2.37 (SD = 0.63; range: 1 [no symptoms] to 3.88 [extremely severe symptoms]). Additionally, 74.6% of participants received NGO assistance and 92.7% experienced war events. Univariate and multivariate results indicated enhancement of well-being was associated with income, r = .34, β = .26, p Syrian refugees' mental health. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  9. Posttraumatic stress and growth: the contribution of cognitive appraisal and sense of belonging to the country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, Rachel; Nuttman-Shwartz, Orit

    2009-05-01

    The study has three aims: (1) to compare the effect of the Qassam attacks in two types of communities: development town and kibbutz; (2) to examine the relationship between posttraumatic stress (PTS) and posttraumatic growth (PTG); and (3) to examine the contribution that level of exposure, cognitive appraisal, and sense of belonging to the country make to PTS and PTG. The sample consisted of 134 residents, 67 living on two kibbutzim and 67 living in the development town of Sderot. Results revealed that the development town residents reported more PTS symptoms and more PTG than did the kibbutz residents, and the association between PTS and PTG was positive. In addition, the findings show that most of the predictors contribute to either PTS or PTG, or predicted them differently. The discussion examines the results in light of the current literature on PTS and PTG.

  10. The protective role of maternal posttraumatic growth and cognitive trauma processing among Palestinian mothers and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Safwat Y; Isosävi, Sanna; Qouta, Samir R; Kuittinen, Saija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2018-02-01

    War survivors use multiple cognitive and emotional processes to protect their mental health from the negative impacts of trauma. Because mothers and infants may be especially vulnerable to trauma in conditions of war, it is urgent to determine which cognitive and emotional processes are effective for preventing negative trauma impacts." This study examined whether mothers' high posttraumatic growth (PTG) and positive posttraumatic cognitions (PTC) protected (a) their own mental health and (b) their infants' stress regulation and sensorimotor and language development from the effects of war trauma. The participants were 511 Palestinian mothers and their infants living in the Gaza strip. The mothers were interviewed in their second trimester of pregnancy (T1) as well as when the infant was four months (T2) and twelve months (T3). Mothers reported posttraumatic growth (PTG; Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996) at T1 and posttraumatic cognitions (PTCI; Foa et al., 1999) at T2. They also reported their exposure to traumatic war events both at T1 and T3 and described their mental health conditions (e.g., PTSD and/or depressive and dissociation symptoms) at T3. The Infant Behaviour Questionnaire (IBQ) was used to measure infants' stress regulation at T2 and sensorimotor and language development at T3. The results, based on regression analyses with interaction terms between trauma and PTG, showed that high levels of traumatic war events were not associated with high levels of PTSD, depressive, or dissociation symptoms among mothers showing high levels of PTG. This suggests that PTG may protect maternal mental health from the effects of trauma. In turn, positive maternal PTCs appeared to protect the infants' stress regulation from the effects of war trauma. The study concludes by discussing ways to develop and implement preventive interventions for mother-infant dyads in war conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Subjective age and perceived distance-to-death moderate the association between posttraumatic stress symptoms and posttraumatic growth among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palgi, Yuval

    2016-09-01

    Little research has addressed the association between posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and posttraumatic growth (PTG) in the second half of life. This study examined whether subjective age and perceived distance-to-death moderate this association. 339 community-dwelling older adults (age range 50-90; M = 65.44, SD = 9.77) were sampled through random dialing to Jewish residents in the south of Israel. Participants completed a phone-questionnaire on PTS symptoms, level of PTG, subjective age, and perceived distance-to-death. Higher levels of PTS symptoms were both linearly and curvilinearly related to higher PTG. Additionally, subjective age and perceived distance-to-death moderated this association in a linear way, so that the association was strongest in participants who reported younger subjective age and further distance-to-death. The findings emphasize the moderating effect of two time perspectives, one that focuses on time since birth and another that concerns the time that remains before death. These two perspectives affect the association between posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth within older individuals.

  12. The Relationship Between Posttraumatic Growth and Psychosocial Variables in Survivors of State Terrorism and Their Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Castro, Manuel; Faúndez-Abarca, Ximena; Arancibia-Martini, Héctor; Ceruti-Mahn, Cristián

    2017-08-01

    The present study explores reports of growth in survivors and family members of victims of state terrorism ( N = 254) in Chile from 1973 to 1990. The results indicate the presence of reports of posttraumatic growth ( M = 4.69) and a positive and statistically significant correlation with variables related to the life impact of the stressful events ( r = .46), social sharing of emotions ( r = .32), deliberate rumination ( r = .37), positive reappraisal ( r = .35), reconciliation ( r = .39), spiritual practices ( r = .33), and meaning in life ( r = .51). The relationship between growth and forgiveness is not statistically significant. The variables that best predict posttraumatic growth are positive reappraisal (β = .28), life impact (β = .24), meaning in life β = .23), and reconciliation (β = .20). The forward-method hierarchical model indicates that these variables are significant predictors of growth levels, R 2 = .53, F(8, 210) = 30.08, p state terrorism manage to grow after these experiences, and the redefinition of meaning in life and the positive reappraisal of the traumatic experiences are the elements that make it possible to create a new narrative about the past.

  13. Posttraumatic Growth in Populations with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder-A Systematic Review on Growth-Related Psychological Constructs and Biological Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Christine F; Schmidt, Ulrike; Rosner, Rita

    2016-11-01

    Posttraumatic growth (PTG) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are possible consequences of trauma. PTG is supposed to emerge from cognitive processes and can have functional and dysfunctional aspects. This systematic review aims to identify and evaluate publications assessing PTG in adults diagnosed with PTSD in order to analyse the relationship between both constructs, how PTG is related to specific psychological variables and if there are biological variables linked to PTG. This extended review evaluates the quality of measures applied and is the first to study PTG only in populations meeting full PTSD criteria. In addition, the relationship between PTG and other relevant constructs, such as openness, optimism and social support, is explored. Our systematic literature search identified 140 studies of which 19 fulfilled our inclusion criteria; most of them used the Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory. Results indicate that trauma survivors with PTSD exhibit more PTG than those without PTSD and that PTG can be intensified during the therapeutic process whereat it is unclear whether PTG is a desirable outcome of PTSD therapy. Positive correlations between PTG and PTSD are reported. For diagnosed populations, we could not find strong evidence of a quadratic relationship between PTG and PTSD, although some studies support this hypothesis. Findings regarding the association of PTG with psychological variables are heterogeneous. Only one study focused on PTG as well as on biological variables (salivary cortisol) but did not discuss possible links between these two so far unconnected research fields in PTSD. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Trauma survivors with PTSD develop more PTG than those without PTSD, it remains unclear whether PTSD and PTG are curvilinearly related. PTG can be enhanced through PTSD therapy, nevertheless one must not assume that PTG is a favorable treatment outcome since we do not know if the development of PTG during therapy promotes

  14. Mixed Psychological Changes Following Mastectomy: Unique Predictors and Heterogeneity of Post-traumatic Growth and Post-traumatic Depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroemeke, Aleksandra; Bargiel-Matusiewicz, Kamilla; Kalamarz, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Post-traumatic growth (PTG) and its opposite-post-traumatic depreciation (PTD)-may be treated as important indicators of the patient quality of life. In the absence of studies on both, PTG and PTD in cancer patients, we investigated (1) coping strategies and support effectiveness as predictors of PTG and PTD in post-mastectomy women, (2) homogeneous classes with different intensity of PTG and PTD symptoms, and (3) correlates of class membership. Methods: Coping strategies (Brief COPE), support effectiveness (SSE-Q), PTG (PTGI), and PTD (negatively reworded items of PTGI) were measured in 84 post-mastectomy women (mean age = 62.27, SD = 8.38). Multiple regression, two-step cluster, and multinomial logistic regression were applied. Results: PTG and PTD had unique predictors: time since diagnosis and positive emotion-focused coping predicted PTG ( R 2 = 0.24), while negative emotion-focused and avoidance-focused coping and low support effectiveness were linked to PTD ( R 2 = 0.14). Four groups of PTG × PTD symptoms were identified: high PTG low PTD group (52.4%), low PTG low PTD group (17.9%), high PTG high PTD group (15.5%), and low PTG high PTD group (14.3%). Higher emotion- and avoidance-focused coping was characteristic for the high PTD low PTG group ( R 2 = 0.41). Conclusion: Our findings shed light on the coexistence and unique predictors of PTG and PTD after mastectomy, indicating heterogeneity in PTG and PTD levels among post-mastectomy women.

  15. Exploring the relationship between posttraumatic growth, cognitive processing, psychological distress, and social constraints in a sample of breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrouli, Natalia; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Griva, Fay; Gourounti, Kleanthi; Kolokotroni, Filippa; Efstathiou, Vasia; Mellon, Robert; Papastylianou, Dona; Niakas, Dimitris; Potamianos, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic growth (the perception of positive life changes after an encounter with a trauma) often occurs among breast cancer patients and can be influenced by certain demographic, medical, and psychosocial parameters. Social constraints on disclosure (the deprivation of the opportunity to express feelings and thoughts regarding the trauma) and the cognitive processing of the disease seem to be involved in the development of posttraumatic growth. Through the present study the authors aim to: investigate the levels of posttraumatic growth in a sample of 202 women with breast cancer in Greece, explore the relationships between posttraumatic growth and particular demographic, medical, and psychosocial variables according to a proposed model, and test the role of social constraints in the relationship between automatic and deliberate cognitive processing of the trauma. The results showed that posttraumatic growth was evident in the majority of the sample and was associated inversely with age at diagnosis (β = -0.174, p psychological distress (β = -0.394, p = .001), directly with time since diagnosis (β = 0.181, p psychological distress, through reflective rumination (β = 0.323, p = .001). Social constraints were found to moderate the relationship between intrusions and reflective rumination. Implications of the results and suggestions for future research and practice are outlined.

  16. Post-traumatic growth among elderly women with breast cancer compared to breast cancer-free women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Sofie Andersen; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Christensen, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Although breast cancer (BC) may have negative psychological sequelae, it may also be experienced as an existential challenge, which can derive personal growth. Only one study has been conducted, however, on whether women with BC experience more post-traumatic growth (PTG) than BC-free women. We...

  17. Intensely Exposed Oklahoma City Terrorism Survivors: Long-term Mental Health and Health Needs and Posttraumatic Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Phebe; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Nitiéma, Pascal; Wendling, Tracy L; Brown, Sheryll

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we explore directly exposed terrorism survivors' mental health and health status, healthcare utilization, alcohol and tobacco use, and posttraumatic growth 18½ years postdisaster. Telephone surveys compared terrorism survivors and nonexposed community control subjects, using Hopkins Symptom Checklist, Breslau's PTSD screen, Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, and Health Status Questionnaire 12. Statistical analyses included multivariable logistic regression and linear modeling. Survivors, more than 80% injured, reported more anxiety and depression symptoms than did control subjects, with survivors' anxiety and depression associated with heavy drinking (≥5 drinks) and worse mental health and social functioning. While survivors had continued posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (32 [23.2%] met probable posttraumatic stress disorder threshold), they also reported posttraumatic growth. Survivors had more care from physical, speech, respiratory, and occupational therapists. In this unprecedented long-term assessment, survivors' psychiatric symptoms, alcohol use, and ancillary health service utilization suggest unmet mental health and health needs. Extended recovery efforts might benefit from maximizing positive growth and coping.

  18. Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Among People Living with HIV and Childhood Sexual Abuse: The Role of Shame and Posttraumatic Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, Tiara C; Overstreet, Nicole M; Peasant, Courtney; Kershaw, Trace; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Hansen, Nathan B

    2016-08-01

    There is a critical need to examine protective and risk factors of anxiety and depressive symptoms among people living with HIV in order to improve quality of life. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the associations between HIV-related shame, sexual abuse-related shame, posttraumatic growth, and anxiety and depressive symptoms among a cohort of 225 heterosexual women and men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Higher sexual abuse-related shame was related to more anxiety and depressive symptoms for heterosexual women. Higher posttraumatic growth predicted less anxiety symptoms for only heterosexual women. Higher posttraumatic growth predicted less depressive symptoms for heterosexual women and MSM, but the magnitude of this effect was stronger for heterosexual women than MSM. Psychosocial interventions may need to be tailored to meet the specific needs of heterosexual women and MSM living with HIV and CSA.

  19. Evaluating the Factor Structure of the Persian Version of Posttraumatic Growth Inventory in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Heidarzadeh, Ph.D., RN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to assess the factor structure of the Persian version of posttraumatic growth inventory (P-PTGI. Methods: Participants included 272 Iranian people of Azari ethnicity (111 women and 161 men, aged between 21 and 91 years (mean 52.65 years, who were diagnosed with cancer and were referred to the oncology department of the university hospital. The P-PTGI was assessed to determine the construct validity, using various indices of confirmatory factor analysis and standardized lambda coefficient, followed by further assessment of the discriminant and convergent validities by using the structural equation model. LISREL 8.8 for Windows and SPSS were used for data analysis. Results: The calculated values of comparative fit index, incremental fit index, normed fit index, and non-normed fit index > .90 and the values of standardized root-mean-square residual < .08 indicate an acceptable fit for the original PTGI. Considering that the values of average variance extracted (.52–.74 were greater than the square of correlation coefficients between the five dimensions of P-PTGI, discriminant validity was approved. Convergent validity was confirmed through a high value of standardized lambda coefficient (.52–.92 between the items and their related factors. Conclusions: This study revealed that P-PTGI has an acceptable validity and reliability for posttraumatic growth assessment in Iranian cancer patients and its factor structure is similar to that of the original form developed by Tedeschi and Calhoun. Keywords: cancer, posttraumatic, validity

  20. From core belief challenge to posttraumatic growth in para sport athletes: moderated mediation by needs satisfaction and deliberate rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Chris; Podlog, Leslie; Wadey, Ross; Galli, Nick; Forber-Pratt, Anjali J; Newton, Maria

    2018-04-25

    To examine how deliberate rumination and psychological need satisfaction interact to facilitate posttraumatic growth for para sport athletes with acquired disability. Utilizing a sample of 70 para sport athletes, the hypothesized mediating role of deliberate rumination was examined via a simple mediation model. The interaction between needs satisfaction and deliberate rumination and their effect on posttraumatic growth was examined utilizing a moderated mediation procedure. Disruption to one's core beliefs was significantly associated with posttraumatic growth. This relationship, was in part, explained by the deliberate rumination engaged in soon after the trauma. Needs satisfaction, while a significant predictor of posttraumatic growth, did not moderate the indirect effect. Although deliberate rumination at both timeframes and needs satisfaction were independently associated with posttraumatic growth, they did not interact in the hypothesized manner to influence posttraumatic growth. There remains a need to better understand how the experience of posttraumatic growth is achieved amongst individuals with acquired disability, and the role that para sport may play in this process. Implications for rehabilitation The disruption to one's core beliefs caused by acquiring a physical disability is not only a natural experience but also a necessary antecedent to posttraumatic growth. As such, rehabilitation practitioners ought to normalize these types of challenges when working with individuals with acquired disability. Practitioners may help to facilitate growth outcomes by encouraging individuals to deliberately ruminate about their acquired disability. That is, practitioners can help those with acquired disability to seek meaning and understanding about their disability or the precipitating event. For those who struggle to deliberately ruminate in the immediate disability aftermath, practitioners may encourage para sport participation to potentially prompt constructive

  1. Post-traumatic growth enhances social identification in liver transplant patients: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrignaro, Marta; Sani, Fabio; Wakefield, Juliet Ruth Helen; Bianchi, Elisabetta; Magrin, Maria Elena; Gangeri, Laura

    2016-09-01

    The main aim of this paper is to investigate the prediction that greater subjective identification with relevant groups and social categories (i.e. 'family' and 'transplantees') can be an outcome of post-traumatic growth (PTG). To date there are no studies that have explored these relationships. A longitudinal study was conducted with a group of 100 liver transplant patients from the outpatient populations of the participating centre. Data were collected by means of a self-report questionnaire, which was completed at two different time points (T1 and T2) that were 24months apart. PTG was assessed using the Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory, while both transplantee and family identification were assessed using group identification scales. A path model was tested, using a structural equation model (SEM) approach, to examine the reciprocal effects among family identification, transplantee identification, and PTG over time. As predicted, we found that greater PTG T1 predicted both greater family identification T2 and marginally greater transplantee identification T2. However, the two identification variables did not predict PTG over time. The results show that family identification and transplantee identification may be outcomes of the PTG process, confirming the importance of adopting a thriving multidimensional model of adjustment to medical illness, whereby people facing adverse life events, such as transplantation, may flourish rather than deteriorate psychologically. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Posttraumatic growth measures: translation and adaptation of three self-report instruments to Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Loreto Garcia da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Posttraumatic growth is one of the most commonly used concepts to evaluate positive changes after trauma. The principal scales used internationally to evaluate this phenomenon have not yet a Brazilian Portuguese version. Objectives This study aimed to translate and adapt to the Brazilian context the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI, the Core Beliefs Inventory (CBI, and the Event Related Rumination Inventory (ERRI. Methods The procedures included translation, back translation, expert committee’s evaluation, and pilot testing in the target population. Results All items of all three instruments had a good content validity index after evaluation by four experts and three reformulations. The back translation of the final version also demonstrated that all Brazilian Portuguese versions convey the same meaning as the original English version. The final version was pilot tested with 30 undergraduate students, and all the items were above the cut-off point. Discussion This study was able to produce Brazilian versions of the PTGI, CBI, and ERRI. Further studies are underway to determine the reliability, factorial validity, and convergent validity of the subscales of the instruments.

  3. Is the Holocaust implicated in posttraumatic growth in second-generation Holocaust survivors? A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, Sharon; Mandl, Christine; Solomon, Zahava

    2013-08-01

    With the growing interest in posttraumatic growth (PTG), and the ongoing debate on the implications of transgenerational transmission of trauma, this longitudinal study examined PTG among Holocaust survivor offspring following their own exposure to trauma. Using self-report questionnaires, we assessed PTG over time in middle aged (age: M = 53 years) Israeli male combat veterans of the 1973 Yom Kippur War whose parents were (n = 43) and were not (n = 156) second-generation survivors of the Nazi Holocaust at 2 time points: 30 and 35 years following the war (in 2003 and 2008). Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and trauma exposure were also assessed in 1991. We hypothesized that second-generation survivors would report more PTG than controls. However, repeated measures design revealed that the second-generation veterans reported less PTG than veterans who were not second generation, which was evident in the PTG domains of relations to others, personal strength, and appreciation of life. Our findings suggest that transmission of trauma from one generation to the next is possibly implicated in the offspring's propensity for growth following subsequent trauma. Future research is warranted to examine the link between transmission of trauma and positive outcomes following trauma. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  4. Gratitude, psychological well-being, and perceptions of posttraumatic growth in adults who lost a parent in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Nathan; McGovern, Katie

    2017-08-01

    Findings from an online survey of 350 adults who experienced early parental death showed that current dispositional gratitude was positively correlated with psychological well-being and posttraumatic growth and negatively correlated with depression. Further, 281 participants produced textual responses indicating they could remember the time following their parent's death. Increases in gratitude attributable to the experience of losing a parent were reported by 79% of these participants. They associated their increased gratitude with a newfound belief that life is precious and with greater appreciation for loved ones. Direction of change in gratitude was associated with psychological well-being, posttraumatic growth, and depression.

  5. A Systematic Review of Posttraumatic Growth in Survivors of Interpersonal Violence in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elderton, Anna; Berry, Alexis; Chan, Carmen

    2015-10-11

    This review critically evaluates the literature on posttraumatic growth in survivors of interpersonal violence, integrating the findings from 12 quantitative and 4 qualitative studies. The following databases were searched using predetermined terms: AMED, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, BNI, CINAHL, and Web of Knowledge. The review's findings suggest that the mean prevalence of growth in interpersonal violence survivors is around 71% (range 58-99%). The highest level of growth was consistently experienced in the "appreciation of life" domain. However, survivors reported growth in the four remaining domains: "personal strength," "new possibilities," "experience of relationships with others," and "outlook on life." The nature of the relationship between growth and distress was inconsistent across studies. A combination of pretrauma, peritrauma, and posttrauma variables were found to be related to the degree of growth survivors experienced. Methodological weaknesses of the quantitative studies included the predominant use of retrospective, cross-sectional, correlational designs, discrepancy in the measurement of growth, insufficient sample sizes for power calculations in five studies and limited external validity. Qualitative findings were limited by sampling methods, insufficient information about interview schedules, the lack of credibility checks, and evidence of reflexivity demonstrated by some studies. Implications for practice, policy, and future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Meaning reconstruction in the face of terror: An examination of recovery and posttraumatic growth among victims of the 9/11 World Trade Center attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Katherine M

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between meaning reconstruction with posttraumatic growth and depreciation in the aftermath of terrorist trauma and loss. A group of individuals (n=118) who were personally affected by the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks were surveyed about their experiences and administered the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and Impact of Event scales. Subjects were volunteer docents at the Tribute World Trade Center Visitor Center. Results revealed that ability to make sense of one's 9/11 experience was related to recovery but not to posttraumatic growth, whereas ability to find some benefit in the experience was related to growth. In addition, location in downtown Manhattan on September 11, 2001 was related to higher levels of posttraumatic depreciation. Findings suggest that two aspects of meaning reconstruction are differentially related to recovery and posttraumatic growth.

  7. Mental health among young adult survivors of childhood cancer and their siblings including posttraumatic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Sato, Iori; Honda, Misato; Ozono, Shuichi; Sakamoto, Naoko; Iwai, Tsuyako; Okamura, Jun; Asami, Keiko; Maeda, Naoko; Inada, Hiroko; Kakee, Naoko; Horibe, Keizo; Ishida, Yasushi

    2010-12-01

    Few studies have addressed the mental health status of young adult childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) and their siblings (SIBs). This paper focuses on depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and posttraumatic growth (PTG) among Japanese CCSs and their SIBs. Adolescent and young adult CCSs (n=185), in remission for more than 1 year, their SIBs (n=72), and general controls (CONTs) (n=1,000) completed anonymous self-report questionnaires for depression, anxiety, PTSS, and PTG. The physicians in charge also completed an anonymous disease/treatment data sheet. CCSs were approximately 8 years old at diagnosis and approximately 23 years old at the time of the survey. Their diagnoses included leukemia (57%), lymphoma (12%), and solid tumors (30%). Thirty-eight percent underwent surgery and 25% received stem cell transplantation. No significant differences were found between CCSs and CONTs in terms of depression and anxiety. CCSs had significantly more PTSS and had remarkably greater PTG compared to CONTs. Although no significant differences were found between SIBs and CONTs regarding depression, anxiety, or PTSS, female SIBs exhibited greater PTG compared to female CONTs. To empower CCSs, they should be evaluated periodically regarding PTSS and PTG and should be provided appropriate care and feedback. The fact that the mental health status of young adult SIBs was similar to CONTs at 15 years after their siblings' diagnoses may help reassure parents who worry about mental health among the siblings of an affected child during and after his/her treatment.

  8. Secondary Traumatic Stress and Adjustment in Therapists Who Work with Sexual Violence Survivors: The Moderating Role of Posttraumatic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samios, Christina; Rodzik, Amber K.; Abel, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Due to their secondary exposure to the traumatic events disclosed by clients, therapists who work with sexual violence survivors are at risk of experiencing secondary traumatic stress. We examined whether the negative effects of secondary traumatic stress on therapist adjustment would be buffered by posttraumatic growth. Sixty-one therapists who…

  9. Posttraumatic growth following a first episode of psychosis: a mixed methods research protocol using a convergent design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Gerald; Malla, Ashok; Iyer, Srividya N

    2016-07-25

    The suffering people experience following a first episode of psychosis is great, and has been well-investigated. Conversely, potential positive outcomes following a first episode of psychosis have been under-investigated. One such outcome that may result from a first episode of psychosis is posttraumatic growth, or a positive aftermath following the trauma of a first psychotic episode. While posttraumatic growth has been described following other physical and mental illnesses, posttraumatic growth has received very little attention following a first episode of psychosis. To address this research gap, we will conduct a mixed methods study aimed at answering two research questions: 1) How do people experience posttraumatic growth following a first episode of psychosis? 2) What predicts, or facilitates, posttraumatic growth following a first episode of psychosis? The research questions will be investigated using a mixed methods convergent design. All participants will be service-users being offered treatment for a first episode of psychosis at a specialized early intervention service for young people with psychosis, as well as their case managers.. A qualitative descriptive methodology will guide data-collection through semi-structured interviews with service-users. Service-users and case managers will complete questionnaires related to posttraumatic growth and its potential predictors using quantitative methods. These predictors include the impact a first episode of psychosis on service-users' lives, the coping strategies they use; the level of social support they enjoy; and their experiences of resilience and recovery. Qualitative data will be subject to thematic analysis, quantitative data will be subject to multiple regression analyses, and results from both methods will be combined to answer the research questions in a holistic way. Findings from this study are expected to show that in addition to suffering, people with a first episode of psychosis may experience

  10. Posttraumatic Growth and Bereavement: The Contribution of Self-Determination Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, Andrew B; Beaudry, Myriam; Blanchard, Celine

    2017-09-01

    No research drawing from Self-Determination Theory has investigated the bereavement experience of individuals or how motivation can help facilitate posttraumatic growth (PTG) following the death of a loved one. In two cross-sectional studies, university students completed an online survey. Study 1 investigated the contribution of global autonomous and controlled motivation in statistically predicting PTG above and beyond previously researched correlates. Study 2 explored the mediating role of cognitive appraisals and coping in explaining the relationship between global motivation orientations and PTG. Results indicated that in comparison to controlled motivation, autonomous motivation was positively related PTG, even after controlling for previously researched correlates. Mediation results indicated an indirect effect of global autonomous motivation on PTG through task-oriented coping. Collectively, these findings suggest the importance of incorporating motivation into models of PTG. Clinical implications of these findings are also discussed.

  11. Posttraumatic growth in patients who survived cardiac surgery: the predictive and mediating roles of faith-based factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Amy L; Hall, Daniel; Pargament, Kenneth; Tice, Terrence N

    2013-04-01

    Despite the growing knowledge of posttraumatic growth, only a few studies have examined personal growth in the context of cardiac health. Similarly, longitudinal research is lacking on the implications of religion/spirituality for patients with advanced cardiac diseases. This paper aims to explore the effect of preoperative religious coping on long-term postoperative personal growth and potential mediation in this effect. Analyses capitalized on a preoperative survey and medical indices from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons' National Database of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Participants in the current follow-up study completed a mailed survey 30 months after surgery. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to evaluate the extent to which preoperative use of religious coping predicted growth at follow-up, after controlling for key demographics, medical indices, mental health, and protective factors. Predictors of posttraumatic growth at follow-up were positive religious coping and a living status without a partner. Medical indices, optimistic expectations, social support, and other religious factors were unrelated to posttraumatic growth. Including religious factors diminished effects of gender, age, and race. Including perceived spiritual support completely eliminated the role of positive religious coping, indicating mediation. Preoperative positive religious coping may have a long-term effect on postoperative personal growth, explainable by higher spiritual connections as a part of significance-making. These results suggest that spirituality may play a favorable role in cardiac patients' posttraumatic growth after surviving a life-altering operation. The elimination of demographic effects may help explain previously mixed findings concerning the association between these factors and personal growth.

  12. Modeling posttraumatic growth among cancer patients: The roles of social support, appraisals, and adaptive coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weidan; Qi, Xiaona; Cai, Deborah A; Han, Xuanye

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to build a model to explain the relationships between social support, uncontrollability appraisal, adaptive coping, and posttraumatic growth (PTG) among cancer patients in China. The participants who were cancer patients in a cancer hospital in China filled out a survey. The final sample size was 201. Structural equation modeling was used to build a model explaining PTG. Structural equation modeling results indicated that higher levels of social support predicted higher levels of adaptive coping, higher levels of uncontrollability appraisal predicted lower levels of adaptive coping, and higher levels of adaptive coping predicted higher levels of PTG. Moreover, adaptive coping was a mediator between social support and growth, as well as a mediator between uncontrollability and growth. The direct effects of social support and uncontrollability on PTG were insignificant. The model demonstrated the relationships between social support, uncontrollability appraisal, adaptive coping, and PTG. It could be concluded that uncontrollability appraisal was a required but not sufficient condition for PTG. Neither social support nor uncontrollability appraisal had direct influence on PTG. However, social support and uncontrollability might indirectly influence PTG, through adaptive coping. It implies that both internal factors (eg, cognitive appraisal and coping) and external factors (eg, social support) are required in order for growth to happen. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Meaning and Posttraumatic Growth Among Survivors of the September 2013 Colorado Floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Pinar; Steger, Michael F; Bentele, Christoph; Schulenberg, Stefan E

    2016-12-01

    In the wake of significant adversity, a range of recovery outcomes are possible, from prolonged distress to minimal effects on functioning and even psychological growth. Finding meaning in one's life is thought to facilitate optimal recovery from such adversity. Research on psychological growth and recovery often focuses on the daily hassles or significant traumas of convenience samples or on people's psychological recovery from medical illness. A small body of research is developing to test theories of growth among survivors of natural disasters. The present study of 57 survivors of the 2013 Colorado floods tested the incremental relations between posttraumatic growth (PTG) and dimensions of meaning in life, vitality, and perceived social support. The most consistent relations observed were among the one dimension of meaning-search for meaning-perceived social support, and PTG. Despite the limitations of this study, we conclude that search for meaning in life may be an important part of recovery from natural disasters, floods being one example. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Posttraumatic growth following acquired brain injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Louise Kinsella

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The idea that acquired brain injury (ABI caused by stroke, haemorrhage, infection or traumatic insult to the brain can result in posttraumatic growth (PTG for individuals is increasingly attracting psychological attention. However PTG also attracts controversy as a result of ambiguous empirical findings. The extent that demographic variables, injury factors, subjective beliefs, and psychological health are associated with PTG following ABI is not clear. Consequently, this systematic review and meta-analysis explores the correlates of variables within these four broad areas and PTG. From a total of 744 published studies addressing PTG in people with ABI, eight studies met inclusion criteria for detailed examination. Meta-analysis of these studies indicated that growth was related to employment, longer education, subjective beliefs about change post-injury, relationship status, older age, longer time since injury, and lower levels of depression. Results from homogeneity analyses indicated significant inter-study heterogeneity across variables. There is general support for the idea that people with ABI can experience growth, and that various demographics, injury-related variables, subjective beliefs and psychological health are related to growth. The contribution of social integration and the forming of new identities post-ABI to the experience of PTG is explored. These meta-analytic findings are however constrained by methodological limitations prevalent in the literature. Clinical and research implications are discussed with specific reference to community and collective factors that enable PTG.

  15. The role of resilience and gratitude in posttraumatic stress and growth following a campus shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieselmeyer, Julie; Holguin, Jeff; Mezulis, Amy

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the role of resilience and gratitude in the relationship between trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress (PTS), and posttraumatic growth (PTG) following the campus shooting at Seattle Pacific University. The prevalence of community traumatic events such as school shootings has increased dramatically in the last decade. However, a significant number of individuals report positive changes such as enhanced appreciation for life, suggesting that some people are able to convert adverse experiences into personal growth. The purpose of this study was to understand characteristics about trauma and protective characteristics that contribute to PTG. Participants were 359 students, faculty, and staff (75% female; mean age = 27.26, SD = 12.61) enrolled or employed the day the shooting took place. Approximately four months following the event respondents completed self-report questionnaires about trauma exposure (i.e., physical and emotional proximity), PTS symptoms, PTG, resilience, and gratitude. Results supported our moderated-mediation hypothesis (B = 3.97, t = 4.11, 95th confidence interval [2.08, 5.88], p gratitude can be conceptualized as protective mechanisms, with resilience operating to prevent adverse outcomes while gratitude may promote positive outcomes following trauma. Given the prevalence of lifetime trauma, findings indicate that mental health professionals should consider a multifaceted approach to buffer the effects of trauma by preventatively cultivating resilience and enhancing gratitude in posttrauma interventions as a means to decrease PTS and increase PTG. Additional research is needed to understand how individuals develop positive traits as both protective and coping mechanisms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Adding Trauma-Informed Care at a Bereavement Camp to Facilitate Posttraumatic Growth: A Controlled Outcome Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Searles McClatchey

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies on posttraumatic growth (PTG among bereaved youth are rare; outcome studies on how to facilitate PTG among this population are even more scarce. Objectives: This study examined the addition of trauma-informed care to bereavement interventions to foster PTG in youth attending a weekend-long bereavement camp. Method: A total of 105 participants completed standardized measures of posttraumatic growth and posttraumatic stress disorder after which 52 of the participants took part in a camp session. Ninety-five of the participants from both groups were post-tested four weeks after the camp session. Results: Multiple Regression showed that PTG scores were significantly greater at posttest for the treatment group. No significant changes in PTSD were found in either group, although the presence of dissociative symptoms decreased significantly among campers in the treatment group. Conclusions: Findings suggest trauma-informed care may increase posttraumatic growth among youth coping with loss. Implications for future studies and clinical practice are discussed

  17. The protective role of maternal post-traumatic growth and cognitive trauma processing in Palestinian mothers and infants: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Safwat Y; Isosävi, Sanna; Qouta, Samir R; Kuittinen, Saija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2018-02-21

    Women at pre partum and post partum are especially susceptible to war trauma because they struggle to protect their infants from danger. Trauma research suggests increased problems in maternal mental health and infant development. Yet many cognitive-emotional processes affect the trauma survivors' mental health, such as post-traumatic growth and post-traumatic cognition. The aim of this study was to examine whether a mother's high post-traumatic growth and optimal post-traumatic cognition could protect their own mental health and their infant's stress regulation from the effects of traumatic war experiences. This three-wave prospective study involved Palestinian women living in the Gaza Strip who were at the second trimester of pregnancy (T1), women with infants aged 4 months (T2), and women with children aged 12 months (T3) months. The participants reported their war experiences in a 30-item checklist of losses, destruction, and atrocities in the 2008-09, 2012, and 2014 military offensives. Post-traumatic growth was assessed by a 21-item scale and post-traumatic cognition by a 36-item scale. Maternal mental health was assessed by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive, anxiety, and dissociation symptoms at T1 and T3, and infants' stress regulation was assessed with the Infant Behaviour Questionnaire at T2 and T3. We included 511 women at T1, 481 women at T2, and 454 women at T3. High maternal post-traumatic growth and post-traumatic cognition had protective roles. Post-traumatic growth had a protective effect on maternal mental health since severe exposure to traumatic war experiences was not associated with maternal PTSD, depression, and dissociation if women showed high post-traumatic growth, as indicated by the significant interaction effect between post-traumatic growth and war trauma on each of the three symptoms. Post-traumatic cognition had a protective effect on infant development since severe exposure was not associated with dysfunctional

  18. Posttraumatic growth, social acknowledgment as survivors, and sense of coherence in former German child soldiers of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstmeier, Simon; Kuwert, Philipp; Spitzer, Carsten; Freyberger, Harald J; Maercker, Andreas

    2009-12-01

    To examine posttraumatic growth (PTG) and its predictors social acknowledgment as survivors, sense of coherence (SOC), trauma severity, and further factors in former child soldiers more than 60 years after deployment. Cross-sectional. University-based geropsychiatric center in Germany. One hundred three former German child soldiers of World War II, mean age 78 years in which 96% experienced at least one war trauma. Subjects completed the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, Social Acknowledgment Questionnaire (SAQ), and SOC Scale. Trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed by the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Depression, anxiety, and somatization were assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory. Number of traumas, recognition by significant others, and general disapproval as facets of social acknowledgment as a survivor, and meaningfulness as a dimension of SOC correlated significantly with PTG. In a multiple hierarchical regression analysis, recognition as a survivor by significant others (SAQ) and meaningfulness (SOC) remained the only significant predictors of PTG. Social acknowledgment as a survivor by significant others and the belief that the world is meaningful are among the most important factors contributing to PTG. Further research should investigate whether treatments of PTSD in people who experienced war traumas recently or many years ago might benefit from a focus on the belief system and the role of family and social support.

  19. Relation between parental psychopathology and posttraumatic growth after a child's admission to intensive care: Two faces of the same coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rey, Rocío; Alonso-Tapia, Jesús

    2017-12-01

    Confronted with the potentially traumatic experience of a child's admission to a paediatric intensive care unit, parents may experience psychopathological post-trauma symptoms as well as posttraumatic growth. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the relation between psychopathology symptoms, namely, posttraumatic stress disorder), anxiety and depression, as well as post traumatic growth in parents following their child's hospitalisation in a paediatric intensive care unit. Six months after their child's discharge, 143 parents completed the questionnaire, which assessed post traumatic growth (Posttraumatic Growth Inventory), post traumatic stress disorder (Davidson Trauma Scale), depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Of the 143 parents, 23.1% reported symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder, 21% reported symptoms of moderate to severe anxiety, 9.1% reported symptoms of moderate to severe depression and 37.1% reported at least a medium degree of post traumatic growth. There was a moderate, direct association between post traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety with post traumatic growth. Higher scores in anxiety, depression and post traumatic stress disorder were associated with higher levels of post traumatic growth, contradicting the notion of an inverted U-shaped relationship between psychopathology symptoms and post traumatic growth. Given that positive and negative outcomes after a child's critical admission tend to co-occur, it is surmised that parents who indicate post traumatic growth do not deny the difficulties. While not negating the negative impact on the mental health of a parent with a child admitted to intensive care, including the assessment of post traumatic growth as an outcome following this event has important implications for research and clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A randomized controlled trial to enhance coping and posttraumatic growth and decrease posttraumatic stress disorder in HIV-Infected men who have sex with men in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhi; Yu, Nancy Xiaonan; Zhu, Wanling; Chen, Lihua; Lin, Danhua

    2018-06-01

    Although HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) constitute a newly emerged high-risk group in China, little research outside Western countries is available on effective intervention programs to enhance their well-being. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a group intervention program designed to improve the well-being and adaptive coping strategies of 60 HIV-infected MSM in Beijing, China, randomly assigned either to the intervention group for participation in four weekly sessions or to the control group for placement on a waiting list. They all completed measurements at pre- and postintervention. Compared with the control group, the intervention group reported significantly increased problem-focused coping strategies and levels of posttraumatic growth (PTG) as well as decreased symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at the completion of the intervention. In addition, mediation analysis showed that changes in problem-focused coping strategies mediated the intervention effect on increases in PTG; however, the mediating effect of coping strategies on the association of intervention and PTSD was not significant. This study provides empirical evidence for conducting psychological intervention to promote the well-being of HIV-infected MSM. The findings also elucidate the mechanism through which intervention improved PTG.

  1. Revised

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Vivian Kvist; Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Riis-Nielsen, Torben

    This report is a revised analysis of the Danish data on CO2 emissions from forest, afforestation and deforestation for the period 1990 - 2008 and a prognosis for the period until 2020. Revision have included measurements from 2009 in the estimations. The report is funded by the Ministry of Climate...

  2. The development of social relationships, social support, and posttraumatic growth in a dragon boating team for breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Meghan H; Sabiston, Catherine M; Ullrich-French, Sarah

    2011-10-01

    Physical activity experiences may contribute to psychological and social wellbeing among breast cancer survivors. The main purpose of the current study was to qualitatively explore the development of social relationships, social support, and posttraumatic growth among breast cancer survivors participating in a dragon boat program over 19 months. Guided by interpretative phenomenological analysis (Smith, Flowers, & Larkin, 2009), semistructured interviews were conducted with 17 breast cancer survivors on five occasions over their first two seasons of dragon boating. Narrative accounts were developed for each participant, and four profiles emerged describing processes of social and posttraumatic growth development over time: "developing a feisty spirit of survivorship," "I don't want it to be just about me," "it's not about the pink it's about the paddling," and "hard to get close." Profiles were discussed in terms of developing social relationships and support, providing support to others, physicality and athleticism, and negative interactions and experiences.

  3. The Parkinson's experience of group physical activity: Understanding social support, social comparison, physical self-perceptions, and posttraumatic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Sheehy, Tammy L

    2014-01-01

    Group physical activity programs for clinical populations can provide opportunities for adaptive social interactions, improving perceptions of competence, and may facilitate posttraumatic growth (positive psychological changes resulting from traumatic life experiences). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine how people with Parkinson's experience social interactions and physical challenges in a group physical activity program, and to investigate what role they think those experie...

  4. The bereavement process of tissue donors' family members: responses of grief, posttraumatic stress, personal growth, and ongoing attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Nancy; Schmidt, Lee; Coolican, Maggie

    2014-09-01

    Donated tissues can save lives of critically burned patients and those needing a heart valve replacement. Tissues enhance the lives of a million recipients annually through transplants of corneas, bones, tendons, and vein grafts. Unfortunately, the need for some tissues exceeds their availability. The goal of the quantitative component of this mixed methods study was to identify the grief, posttraumatic stress, personal growth, and ongoing attachment response of tissue donors' family members during a 2-year period. Simultaneous mixed methods design. The sample for this study consisted of 52 tissue donors' family members, mostly widows (83%). Data were collected for 2 years to test changes in grief, posttraumatic stress, panic behavior, personal growth, and ongoing attachment. The bereaved participants experienced significantly fewer grief reactions, less posttraumatic stress, and greater personal growth. There was no significant difference in the ongoing attachment to their deceased loved ones. The results of this study may reinforce the positive meaning that tissue donors' family members can find in tissue donation. Findings also demonstrate that the bereavement process corroborates contemporary bereavement and attachment theories. Health professionals are encouraged to seek donations with less worry that tissue donors' family members will experience adverse outcomes during bereavement.

  5. Near-death experiences, posttraumatic growth, and life satisfaction among burn survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royse, David; Badger, Karen

    2017-03-01

    Survivors of large burns may face positive and negative psychological after-effects from close-to-death injuries. This study is the first to examine their near-death experiences (NDEs) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) and life satisfaction afterwards. With an available sample of 92 burn survivors, half met the criteria for an NDE using an objective scale. Those who indicated religion was a source of strength and comfort had high scores on life satisfaction, PTG, and the NDE Scale. Individuals with larger burns reported greater PTG than those with smaller total body surface area burned (TBSA). There were no significant differences on life satisfaction, PTG, or NDEs when examined by gender or years since the burn injury. Elements of the NDE most frequently reported were: An altered sense of time, a sense of being out of the physical body, a feeling of peace, vivid sensations, and sense of being in an "other worldly" environment. Social workers and other health providers need to be comfortable helping burn survivors discuss any NDEs and process these through survivors' spirituality and religious belief systems as they recover.

  6. Posttraumatic growth in women after breast cancer surgery – preliminary results from a study of Polish patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Andysz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of the study was to answer the following research questions: What percentage of women after breast cancer surgery experienced posttraumatic growth (PTG? Which aspect of PTG was experienced to the greatest extent by the participants? Do age at the day of survey, age at diagnosis, time since diagnosis, type of surgery, non-surgical methods of treatment, participation in rehabilitation or physical activity significantly differentiate participants in PTG? Participants and procedure Forty-seven women after breast cancer surgery participated in the study. Posttraumatic growth was measured with the Polish version of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI consisting of 4 scales: Self-Perception (SP, Relating to Others (RO, Appreciation of Life (AL and Spiritual Change (SC. The demographic, disease and treatment related variables were controlled. Results Forty-three percent of participants experienced high, 23% moderate, and 34% little or no PTG. Posttraumatic growth manifested itself mainly positive changes in relationships with others. Age at the day of the survey did not correlate significantly with scores of PTGI. Age at diagnosis correlated significantly with total PTG (ρ = –0.37, p = .012, SP (ρ = –0.33, p = .029, RO (ρ = –0.40, p = .008 and AL (ρ = –0.39, p = .010. Women aged ≤ 50 at the day of the survey had significantly higher scores of AL than women > 50 (U = 117.50, p = .042. Women who were physically active at the day of the survey had significantly higher scores in total PTG (U = 118.50, p = .008, SP (U = 7.28, p = .007 and RO (U = 108.00, p = .003. Time since diagnosis, type of treatment and participation in rehabilitation after the surgery did not differentiate respondents significantly in PTG. Conclusions Posttraumatic growth was experienced by a considerable percentage of participants. The average level of PTG was moderate. Women physically active at the time of the survey showed higher levels of PTG

  7. Posttraumatic growth following pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality: the predictive role of coping strategies and perinatal grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafarge, Caroline; Mitchell, Kathryn; Fox, Pauline

    2017-09-01

    Research about termination for fetal abnormality (TFA) suggests that it is a traumatic event with potential negative psychological consequences. However, evidence also indicates that following traumatic events individuals may experience growth. Although TFA's negative psychological outcomes are well documented, little is known of the potential for growth following this event. Therefore, the study's objectives were to measure posttraumatic growth (PTG) post-TFA, examine the relationship between PTG, perinatal grief and coping, and determine the predictors of PTG. An online, retrospective survey was conducted with 161 women. Eligible participants were women over 18 who had undergone TFA. Participants were recruited from a support organisation. They completed the Brief COPE, Short Perinatal Grief Scale and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Data were analysed using regression analyses. Moderate levels of PTG were observed for "relating to others," "personal strengths" and "appreciation of life." "Positive reframing" was a significant predictor of PTG. Despite using mainly "adaptive" coping strategies, women's grief levels were high. "Adaptive" coping strategies such as, "positive reframing" are relevant to TFA. They may act as protective factors against distress and as foundations for growth, implicating that interventions such as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, which aim to reframe women's experience, may be beneficial.

  8. Post-Traumatic Growth and Resilience in Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Patients: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greup, Suzanne R; Kaal, Suzanne E J; Jansen, Rosemarie; Manten-Horst, Eveliene; Thong, Melissa S Y; van der Graaf, Winette T A; Prins, Judith B; Husson, Olga

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the literature on post-traumatic growth (PTG) and resilience among adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients. A literature search in Embase, PsychInfo, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Cinahl was carried out. Thirteen articles met the pre-defined inclusion criteria. Qualitative interview studies showed that AYA cancer patients report PTG and resilience: PTG is described by AYA cancer patients in terms of benefit finding, including changing view of life and feeling stronger and more confident, whereas resilience is described as a balance of several factors, including stress and coping, goals, optimism, finding meaning, connection, and belonging. Quantitative studies showed that sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were not associated with PTG. Enduring stress was negatively, and social support positively, associated with PTG. Symptom distress and defensive coping were negatively and adaptive cognitive coping was positively associated with resilience. Both PTG and resilience were positively associated with satisfaction with life and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Resilience was found to be a mediator in the relationship between symptom distress and HRQoL. Two interventions aiming to promote resilience, a stress management and a therapeutic music video-intervention, were not successful in significantly increasing overall resilience. Most AYA cancer patients report at least some PTG or resilience. Correlates of PTG and resilience, including symptom distress, stress, coping, social support, and physical activity, provide further insight to improve the effectiveness of interventions aimed at promoting these positive outcomes and potentially buffer negative outcomes.

  9. Postwar winners and losers in the long run: determinants of war related stress symptoms and posttraumatic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimhi, Shaul; Eshel, Yohanan; Zysberg, Leehu; Hantman, Shira

    2010-02-01

    The study focuses on the long-term impact of war on adolescents (N = 821) and adults (N = 870) living in a war afflicted Israeli community a year after the war. Results indicate the following: (a) stress symptoms and posttraumatic growth (PTG) correlate negatively with each other. (b) Age was positively associated with stress symptoms and negatively with PTG. (c) Economic condition predicted stress symptoms as well as PTG of adults better than exposure to traumatic events, whereas for school students the best predictor of stress symptoms was exposure to traumatic events while the best predictor of PTG was age of participants.

  10. FEM growth and yield data Monocultures - Poplar (revised version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohren, G.M.J.; Goudzwaard, L.; Jansen, J.J.; Schmidt, P.; Oosterbaan, A.; Oldenburger, J.; Ouden, den J.

    2017-01-01

    The current database is part of the FEM growth and yield database, a collection of growth and yield data from even-aged monocultures (douglas fir, common oak, poplar, Japanese Larch, Norway spruce, Scots pine, Corsican pine, Austrian pine, red oak and several other species with only a few plots,

  11. Cognitive Processing in the Aftermath of Relationship Dissolution: Associations with Concurrent and Prospective Distress and Posttraumatic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Clark, David; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.

    2017-01-01

    Non-marital romantic relationship dissolution is amongst the most stressful life events experienced by young adults. Yet, some individuals experience posttraumatic growth following relationship dissolution. Little is known about the specific and differential contribution of trait-like and event...... Distress Scale) following a recent relationship dissolution. Initially, 148 participants completed measures of trait-like and dissolution-specific cognitive processing, growth, and distress (T1). A subsample completed a seven-month follow-up (T2). Higher frequency of relationship-dissolution intrusive...... thoughts predicted concurrent distress after accounting for brooding and relationship characteristics. Further, higher brooding and lower reflection predicted higher distress prospectively. Concurrent growth was predicted by both higher brooding and more deliberate relationship-dissolution thoughts...

  12. Is the link between posttraumatic growth and anxious symptoms mediated by marital intimacy in breast cancer patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Silva, Sónia; Moreira, Helena

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to determine whether marital intimacy mediates the association between posttraumatic growth (PTG) and anxious symptoms in women who had recently completed breast cancer treatments and breast cancer survivors. Forty-eight patients who had completed their treatment six months prior to the study and 46 disease-free survivors who had completed their treatments at least one year prior to the study completed the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, the Personal Assessment of Intimacy Scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Recently off-treatment patients reported higher levels of intimacy than survivors did. Path analyses showed that higher levels of the Appreciation of Life dimension of PTG were associated with less anxious symptoms through higher levels of marital intimacy. The type of group did not moderate these associations. Regardless of the disease phase, the experience of positive changes after breast cancer in terms of an enhanced appreciation of life seems to be associated with an increased perception of intimacy in the context of a dyadic relationship, which, in turn, is associated with less anxiety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exogenous fibroblast growth factor 9 attenuates cartilage degradation and aggravates osteophyte formation in post-traumatic osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S; Wang, Z; Tang, J; Li, W; Huang, J; Xu, W; Luo, F; Xu, M; Wang, J; Wen, X; Chen, L; Chen, H; Su, N; Shen, Y; Du, X; Xie, Y; Chen, L

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of exogenous fibroblast growth factor (FGF)9 on the progression of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (OA). The expression of FGF9 in articular cartilage with OA is detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The effects of intra-articular exogenous FGF9 injection on post-traumatic OA induced by the destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) surgery are evaluated. Cartilage changes and osteophyte formation in knee joints are investigated by histological analysis. Changes in subchondral bone are evaluated by microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). The effect of exogenous FGF9 on an interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced ex vivo OA model of human articular cartilage tissues is also evaluated. FGF9 expression was down-regulated in articular chondrocytes of OA but ectopically induced at sites of osteophyte formation. Intra-articular injection of exogenous FGF9 attenuated articular cartilage degradation in mice after DMM surgery. Exogenous FGF9 suppressed collagen X and MMP13 expressions in OA cartilage, while promoted collagen II expression. Similar results were observed in IL-1β-induced ex vivo OA model. Intra-articular injection of FGF9 had no significant effect on the subchondral bone of knee joints after DMM surgery, but aggravated osteophyte formation. The expressions of SOX9 and collagen II, and cell proliferation were up-regulated at sites of initial osteophyte formation in mice with exogenous FGF9 treatment. Intra-articular injection of exogenous FGF9 delays articular cartilage degradation in post-traumatic OA, while aggravates osteophyte formation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Deliberate Rumination and Positive Reappraisal as Serial Mediators Between Life Impact and Posttraumatic Growth in Victims of State Terrorism in Chile (1973-1990).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas Castro, Manuel; Arnoso Martínez, Maitane; Faúndez Abarca, Ximena

    2016-04-06

    This study examines the role of coping strategies related to positive reappraisal versus other cognitive strategies (deliberate rumination) as mediators between life impact and posttraumatic growth in survivors of the military dictatorship in Chile between 1973 and 1990 (tortured political prisoners and family members of political prisoners executed and missing). Survey data from 251 political violence survivors were analyzed using the SPSS PROCESS macro for bootstrapping indirect effects (Hayes, 2013). Results indicated that positive reappraisal (or reframing) coping mediated the relationship between life impact and posttraumatic growth. A serial multiple mediation model indicates that in the life impact to growth moderation process, rumination must be followed by positive reappraisal to drive this growth. These findings suggest that positive reappraisal of the traumatic experience is essential to achieve growth reports. Implications of these more complex relations are discussed for both counseling interventions and further research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. A revised mineral nutrient supplement increases biomass and growth rate in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropat, Janette; Hong-Hermesdorf, Anne; Casero, David; Ent, Petr; Castruita, Madeli; Pellegrini, Matteo; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Malasarn, Davin

    2011-06-01

    Interest in exploiting algae as a biofuel source and the role of inorganic nutrient deficiency in inducing triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation in cells necessitates a strategy to efficiently formulate species-specific culture media that can easily be manipulated. Using the reference organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we tested the hypothesis that modeling trace element supplements after the cellular ionome would result in optimized cell growth. We determined the trace metal content of several commonly used Chlamydomonas strains in various culture conditions and developed a revised trace element solution to parallel these measurements. Comparison of cells growing in the revised supplement versus a traditional trace element solution revealed faster growth rates and higher maximum cell densities with the revised recipe. RNA-seq analysis of cultures growing in the traditional versus revised medium suggest that the variation in transcriptomes was smaller than that found between different wild-type strains grown in traditional Hutner's supplement. Visual observation did not reveal defects in cell motility or mating efficiency in the new supplement. Ni²⁺-inducible expression from the CYC6 promoter remained a useful tool, albeit with an increased requirement for Ni²⁺ because of the introduction of an EDTA buffer system in the revised medium. Other advantages include more facile preparation of trace element stock solutions, a reduction in total chemical use, a more consistent batch-to-batch formulation and long-term stability (tested up to 5 years). Under the new growth regime, we analyzed cells growing under different macro- and micronutrient deficiencies. TAG accumulation in N deficiency is comparable in the new medium. Fe and Zn deficiency also induced TAG accumulation, as suggested by Nile Red staining. This approach can be used to efficiently optimize culture conditions for other algal species to improve growth and to assay cell physiology. © 2011 The Authors

  16. The Impact of Stigma and Social Support on Development of Post-traumatic Growth Among Persons Living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamen, Charles; Vorasarun, Chaniga; Canning, Ty; Kienitz, Eliza; Weiss, Carolyn; Flores, Sergio; Etter, Darryl; Lee, Susanne; Gore-Felton, Cheryl

    2016-06-01

    Given high rates of trauma in people living with HIV (PLH) and the health benefits of posttraumatic growth (PTG), understanding how to foster PTG in PLH exposed to trauma could be of interest to clinical psychologists working with this population. The current study examined factors theoretically related to development of PTG in PLH, namely HIV-related stigma, disclosure of HIV status, and emotional support. A sample of 334 HIV-positive adults answered a battery of self-report questionnaires. HIV-related stigma, disclosure to sexual partners, and emotional support were significant predictors of PTG: stigma was associated with lower PTG, whereas disclosure and emotional support were associated with higher PTG. Disclosure and emotional support remained significantly associated with PTG in the model including demographic factors and stigma. These findings highlight the need for development of interventions that can aid PLH in disclosing their HIV status to sexual partners and increasing available social support.

  17. Stressful Life Events and Predictors of Post-traumatic Growth among High-Risk Early Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpawong, Thalida E; Rohrbach, Louise A; Milam, Joel E; Unger, Jennifer B; Land, Helen; Sun, Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sussman, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Stressful life events (SLEs) may elicit positive psychosocial change among youth, referred to as Post-traumatic Growth (PTG). We assessed types of SLEs experienced, degree to which participants reported PTG, and variables predicting PTG across 24 months among a sample of high risk, ethnically diverse early emerging adults. Participants were recruited from alternative high schools ( n = 564; mean age=16.8; 65% Hispanic). Multi-level regression models were constructed to examine the impact of environmental (SLE quantity, severity) and personal factors (hedonic ability, perceived stress, developmental stage, future time orientation) on a composite score of PTG. The majority of participants reported positive changes resulted from their most life-altering SLE of the past two years. Predictors of PTG included fewer SLEs, less general stress, having a future time perspective, and greater identification with the developmental stage of Emerging Adulthood. Findings suggest intervention targets to foster positive adaptation among early emerging adults who experience frequent SLEs.

  18. Spanish Adaptation and Validation of the Transplant Effects Questionnaire (TxEQ-Spanish in Liver Transplant Recipients and Its Relationship to Posttraumatic Growth and Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Á. Pérez-San-Gregorio

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The valid assessment of the impact of transplantation on psychological well-being is highly relevant to optimize treatment. However, to date there is no standardized instrument available in Spain. The Transplant Effects Questionnaire (TxEQ evaluates the specific problems associated with organ transplantation, such as worry about transplant, guilt regarding the donor, disclosure of having undergone transplantation, adherence to medical treatment and responsibility toward the donor, family, friends, or medical staff. Against this backdrop the English original version of the TxEQ was translated into Spanish and validated in a sample of 240 liver transplant recipients. Participants also filled in the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI, and the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12v.2. Confirmatory factor analysis of the TxEQ-Spanish revealed a five-factor structure equivalent to the English original version, and satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: worry α = 0.82, guilt α = 0.77, disclosure α = 0.91, adherence α = 0.82, responsibility α = 0.83. Results showed that better mental quality of life was associated with higher adherence and disclosure, as well as less worry and guilt. Higher posttraumatic growth was significantly associated with worry, guilt, and responsibility. Interestingly, the most powerful predictor of posttraumatic growth was worry. Analysis of variance showed an interaction effect of PTG and mental quality of life on adherence, with medium PTG being associated with significantly stronger adherence in participants with better mental quality of life. In conclusion our study could successfully adapt and validate the Spanish version of the TxEQ in a large sample of liver transplant recipients. Our findings show a complex relationship between emotional reactions to transplantation, mental quality of life, and posttraumatic growth, which give further insight into inner processes supporting psychological well

  19. The association of self-leadership, health behaviors, and posttraumatic growth with health-related quality of life in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Young Ho; Sim, Jin Ah; Jung, Ju Youn; Noh, Dong-Young; Lee, Eun Sook; Kim, Young Woo; Oh, Jae Hwan; Ro, Jung Sil; Park, Sang Yoon; Park, Sang Jae; Cho, Kwan Ho; Chang, Yoon Jung; Bae, Yeon Min; Kim, Si Young; Jung, Kyung Hae; Zo, Zae Ill; Lim, Jae-Young; Lee, Soon Nam

    2014-12-01

    We tried to evaluate the association of self-leadership, effective health behaviors, and posttraumatic growth with health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We recruited survivors of cancer from seven hospitals in Korea between 2011 and 2012. The patients completed the Seven Habits Profile (7HP) to evaluate leadership competency, the 10 rules for highly effective health behavior to evaluate health behavior, the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) to evaluate posttraumatic growth, the Short Form 36 (SF-36) to evaluate HRQOL, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to evaluate anxiety and depression. We performed multiple logistic regressions to identify significant associations. A total of 668 patients with cancer participated in the study. Patients who scored high on the leadership subscales of Be Proactive, Begin with the End in Mind, Put First Things First, Think Win-Win, Synergize, and Sharpen the Saw in 7HP tried to practice and keep their health behaviors more. The Begin with the End in Mind, Put First Things First, Synergize, and Sharpen the Saw subscales of the 7HP were also significantly correlated with subscales on the PTGI. Patients who scored high on the leadership subscales of Life Balance, Be Proactive, Begin with the End in Mind, Think Win-Win, and Sharpen the Saw had higher physical and mental component scale scores on the SF-36 and lower anxiety and depression subscale scores on the HADS. Self-leadership, health behaviors, and posttraumatic growth are associated with QOL in survivors of cancer. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Perceived Stress as a Mediator Between Social Support and Posttraumatic Growth Among Chinese American Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Nelson C Y; Lu, Qian

    Studies have shown that social support is positively associated with posttraumatic growth (PTG) among white cancer survivors. Whether the same relationship holds among Asian American cancer survivors and through what mechanism social support may influence PTG is unclear. This study examined the association between social support and PTG among Chinese American breast cancer survivors and proposed perceived stress as a mediator. Chinese American breast cancer survivors (n = 118) were recruited from Southern California. Participants' social support, perceived stress, and PTG were measured in a questionnaire package. Social support was associated with lower perceived stress (r= -0.34, Pstress was negatively associated with PTG (r=-0.36, Psocial support to PTG via perceived stress (β = .07, Psocial support and PTG (β= .40, Pstress between social support and PTG. The positive association between social support and Chinese American breast cancer survivors' PTG was supported. Our findings also suggested that social support may facilitate PTG through reduction of perceived stress. Interventions that help to enhance Chinese American breast cancer survivors' social support may also facilitate their PTG.

  1. Exposure of mental health nurses to violence associated with job stress, life satisfaction, staff resilience, and post-traumatic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhaki, Michal; Peles-Bortz, Anat; Kostistky, Hava; Barnoy, Dor; Filshtinsky, Vivian; Bluvstein, Irit

    2015-10-01

    Workplace violence towards health workers in hospitals and in mental health units in particular is increasing. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of exposure to violence, job stress, staff resilience, and post-traumatic growth (PTG) on the life satisfaction of mental health nurses. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. The sample consisted of mental health nurses (n = 118) working in a large mental health centre in Israel. Verbal violence by patients was reported by 88.1% of the nurses, and 58.4% experienced physical violence in the past year. Physical and verbal violence towards nurses was correlated with job stress, and life satisfaction was correlated with PTG and staff resilience. Linear regression analyses indicated that life satisfaction was mainly affected by PTG, staff resilience, and job stress, and less by exposure to verbal and physical violence. The present study is the first to show that, although mental health nurses are frequently exposed to violence, their life satisfaction is affected more by staff resilience, PTG, and job stress than by workplace violence. Therefore, it is recommended that intervention programmes that contribute to PTG and staff resilience, as well as those that reduce job stress among mental health nurses, be explored and implemented. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  2. Longitudinal relationships between gratitude, deliberate rumination, and posttraumatic growth in adolescents following the Wenchuan earthquake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Wu, Xinchun

    2015-10-01

    To examine the longitudinal relationship between gratitude, deliberate rumination and posttraumatic growth (PTG) in the adolescent survivors after the Wenchuan earthquake, 217 adolescent survivors were randomly selected from several primary and secondary schools in the county of Wenchuan, and were assessed by questionnaires at three and a half years (T1), four and a half years (T2), five and a half years (T3) after the Wenchuan earthquake, respectively. The results found that there was a one-way predictive relationship of gratitude onto PTG from T1 to T3, and gratitude predicted deliberate rumination from T1 to T2 but not T2 to T3. Deliberate rumination only had a significant positive effect on PTG from T2 to T3, and PTG only predicted deliberate rumination from T1 to T2. These results indicated that gratitude could be a stable predictive factor for the development of PTG, and gratitude could also affect PTG by deliberate rumination. In addition, the predictive effect between deliberate rumination and PTG is unstable with time change. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The need for friendships and information: Dimensions of social support and posttraumatic growth among women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka; Goldzweig, Gil; Levi, Rienat; Pizem, Noam; Kaufman, Bela

    2016-08-01

    Employing a cross-sectional design, the current study examined the relationships between various agents and types of support and posttraumatic growth (PTG) among women with breast cancer. Eighty married women who were coping with breast cancer completed social support and PTG questionnaires. All agents of social support (family, friends, belief-based), excluding spousal support, and all types of social support were found to be related to the various PTG dimensions and its total score. Regression analyses revealed that, among the agents of support, only support provided from friends and belief-based support uniquely contribute to prediction of total PTG score. While examining the contribution of various types of support, only cognitive support had a unique contribution to prediction of total PTG score. Various agents and types of support play different roles in the PTG process following breast cancer. Accordingly, friends as an agent of support and information as a type of support seem to be most important in enhancing PTG among women with breast cancer.

  4. Resilience, post-traumatic growth, and work engagement among health care professionals after the Great East Japan Earthquake: A 4-year prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Daisuke; Kawashima, Yuzuru; Noguchi, Hiroko; Usuki, Masato; Yamashita, Akihiro; Koido, Yuichi; Matsuoka, Yutaka J

    2016-07-22

    Although attention has been paid to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among health care professionals after disasters, the impact of traumatic events on their work has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine whether disaster-related distress, resilience, and post-traumatic growth (PTG) affect work engagement among health care professionals who had been deployed to the areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on March 11, 2011. We recruited disaster medical assistance team members who were engaged in rescue activities after the earthquake. The short version of the Resilience Scale (RS-14) and Peritraumatic Distress Inventory (PDI) were administered one month after the earthquake, and the short form of Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (SF-PTGI) and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) were administered four years after the earthquake. Work engagement is composed of vigor, dedication, and absorption. Regression analyses were used to examine the relationship of UWES with RS-14, PDI, and SF-PTGI. We obtained baseline data of 254 participants in April 2011, and 191 (75.2%) completed the follow-up assessment between December 2014 and March 2015. The results showed that RS-14 predicted vigor, dedication, and absorption; in addition, SF-PTGI was positively related with these three parameters (pwork engagement among health care professionals after disasters. These findings could be useful for establishing a support system after rescue activities during a large-scale disaster and for managing work-related stress among health care professionals.

  5. Existence of benefit finding and posttraumatic growth in people treated for head and neck cancer: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Harding

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The impact of head and neck cancer (HNC in long-term survivors differs widely among individuals, and a significant number of them suffer from the negative effects of disease, whereas others report significant positive effect. This systematic review investigated the evidence the implications of treatment for HNC and subsequent development of Benefit Finding (BF or Posttraumatic Growth (PTG.Purpose. To understand how differing medical, psychological and social characteristics of HNC may lead to BF/PTG and subsequently inform post-treatment interventions to encourage positive outcomes.Method. In February 2012, five databases including Pubmed, and Psych Info, were searched, for peer-reviewed English-language publications. Search strings included key words pertaining to HNC, BF, and PTG. One thousand three hundred and sixty three publications were identified, reviewed, and reduced following Cochrane guidelines and inclusion/exclusion criteria specified by a group of maxillofacial consultants and psychologists. Publications were then quality assessed using the CASP Cohort Critical Appraisal tool.Findings. Five manuscripts met the search and selection criteria, and were sourced for review. All studies were identified as being level IIb evidence which is a medium level of quality. The majority of studies investigated benefit finding (80% and were split between recruiting participant via cancer clinics and postal survey. They focused on the medical, psychological and social characteristics of the patient following completion of treatment for HNC.Conclusion. Demographic factors across the papers showed similar patterns of relationships across BF and PTG; that higher education/qualification and cohabitation/marriage are associated with increased BF/PTG. Similarly, overlap with disease characteristics and psychosocial factors where hope and optimism were both positively correlated with increased reported BF/PTG.

  6. Creciendo en la adversidad. Una revisión del proceso de adaptación al diagnóstico de cáncer y el crecimiento postraumático (Growing through adversity. Analysis of the process of adaptation to a diagnosis of cancer and subsequent posttraumatic growth. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Campos-Ríos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine adjustment to a diagnosis of cancer, cancer as trauma, and the posttraumatic growth process by reviewing the scientific literature. We first present Folkman & Greer's (2000 adjustment to cancer model updated by Holland (2002 and then review cancer as a possible cause of posttraumatic stress. Finally, we describe Tedeschi & Calhoun's (2004 Posttraumatic Growth construct. The review is concluded with a sample of different points of view about posttraumatic growth related to cancer, and with some suggestions about future researches.

  7. Brief report: effects of solution-focused brief therapy group-work on promoting post-traumatic growth of mothers who have a child with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Yan, Ting-ting; Du, Ya-song; Liu, Xiao-hong

    2014-08-01

    The study evaluated the impact of solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) group-work on the post-traumatic growth (PTG) of mothers who have a child with ASD. A quasi-experimental design was used in which 43 mothers participated. 18 mothers in 2 SFBT groups (n = 9 in each group) received a 6-session SFBT group therapy while 25 mothers in a control group received no treatment. The Post-traumatic Growth Inventory was used to measure the PTG levels of the participants at baseline, post-treatment and 6-month follow-up assessments. Mothers who attended SFBT group-work reported higher PTG scores both at post-treatment (t = 4.065, p = .001) and 6-month follow-up (t = 2.980, p = .006) assessments. Further investigations to prove whether SFBT in groups can increase the positivity of clients would promote the use of SFBT.

  8. Self-esteem and hope mediate the relations between social support and post-traumatic stress disorder and growth in adolescents following the Ya'an earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Wu, Xinchun; Zhen, Rui

    2018-01-01

    Although posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) can co-exist, and several theories suggest that social support, self-esteem, and hope can predict both PTSD and PTG, no study to date has examined the combined role of social support, self-esteem, and hope in PTSD and PTG. The present study aimed to simultaneously examine the mediating roles of self-esteem and hope in the relations between social support and PTSD, and between social support and PTG. This study included 397 adolescents living in Lushan County, China, who were affected by the Ya'an earthquake. The participants completed the self-report questionnaires at two and a half years after the earthquake. Structural equation models were built to examine the roles of social support, self-esteem, and hope in PTSD and PTG. Social support directly and negatively predicted PTSD and positively predicted PTG. Moreover, social support negatively predicted PTSD via self-esteem, and positively predicted PTG via hope. In addition, social support positively predicted PTG through multiple mediating paths from self-esteem to hope. PTSD and PTG had different predictive paths. Specifically, social support reduced PTSD through enhanced self-esteem and promoted PTG through hope, or through the path from self-esteem to hope.

  9. Exploring the association between posttraumatic growth and PTSD: a national study of Jews and Arabs following the 2006 Israeli-Hezbollah war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brian J; Hobfoll, Stevan E; Canetti, Daphna; Johnson, Robert J; Palmieri, Patrick A; Galea, Sandro

    2010-03-01

    Posttraumatic growth (PTG)-deriving benefits following potentially traumatic events-has become a topic of increasing interest. We examined factors that were related to self-reported PTG, and the relationship between PTG and symptoms of post-traumatic stress (PTS) following the 2006 Israel-Hezbollah. Drawing from a national random sample of Israel, data from 806 terrorism-exposed Israeli adults were analyzed. PTG was associated with being female, lower education, greater recent terrorism exposure, greater loss of psychosocial resources, greater social support, and greater self-efficacy. PTG was a consistent predictor of PTS across hierarchical linear regression models that tested whether demographic, stress, or personal resources moderated the relationship between PTG and PTS. PTG did not relate to PTS differently for people who differed by age, sex, ethnicity, education, religiosity, degree of terrorism exposure, self-efficacy, nonterrorism stressful life events, and loss of psychosocial and economic resources. PTG was not related to well-being for any of these subgroups.

  10. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) KidsHealth / For Parents / Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ( ... My Child? Looking Ahead Print What Is Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)? Someone who is the victim of ( ...

  11. Executive function in cancer patients with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Guo, Juncheng; Jiang, Xiangling

    2017-03-01

    Background Cancer patients with posttraumatic stress disorder can lead to their noncompliant behaviors. However, less is known about the neurocognitive functioning of posttraumatic stress disorder in general cancer types or patient populations. The current study attempted to examine the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder and their relationships with executive function in individuals with cancer. Methods A total of 285 cancer patients with posttraumatic stress disorder and 150 healthy individuals were recruited for the present study. The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, Tower of Hanoi, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Chinese revision were administered to all participants. Results Significant differences in the score of Tower of Hanoi, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Chinese revision were observed between the posttraumatic stress disorder group and the healthy control group ( p posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and executive function. Conclusions These findings suggest that individuals with cancer-related posttraumatic stress disorder exhibit more severe impairment in executive function than healthy controls do.

  12. 78 FR 30249 - Revised Listings for Growth Disorders and Weight Loss in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... experts in the field of growth and development, experts in related fields, representatives from advocacy... establish that an infant's or a toddler's rate of growth reflects actual growth failure and not a short-term... establish FTT with or without a known cause when we have documentation of an infant's or a toddler's growth...

  13. Trajectories of self-rated health among veterans: a latent growth curve analysis of the impact of posttraumatic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamini, Yael; Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Ginzburg, Karni; Solomon, Zahava

    2009-04-01

    To examine the effects of combat stress reaction (CSR) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) on the level and trajectories of self-rated health (SRH) over 20 years after war exposure. A total of 675 veterans comprising two groups, a CSR group (n = 369) and a matched control group without CSR (n = 306), were assessed in a prospective longitudinal design, 1, 2, 3, and 20 years after their participation in the 1982 Lebanon War. SRH and PTS were assessed repeatedly, at each point of measurement. The CSR participants showed more impaired initial SRH than the controls. Although the CSR group showed an improvement in SRH over time, its SRH level remained lower than that of the control group in all 4 points in time. Initial levels of PTS were associated with more impaired SRH and lower improvement over time. In addition, increased levels of PTS in the first follow-up period were related to poorer SRH, in comparison to the predicted trajectory on the basis of CSR and initial PTS. Stress reaction to war trauma affected the trajectory of SRH over a 20-year period. Although the differences between veterans who had shown acute stress reaction and those who had not persisted over the entire period, there was slow improvement in SRH over time among the more impaired CSR group. PTS in the first years after the war slowed this improvement and thus played a key role in the relationship between war trauma and physical health.

  14. Posttraumatic growth within the first three months after accidental injury in China: the role of self-disclosure, cognitive processing, and psychosocial resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chaoqun; Gong, Shumei; Jiang, Liping; Deng, Guanghui; Liu, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    The primary goals of this study, were to identify the posttraumatic growth (PTG) level of accidentally injured Chinese patients shortly after an accident occurred and to determine whether cognitive processing, self-disclosure, and psychosocial resources predicted PTG. A total of 232 patients were recruited from two public hospitals in Shanghai within the first three months of an accidental injury. Patients completed self-report questionnaires to assess severity of injury, cognitive processing, self-disclosure, psychosocial resources, and PTG. Patients reported a mid-low level of PTG (M = 50.38, SD = 18.12) in the short length of time post-injury. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that subjective accident severity, deliberate rumination, perceived social support, and attitude towards disclosure were strong predictors of PTG. A moderating role of self-disclosure between intrusive rumination and PTG was identified. These findings support an interaction effect of rumination and self-disclosure on PTG and have implications for early intervention of accidentally injured patients.

  15. Post-Traumatic Caspase-3 Expression in the Adjacent Areas of Growth Plate Injury Site: A Morphological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Pichler

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The epiphyseal plate is a hyaline cartilage plate that sits between the diaphysis and the epiphysis. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of an injury in the growth plate chondrocytes through the study of histological morphology, immunohistochemistry, histomorphometry and Western Blot analyses of the caspase-3 and cleaved PARP-1, and levels of the inflammatory cytokines, Interleukin-6 (IL-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α, in order to acquire more information about post-injury reactions of physeal cell turnover. In our results, morphological analysis showed that in experimental bones, neo-formed bone trabeculae—resulting from bone formation repair—invaded the growth plate and reached the metaphyseal bone tissue (bone bridge, and this could result in some growth arrest. We demonstrated, by ELISA, increased expression levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α. Immunohistochemistry, histomorphometry and Western Blot analyses of the caspase-3 and cleaved PARP-1 showed that the physeal apoptosis rate of the experimental bones was significantly higher than that of the control ones. In conclusion, we could assume that the inflammation process causes stress to chondrocytes that will die as a biological defense mechanism, and will also increase the survival of new chondrocytes for maintaining cell homeostasis. Nevertheless, the exact stimulus leading to the increased apoptosis rate, observed after injury, needs additional research to understand the possible contribution of chondrocyte apoptosis to growth disturbance.

  16. Posttraumatic epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertha, G.; Ott, E.; Ladurner, G.; Lechner, H.; Sager, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    It is seen at the results presented that in a high percentage of the patients suffering from posttraumatic epilepsia whom we examined pathological computertomographical and EEG-findings had to be compiled at the time of the examination. There was a discrepancy between this and the neurological findings, but in 80% of the cases, the pathological computer-tomographical and the EEG-findings were correspondent. These findings coincide with the results obtained by other examiners (Scollo-Lavizzari et al. 1976; Wessely et al. 1978). In our cases, the cause for the pathological findings consisted in covered craniocerebral traumata; in only 18% of the patients severe injuries such as durapenetrating traumata and sub- or epidural bleedings respectively were existent. In the case of computer-tomography, however, especially if the examination takes place only in the chronic stage, years after the trauma, problems occur in the causal classification of various lesion patterns. The typical focus of contusion - especially in connection with a one-sided ventricle extraction and expansion - can be easily classified ethiologically (Lanksch et al. 1978), as was the case in 38 of our patients. A hypodense region in the cerebral medulla or an atrophy afflicting the ventricle regularly cannot be placed in a traumatic etiology because of the individual computer-tomographical finding; under certain circumstances, however, an atrophy can be observed coming into existence on the development of an oedema to a defect in the substance by slow demacation can be seen. (orig.) [de

  17. Predicting changes in posttraumatic growth and subjective well-being among breast cancer survivors: the role of social support and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Meghan H; Sabiston, Catherine M; Wrosch, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Social support is theoretically expected to be positively associated with posttraumatic growth (PTG) and subjective well-being, and stress is expected to be positively associated with PTG and negatively associated with subjective well-being among breast cancer (BC) survivors. However, empirical evidence is mixed, predominantly cross-sectional, and few studies have examined the unique effects of these predictors on positive changes in psychological experiences post cancer diagnosis and systemic treatment. This study examined both general and BC-specific social support and stress as predictors of change in PTG and subjective well-being among BC survivors. Women (N = 173, Mage  = 55.40, SD = 10.99) who had recently finished treatment completed demographic and treatment measures at baseline (T1); general and cancer-specific social support and stress, PTG and subjective well-being at 3 months (T2); and PTG and subjective well-being again at 6 months (T3). Longitudinal predictors of change in PTG and subjective well-being were examined using hierarchical multiple regression. The BC-specific social support (β = .12) and stress (cancer worry; β = .10) predicted increasing levels of PTG. Improvements in subjective well-being were predicted by higher levels of general social support (β = .21) and lower levels of general stress (β = -.59). There are distinct predictors of change in PTG and subjective well-being among BC survivors, supporting the distinction between the trauma-specific process of PTG and well-being. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. "PRICE LEVELS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH : MAKING SENSE OF REVISIONS TO DATA ON REAL INCOMES": A COMMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inklaar, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In his recent paper, Ravallion (2013) proposes a new method to predict changes in purchasing power parities (PPPs), arguing that a model that includes economic growth and exchange rate movements is superior to the standard approach of using inflation differences. In this comment, I argue that his

  19. Revised Healthy Lifestyle-Diet Index and associations with obesity and iron deficiency in schoolchildren: The Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Y; Moschonis, G; Papandreou, C; Politidou, E; Naoumi, A; Peppas, D; Mavrogianni, C; Lionis, C; Chrousos, G P

    2015-02-01

    The Healthy Lifestyle-Diet Index (HLD-index), previously developed to assess the degree of adherence to dietary and lifestyle guidelines for primary schoolchildren, was revised according to updated recommendations. Τhe association of the revised HLD-index (R-HLD-index) with obesity and iron deficiency (ID) was also examined. A representative sample of 2660 primary schoolchildren from Greece (9-13 years old) participating in the 'Healthy Growth Study' was examined. Twelve components related to dietary and lifestyle patterns were used to develop the R-HLD-index. Scores from 0 up to 4 were assigned to each one of these components, giving a total score ranging from 0 to 48. The associations between the R-HLD-index, obesity and ID were examined via logistic regression analysis. The total score of the R-HLD-index calculated for each one of the study participants was found to range between 2 and 32 units, with higher scores being indicative of a healthier lifestyle and better diet quality. After adjusting for potential confounders, logistic regression analysis showed that an increase in the R-HLD-index score by one unit was associated with 6% lower odds for obesity. However, no significant association was observed between the R-HLD-index score and ID. The R-HLD-index may be a useful tool for public health policy makers and healthcare professionals when assessing diet quality and lifestyle patterns of primary schoolchildren. Identification of children with lower scores in the R-HLD-index and its individual components could guide tailored made interventions targeting specific children and behaviors. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  20. Decreased nocturnal growth hormone secretion and sleep fragmentation in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder; potential predictors of impaired memory consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Liempt, Saskia; Vermetten, Eric; Lentjes, Eef; Arends, Johan; Westenberg, Herman

    2011-01-01

    Background: Healthy sleep facilitates the consolidation of newly acquired memories. Although patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often complain of sleep disturbances and memory deficits, the interrelatedness of these symptoms is not well understood. Sleep may be disturbed in PTSD by

  1. Evidence-based pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder : A revision of the 2005 guidelines from the British Association for Psychopharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldwin, David S.; Anderson, Ian M.; Nutt, David J.; Allgulander, Christer; Bandelow, Borwin; den Boer, Johan A.; Christmas, David M.; Davies, Simon; Fineberg, Naomi; Lidbetter, Nicky; Malizia, Andrea; McCrone, Paul; Nabarro, Daniel; O'Neill, Catherine; Scott, Jan; van der Wee, Nic; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    This revision of the 2005 British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines for the evidence-based pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders provides an update on key steps in diagnosis and clinical management, including recognition, acute treatment, longer-term treatment, combination

  2. Risk factors for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder and coping strategies in mothers and fathers following infant hospitalisation in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftyka, Anna; Rybojad, Beata; Rosa, Wojciech; Wróbel, Aleksandra; Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Hanna

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the potential risk factors for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder in mothers and fathers following infant hospitalisation in the neonatal intensive care unit. The development of neonatal intensive care units has increased the survival rate of infants. However, one of the major parental problems is post-traumatic stress disorder. An observational study covered 125 parents (72 mothers and 53 fathers) of infants aged 3-12 months who were hospitalised in the neonatal intensive care unit during the neonatal period. Third-referral neonatal intensive care unit. Several standardised and self-reported research tools were used to estimate the level of post-traumatic stress symptoms (Impact Event Scale-Revised), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and coping strategies (COPE Inventory). The respondents also completed a Parent and Infant Characteristic Questionnaire. The mothers and fathers did not differ in their parental and infant characteristics. Post-traumatic stress disorder was present in 60% of the mothers and 47% of the fathers. Compared to the fathers, the mothers felt greater stress (p = .020) and presented a higher severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (p stress disorder in the mothers. In the fathers, an Apgar test at 1 min after birth (p = .030) and a partner's post-traumatic stress disorder (p = .038) were related to post-traumatic stress disorder. The mothers compared to the fathers were more likely to use strategies such as: positive reinterpretation and growth, focusing on and venting of emotions, instrumental social support, religious coping and acceptance. In the fathers, the predictors included an Apgar score at 1 min after birth, a lack of congenital anomalies in the child and mental disengagement. Risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder, as well as coping strategies, differ in women compare to men. Knowledge of risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder, specific to

  3. Epidemiology of Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Abbey C; Hubbard-Turner, Tricia; Wikstrom, Erik A; Palmieri-Smith, Riann M

    2017-06-02

    Osteoarthritis is a leading cause of disability whose prevalence and incidence continue to increase. History of joint injury represents an important risk factor for posttraumatic osteoarthritis and is a significant contributor to the rapidly growing percentage of the population with osteoarthritis. This review will present the epidemiology associated with posttraumatic osteoarthritis, with particular emphasis on the knee and ankle joints. It is important to understand the effect of posttraumatic osteoarthritis on the population so that sufficient resources can be devoted to countering the disease and promoting optimal long-term health for patients after joint injury.

  4. Afrontamiento y rumiación frente a eventos adversos y crecimiento postraumático en estudiantes universitarios (Coping and Rumination Against Adverse Events and Posttraumatic Growth in University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Avilés Maldonado

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este estudio planteó como objetivo identificar las estrategias de afrontamiento y estilos rumiativos que se relacionan con la existencia de crecimiento postraumático (CPT, en una muestra de 195 estudiantes universitarios que experimentaron eventos de alto impacto emocional. La rumiación deliberada y las estrategias de afrontamiento religioso, reevaluación positiva y búsqueda de apoyo social, mostraron relación con el crecimiento postraumático. Además, se encontró una débil relación entre CPT y expresión emocional abierta. Estos resultados confirman la relevancia que para muchas personas tiene la religión y la búsqueda de apoyo social en la capacidad de extraer aprendizajes de experiencias dolorosas y, en particular, la importancia de procesos cognitivos como la reevaluación positiva y la denominada rumiación deliberada.ABSTRACT: This study was intended to identify the coping strategies and rumination styles that are related to the existence of post-traumatic growth (PTG, in a sample of 195 college students who experienced high emotional impact events. The deliberate rumination and religious coping strategies, positive re-evaluation and search for social support, showed a relationship with post-traumatic growth. In addition, a weak relationship between PTG and open emotional expression was found. These findings confirm the relevance that, for many people, religion, and the search for social support have in the capacity of extracting learning from painful experiences and, in particular, the importance of cognitive processes as positive re-evaluation and the so-called deliberate rumination.

  5. Respuestas psicológicas ante un desastre natural: estrés y crecimiento postraumático (Psychological responses to a natural disaster: stress and post-traumatic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe E. García Martínez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El propósito de este estudio fue identificar procesos psicológicos relacionados con la sintomatología del estrés postraumático (SPT y el crecimiento postraumático (CPT. A través de un análisis de sendero se evaluó un modelo que relacionó SPT y CPT con severidad subjetiva, impacto en las creencias básicas, compartir social y rumiación relacionada a un evento. Participaron 291 estudiantes que estuvieron expuestos al terremoto y tsunami de Chile del 2010. El modelo final demuestra que SPT y CPT se producen por vías distintas, aun cuando en algunas fases del proceso participan las mismas variables psicológicas, como la severidad subjetiva y el compartir social. La rumiación intrusiva aparece como un factor mediador del desarrollo de la SPT y la rumiación deliberada del CPT. ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to identify psychological processes related with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS and posttraumatic growth (PTG. Through a path analysis it was evaluated a model that related the PTS and PTG with subjective severity of trauma, impact on the basic beliefs, social sharing and rumination related to an event. Were selected 291 college students who were exposed to the earthquake and tsunami in Chile, 2010. The final model obtained shows that the PTS and PTG are produced by different routes, even when in some phases the same psychological variables are involved such as the subjective severity and social sharing. The intrusive rumination appears as a mediator of the PTS and the deliberate rumination of the PTG.

  6. Revised Indian Academy of Pediatrics 2015 growth charts for height, weight and body mass index for 5-18-year-old Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaman V Khadilkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth chart committee of Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP has revised growth charts for 5-18-year-old Indian children in Jan 2015. The last IAP growth charts (2007 were based on data collected in 1989-92 which is now >2 decades old. India is in an economic and nutrition transition and hence growth pattern of Indian children has changed over last few years. Thus, it was necessary to produce contemporary, updated growth references for Indian children. The new IAP charts were prepared by collating data from nine groups who had published studies in indexed journals on growth from India in the last decade. Growth charts were constructed from a total of 87022 middle and upper socioeconomic class children (m 54086, f 32936 from all five zones of India. Data from middle and upper socioeconomic class children are likely to have higher prevalence of overweight and obesity and hence growth charts produced on such populations are likely to "normalize" obesity. To remove such unhealthy weights form the data, method suggested by World Health Organization was used to produce weight charts. Thus, the new IAP weight charts are much lower than the recently published studies on affluent Indian children. Since Indian′s are at a higher risk of obesity-related cardiometabolic complications at lower body mass index (BMI, BMI charts adjusted for 23, and 27 adult equivalent cut-offs as per International obesity task force guidelines were constructed. IAP now recommends use of these new charts to replace the 2007 IAP charts.

  7. [Complex posttraumatic stress disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Tamar; Kotler, Moshe

    2007-11-01

    The characteristic symptoms resulting from exposure to an extreme trauma include three clusters of symptoms: persistent experience of the traumatic event, persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma and persistent symptoms of increased arousal. Beyond the accepted clusters of symptoms for posttraumatic stress disorder exists a formation of symptoms related to exposure to extreme or prolonged stress e.g. childhood abuse, physical violence, rape, and confinement within a concentration camp. With accumulated evidence of the existence of these symptoms began a trail to classify a more complex syndrome, which included, but was not confined to the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This review addresses several subjects for study in complex posttraumatic stress disorder, which is a complicated and controversial topic. Firstly, the concept of complex posttraumatic stress disorder is presented. Secondly, the professional literature relevant to this disturbance is reviewed and finally, the authors present the polemic being conducted between the researchers of posttraumatic disturbances regarding validity, reliability and the need for separate diagnosis for these symptoms.

  8. Further Evidence on the Effect of Acquisition Policy and Process on Cost Growth of Major Defense Acquisition Programs (Revised)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    average cost growth is not typical. Figure B-1. Histogram of Quantity Normalized APUC Growth from MS II/B Baseline B. Business Rules Almost all of...did not in all cases follow the business rules used in P-5126 and this paper. There were several MDAPs from the 1960s and 1970s for which we had two...periods used in the main text. Standard errors were estimated using the Stata bootstrap procedure with 20 replications. The results are presented

  9. Perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulations as mediators of the relationship between enacted stigma and post-traumatic growth among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Li, Xiaoming; Tu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Some previous studies have revealed a negative impact of enacted stigma on post-traumatic growth (PTG) of children affected by HIV/AIDS, but little is known about protective psychological factors that can mitigate the effect of enacted stigma on children's PTG. This study aims to examine the mediating effects of perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulation on the relationship between enacted stigma and PTG among HIV-affected children. Cross-sectional data were collected from 790 children affected by parental HIV (382 girls, 408 boys) aged 6-17 years in 2012 in rural central China. Multiple regression was conducted to test the mediation model. The study found that the experience of enacted stigma had a negative effect on PTG among children affected by HIV/AIDS. Emotional regulation together with hopefulness and perceived social support mediated the impact of enacted stigma on PTG. Perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulation offer multiple levels of protection that can mitigate the impact of enacted stigma on PTG. Results suggest that future psychological intervention programs should seek strategies to reduce the stigmatizing experience of these children and promote children's level of PTG, and health professionals should also emphasize the development of these protective psychological factors.

  10. Revising Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The paper explains the theoretical background and findings of an empirical study of revision policies, using Denmark as a case in point. After an overview of important definitions, types and parameters, the paper explains the methods and data gathered from a questionnaire survey and an interview...... survey. Results clearly show that most translation companies regard both unilingual and comparative revisions as essential components of professional quality assurance. Data indicate that revision is rarely fully comparative, as the preferred procedure seems to be a unilingual revision followed by a more...... or less comparative rereading. Though questionnaire data seem to indicate that translation companies use linguistic correctness and presentation as the only revision parameters, interview data reveal that textual and communicative aspects are also considered. Generally speaking, revision is not carried...

  11. Carbon allocation, source-sink relations and plant growth: do we need to revise our carbon centric concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Since the discovery that plants 'eat air' 215 years ago, carbon supply was considered the largely unquestioned top driver of plant growth. The ease at which CO2 uptake (C source activity) can be measured, and the elegant algorithms that describe the responses of photosynthesis to light, temperature and CO2 concentration, explain why carbon driven growth and productivity became the starting point of all process based vegetation models. Most of these models, nowadays adopt other environmental drivers, such as nutrient availability, as modulating co-controls, but the carbon priority is retained. Yet, if we believe in the basic rules of stoichometry of all life, there is an inevitable need of 25-30 elements other then carbon, oxygen and hydrogen to build a healthy plant body. Plants compete for most of these elements, and their availability (except for N) is finite per unit land area. Hence, by pure plausibility, it is a highly unlikely situation that carbon plays the rate limiting role of growth under natural conditions, except in deep shade or on exceptionally fertile soils. Furthermore, water shortage and low temperature, both act directly upon tissue formation (meristems) long before photosynthetic limitations come into play. Hence, plants will incorporate C only to the extent other environmental drivers permit. In the case of nutrients and mature ecosystems, this sink control of plant growth may be masked in the short term by a tight, almost closed nutrient cycle or by widening the C to other element ratio. Because source and sink activity must match in the long term, it is not possible to identify the hierarchy of growth controls without manipulating the environment. Dry matter allocation to C rich structures and reserves may provide some stoichimetric leeway or periodic escapes from the more fundamental, long-term environmental controls of growth and productivity. I will explain why carbon centric explanations of growth are limited or arrive at plausible answers

  12. Change in Level of Service Inventory-Ontario Revised (LSI-OR) Risk Scores Over Time: An Examination of Overall Growth Curves and Subscale-Dependent Growth Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, David M; Wilson, Holly A; Bodwin, Kelly; Monson, Candice M

    2017-10-01

    The dynamic nature of risk to re-offend is an important issue in the management of offenders and has stimulated extensive research into dynamic risk factors that can alter an individual's overall risk to re-offend if addressed. However, few studies have examined the relative importance of these dynamic risk factors, complicating the task of developing case management and treatment plans that will effect the most change. Using a large, high-risk sample and multi-wave data of a common risk assessment tool, the Level of Service Inventory-Ontario Revised (LSI-OR), the current study investigated the relationship among criminogenic risk factors and their role in influencing the overall risk score. Results indicated a diverse pattern of effects on the eight subscale scores, specifically suggesting that changes on Procriminal Attitude/Orientation, Criminal History, and Leisure/Recreation subscales resulted in a quicker rate of change to the overall risk score over time. These results suggest that some factors may be driving the change in overall risk and could potentially effect the most change if prioritized for intervention. Practical implications and implications for further research are discussed.

  13. Posttraumatic stiff elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Mittal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stiff elbow is a frequent and disabling complication and poses serious challenges for its management. In this review forty studies were included to know about the magnitude of the problem, causes, pathology, prevention, and treatment of posttraumatic stiff elbow. These studies show that simple measures such as internal fixation, immobilization in extension, and early motion of elbow joint are the most important steps that can prevent elbow stiffness. It also supports conservative treatment in selected cases. There are no clear guidelines about the choice between the numerous procedures described in literature. However, this review article disproves two major beliefs-heterotopic ossification is a bad prognostic feature, and passive mobilization of elbow causes elbow stiffness.

  14. Family structure and posttraumatic stress reactions: a longitudinal study using multilevel analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background There is limited research on the relevance of family structures to the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress following disasters. We longitudinally studied the effects of marital and parental statuses on posttraumatic stress reactions after the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami and whether persons in the same households had more shared stress reactions than others. Method The study included a tourist population of 641 Norwegian adult citizens, many of them from families with children. We measured posttraumatic stress symptoms with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised at 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. Analyses included multilevel methods with mixed effects models. Results Results showed that neither marital nor parental status was significantly related to posttraumatic stress. At both assessments, adults living in the same household reported levels of posttraumatic stress that were more similar to one another than adults who were not living together. Between households, disaster experiences were closely related to the variance in posttraumatic stress symptom levels at both assessments. Within households, however, disaster experiences were less related to the variance in symptom level at 2 years than at 6 months. Conclusions These results indicate that adult household members may influence one another's posttraumatic stress reactions as well as their interpretations of the disaster experiences over time. Our findings suggest that multilevel methods may provide important information about family processes after disasters. PMID:22171549

  15. Family structure and posttraumatic stress reactions: a longitudinal study using multilevel analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nygaard Egil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited research on the relevance of family structures to the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress following disasters. We longitudinally studied the effects of marital and parental statuses on posttraumatic stress reactions after the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami and whether persons in the same households had more shared stress reactions than others. Method The study included a tourist population of 641 Norwegian adult citizens, many of them from families with children. We measured posttraumatic stress symptoms with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised at 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. Analyses included multilevel methods with mixed effects models. Results Results showed that neither marital nor parental status was significantly related to posttraumatic stress. At both assessments, adults living in the same household reported levels of posttraumatic stress that were more similar to one another than adults who were not living together. Between households, disaster experiences were closely related to the variance in posttraumatic stress symptom levels at both assessments. Within households, however, disaster experiences were less related to the variance in symptom level at 2 years than at 6 months. Conclusions These results indicate that adult household members may influence one another's posttraumatic stress reactions as well as their interpretations of the disaster experiences over time. Our findings suggest that multilevel methods may provide important information about family processes after disasters.

  16. Post-traumatic syringomyelia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, M.; Sartor, K.; Aschoff, A.; Spahn, B.

    1999-01-01

    The improvement of preclinical emergency medicine, better surgical and conservative therapies, and the development of intensive care units and specialized centers have improved the survival rate for patients with serious spinal cord injuries. Therefore, more sequelae of chronic spinal cord injuries such as post-traumatic spinal cord cavitations also occur. The first such case was described by Bastian in 1867. Generally, these cavitations were diagnosed from 2 months up to 32 years after the trauma. The overall prevalence of post-traumatic syringomyelia (PTS) is not known; however, with the increasing use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), its diagnosis has increased, ranging from 2.3% of paraplegic and tetraplegic patients in 1976 and 3.2% in 1985, to nearly 50% in a selected group of patients in 1991 and 1993. In 1995, a 4.45% incidence was reported. In our clinic we are currently treating 440 cases of syringomyelia, 140 of which are PTS. Several observations suggest more than one potential mechanism for the evolution of a post-traumatic cyst or PTS. Various factors, such as hemorrhage or, in particular, ischemia within the spinal cord, blockage of the cerebrosinal fluid (CSF) pathways around the cord or localized meningeal fibrosis either alone or in combination with other factors, may be involved. Clinically, sensory disturbances, loss of motor function, pain, and modification of the deep tendon reflexes are observed in most patients. On MRI, PTS is seen as a longitudinal, cystic cavity within the spinal cord, giving a hypointense signal on T 1 -weighted images and a hyperintense signal on T 2 -weighted images. For treatment planning it is mandatory to identify the lower and upper end of the PTS on the MRI. (orig.) [de

  17. Long-term trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorder in veterans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Armour, Cherie; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To (1) identify long-term trajectories of combat-induced posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms over a 20-year period from 1983 to 2002 in veterans with and without combat stress reaction (CSR) and (2) identify social predictors of these trajectories. METHOD: A latent growth...

  18. Fergusonite-type CeNbO{sub 4+δ}: Single crystal growth, symmetry revision and conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayliss, Ryan D. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Pramana, Stevin S.; An, Tao; Wei, Fengxia; Kloc, Christian L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 (Singapore); White, Andrew J.P. [Chemical Crystallography Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Skinner, Stephen J. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); White, Timothy J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 (Singapore); Baikie, Tom, E-mail: tbaikie@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 (Singapore)

    2013-08-15

    Large fergusonite-type (ABO{sub 4}, A=Ce, B=Nb) oxide crystals, a prototype electrolyte composition for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), were prepared for the first time in a floating zone mirror furnace under air or argon atmospheres. While CeNbO{sub 4} grown in air contained CeNbO{sub 4.08} as a minor impurity that compromised structural analysis, the argon atmosphere yielded a single phase crystal of monoclinic CeNbO{sub 4}, as confirmed by selected area electron diffraction, powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure was determined in the standard space group setting C12/c1 (No. 15), rather than the commonly adopted I12/a1. AC impedance spectroscopy conducted under argon found that stoichiometric CeNbO{sub 4} single crystals showed lower conductivity compared to CeNbO{sub 4+δ} confirming interstitial oxygen can penetrate through fergusonite and is responsible for the higher conductivity associated with these oxides. - Graphical abstract: Large fergusonite-type CeNbO{sub 4} crystals were prepared for the first time in a floating zone mirror furnace. Crystal growth in an argon atmosphere yielded a single phase monoclinic CeNbO4, as confirmed by selected area electron diffraction, powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure was determined in the standard space group setting C12/c1 (No. 15), rather than the commonly adopted I12/a1. AC impedance spectroscopy found CeNbO{sub 4} single crystals showed lower conductivity compared to CeNbO{sub 4+δ} confirming interstitial oxygen can penetrate through fergusonite and is responsible for the higher conductivity associated with these oxides. Highlights: • Preparation of single crystals of CeNbO{sub 4} using a floating zone mirror furnace. • Correction to the crystal symmetry of the monoclinic form of CeNbO{sub 4}. • Report the conductivity of a single crystal of CeNbO{sub 4}.

  19. [Post-traumatic tics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, S; Chacón, J; Redondo, L; Navarro-Busto, C; Solana, B

    1996-10-01

    Secondary tics are those in which an aetiology justifying them can be found, as compared to idiopathic tics, which make up the majority, and the Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (SGT), which is, at the moment, of unknown origin. Of the possible aetiologies described as causing tics, craneo-encephalic trauma has been mentioned on very few occasions. We present a case of post-traumatic tics (verbal and neck) in a young man of 24, and review the published cases which can be considered to be of post-traumatic tics. We have found six cases of tics secondary to traumas, all craneo-encephalic, like ours (the one under study). The time interval between the blow and the appearance of the tic or tics varied between 2 weeks and 3 months. The absence of significant lesions seen in the complementary investigations make it impossible for us to discover the site of the lesion caused by the trauma. However, the presence in some cases of other tics before the trauma, and of family histories of tics, supports the idea of a genetic basis or predisposition to suffer this disorder.

  20. Post-traumatic hemobilia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahos, L.; Kalovidouris, A.; Gouliamos, A.; Kailidou, E.

    1991-01-01

    Four patients with post-traumatic hemobilia were evaluated with arteriography over a 2-year period. In two patients hemobilia was of iatrogenic origin; in particular, one case appeared after a cholecystectomy, and the other was due to placement of a biliary stent with an endoscope. In the other two patients hemobilia was the result of a gun injury. Arteriography of the hepatic arterial system demonstrated two false aneurysms, extravasation of contrast medium through the biliary system in one patient and arterioportal fistula in another patient. It is concluded that arteriography of the hepatic arterial system is the method of choice for the evaluation and the possible treatment of patients with hemobilia. (author). 20 refs.; 4 figs

  1. Post-traumatic hemobilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlahos, L.; Kalovidouris, A.; Gouliamos, A.; Kailidou, E. (Athens Univ. (Greece))

    Four patients with post-traumatic hemobilia were evaluated with arteriography over a 2-year period. In two patients hemobilia was of iatrogenic origin; in particular, one case appeared after a cholecystectomy, and the other was due to placement of a biliary stent with an endoscope. In the other two patients hemobilia was the result of a gun injury. Arteriography of the hepatic arterial system demonstrated two false aneurysms, extravasation of contrast medium through the biliary system in one patient and arterioportal fistula in another patient. It is concluded that arteriography of the hepatic arterial system is the method of choice for the evaluation and the possible treatment of patients with hemobilia. (author). 20 refs.; 4 figs.

  2. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Seedat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is among the most prevalentanxiety disorders, both in terms of lifetime and 12-month prevalencerates documented in epidemiological studies worldwide.

  3. Post-traumatic pseudomyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Richard; Wick, Bruce; Kirschen, David

    2003-02-01

    Many clinicians have noted that patients demonstrate a myopic refractive change following Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). This apparent myopic shift disappears with cycloplegia, yet stubbornly reappears as soon as the pharmaceutical effect wears off. We propose that this shift is secondary to an irritative lesion that affects the parasympathetic innervation, resulting in ciliary body contracture. The dilemma for the clinician is whether to provide the immediate relief of clear distance vision by prescribing additional minus lenses, or to work toward attempting to re-establish the baseline refractive error. The natural history of post-traumatic pseudomyopia in our experience involves one of the following three courses: (1) a transient condition that will occasionally resolve; (2) the typical case, a recalcitrant condition that will resolve under cycloplegic intervention, but immediately return as the cycloplegic wears off; or (3) a less-common subgroup of patients who continue to show an increase in myopia over time. Our description of these cases demonstrates management strategies (including atropinization) to relax accommodative spasm, traditional vision therapy techniques aimed at loosening the accommodative system, and refractive corrections. Pseudomyopia is one of many ocular and behavioral sequelae following TBI. By understanding the natural course and potential management options for post-traumatic pseudomyopia, the clinician will be better prepared to deal with these challenging cases. Flexibility is required, since options that work with one patient may prove ineffective with another. Counseling the patient as to potential outcomes given the natural history of this condition helps establish more-realistic expectations by the patients being treated.

  4. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; George A. Schier

    1985-01-01

    This chapter considers aspen growth as a process, and discusses some characteristics of the growth and development of trees and stands. For the most part, factors affecting growth are discussed elsewhere, particularly in the GENETICS AND VARIATION chapter and in chapters in PART 11. ECOLOGY. Aspen growth as it relates to wood production is examined in the WOOD RESOURCE...

  5. Brief narrative exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress in Iraqi refugees: a preliminary randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijazi, Alaa M; Lumley, Mark A; Ziadni, Maisa S; Haddad, Luay; Rapport, Lisa J; Arnetz, Bengt B

    2014-06-01

    Many Iraqi refugees suffer from posttraumatic stress. Efficient, culturally sensitive interventions are needed, and so we adapted narrative exposure therapy into a brief version (brief NET) and tested its effects in a sample of traumatized Iraqi refugees. Iraqi refugees in the United States reporting elevated posttraumatic stress (N = 63) were randomized to brief NET or waitlist control conditions in a 2:1 ratio; brief NET was 3 sessions, conducted individually, in Arabic. Positive indicators (posttraumatic growth and well-being) and symptoms (posttraumatic stress, depressive, and somatic) were assessed at baseline and 2- and 4-month follow-up. Treatment participation (95.1% completion) and study retention (98.4% provided follow-up data) were very high. Significant condition by time interactions showed that those receiving brief NET had greater posttraumatic growth (d = 0.83) and well-being (d = 0.54) through 4 months than controls. Brief NET reduced symptoms of posttraumatic stress (d = -0.48) and depression (d = -0.46) more, but only at 2 months; symptoms of controls also decreased from 2 to 4 months, eliminating condition differences at 4 months. Three sessions of brief NET increased growth and well-being and led to symptom reduction in highly traumatized Iraqi refugees. This preliminary study suggests that brief NET is both acceptable and potentially efficacious in traumatized Iraqi refugees. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  6. Posttraumatic osteolysis of the distal clavicula end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanns, P.H.; Beeger, R.; Koetter, D.; Hamburg Univ.

    1981-01-01

    Posttraumatic osteolysis of bone is rare. Its etiology is unknown. A case of posttraumatic osteolysis of the distal clavicle end is reported. Differentialdiagnostical and ethiological relations are discussed. The literature of posttraumatic osteolysis especially of distal clavicle osteolysis is reported. (orig.) [de

  7. Subthreshold Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eylem Ozten

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder is a very broad category among mental disorders. Since its inclusion in DSM-III, the diagnostic criteria of post-traumatic stress disorder has undergone a number of changes. The diagnosis and treatment of people who have some symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder without meeting full criteria still remains controversial. Although subthreshold post-traumatic stress disorder has been debated since it was first defined, the presence of subthreshold post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms has found to raise the risk for suicidal ideation significantly. This article overviews the definitions of trauma related disorders in history of psychiatry and highlights the need to define subthreshold post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms that were reported to be associated with impairment, comorbidity, and suicidal ideation. Clinical differences between subthreshold and full post-traumatic stress disorder will also be discussed.

  8. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Patients and Results of Violent Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Oznur

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: High levels of anger and aggression in post-traumatic stress disorder lead to unfavorable social, legal, physical and economic results to family members and the other social layers as much as patients. In this study, it is aimed to investigate the relation between both alcohol-cigarette consumption ratios and anger levels, characteristics of aggressive behaviors and the judicial outcome in cases diagnosed post-traumatic stress disorder due to armed conflict. METHODS: 38 cases diagnosed as post-traumatic stress disorder were included to the study. Pre- and post-traumatic alcohol/cigarette consumption amounts and aggressive behaviors are determined. Impact of Events Scale (Revised (IES-R was used for evaluating post-traumatic stress disorder symptom patterns and severity, Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire was used for measuring anger and aggression levels, and Taylor and #8217;s Violence Rating Scale was used for evaluating the judicial outcome of aggression. RESULTS: 23 of cases (60.6% were married with children, 13 of cases (34.25 were single and 2 of cases (5.2% were divorced.18 of cases (47.4% were graduate. IES-R total score was 66,9 +/- 12,7, Buss Perry total score was 111,3 +/- 20,5, and Taylor and #8217;s Violence Rate was 2,5 +/- 1,0. When the pre- and post-traumatic aggressive behaviors were compared; physical violence to the partner was increased more than ten times, Physical and verbal violence to social individuals were increased more than four and seven times, respectively. And also it is observed that inflicting damage to property was increased 17 times, reckless driving was increased 11 times, and self-mutilation was increased 5 times. Alcohol consumption was determined as 0 (0 - 126 g/day for pre-trauma cases and 16.5 (0 - 294 g/day for post-trauma cases. Cigarette smoking was determined as 5 (0 and #8211; 40 cigarette/day for pre-trauma cases and 30 (0 -60 cigarette/day for post-trauma cases. CONCLUSION: Post-traumatic

  9. Biological Studies of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Roger K.; Rasmusson, Ann M.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Shin, Lisa M.; Orr, Scott P.; Gilbertson, Mark W.; Milad, Mohammed R.; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Preface Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the only major mental disorder for which a cause is considered to be known, viz., an event that involves threat to the physical integrity of oneself or others and induces a response of intense fear, helplessness, or horror. Although PTSD is still largely regarded as a psychological phenomenon, over the past three decades the growth of the biological PTSD literature has been explosive, and thousands of references now exist. Ultimately, the impact of an environmental event, such as a psychological trauma, must be understood at organic, cellular, and molecular levels. The present review attempts to present the current state of this understanding, based upon psychophysiological, structural and functional neuroimaging, endocrinological, genetic, and molecular biological studies in humans and in animal models. PMID:23047775

  10. Recognizing Posttraumatic Stress in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Terri; Bates, Cory

    1997-01-01

    Children who are exposed to violence may develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To effectively work with children's responses to trauma, school personnel must be familiar with symptoms of PTSD and prepare possible coping strategies. The paper presents examples of affective, cognitive, and behavioral coping strategies that are effective for…

  11. Deconstructing delayed posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, G

    2011-01-01

    According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, delayed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) must be diagnosed in individuals fulfilling criteria for PTSD if the onset of symptoms is at least six months after the trauma. The purpose of this thesis was to establish the

  12. Posttraumatic stress symptoms, dissociation, and alexithymia in an Italian sample of flood victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craparo G

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Craparo,1 Alessio Gori,2 Elvira Mazzola,1 Irene Petruccelli,1 Monica Pellerone,1 Giuseppe Rotondo3 1Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, Kore University of Enna, Enna, Italy; 2Department of Psychology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 3Department of Psychology, Unit of Psychotraumatology, San Raffaele Giglio Hospital of Cefalù, Cefalù, Italy Background: Several studies have demonstrated a significant association between dissociation and posttraumatic symptoms. A dissociative reaction during a traumatic event may seem to predict the later development of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Moreover, several researchers also observed an alexithymic condition in a variety of traumatized samples.Methods: A total of 287 flood victims (men =159, 55.4%; women =128, 44.6% with an age range of 17–21 years (mean =18.33; standard deviation =0.68 completed the following: Impact of Event Scale–Revised, Dissociative Experiences Scale II, Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire.Results: We found significant correlations among all variables. Linear regression showed that peritraumatic dissociation plays a mediator role between alexithymia, dissociation, and posttraumatic stress symptoms.Conclusion: Our results seem to confirm the significant roles of both dissociation and alexithymia for the development of posttraumatic symptoms. Keywords: peritraumatic dissociation, posttraumatic symptoms, PTSD

  13. [Post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korábová, I; Masopustová, Z

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the issue of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth to health care professionals. The text focuses on the diagnostic definition of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth, symptoms, physiological background, prevalence, course, risk factors and consequences of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth for a woman, her child and her partner. Options for interventions and therapy are outlined as well.

  14. Philippines revises power plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, D.

    1988-02-01

    Following an unexpected surge in electricity demand the Philippines has revised its medium term power development programme. The sharp increase in electricity consumption follows three years of slack demand due to civil disturbances before the end of the Macros administration and the election of Corazon Aquino as President in 1986. Originally, the Aquino government's medium term power development plans called for about 500MW of generating capacity to be installed between 1986 and 1992. The three proposed plants were scheduled for commissioning in 1991 and 1992. However, a spurt in power demand growth during the past nine months has caused concern among industrialists that power shortages could occur by the end of the decade. So additional capacity will be installed to prevent an anticipated shortfall in electricity supplies by the early 1990s.

  15. Depressed suicide attempters with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramberg, Maria; Stanley, Barbara; Ystgaard, Mette; Mehlum, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder are well-established risk factors for suicidal behavior. This study compared depressed suicide attempters with and without comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder with respect to additional diagnoses, global functioning, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, history of traumatic exposure, and suicidal behavior. Adult patients consecutively admitted to a general hospital after a suicide attempt were interviewed and assessed for DSM-IV diagnosis and clinical correlates. Sixty-four patients (71%) were diagnosed with depression; of them, 21 patients (32%) had posttraumatic stress disorder. There were no group differences in social adjustment, depressive symptoms, or suicidal intent. However, the group with comorbid depression and posttraumatic stress disorder had more additional Axis I diagnoses, a higher degree of childhood trauma exposure, and more often reported previous suicide attempts, non-suicidal self-harm, and vengeful suicidal motives. These findings underline the clinical importance of diagnosis and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in suicide attempters.

  16. Loosening After Acetabular Revision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckmann, Nicholas A.; Weiss, Stefan; Klotz, Matthias C.M.

    2014-01-01

    The best method of revision acetabular arthroplasty remains unclear. Consequently, we reviewed the literature on the treatment of revision acetabular arthroplasty using revision rings (1541 cases; mean follow-up (FU) 5.7 years) and Trabecular Metal, or TM, implants (1959 cases; mean FU 3.7 years...

  17. Prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology after childbirth - A Croatian longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srkalović Imširagić, Azijada; Begić, Dražen; Šimičević, Livija; Bajić, Žarko

    2017-02-01

    Following childbirth, a vast number of women experience some degree of mood swings, while some experience symptoms of postpartum posttraumatic stress disorder. Using a biopsychosocial model, the primary aim of this study was to identify predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and its symptomatology following childbirth. This observational, longitudinal study included 372 postpartum women. In order to explore biopsychosocial predictors, participants completed several questionnaires 3-5 days after childbirth: the Impact of Events Scale Revised, the Big Five Inventory, The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, breastfeeding practice and social and demographic factors. Six to nine weeks after childbirth, participants re-completed the questionnaires regarding psychiatric symptomatology and breastfeeding practice. Using a multivariate level of analysis, the predictors that increased the likelihood of postpartum posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology at the first study phase were: emergency caesarean section (odds ratio 2.48; confidence interval 1.13-5.43) and neuroticism personality trait (odds ratio 1.12; confidence interval 1.05-1.20). The predictor that increased the likelihood of posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology at the second study phase was the baseline Impact of Events Scale Revised score (odds ratio 12.55; confidence interval 4.06-38.81). Predictors that decreased the likelihood of symptomatology at the second study phase were life in a nuclear family (odds ratio 0.27; confidence interval 0.09-0.77) and life in a city (odds ratio 0.29; confidence interval 0.09-0.94). Biopsychosocial theory is applicable to postpartum psychiatric disorders. In addition to screening for depression amongst postpartum women, there is a need to include other postpartum psychiatric symptomatology screenings in routine practice. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Coping Strategies and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Post-ICU Family Decision Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrinec, Amy B; Mazanec, Polly M; Burant, Christopher J; Hoffer, Alan; Daly, Barbara J

    2015-06-01

    To assess the coping strategies used by family decision makers of adult critical care patients during and after the critical care experience and the relationship of coping strategies to posttraumatic stress symptoms experienced 60 days after hospitalization. A single-group descriptive longitudinal correlational study. Medical, surgical, and neurological ICUs in a large tertiary care university hospital. Consecutive family decision makers of adult critical care patients from August 2012 to November 2013. Study inclusion occurred after the patient's fifth day in the ICU. None. Family decision makers of incapacitated adult ICU patients completed the Brief COPE instrument assessing coping strategy use 5 days after ICU admission and 30 days after hospital discharge or death of the patient and completed the Impact of Event Scale-Revised assessing posttraumatic stress symptoms 60 days after hospital discharge. Seventy-seven family decision makers of the eligible 176 completed all data collection time points of this study. The use of problem-focused (p=0.01) and emotion-focused (pstress symptoms than coping strategies 5 days after ICU admission (R2=0.30, p=0.001) controlling for patient and decision-maker characteristics. The role of decision maker for a parent and patient death were the only noncoping predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Avoidant coping use 30 days after hospitalization mediated the relationship between patient death and later posttraumatic stress symptom severity. Coping strategy use is a significant predictor of posttraumatic stress symptom severity 60 days after hospitalization in family decision makers of ICU patients.

  19. Microbiological diagnosis in revision of infected knee arthroplasties in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, Martin; Pitter, Frederik Taylor; Voldstedlund, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    . METHODS: One hundred and two partial revisions (open debridement and exchange of tibial insert) and 213 two-stage procedures performed due to infection in 275 patients from 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2013 were included and analysed by linkage to data from a nationwide registry on microbiological test results....... RESULTS: 78 (24.8%) revisions were culture negative, 192 (60.9%) showed monomicrobial growth and 43 (14.3%) polymicrobial growth. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent isolate in mono-culture in 70 (22.2%) revisions and in polymicrobial culture in 15 revisions with a total frequency of 27.0%. Only...... one case (1.4%) of methicillin-resistance was registered. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were frequent, sole pathogen in 65 revisions and in polymicrobial cultures in 28 revisions with a total frequency of 29.5%. A pre-operative knee aspiration was performed in 50% and preoperative blood...

  20. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stress (PTS) is a lot like post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) but not as severe. Patients have a ... PTS) are a lot like symptoms of other stress-related disorders. PTS has many of the same symptoms as ...

  1. Multimodal approach to identifying malingered posttraumatic stress disorder: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta; Alam, Farzana

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this article is to aid clinicians in differentiating true posttraumatic stress disorder from malingered posttraumatic stress disorder. Posttraumatic stress disorder and malingering are defined, and prevalence rates are explored. Similarities and differences in diagnostic criteria between the fourth and fifth editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders are described for posttraumatic stress disorder. Possible motivations for malingering posttraumatic stress disorder are discussed, and common characteristics of malingered posttraumatic stress disorder are described. A multimodal approach is described for evaluating posttraumatic stress disorder, including interview techniques, collection of collateral data, and psychometric and physiologic testing, that should allow clinicians to distinguish between those patients who are truly suffering from posttraumatic disorder and those who are malingering the illness.

  2. Pharmacotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder- a systematic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent ... j (n:J:J Medical Research Council Unit on Anxiety and Stress Disorders, .... of the drugs used. ...... in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood abuse in women.

  3. the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder among sexually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-10

    Oct 10, 2013 ... Background: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) develops ... like child sexual abuse can develop post-traumatic stress disorder ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ..... abuse and development of behavior problem ranging.

  4. Bibliocable. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    This selective, annotated bibliography is a revision of the original published in 1972 (ED 071 402). Some 104 books, articles, and reports included here deal with access, applications, franchising, regulation, technology, and other aspects of cable television. The listings are of two types in each category. First are revisions of the original…

  5. Does the Association between Workplace Bullying and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms differ across Educational Groups?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islamoska, Sabrina; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the level of reported post-traumatic stress (PTSD) symptoms among targets of workplace bullying differ depending on their educational level. Exposure to workplace bullying was assessed by the behavioural experience method and the self-labelling met......The aim of this study was to investigate whether the level of reported post-traumatic stress (PTSD) symptoms among targets of workplace bullying differ depending on their educational level. Exposure to workplace bullying was assessed by the behavioural experience method and the self......-labelling method among 563 Danish employees. PTSD symptoms were assessed by the Impact of Event Scale – Revised. Educational level was measured as years of education. The results showed that workplace bullying was significantly associated with the reporting of PTSD symptoms. However, PTSD symptoms were...... of this study was to investigate whether the level of reported post-traumatic stress (PTSD) symptoms among targets of workplace bullying differ depending on their educational level. Exposure to workplace bullying was assessed by the behavioural experience method and the self-labelling method among 563 Danish...

  6. Multimodal Approach to Identifying Malingered Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta; Alam, Farzana

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this article is to aid clinicians in differentiating true posttraumatic stress disorder from malingered posttraumatic stress disorder. Posttraumatic stress disorder and malingering are defined, and prevalence rates are explored. Similarities and differences in diagnostic criteria between the fourth and fifth editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders are described for posttraumatic stress disorder. Possible motivations for malingering posttraumati...

  7. Post-traumatic stress disorder in U.S. soldiers with post-traumatic headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Jacqueline F; Erickson, Jay C

    2013-01-01

    To determine the impact of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on headache characteristics and headache prognosis in U.S. soldiers with post-traumatic headache. PTSD and post-concussive headache are common conditions among U.S. Army personnel returning from deployment. The impact of comorbid PTSD on the characteristics and outcomes of post-traumatic headache has not been determined in U.S. Army soldiers. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 270 consecutive U.S. Army soldiers diagnosed with post-traumatic headache at a single Army neurology clinic. All subjects were screened for PTSD at baseline using the PTSD symptom checklist. Headache frequency and characteristics were determined for post-traumatic headache subjects with and without PTSD at baseline. Headache measures were reassessed 3 months after the baseline visit, and were compared between groups with and without PTSD. Of 270 soldiers with post-traumatic headache, 105 (39%) met screening criteria for PTSD. There was no significant difference between subjects with PTSD and those without PTSD with regard to headache frequency (17.2 vs 15.7 headache days per month; P = .15) or chronic daily headache (58.1% vs 52.1%; P = .34). Comorbid PTSD was associated with higher headache-related disability as measured by the Migraine Disability Assessment Score. Three months after the baseline neurology clinic visit, the number of subjects with at least 50% reduction in headache frequency was similar among post-traumatic headache cases with and without PTSD (25.9% vs 26.8%). PTSD is prevalent among U.S. Army soldiers with post-traumatic headache. Comorbid PTSD is not associated with more frequent headaches or chronic daily headache in soldiers evaluated at a military neurology clinic for chronic post-traumatic headache. Comorbid PTSD does not adversely affect short-term headache outcomes, although prospective controlled trials are needed to better assess this relationship. © 2013 American Headache

  8. The role of personality traits in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakšić, Nenad; Brajković, Lovorka; Ivezić, Ena; Topić, Radmila; Jakovljević, Miro

    2012-09-01

    A number of studies have shown that although exposure to potentially traumatic events is common, development of PTSD is relatively rare, which is one of the reasons PTSD still remains a controversial psychiatric entity. The aim of this article was to provide an overview of the research on the role of personality traits in the vulnerability, resilience, posttraumatic growth and expressions associated with PTSD. Personality based approach represents a dimensional aspect of the transdisciplinary integrative model of PTSD. We conducted a systematic search on PubMed, PsycINFO, and Academic Search Complete from 1980 (the year PTSD was first included in the DSM) and 2012 (the year the literature search was performed). Manual examination of secondary sources such as the reference sections of selected articles and book chapters were also conducted. Most of the reviewed studies dealing with personality traits as vulnerability and protective factors for PTSD examined the relationship between basic personality dimensions and severity of symptoms of PTSD. These studies have applied three types of methodological designs: cross-sectional, post-trauma and pre-trauma longitudinal studies, with latter being the least common option. Finding that appears relatively consistent is that PTSD is positively related to negative emotionality, neuroticism, harm avoidance, novelty-seeking and self-transcendence, as well as to trait hostility/anger and trait anxiety. On the other hand, PTSD symptoms are negatively associated with extraversion, conscientiousness, self-directedness, the combination of high positive and low negative emotionality, as well as with hardiness and optimism, while posttraumatic growth shows inverse relation to most of these traits. Furthermore, a number of studies have confirmed the existence of three distinct personality-based subtypes of PTSD: internalizing, externalizing and low pathology PTSD. These findings may help in further uncovering etiological mechanisms and

  9. Personality factors and posttraumatic stress: associations in civilians one year after air attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica; Gavrilovic, Jelena; Knezevic, Goran; Priebe, Stefan

    2003-12-01

    There is an ongoing debate on which risk factors for developing posttraumatic stress symptoms are more important--personality traits reflecting vulnerability, previous stressful experiences or characteristics of the traumatic event. In this study, posttraumatic stress symptoms and their relationship with personality traits, previous stressful experiences and exposure to stressful events during air attacks in Yugoslavia were investigated. The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI; Millon, 1983), Impact of Events Scale (IES; Horowitz, Wilner, & Alvarez, 1979), Life Stressor Checklist Revised (LSCL-R; Wolfe & Kimerling, 1997), and List of Stressors were administered to a homogeneous group of medical students 1 year after the attacks. In multiple regression analyses, compulsive and passive-aggressive personality traits and a higher level of exposure to stressors during air attacks independently predicted the degree of intrusion symptoms. Avoidance symptoms were predicted by avoidant personality traits and a higher exposure to stressors both previously in life and during the attacks. In the next step, we tested in analyses of variance whether personality traits, previous stressful experiences, and stressful events during attacks as independent variables interact in predicting intrusion and avoidance symptoms. For this, students were clustered into three groups depending on their predominant personality traits. In addition to direct predictive effects, there were significant interaction effects in predicting both intrusion and avoidance. The findings suggest that each of the tested factors, i.e., personality traits, previous stressful experiences, and exposure to traumatic events may have an independent and direct influence on developing posttraumatic stress. However, the effect of these factors cannot just be added up. Rather, the factors interact in their impact on posttraumatic stress symptoms. Bigger samples and longitudinal designs will be required to

  10. Longitudinal cohort study of depression, post-traumatic stress, and alcohol use in South African women who attend alcohol serving venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, Laurie A; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Eaton, Lisa A; Choi, Karmel W; Kalichman, Seth C; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree

    2014-08-06

    In South Africa, alcohol use poses a public health burden. Hazardous alcohol use often co-occurs with psychological distress (e.g., depression and post-traumatic stress). However, the majority of the research establishing the relationship between alcohol use and psychological distress has been cross-sectional, so the nature of co-occurring changes in psychological distress and alcohol use over time is not well characterized. The objective of this study is to examine the longitudinal relationship between psychological distress and alcohol use among South African women who attend alcohol serving venues. Four waves of data were collected over the course of a year from 560 women in a Cape Town township who attended drinking venues. At each assessment wave, participants reported depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress symptoms, and alcohol use. Multilevel growth models were used to: 1) assess the patterns of alcohol use; 2) examine how depressive symptoms uniquely, post-traumatic stress symptoms uniquely, and depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms together were associated with alcohol use; and 3) characterize the within person and between person associations of depressive symptoms and post-traumatic stress symptoms with alcohol use. Women reported high levels of alcohol use throughout the study period, which declined slightly over time. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were highly correlated with depressive symptoms. Modeled separately, both within person and between person depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms were uniquely associated with alcohol use. When modeled together, significant between person effects indicated that women who typically have more post-traumatic stress symptoms, when controlling for depressive symptoms, are at risk for increased alcohol use; however, women with more depressive symptoms, controlling for post-traumatic stress symptoms, do not have differential risk for alcohol use. Significant within person effects indicated an

  11. Cooccurrence of and remission from general anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms after acute lung injury: a 2-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienvenu, O Joseph; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A; Shanholtz, Carl; Dennison-Himmelfarb, Cheryl R; Pronovost, Peter J; Needham, Dale M

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the cooccurrence, and predictors of remission, of general anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms during 2-year follow-up in survivors of acute lung injury treated in an ICU. Prospective cohort study, with follow-up at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months post-acute lung injury. Thirteen medical and surgical ICUs in four hospitals. Survivors among 520 patients with acute lung injury. The outcomes of interest were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale anxiety and depression subscales (scores ≥ 8 indicating substantial symptoms) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (scores ≥ 1.6 indicating substantial posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms). Of the 520 enrolled patients, 274 died before 3-month follow-up; 186 of 196 consenting survivors (95%) completed at least one Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Impact of Event Scale-Revised assessment during 2-year follow-up, and most completed multiple assessments. Across follow-up time points, the prevalence of suprathreshold general anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms ranged from 38% to 44%, 26% to 33%, and 22% to 24%, respectively; more than half of the patients had suprathreshold symptoms in at least one domain during 2-year follow-up. The majority of survivors (59%) with any suprathreshold symptoms were above threshold for two or more types of symptoms (i.e., general anxiety, depression, and/or posttraumatic stress disorder). In fact, the most common pattern involved simultaneous general anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Most patients with general anxiety, depression, or posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms during 2-year follow-up had suprathreshold symptoms at 24-month (last) follow-up. Higher Short-Form-36 physical functioning domain scores at the prior visit were associated with a greater likelihood of remission from general anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms during follow-up. The majority

  12. The stressor criterion for posttraumatic stress disorder: Does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Dohrenwend, Bruce P.; Aiello, Allison; Wright, Rosalind J.; Maercker, Andreas; Galea, Sandro; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The definition of the stressor criterion for posttraumatic stress disorder (“Criterion A1”) is hotly debated with major revisions being considered for DSM-V. We examine whether symptoms, course, and consequences of PTSD vary predictably with the type of stressful event that precipitates symptoms. Method We used data from the 2009 PTSD diagnostic subsample (N=3,013) of the Nurses Health Study II. We asked respondents about exposure to stressful events qualifying under 1) DSM-III, 2) DSM-IV, or 3) not qualifying under DSM Criterion A1. Respondents selected the event they considered worst and reported subsequent PTSD symptoms. Among participants who met all other DSM-IV PTSD criteria, we compared distress, symptom severity, duration, impairment, receipt of professional help, and nine physical, behavioral, and psychiatric sequelae (e.g. physical functioning, unemployment, depression) by precipitating event group. Various assessment tools were used to determine fulfillment of PTSD Criteria B through F and to assess these 14 outcomes. Results Participants with PTSD from DSM-III events reported on average 1 more symptom (DSM-III mean=11.8 symptoms, DSM-IV=10.7, non-DSM=10.9) and more often reported symptoms lasted one year or longer compared to participants with PTSD from other groups. However, sequelae of PTSD did not vary systematically with precipitating event type. Conclusions Results indicate the stressor criterion as defined by the DSM may not be informative in characterizing PTSD symptoms and sequelae. In the context of ongoing DSM-V revision, these results suggest that Criterion A1 could be expanded in DSM-V without much consequence for our understanding of PTSD phenomenology. Events not considered qualifying stressors under the DSM produced PTSD as consequential as PTSD following DSM-III events, suggesting PTSD may be an aberrantly severe but nonspecific stress response syndrome. PMID:22401487

  13. Publishing and Revising Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Editors and Webmasters can publish content without going through a workflow. Publishing times and dates can be set, and multiple pages can be published in bulk. Making an edit to published content created a revision.

  14. Letter of Map Revision

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  15. Imagery Rescripting in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackmann, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview of methods of working with imagery to change meanings and ameliorate posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It opens with a description of phenomenology in this disorder, usually characterized by a small number of recurrent images of the trauma, each representing a moment that warned of a threat to the physical or…

  16. Gender differences in posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, Miranda; Langeland, Willie; Draijer, Nel; Gersons, Berthold P. R.

    2007-01-01

    One of the most consistent findings in the epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the higher risk of this disorder in women. Explanations reviewed within a psychobiological model of PTSD suggest that women's higher PTSD risk may be due to the type of trauma they experience, their

  17. Whiplash and post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, JPC

    1998-01-01

    Purpose : This study examined the comorbidity of whiplash and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following motor vehicle accidents. A treatment strategy in cases with both disorders is proposed. Method: A review of the literature on psychological consequences of motor vehicle accidents and on

  18. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder obesity and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has frequently been found to have a significant impact on the development of obesity. Yet, while a reciprocal relationship has been found between obesity and depression, the relationship between past traumatic episodes and obesity is usually thought of as uni...

  19. Some Haematological Parameters in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an emotional disorder which occurs as a result of a life threatening experience. Individuals with PTSD are more likely to develop medical conditions related to stress and research has shown that they may have altered neuro endocrine and immune system abnormalities.2 Diagnosis of ...

  20. Nuclear medicine imaging of posttraumatic osteomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govaert, G. A.M.; Glaudemans, Andor W J M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Early recognition of a possible infection and therefore a prompt and accurate diagnostic strategy is essential for a successful treatment of posttraumatic osteomyelitis (PTO). However, at this moment there is no single routine test available that can detect osteomyelitis beyond doubt

  1. Posttraumatic stress following childbirth: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde, E.; Hart, O. van der; Kleber, R.J.; Son, M.J.M. van

    To assess the empirical basis of prevalence and risk factors of childbirth-related posttraumatic stress symptoms and PTSD in mothers, the relevant literature was critically reviewed. A MEDLINE and PSYCHLIT search using the key words bposttraumatic stressQ, bPTSDQ, bchildbirthQ and btraumatic

  2. Brief Psychotherapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Daniel; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic methods for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorders. Compared trauma desensitization, hypnotherapy, psychodynamic therapy and control condition for 112 persons suffering from serious disorders resulting from traumatic events in the past 5 years. Results indicated that treated cases were…

  3. Whiplash and post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, JPC

    Purpose : This study examined the comorbidity of whiplash and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following motor vehicle accidents. A treatment strategy in cases with both disorders is proposed. Method: A review of the literature on psychological consequences of motor vehicle accidents and on

  4. Management of rigid post-traumatic kyphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S S; Hwa, S Y; Lin, L C; Pai, W M; Chen, P Q; Au, M K

    1996-10-01

    Rigid post-traumatic kyphosis after fracture of the thoracolumbar and lumbar spine represents a failure of initial management of the injury. Kyphosis moves the center of gravity anterior. The kyphosis and instability may result in pain, deformity, and increased neurologic deficits. Management for symptomatic post-traumatic kyphosis always has presented a challenge to orthopedic surgeons. To evaluate the surgical results of one stage posterior correction for rigid symptomatic post-traumatic kyphosis of the thoracolumbar and lumbar spine. The management for post-traumatic kyphosis remains controversial. Anterior, posterior, or combined anterior and posterior procedures have been advocated by different authors and show various degrees of success. One vertebra immediately above and below the level of the deformity was instrumented posteriorly by a transpedicular system (internal fixator AO). Posterior decompression was performed by excision of the spinal process and bilateral laminectomy. With the deformed vertebra through the pedicle, the vertebral body carefully is removed around the pedicle level, approximating a wedge shape. The extent to which the deformed vertebral body should be removed is determined by the attempted correction. Correction of the deformity is achieved by manipulation of the operating table and compression of the adjacent Schanz screws above and below the lesion. Thirteen patients with post-traumatic kyphosis with symptoms of fatigue and pain caused by slow progression of kyphotic deformities received posterior decompression, correction, and stabilization as a definitive treatment. The precorrection kyphosis ranged from 30-60 degrees, with a mean of 40 degrees +/- 10.8 degrees. After correction, kyphosis was reduced to an average of 1.5 degrees +/- 3.8 degrees, with a range from -5 degrees to 5 degrees. The average angle of correction was 38.8 degrees +/- 10.4 degrees, with a range from 25 degrees to 60 degrees. Significant difference was found

  5. Specificity of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: an investigation of comorbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and depression in treatment-seeking veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Daniel F; Simms, Leonard J; Acierno, Ron

    2010-12-01

    In response to high levels of comorbidity and symptom overlap between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and other disorders, much attention has been devoted to the role of specific and nonspecific symptoms among the disorders. The present study investigated the overlapping symptoms of PTSD and MDD in treatment-seeking veterans. Exploratory factor analyses were used to identify latent factors of both self-reported and clinician-rated symptoms of PTSD and MDD. Results of exploratory factor analyses supported a 2-factor model representing symptoms of depression and PTSD; however, a subset of PTSD symptoms, characterized by emotional numbing and dysphoria, loaded onto the depression factor, rather than the PTSD factor. These nonspecific PTSD symptoms were predictive of comorbid MDD and increased depression symptomatology in patients with PTSD. Together, these findings demonstrate the importance of accounting for nonspecific symptoms in diagnosis and treatment of PTSD, highlighting a need for revisions to our current diagnostics.

  6. [Psychological distress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in young survivors of L'Aquila earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollice, Rocco; Bianchini, Valeria; Roncone, Rita; Casacchia, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the presence of PTSD diagnosis, psychological distress and post-traumatic symptoms in a population of young earthquake survivors after L'Aquila earthquake. Between April 2009 and January 2010, 187 young people seeking help consecutively at the Service for Monitoring and early Intervention against psychoLogical and mEntal suffering in young people (SMILE) of L'Aquila University Psychiatric Department, underwent clinical interview with the Semi-Structured Clinical Interview DSM-IV-I and-II (SCID-I and SCID-II) and psychometric evaluation with Impact Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and General Health Questionnaire-12 items (GHQ-12). 44.2% and 37.4% respectively, showed high and moderate levels of psychological distress. 66.7% reported the presence of a significant post-traumatic symptoms (Post-traumatic Syndrome) with an IES-R>28, while a diagnosis of PTSD was made in 13.8% of the sample. The obsessive-compulsive trait, female sex and high level of distress (GHQ ≥20) appear to be the main risk factors for the development of PTSD than those who had a post-traumatic syndrome for which the displacement and social disruption, appear to be more associated with post-traumatic aftermaths. Our findings, in line with recent literature, confirm that a natural disaster produces an high psychological distress with long-term aftermaths. Early intervention for survivors of collective or individual trauma, regardless of the presence of a PTSD diagnosis should be a primary goal in a program of Public Health.

  7. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Javidi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Unexpected extreme sudden traumatic stressor may cause post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Important traumatic events include war, violent personal assault (e.g., sexual assault, and physical attack, being taken hostage or kidnapped, confinement as a prisoner of war, torture, terrorist attack, severe car accidents, and natural disasters. In childhood age sexual abuse or witnessing serious injuries or unexpected death of a beloved one are among important traumatic events. PTSD can be categorized into two types of acute and chronic PTSD: if symptoms persist for less than three months, it is termed “acute PTSD,” otherwise, it is called “chronic PTSD.” 60.7% of men and 51.2% of women would experience at least one potentially traumatic event in their lifetime. The lifetime prevalence of PTSD is significantly higher in women than men. Lifetime prevalence of PTSD varies from 0.3% in China to 6.1% in New Zealand. The prevalence of PTSD in crime victims are between 19% and 75%; rates as high as 80% have been reported following rape. The prevalence of PTSD among direct victims of disasters was reported to be 30%–40%; the rate in rescue workers was 10%–20%. The prevalence of PTSD among police, fire, and emergency service workers ranged from 6%–32%. An overall prevalence rate of 4% for the general population, the rate in rescue/recovery occupations ranged from 5% to 32%, with the highest rate reported in search and rescue personnel (25%, firefighters (21%, and workers with no prior training for facing disaster. War is one of the most intense stressors known to man. Armed forces have a higher prevalence of depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol abuse and PTSD. High-risk children who have been abused or experienced natural disasters may have an even higher prevalence of PTSD than adults. Female gender, previous psychiatric problem, intensity and nature of exposure to the traumatic event, and lack of social support are known risk factors for

  8. Acetabular Cup Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Ho

    2017-09-01

    The use of acetabular cup revision arthroplasty is on the rise as demands for total hip arthroplasty, improved life expectancies, and the need for individual activity increase. For an acetabular cup revision to be successful, the cup should gain stable fixation within the remaining supportive bone of the acetabulum. Since the patient's remaining supportive acetabular bone stock plays an important role in the success of revision, accurate classification of the degree of acetabular bone defect is necessary. The Paprosky classification system is most commonly used when determining the location and degree of acetabular bone loss. Common treatment options include: acetabular liner exchange, high hip center, oblong cup, trabecular metal cup with augment, bipolar cup, bulk structural graft, cemented cup, uncemented cup including jumbo cup, acetabular reinforcement device (cage), trabecular metal cup cage. The optimal treatment option is dependent upon the degree of the discontinuity, the amount of available bone stock and the likelihood of achieving stable fixation upon supportive host bone. To achieve successful acetabular cup revision, accurate evaluation of bone defect preoperatively and intraoperatively, proper choice of method of acetabular revision according to the evaluation of acetabular bone deficiency, proper technique to get primary stability of implant such as precise grafting technique, and stable fixation of implant are mandatory.

  9. The Shared Traumatic and Professional Posttraumatic Growth Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosone, Carol; Bauwens, Jennifer; Glassman, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: While there are established instruments offering psychometrically sound measurement of primary or secondary trauma, none capture the essence of dual exposure for mental health professionals living and working in traumatological environments. Methods: This study examined the experience of 244 mental health workers who lived and worked in…

  10. The longitudinal course of post-traumatic stress after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderquist, Johan; Wijma, Barbro; Wijma, Klaas

    2006-06-01

    Post-traumatic stress was assessed in early and late pregnancy, and 1, 4, 7, and 11 months postpartum by means of questionnaires among 1224 women. Thirty-seven women (3%) had post-traumatic stress (meeting criteria B, C, and D for PTSD) at least once within 1-11 months postpartum. In pregnancy, depression, severe fear of childbirth, 'pre'-traumatic stress, previous counseling related to pregnancy/childbirth, and self-reported previous psychological problems were associated with an increased risk of having post-traumatic stress within 1-11 months postpartum. Sum-scores of post-traumatic stress did not decrease over time among women who at least once had post-traumatic stress (criteria B, C, and D) within 1-11 months postpartum. Women with post-traumatic stress also showed a decrease in perceived social support over time postpartum.

  11. [Brain function recovery after prolonged posttraumatic coma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimash, A V; Zhanaidarov, Z S

    2016-01-01

    To explore the characteristics of brain function recovery in patients after prolonged posttraumatic coma and with long-unconscious states. Eighty-seven patients after prolonged posttraumatic coma were followed-up for two years. An analysis of a clinical/neurological picture after a prolonged episode of coma was based on the dynamics of vital functions, neurological status and patient's reactions to external stimuli. Based on the dynamics of the clinical/neurological picture that shows the recovery of functions of the certain brain areas, three stages of brain function recovery after a prolonged episode of coma were singled out: brain stem areas, diencephalic areas and telencephalic areas. These functional/anatomic areas of brain function recovery after prolonged coma were compared to the present classifications.

  12. MRI of the posttraumatic shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, N.

    2013-01-01

    functional discomfort during the joint loading. Compression on the rotator cuff from the overlying acromion and the subsequent tissue reaction in the subacromial bursa causes suffering tendons of these muscles. Unrated its diagnostic leads to deepen the ‘subacromial conflict’ and reach rotator cuff initially partial and later progressed. The shoulder stiffness is a condition in which the passive motion restriction is combined with pain in their final phase as well as during sleep. This also affects the active movements which are also reduced. ‘The shoulder hardening’ is at the organic component expense and it must be distinguished from the functional disorders such as muscle contracture and ‘subacromial conflict’. Restoration of work capacity in patients with idiopathic ‘frozen shoulder’ is faster than in post-traumatic shoulder. Diagnostic estimated joint capsule fibrosis more quickly gives a way to the treatment, which shortens the patient’s suffering. MRI imaging is a method of choice for the diagnosis of these conditions. MRI shows not only broken integrity of the rotator cuff tendons, but also the fluid in the subacromial bursa, which means that, must have a lesion. MRI provides information about fatty degeneration of the tendon. MRI registers the distance of the torn tendon retraction, the rupture size, may advise the surgeon on its mobility, and hence the expected forecast. However in the impingement indicative are only local areas with increased signal on T 2 images and data about severe osteophytosis in the area of the acromioclavicular joint. Outlined are the areas of present calcification in the subacromial bursa and, what is more important for the process of treatment, - their density. In shoulder instability MRI demonstrates the presence of lesions type Bankart, partial rotator cuff lesions, lesions of the ligament apparatus in combination with SLAP lesions, lesions of the posterior labrum and refers to the type of instability and the choice of

  13. Does optimism act as a buffer against posttraumatic stress over time? A longitudinal study of the protective role of optimism after the 2011 Oslo bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Blix, Ines; Solberg, Øivind; Heir, Trond

    2017-03-01

    Cross-sectional studies have revealed that high levels of optimism can protect against high levels of posttraumatic stress after exposure to trauma. However, this is the first study to explore (a) the protective role of optimism in a longitudinal perspective and (b) optimism's protective effects on specific symptom clusters within the posttraumatic stress symptomatology. This study used prospective survey data from ministerial employees (n = 256) collected approximately 1, 2, and 3 years after the 2011 Oslo bombing. To examine relationships between optimism and development of posttraumatic stress, we applied a series of latent growth curve analyses of both overall posttraumatic stress and the 5 clusters within the posttraumatic stress symptomatology (intrusions, avoidance, numbing, dysphoric arousal, and anxious arousal) with predictors and interaction terms. The results showed that levels of exposure and optimism had main effects on starting levels of all clusters of posttraumatic stress. In addition, optimism had a protective-stabilizing effect on starting levels of avoidance, numbing, and dysphoric arousal. No associations between optimism and rate of change in symptoms clusters were found. These results suggest that optimism may help to neutralize the effects of high exposure on levels of symptoms of avoidance, numbing, and dysphoric arousal but not on the symptoms of intrusions and anxious arousal. Thus, individuals high in optimism still experience intrusions and anxious arousal after trauma, but may be better equipped to cope with these so they do not develop into avoidance, numbing and dyshorical arousal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Revision of Pachycentria (Melastomataceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clausing, Gudrun

    2000-01-01

    A revision of Pachycentria Blume, which includes the monotypic Pogonanthera Blume, is presented. Pachycentria comprises eight species and one subspecies. Two species, P. vogelkopensis and P. hanseniana, are newly described. The genus is distinguished from other genera in the Medinillinae by a small

  15. Revision of Oxandra (Annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junikka, L.; Maas, P.J.M.; Maas-van de Kamer, H.; Westra, L.Y.Th.

    2016-01-01

    A taxonomic revision is given of the Neotropical genus Oxandra (Annonaceae). Within the genus 27 species are recognized, 4 of which are new to science. Most of the species are occurring in tropical South America, whereas a few (6) are found in Mexico and Central America and two in the West Indies

  16. Revision without ordinals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivello, Edoardo

    2013-01-01

    We show that Herzberger’s and Gupta’s revision theories of truth can be recast in purely inductive terms, without any appeal neither to the transfinite ordinal numbers nor to the axiom of Choice. The result is presented in an abstract and general setting, emphasising both its validity for a wide

  17. Revising and editing for translators

    CERN Document Server

    Mossop, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Revising and Editing for Translators provides guidance and learning materials for translation students learning to edit texts written by others, and professional translators wishing to improve their self-revision ability or learning to revise the work of others. Editing is understood as making corrections and improvements to texts, with particular attention to tailoring them to the given readership. Revising is this same task applied to draft translations. The linguistic work of editors and revisers is related to the professional situations in which they work. Mossop offers in-depth coverage of a wide range of topics, including copyediting, style editing, structural editing, checking for consistency, revising procedures and principles, and translation quality assessment. This third edition provides extended coverage of computer aids for revisers, and of the different degrees of revision suited to different texts. The inclusion of suggested activities and exercises, numerous real-world examples, a proposed gra...

  18. Post-traumatic stress disorder and its predictors in emergency medical service personnel: a cross-sectional study from Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerai, Salima Mansoor; Khan, Uzma Rahim; Islam, Muhammad; Asad, Nargis; Razzak, Junaid; Pasha, Omrana

    2017-08-29

    Emergency medical service (EMS) personnel who work to provide emergency medical care at the scene and during transportation are exposed to various kinds of stressors and are particularly susceptible to developing stress-reactions. This study assesses symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and its predictors among the personnel of a selected EMS in Karachi, Pakistan. Data were gathered from 518 personnel working in an EMS setting from February to May 2014. Participants were screened for post-traumatic stress symptoms using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Demographic and work-related characteristics, coping styles and the social support systems of the participants were assessed. Linear regression was used on the IES-R to identify predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms. The mean score of the IES-R was 23.9 ± 12.1. EMS personnel with a dysfunctional coping style (β = 0.67 CI 0.39 - 0.95), anxiety, and depression (β = 0.64 CI 0.52 - 0.75) were more likely to have increased severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Age was found to have an inverse relationship with stress symptoms (β = -0.17 CI 0.33 - -0.023), indicating the susceptibility of younger EMS personnel to stress. The EMS personnel in this setting were found to have a moderate level of post-traumatic stress symptoms. The significant predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms in this EMS population were age, coping style, and levels of anxiety and depression. These predicting factors can be a potential avenue for interventions to improve the mental health of these frontline workers.

  19. Relationships between mobbing at work and MMPI-2 personality profile, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and suicidal ideation and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, Cristian; Alfano, Vincenzo; Fraccaroli, Franco

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between the experience of mobbing at work and personality traits and symptom patterns as assessed by means of the revised version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2). Participants were 107 workers who had contacted mental health services because they perceived themselves as victims of mobbing. In line with previous research, the results showed that the MMPI-2 mean profile was characterized by a neurotic component as evidenced by elevations of Scales 1, 2, and 3 and a paranoid component as indicated by elevation of Scale 6. Contrary to previous research, a pattern of positive and significant correlations was found between the frequency of exposure to mobbing behaviors and the MMPI-2 clinical, supplementary, and content scales, including the posttraumatic stress scale. Only about half the participants showed a severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms indicative of a posttraumatic stress disorder. The frequency of exposure to mobbing predicted suicidal ideation and behavior, with depression only partially mediating this relationship.

  20. Childhood trauma increases the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder in response to first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendall, Sarah; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario; Hulbert, Carol A; McGorry, Patrick D; Jackson, Henry J

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between childhood trauma, post-traumatic stress symptoms due to the experience of childhood trauma, and post-traumatic stress symptoms due to the experience of psychosis. The current study assessed childhood trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as a result of both childhood trauma and psychosis using the Impact of Events Scale - Revised, in a group of 36 people with first-episode psychosis. Reported rates of clinical level post-psychotic PTSD symptoms, childhood trauma and childhood trauma-related clinical level PTSD symptoms were 47% (95% CI 31-64%), 64% (95% CI 48-80%) and 39% (95% CI 23-55%), respectively. Reporting childhood trauma increased the risk of developing post-psychosis PTSD 27-fold (95% CI 2.96-253.80, p = 0.01). Having childhood trauma-related PTSD increased the risk of developing post-psychosis PTSD 20-fold (95% CI 3.38-123.25, p = 0.01). These risks were not explained by illness factors such as duration of untreated psychosis, age of onset or severity of psychotic symptoms. Those without post-psychotic PTSD symptoms at clinical levels were unlikely to report childhood trauma (6%; 95% CI 3-8%). These results suggest the cognitive, social and biological consequences of childhood trauma can prevent effective recovery from the trauma of acute first-episode psychosis resulting in post-psychotic PTSD. Treatment strategies for post-psychotic PTSD must address childhood trauma and related PTSD.

  1. Factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among community volunteers during the Sewol ferry disaster in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Wan; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics associated with volunteerism and identify the factors that contributed to posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among community volunteers following the Sewol ferry disaster in Korea. In total, 2,298 adults (aged 30-70 years) from the Jin-do area, where the Sewol ferry disaster occurred, participated in this study. A cross-sectional survey was conducted 1 month after the disaster. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Impact of Events Scale Revised (IES-R), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Clinically relevant PTSD symptoms were observed in 151 (19.7%) community volunteers. Age, education, socioeconomic status, religion, and lifetime experiences of natural disasters were associated with volunteering following the disaster. Logistic regression analysis revealed that volunteering was a significant risk factor for the development of PTSD symptoms in this sample. Personal experience with property damage associated with a traumatic event, depression, and anxiety were also significantly associated with the PTSD symptoms of community volunteers. Our results suggest the need for assessment and mental health programs for community volunteers performing rescue work to prevent posttraumatic stress symptoms following a community disaster. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Posttraumatic stress disorder in hospitalized adolescents: psychiatric comorbidity and clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschitz, D S; Winegar, R K; Hartnick, E; Foote, B; Southwick, S M

    1999-04-01

    To describe the diagnostic comorbidity and clinical correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Seventy-four adolescent inpatients were given a structured diagnostic interview, the revised version of the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents, and a battery of standard self-report measures to assess general trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, suicidal behavior, dissociation, and depression. Ninety-three percent of subjects reported exposure to at least one traumatic event such as being a witness/victim of community violence, witnessing family violence, or being the victim of physical/sexual abuse. Thirty-two percent of subjects met diagnostic criteria for current PTSD, with sexual abuse cited as the most common traumatic stressor in 69% of PTSD cases. Girls were significantly more likely to develop PTSD than boys, although the total number of types of trauma did not differ by gender. Compared with psychiatric controls, male youngsters with PTSD were significantly more likely to have comorbid diagnoses of eating disorders, other anxiety disorders, and somatization disorder. Furthermore, male and female youngsters with PTSD were significantly more likely to have attempted suicide and report greater depressive and dissociative symptoms. In clinical populations of hospitalized adolescents exposed to multiple forms of trauma, PTSD is a common, but highly comorbid disorder. Specific multimodal assessments and treatments targeted to both PTSD and its comorbidity profile are warranted.

  3. Posttraumatic Stress, Depressive Emotions, and Satisfaction With Life After a Road Traffic Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copanitsanou, Panagiota; Drakoutos, Evagelos; Kechagias, Vasileios

    The psychological response of injured people after traffic accidents includes stress and depression. To assess orthopaedic patients' stress, depression, and satisfaction with life after traffic accidents in Greece. Descriptive, longitudinal, correlational study. Patients' background factors, injury severity, scores on the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, and the Satisfaction With Life Quality (SWLQ) Scale were recorded. The principles of the Declaration of Helsinki were applied. In total, 60 patients participated in this study during hospitalization following a road traffic accident and 40 patients at 6 months after. Participants were mostly men (75%) with severe injuries (50%). The IES-R score at 6 months was significantly lower than during hospitalization. One out of 3 people had a CES-D score, which is considered of clinical significance. The SWLQ scores were considered high. As posttraumatic stress and depression seem to affect a considerable percentage of people involved in road traffic accidents in Greece, these individuals should be assessed for posttraumatic stress and depression while still hospitalized.

  4. Does the Association between Workplace Bullying and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms differ across Educational Groups?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Islamoska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether the level of reported post-traumatic stress (PTSD symptoms among targets of workplace bullying differ depending on their educational level. Exposure to workplace bullying was assessed by the behavioural experience method and the self-labelling method among 563 Danish employees. PTSD symptoms were assessed by the Impact of Event Scale – Revised. Educational level was measured as years of education. The results showed that workplace bullying was significantly associated with the reporting of PTSD symptoms. However, PTSD symptoms were not reported differently among those with experience of work-place bullying. Implementing bullying policies is an important step in promoting a healthy psychosocial working environment. All targets of workplace bullying would benefit from interventions aiming to reduce progression of PTSD symptoms.

  5. Depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms following termination of pregnancy in South African women: A longitudinal study measuring the effects of ... The relationship between demographic characteristics, resilience and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression before, 1 month after and 3 ...

  6. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Stillbirth: Trauma Characteristics, Locus of Control, Posttraumatic Cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Man Cheung; Reed, Jacqueline

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the incidence of PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity among women who experienced stillbirth and investigated the relationship between locus of control, trauma characteristics of stillbirth, posttraumatic cognitions, PTSD and co-morbid psychiatric symptoms following stillbirth. Fifty women recorded information on stillbirth experiences, and completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, General Health Questionnaire-28, Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale, Rotter's Locus of Control Scale and the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory. 60, 28 and 12 % met the diagnostic criteria for probable full-PTSD, partial and no-PTSD respectively. Sixty-two percent and 54 % scored at or above the cutoff of the General Health Questionnaire-28 and postnatal depression respectively. Women who experienced stillbirth reported significantly more psychiatric co-morbid and post-natal depressive symptoms than the comparison group. Both groups were similar in locus of control. Women who experienced stillbirth reported negative cognitions about the self the most. After adjusting for postnatal depression, trauma characteristics were significantly correlated with Posttraumatic cognitions which, in turn, were significantly correlated with PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. Locus of control was not significantly correlated with psychological outcomes. Mediational analyses showed that negative cognitions about self mediated the relationship between trauma characteristics and psychiatric co-morbidity only. Women reported a high incidence of probable PTSD and co-morbid psychiatric symptoms following stillbirth. Stillbirth trauma characteristics influenced how they negatively perceived themselves. This then specifically influenced general psychological problems rather than PTSD symptoms.

  7. Standards for vision science libraries: 2014 revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, Kristin; Caldwell, C Brooke; Lamson, Karen S; Ferimer, Suzanne; Nims, J Chris

    2014-10-01

    This Association of Vision Science Librarians revision of the "Standards for Vision Science Libraries" aspires to provide benchmarks to address the needs for the services and resources of modern vision science libraries (academic, medical or hospital, pharmaceutical, and so on), which share a core mission, are varied by type, and are located throughout the world. Through multiple meeting discussions, member surveys, and a collaborative revision process, the standards have been updated for the first time in over a decade. While the range of types of libraries supporting vision science services, education, and research is wide, all libraries, regardless of type, share core attributes, which the standards address. The current standards can and should be used to help develop new vision science libraries or to expand the growth of existing libraries, as well as to support vision science librarians in their work to better provide services and resources to their respective users.

  8. The effects of antenatal education on fear of childbirth, maternal self-efficacy and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms following childbirth: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe İsbir, Gözde; İnci, Figen; Önal, Hatice; Yıldız, Pelin Dıkmen

    2016-11-01

    Fear of birth and low childbirth self-efficacy is predictive of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms following childbirth. The efficacy of antenatal education classes on fear of birth and childbirth self-efficacy has been supported; however, the effectiveness of antenatal classes on post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms after childbirth has received relatively little research attention. This study examined the effects of antenatal education on fear of childbirth, maternal self-efficacy and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms following childbirth. Quasi-experimental study. The study was conducted in a city located in the Middle Anatolia region of Turkey and data were collected between December 2013 and May 2015. Two groups of women were compared-an antenatal education intervention group (n=44), and a routine prenatal care control group (n=46). The Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire, Version A and B, Childbirth Self-efficacy Inventory and Impact of Event Scale-Revised was used to assess fear of childbirth, maternal self-efficacy and PTSD symptoms following childbirth. Compared to the control group, women who attended antenatal education had greater childbirth self-efficacy, greater perceived support and control in birth, and less fear of birth and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms following childbirth (all comparisons, ppost-traumatic stress disorder symptoms after childbirth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Post Partum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, W.; Marth, C.; Bergant, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic birth experiences may lead to serious psychological impairment. Recent studies show that a considerable number of women can develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in some cases in a subsyndromal form. Until now, the possibility that postpartum psychological symptoms might be a continuum of a pre-existing disorder in pregnancy has rarely been considered. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the proportion of women who develop post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of childbirth. Materials and Methods: 56 multiparous women were recruited for the study. The diagnosis of PTSD was made according to the criteria for psychological disorders in the DSM-IV (Diagnostics and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). The data were collected in structured interviews in the 30th to 38th week of gestation and in the 6th week post partum. Results: Of the 56 women participating, 52 (93 %) completed the survey. Uncontrolled results showed that 21.15 % of the multiparous women met the full diagnostic PTSD criteria in the 6th week post partum. After the exclusion of all cases already characterised by all criteria or a subsyndromal form of PTSD caused by previous traumatisation, the PTSD rate was below 8 % at 6 weeks postpartum (= incidence rate of PTSD post partum). Conclusions: The present study is the first prospective longitudinal study to demonstrate the occurrence of full criteria PTSD in multiparous women as a result of childbirth after having excluded pre-existing PTSD. The results of our study show a high prevalence rate of PTSD during pregnancy. A number of women report all aspects of post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of childbirth. PMID:25253905

  10. Validating the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Screen and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist with Soldiers Returning from Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliese, Paul D.; Wright, Kathleen M.; Adler, Amy B.; Cabrera, Oscar; Castro, Carl A.; Hoge, Charles W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to assess the diagnostic efficiency of the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Screen (PC-PTSD) and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL) as clinical screening tools for active duty soldiers recently returned from a combat deployment. A secondary goal was to examine the item-level characteristics…

  11. Post-traumatic contrast enhancing brain lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Jung; Kim, Hyun Sook; Jeong, Min Sun; Kim, Deok Ryeong; Cho, Young Kwon; Choi, Yun Sun

    2014-01-01

    Only a few studies have been reported on the MR contrast enhancement and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) findings of the post-traumatic lesion of the brain. We report a case of the venous ischemia in the left frontal lobe observed in the MRI obtained one day after the incidence of trauma. Considering the presented slight increase in the ADC, the vasogenic edema was thought to be the major mechanism of the venous ischemia and excitotoxic injury. In spite of a slight increase in the ADC, the hyperintensity in the diffusion weighted imaging and contrast-enhanced areas eventually changed into hemorrhagic lesions.

  12. Post-traumatic contrast enhancing brain lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Jung; Kim, Hyun Sook; Jeong, Min Sun; Kim, Deok Ryeong; Cho, Young Kwon; Choi, Yun Sun [Eulji Hospital, Eulji University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Only a few studies have been reported on the MR contrast enhancement and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) findings of the post-traumatic lesion of the brain. We report a case of the venous ischemia in the left frontal lobe observed in the MRI obtained one day after the incidence of trauma. Considering the presented slight increase in the ADC, the vasogenic edema was thought to be the major mechanism of the venous ischemia and excitotoxic injury. In spite of a slight increase in the ADC, the hyperintensity in the diffusion weighted imaging and contrast-enhanced areas eventually changed into hemorrhagic lesions.

  13. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, obesity, and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has frequently been found to have an impact on the development of obesity, with the relationship between past traumatic episodes and obesity usually thought of as uni-directional. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the level of PTSD......-symptoms would decrease as a result of weight loss in obese participants during a 16 week stay at a weight loss facility. During the 16 weeks participants’ Body Mass Index (BMI) decreased significantly. Concurrently, a significant decline in the level of PTSD symptoms was also reported. During the first week...

  14. Epigenetic Aspects of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Schmidt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of psychiatric diseases such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD invokes, as with most complex diseases, both genetic and environmental factors. The era of genome-wide high throughput technologies has sparked the initiation of genotype screenings in large cohorts of diseased and control individuals, but had limited success in identification of disease causing genetic variants. It has become evident that these efforts at the genomic level need to be complemented with endeavours in elucidating the proteome, transcriptome and epigenetic profiles. Epigenetics is attractive in particular because there is accumulating evidence that the lasting impact of adverse life events is reflected in certain covalent modifications of the chromatin.

  15. The Honolulu posttraumatic stress disorder stimulus set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemtob, C M; Roitblat, H L; Hamada, R S; Carlson, J G; Muraoka, M Y; Bauer, G B

    1997-04-01

    We present word and picture stimuli constituting a validated stimulus set appropriate for cognitive investigations of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Combat related and neutral words and pictures were rated by Vietnam veterans with PTSD and by three comparison groups along four dimensions: unpleasantness, Vietnam relevance, stressfulness, and memorability. There were distinctive patterns of responses by the PTSD group which efficiently discriminated the individuals in this group from those in the control groups. These stimuli have the potential to be developed as a diagnostic instrument.

  16. Post-traumatic hypopituitarism and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Brent E; Zgaljardic, Dennis J; Forman, Jack

    2017-10-01

    Post-traumatic hypopituitarism (PTH) associated with chronic cognitive, psychiatric, and/or behavioural sequelae is common following moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). More specifically, due to a cascade of hormonal deficiencies secondary to PTH, individuals with TBI may experience debilitating fatigue that can negatively impact functional recovery, as it can limit participation in brain injury rehabilitation services and lead to an increase in maladaptive lifestyle practices. While the mechanisms underlying fatigue and TBI are not entirely understood, the current review will address the specific anatomy and physiology of the pituitary gland, as well as the association between pituitary dysfunction and fatigue in individuals with TBI.

  17. Attentional Avoidance is Associated with Increased Pain Sensitivity in Patients with Chronic Posttraumatic Pain and Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvold, Mathea; MacLeod, Colin; Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke

    2018-01-01

    posttraumatic pain patients is unknown. This study investigated AB for linguistic pain- and trauma-related stimuli, and clinical and thermal sensitivity in patients with chronic posttraumatic pain with and without PTSD. METHODS: Thirty-four patients with chronic posttraumatic cervical pain performed the visual......OBJECTIVES: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common in chronic posttraumatic pain. Theoretical models suggest that attentional biases (AB) contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pain and PTSD, however, the influence of AB on clinical and heat pain sensitivity in chronic...... attentional probe task assessing patterns of selective attentional responding to trauma cues and to pain cues. The task used short (500 ms) and long (1250 ms) stimulus exposure durations to ensure sensitivity to both the orienting and maintenance of attention. Heat pain threshold (HPT) was assessed at the non-painful...

  18. Development of an Autologous Macrophage-based Adoptive Gene Transfer Strategy to Treat Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis (PTOA) and Osteoarithritis (OA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    damaged articular cartilage showed evidence of an increase in cell proliferation of chondrocytes, consistent with the literature showing that anabolic ...2. Stiebel M, Miller LE, Block JE (2014) Post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis in the young patient: therapeutic dilemmas and emerging technologies. Open...delivery of an anti-catabolic agent, i.e., IL-1ra, in addition to a pro- anabolic growth factor, i.e., TGF-β3, with the M2-macrophage approach would

  19. Posttraumatic Headache: Basic Mechanisms and Therapeutic Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamins, Joshua; Charles, Andrew

    2018-06-01

    Frequent or continuous headache, often refractory to medical therapy, is a common occurrence after head trauma. In addition to being the most common acute symptom after traumatic brain injury (TBI), headache is also one of the most persistent and disabling symptoms. Different studies indicate that 18-58% of those suffering a TBI will have significant headache at 1 year following the trauma. In addition to being disabling on its own, posttraumatic headache (PTH) is a predictor of overall outcome after concussion. Despite its remarkable prevalence and associated social and economic costs, many fundamental and important questions about PTH remain unanswered. The purpose of this review is to identify key questions regarding the clinical characteristics of posttraumatic headache, its basic mechanisms, and its optimal management. We discuss phenotypic features of PTH, pathophysiological mechanisms of TBI including potential overlaps with those of migraine and other primary headache disorders, and potential novel targets for treatment. We suggest different strategies to finding answers to the questions regarding PTH in order to advance the understanding of the disorder and develop more effective therapies. © 2018 American Headache Society.

  20. Computed tomography in post-traumatic epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samejima, Hirotsugu; Yoshii, Nobuo; Sakiyama, Takashi; Seiki, Yoshikatsu; Mizokami, Tohru

    1980-01-01

    Eighty-three post-traumatic patients were investigated by CT scan and EEG examination. Forty-one of them has clinical seizure and/or showed spike (or spike and wave) on EEG. The other 42 cases did not suffer from seizures, but from some neurological symptoms or displayed some EEG abnormality after the head injury. All these cases were divided into five groups according to the CT findings: A: normal CT scan; B: partial or unilateral enlargement of lateral ventricle; C: patchy low density in cerebral structures (porencephalic appearance); D: superficial localized low density (cortical atrophy); and E: others. Those cases which had had a longer duration of unconsciousness after the injury were more in groups B, C and D. Groups C and D had a relatively good correlation with the depressed fracture. Group D composed 44.3% of all the cases. Clinical seizure was most frequently observed in group C. It should be emphasized that the CT scan is very important in the follow-up studies of post-traumatic epilepsy. (author)

  1. Investigating the pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder with neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, R K; Shin, L M; Rauch, S L

    2001-01-01

    Rapidly evolving brain neuroimaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) are proving fruitful in exploring the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Structural abnormalities in PTSD found with MRI include nonspecific white matter lesions and decreased hippocampal volume. These abnormalities may reflect pretrauma vulnerability to develop PTSD, or they may be a consequence of traumatic exposure, PTSD, and/or PTSD sequelae. Functional neuroimaging symptom provocation and cognitive activation paradigms using PET measurement of regional cerebral blood flow have revealed greater activation of the amygdala and anterior paralimbic structures (which are known to be involved in processing negative emotions such as fear), greater deactivation of Broca's region (motor speech) and other nonlimbic cortical regions, and failure of activation of the cingulate cortex (which possibly plays an inhibitory role) in response to trauma-related stimuli in individuals with PTSD. Functional MRI research has shown the amygdala to be hyperresponsive to fear-related stimuli in this disorder. Research with PET suggests that cortical, notably hippocampal, metabolism is suppressed to a greater extent by pharmacologic stimulation of the noradrenergic system in persons with PTSD. The growth of knowledge concerning the anatomical and neurochemical basis of this important mental disorder will hopefully eventually lead to rational psychological and pharmacologic treatments.

  2. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeveld, N E; Grootenhuis, M A; Voûte, P A; de Haan, R J

    2004-06-01

    Previous research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is present in survivors of childhood cancer. The aim of the current study was to explore posttraumatic stress symptoms in a sample of young adult survivors of childhood cancer. In addition, the impact of demographic, medical and treatment factors on survivors' posttraumatic stress symptoms was studied. Participants were 500 long-term survivors of childhood cancer. The median age at follow-up was 24 years (age range, 16- 49 years, 47% female). To assess symptoms of posttraumatic stress, all participants completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES), a self-report instrument consisting of two subscales, intrusion and avoidance. Twelve percent of this sample of adult survivors of childhood cancer had scores in the severe range, indicating they are unable to cope with the impact of their disease and need professional help. Twenty percent of the female survivors had scores in the severe range as compared with 6% of the male survivors. Linear regression models revealed that being female, unemployed, a lower educational level, type of diagnosis and severe late effects/health problems were associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms. The results indicate that, although the proportion of survivors reporting symptoms is well within the proportions found in the general population, a substantial subset of survivors report symptoms of posttraumatic stress. This finding supports the outcomes reported previously that diagnosis and treatment for childhood cancer may have significant long-term effects, which are manifested in symptoms of posttraumatic stress. The investigated factors could explain posttraumatic stress symptoms only to a limited extent. Further research exploring symptoms of posttraumatic stress in childhood cancer survivors in more detail is clearly warranted. From a clinical perspective, health care providers must pay attention to these symptoms during evaluations in the follow-up clinic. Early

  3. Posttraumatic stress disorder in critical illness survivors: a metaanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ann M; Sricharoenchai, Thiti; Raparla, Sandeep; Schneck, Kyle W; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Needham, Dale M

    2015-05-01

    To conduct a systematic review and metaanalysis of the prevalence, risk factors, and prevention/treatment strategies for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in critical illness survivors. PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library from inception through March 5, 2014. Eligible studies met the following criteria: 1) adult general/nonspecialty ICU, 2) validated posttraumatic stress disorder instrument greater than or equal to 1 month post-ICU, and 3) sample size greater than or equal to 10 patients. Duplicate independent review and data abstraction from all eligible titles/abstracts/full-text articles. The search identified 2,817 titles/abstracts, with 40 eligible articles on 36 unique cohorts (n = 4,260 patients). The Impact of Event Scale was the most common posttraumatic stress disorder instrument. Between 1 and 6 months post-ICU (six studies; n = 456), the pooled mean (95% CI) Impact of Event Scale score was 20 (17-24), and the pooled prevalences of clinically important posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (95% CI) were 25% (18-34%) and 44% (36-52%) using Impact of Event Scale thresholds greater than or equal to 35 and greater than or equal to 20, respectively. Between 7 and 12 months post-ICU (five studies; n = 698), the pooled mean Impact of Event Scale score was 17 (9-24), and pooled prevalences of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were 17% (10-26%) and 34% (22-50%), respectively. ICU risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms included benzodiazepine administration and post-ICU memories of frightening ICU experiences. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were associated with worse quality of life. In European-based studies: 1) an ICU diary was associated with a significant reduction in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, 2) a self-help rehabilitation manual was associated with significant posttraumatic stress disorder symptom reduction at 2 months, but not 6 months; and 3) a nurse-led ICU follow-up clinic did not reduce

  4. Disability from posttraumatic headache is compounded by coexisting posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Louise S; Nightingale, Peter; Su, Zhangjie; Mitchell, James L; Belli, Antonio; Sinclair, Alexandra J

    2017-01-01

    Posttraumatic headache (PTH) occurs in up to 82% of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs in 39% of those with PTH. This study evaluates whether PTSD affects PTH disability. Eighty-six patients with TBI were prospectively evaluated in a secondary care trauma center. Headache disability was assessed using the Headache Impact Test version 6 and signs indicative of PTSD using the PTSD Check List Civilian version. Increased PTSD-type symptoms were significantly associated with increased headache disability ( p headache disability (Spearman's correlation rho=0.361, p =0.001). Increased severity of PTSD-type symptoms is significantly associated with increased headache disability in patients with chronic PTH. Managing PTSD symptoms in patients with chronic PTH may facilitate headache management.

  5. DSM-IV, DSM-5, and ICD-11: Identifying children with posttraumatic stress disorder after disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzi, BreAnne A; La Greca, Annette M

    2016-12-01

    Different criteria for diagnosing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been recommended by the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and the proposed 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Although children are vulnerable to PTSD following disasters, little is known about whether these revised criteria are appropriate for preadolescents, as diagnostic revisions have been based primarily on adult research. This study investigated rates of PTSD using DSM-IV, DSM-5, and ICD-11 diagnostic criteria, and their associations with symptom severity, impairment, and PTSD risk factors. Children (7-11 years) exposed to Hurricanes Ike (n = 327) or Charley (n = 383) completed measures 8-9 months postdisaster. Using diagnostic algorithms for DSM-IV, DSM-5, and ICD-11, rates of 'probable' PTSD were calculated. Across samples, rates of PTSD were similar. However, there was low agreement across the diagnostic systems, with about a third overlap in identified cases. Children identified only by ICD-11 had higher 'core' symptom severity but lower impairment than children identified only by DSM-IV or DSM-5. ICD-11 was associated with more established risk factors for PTSD than was DSM-5. Findings revealed differences in PTSD diagnosis across major diagnostic systems for preadolescent children, with no clear advantage to any one system. Further research on developmentally sensitive PTSD criteria for preadolescent children is needed. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  6. Predicting posttraumatic stress disorder in children and parents following accidental child injury: evaluation of the Screening Tool for Early Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (STEPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meijel, Els P M; Gigengack, Maj R; Verlinden, Eva; Opmeer, Brent C; Heij, Hugo A; Goslings, J Carel; Bloemers, Frank W; Luitse, Jan S K; Boer, Frits; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2015-05-12

    Children and their parents are at risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following injury due to pediatric accidental trauma. Screening could help predict those at greatest risk and provide an opportunity for monitoring so that early intervention may be provided. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Screening Tool for Early Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (STEPP) in a mixed-trauma sample in a non-English speaking country (the Netherlands). Children aged 8-18 and one of their parents were recruited in two academic level I trauma centers. The STEPP was assessed in 161 children (mean age 13.9 years) and 156 parents within one week of the accident. Three months later, clinical diagnoses and symptoms of PTSD were assessed in 147 children and 135 parents. We used the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV - Child and Parent version, the Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses were performed to estimate the Areas Under the Curve as a measure of performance and to determine the optimal cut-off score in our sample. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated. The aim was to maximize both sensitivity and negative predictive values. PTSD was diagnosed in 12% of the children; 10% of their parents scored above the cut-off point for PTSD. At the originally recommended cut-off scores (4 for children, 3 for parents), the sensitivity in our sample was 41% for children and 54% for parents. Negative predictive values were 92% for both groups. Adjusting the cut-off scores to 2 improved sensitivity to 82% for children and 92% for parents, with negative predictive values of 92% and 96%, respectively. With adjusted cut-off scores, the STEPP performed well: 82% of the children and 92% of the parents with a subsequent positive diagnosis were identified correctly. Special attention in the screening procedure is required because of a

  7. Revised Rules for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Jensen, F. M.; Middleton, C.

    This paper is based on research performed for the Highway Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: Concrete Bridges" It contains details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability profiles....... These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for Concrete Bridges....

  8. Emotion Processes in Knowledge Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevors, Gregory J.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Butterfuss, Reese

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, a number of insights have been gained into the cognitive processes that explain how individuals overcome misconceptions and revise their previously acquired incorrect knowledge. The current study complements this line of research by investigating the moment-by-moment emotion processes that occur during knowledge revision using a…

  9. Predictors of outcome of an Internet-based cognitive-behavioural therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttche, Maria; Kuwert, Philipp; Pietrzak, Robert H; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of resource-oriented variables such as self-efficacy, locus of control (LOC) and post-traumatic growth (PTG) in predicting treatment response in older adults with post-traumatic stress. Fifty-eight older adults with subsyndromal or greater severity of war-associated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms completed a randomized controlled Internet-based cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) with immediate and delayed treatment groups. Assessments of PTSD severity and resource-oriented variables of self-efficacy, LOC and PTG were conducted at baseline, post-treatment and at a 6-month follow-up. Results revealed that pre-treatment scores on measures of internal LOC and PTG predicted PTSD symptom severity at post-treatment, even after controlling for initial PTSD. At a 6-month follow-up, internal LOC continued to predict PTSD symptom severity. In addition, repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that, relative to older adults with low internal LOC and PTG, older adults with high internal LOC and PTG, respectively, did not differ with respect to initial PTSD severity, but they showed a more pronounced response to treatment. These findings suggest that greater locus of control and post-traumatic growth is associated with greater improvement in PTSD symptoms following Internet-based CBT. Assessment of these constructs may be useful in identifying trauma survivors who are most likely to respond to CBT. Greater internal locus of control and post-traumatic growth is associated with greater improvement in PTSD symptoms following Internet-based CBT. Older adults with initial high internal locus of control and post-traumatic growth, respectively, did not differ with respect to initial PTSD severity, but they showed a more pronounced response to treatment. It could be assumed that patients with initial functional appraisals could benefit easier and faster from a trauma-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy compared to

  10. Posttraumatic stress disorder among black Vietnam veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, I M

    1986-01-01

    Because of racism in the military and racial and social upheaval in the United States during the Vietnam War years, as well as limited opportunities for blacks in the postwar period, black veterans of the Vietnam War often harbor conflicting feelings about their wartime experiences and have difficulty rationalizing brutality against the Vietnamese. As a result, black veterans suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at a higher rate than white veterans. Diagnosis and treatment of PTSD in black veterans is complicated by the tendency to misdiagnose black patients, by the varied manifestations of PTSD, and by patients' frequent alcohol and drug abuse and medical, legal, personality, and vocational problems. The author presents his and others' recommendations about ways to treat black veterans with PTSD.

  11. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Orofacial Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Prica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic orofacial pain occurs frequently in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and at the same time any pathological process involving orofacial area can be reflected in emotional interpretation of pain and can trigger a series of reactions associated with the PTSD group of symptoms in patients with PTSD. Painful stimuli caused in this way may occur after the primary cause ceased, and because of convergence can cause referred pain outside of the anatomical site where the primary injury occurred. Chronic orofacial pain and PTSD are diagnosed on the basis of subjective testimony and this regularly occurs in the context of social interaction between patients, doctors, medical staff or researchers making it difficult to standardize the results and introduces many cultural phenomena.

  12. CAM and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Hankey

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the form of the Transcendental Meditation program CAM offers a method of eliminating deep-rooted stress, the efficacy of which has been demonstrated in several related studies. Any discussion of CAM and post-traumatic stress disorder should include a study of its application to Vietnam War Veterans in which improvements were observed on all variables, and several participants were able to return to work after several years of being unable to hold a job. The intervention has been studied for its impact on brain and autonomic nervous system function. It has been found to be highly effective against other stress-related conditions such as hypertension, and to improve brain coherence—a measure of effective brain function. It should be considered a possible ‘new and improved mode of treatment’ for PTSD, and further studies of its application made.

  13. Diagnosis of posttraumatic syringomyelia with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Sakamoto, Yuji; Kojima, Ryutaro; Matsuno, Taiji

    1988-01-01

    Five cases with development of syringomyelia, following long stable period of paraplegia after spinal trauma, have been studied with a resistive MRI unit. In all five cases there was spinal cord damage at the lower dorsal or dorsolumbar vertebral levels. Symptoms and signs of syringomyelia developed after long steady period with increased paresthesia, muscle weakness and pain of the shoulders and upper extremities. MRI revealed syringomyelia involving the dorsal and cervical cord up to the C1 or C2 level. The syringomyelia cavity was hypointense on T1 weighted images, but T2 weighted images showed isointensity in 2 of 4 cases showing no flow void. At the site of the cord injury there was diffuse increased signal intensity within the cord, probably indicating myelomalacia or gliosis. Pathogenesis of post-traumatic syringomyelia was discussed from the standpoint of diagnosis and treatment. (author)

  14. Diagnosis of posttraumatic syringomyelia with MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Sakamoto, Yuji; Kojima, Ryutaro; Matsuno, Taiji

    1988-11-01

    Five cases with development of syringomyelia, following long stable period of paraplegia after spinal trauma, have been studied with a resistive MRI unit. In all five cases there was spinal cord damage at the lower dorsal or dorsolumbar vertebral levels. Symptoms and signs of syringomyelia developed after long steady period with increased paresthesia, muscle weakness and pain of the shoulders and upper extremities. MRI revealed syringomyelia involving the dorsal and cervical cord up to the C1 or C2 level. The syringomyelia cavity was hypointense on T1 weighted images, but T2 weighted images showed isointensity in 2 of 4 cases showing no flow void. At the site of the cord injury there was diffuse increased signal intensity within the cord, probably indicating myelomalacia or gliosis. Pathogenesis of post-traumatic syringomyelia was discussed from the standpoint of diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Revised SRAC code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihashi, Keichiro; Ishiguro, Yukio; Kaneko, Kunio; Ido, Masaru.

    1986-09-01

    Since the publication of JAERI-1285 in 1983 for the preliminary version of the SRAC code system, a number of additions and modifications to the functions have been made to establish an overall neutronics code system. Major points are (1) addition of JENDL-2 version of data library, (2) a direct treatment of doubly heterogeneous effect on resonance absorption, (3) a generalized Dancoff factor, (4) a cell calculation based on the fixed boundary source problem, (5) the corresponding edit required for experimental analysis and reactor design, (6) a perturbation theory calculation for reactivity change, (7) an auxiliary code for core burnup and fuel management, etc. This report is a revision of the users manual which consists of the general description, input data requirements and their explanation, detailed information on usage, mathematics, contents of libraries and sample I/O. (author)

  16. Microcomputers and the Improvement of Revision Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses use of word processing software as an effective tool in writing and revision instruction, and describes the role of the teacher. Examples of exercises that encourage revision and of software designed to teach effective revision skills are reviewed. (MBR)

  17. Electrocardiographic features of patients with earthquake related posttraumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    İlhan, Erkan; Kaplan, Abdullah; Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Biteker, Murat; Karabulut, Evindar; Işıklı, Serhan

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To analyze electrocardiographic features of patients diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after the Van-Erciş earthquake, with a shock measuring 7.2 on the Richter scale that took place in Turkey in October 2011.

  18. Update on the management of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Duncan; Cooper, John

    2015-04-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder occurs in people exposed to life-threatening trauma. GPs may be seeing more patients with post-traumatic stress disorder as military personnel return from overseas deployments. The condition can present in various ways. To reduce the likelihood of missed or delayed diagnosis GPs can screen at-risk populations. A comprehensive assessment is recommended. Specialist referral may be required, particularly if there are other mental health problems. Trauma-focused psychological therapies should be offered as the first line of treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. Usually 8-12 sessions are needed for a therapeutic effect. If drug treatment is needed, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the first line. Other drugs used in post-traumatic stress disorder include antipsychotics, anticonvulsants and prazosin.

  19. Update on the management of post-traumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Duncan; Cooper, John

    2015-01-01

    Summary Post-traumatic stress disorder occurs in people exposed to life-threatening trauma. GPs may be seeing more patients with post-traumatic stress disorder as military personnel return from overseas deployments. The condition can present in various ways. To reduce the likelihood of missed or delayed diagnosis GPs can screen at-risk populations. A comprehensive assessment is recommended. Specialist referral may be required, particularly if there are other mental health problems. Trauma-focused psychological therapies should be offered as the first line of treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. Usually 8–12 sessions are needed for a therapeutic effect. If drug treatment is needed, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the first line. Other drugs used in post-traumatic stress disorder include antipsychotics, anticonvulsants and prazosin. PMID:26648617

  20. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Children: Suggested Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews literature-based techniques of intervention with posttraumatic stress disorder in children, including such techniques as crisis intervention, in vitro flooding, communication training, physical mastery, perspective taking, elimination of self-blame, and self-calming. (JDD)

  1. Intranasal Oxytocin Normalizes Amygdala Functional Connectivity in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Saskia B. J.; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Nawijn, Laura; Frijling, Jessie L.; Veltman, Dick J.; Olff, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been suggested as a promising pharmacological agent for medication-enhanced psychotherapy in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) because of its anxiolytic and prosocial properties. We therefore investigated the behavioral and neurobiological effects of a single

  2. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Center for PTSD (Department of Veterans Affairs) Statistics and Research How Common Is PTSD? (National Center for PTSD) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) (National Institute of Mental Health) Clinical ...

  3. Glutamatergic system abnormalities in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Kenji; Noguchi, Hiroko; Hamazaki, Kei; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Matsuoka, Yutaka

    2015-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests involvement of the glutamatergic system in the biological mechanisms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but few studies have demonstrated an association between glutamatergic system abnormalities and PTSD diagnosis or severity. We aimed to examine whether abnormalities in serum glutamate and in the glutamine/glutamate ratio were associated with PTSD diagnosis and severity in severely injured patients at risk for PTSD and major depressive disorder (MDD). This is a nested case-control study in TPOP (Tachikawa project for prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder with polyunsaturated fatty acid) trial. Diagnosis and severity of PTSD were assessed 3 months after the accidents using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. The associations of glutamate levels and the glutamine/glutamate ratio with diagnosis and severity of PTSD and MDD were investigated by univariate and multiple linear regression analyses. Ninety-seven of 110 participants (88 %) completed assessments at 3 months. Serum glutamate levels were significantly higher for participants with full or partial PTSD than for participants without PTSD (p = 0.049) and for participants with MDD than for participants without MDD (p = 0.048). Multiple linear regression analyses showed serum glutamate levels were significantly positively associated with PTSD severity (p = 0.02) and MDD severity (p = 0.03). The glutamine/glutamate ratio was also significantly inversely associated with PTSD severity (p = 0.03), but not with MDD severity (p = 0.07). These findings suggest that the glutamatergic system may play a major role in the pathogenesis of PTSD and the need for new treatments targeting the glutamatergic system to be developed for PTSD.

  4. Outcome of ankle arthrodesis in posttraumatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Narayana Gowda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ankle arthrodesis is still a gold standard salvage procedure for the management of ankle arthritis. There are several functional and mechanical benefits of ankle arthrodesis, which make it a viable surgical procedure in the management of ankle arthritis. The functional outcomes following ankle arthrodesis are not very well known. The purpose of this study was to perform a clinical and radiographic evaluation of ankle arthrodesis in posttraumatic arthritis performed using Charnley′s compression device. Materials and Methods: Between January 2006 and December 2009 a functional assessment of 15 patients (10 males and 5 females who had undergone ankle arthrodesis for posttraumatic arthritis and/or avascular necrosis (AVN talus (n=6, malunited bimalleolar fracture (n=4, distal tibial plafond fractures (n=3, medial malleoli nonunion (n=2. All the patients were assessed clinically and radiologically after an average followup of 2 years 8 months (range 1-5.7 years. Results: All patients had sound ankylosis and no complications related to the surgery. Scoring the patients with the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot scale, we found that 11 of the 15 had excellent results, two had good, and two showed fair results. They were all returned to their preinjury activities. Conclusion: We conclude that, the ankle arthrodesis can still be considered as a standard procedure in ankle arthritis. On the basis of these results, patients should be counseled that an ankle fusion will help to relieve pain and to improve overall function. Still, one should keep in mind that it is a salvage procedure that will cause persistent alterations in gait with a potential for deterioration due to the development of subtalar arthritis.

  5. [Postoperative implant-associated osteomyelitis of the shoulder: Hardware-retaining revision concept using temporary drainage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnetzke, M; Aytac, S; Herrmann, P; Wölfl, C; Grützner, P A; Heppert, V; Guehring, T

    2015-06-01

    Posttraumatic and postoperative osteomyelitis (PPO) is a subgroup of bone infections with increasing importance. However, to date no standardized reoperation concept exists particularly for patients with PPO of the shoulder region. Therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate a revision concept including débridement, irrigation, and insertion of temporary drainage with hardware retention until healing. A total of 31 patients with PPO were included with a proximal humerus fracture (n = 14), clavicle fracture (n = 10), or AC-joint separation (n = 7). In all, 27 of these patients could be followed for > 1 year. Hardware retention until fracture or ligament healing could be achieved in > 83%. Six patients required follow-up débridement due to recurrent infections, but then were unremarkable. Clinical outcome showed excellent Constant scores (91.6 ± 2.8). A cost-efficient, simple, and successful revision concept for patients with PPO of the shoulder region is described.

  6. Effects of Estradiol on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Directed By: T. John Wu, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex...Preventing post-traumatic stress disorder after mass exposure to violence . Biosecur Bioterror 2005;3:154-63; discussion 64-5. 16. Baker DG...John Wu* Affiliations: *Program in Neuroscience and § Program in Molecular and Cellular Biology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Uniformed

  7. Posttraumatic Stress and Cognitive Processes in Patients with Burns

    OpenAIRE

    Sveen, Josefin

    2011-01-01

    A severe burn is one of the most traumatic injuries a person can experience. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is relatively common after burns, and can be devastating for the individual’s possibilities for recovery. The principal aims were to gain knowledge regarding posttraumatic stress symptoms and cognitive processes after burn and to evaluate methods for assessing symptoms of PTSD up to one year after burn. The psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the Impact of Event Scale-...

  8. Comorbid Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Opioid Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rikinkumar S; Elmaadawi, Ahmed; Nasr, Suhayl; Haskin, John

    2017-09-03

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is predominant amongst individuals addicted to opioids and obscures the course of illness and the treatment outcome. We report the case of a patient with major depressive disorder and opioid dependence, who experienced post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms during a recent visit to the inpatient unit. The similarity of symptoms between post-traumatic stress disorder and opioid dependence is so high that, sometimes, it is a challenge to differentiate between these conditions. Since opioid withdrawal symptoms mimic hyper vigilance, this results in an exaggeration of the response of patients with post-traumatic stress disorder. This comorbidity is associated with worse health outcomes, as its pathophysiology involves a common neurobiological circuit. Opioid substitution therapy and psychotherapeutic medications in combination with evidence-based cognitive behavioral therapy devised for individuals with comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder and opioid dependence may improve treatment outcomes in this population. Therefore, we conclude that the screening for post-traumatic stress disorder in the opioid-abusing population is crucial. To understand the underlying mechanisms for this comorbidity and to improve the treatment response, further research should be encouraged.

  9. Posttraumatic stress following childbirth in homelike- and hospital settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramrood, Claire A I; Paarlberg, K Marieke; Huis In 't Veld, Elisabeth M J; Berger, Leonard W A R; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M; Schultz, Willibrord C M Weijmar; van Pampus, Maria G

    2011-06-01

    To assess the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following childbirth in homelike versus hospital settings and to determine risk factors for the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms. METHODS.: Multi-center cross-sectional study at midwifery practices, general hospitals and a tertiary (university) referral center. An unselected population of 907 women was invited to complete questionnaires on PTSD, demographic, psychosocial, and obstetric characteristics 2 to 6 months after delivery. Prevalence of PTSD was based on women who met all criteria of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV), whereas risk factors were determined using the severity (sum-score) of posttraumatic stress symptoms. PTSD following childbirth was found in 1.2% of the respondents (5/428 women, response rate 47%), while 9.1% of women (39/428) had experienced the delivery as traumatic. Posttraumatic stress symptoms were associated with unplanned cesarean section, low sense of coherence (coping skills), and high intensity of pain. Initial differences in posttraumatic stress symptoms between home and hospital deliveries disappeared after taking into account the (by definition) uncomplicated nature of home births. In this Dutch study, 1 in 100 women had PTSD following childbirth, with no differences between home- and hospital deliveries after controlling for complications and interventions. Emergency cesarean section, severe labor pain, and poor coping skills were associated with more posttraumatic stress symptoms.

  10. Post-traumatic stress disorder due to childbirth: the aftermath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano

    2004-01-01

    Childbirth qualifies as an extreme traumatic stressor that can result in post-traumatic stress disorder. The reported prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth ranges from 1.5% to 6%. The aim of this phenomenologic study was to describe the essence of mothers' experiences of post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth. The qualitative research design used for this study was descriptive phenomenology. The main recruitment approach was via the Internet through the help of Trauma and Birth Stress, a charitable trust in New Zealand. Purposive sampling was used and resulted in 38 mothers participating from the countries of New Zealand, the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom. The participants were asked to describe their experiences with post-traumatic stress disorder after childbirth. Their stories were analyzed using Colaizzi's method of data analysis. Mothers with post-traumatic stress disorder attributable to childbirth struggle to survive each day while battling terrifying nightmares and flashbacks of the birth, anger, anxiety, depression, and painful isolation from the world of motherhood. This glimpse into the lives of mothers with post-traumatic stress disorder attributable to childbirth provides an impetus to increase research efforts in this neglected area.

  11. Closed cooling water chemistry guidelines revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElrath, Joel; Breckenridge, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This second revision of the Closed Cooling Water Chemistry Guideline addresses the use of chemicals and monitoring methods to mitigate corrosion, fouling, and microbiological growth in the closed cooling-water (CCW) systems of nuclear and fossil-fueled power plants. This revision has been endorsed by the utility chemistry community and represents another step in developing a more proactive chemistry program to limit or control closed cooling system degradation with increased consideration of corporate resources and plant-specific design and operating concerns. These guidelines were developed using laboratory data, operating experience, and input from organizations and utilities within and outside of the United States of America. It is the intent of the Revision Committee that these guidelines are applicable to all nuclear and fossil-fueled generating stations around the world. A committee of industry experts—including utility specialists, Institute of Nuclear Power Operations representatives, water-treatment service-company representatives, consultants, a primary contractor, and EPRI staff—collaborated in reviewing available data on closed cooling-water system corrosion and microbiological issues. Recognizing that each plant owner has a unique set of design, operating, and corporate concerns, the Guidelines Committee developed a methodology for plant-specific optimization. The guideline provides the technical basis for a reasonable but conservative set of chemical treatment and monitoring programs. The use of operating ranges for the various treatment chemicals discussed in this guideline will allow a power plant to limit corrosion, fouling, and microbiological growth in CCW systems to acceptable levels. The guideline now includes closed cooling chemistry regimes proven successful in use in the international community. The guideline provides chemistry constraints for the use of phosphates control, as well as pure water with pH control. (author)

  12. A study on scar revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Talwar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Scars are psychologically distressing for the patients and have an impact on the quality of life and self esteem of the patients. Scar revision is an aesthetic skill which is mastered by plastic surgeons and encroached now by dermatosurgeons. Scars on the face are aesthetically unacceptable and various techniques have been improvised for making a scar aesthetically acceptable. Various types of techniques are used for scar revision like W plasty, Z plasty and VY plasty. Aims: To see the efficacy of various scar revision techniques including Z plasty, VY plasty and W plasty in 30 patients with disfiguring scars. Methods: We selected twenty patients of disfiguring scars for the study. The scars from various causes including trauma and burns were included in our study. Various techniques of scar revision include Z plasty, W plasty and VY plasty were performed according to the type and site of scar. Results: Male: female was 1.5: 1. The scar revision surgery yielded excellent results with minimal complications including haematoma formation, secondary infection and delayed healing seen in 5% patients each. Regarding the efficacy of scar revision, excellent improvement was seen in 60% patients, moderate improvement was seen in 30% patients and mild improvement was seen in 10% patients. Conclusions: Dermatologists can employ a number of surgical scar revision techniques. While some are better suited to treat specific types of scars, they can be used in combination with each other or with adjunctive therapies to achieve optimal results.

  13. [The concentration of growth factors in patients with inherent and acquired shortenings of limbs bones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strogov, M V; Luneva, S N; Novikov, K I

    2013-04-01

    The article deals with the results of study of level of growth factors in blood serum of patients with inherent and post-traumatic shortenings of limbs' bones. The detection in blood serum the level of epidermal growth factor insulin-like growth factor I and angiopoetins is proposed to monitor in given patients the reparative bone formation.

  14. Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder among HIV-infected Gambians on antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kevin; Togun, Toyin; Klis, Sandor; Menten, Joris; Colebunders, Robert

    2012-10-01

    Mood disorders are more frequent among people with HIV infection than among non-HIV-infected individuals of the same age, socioeconomic status, and HIV risks. They have been associated with worse adherence and clinical outcomes, yet remain underdiagnosed and undertreated in sub-Saharan Africa. We explored the relationship between mood disorders using the 10-item depression scale of the Centers for Epidemiological Studies (CES-D10) and the 22-item Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R) for posttraumatic stress disorder, and a range of demographic and HIV-related variables among 252 consecutive subjects on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The study was conducted in the Genito-Urinary Medicine Clinic of the Medical Research Council's Gambia Unit. These screening tests were positive in 7% and 30%, respectively, of the patients, with higher scores (more depression or more post-traumatic stress) associated with female gender, more advanced WHO clinical stage, and lower Karnofsky Perfomance Scale rating. Higher CES-D10 scores were also seen among those on their second ART regimen. No relationship was seen with age, time on ART, viral load, or CD4 cell count. Compared to an earlier study at the same site in subjects prior to starting ART, the prevalence of depression in those stabilized on ART was dramatically reduced (by 34%, from 41%) while that of PTSD dropped less (by 13%, from 43%). Integrating the CES-D10 or a similar instrument into patient preparation for ART is recommended in order to identify those who may benefit from further mental health investigations, specific therapy, or closer follow-up during early ART.

  15. Revision of ASCE 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, T.A.; Murray, R.C.; Short, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    The original version of ASCE Standard 4, ''Seismic Analysis of Safety-Related Nuclear Structures'' was published in September 1986. It is ASCE policy to update its standards on a five year interval and the Working Group on Seismic Analysis of Safety Related Nuclear Structures was reconvened to formulate the revisions. The goal in updating the standard is to make sure that it is still relevant and that it incorporates the state of the practice in seismic engineering or, in some cases, where it has been demonstrated that state-of-the-art improvements need to be made to standard practice; new improvements are included. The contents of the new standard cover the same areas as the original version, with some additions. The contents are as follows: Input - response spectra and time histories; modeling of structures; analysis of structures; soil-structure interaction; input for subsystem analysis; special structures - buried pipes and conduits, earth-retaining walls, above-ground vertical tanks, raceways, and base-isolated structures; and an appendix providing seismic probabilistic risk assessment and margin assessment

  16. Contact activation: a revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaier, A H

    1997-07-01

    In conclusion, a revised view of the contact system has been presented. This system has little to do with the initiation of hemostasis. Like lupus anticoagulants, deficiencies of contact proteins give prolonged APTTs but may be risk factors for thrombosis. BK from kininogens is a potent modulator of vascular biology inducing vasodilation, tissue plasminogen activator release, and prostacyclin liberation. Kininogens, themselves, are selective inhibitors of alpha-thrombin-induced platelet activation preventing alpha-thrombin from cleaving the cloned thrombin receptor after arginine41. Kininogens' alpha-thrombin inhibitory activity exists in intact kininogens, BK, and all of BK's breakdown products. HK also is the pivotal protein for contact protein assembly on endothelium. It is the receptor for prekallikrein which when bound to HK becomes activated to kallikrein by an endothelial cell enzyme system independent of activated forms of plasma factor XII. Prekallikrein activation on endothelial cells results in kinetically favorable single chain urokinase and plasminogen activation. Thus the "physiologic, negatively charged surface" for contact system activation is really the assembly of these proteins on cell membranes and activation by membrane-associated enzymes.

  17. Circumcision revision in male children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Al-Ghazo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine indications for circumcision revision and to identify the specialty of the person who performed unsatisfactory primary circumcision. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors reviewed medical records of 52 cases that underwent circumcision revision over a 6-year period (1998 to 2004. Sleeve surgical technique was used for revision in patients with redundant foreskin or concealed penis, penoplasty for partial or complete degloving of the penis and meatotomy for external meatal stenosis. The mean age of children was 32 months (range 6 months to 9 years. RESULTS: Most of unsatisfactory primary circumcisions (86.7% were performed by laymen. All patients who underwent circumcision revision had good to excellent cosmetic results. CONCLUSION: Primary circumcision performed by laymen carry a high complication rate and serious complications may occur. A period of training and direct supervision by physicians is required before allowing laymen to perform circumcision independently.

  18. EPR first responders revision test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In this revision test evaluates the acquired knowledge in case of radiological emergency confront. Actions to be taken in relation to people, equipment and the environment. Doses, radioactive sources, pollution

  19. Corporate Author Entries. Revision 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, P.L.

    1986-05-01

    This reference authority has been created and is maintained to provide standard forms for recording the names of organizations consistently in bibliographic citations. This revision includes approximately 42,000 entries established since 1973

  20. Sleep quality, posttraumatic stress, depression, and human errors in train drivers: a population-based nationwide study in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Kim, Ji-Hae; Kim, Bin-Na; Park, Seung Jin; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Kang, Eun-Ho; Roh, Sungwon; Lee, Dongsoo

    2014-12-01

    Human error is defined as an unintended error that is attributable to humans rather than machines, and that is important to avoid to prevent accidents. We aimed to investigate the association between sleep quality and human errors among train drivers. Cross-sectional. Population-based. A sample of 5,480 subjects who were actively working as train drivers were recruited in South Korea. The participants were 4,634 drivers who completed all questionnaires (response rate 84.6%). None. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS). Of 4,634 train drivers, 349 (7.5%) showed more than one human error per 5 y. Human errors were associated with poor sleep quality, higher PSQI total scores, short sleep duration at night, and longer sleep latency. Among train drivers with poor sleep quality, those who experienced severe posttraumatic stress showed a significantly higher number of human errors than those without. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that human errors were significantly associated with poor sleep quality and posttraumatic stress, whereas there were no significant associations with depression, trait and state anxiety, and work stress after adjusting for age, sex, education years, marital status, and career duration. Poor sleep quality was found to be associated with more human errors in train drivers, especially in those who experienced severe posttraumatic stress. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  1. Posttraumatic epilepsy. Clinical, neurophysiological, and CT aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertha, G.; Ott, E.; Ladurner, G.; Lechner, H.; Sager, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    It is seen at the results presented that in a high percentage of the patients suffering from posttraumatic epilepsia whom we examined pathological computertomographical and EEG-findings had to be compiled at the time of the examination. There was a discrepancy between this and the neurological findings, but in 80% of the cases, the pathological computer-tomographical and the EEG-findings were correspondent. These findings coincide with the results obtained by other examiners (Scollo-Lavizzari et al. 1976; Wessely et al. 1978). In our cases, the cause for the pathological findings consisted in covered craniocerebral traumata; in only 18% of the patients severe injuries such as durapenetrating traumata and sub- or epidural bleedings respectively were existent. In the case of computer-tomography, however, especially if the examination takes place only in the chronic stage, years after the trauma, problems occur in the causal classification of various lesion patterns. The typical focus of contusion - especially in connection with a one-sided ventricle extraction and expansion - can be easily classified ethiologically (Lanksch et al. 1978), as was the case in 38 of our patients. A hypodense region in the cerebral medulla or an atrophy afflicting the ventricle regularly cannot be placed in a traumatic etiology because of the individual computer-tomographical finding; under certain circumstances, however, an atrophy can be observed coming into existence on the development of an oedema to a defect in the substance by slow demacation can be seen.

  2. Prostitution, violence, and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, M; Barkan, H

    1998-01-01

    One hundred and thirty people working as prostitutes in San Francisco were interviewed regarding the extent of violence in their lives and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Fifty-seven percent reported that they had been sexually assaulted as children and 49% reported that they had been physically assaulted as children. As adults in prostitution, 82% had been physically assaulted; 83% had been threatened with a weapon; 68% had been raped while working as prostitutes; and 84% reported current or past homelessness. We differentiated the types of lifetime violence as childhood sexual assault; childhood physical abuse; rape in prostitution; and other (non-rape) physical assault in prostitution. PTSD severity was significantly associated with the total number of types of lifetime violence (r = .21, p = .02); with childhood physical abuse (t = 2.97, p = .004); rape in adult prostitution (Student's t = 2.77, p = .01); and the total number of times raped in prostitution (Kruskal-Wallace chi square = 13.51, p = .01). Of the 130 people interviewed, 68% met DSM III-R criteria for a diagnosis of PTSD. Eighty-eight percent of these respondents stated that they wanted to leave prostitution, and described what they needed in order to escape.

  3. Reducing post-traumatic anxiety by immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewitus, Gil M; Cohen, Hagit; Schwartz, Michal

    2008-10-01

    Trafficking of T lymphocytes to specific organs, such as the skin and lungs, is part of the body's defense mechanism following acute psychological stress. Here we demonstrate that T lymphocytes are also trafficking to the brain in response to psychological stress and are needed to alleviate its negative behavioral consequences. We show that short exposure of mice to a stressor (predator odor) enhanced T-cell infiltration to the brain, especially to the choroid plexus, and that this infiltration was associated with increased ICAM-1 expression by choroid plexus cells. Systemic administration of corticosterone could mimic the effects of psychological stress on ICAM-1 expression. Furthermore, we found that the ability to cope with this stress is interrelated with T-cell trafficking and with the brain and hippocampal BDNF levels. Immunization with a CNS-related peptide reduced the stress-induced anxiety and the acoustic startle response, and restored levels of BDNF, shown to be important for stress resilience. These results identified T cells as novel players in coping with psychological stress, and offers immunization with a myelin-related peptide as a new therapeutic approach to alleviate chronic consequences of acute psychological trauma, such as those found in posttraumatic stress disorder.

  4. Posttraumatic stress disorder and anesthesia emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovestrand, Donnamarie; Phipps, Steven; Lovestrand, Steven

    2013-06-01

    Emergence agitation or delirium is a known phenomenon in the postanesthesia period. The underlying cause is not definitively understood. In a U.S. Army hospital's postanesthesia care unit, combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can complicate interventions. Scant evidence-based research exists on the issue. By presenting case studies of 2 patients who underwent different surgical procedures, the authors argue that traditional modalities to reorient and calm patients experiencing emergence agitation who have PTSD are not shown to be effective. The first procedure demonstrates outcomes in a situation handled through traditional interventions. The second procedure demonstrates outcomes after incorporation of evidence-driven interventions. The authors conclude that best practice includes a proper identification of patients at risk of emergence agitation, a minimally stimulating environment, intraoperative sympatholytic therapy, and patient and staff education. Although the case studies presented support these principles, research is needed to provide stronger evidence. Military medical and research personnel can take the lead on this issue and be a source for improved outcomes and high-quality patient care.

  5. Post-traumatic hepatic pseudoaneurysms in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidhu, M.K. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Children`s Hospital Oakland, CA (United States); Shaw, D.W.W. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Medical Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Daly, C.P. [Department of Radiology, University of Washington Hospital and Medical Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Waldhausen, J.H. [Department of Surgery, Children`s Hospital and Medical Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Coldwell, D. [Department of Radiology, Denver General Hospital, Denver, Colorado (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Background. Post-traumatic hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms are rarely seen in children. Materials and methods. We retrospectively reviewed the radiologic studies and medical records of three patients treated at our institution and reviewed the literature. The patients (ages 5-13 years) presented immediately to 2 months after blunt (two patients) and penetrating (one patient) trauma. The hepatic pseudoaneurysms were discovered during work-up for fever (one patient), gastrointestinal bleeding and hyperbilirubinemia (one patient), or widened mediastinum (one patient) on chest radiograph. In two patients, the diagnosis was initially suspected by computed tomography (CT) examination and confirmed by angiography. In the third patient, the diagnosis was made initially by angiography. All three pseudoaneurysms were treated with transcatheter embolization. Results. All three embolizations were initially technically successful. However, there was recurrence in one case, in which embolization distal to the neck of the pseudoaneurysms was not technically possible. With conservative management, however, the residual lesion demonstrated spontaneous occlusion by ultrasound (US) at 6 months. Conclusion. This uncommon complication of liver trauma in children can have a delayed presentation, can be clinically unsuspected, and can follow blunt or penetrating trauma. Endovascular embolotherapy is the treatment of choice. (orig.) With 3 figs., 22 refs.

  6. Post-traumatic hepatic pseudoaneurysms in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, M.K.; Shaw, D.W.W.; Daly, C.P.; Waldhausen, J.H.; Coldwell, D.

    1999-01-01

    Background. Post-traumatic hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms are rarely seen in children. Materials and methods. We retrospectively reviewed the radiologic studies and medical records of three patients treated at our institution and reviewed the literature. The patients (ages 5-13 years) presented immediately to 2 months after blunt (two patients) and penetrating (one patient) trauma. The hepatic pseudoaneurysms were discovered during work-up for fever (one patient), gastrointestinal bleeding and hyperbilirubinemia (one patient), or widened mediastinum (one patient) on chest radiograph. In two patients, the diagnosis was initially suspected by computed tomography (CT) examination and confirmed by angiography. In the third patient, the diagnosis was made initially by angiography. All three pseudoaneurysms were treated with transcatheter embolization. Results. All three embolizations were initially technically successful. However, there was recurrence in one case, in which embolization distal to the neck of the pseudoaneurysms was not technically possible. With conservative management, however, the residual lesion demonstrated spontaneous occlusion by ultrasound (US) at 6 months. Conclusion. This uncommon complication of liver trauma in children can have a delayed presentation, can be clinically unsuspected, and can follow blunt or penetrating trauma. Endovascular embolotherapy is the treatment of choice. (orig.)

  7. Selective embolisation of posttraumatic intractable epistaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, J.; Andresen, R.; Sachs, W.

    2003-01-01

    We report on a patient who developed hemodynamically relevant epistaxis due to splanchnocranial injuries after falling from his bicycle. Spiral-CT showed a fracture of the posterior nasal septum and of the inferior nasal concha. Despite anterior and posterior nasal tamponade, anemia occurred requiring transfusion and resulting in the interdisciplinary decision to perform transcatheter embolization. Via a trans femoral incision, a 5 F Vitek catheter was introduced into the maxillary artery, and a tracker system was then advanced through the catheter supraselectively and placed in the peripheral branches of the vascular system of the sphenopalatine artery. Selective DSA clearly showed the source of bleeding to be the area supplying the sphenopalatine artery. Following documentation of the localization of bleeding, a total of six (3/30 mm) complex heliacal mini-coils were inserted. After intravascular occlusion of the sphenopalatine artery, bleeding completely stopped within a few minutes. This shows that supraselective embolization is an easily conducted, effective and low-complication method for the definitive treatment of severe posttraumatic nose-bleeds, even in emergency situations. (orig.) [de

  8. Distress of Routine Activities and Perceived Safety Associated with Post-Traumatic Stress, Depression, and Alcohol Use: 2002 Washington, DC, Sniper Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Carol S; Herberman Mash, Holly B; Benevides, K Nikki; Morganstein, Joshua C; Ursano, Robert J

    2015-10-01

    For over 3 weeks in October 2002, a series of sniper attacks in the Washington, DC, area left 10 people dead and 3 wounded. This study examined the relationship of distress associated with routine activities and perceived safety to psychological and behavioral responses. Participants were 1238 residents of the Washington, DC, metropolitan area (aged 18 to 90 years, mean=41.7 years) who completed an Internet survey including the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and items pertaining to distress related to routine activities, perceived safety, and alcohol use. Data were collected at one time point approximately 3 weeks after the first sniper shooting and before apprehension of the suspects. Relationships of distress and perceived safety to post-traumatic stress, depressive symptoms, and increased alcohol use were examined by using linear and logistic regression analyses. Approximately 8% of the participants met the symptom criteria for probable post-traumatic stress disorder, 22% reported mild to severe depression, and 4% reported increased alcohol use during the attacks. Distress related to routine activities and perceived safety were associated with increased post-traumatic stress and depressive symptoms and alcohol use. Distress and perceived safety are associated with specific routine activities and both contribute to psychological and behavioral responses during a terrorist attack. These findings have implications for targeted information dissemination and risk communication by community leaders.

  9. Post-traumatic stress disorder and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Donald; von Känel, Roland

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a first in a Series of two, we look at the evidence for an association of post-traumatic stress disorder with incident cardiovascular disease risk and the mechanisms that might cause this association, as well as the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder due to cardiovascular disease events and its associated prognostic risk. We discuss research done after the publication of previous relevant systematic reviews, and survey currently funded research from the two most active funders in the field: the National Institutes of Health and the US Veterans Administration. We conclude that post-traumatic stress disorder is a risk factor for incident cardiovascular disease, and a common psychiatric consequence of cardiovascular disease events that might worsen the prognosis of the cardiovascular disease. There are many candidate mechanisms for the link between post-traumatic stress disorder and cardiovascular disease, and several ongoing studies could soon point to the most important behavioural and physiological mechanisms to target in early phase intervention development. Similarly, targets are emerging for individual and environmental interventions that might offset the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder after cardiovascular disease events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk Factors of Post-traumatic Stress and Depressive Disorders in Longmenshan Adolescents After the 2013 Lushan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiuping; Wang, Yan; Tang, Wanjie

    2018-03-06

    This study examined the severity of post-traumatic stress and depressive disorders in Longmenshan adolescents after the 2013 Lushan earthquake, as well as relationships among earthquake-related exposure, post-earthquake negative factors, previous exposure to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, and level of earthquake impact (city). A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adolescents in Lushan (n = 1416), Baoxing (n = 1102) and Tianquan (n = 1265) at 3 years after the Lushan earthquake. Respondents were evaluated using the Earthquake Experience Scale, the Adolescent Self-rating Life Events Checklist (ASLEC), the Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES-13), and the Depression Self-Rating Scale (KADS-6). High levels of post-traumatic stress and depression symptoms were found among adolescents in the most heavily affected cities, and these symptoms were more severe in respondents exposed to the 2008 earthquake. PTSD correlated most strongly with earthquake exposure, whereas depression correlated most strongly with psychosocial stressors following the event.

  11. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder in child victims of sexual abuse: perceived social support as a protection factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Berna; Akbas, Seher; Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad

    2016-08-01

    Background Social support has been shown to play a protective role against the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in individuals exposed to trauma. Aims The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of perceived social support on depression and PTSD in child victims of sexual abuse and to determine the relationship between them. Method In total 182 victims of sexual abuse aged 6-18 at time of interview were assessed. Clinical interviews, the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPTS-RI) were used to assess children's psychological status, while the Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (PSSS-R) was used to measure social support. Results Girls had significantly higher median CDI and CPTS-RI scores than boys, while no significant difference was determined between boys and girls in terms of PSSS-R scores. A statistically significant negative correlation was determined between CDI and PSSS-R scores, CPTS-RI scores and PSSS-R scores in girls, while no significant correlation was identified in male victims. Conclusions In conclusion, we think that social support networks for victims of sexual abuse need to be broadened and increased, and that importance should be attached to protective approaches in that context.

  12. Long-term outcome in 324 polytrauma patients: what factors are associated with posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive disorder symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Lisa; Zeckey, Christian; Mommsen, Philipp; Winkelmann, Marcel; Zelle, Boris A; Panzica, Martin; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Krettek, Christian; Probst, Christian

    2017-10-30

    Physical impairment is well-known to last for many years after a severe injury, and there is a high impact on the quality of the survivor's life. The purpose of this study was to examine if this is also true for psychological impairment with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder or depression after polytrauma. Retrospective cohort outcome study. Level I trauma centre. 637 polytrauma trauma patients who were treated at our Level I trauma centre between 1973 and 1990. Minimum follow-up was 10 years after the injury. Patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire, including parts of the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and the German Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, to evaluate mental health. Clinical outcome was assessed before by standardised scores. Three hundred and twenty-four questionnaires were evaluated. One hundred and forty-nine (45.9%) patients presented with symptoms of mental impairment. Quality of life was significantly higher in the mentally healthy group, while the impaired group achieved a lower rehabilitation status. Mental impairment can be found in multiple trauma victims, even after 10 years or more. Treating physicians should not only focus on early physical rehabilitation but also focus on early mental rehabilitation to prevent long-term problems in both physical and mental disability.

  13. Effect of autogenic training on cardiac autonomic nervous activity in high-risk fire service workers for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Satoko; Fujita, Masatoshi; Sakamoto, Satoko; Shirakawa, Taro

    2006-05-01

    We investigated the effect of autogenic training (AT) on cardiac autonomic nervous activity in fire services workers with the use of the questionnaire of the Japanese-language version of Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R-J) and indexes of heart rate variability. We studied 22 male fire services workers who were divided into posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related stress group (n=10) and control group (n=12). They underwent AT twice or three times a week for 2 months. Posttraumatic stress disorder-related stress group showed a significantly higher cardiac sympathetic nervous activity and a significantly lower cardiac parasympathetic nervous activity than control group at baseline. Autogenic training significantly decreased cardiac sympathetic nervous activity and significantly increased cardiac parasympathetic nervous activity in both groups. These changes were accompanied by a significant decrease in the total points of IES-R-J. Autogenic training is effective for ameliorating the disturbance of cardiac autonomic nervous activity and psychological issues secondary to PTSD.

  14. Psychological Intervention for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder among Witnesses of a Fatal Industrial Accident in a Workers' Health Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Mug Kang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a serious problem not only among workers who experience industrial accidents but also among workers who witness such accidents. Early intervention is needed to prevent prolonged psychological problems. There has been no study conducted regarding the psychological problems of and interventions for bystander workers in Korea. This study introduces the experience of intervention on psychological problems at the Busan Workers' Health Center workers who witnessed their colleagues' death. An investigation and an intervention were conducted according to the Korean Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA Guide. In total, 21 individuals including indirect observers showed statistical differences on scores of the Impact Event Scale Revised and the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 after the intervention. Future interventions and research involving a larger sample size over a longer period are needed. The KOSHA Guide could be a useful tool for urgent psychological intervention in the event of major workplace disasters. Keywords: industrial accident, post-traumatic stress disorder, witness, workers' health center

  15. Can guilt lead to psychological growth following trauma exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, Sharon; Mamon, Daria; Solomon, Zahava; Lanman, Olivia; Dishy, Gabriella

    2016-02-28

    With the growing interest in posttraumatic growth (PTG) and its predictors, this study examined the relationship between trauma-related guilt and PTG in a sample of veterans over time. Self-reported guilt, PTG, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were measured in combat veterans and prisoners of war (POWs). Positive correlations were found between guilt, PTSD, and PTG levels. Hierarchical regression revealed that initial guilt levels predicted subsequent PTG controlling for initial PTSD in combat veterans but not in POWs. The findings suggest that posttraumatic growth can be facilitated by trauma-related guilt, underscoring the complex relationship between positive and negative trauma outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Posttraumatic complications after pediatric ankle injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, F J; Linhart, W E

    2013-08-01

    Ankle sprains are common injuries in childhood and are generally harmless. However, fractures of the ankle joint are rare, but complications (persistent rotational or axial deformity, alteration of growth of the distal tibia or fibula, or joint deformity) can lead to serious problems during growth. The clinical relevance of growth disturbances at the distal tibia or fibula depends on the age at the time of fracture more than on the fracture type, severity of dislocation, or interponated material in the fracture gap. Both stimulation and inhibition of growth are possible. Inhibition of growth at the distal tibial growth plate regularly leads to varus deformity and shortening. This is of clinical importance as this type of growth disturbance is the most common. Valgus deformity is rare, mostly due to persistent axial deviation of an insufficiently reduced fracture. Transitional fractures always occur at the time of growth plate closure; thus, growth disturbances do not play a role. Transitional fractures could be overlooked or treated insufficiently, leading to a step or gap of the joint surface.

  17. Terrorism, post-traumatic stress, coping strategies, and spiritual outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenhelder, Janice Bell; Marcum, John P

    2009-03-01

    This mail survey measured post-traumatic stress symptoms, spiritual and non-spiritual coping strategies, and positive spiritual outcomes following the tragedies of 9/11/01 in a national, random sample of 1,056 Presbyterians. Respondents reported mild to moderate degrees of re-experiencing and hyper-arousal symptoms of post-traumatic stress, unrelated to location or knowing someone involved. People experiencing high stress used greater frequency and variety of both spiritual and non-spiritual types of coping strategies. Positive spiritual outcomes were remarkably related to positive spiritual coping strategies, in contrast to no association with negative coping. This study illustrates the significant degree of post-traumatic stress experienced with vicarious exposure and a wide spectrum of coping strategies used following the major terrorist attacks.

  18. Early identification of posttraumatic stress following military deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Statnikov, Alexander; Andersen, Søren B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pre-deployment identification of soldiers at risk for long-term posttraumatic stress psychopathology after home coming is important to guide decisions about deployment. Early post-deployment identification can direct early interventions to those in need and thereby prevents...... the development of chronic psychopathology. Both hold significant public health benefits given large numbers of deployed soldiers, but has so far not been achieved. Here, we aim to assess the potential for pre- and early post-deployment prediction of resilience or posttraumatic stress development in soldiers...... by application of machine learning (ML) methods. METHODS: ML feature selection and prediction algorithms were applied to a prospective cohort of 561 Danish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan in 2009 to identify unique risk indicators and forecast long-term posttraumatic stress responses. RESULTS: Robust pre...

  19. Anticonvulsants to treat post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hee Ryung; Woo, Young Sup; Bahk, Won-Myong

    2014-09-01

    We reviewed the existing literature on the efficacy of anticonvulsants in treating post-traumatic stress disorder. We performed a literature search using PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane database on 30 September 2013. Randomized,controlled studies that investigated the efficacy of anticonvulsants for post-traumatic stress disorder were included in this review. Studies with retrospective designs, case reports and case series were excluded. A total of seven studies met the inclusion criteria for this review. Three studies used topiramate with negative findings regarding its efficacy. Two studies used divalproex, both of which failed to show superiority over placebo. One study used lamotrigine, with favourable results, and one study used tiagabine, with negative results. Future long-term studies with larger sample sizes are needed to investigate the clinical utility of anticonvulsants for posttraumatic stress disorder treatment.

  20. History of trauma and posttraumatic disorders in literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucmin, Tomasz; Kucmin, Adriana; Nogalski, Adam; Sojczuk, Sebastian; Jojczuk, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    In 1980 a third edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) brought diagnostic criteria for a new diagnosis - posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This disorder is a result of highly intensive stressor and in many cases leads to sever psychiatric distress. Despite relatively recent introduction of PTSD as a new diagnosis, this disorder was excessively described in scientific papers as well as in fiction novels. Analysis of those descriptions across ages allows for the conclusion that character and type of stressors has changed, however, people's reactions to highly intensive stressors are basically similar. First descriptions are found in notes of Egyptian physicians and then in papers of Homer, Herodotus and Plutarch. In consecutive parts of this paper, the authors present history of posttraumatic stress disorder describing contribution of Polish authors - Kepiński and Szymusik. Presented historical perspective of posttraumatic stress disorder allows for better understanding of reasons for introducing PTSD into classifications as well as controversies related to it.

  1. Post-Traumatic Pseudocyst of the Spleen: Sclerotherapy with Ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelk, Markus; Rogler, Gerhard; Strotzer, Michael; Lock, Guntram; Manke, Christoph; Feuerbach, Stefan

    1999-01-01

    We report a case of successful percutaneous treatment of a chronic post-traumatic splenic pseudocyst using alcohol as the sclerosing agent. A 26-year-old man presented with a symptomatic cystic mass located in the spleen. Aspiration of 300 ml of fluid was only temporarily effective, and therefore a drainage catheter was placed 3 days later. After histopathologic and microbiologic exclusion of a malignant or infectious origin, local sclerotherapy with alcohol was performed because of recurrence after percutaneous drainage. This therapy was repeated six times within 2 weeks. Two weeks later, the remaining volume was determined to be 16 ml. Six months after treatment the cyst was no longer visible. To our knowledge this is the first case of a chronic post-traumatic splenic cyst treated with alcohol. Percutaneous sclerotherapy of a symptomatic post-traumatic splenic pseudocyst may be an alternative to surgical treatment

  2. The Many Presentations of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Hickling

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD has been a controversial diagnosis, with concerns including the sheer number of possible minimal diagnostic combinations (1,750, increasing to >10,000 theoretical possibilities in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. proposals. This study examined whether the theoretical combinations postulated actually occur in a large sample of military personnel. The design of the study was a retrospective examination of PTSD checklists from 3,810 participants who, based on scores, endorsed symptoms consistent with probable PTSD. Combinations of PTSD Checklist–Civilian Version (PCL-C symptom clusters were identified using data from active-duty military personnel who completed the 2005 and the 2008 Department of Defense (DoD Health Related Behaviors Among Active Duty Military Personnel Survey. The study examined (a occurrence of combinations, (b unique minimum combinations, (c most frequent combinations, and (d replication of symptom combinations and clusters. The PCL-C scores showed 1,837 unique scoring combinations, 83.5% (1,533/1,837 of the observed unique scoring combinations occurred just once. The most frequently occurring combination (17/17 endorsed accounted for 955 participants (25.1%, the second most frequent (16/17 endorsed accounted for 75 participants (2.0%. PTSD most often presented as a unique constellation of symptom clusters, either capturing symptoms while allowing for considerable variability in its presentation, reflecting different severities of the disorder, or raising concerns about the classification itself, and any future classification that Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-V might develop.

  3. Posttraumatic stress disorder in the wake of heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Helle; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that patients after a cardiac event may be at risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present article reviews studies looking at PTSD as a sequel of heart disease with a focus on prevalence, risk factors, and future research directions.......There is increasing recognition that patients after a cardiac event may be at risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present article reviews studies looking at PTSD as a sequel of heart disease with a focus on prevalence, risk factors, and future research directions....

  4. DBS in Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Lavano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a debilitating psychiatric condition for which pharmacological therapy is not always solvable. Various treatments have been suggested and deep brain stimulation (DBS is currently under investigation for patients affected by PTSD. We review the neurocircuitry and up-to-date clinical concepts which are behind the use of DBS in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The role of DBS in treatment-refractory PTSD patients has been investigated relying on both preclinical and clinical studies. DBS for PTSD is in its preliminary phases and likely to provide hope for patients with medical refractory PTSD following the results of randomized controlled studies.

  5. Clinico-lymphographic diagnosis of post-traumatic edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chepelenko, G.V.

    1989-01-01

    Clinico-lymphographic comparisons in various manifestations of posttraumatic edema are presented. Early and delayed stages of chronic lymph flow violations are singled out. Data on distal non-progressing edema above foot edema following bone fractures in the low third of shank, in case of chronic edema of various limb segments occuring on the back-ground of muscle tissue atrophy are given. A clinico-lymphographic classification of posttraumatic edema is developed. Some new information on the value of lymphography in assessment of lymphographic lumen in bone defects, its substitution and elongation is reported

  6. Personologic alignment and the treatment of posttraumatic distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, G

    2001-01-01

    The therapeutic alliance is generally considered the sine qua non of successful psychotherapy. Yet, establishing the therapeutic alliance with patients suffering from syndromes of posttraumatic distress (including posttraumatic stress disorder) represents an unusual challenge. This paper describes the use of a personality-based approach to the establishment of the therapeutic alliance. This approach is referred to as personologic alignment and consists of alignment with preferential processes, as well as thematic belief systems. It represents an integration of the personology of Theodore Millon and the rhetoric of Aristotle.

  7. Range and specificity of war-related trauma to posttraumatic stress; depression and general health perception: displaced former World War II children in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Kristin; Dapp, Ulrike; Anders, Jennifer; von Renteln-Kruse, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Silke

    2011-02-01

    Dose-response relation of war experiences and posttraumatic stress, depression and poor health functioning in late life is well documented in war-affected populations. The influence of differing trauma types experienced by war-affected population in the study of dose-response relation of war trauma and psychological maladaptation in late life has not been investigated. We examined a subgroup of displaced elders and investigated whether specific trauma types were associated with differential health outcomes. From representative practitioner lists, matched groups of former displaced and non-displaced World War II children were assigned, yielding a total sample of 417 participants (response rate 50%). Measurement encompassed a self-report survey including the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Consistent dose-relation between war-related experiences and posttraumatic stress or depressive symptoms in late life was found for both, displaced and non-displaced elders, whereas a gradient for poor health perception was only found in displaced people. Trauma types derived from principal component analysis showed differential associations with health outcomes. Human Right Violations emerged as risk factor for posttraumatic stress symptoms and Deprivation & Threat to Life as risk factor for depressive symptoms. Poor self-rated health was associated with multiple trauma types. Non-random recruitment, retrospective design and use of self-report. Posttraumatic stress and depression are associated with war-related experiences more than 60 years after World War II. Results suggest that different trauma types lead to unique variants of syndrome configurations, which may result from different etiological factors. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Long-term Follow-up of Revision Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation of the Ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaul, Florian; Tírico, Luís E P; McCauley, Julie C; Bugbee, William D

    2018-05-01

    Osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplantation is a useful alternative for treatment of posttraumatic ankle arthritis in young patients but has a relatively high failure rate and further procedures are often required. The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes of patients who underwent revision OCA transplantation of the ankle after failed primary OCA transplantation. Twenty patients underwent revision OCA transplantation of the ankle between 1988 and 2015. Mean age was 44 years, 55% (11 of 20) were female. The mean time from primary to revision OCA was 3.0 ± 1.7 years. All patients had a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Outcomes included the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Foot and Ankle Module (AAOS-FAM) and questionnaires evaluating pain and satisfaction. Failure of the revision OCA was defined as a conversion to arthroplasty, arthrodesis, or amputation. Ten of 20 ankles required further surgery, of which 30% (6 of 20) were considered OCA revision failures (4 arthrodeses, 1 arthroplasty, and 1 amputation). The mean time to failure was 6.7 (range, 0.6-13.1) years. Survivorship of the revision OCA was 84% at 5 years and 65% at 10 years. The 14 patients with grafts remaining in situ had an average follow-up of 10.3 years; mean AAOS-FAM Core Score was 70.5 (range, 42.3-99). Of the patients who answered the follow-up questions, 4 of 7 reported moderate to severe pain, and 5 of 12 were satisfied with the results of the procedure. Although the results of revision ankle OCA transplantation are not inferior to primary OCA transplantation, the high rates of persistent pain, further surgery, and graft failure suggest that the indications for OCA as a revision procedure should be carefully evaluated, with proper patient selection. Considering the treatment alternatives, revising a failed OCA transplantation can be a useful treatment option, especially for young and active patients who wish to avoid arthrodesis or arthroplasty. Level IV, case series.

  9. Revised licensee event report system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, G.T.; Poore, W.P.

    1985-01-01

    Licensee Event Reports (LERs) provide the basis for evaluating and assessing operating experience information from nuclear power plants. The reporting requirements for submitting LERs to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission have been revised. Effective Jan. 1, 1984, all events were to be submitted in accordance with 10 CFR 50.73 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Report NUREG-1022, Licensee Event Report System-Description of System and Guidelines for Reporting, describes the guidelines on reportability of events. This article summarizes the reporting requirements as presented in NUREG-1022, high-lights differences in data reported between the revised and previous LER systems, and presents results from a preliminary assessment of LERs submitted under the revised LER reporting system

  10. Prevalence and Correlates of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lisa X; Khan, Abigail May; Drajpuch, David; Fuller, Stephanie; Ludmir, Jonathan; Mascio, Christopher E; Partington, Sara L; Qadeer, Ayesha; Tobin, Lynda; Kovacs, Adrienne H; Kim, Yuli Y

    2016-03-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with adverse outcomes and increased mortality in cardiac patients. No studies have examined PTSD in the adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) population. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of PTSD in patients with ACHD and explore potential associated factors. Patients were enrolled from an outpatient ACHD clinic and completed several validated measures including the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Clinical data were abstracted through medical data review. A total of 134 participants (mean age 34.6 ± 10.6; 46% men) were enrolled. Of the 127 participants who completed the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, 14 (11%) met criteria for elevated PTSD symptoms specifically related to their congenital heart disease or treatment. Of the 134 patients who completed PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version, 27 (21%) met criteria for global PTSD symptoms. In univariate analyses, patients with congenital heart disease-specific PTSD had their most recent cardiac surgery at an earlier year (p = 0.008), were less likely to have attended college (p = 0.04), had higher rates of stroke or transient ischemic attack (p = 0.03), and reported greater depressive symptoms on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (7 vs 2, p <0.001). In multivariable analysis, the 2 factors most strongly associated with PTSD were depressive symptoms (p <0.001) and year of most recent cardiac surgery (p <0.03). In conclusion, PTSD is present in 11% to 21% of subjects seen at a tertiary referral center for ACHD. The high prevalence of PTSD in this complex group of patients has important implications for the medical and psychosocial management of this growing population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The stressor criterion in DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder: an empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, N; Kessler, R C

    2001-11-01

    The DSM-IV two-part definition of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) widened the variety of stressors (A1) and added a subjective component (A2). The effects of the revised stressor criterion on estimates of exposure and PTSD in a community sample are evaluated. A representative sample of 2181 persons in southeast Michigan were interviewed about lifetime history of traumatic events and PTSD. The evaluation of the revised two-part definition is based on a randomly selected sample of events that represents the total pool of traumatic events experienced in the community. The enlarged definition of stressors in A1 increased the total number of events that can be used to diagnose PTSD by 59%. The majority of A1 events (76.6%) involved the emotional response in A2. Females were more likely than males to endorse A2 (adjusted odds ratio = 2.66; 95% confidence interval 1.92, 3.71). Of all PTSD cases resulting from the representative sample of events, 38% were attributable to the expansion of qualifying events in A1. The identification of exposures that lead to PTSD were not improved materially by A2 however, events that did not involve A2 rarely resulted in PTSD. Compared to previous definitions, the wider variety of stressors in A1 markedly increased the number of events experienced in the community that can be used to diagnose PTSD. Furthermore, A2 might be useful as a separate criterion, an acute response necessary for the emergence of PTSD, and might serve as an early screen for identifying a subset of recently exposed persons at virtually no risk for PTSD. The utility of A2 as a screen must be tested prospectively.

  12. [Morel-Lavallée syndrome and post-traumatic nodular fat necrosis: Two post-traumatic complications mimicking cellulitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, C; Barthélémy, I; Emering, C; D'Incan, M

    Dermal and subcutaneous inflammation following direct trauma is initially evocative of soft-tissue infection. However, two differential diagnoses must be considered: Morel-Lavallée syndrome and post-traumatic nodular fat necrosis. Case 1: a 51-year-old woman fell off her motorbike and had dermabrasions on her right and left tibial ridges that rapidly developed into dermo-hypodermitis of the entire limb. There was no improvement after 3 weeks of antibiotics. The patient was apyretic. She had a soft, non-inflammatory tumefaction on the inner aspect of her left knee. Ultrasound revealed subcutaneous collection in both legs. The surgeons confirmed a diagnosis of Morel-Lavallée syndrome and drained the two collections. Progress was good and the patient healed without major consequences. Case 2: following a fall on her stairs, a 40-year-old woman presented dermabrasions and haematomas on her left leg. Antibiotic therapy failed to prevent the progression of dermo-hypodermitis. The patient remained apyretic and there was no inflammatory syndrome. A CT scan showed thickening of a subcutaneous fat and fluid collection, resulting in diagnosis of post-traumatic nodular fat necrosis. Management was surgical and the outcome was good. These two cases show two post-traumatic cutaneous complications: Morel-Lavallée syndrome and post-traumatic nodular fat necrosis. Morel-Lavallée syndrome occurs after tangential trauma next to richly vascularized tissue. Post-traumatic nodular fat necrosis is defined as necrosis of adipocytes. In both cases, diagnosis is confirmed by imagery (Ultrasonography, tomography). Our two case reports show that inflammatory presentation of both Morel-Lavallée syndrome and post-traumatic nodular fat necrosis can lead to diagnostic and therapeutic errors while a surgical procedure is necessary since tissue necrosis can occur. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantum interaction. Revised selected papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Dawei; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Lei [Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Computing; Melucci, Massimo [Padua Univ., Padova (Italy). Dept. of Information Engineering; Frommholz, Ingo [Bedfordshire Univ. (United Kingdom); Arafat, Sachi (eds.) [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Computing Science

    2011-07-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Quantum Interaction, QI 2011, held in Aberdeen, UK, in June 2011. The 26 revised full papers and 6 revised poster papers, presented together with 1 tutorial and 1 invited talk were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions during two rounds of reviewing and improvement. The papers show the cross-disciplinary nature of quantum interaction covering topics such as computation, cognition, mechanics, social interaction, semantic space and information representation and retrieval. (orig.)

  14. HEDR modeling approach: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipler, D.B.; Napier, B.A.

    1994-05-01

    This report is a revision of the previous Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project modeling approach report. This revised report describes the methods used in performing scoping studies and estimating final radiation doses to real and representative individuals who lived in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. The scoping studies and dose estimates pertain to various environmental pathways during various periods of time. The original report discussed the concepts under consideration in 1991. The methods for estimating dose have been refined as understanding of existing data, the scope of pathways, and the magnitudes of dose estimates were evaluated through scoping studies

  15. Quantum interaction. Revised selected papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Dawei; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Lei; Arafat, Sachi

    2011-01-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Quantum Interaction, QI 2011, held in Aberdeen, UK, in June 2011. The 26 revised full papers and 6 revised poster papers, presented together with 1 tutorial and 1 invited talk were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions during two rounds of reviewing and improvement. The papers show the cross-disciplinary nature of quantum interaction covering topics such as computation, cognition, mechanics, social interaction, semantic space and information representation and retrieval. (orig.)

  16. Medical writing, revising and editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Morten

    2006-01-01

    The globalization of science makes medical writing, editing and revision a rapidly growing field of linguistic study and practice. Medical science texts are written according to uniform, general guidelines and medical genres have become highly conventionalized in terms of structure and linguistic...... form. Medical editing often takes the form of peer review and mainly addresses issues of contents and overall validity. Medical revision incorporates the checking of the macrostructure and the microstructure of the text, its language and style and its suitability for the target reader or client...

  17. Revising Nabokov Revising”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Bouchet

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nabokov revised his works as he translated them and, on another plane, canon revisionism has been having its backlash and provoked other refracting waves. The purpose of the conference was to advance Nabokov studies through the discussion of how our view of Nabokov’s standing and his works today should be revised, especially after the publication of The Original of Laura. However the conference was not confined to just this theme, since “revising” is a word rich with implications. To borrow s...

  18. Preliminary evidence for a unique role of disgust-based conditioning in posttraumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badour, Christal L; Feldner, Matthew T; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Knapp, Ashley

    2013-04-01

    Independent lines of evidence have linked posttraumatic stress symptomatology to both peritraumatic disgust (i.e., disgust experienced during a traumatic event) and posttraumatic disgust reactivity in response to traumatic event cues among individuals exposed to traumatic events. Much of this work suggests disgust, defined as a rejection/revulsion response aimed at distancing oneself from a potential source of contamination, may be important in understanding the nature of posttraumatic stress reactions even after accounting for the more frequently studied affective states of fear and anxiety. The current investigation provided a preliminary test of a model of disgust in posttraumatic stress among a sample of 54 community-recruited women with a history sexual victimization. Both peritraumatic disgust (r = .31) and posttraumatic disgust reactivity (r = .42) in response to an idiographic traumatic event script were significantly associated with posttraumatic stress symptom severity. After accounting for variability-associated peritraumatic fear and posttraumatic anxious reactivity, an indirect effect of peritraumatic disgust through posttraumatic disgust reactivity also was found, suggesting that one mechanism through which peritraumatic disgust relates to posttraumatic stress is through its relation with increased posttraumatic disgust reactivity. These findings highlight the importance of further elucidating the nature of disgust in relation to traumatic events and subsequent posttraumatic stress reactions. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  19. Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing(EMDR to Reduce the Severity of Symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Stuttering With Psychological Origin(Case Study in Child with Four Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Hashemian Moghadam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The present research aimed to measure the effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR on reducing the severity of symptoms of post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD and Stuttering in a four-year-old child post-traumatic stress disorder in children is one of the disorders relating to trauma and stressful factors, also, stutterring or word fluency disorder is a nerve growth disorder. Materials and Methods: This research design was conducted as a case study with a multiple baseline design. Participant in this research was a four-year- old child with Diagnostic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Psychogenic Stuttering. He had been placed under the intervention with EMDR at Shahid Birjand Counseling Center. The instruments used for this research included demographic researcher-made questionnaire, the third edition of stuttering severity test, the scale of parents’ report of post-traumatic Symptoms and child’s report of posttraumatic Symptoms. Data analysis was done through graphic and descriptive analysis. The data was collected as base line and during the treatment as well as after the treatment and follow-up (in terms of 3 and 24 months. Results: Means percentage improvement (MPI to reducing the severity of post-traumatic symptoms was achieved as %74.66 and it was %56.06 for reduction of the severity of stuttering and they continued to maintain in the follow-up period. Conclusion: Results showed that EMDR method had affected on reduction of the severity of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and stuttering intensity.

  20. Prevalence and Determinants of Chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder After Floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Tan, Hongzhuan; Cofie, Reuben; Hu, Shimin; Li, Yan; Zhou, Jia; Yang, Tubao; Tang, Xuemin; Cui, Guanghui; Liu, Aizhong

    2015-10-01

    To explore the prevalence and determinants of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among flood victims. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2014 among individuals who had experienced the 1998 floods and had been diagnosed with PTSD in 1999 in Hunan, China. Cluster sampling was used to select subjects from the areas that had been surveyed in 1999. PTSD was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, social support was measured according to a Social Support Rating Scale, coping style was measured according to a Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, and personality was measured by use of the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Short Scale for Chinese. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews by use of a structured questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to reveal the determinants of chronic PTSD. A total of 123 subjects were interviewed, 17 of whom (14.4%) were diagnosed with chronic PTSD. Chronic PTSD was significantly associated with disaster stressors (odds ratio [OR]: 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-2.47), nervousness (OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.01-1.17), and social support (OR: 0.85; 95 CI%: 0.74-0.98). Chronic PTSD in flood victims is significantly associated with disaster stressors, nervousness, and social support. These factors may play important roles in identifying persons at high risk of chronic PTSD.

  1. Death by request in Switzerland: posttraumatic stress disorder and complicated grief after witnessing assisted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, B; Müller, J; Maercker, A

    2012-10-01

    Despite continuing political, legal and moral debate on the subject, assisted suicide is permitted in only a few countries worldwide. However, few studies have examined the impact that witnessing assisted suicide has on the mental health of family members or close friends. A cross-sectional survey of 85 family members or close friends who were present at an assisted suicide was conducted in December 2007. Full or partial Post-Traumatic Distress Disorder (PTSD; Impact of Event Scale-Revised), depression and anxiety symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory) and complicated grief (Inventory of Complicated Grief) were assessed at 14 to 24 months post-loss. Of the 85 participants, 13% met the criteria for full PTSD (cut-off≥35), 6.5% met the criteria for subthreshold PTSD (cut-off≥25), and 4.9% met the criteria for complicated grief. The prevalence of depression was 16%; the prevalence of anxiety was 6%. A higher prevalence of PTSD and depression was found in the present sample than has been reported for the Swiss population in general. However, the prevalence of complicated grief in the sample was comparable to that reported for the general Swiss population. Therefore, although there seemed to be no complications in the grief process, about 20% of respondents experienced full or subthreshold PTSD related to the loss of a close person through assisted suicide. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder: rationale, clinical and neurobiological evidence, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanius, Ruth A; Brand, Bethany; Vermetten, Eric; Frewen, Paul A; Spiegel, David

    2012-08-01

    Clinical and neurobiological evidence for a dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has recently been documented. A dissociative subtype of PTSD is being considered for inclusion in the forthcoming Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) to address the symptoms of depersonalization and derealization found among a subset of patients with PTSD. This article reviews research related to the dissociative subtype including antecedent, concurrent, and predictive validators as well as the rationale for recommending the dissociative subtype. The relevant literature pertaining to the dissociative subtype of PTSD was reviewed. Latent class analyses point toward a specific subtype of PTSD consisting of symptoms of depersonalization and derealization in both veteran and civilian samples of PTSD. Compared to individuals with PTSD, those with the dissociative subtype of PTSD also exhibit a different pattern of neurobiological response to symptom provocation as well as a differential response to current cognitive behavioral treatment designed for PTSD. We recommend that consideration be given to adding a dissociative subtype of PTSD in the revision of the DSM. This facilitates more accurate analysis of different phenotypes of PTSD, assist in treatment planning that is informed by considering the degree of patients' dissociativity, will improve treatment outcome, and will lead to much-needed research about the prevalence, symptomatology, neurobiology, and treatment of individuals with the dissociative subtype of PTSD. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Relationships among Childhood Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Dissociation in Men Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamen, Charles; Bergstrom, Jessica; Koopman, Cheryl; Lee, Susanne; Gore-Felton, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among dissociation, childhood trauma and sexual abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in HIV-positive men. Data was collected from 167 men enrolled in a randomized clinical trial (Project RISE) that examined a group therapy intervention to decrease HIV-related risk behavior and trauma-related stress symptoms. Participants completed the Trauma History Questionnaire, the Impact of Event Scale - Revised, and the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire. Overall, 35.3% of the participants reported having experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). A total of 55.7% of the sample met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. The intensity of dissociative symptoms that participants endorsed was positively associated with experience of childhood sexual abuse (r = .20, p Dissociative symptoms were also positively associated with specific PTSD symptoms, notably hyperarousal (r = .69, p dissociation than childhood sexual abuse. These results suggest that childhood sexual abuse may be involved in the development of dissociative symptoms in the context of adulthood stress reactions. Furthermore, the pattern of the association between dissociation and PTSD is consistent with the possibility of a dissociative PTSD subtype among HIV-positive men. PMID:22211444

  4. Symptoms and subjective quality of life in post-traumatic stress disorder: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacco, Domenico; Matanov, Aleksandra; Priebe, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with substantially reduced subjective quality of life (SQOL). This study aimed to explore whether and how changes in the levels of PTSD symptom clusters of intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal are associated with changes in SQOL. Two samples with PTSD following the war in former Yugoslavia were studied, i.e. a representative sample of 530 people in five Balkan countries and a non-representative sample of 215 refugees in three Western European countries. They were assessed on average eight years after the war and re-interviewed one year later. PTSD symptoms were assessed on the Impact of Event Scale - Revised and SQOL on the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life. Linear regression and a two-wave cross lagged panel analysis were used to explore the association between PTSD symptom clusters and SQOL. The findings in the two samples were consistent. Symptom reduction over time was associated with improved SQOL. In multivariable analyses adjusted for the influence of all three clusters, gender and time since war exposure, only changes in hyperarousal symptoms were significantly associated with changes in SQOL. The two-wave cross-lagged panel analysis suggested that the link between hyperarousal symptoms and SQOL is bidirectional. Low SQOL of patients with war-related PTSD is particularly associated with hyperarousal symptoms. The findings suggest a bidirectional influence: a reduction in hyperarousal symptoms may result in improved SQOL, and improvements in SQOL may lead to reduced hyperarousal symptoms.

  5. Lifetime Traumatic Experiences and Disordered Eating among University Students: The Role of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilija Malinauskiene

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The associations between lifetime traumatic events (TEs, posttraumatic stress (PTS symptoms, and disordered eating (DE were studied in a sample of 614 university students (mean age 20 years. An anonymous questionnaire included 32 lifetime TEs, IES-revised measured PTS symptoms, and EAT-26 evaluated DE symptoms. Statistical analyses included Pearson correlations and structural equation models (SEM with bootstrapping method. Findings reveal the prevalence of DE in 8.1% of participants, while 73.9% of students experienced at least one lifetime TE. 52.0% of students with DE had PTS symptoms (p<0.0001 and 30.8% of students with lifetime TEs had PTS symptoms (p<0.001. In SEM, direct paths from lifetime TEs to PTS symptoms (0.38, p<0.0001 and from PTS symptoms to DE (0.40, p<0.0001 were observed. The final SEM confirmed the mediating role of PTS symptoms in the path between some TEs (traffic accident and seriously injured and DE among the university students. If PTS symptoms are associated with DE, then addressing PTS symptoms in the context of DE treatment may improve treatment efficacy.

  6. EMDR for Syrian refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: results of a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Acarturk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common mental health problems among refugees are depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR is an effective treatment for PTSD. However, no previous randomized controlled trial (RCT has been published on treating PTSD symptoms in a refugee camp population. Objective: Examining the effect of EMDR to reduce the PTSD and depression symptoms compared to a wait-list condition among Syrian refugees. Method: Twenty-nine adult participants with PTSD symptoms were randomly allocated to either EMDR sessions (n=15 or wait-list control (n=14. The main outcome measures were Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II at posttreatment and 4-week follow-up. Results: Analysis of covariance showed that the EMDR group had significantly lower trauma scores at posttreatment as compared with the wait-list group (d=1.78, 95% CI: 0.92–2.64. The EMDR group also had a lower depression score after treatment as compared with the wait-list group (d=1.14, 95% CI: 0.35–1.92. Conclusion: The pilot RCT indicated that EMDR may be effective in reducing PTSD and depression symptoms among Syrian refugees located in a camp. Larger RCTs to verify the (cost- effectiveness of EMDR in similar populations are needed.

  7. Failure of aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leta, Tesfaye H; Lygre, Stein Håkon L; Skredderstuen, Arne; Hallan, Geir; Furnes, Ove

    2015-02-01

    In Norway, the proportion of revision knee arthroplasties increased from 6.9% in 1994 to 8.5% in 2011. However, there is limited information on the epidemiology and causes of subsequent failure of revision knee arthroplasty. We therefore studied survival rate and determined the modes of failure of aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties. This study was based on 1,016 aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register between 1994 and 2011. Revisions done for infections were not included. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to assess the survival rate and the relative risk of re-revision with all causes of re-revision as endpoint. 145 knees failed after revision total knee arthroplasty. Deep infection was the most frequent cause of re-revision (28%), followed by instability (26%), loose tibial component (17%), and pain (10%). The cumulative survival rate for revision total knee arthroplasties was 85% at 5 years, 78% at 10 years, and 71% at 15 years. Revision total knee arthroplasties with exchange of the femoral or tibial component exclusively had a higher risk of re-revision (RR = 1.7) than those with exchange of the whole prosthesis. The risk of re-revision was higher for men (RR = 2.0) and for patients aged less than 60 years (RR = 1.6). In terms of implant survival, revision of the whole implant was better than revision of 1 component only. Young age and male sex were risk factors for re-revision. Deep infection was the most frequent cause of failure of revision of aseptic total knee arthroplasties.

  8. Posttraumatic stress and depression in Yazidi refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasıroğlu S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Serhat Nasıroğlu,1 Veysi Çeri2 1Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Sakarya University, Sakarya, Turkey; 2Pendik Training and Research Hospital, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical School of Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey Aim: The aim of this investigation was to determine the frequency of mental pathologies in children and adolescents of the Yazidi minority group who immigrated to Turkey from Iraq. The refugees were asked about preventive and risk factors that occurred before and after their immigration. Subjects and methods: The sample comprised 55 children and adolescents (30 males and 25 females who were Yazidi refugees and had settled in the Uçkuyular, Oğuz, Onbaşi, and Uğurca villages of Batman, Turkey. The study was conducted 9 months after the refugees had immigrated. The participants were evaluated in their native language through a semistructured interview titled “Reliability and Validity of Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children – Present and Lifetime Version – Turkish Version”. A sociodemographic form was prepared so that investigators could understand their traumatic experiences before and after the migration and their current social conditions. All the interviews were conducted in the participants’ native language without the help of translators. The investigators filled out the sociodemographic forms. Results: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD was detected in 20 children (36.4%, depression in 18 (32.7%, nocturnal enuresis in six (10.9%, and anxiety in four (7.3%. The following factors were found to be associated with depression: witnessing violence and/or death, being a girl, having older parents, being the elder child, and having multiple siblings (P<0.05. Risk factors for PTSD, depression, and comorbid conditions included witnessing violence and/or death (P<0.05. Four participants were observed to have both PTSD and

  9. Brain stimulation in posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladan Novakovic

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a complex, heterogeneous disorder that develops following trauma and often includes perceptual, cognitive, affective, physiological, and psychological features. PTSD is characterized by hyperarousal, intrusive thoughts, exaggerated startle response, flashbacks, nightmares, sleep disturbances, emotional numbness, and persistent avoidance of trauma-associated stimuli. The efficacy of available treatments for PTSD may result in part from relief of associated depressive and anxiety-related symptoms in addition to treatment of core symptoms that derive from reexperiencing, numbing, and hyperarousal. Diverse, heterogeneous mechanisms of action and the ability to act broadly or very locally may enable brain stimulation devices to address PTSD core symptoms in more targeted ways. To achieve this goal, specific theoretical bases derived from novel, well-designed research protocols will be necessary. Brain stimulation devices include both long-used and new electrical and magnetic devices. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT and Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES have both been in use for decades; transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, magnetic seizure therapy (MST, deep brain stimulation (DBS, transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS, and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS have been developed recently, over approximately the past twenty years. The efficacy of brain stimulation has been demonstrated as a treatment for psychiatric and neurological disorders such as anxiety (CES, depression (ECT, CES, rTMS, VNS, DBS, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD (DBS, essential tremor, dystonia (DBS, epilepsy (DBS, VNS, Parkinson Disease (DBS, pain (CES, and insomnia (CES. To date, limited data on brain stimulation for PTSD offer only modest guidance. ECT has shown some efficacy in reducing comorbid depression in PTSD patients but has not been demonstrated to improve most core PTSD symptoms. CES and VNS have shown some efficacy in

  10. Study of the variations in apoptotic factors in hippocampus of male rats with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrang Alani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a stress-related psychosomatic disorder caused by occurrence of a traumatic event and the hippocampus volume of the patients with Post-traumatic stress disorder decreased. However, the mechanisms that cause such damage are not well-understood. The aim of this study is to detect the expression of apoptosis-related Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-3 and Insulin-like growth Factor-I proteins in the hippocampus region in the Predatory stress rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 male wistar rats were divided into Predatory stress groups of 1d, 2d, 3d, 7d, 14d, 30d and a normal control group (N = 10. Rats were subjected to 5 min of predatory stress and then exposed to the elevated plus-maze (EPM. Serum corticosterone and Insulin-like growth factor-1 level of Hippocampus were measured by ELISA technique. The expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3 were detected by western blotting. Results: Rats spent significantly more time in closed arms of the elevated plus maze (EPM than control group after exposure to stress. Serum levels of corticosterone significantly increased at 2d-3d. The expression of hippocampal IGF-1 was significantly up-regulated at 1d-2d after stress. Both Bax and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 significantly peaked at Predatory stress 2d-14d. Caspase3 was significantly active among 2d-30 compared to the normal control. Conclusion: The activation of caspase-3 in the stress groups indicates that apoptosis may be one of the reasons inducing hippocampus atrophy and play roles in the pathogenesis of PTSD. Increase in hippocampus levels of IGF-1 during early PTSD might be involved in the early molecular inhibitory mechanism of apoptosis in PTSD.

  11. Diagnosis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, Alexandra C.; Kenardy, Justin A.; Cobham, Vanessa E.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the existing diagnostic algorithms for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to determine the most developmentally sensitive and valid approach for diagnosing this disorder in preschoolers. Participants were 130 parents of unintentionally burned children (1-6 years). Diagnostic interviews were conducted with parents to…

  12. Diagnosing and treating post-traumatic stress disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Cæcilie Böck; Andersen, Henrik Steen

    2017-01-01

    The post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis has undergone large developments. With the changes in DSM-5 and the proposed changes in ICD-11, the two systems move in different directions. Treatment for PTSD is developing, but the evidence for the effect is lacking behind. Trauma...

  13. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Bereaved Relatives of Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Reinholt, N.; Nielsen, Louise Hjort

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and predictors of PTSD in individuals who experienced the loss of a close relative to cancer. A total of 251 bereaved relatives ages 14 to 76 (M = 41.3, SD = 16.8) were recruited at a counseling service for cancer patients...

  14. Posttraumatic stress disorder in parents following infant death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.

    2017-01-01

    Parents who have lost an infant prior to, during, or following birth often interpret the event as highly traumatic. The present systematic review included 46 articles based on 31 different studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in parents bereaved by infant death. The PTSD prevalence...

  15. 75 FR 41092 - Stressor Determinations for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN32 Stressor Determinations for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Correction In rule document 2010-16885 beginning on page 39843 in the issue of Tuesday, July 13, 2010 make the following corrections: 1. On page 39843, in the first column, under the...

  16. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children: What Elementary Teachers Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is not limited to the men and women who have been exposed to the horrors of war through military service. Children who are exposed to traumatic and life-threatening events, such as school shootings, physical and sexual abuse, and community violence, also can suffer from PTSD. This article explores the causes,…

  17. Occurrence of delayed-onset post-traumatic stress disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utzon-Frank, Nicolai; Breinegaard, Nina; Bertelsen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops according to consensus criteria within the first 1-6 months after a horrifying traumatic event, but it is alleged that PTSD may develop later. The objective was to review the evidence addressing occurrence of PTSD with onset >6 months after a traumatic...

  18. Gender-specific predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donbaek, Dagmar Feddern; Elklit, Ask

    2015-01-01

    Gender is an important risk factor for both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) in adolescents; however, little is known about the influence of gender when considering their common co-occurrence. This study examined whether problematic substance use, attachment...

  19. Sexual violence, post-traumatic stress disorder and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, J R; Severson, K

    1997-01-01

    Little is known of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in older people. No literature exists on this disorder in older women exposed to sexual assault. A case of apparent PTSD in a demented woman raises questions of the anatomy and phenomenology of this disorder. Difficulties in diagnosis in a demented population may cloud the issues or prevent a proper therapeutic outcome.

  20. Predicting Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Children after Road Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, Markus A.; Vollrath, Margarete; Timm, Karin; Gnehm, Hanspeter E.; Sennhauser, Felix H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively assess the prevalence, course, and predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs) in children after road traffic accidents (RTAs). Method: Sixty-eight children (6.5-14.5 years old) were interviewed 4-6 weeks and 12 months after an RTA with the Child PTSD Reaction Index (response rate 58.6%). Their mothers (n = 60)…

  1. Positron emission CT on post-traumatic epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukiyama, Takashi; Tsubokawa, Takashi; Doi, Nobuyasu; Sato, Kohten; Iio, Masaaki.

    1983-01-01

    Six patients suffering from post-traumatic epilepsy were checked by encephalography (EEG), X-ray CT and cerebral positron emission computed tomography (PECT) using 11 C-carbon dioxide ( 11 CO 2 ) and 11 C-glucoses as indicators of the local cerebral circulation and local cerebral glucose utilization, in order to assess the diagnostic value of PECT in post-traumatic epilepsy. In those patients (4 cases) who had focal electrical abnormalities or X-ray CT lesions, PECT clearly revealed localized regions of decreased cerebral circulation and glucose utilization. A focal hypometabolic zone also appeared in the post-traumatic epilepsy (1 case) which had a normal X-ray CT. One case, who had been treated for several years by medication but showed no EEG change and no abnormality on X-ray CT, revealed a normal circulation and metabolism by RECT. This case did not require any further medication for epilepsy. It is concluded that positron emission CT represents a useful diagnostic method for post-traumatic epilepsy which does not demonstrate any abnormality on X-ray CT. (author)

  2. Disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder and physical health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkzwager, J.E.; van der Velden, P.G.; Grievink, Linda; Yzermans, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and self-reported as well as physicianrecorded physical health in a sample of survivors (n 896) of a man-made disaster, using a longitudinal design that included predisaster health data. Most studies on the

  3. Children and adolescents treated for post-traumatic stress disorder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children and adolescents can develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after exposure to a range of traumatic events, including domestic, political or community ... isolation (39%), fear or anxiety (37%), problematic family relationships (29%), emotional (27%) and physical (23%) abuse, and lack of social support (23%).

  4. Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder among road traffic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Psychological responses to traumatic events vary widely across different cultures but studies in the developing countries are scant. The objective of this study is to determine prevalence of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among patients involved in road traffic accident (RTA) compared with ...

  5. Prevalence and correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the most common consequence of traumatic experiences. The North Central Nigeria to which Plateau State belongs has witnessed many ethno‑religious crises. While previous studies suggested a high prevalence of PTSD among students, to the best of our knowledge, ...

  6. The relationshp between rape experience and post-traumatic stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to find out the relationship between rape experience and of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder among victims. One hundred and thirty-two female participants made up of seventy-two from Nasarawa State University and sixty from the general public in Keffi town of Nasarawa State participated in the ...

  7. Post-traumatic stress disorder: Case report | Nyamai | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following exposure to a major traumatic event like the August seventh 1998 Nairobi bomb blast various reactions occur, some of which result in stress-related psychiatric disorders. We have described one such case, and used it to illustrate the salient features of posttraumatic stress disorder. We have outlined the diagnostic ...

  8. Understanding HIV-related posttraumatic stress disorder in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of epidemiological studies have attempted to measure the prevalence of HIV-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in sub-Saharan Africa. A systematic review of the literature identified eight relevant studies that put current estimates of the prevalence of HIV-related PTSD between 4.2% and 40%. Even the ...

  9. school survey of exposure to violence and posttraumatic stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological data specifically documenting PTSD prevalence following violence exposure in children and adolescents in South Africa is lacking. In this preliminary survey, a positive association was found between exposure to violent and multiple traumas and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in adolescents.

  10. The management of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic and also carry a higher burden of early childhood trauma, other life traumas (e.g. rape and partner violence) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).1,2 Yet PTSD and other common psychiatric disorders (e.g. depression, alcohol abuse) are commonly ...

  11. POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: CASE REPORT C. M. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-04-04

    Apr 4, 2000 ... poor mental health when examined at six months and at one year ... the reader the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder .... interpersonal and social problems related to PTSD. ... of phobic avoidance and withdrawal associated with ... Cairns E. and Wilson R. The impact of political violence on mild.

  12. Neuropsychological Effects of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Matthew R.; Obrzut, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can affect people of all ages but the literature is lacking on children and adolescents who experience PTSD. The consequences of this disorder extend beyond the basic symptoms by which it is defined. Neuroanatomically, the brains of children with PTSD have been found to be abnormally symmetrical in several…

  13. Posttraumatic stress disorder: a serious post-earthquake complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Mudassir; Quadri, Syed A; Suriya, Sajid S; Khan, Muhammad Adnan; Ovais, Muhammad; Sohail, Zohaib; Shoaib, Samra; Tohid, Hassaan; Hassan, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Earthquakes are unpredictable and devastating natural disasters. They can cause massive destruction and loss of life and survivors may suffer psychological symptoms of severe intensity. Our goal in this article is to review studies published in the last 20 years to compile what is known about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurring after earthquakes. The review also describes other psychiatric complications that can be associated with earthquakes, to provide readers with better overall understanding, and discusses several sociodemographic factors that can be associated with post-earthquake PTSD. A search for literature was conducted on major databases such as MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO and in neurology and psychiatry journals, and many other medical journals. Terms used for electronic searches included, but were not limited to, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), posttraumatic symptoms, anxiety, depression, major depressive disorder, earthquake, and natural disaster. The relevant information was then utilized to determine the relationships between earthquakes and posttraumatic stress symptoms. It was found that PTSD is the most commonly occurring mental health condition among earthquake survivors. Major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, social phobia, and specific phobias were also listed. The PTSD prevalence rate varied widely. It was dependent on multiple risk factors in target populations and also on the interval of time that had elapsed between the exposure to the deadly incident and measurement. Females seemed to be the most widely-affected group, while elderly people and young children exhibit considerable psychosocial impact.

  14. Haemodialysis for post-traumatic acute renal failure – factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Post-traumatic acute renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy in an intensive care unit (ICU) is associated with high mortality. Objective. To assess indicators of improved survival. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study of 64 consecutive trauma patients (penetrating and blunt trauma and burns) ...

  15. CASE REPORT CASE CASE Post-traumatic cholesteatoma … a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CASE REPORT. CASE. 46. SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • July 2008. CASE. Abstract. Temporal bone fractures and their acute complications have been well described in radiology and ENT journals; this is in contrast to ... post-traumatic cholesteatomas and made postulations on their origin. Since then, there have been ...

  16. Complication during Postacute Rehabilitation: Patients with Posttraumatic Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denes, Zoltan; Barsi, Peter; Szel, Istvan; Boros, Erzsebet; Fazekas, Gabor

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of posttraumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) among patients in our rehabilitation unit for traumatic brain injury. Furthermore, we aimed to assess the effect of shunt implantation and to identify the postoperative complication rate. This is a retrospective cohort study, in which between 2000 and…

  17. Disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder and physical health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Velden, P.G. van der; Grievink, L.; Yzermans, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and self-reported as well as physician-recorded physical health in a sample of survivors (n = 896) of a man-made disaster, using a longitudinal design that included predisaster health data. Most studies on the

  18. Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Road Traffic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Road Traffic. Accident Victims ... that is more in line with a case–control model. For example, instead of ... Asuquo et al. in light of the first (of the above two proposals).

  19. The war within : Neurobiological alterations in posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, E.

    2006-01-01

    For a large number of veterans, war does not end after they are removed from a combat zone. Traumatic stress affects nearly all veterans, but while the majority of veterans learn to live with their experiences, for some veterans traumatic stress seethes inside. In this dissertation posttraumatic

  20. Correlation between Kind of Delivery and Posttraumatic Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017 Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research ... Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a very common mental ... in women with poor social support after delivery than in those enjoying a ... effect on the infant's cognitive development. ..... the mother receives at home and at work from her family and.

  1. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder after Vaginal Delivery at Primiparous Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milosavljevic, Maja; Lecic Tosevski, Dusica; Soldatovic, Ivan; Vukovic, Olivera; Miljevic, Cedo; Peljto, Amir; Kostic, Milutin; Olff, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Although severe gynaecological pathology during delivery and negative outcome have been shown to be related with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) little is known about traumatic experiences following regular delivery, at the expected time and with a healthy child. The objective of our study was

  2. Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress after Intensive Care Delirium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Helle; Egerod, Ingrid; Christensen, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Long-term psychological consequences of critical illness are receiving more attention in recent years. The aim of our study was to assess the correlation of ICU-delirium and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) anxiety and depression after ICU-discharge in a Danish cohort...

  3. Spontaneous resolution of post-traumatic chronic subdural hematoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, we present a case of spontaneously resolved post-traumatic bilateral chronic subdural hematoma within a period of one month in a 55-year-old male and we discuss the probable mechanisms of pathophysiology in the spontaneous resolution of chronic subdural hematoma. Keywords: Antiaggregation therapy, chronic ...

  4. Anxiety, Depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder after Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Prakash; Acharya, Lumeshor; Bhatta, Bhup Dev; Paneru, Suman Bhatta; Khattri, Jai Bahadur; Chakraborty, Prashant Kumar; Sharma, Rajasee

    2018-03-13

    Prevalence of anxiety, depression and post traumatic stress disorder is high after earthquake. The aim of the study is to study the prevalence and comorbidity of commonly occurring psychological symptoms in people exposed to Nepal mega earthquake in 2015 after a year of the event. A community based, cross sectional, descriptive study was carried out in Bhumlichaur area of Gorkha district, Nepal after around 14 months of the first major earthquake. We used self-reporting questionnaire 20, Post-traumatic stress disorder 8 and hospital anxiety and depression scale to screen for presence of symptoms of anxiety and depression or post-traumatic stress disorder in this population. The risk of having these disorders according to different socio-demographic variable was assessed by calculating odds ratio. All calculations were done using predictive and analytical software (PASW) version 16.0. A total of 198 participants were included in the final data analysis. The mean age of study participants was 35.13 years (SD=18.04). Borderline anxiety symptoms were found in 104 (52.5%) while significant anxiety symptoms were found in 40 (20%) of respondents. Borderline depressive symptoms were seen in 40 (20%) while significant depressive symptoms were seen in 16 (8%) of subjects. Around 27% (n= 53) of respondents were classified as having post-traumatic stress disorder. The prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and post-traumatic stress disorder seems to be high even after one year in people exposed to earthquake.

  5. Post-traumatic cervical pneumorrhachis--a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Maneet; Sreenivas, Mukkamala; Beniwal, Rajveer Singh

    2011-02-01

    Pneumorrhachis(PR) is a rare phenomenon and post traumatic PR even more so. Presentation can vary from asymptomatic to significant neurological deficit and so the management has to be individualised. We present a case of post-traumatic cervical PR.

  6. Harm expectancy violation during exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleine, R.A. de; Hendriks, L.; Becker, E.S.; Broekman, T.G.; Minnen, A. van

    2017-01-01

    Exposure therapy has proven efficacy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotional processing theory proposes that fear habituation is a central mechanism in symptom reduction, but the empirical evidence supporting this is mixed. Recently it has been proposed that violation of

  7. The Psychophysiology of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pole, Nnamdi

    2007-01-01

    This meta-analysis of 58 resting baseline studies, 25 startle studies, 17 standardized trauma cue studies, and 22 idiographic trauma cue studies compared adults with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on psychophysiological variables: facial electromyography (EMG), heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SC), and blood pressure.…

  8. A Virtual Agent for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielman, M.L.

    2018-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder with a high impact on quality of life, and despite the existence of treatment, barriers still stop many people from receiving the care they need. An e-mental health system for home use might remove some of these barriers, as it provides a

  9. Predicting criminality from child maltreatment typologies and posttraumatic stress symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Armour, Cherie

    2013-01-01

    The associations between childhood abuse and subsequent criminality and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are well known. However, a major limitation of research related to childhood abuse and its effects is the focus on one particular type of abuse at the expense of others. Recent work has...

  10. Correlation between Kind of Delivery and Posttraumatic Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a very common mental condition and a unique anxiety disorder. Aim: The present study tried to examine the correlation between kind of delivery and PTSD. Subjects and Methods: This prospective study evaluated 240 Iranian female residents of Tehran, Iran, during the ...

  11. Posttraumatic stress disorder: a serious post-earthquake complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudassir Farooqui

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Earthquakes are unpredictable and devastating natural disasters. They can cause massive destruction and loss of life and survivors may suffer psychological symptoms of severe intensity. Our goal in this article is to review studies published in the last 20 years to compile what is known about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD occurring after earthquakes. The review also describes other psychiatric complications that can be associated with earthquakes, to provide readers with better overall understanding, and discusses several sociodemographic factors that can be associated with post-earthquake PTSD Method A search for literature was conducted on major databases such as MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO and in neurology and psychiatry journals, and many other medical journals. Terms used for electronic searches included, but were not limited to, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, posttraumatic symptoms, anxiety, depression, major depressive disorder, earthquake, and natural disaster. The relevant information was then utilized to determine the relationships between earthquakes and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Results It was found that PTSD is the most commonly occurring mental health condition among earthquake survivors. Major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, social phobia, and specific phobias were also listed. Conclusion The PTSD prevalence rate varied widely. It was dependent on multiple risk factors in target populations and also on the interval of time that had elapsed between the exposure to the deadly incident and measurement. Females seemed to be the most widely-affected group, while elderly people and young children exhibit considerable psychosocial impact.

  12. The nuclear liability conventions revised

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    2004-01-01

    The signature on 12 February 2004 of the Protocols amending respectively the 1960 Paris Convention and the 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention was the second step of the process of modernisation of the international nuclear liability regime after the adoption in September 1997 of a Protocol revising the 1963 Vienna Convention and of a new Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage. The common objective of the new instruments is to provide more funds to compensate a larger number of potential victims in respect of a broader range of damage. Another goal of the revision exercise was to maintain the compatibility between the Paris and Vienna based systems, a commitment enshrined in the 1988 Joint Protocol, as well as to ascertain that Paris/Brussels countries could also become a Party to the Convention on Supplementary Compensation. However, while generally consistent vis a vis the Joint Protocol, the provisions of the Paris and Vienna Conventions, as revised, differ on some significant aspects. Another remaining issue is whether the improved international nuclear liability regime will succeed in attracting in the future a larger number of countries, particularly outside Europe, and will so become truly universal. Therefore, the need for international co-operation to address these issues, to facilitate the adoption of new implementing legislation and to ensure that this special regime keeps abreast of economic and technological developments, is in no way diminished after the revision of the Conventions.(author)

  13. Concise revision of the Sarcospermataceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, H.J.; Royen, van P.

    1952-01-01

    After the senior writer, together with W. W. Varossieau, had published a revision of this monogeneric family (Blumea III, 1938—’39 and IV, 1941), some more material has been examined by us and, moreover, some new species have been described. Thanks to the courtesy of Prof. F. Gagnepain of Paris, and

  14. Guidelines for Curriculum Development. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, K.; And Others

    The curriculum development process explained in this booklet was first implemented at College of the Redwoods in May 1986 and then revised in June 1989. First, information on the college's Curriculum Committee is provided, indicating that the committee was formed to plan credit/non-credit courses; evaluate and approve additions, modifications, or…

  15. Revised Accounting for Business Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Arlette C.; Key, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has recently issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 141 (Revised 2007) Business Combinations. The object of this Statement is to improve the relevance, representational faithfulness, and comparability of reported information about a business combination and its effects. This Statement…

  16. How Adults Learn. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, J. R.

    The book's emphasis is on learning during the years of adulthood and examines present-day practice of adult education for practitioners. This revised edition brings up to date advances in such areas of learning as controversial theory; the effects of environment; sensory processes; intellectual capacities; motivation and attitude; transactional…

  17. A revision of the Paronychiinae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaudhri, Mohammad Nazeer

    1968-01-01

    This study was undertaken, in April 1964, at the suggestion of Prof. Dr. J. Lanjouw. The need for such a revision, was, however, stressed by the authors of the subtribe, viz. PAX et K. HOFFMANN, who, while delimiting these genera, remarked that the Systematics of both the (main) genera of this

  18. Diet History Questionnaire: Database Revision History

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following details all additions and revisions made to the DHQ nutrient and food database. This revision history is provided as a reference for investigators who may have performed analyses with a previous release of the database.

  19. [Revised practice guideline 'Anaemia in midwifery practice'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, M.; Jans, S.M.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    The practice guideline of the Royal Dutch Organization of Midwives 'Anaemia in primary care midwifery practice' published in 2000, has recently been revised. The revised guideline takes physiological haemodilution during pregnancy into consideration and provides gestation specific reference values

  20. Revised Human Health Risk Assessment on Chlorpyrifos

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have revised our human health risk assessment and drinking water exposure assessment for chlorpyrifos that supported our October 2015 proposal to revoke all food residue tolerances for chlorpyrifos. Learn about the revised analysis.

  1. 75 FR 60485 - NRC Enforcement Policy Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2008-0497] NRC Enforcement Policy Revision AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Policy statement. SUMMARY: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or Commission) is publishing a major revision to its Enforcement Policy (Enforcement Policy or Policy) to...

  2. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder by Gender and Veteran Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; Katon, Jodie G; Chen, Jessica A; Fortney, John C; Simpson, Tracy L

    2018-01-01

    Population-based data on the prevalence, correlates, and treatment utilization of post-traumatic stress disorder by gender and veteran status are limited. With changes in post-traumatic stress disorder diagnostic criteria in 2013, current information from a uniform data source is needed. This was a secondary analysis of the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III, which consisted of in-person interviews that were conducted with a representative sample of U.S. adults. The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-5 Version was used to assess past-year and lifetime post-traumatic stress disorder among veterans (n=3,119) and civilians (n=32,982). Data were analyzed from January to March 2017. Adjusting for age and race/ethnicity, women veterans reported the highest rates of lifetime and past-year post-traumatic stress disorder (13.4%, 95% CI=8.8%, 17.9%, and 11.7%, 95% CI=7.1%, 16.4%) compared with women civilians (8.0%, 95% CI=7.4%, 8.6%, and 6.0%, 95% CI=5.5%, 6.6%); men veterans (7.7%, 95% CI=6.5%, 8.8%, and 6.7%, 95% CI=5.7%, 7.8%); and men civilians (3.4%, 95% CI=3.0%, 3.9%, and 2.6%, 95% CI=2.2%, 2.9%). Traumatic event exposure, correlates of lifetime post-traumatic stress disorder, and treatment seeking varied across subgroups. Men and women veterans were more likely than civilians to use a variety of treatment sources, with men civilians being least likely to seek treatment and men veterans exhibiting the longest delay in seeking treatment. Post-traumatic stress disorder is a common mental health disorder that varies by gender and veteran status. Women veterans' high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder highlight a critical target for prevention and intervention, whereas understanding treatment barriers for men veterans and civilians is necessary. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. The posttraumatic stress disorder project in Brazil: neuropsychological, structural and molecular neuroimaging studies in victims of urban violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Rodrigo A; Quarantini, Lucas C; Andreoli, Sérgio B; Araújo, Celia; Breen, Gerome; Guindalini, Camila; Hoexter, Marcelo; Jackowski, Andrea P; Jorge, Miguel R; Lacerda, Acioly L T; Lara, Diogo R; Malta, Stella; Moriyama, Tais S; Quintana, Maria I; Ribeiro, Wagner S; Ruiz, Juliana; Schoedl, Aline F; Shih, Ming C; Figueira, Ivan; Koenen, Karestan C; Mello, Marcelo F; Mari, Jair J

    2009-06-01

    Life trauma is highly prevalent in the general population and posttraumatic stress disorder is among the most prevalent psychiatric consequences of trauma exposure. Brazil has a unique environment to conduct translational research about psychological trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder, since urban violence became a Brazilian phenomenon, being particularly related to the rapid population growth of its cities. This research involves three case-control studies: a neuropsychological, a structural neuroimaging and a molecular neuroimaging study, each focusing on different objectives but providing complementary information. First, it aims to examine cognitive functioning of PTSD subjects and its relationships with symptomatology. The second objective is to evaluate neurostructural integrity of orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus in PTSD subjects. The third aim is to evaluate if patients with PTSD have decreased dopamine transporter density in the basal ganglia as compared to resilient controls subjects. This paper shows the research rationale and design for these three case-control studies. Cases and controls will be identified through an epidemiologic survey conducted in the city of São Paulo. Subjects exposed to traumatic life experiences resulting in posttraumatic stress disorder (cases) will be compared to resilient victims of traumatic life experiences without PTSD (controls) aiming to identify biological variables that might protect or predispose to PTSD. In the neuropsychological case-control study, 100 patients with PTSD, will be compared with 100 victims of trauma without posttraumatic stress disorder, age- and sex-matched controls. Similarly, 50 cases and 50 controls will be enrolled for the structural study and 25 cases and 25 controls in the functional neuroimaging study. All individuals from the three studies will complete psychometrics and a structured clinical interview (the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Clinician

  4. The posttraumatic stress disorder project in Brazil: neuropsychological, structural and molecular neuroimaging studies in victims of urban violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bressan Rodrigo A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Life trauma is highly prevalent in the general population and posttraumatic stress disorder is among the most prevalent psychiatric consequences of trauma exposure. Brazil has a unique environment to conduct translational research about psychological trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder, since urban violence became a Brazilian phenomenon, being particularly related to the rapid population growth of its cities. This research involves three case-control studies: a neuropsychological, a structural neuroimaging and a molecular neuroimaging study, each focusing on different objectives but providing complementary information. First, it aims to examine cognitive functioning of PTSD subjects and its relationships with symptomatology. The second objective is to evaluate neurostructural integrity of orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus in PTSD subjects. The third aim is to evaluate if patients with PTSD have decreased dopamine transporter density in the basal ganglia as compared to resilient controls subjects. This paper shows the research rationale and design for these three case-control studies. Methods and design Cases and controls will be identified through an epidemiologic survey conducted in the city of São Paulo. Subjects exposed to traumatic life experiences resulting in posttraumatic stress disorder (cases will be compared to resilient victims of traumatic life experiences without PTSD (controls aiming to identify biological variables that might protect or predispose to PTSD. In the neuropsychological case-control study, 100 patients with PTSD, will be compared with 100 victims of trauma without posttraumatic stress disorder, age- and sex-matched controls. Similarly, 50 cases and 50 controls will be enrolled for the structural study and 25 cases and 25 controls in the functional neuroimaging study. All individuals from the three studies will complete psychometrics and a structured clinical interview (the Structured

  5. Humeral windows in revision total elbow arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Chris A; Salama, Amir; Stanley, David

    2016-04-01

    The use of cortical windows for revision elbow arthroplasty has not previously been widely reported. Their use aids safe revision of a well fixed humeral prosthesis and can be used in the setting of dislocation, periprosthetic fracture or aseptic loosening of the ulnar component. We describe our technique and results of cortical windows in the distal humerus for revision elbow arthroplasty surgery.

  6. A taxonomic revision of the genus Podocarpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laubenfels, de D.J.

    1985-01-01

    In connection with the forthcoming revision of the Coniferae for the Flora Malesiana, the author thought it necessary to revise the genus Podocarpus. Although this genus has a substantial representation in Malesia (30 species), the revision is too involved to be appropriate with the Flora Malesiana

  7. 24 CFR 968.225 - Budget revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget revisions. 968.225 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.225 Budget revisions. (a) A PHA shall not incur any modernization cost in excess of the total HUD-approved CIAP budget. A PHA shall submit a budget revision, in a form prescribed...

  8. 7 CFR 3015.115 - Budget revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget revisions. 3015.115 Section 3015.115..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Programmatic Changes and Budget Revisions § 3015.115 Budget revisions. (a) Nonconstruction projects. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of...

  9. 48 CFR 15.307 - Proposal revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 15.307 Proposal revisions. (a) If an... allow proposal revisions to clarify and document understandings reached during negotiations. At the... submit a final proposal revision. The contracting officer is required to establish a common cut-off date...

  10. World assumptions, posttraumatic stress and quality of life after a natural disaster: A longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Changes in world assumptions are a fundamental concept within theories that explain posttraumatic stress disorder. The objective of the present study was to gain a greater understanding of how changes in world assumptions are related to quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster. Methods A longitudinal study of 574 Norwegian adults who survived the Southeast Asian tsunami in 2004 was undertaken. Multilevel analyses were used to identify which factors at six months post-tsunami predicted quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms two years post-tsunami. Results Good quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms were negatively related. However, major differences in the predictors of these outcomes were found. Females reported significantly higher quality of life and more posttraumatic stress than men. The association between level of exposure to the tsunami and quality of life seemed to be mediated by posttraumatic stress. Negative perceived changes in the assumption “the world is just” were related to adverse outcome in both quality of life and posttraumatic stress. Positive perceived changes in the assumptions “life is meaningful” and “feeling that I am a valuable human” were associated with higher levels of quality of life but not with posttraumatic stress. Conclusions Quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms demonstrate differences in their etiology. World assumptions may be less specifically related to posttraumatic stress than has been postulated in some cognitive theories. PMID:22742447

  11. Acute and Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in the Emergence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A; Creamer, Mark; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Forbes, David; McFarlane, Alexander C; Silove, Derrick; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan

    2017-02-01

    Little is understood about how the symptoms of posttraumatic stress develop over time into the syndrome of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To use a network analysis approach to identify the nature of the association between PTSD symptoms in the acute phase after trauma and the chronic phase. A prospective cohort study enrolled 1138 patients recently admitted with traumatic injury to 1 of 4 major trauma hospitals across Australia from March 13, 2004, to February 26, 2006. Participants underwent assessment during hospital admission (n = 1388) and at 12 months after injury (n = 852). Networks of symptom associations were analyzed in the acute and chronic phases using partial correlations, relative importance estimates, and centrality measures of each symptom in terms of its association strengths, closeness to other symptoms, and importance in connecting other symptoms to each other. Data were analyzed from March 3 to September 5, 2016. Severity of PTSD was assessed at each assessment with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Of the 1138 patients undergoing assessment at admission (837 men [73.6%] and 301 women [26.4%]; mean [SD] age, 37.90 [13.62] years), strong connections were found in the acute phase. Reexperiencing symptoms were central to other symptoms in the acute phase, with intrusions and physiological reactivity among the most central symptoms in the networks in terms of the extent to which they occur between other symptoms (mean [SD], 1.2 [0.7] and 1.0 [0.9], respectively), closeness to other symptoms (mean [SD], 0.9 [0.3] and 1.1 [0.9], respectively), and strength of the associations (mean [SD], 1.6 [0.3] and 1.5 [0.3] respectively) among flashbacks, intrusions, and avoidance of thoughts, with moderately strong connections between intrusions and nightmares, being upset by reminders, and physiological reactivity. Intrusions and physiological reactivity were central in the acute phase. Among the 852 patients (73.6%) who completed the 12-month

  12. The Relationship between Posttraumatic and Depressive Symptoms during Prolonged Exposure with and without Cognitive Restructuring for the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderka, Idan M.; Gillihan, Seth J.; McLean, Carmen P.; Foa, Edna B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In the present study, we examined the relationship between posttraumatic and depressive symptoms during prolonged exposure (PE) treatment with and without cognitive restructuring (CR) for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Female assault survivors (N = 153) with PTSD were randomized to either PE alone or PE…

  13. ASSET guidelines. Revised 1991 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The present publication is an updated version of the IAEA Assessment of Safety Significant Events Team (ASSET) Guidelines, IAEA-TECDOC-573, published in 1990. Sections 5 and 6 include revised definitions and investigation guidelines for identification of both direct and root causes. These revisions were recommended by a Consultants Meeting held in Vienna on 3-7 December 1990. This guidance is not intended to infringe an expert's prerogative to investigate additional items. Its main purpose is to provide a basic structure and ensure consistency in the assessments. Use of the ASSET guidelines should also facilitate comparison between the observations made in different nuclear power plants and harmonize the reporting of generic ASSET results. The guidelines should always be used with a critical attitude and a view to possible improvements

  14. Trust Revision for Conflicting Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    strategy is to first revise a priori trust assignments as a function of the degree of conflict, before the evidence is fused. This paper focuses on the...practical trust transitivity seems to be idiosyncratic for humans and animals, with no true analogue among non- living forms (and in the physical world ...visiting a foreign country Alice is looking for a restaurant where the locals go, because she would like to avoid places overrun by tourists. She meets a

  15. Clean Air Act. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. This Reference Book has been completely revised and is current through February 15, 1994.

  16. Validation of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised for adolescents experiencing the floods and mudslides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Sheng Chen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to validate the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R for adolescents who had experienced the floods and mudslides caused by Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan. The internal consistency, construct validity, and criteria validity of the instrument were examined. Principal component analysis followed by an oblique rotation was used to derive a three-factor solution. These factors were labeled intrusion, hyperarousal, and avoidance; all three factors together accounted for 58.1% of the variance. The total Cronbach’s alpha of 0.94 reflected the good internal consistency of the instrument. With reference to diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder, the IES-R cutoff point for posttraumatic stress disorder was 19 of 20 with a sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 84.1%. In conclusion, the IES-R can be used as a reliable and valid instrument when evaluating psychological distress among adolescents who have experienced a natural disaster, such as flooding and mudslides.

  17. Revised dietary guidelines for Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young Ai; Lee, Haeng Shin; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Hae Jeung; Moon, Jae Jin; Kim, Cho-il

    2008-01-01

    With rapidly changing dietary environment, dietary guidelines for Koreans were revised and relevant action guides were developed. First, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was established with experts and government officials from the fields of nutrition, preventive medicine, health promotion, agriculture, education and environment. The Committee set dietary goals for Koreans aiming for a better nutrition state of all after a thorough review and analysis of recent information related to nutritional status and/or problems of Korean population, changes in food production/supply, disease pattern, health policy and agricultural policy. Then, the revised dietary guidelines were proposed to accomplish these goals in addition to 6 different sets of dietary action guides to accommodate specific nutrition and health problems of respective age groups. Subsequently, these guidelines and guides were subjected to the focus group review, consumer perception surveys, and a public hearing for general and professional comments. Lastly, the language was clarified in terms of public understanding and phraseology. The revised Dietary guidelines for Koreans are as follows: eat a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat, poultry and dairy products; choose salt-preserved foods less, and use less salt when you prepare foods; increase physical activity for a healthy weight, and balance what you eat with your activity; enjoy every meal, and do not skip breakfast; if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation; prepare foods properly, and order sensible amounts; enjoy our rice-based diet.

  18. Post-Traumatic Cognition Mediates the Relationship between a History of Sexual Abuse and the Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Sexual Assault Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyoung Min; Chung, Young Ki; Shin, Yee Jin; Kim, Miran; Kim, Nam Hee; Kim, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Hanbyul; Chang, Hyoung Yoon

    2017-10-01

    More than half of all sexual assault victims report experiencing sexual victimization more than once. The aim of this paper was to determine the role post-traumatic cognition plays in the relationship between a history of sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress symptoms in sexual assault victims. The relationship between a history of sexual assault and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms was investigated retrospectively using data from a sexual assault crisis center in Korea. Data on psychological symptoms were collected in person at the initial assessment and by telephone 1 month later using the Post-traumatic Cognitions Inventory and the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Scale: Self-report Version. Of 105 women included in the analysis, 10 (9.5%) reported prior sexual abuse and were classified as sexually revictimized. Revictimized women had more post-traumatic negative cognition at initial assessment (t = -2.98; P = 0.004) and more post-traumatic symptoms at 1 month follow-up (t = -2.39; P = 0.019) than singly victimized women. At 1 month follow-up, the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms had increased in revictimized women but had decreased slightly in singly victimized women. Negative post-traumatic cognition fully mediated the association between a history of sexual abuse and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Early detection of sexually revictimized women and tailored service and treatment intervention is needed to better serve this group of victims. Interventions targeted at preventing revictimization or post crime victimization may also help victims recover from the trauma and prevent future abuse. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  19. Post-Traumatic Cognition Mediates the Relationship between a History of Sexual Abuse and the Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Sexual Assault Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    More than half of all sexual assault victims report experiencing sexual victimization more than once. The aim of this paper was to determine the role post-traumatic cognition plays in the relationship between a history of sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress symptoms in sexual assault victims. The relationship between a history of sexual assault and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms was investigated retrospectively using data from a sexual assault crisis center in Korea. Data on psychological symptoms were collected in person at the initial assessment and by telephone 1 month later using the Post-traumatic Cognitions Inventory and the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Scale: Self-report Version. Of 105 women included in the analysis, 10 (9.5%) reported prior sexual abuse and were classified as sexually revictimized. Revictimized women had more post-traumatic negative cognition at initial assessment (t = −2.98; P = 0.004) and more post-traumatic symptoms at 1 month follow-up (t = −2.39; P = 0.019) than singly victimized women. At 1 month follow-up, the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms had increased in revictimized women but had decreased slightly in singly victimized women. Negative post-traumatic cognition fully mediated the association between a history of sexual abuse and the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Early detection of sexually revictimized women and tailored service and treatment intervention is needed to better serve this group of victims. Interventions targeted at preventing revictimization or post crime victimization may also help victims recover from the trauma and prevent future abuse. PMID:28875614

  20. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms may explain poor mental health in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Loren L; Whipple, Mary O; Vincent, Ann

    2017-05-01

    Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder are common in fibromyalgia patients. This study compared post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls and determined whether patient-control differences in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms mediated differences in mental health. In all, 30 patients and 30 healthy controls completed questionnaires assessing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health. Fibromyalgia patients had greater symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health than controls. Patient-control differences in mental health symptoms were fully or partially mediated by differences in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Healthcare providers should understand the role of trauma as management of trauma symptoms may be one strategy for improving mental health.

  1. Examining Links between Post-Traumatic Stress and Gambling Motives: The Role of Positive Gambling Expectancies

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Ian; Grubbs, Joshua; Bradley, David; Chapman, Heather; Milner, Lauren

    2018-01-01

    Problem gambling and gambling disorder are associated with a range of mental health concerns that extend beyond gambling behaviors alone. Prior works have consistently linked gambling disorder with symptoms of post-traumatic stress and post-traumatic stress disorder, both cross-sectionally and over time. However, very little work has examined the specific relationships between these two disorders. The present work postulated that post-traumatic stress is likely associated with unique beliefs ...

  2. Brain structure in post-traumatic stress disorder: A voxel-based morphometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liwen; Zhang, Li; Qi, Rongfeng; Lu, Guangming; Li, Lingjiang; Liu, Jun; Li, Weihui

    2013-09-15

    This study compared the difference in brain structure in 12 mine disaster survivors with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder, 7 cases of improved post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and 14 controls who experienced the same mine disaster but did not suffer post-traumatic stress disorder, using the voxel-based morphometry method. The correlation between differences in brain structure and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms was also investigated. Results showed that the gray matter volume was the highest in the trauma control group, followed by the symptoms-improved group, and the lowest in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the symptoms-improved group, the gray matter volume in the lingual gyrus of the right occipital lobe was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the right middle occipital gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus was reduced in the symptoms-improved group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule and right superior frontal gyrus was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. The gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule was significantly positively correlated with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory subscale score in the symptoms-improved group and chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group (r = 0.477, P = 0.039). Our findings indicate that (1) chronic post-traumatic stress disorder patients have gray matter structural damage in the prefrontal lobe, occipital lobe, and parietal lobe, (2) after post-traumatic stress, the disorder symptoms are improved and gray matter structural damage is reduced, but cannot recover to the trauma-control level, and (3) the superior parietal lobule is possibly associated with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-traumatic stress disorder patients exhibit gray matter abnormalities.

  3. Brain structure in post-traumatic stress disorder: A voxel-based morphometry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liwen; Zhang, Li; Qi, Rongfeng; Lu, Guangming; Li, Lingjiang; Liu, Jun; Li, Weihui

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the difference in brain structure in 12 mine disaster survivors with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder, 7 cases of improved post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and 14 controls who experienced the same mine disaster but did not suffer post-traumatic stress disorder, using the voxel-based morphometry method. The correlation between differences in brain structure and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms was also investigated. Results showed that the gray matter volume was the highest in the trauma control group, followed by the symptoms-improved group, and the lowest in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the symptoms-improved group, the gray matter volume in the lingual gyrus of the right occipital lobe was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the right middle occipital gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus was reduced in the symptoms-improved group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule and right superior frontal gyrus was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. The gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule was significantly positively correlated with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory subscale score in the symptoms-improved group and chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group (r = 0.477, P = 0.039). Our findings indicate that (1) chronic post-traumatic stress disorder patients have gray matter structural damage in the prefrontal lobe, occipital lobe, and parietal lobe, (2) after post-traumatic stress, the disorder symptoms are improved and gray matter structural damage is reduced, but cannot recover to the trauma-control level, and (3) the superior parietal lobule is possibly associated with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-traumatic stress disorder patients exhibit gray matter abnormalities. PMID:25206550

  4. The Role of Trauma-Specific Irrational Beliefs and Sociodemographic Risk Factors in Posttraumatic Stress Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Boduszek, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress responses have been linked to a range of social-cognitive and sociodemographic factors. Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy suggests that responding to a traumatic life event with a set of irrational beliefs should play a crucial role in predicting the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD: Ellis, 2001). The current study assessed the role of trauma-specific irrational beliefs in the prediction of clinically relevant posttraumatic stress responses, while contr...

  5. Preliminary Evidence for a Unique Role of Disgust-Based Conditioning in Posttraumatic Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Badour, Christal L.; Feldner, Matthew T.; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Knapp, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Independent lines of evidence have linked posttraumatic stress symptomatology to both peritraumatic disgust (i.e., disgust experienced during a traumatic event) and posttraumatic disgust reactivity in response to traumatic event cues among individuals exposed to traumatic events. Much of this work suggests disgust, defined as a rejection/revulsion response aimed at distancing oneself from a potential source of contamination, may be important in understanding the nature of posttraumatic stress...

  6. Percutaneous closure of a post-traumatic ventricular septal defect with a patent ductus arteriosus occluder

    OpenAIRE

    Xi, Er-Ping; Zhu, Jian; Zhu, Shui-Bo; Yin, Gui-Lin; Liu, Yong; Dong, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Yu; Xia, Feng

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ventricular septal defects resulting from post-traumatic cardiac injury are very rare. Percutaneous closure has emerged as a method for treating this disorder. We wish to report our experience in three patients who underwent percutaneous closure of a post-traumatic ventricular septal defect with a patent ductus arteriosus occluder. METHODS: We treated three patients with post-traumatic ventricular septal defects caused by stab wounds with knives. After the heart wound was repaired,...

  7. Bone growth into a revised porous-coated patellar implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L N; Lund, B; Gotfredsen, K

    1990-01-01

    A noncemented and clinically stable porous-coated patellar component (PCA) was removed from a patient after 11 months because of infection. It was sectioned and examined histologically in undecalcified, thin-ground sections. The bone ingrowth into the porous space was measured at eight levels. Ea...

  8. Post-Traumatic Narcolepsy Associated with Thalamic/Hypothalamic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikyoung Yi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus is an important structure that regulates sleep via hypocretin neurotransmission. Central nervous system disorders such as tumors and vascular legions involving the hypothalamus can cause secondary narcolepsy. In addition, brain trauma can contribute to post-traumatic narcolepsy despite lack of any definite brain lesion. Here, we present a case of a 37-year-old man suffering from a hypothalamus-to-thalamus hemorrhage after a traffic accident. After this trauma, he suffered from excessive daytime sleepiness and was diagnosed with post-traumatic narcolepsy by polysomnography and multiple sleep latency tests. He was positive for human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DQB1*03:01 and HLA-DQB1*06:01 antigens.

  9. Autobiographical memory functions and posttraumatic stress symptoms across adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Watson, Lynn Ann; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2018-01-01

    . In this study, we examined the unique relationship between autobiographical memory functions and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and whether such relationships varied with age across adulthood. A representative sample of 1040 adult Danes (20–70 years old) reported the frequency with which they recall......Previous research has documented robust individual differences in the functions served by autobiographical memories, and shown that different autobiographical memory functions are related to both positive and negative indicators of psychological well-being, and that their frequency varies with age...... autobiographical memories for different purposes as well as their level of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Higher reflective and ruminative functions, as well as lower social function, predicted higher levels of PTSS. There were no moderating effects of age. The results suggest that although...

  10. Functional Neuro-Imaging and Post-Traumatic Olfactory Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Richard J.; Sheehan, William; Thurber, Steven; Roberts, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate via a research literature survey the anterior neurological significance of decreased olfactory functioning following traumatic brain injuries. Materials and Methods: A computer literature review was performed to locate all functional neuro-imaging studies on patients with post-traumatic anosmia and other olfactory deficits. Results: A convergence of findings from nine functional neuro-imaging studies indicating evidence for reduced metabolic activity at rest or relative hypo-perfusion during olfactory activations. Hypo-activation of the prefrontal regions was apparent in all nine post-traumatic samples, with three samples yielding evidence of reduced activity in the temporal regions as well. Conclusions: The practical ramifications include the reasonable hypothesis that a total anosmic head trauma patient likely has frontal lobe involvement. PMID:21716782

  11. Surgical treatment of gross posttraumatic deformations in thoracic spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei E. Shul’ga

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rigid severe post-traumatic thoracic spine deformities result from frequent, recent high-energy trauma in children with an increasing frequency due to a variety of reasons. These types of injuries are commonly followed by spinal cord anatomic injury; therefore, the treatment of these patients warrants special attention from the ethical viewpoint. Generally, the only indication for surgical intervention is spinal dysfunction. Considering this and the patients’ ordinary severe somatic state, surgical trauma should be minimized as much as possible. However, for adequate deformity correction, effective spine stabilization and restoration of liquorodynamics is necessary. Recent studies have reported the successful use of different methods of dorsal interventions (P/VCR in cases with unstable damages in children. Here, we present the case of a 15-year-old boy who underwent surgical treatment for coarse post-traumatic thoracic spine deformity with chronic fracture-dislocation of Th7 vertebra.

  12. [Anastomotic urethroplasty in posttraumatic strictures of bulbomembraneous urethra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhivov, A V; Loran, O B; Bogdanov, A B; Kotov, S V; Makedonskaia, T P; Plekhanov, A Iu

    2010-01-01

    Efficacy of surgical treatment of patients with strictures of the bulbomembraneous portion of the urethra by R. Turner-Warwick in G. Webster modification was studied in 30 patients operated in 2008-2009. Efficacy of the operation was assessed by uroflowmetry and urethrography findings. Follow-up covered 3 to 20 months (median 10 months). Posttraumatic urethral strictures arose after car accident in 89% cases. Mean length of the destruction defect was 2.7 cm (1.5-5.5 cm). Efficacy of surgical treatment reached 96.7%. Erectile dysfunction due to the operation developed in 2 of 23 (8.6%) patients. Thus, urethroplasty by Turner-Warwick in Webster modification is effective and safe in the treatment of posttraumatic strictures of the posterior urethra and can be used widely in specialized centers for urethral surgery.

  13. Post-traumatic stress disorder in intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiuby, Andrea Vannini Santesso; Andreoli, Paola Bruno de Araújo; Andreoli, Sergio Baxter

    2010-03-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder has been detected in patients after treatment in intensive care unit. The main goal of this study is to review the psychological aspects and therapeutic interventions on those patients after their treatment on intensive care unit. Thirty eight articles have been included. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder has varied from 17% up to 30% and the incidence from 14% to 24%. The risk factors were: previous anxiety historic, depression or panic, having delusional traumatic memories (derived from psychic formations as dreams and delirium), belief effects, depressive behavior, stressing experiences and mechanical ventilation. High doses of opiates, symptoms caused by sedation or analgesia reduction and the use of lorazepam were related with the increase of delirium and delusional memory. The disorder sintomatology can be reduced with hydrocortisone administration, with daily sedation interruption. No other effectiveness psychological intervention study was found.

  14. Emergence of Transdiagnostic Treatments for PTSD and Posttraumatic Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutner, Cassidy A; Galovski, Tara; Bovin, Michelle J; Schnurr, Paula P

    2016-10-01

    Both theoretical and empirical findings have demonstrated similarities across diagnoses, leading to a growing interest in transdiagnostic interventions. Most of the evidence supporting transdiagnostic treatment has accumulated for depression, anxiety, and eating disorders, with minimal attention given to posttraumatic stress disorder and other reactions to traumatic stressors. Although single-diagnosis protocols are effective for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other trauma-related disorders, in principle, transdiagnostic approaches may have beneficial applications within a traumatized population. This paper defines different types of transdiagnostic treatments, reviews transdiagnostic approaches used in related disorders, and discusses their applicability to PTSD. Examples are drawn from existing transdiagnostic treatments in order to provide a framework for the application of such interventions to the field of traumatic stress. Implications for implementation and dissemination are also discussed.

  15. Diagnosing and treating post-traumatic stress disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Cæcilie Böck; Andersen, Henrik Steen

    2017-01-01

    The post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis has undergone large developments. With the changes in DSM-5 and the proposed changes in ICD-11, the two systems move in different directions. Treatment for PTSD is developing, but the evidence for the effect is lacking behind. Trauma-focused cog......-focused cognitive behavioural therapy and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing remain first choice. Pharmacotherapy is secondary. There is evidence for the effect of paroxetine, venlafaxine and fluoxetine and less so for sertraline....

  16. Posttraumatic stress disorder: a serious post-earthquake complication

    OpenAIRE

    Farooqui, Mudassir; Quadri, Syed A.; Suriya, Sajid S.; Khan, Muhammad Adnan; Ovais, Muhammad; Sohail, Zohaib; Shoaib, Samra; Tohid, Hassaan; Hassan, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Earthquakes are unpredictable and devastating natural disasters. They can cause massive destruction and loss of life and survivors may suffer psychological symptoms of severe intensity. Our goal in this article is to review studies published in the last 20 years to compile what is known about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurring after earthquakes. The review also describes other psychiatric complications that can be associated with earthquakes, to provide reader...

  17. Chronic post-traumatic headache after mild head injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldgaard, Dorte; Forchhammer, Hysse; Teasdale, Tom

    2014-01-01

    to or above the cut-off score for having post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) according to the HTQ. In terms of demographics and headache, the groups were comparable except the CPTH group were more often without affiliation to the labour market ( P work capacity and high...... ( P role function ( P = 0.012) and social function ( P = 0.012) than the control group. Surprisingly, 31% of the CPTH group had a score equal...

  18. Information Processing Bias in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Darren L

    2008-01-01

    This review considers theory and evidence for abnormal information processing in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cognitive studies have indicated sensitivity in PTSD for traumatic information, more so than general emotional information. These findings were supported by neuroimaging studies that identify increased brain activity during traumatic cognition, especially in affective networks (including the amygdala, orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex). In theory, it is proposed th...

  19. Posttraumatic stress disorder related to postpartum haemorrhage: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaat, Tjitske R; van Steijn, Minouk E; de Haan-Jebbink, Jiska M; Olff, Miranda; Stramrood, Claire A I; van Pampus, Mariëlle G

    2018-06-01

    In some cases childbirth leads to negative psychological responses such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a common and major complication of childbirth, which occasionally requires emergency hysterectomy in severe cases. Patients often describe these complications as a traumatic experience. It is unknown whether PPH is a risk factor for developing PTSD. In this systematic review we summarize the current knowledge about the association between PPH with or without emergency hysterectomy and posttraumatic stress symptoms or PTSD. If PPH is a risk factor for PTSD, this will allow adequate preventive measures with the aim to reduce the long-term effects and socioeconomic problems associated with PTSD. To conduct this review MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Library and PsycINFO databases were searched for publications between January 1986 and October 2017. Manuscripts evaluating the association between PPH and peripartum emergency hysterectomy and PTSD or posttraumatic stress symptoms were included. Fifty-two articles met the criteria for full-text review. Seven articles were included in this review. Five studies focused on the association between PPH and PTSD and two studies evaluated the association between emergency hysterectomy and PTSD. Three studies found no association between PPH and PTSD. Two studies reported a higher risk of developing PTSD or posttraumatic stress symptoms after PPH. Two studies reported a higher risk of developing PTSD after emergency hysterectomy. Meta-analysis was not possible due to the heterogeneity of these studies. Based on the results of these studies there may be an association between PPH and PTSD. Secondly, it seems likely that an association exists between emergency postpartum hysterectomy and PTSD, but the strength of this conclusion is limited by the small amount of studies included. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B

  20. Prevention of the Post-traumatic Fibrotic Response in Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The American journal of forensic medicine and pathology . 1988; 9(4):310-2. 14 APPENDICES: An abstract submitted for the ORS conference...clinical problem of posttraumatic joint stiffness, a pathology that reduces the range of motion (ROM) of injured joints and contributes to the...development of osteoarthritis. The fundamental hypothesis that drives the current study is that pathological fibrotic response of injured joint tissues

  1. Cognitive processes in post-traumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırımlı, Gamze; Tosun, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) consists of a pattern of symptoms that include cognitive, affective, sensory and behavioral systems. In PTSD, the individual experiences disturbing emotions and sensations such as anxiety, panic, depression, anger, tension, high startle response and hyper-vigilance as a result of re-experiencing traumatic memories, flashbacks, attention difficulties, memory loss, nightmares and intrusive thoughts. To get rid of these emotions, he avoids all stimuli that r...

  2. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder after Vaginal Delivery at Primiparous Women

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Milosavljevic; Dusica Lecic Tosevski; Ivan Soldatovic; Olivera Vukovic; Cedo Miljevic; Amir Peljto; Milutin Kostic; Miranda Olff

    2016-01-01

    Although severe gynaecological pathology during delivery and negative outcome have been shown to be related with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) little is known about traumatic experiences following regular delivery, at the expected time and with a healthy child. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of PTSD during postpartum period after vaginal delivery and its risk factors. The sample included 126 primiparous women. Monthly, for the next three months, the women we...

  3. No role for benzodiazepines in posttraumatic stress disorder? A surplus of certainty despite scarce evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcevic, Vladan

    2017-08-01

    This article addresses some of the controversies about the role of benzodiazepines in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Benzodiazepines have been admonished in treatment guidelines for posttraumatic stress disorder, but this is based on very little solid evidence. Although benzodiazepines do not seem to be effective in the treatment of the core posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, their careful use as adjunctive agents for the symptoms such as anxiety and sleep disturbance may be useful. Future research needs to identify predictors of improved treatment outcomes in posttraumatic stress disorder with use of benzodiazepines.

  4. Traumatic exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder among flood victims: Testing a multiple mediating model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Lijuan; Zhen, Rui; Yao, Benxian; Zhou, Xiao

    2017-05-01

    A total of 187 flood victims from Wuhu, a Chinese city affected most severely by a flood during July 2016, were selected to complete self-report measures of traumatic exposure, feelings of safety, fear, posttraumatic negative cognition, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The results found that traumatic exposure could directly predict posttraumatic stress disorder. Besides, traumatic exposure had indirect prediction on posttraumatic stress disorder through three ways, including a one-step path of negative self-cognition, a two-step path from feelings of safety to fear, and a three-step path from feelings of safety to negative self-cognition via fear. Implications and future directions are correspondingly discussed.

  5. Post-traumatic stress disorder: medicine and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Seedat, Soraya; Iversen, Amy; Wessely, Simon

    2007-01-13

    Regrettably, exposure to trauma is common worldwide, and can have serious adverse psychological results. The introduction of the notion of post-traumatic stress disorder has led to increasing medicalisation of the problem. This awareness has helped popular acceptance of the reality of post-traumatic psychiatric sequelae, which has boosted research into the pathogenesis of the disorder, leading to improved pharmacological and psychological management. The subjective experience of trauma and subsequent expression of symptoms vary considerably over space and time, and we emphasise that not all psychological distress or psychiatric disorders after trauma should be termed post-traumatic stress disorder. There are limits to the medicalisation of distress and there is value in focusing on adaptive coping during and after traumas. Striking a balance between a focus on heroism and resilience versus victimhood and pathological change is a crucial and constant issue after trauma for both clinicians and society. In this Review we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of medicalising trauma response, using examples from South Africa, the Armed Services, and post-disaster, to draw attention to our argument.

  6. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress among women requesting induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin Lundell, Inger; Sundström Poromaa, Inger; Frans, Orjan; Helström, Lotti; Högberg, Ulf; Moby, Lena; Nyberg, Sigrid; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Georgsson Öhman, Susanne; Östlund, Ingrid; Skoog Svanberg, Agneta

    2013-12-01

    To describe the prevalence and pattern of traumatic experiences, to assess the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), to identify risk factors for PTSD and PTSS, and to analyse the association of PTSD and PTSS with concomitant anxiety and depressive symptoms in women requesting induced abortion. A Swedish multi-centre study of women requesting an induced abortion. The Screen Questionnaire - Posttraumatic Stress Disorder was used for research diagnoses of PTSD and PTSS. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Of the 1514 respondents, almost half reported traumatic experiences. Lifetime- and point prevalence of PTSD were 7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.8-8.5) and 4% (95% CI: 3.1-5.2), respectively. The prevalence of PTSS was 23% (95% CI: 21.1-25.4). Women who reported symptoms of anxiety or depression when requesting abortion were more likely to have ongoing PTSD or PTSS. Also single-living women and smokers displayed higher rates of ongoing PTSD. Although PTSD is rare among women who request an induced abortion, a relatively high proportion suffers from PTSS. Abortion seeking women with trauma experiences and existing or preexisting mental disorders need more consideration and alertness when counselled for termination.

  7. Facilitating post traumatic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Helen

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst negative responses to traumatic injury have been well documented in the literature, there is a small but growing body of work that identifies posttraumatic growth as a salient feature of this experience. We contribute to this discourse by reporting on the experiences of 13 individuals who were traumatically injured, had undergone extensive rehabilitation and were discharged from formal care. All participants were injured through involvement in a motor vehicle accident, with the exception of one, who was injured through falling off the roof of a house. Methods In this qualitative study, we used an audio-taped in-depth interview with each participant as the means of data collection. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically to determine the participants' unique perspectives on the experience of recovery from traumatic injury. In reporting the findings, all participants' were given a pseudonym to assure their anonymity. Results Most participants indicated that their involvement in a traumatic occurrence was a springboard for growth that enabled them to develop new perspectives on life and living. Conclusion There are a number of contributions that health providers may make to the recovery of individuals who have been traumatically injured to assist them to develop new views of vulnerability and strength, make changes in relationships, and facilitate philosophical, physical and spiritual growth.

  8. Trajectories of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) after major war among Palestinian children: Trauma, family- and child-related predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Palosaari, Esa; Diab, Marwan; Peltonen, Kirsi; Qouta, Samir R

    2015-02-01

    Research shows great individual variation in changes in posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs) after major traumas of terrorist attacks, military combat, and natural disasters. Earlier studies have identified specific mental health trajectories both in children and adults. This study aimed, first, to identify potential PTSS-related trajectories by using latent class growth analyses among children in a three-wave assessment after the 2008/2009 War on Gaza, Palestine. Second, it analyzed how family- and child related factors (e.g., attachment relations, posttraumatic cognitions (PTCs), guilt, and emotion regulation) associate with the trajectory class membership. The sample consisted of 240 Palestinian children (49.4% girls and 50.6% boys) of 10-13 years of age (M=11.29, SD=0.68), who completed PTSS (CRIES) assessments at 3 (T1), 5 (T2), and 11 (T3) months after the war. Children reported their personal exposure to war trauma, attachment style, cognitive trauma processing, and emotion regulation, and their parents reported family war trauma exposure and attachment style. Results revealed a three-trajectory solution, a majority of children belonging to the Recovery trajectory (n=183), and a minority belonged either to Resistant trajectory (n=29) or to Increasing symptoms trajectory (n=28). Low levels of negative posttraumatic cognitive appraisals, feelings of guilt and emotion regulation were characteristic of children in the Resistant trajectory as compared to Increasing symptoms trajectory. Father׳s attachment security was further associated with the Resistant trajectory membership. Children׳s attachment avoidance and high parental trauma were typical to children in Recovery trajectory (as compared to the Increasing symptoms trajectory). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of posttraumatic stress symptoms, posttraumatic stress cognitions and interpersonal dependency on psychological co-morbidities following relationship dissolution among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Siqi; Chung, Man Cheung; Watson, Clare

    2018-02-13

    Relationship dissolution is a distressing experience which can result in the emergence of posttraumatic stress (i.e. post-dissolution PTSS) and other psychological symptoms among college students. Little is known, however, whether posttraumatic stress cognitions and interpersonal dependency may influence the severity of these distress outcomes. This study examined the interrelationship between posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), posttraumatic stress cognitions, interpersonal dependency and psychological co-morbidities following relationship dissolution. One hundred and eighty college students (M = 69, F = 111) who had experienced relationship dissolution completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, Posttraumatic Stress Cognition Inventory, Interpersonal Dependency Inventory and General Health Questionnaire-28. Posttraumatic stress symptoms following relationship dissolution (post-dissolution PTSS) were associated with increased psychological co-morbidities. Negative view of oneself and self-blame mediated between PTSS and psychological co-morbidities. Assertion of autonomy moderated the mediational effects of negative cognitions on psychological co-morbidities. People can develop PTSSs and other psychological symptoms following the dissolution of a romantic relationship. Their concept of self and tendency to seek independence and control played a key role in determining the severity of distress symptoms.

  10. Re-visions of rationality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Ben R

    2005-01-01

    The appeal of simple algorithms that take account of both the constraints of human cognitive capacity and the structure of environments has been an enduring theme in cognitive science. A novel version of such a boundedly rational perspective views the mind as containing an 'adaptive toolbox' of specialized cognitive heuristics suited to different problems. Although intuitively appealing, when this version was proposed, empirical evidence for the use of such heuristics was scant. I argue that in the light of empirical studies carried out since then, it is time this 'vision of rationality' was revised. An alternative view based on integrative models rather than collections of heuristics is proposed.

  11. Revised hypothesis and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norsk, P; Drummer, C; Christensen, N J

    2001-01-01

    Results from space have been unexpected and not predictable from the results of ground-based simulations. Therefore, the concept of how weightlessness and gravity modulates the regulation of body fluids must be revised and a new simulation model developed. The main questions to ask in the future...... are the following: Does weightlessness induce a diuresis and natriuresis during the initial hours of space flight leading to an extracellular and intravascular fluid volume deficit? Can sodium in excess be stored in a hitherto unknown way, particularly during space flight? Why are fluid and sodium retaining systems...

  12. A taxonomic revision of the genus Podocarpus

    OpenAIRE

    Laubenfels, de, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    In connection with the forthcoming revision of the Coniferae for the Flora Malesiana, the author thought it necessary to revise the genus Podocarpus. Although this genus has a substantial representation in Malesia (30 species), the revision is too involved to be appropriate with the Flora Malesiana per se. One new subgenus and 17 new sections are described, and 94 species are enumerated, of which 11 species and 1 variety are described as new, and 3 varieties have been raised to specific rank....

  13. A critical review of the literature on early rehabilitation of patients with post-traumatic amnesia in acute care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhorn, Leanne; Sorensen, Jens C; Pedersen, Preben U

    2010-01-01

    A critical review of the literature on early rehabilitation of patients with post-traumatic amnesia in acute care......A critical review of the literature on early rehabilitation of patients with post-traumatic amnesia in acute care...

  14. Post-traumatic psychiatric disorders: PTSD is not the only diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxéméry, Yann

    2018-05-01

    Traumatic events and their consequences are often hidden or minimised by patients for reasons linked to the post-traumatic stress disorder itself (inexpressibility, shame, depressive thoughts, fear of stigmatisation, etc.). Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains the most widely known disorder, chronic post-traumatic psychiatric disorders are many and varied. After a trauma, the practitioner has to check for the different clinical forms of post-traumatic psychological consequences: PTSD is not the only diagnosis. Based on our own clinical experience compared to the international literature, we think necessary to build a didactic classification describing chronic post-traumatic symptoms and syndromes. Post traumatic depressions and bereavement lead to high risk of suicidal crisis and self-harm behaviours. Re-experiencing are felt with anxiety, hyper arousal increases anxious reactivity, and avoidance strategies increase anticipatory anxiety, indicating post-traumatic anxiety disorders (agoraphobia, specific phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, separation anxiety, social phobia). Characterising an often-severe clinical picture, the co-occurrence of post-traumatic and chronic psychotic symptoms is not unusual (post-traumatic schizophrenia, post-traumatic depression with mood-congruent psychotic features, non-schizophrenic post-traumatic psychotic disorder, and bipolar reaction to trauma). A physical injury occurring at the same time as a traumatic exposure increases the risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder later which, in turn, afflicts the subjective perception of the physical health (development of somatoform and psychosomatic disorders, comorbidity with a post-concussion syndrome). The trauma may cause a rupture in the biography of a person, also in his/her internal physiological functioning as in his/her social activities (impacts of instinctive functions and behaviours, personality changes, and adjustment difficulties on professional

  15. Effect of plant growth regulators on production of alpha-linolenic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sujana Kokkiligadda

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... MS received 13 October 2016; revised 22 March 2017; accepted 30 May 2017; ... Plant growth regulators; microalgae; Chlorella pyrenoidosa; alpha-linolenic acid. 1. ... the growth period by flocculation method [9] using alum.

  16. THE FRENCH REGULATION SCHOOL: A CRITICAL REVISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia, Gajst

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The French regulation school sets out to carry out an analysis of Capitalism and its transformations, with the purpose of understanding the periods of stable growth and the moments of structural change. The object of this paper consists of carrying out a critical revision of the contributions of this school, concentrating on the conceptual framework that it has developed. For this, in the first place the influences that marked the regulation approach will be reviewed, with special attention on its recovery from the Marxist tradition. Secondly, the ontological and methodological differences between the regulation approach and the neoclassic economy theory will be highlighted. Thirdly, the fundamental concepts of the regulation school will be examined. In fourth place, it will be seen how, from these concepts, the crisis at the beginning of the 1970s was interpreted. In fifth place, how the regulation approach is thought as to the relation between economy and policy. In sixth place, the question of the international dimension will be examined. Finally, the main objections that have been presented to the regulation approach, will be shown and will be evaluated critically.

  17. Executive Dysfunctions: The role in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity and Post-traumatic Stress neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lía Martínez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Executive functions (EFs is an umbrella term for various cognitive processes controlled by a complex neural activity, which allow the production of different types of behaviors seeking to achieve specific objectives, one of them being inhibitory control. There is a wide consensus that clinical and behavioral alterations associated with EF, such as inhibitory control, are present in various neuropsychiatric disorders. This paper reviews the research literature on the relationship between executive dysfunction, frontal-subcortical neural circuit changes, and the psychopathological processes associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. A revision on the role of frontal-subcortical neural circuits and their presumable abnormal functioning and the high frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms could explain the difficulties with putting effector mechanisms into action, giving individuals the necessary tools to act efficiently in their environment. Although neuronal substrate data about ADHD and PTSD has been reported in the literature, it is isolated. Therefore, this review highlights the overlapping of neural substrates in the symptomatology of ADHD and PTSD disorders concerning EFs, especially in the inhibitory component. Thus, the changes related to impaired EF that accompany disorders like ADHD and PTSD could be explained by disturbances that have a direct or indirect impact on the functioning of these loops. Initially, the theoretical model of EF according to current neuropsychology will be presented, focusing on the inhibitory component. In a second stage, this component will be analyzed for each of the disorders of interest, considering the clinical aspects, the etiology and the neurobiological basis. Additionally, commonalities between the two neuropsychiatric conditions will be taken into consideration from the perspectives of cognitive and emotional inhibition. Finally, the

  18. Haemodialysis for post-traumatic acute renal failure - factors predicting outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machemehl, Thomas; Hsu, Peter; Pahad, Hussein; Williams, Paul; Yilmaz, Tugba H; Vassiliu, Pantelis; Boffard, Kenneth D; Degiannis, Elias; Doll, Dietrich

    2013-07-29

    Post-traumatic acute renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy in an intensive care unit (ICU) is associated with high mortality. To assess indicators of improved survival. This was a retrospective cohort study of 64 consecutive trauma patients (penetrating and blunt trauma and burns) who underwent haemodialysis (HD) over a period of 5 years. Information on pre-hospital and in-hospital resuscitation, trauma scores and physiological scores and daily ICU records were collected. The majority of the patients were dialysed with continuous venovenous haemofiltration in the early years of the study and later with sustained low-efficiency dialysis. Of the 64 patients 47 died, giving an overall mortality rate of 73%. Mortality was highest in the burns patients (84%). Survival in all patients, irrespective of injury, was unrelated to the Revised Trauma Score, Injury Severity Score, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation Score or Trauma Injury Severity Score. The duration of HD did not differ significantly between the three trauma groups, and age was not a significant predictor of survival. Patients who were polyuric at the time of the initiation of HD had a lower mortality rate than those who were oliguric, anuric or normouric, although this did not reach statistical significance (p=0.09). Acute renal failure in trauma patients is associated with a low survival rate. Controversial conclusions have been presented in the literature. In this study, none of the parameters previously reported to affect survival proved to be valid, although the number of patients was comparable with those in other studies. Since understanding of the predictors and course of renal failure in trauma patients is still at an early stage, there is a need for multicentre prospective studies.

  19. Association of life threat and betrayal with posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Lance P; Weathers, Frank W; Mason, Elizabeth A; Pruneau, Genevieve M

    2012-08-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000) emphasizes life threat as the defining feature of psychological trauma. Recent theoretical and empirical work, however, indicates the need to identify and evaluate other key aspects of trauma. Betrayal has been proposed as a pertinent, distinct, and complementary factor that can explain effects of trauma not accounted for by life threat alone. This study examined the relationship between injury, perceived life threat (PLT), and betrayal with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. Trauma-exposed college students (N = 185) completed self-report measures of trauma exposure and PTSD, as well as items regarding life threat, betrayal, and level of medical care received. In hierarchical regressions incorporating injury, PLT, and betrayal, betrayal was associated with all PTSD symptom clusters and PTSD total severity (f(2) = .08), whereas PLT was associated with hyperarousal (f(2) = .05) and PTSD total (f(2) = .03), and injury had no association with PTSD symptoms. In a revised model with trauma type as an additional variable, betrayal was associated with avoidance (f(2) = .03), numbing (f(2) = .04), and PTSD total (f(2) = .03), whereas PLT was associated with reexperiencing (f(2) = .04), hyperarousal (f(2) = .04), and PTSD total (f(2) = .03), and injury was associated with avoidance (f(2) = .03). These findings support the idea that betrayal is a core dimension of psychological trauma that may play an important role in the etiology of PTSD. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  20. ICU versus Non-ICU Hospital Death: Family Member Complicated Grief, Posttraumatic Stress, and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Danielle R; Gustin, Jillian L; Goodman, Lauren F; Lorenz, Amanda; Wells-Di Gregorio, Sharla M

    2016-04-01

    Family members of patients who die in an ICU are at increased risk of psychological sequelae compared to those who experience a death in hospice. This study explored differences in rates and levels of complicated grief (CG), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression between family members of patients who died in an ICU versus a non-ICU hospital setting. Differences in family members' most distressing experiences at the patient's end of life were also explored. The study was an observational cohort. Subjects were next of kin of 121 patients who died at a large, Midwestern academic hospital; 77 died in the ICU. Family members completed measures of CG, PTSD, depression, and end-of-life experiences. Participants were primarily Caucasian (93%, N = 111), female (81%, N = 98), spouses (60%, N = 73) of the decedent, and were an average of nine months post-bereavement. Forty percent of family members met the Inventory of Complicated Grief CG cut-off, 31% met the Impact of Events Scale-Revised PTSD cut-off, and 51% met the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale depression cut-off. There were no significant differences in rates or levels of CG, PTSD, or depressive symptoms reported by family members between hospital settings. Several distressing experiences were ranked highly by both groups, but each setting presented unique distressing experiences for family members. Psychological distress of family members did not differ by hospital setting, but the most distressing experiences encountered at end of life in each setting highlight potentially unique interventions to reduce distress post-bereavement for family members.

  1. Symptoms and subjective quality of life in post-traumatic stress disorder: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Giacco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is associated with substantially reduced subjective quality of life (SQOL. This study aimed to explore whether and how changes in the levels of PTSD symptom clusters of intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal are associated with changes in SQOL. METHODS: Two samples with PTSD following the war in former Yugoslavia were studied, i.e. a representative sample of 530 people in five Balkan countries and a non-representative sample of 215 refugees in three Western European countries. They were assessed on average eight years after the war and re-interviewed one year later. PTSD symptoms were assessed on the Impact of Event Scale - Revised and SQOL on the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life. Linear regression and a two-wave cross lagged panel analysis were used to explore the association between PTSD symptom clusters and SQOL. RESULTS: The findings in the two samples were consistent. Symptom reduction over time was associated with improved SQOL. In multivariable analyses adjusted for the influence of all three clusters, gender and time since war exposure, only changes in hyperarousal symptoms were significantly associated with changes in SQOL. The two-wave cross-lagged panel analysis suggested that the link between hyperarousal symptoms and SQOL is bidirectional. CONCLUSIONS: Low SQOL of patients with war-related PTSD is particularly associated with hyperarousal symptoms. The findings suggest a bidirectional influence: a reduction in hyperarousal symptoms may result in improved SQOL, and improvements in SQOL may lead to reduced hyperarousal symptoms.

  2. Executive Dysfunctions: The Role in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity and Post-traumatic Stress Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Lía; Prada, Edward; Satler, Corina; Tavares, Maria C. H.; Tomaz, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) is an umbrella term for various cognitive processes controlled by a complex neural activity, which allow the production of different types of behaviors seeking to achieve specific objectives, one of them being inhibitory control. There is a wide consensus that clinical and behavioral alterations associated with EF, such as inhibitory control, are present in various neuropsychiatric disorders. This paper reviews the research literature on the relationship between executive dysfunction, frontal-subcortical neural circuit changes, and the psychopathological processes associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A revision on the role of frontal-subcortical neural circuits and their presumable abnormal functioning and the high frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms could explain the difficulties with putting effector mechanisms into action, giving individuals the necessary tools to act efficiently in their environment. Although, neuronal substrate data about ADHD and PTSD has been reported in the literature, it is isolated. Therefore, this review highlights the overlapping of neural substrates in the symptomatology of ADHD and PTSD disorders concerning EFs, especially in the inhibitory component. Thus, the changes related to impaired EF that accompany disorders like ADHD and PTSD could be explained by disturbances that have a direct or indirect impact on the functioning of these loops. Initially, the theoretical model of EF according to current neuropsychology will be presented, focusing on the inhibitory component. In a second stage, this component will be analyzed for each of the disorders of interest, considering the clinical aspects, the etiology and the neurobiological basis. Additionally, commonalities between the two neuropsychiatric conditions will be taken into consideration from the perspectives of cognitive and emotional inhibition. Finally, the implications and future

  3. Revision Total Hip Arthoplasty: Factors Associated with Re-Revision Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Khatod, M; Cafri, G; Inacio, MCS; Schepps, AL; Paxton, EW; Bini, SA

    2015-01-01

    The survivorship of implants after revision total hip arthroplasty and risk factors associated with re-revision are not well defined. We evaluated the re-revision rate with use of the institutional total joint replacement registry. The purpose of this study was to determine patient, implant, and surgeon factors associated with re-revision total hip arthroplasty.A retrospective cohort study was conducted. The total joint replacement registry was used to identify patients who had undergone revi...

  4. Revised nonstochastic health effects models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaniv, S.S.; Scott, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    In 1989, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published a revision of the 1985 report, Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, NUREG/CR-4214, that included models for early occurring and continuing nonstochastic effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. This paper discusses specific models for lethality from early occurring and continuing effects. For brevity, hematopoietic-syndrome lethality is called hematopoietic death; pulmonary-syndrome lethality is called pulmonary death; and gastrointestinal syndrome lethality is called gastrointestinal death. Two-parameter Weibull risk functions are recommended for estimating the risk of hematopoietic, pulmonary, or gastrointestinal death. The risks are obtained indirectly by using hazard functions; as a result, this type of approach has been called hazard-function modeling and the models generated are called hazard-function models. In the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report, changes were made in the parameter values for a number of effects, and the models used to estimate hematopoietic and pulmonary deaths were substantially revised. Upper and lower estimates of model parameters are provided for all early health effects models. In this paper, we discuss the 1989 models for hematopoietic and pulmonary deaths, highlighting the differences between the 1989 and 1985 models. In addition, we give the reasons for which the 1985 models were modified

  5. Revising Lecture Notes: How Revision, Pauses, and Partners Affect Note Taking and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Linlin; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Samuelson, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Note taking has been categorized as a two-stage process: the recording of notes and the review of notes. We contend that note taking might best involve a three-stage process where the missing stage is revision. This study investigated the benefits of revising lecture notes and addressed two questions: First, is revision more effective than…

  6. Gender Differences in Post-Traumatic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Modena

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute stress can trigger cardiovascular events and disease. The earthquake is an “ideal” natural experiment for acute and chronic stress, with impact mainly on the cardiovascular system. On May 20th and 29th, 2012, two earthquakes of magnitude 5.9° to 6.4° on the Richter scale, hit the province of Modena and Reggio Emilia, an area of the north-center of Italy never considered at seismic risk. The purpose of our study was to assess whether there were gender-specific differences in stress-induced incidence of cardiovascular events and age of patients who arrived at the Emergency Departments (ED of the three main teaching hospitals of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia. Global access of patients, divided in relation to age, gender, and diagnosis was compared with that one detected in the same departments and in the same interval of time in 2010. The data collected were relative to consecutive cases derived by retrospective chart and acute cardiovascular events were classified according to ICD-9 (International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision. A total of 1,401 accesses were recorded in the year of earthquake versus 530 in 2010 (p ≤ 0.05, with no statistically significant differences in number of cases and mean age in relation to gender, despite the number of women exceeded that of men in 2012 (730 vs. 671; the opposite occurred, in 2010 (328 vs. 202. The gender analysis of 2012 showed a prevalence of acute coronary syndromes (ACSs 177 vs. 73, p ≤ 0.03 in men, whereas women presented more strokes and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs (90 vs. 94, p ≤ 0.05, atrial fibrillation (120 vs. 49, p ≤ 0.05, deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (DVT/PE; 64 vs. 9, p ≤ 0.05, panic attacks (124 vs. 26, p ≤ 0.03, aspecific chest pain (122 vs. 18, p ≤ 0.05, TakoTsubo cardiomyopathy (10 vs. 0, p ≤ 0.05, and DVT/PE (61 vs. 3, p ≤ 0.03. The gender analysis of 2010 showed no difference

  7. Gender Differences in Post-Traumatic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modena, Maria Grazia; Pettorelli, Daniele; Lauria, Giulia; Giubertoni, Elisa; Mauro, Erminio; Martinotti, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Acute stress can trigger cardiovascular events and disease. The earthquake is an "ideal" natural experiment for acute and chronic stress, with impact mainly on the cardiovascular system. On May 20th and 29th, 2012, two earthquakes of magnitude 5.9° to 6.4° on the Richter scale, hit the province of Modena and Reggio Emilia, an area of the north-center of Italy never considered at seismic risk. The purpose of our study was to assess whether there were gender-specific differences in stress-induced incidence of cardiovascular events and age of patients who arrived at the Emergency Departments (ED) of the three main teaching hospitals of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia. Global access of patients, divided in relation to age, gender, and diagnosis was compared with that one detected in the same departments and in the same interval of time in 2010. The data collected were relative to consecutive cases derived by retrospective chart and acute cardiovascular events were classified according to ICD-9 ( International Classification of Diseases , ninth revision). A total of 1,401 accesses were recorded in the year of earthquake versus 530 in 2010 ( p  ≤ 0.05), with no statistically significant differences in number of cases and mean age in relation to gender, despite the number of women exceeded that of men in 2012 (730 vs. 671); the opposite occurred, in 2010 (328 vs. 202). The gender analysis of 2012 showed a prevalence of acute coronary syndromes (ACSs 177 vs. 73, p  ≤ 0.03) in men, whereas women presented more strokes and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) (90 vs. 94, p  ≤ 0.05), atrial fibrillation (120 vs. 49, p  ≤ 0.05), deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (DVT/PE; 64 vs. 9, p  ≤ 0.05), panic attacks (124 vs. 26, p  ≤ 0.03), aspecific chest pain (122 vs. 18, p  ≤ 0.05), TakoTsubo cardiomyopathy (10 vs. 0, p  ≤ 0.05), and DVT/PE (61 vs. 3, p  ≤ 0.03). The gender analysis of 2010 showed no

  8. Utilization of machine learning for prediction of post-traumatic stress: a re-examination of cortisol in the prediction and pathways to non-remitting PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatzer-Levy, I R; Ma, S; Statnikov, A; Yehuda, R; Shalev, A Y

    2017-01-01

    To date, studies of biological risk factors have revealed inconsistent relationships with subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The inconsistent signal may reflect the use of data analytic tools that are ill equipped for modeling the complex interactions between biological and environmental factors that underlay post-traumatic psychopathology. Further, using symptom-based diagnostic status as the group outcome overlooks the inherent heterogeneity of PTSD, potentially contributing to failures to replicate. To examine the potential yield of novel analytic tools, we reanalyzed data from a large longitudinal study of individuals identified following trauma in the general emergency room (ER) that failed to find a linear association between cortisol response to traumatic events and subsequent PTSD. First, latent growth mixture modeling empirically identified trajectories of post-traumatic symptoms, which then were used as the study outcome. Next, support vector machines with feature selection identified sets of features with stable predictive accuracy and built robust classifiers of trajectory membership (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC)=0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.80–0.85)) that combined clinical, neuroendocrine, psychophysiological and demographic information. Finally, graph induction algorithms revealed a unique path from childhood trauma via lower cortisol during ER admission, to non-remitting PTSD. Traditional general linear modeling methods then confirmed the newly revealed association, thereby delineating a specific target population for early endocrine interventions. Advanced computational approaches offer innovative ways for uncovering clinically significant, non-shared biological signals in heterogeneous samples. PMID:28323285

  9. Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Judith A.; Bukstein, Oscar; Walter, Heather; Benson, R. Scott; Chrisman, Allan; Farchione, Tiffany R.; Hamilton, John; Keable, Helene; Kinlan, Joan; Schoettle, Ulrich; Siegel, Matthew; Stock, Saundra; Medicus, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This Practice Parameter reviews the evidence from research and clinical experience and highlights significant advances in the assessment and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder since the previous Parameter was published in 1998. It highlights the importance of early identification of posttraumatic stress disorder, the importance of…

  10. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist–Civilian Version in a Representative Military Sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Andersen, Søren B.; Bertelsen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C; Weathers, Litz, Herman, Huska, & Keane, 1993) and to establish the most accurate cutoff for prevalence estimation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a representative...

  11. General self-efficacy and posttraumatic stress after a natural disaster: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Egil; Hussain, Ajmal; Siqveland, Johan; Heir, Trond

    2016-04-06

    Self-efficacy may be an important factor in individuals' recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions after a natural disaster. However, few longitudinal studies have investigated whether self-efficacy predicts the course of posttraumatic recovery beyond lower initial levels of distress. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether general self-efficacy is related to recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions from a longitudinal perspective. A total of 617 Norwegians exposed to the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami completed self-report questionnaires measuring their level of disaster exposure and general self-efficacy at 6 months and posttraumatic stress reactions 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. Predictors of changes in posttraumatic stress reactions were analyzed with multivariate mixed effects models. Self-efficacy at 6 months post-disaster was unrelated to trauma exposure and inversely related to posttraumatic stress reactions at 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. However, self-efficacy was not related to recovery from posttraumatic stress reactions between 6 months and 2 years post-disaster. In conclusion, general self-efficacy is related to lower levels of posttraumatic stress reactions in the first months after a disaster but does not appear to be related to improved recovery rates over the longer term.

  12. The Mutual Prospective Influence of Child and Parental Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Pediatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, Markus A.; Ystrom, Eivind; Sennhauser, Felix H.; Gnehm, Hanspeter E.; Vollrath, Margarete E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies found notable rates of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in pediatric patients and their parents and suggest a significant association between child and parent PTSS. However, little is known about mutual influences between child and parental PTSS over time. This study…

  13. The role of social support, family identification, and family constraints in predicting posttraumatic stress after cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartzman, Samantha; Sani, Fabio; Munro, Alastair J

    2017-09-01

    We compared social support with other potential psychosocial predictors of posttraumatic stress after cancer. These included family identification, or a sense of belonging to and commonality with family members, and family constraints, or the extent to which family members are closed, judgmental, or unreceptive in conversations about cancer. We also tested the hypothesis that family constraints mediate the relationship between family identification and cancer-related posttraumatic stress. We used a cross-sectional design. Surveys were collected from 205 colorectal cancer survivors in Tayside, Scotland. Both family identification and family constraints were stronger independent predictors of posttraumatic stress than social support. In multivariate analyses, social support was not a significant independent predictor of posttraumatic stress. In addition, there was a significant indirect effect of family identification on posttraumatic stress through family constraints. Numerous studies demonstrate a link between social support and posttraumatic stress. However, experiences within the family may be more important in predicting posttraumatic stress after cancer. Furthermore, a sense of belonging to and commonality with the family may reduce the extent to which cancer survivors experience constraints on conversations about cancer; this may, in turn, reduce posttraumatic stress. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Posttraumatic stress disorder and intimate partner violence in a women's headache center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Megan R; Fried, Lise E; Pineles, Suzanne L; Shipherd, Jillian C; Bernstein, Carolyn A

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder has been linked to women's ill health, including headaches. Intimate partner violence, which may result in posttraumatic stress disorder, is often reported by women with headaches. Prior studies of intimate partner violence and headache have estimated lifetime but not 12-month prevalence. The researchers in this study examined the relationship between headache and posttraumatic stress disorder in a novel population, and estimated 12-month and lifetime prevalence rates of intimate partner violence. Patients were recruited from a women's headache center (n = 92) during 2006-07 and completed the Migraine Disability Assessment measure of headache severity. Posttraumatic stress disorder was measured using a modified Breslau scale. Twelve-month and lifetime physical intimate partner violence were measured with the Partner Violence Screen and the STaT ("slapped, threatened and throw") measure. Multivariable regression determined factors independently associated with headache severity. Among all participants, 28.3% screened positive for posttraumatic stress disorder; 9.8% and 36.9% of women endorsed recent and lifetime intimate partner violence. Posttraumatic stress disorder was strongly associated with headache severity (β = 34.12, p = 0.01). Patients reporting lifetime intimate partner violence exhibited a trend of nine additional days of disability due to headache over 90 days. Posttraumatic stress disorder and intimate partner violence occur among a sizable proportion of women referred for headache. The authors' findings reaffirm that clinicians treating women with headaches must be aware of the possibility of posttraumatic stress disorder and intimate partner violence in such patients.

  15. Response inhibition and cognitive appraisal in clients with acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolghasemi, Abass; Bakhshian, Fereshteh; Narimani, Mohammad

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare response inhibition and cognitive appraisal in clients with acute stress disorder, clients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and normal individuals. This was a comparative study. The sample consisted of 40 clients with acute stress disorder, 40 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and 40 normal individuals from Mazandaran province selected through convenience sampling method. Data were collected using Composite International Diagnostic Interview, Stroop Color-Word Test, Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory, and the Impact of Event Scale. Results showed that individuals with acute stress disorder are less able to inhibit inappropriate responses and have more impaired cognitive appraisals compared to those with posttraumatic stress disorder. Moreover, results showed that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal explain 75% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and 38% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. The findings suggest that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal are two variables that influence the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder symptoms. Also, these results have important implications for pathology, prevention, and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder.

  16. Response Inhibition and Cognitive Appraisal in Clients with Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abass Abolghasemi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to compare response inhibition and cognitive appraisal in clients with acute stress disorder, clients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and normal individuals .Method:This was a comparative study. The sample consisted of 40 clients with acute stress disorder, 40 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and 40 normal individuals from Mazandaran province selected through convenience sampling method. Data were collected using Composite International Diagnostic Interview, Stroop Color-Word Test, Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory, and the Impact of Event Scale. Results:Results showed that individuals with acute stress disorder are less able to inhibit inappropriate responses and have more impaired cognitive appraisals compared to those with posttraumatic stress disorder. Moreover, results showed that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal explain 75% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and 38% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms .Conclusion:The findings suggest that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal are two variables that influence the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder symptoms. Also, these results have important implications for pathology, prevention, and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder

  17. Introduction of the Abbreviated Westmead Post-Traumatic Amnesia Scale and Impact on Length of Stay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watson, C. E.; Clous, E. A.; Jaeger, M.; D'Amours, S. K.

    2017-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury is a common presentation to Emergency Departments. Early identification of patients with cognitive deficits and provision of discharge advice are important. The Abbreviated Westmead Post-traumatic Amnesia Scale provides an early and efficient assessment of post-traumatic

  18. Violence Exposure in Home and Community: Influence on Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Army Recruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Mark G.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the levels and types of violence exposure, levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms, and the relationship among exposure to violence, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and early discharge in U.S. Army recruits at Basic Combat Training (BCT). The study applied a modified ABCX model of family stress adaptation developed by McCubbin,…

  19. The role of stress sensitization in progression of posttraumatic distress following deployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, Geert E.; Kleber, Rolf J.; Rademaker, Arthur R.; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Vermetten, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel exposed to combat are at risk for experiencing post-traumatic distress that can progress over time following deployment. We hypothesized that progression of post-traumatic distress may be related to enhanced susceptibility to post-deployment stressors. This study aimed at

  20. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in breast cancer: Prevalence, predictors, consequences, and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O Connor, Maja; Zachariae, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on posttraumatic stress reactions after being diagnosed with and treated for breast cancer. Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are evident in a significant proportion of women after having experienced diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Several risk factors for develo...

  1. Posttraumatic Anger, Recalled Peritraumatic Emotions, and PTSD in Victims of Violent Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, M. J. J.; Winkel, F. W.; Bogaerts, S.

    2011-01-01

    A mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal design was employed to explore the association between posttraumatic anger and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; symptoms) in victims of civilian violence. It was speculated that this relationship is mainly due to concurrent recalled peritraumatic emotions. Such emotions may be interpreted to result from…

  2. Cancer-Related Post-traumatic Stress (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer-related post-traumatic stress can occur any time from diagnosis to after treatment ends. Shock, fear, helplessness, or horror can be felt by cancer patients and lead to cancer-related post-traumatic stress. Learn about the causes and ways doctors can help manage these symptoms of distress in this expert-reviewed summary.

  3. The structure of acute posttraumatic stress symptoms: 'Reexperiencing', 'Active avoidance', 'Dysphoria', and 'Hyperarousal'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, Miranda; Sijbrandij, Marit; Opmeer, Brent C.; Carlier, Ingrid V. E.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.

    2009-01-01

    Empirical data have challenged chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) consisting of three dimensions. In the present Study we aimed to determine the factor structure of acute posttraumatic symptoms in two recently traumatized samples. In sample 1, 203 civilian trauma survivors were

  4. Association Between Traumatic Brain Injury and Risk of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Active-Duty Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) has been difficult to determine because of the prevalence of...Qualification Test; CAPS, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale; PTSD , posttraumatic stress disorder ; TBI, traumatic brain injury. a For the zeromodel, base...New onset and persistent symptoms of post - traumatic stress disorder self reported after deployment and combat exposures. BMJ.

  5. Postdeployment Symptom Changes and Traumatic Brain Injury and/or Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Post - Deployment Health Assessment, according to traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ...Key words: blasts, deployment, males, military, odds ratio, percent change, Post -Deployment Health Assessment, post - traumatic stress disorder ...Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Screen, PDHA = Post -Deployment Health Assessment, PDHRA = Post - Deployment Health Reassessment, PTSD =

  6. Revision of the genus Placospongia (Porifera, Demospongiae, hadromerida, Placospongiidae) in the Indo-West Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, L.E.

    2013-01-01

    Species of the genus Placospongia are common within the tropical Indo-West Pacific, demonstrating a wide variety of colors and either branching or encrusting growth forms. A revision of Indo-West Pacific Placospongia was undertaken based on a redescription of the holotypes of species of Placospongia

  7. Unique relations between post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and patient functioning in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigo, Danielle; Juth, Vanessa; Trief, Paula; Wallston, Kenneth; Ulbrecht, Jan; Smyth, Joshua M

    2017-08-01

    This study examined reported post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in adults with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes who had no history of psychiatric diagnosis or treatment ( n = 184, M HbA1c  = 9.13%, standard deviation = 1.68). Participants reported moderate to severe intensity of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms ( M = 19.17, SD = 17.58). Together, depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms accounted for 10-40 percent of the variance in type 2 diabetes outcomes; post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were associated with elevated diabetes distress and more frequent exercise and self-blood glucose testing (unique R 2  ~ 3%). Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms may be overlooked in type 2 diabetes among patients without formal psychiatric diagnoses, and warrant increased attention.

  8. Posttraumatic stress, difficulties in emotion regulation, and coping-oriented marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Vujanovic, Anka A; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Gross, James J

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to better understand factors that may explain prior findings of a positive relation between posttraumatic stress symptom severity and coping-oriented marijuana use motivation, the present study tested whether the association between posttraumatic stress symptom severity and marijuana use coping motives is mediated by difficulties in emotion regulation. Participants were 79 (39 women; M(age) = 22.29 years, SD = 6.99) community-recruited adults who reported (1) lifetime exposure to at least one posttraumatic stress disorder Criterion A traumatic event and (2) marijuana use in the past 30 days. Results indicated that difficulties in emotion regulation, as indexed by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (Gratz & Roemer, 2004), fully mediated the association between posttraumatic stress symptom severity and marijuana use coping motives. Implications for the treatment of co-occurring posttraumatic stress and marijuana use are discussed.

  9. [Post-traumatic stress disorder-related to intensive care stay: influence of sedation practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerheim, Nadège; Masseret, Elodie; Mercier, Emmanuelle; Dequin, Pierre-François; El-Hage, Wissam

    2013-03-01

    The stay in intensive care unit can be potentially traumatic at the origin of post-traumatic stress symptoms. The severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms is linked to the intensity and the type of traumatic memories of the intensive care stay. Sedatives and analgesics given to ventilated patients in intensive care influence the traumatic memory. The level, the duration and the type of sedation-analgesia protocol are risk factors of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Links between sedation, dissociative symptoms, delirium and post-traumatic stress symptoms are documented. Environmental and pharmacological measures are to be considered to reduce the traumatic potential risk of the intensive care. Intensive care caregivers, liaison-psychiatrist and general practitioner have each a specific role to play in the screening of the post-traumatic stress symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Sequenced Peer Revision: Creating Competence and Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Ingrid K.; Robertson, John

    2013-01-01

    Mastering techniques of self- and peer revision is a valuable tool for all writers, especially US-educated Generation 1.5 students, whose near fluency enables them to dialogue successfully about their writing. Using action research, 2 academic writing instructors systematically trained students to more responsibly and effectively revise their…

  11. Transscleral contact krypton laser cyclophotocoagulation for treatment of posttraumatic glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raivio, V E; Immonen, I J; Laatikainen, L T; Puska, P M

    2001-04-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of the krypton laser for transscleral contact cyclophotocoagulation in the treatment of posttraumatic glaucoma. A total of 18 eyes of 18 patients with therapy-resistant posttraumatic glaucoma treated with krypton laser cyclophotocoagulation from 1991 to 1996 were included in this review. The krypton laser was delivered by a fiberoptic probe with simultaneous compression of the sclera. The energy used was 3 to 5 J per application at the tip of the probe, with an exposure time of 10 seconds. The treatment covered 90 to 360 degrees of the ciliary body with approximately 10 applications per quadrant. With one or more cyclophotocoagulation treatments, the intraocular pressure decreased from the baseline mean (+/- standard deviation) of 32.6 +/- 12.8 mm Hg to 23.6 +/- 10.3 mm Hg (n = 17) at 1 month, to 21.8 +/- 7.5 mm Hg (n = 13) at 3 months, to 22.5 +/- 7.6 mm Hg (n = 13) at 6 months, and to 19.6 +/- 10.5 mm Hg (n = 18) at the last control visit (mean, 19.4 months; range, 3 weeks to 73 months) after cyclophotocoagulation but no other glaucoma procedure. At baseline, 17 (94%) of 18 patients were taking glaucoma medication, as were 15 (83%) of 18 patients at the last control visit. One (6%) case of phthisis occurred. Krypton laser cyclophotocoagulation is an effective and reasonably well tolerated means of lowering intraocular pressure in posttraumatic glaucoma. Because of the refractory nature of the disease, repeated treatments may be needed.

  12. Postanesthesia emergence in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umholtz, Matthew; Cilnyk, John; Wang, Christopher K; Porhomayon, Jahan; Pourafkari, Leili; Nader, Nader D

    2016-11-01

    Recovery from anesthesia may be complicated with development of severe panic symptoms and anxiety. Preexisting anxiety disorder has been reported as a risk factor for development of these symptoms. We aimed to examine the frequency of emergence delirium (EDL) among veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSDs). Retrospective cohort. Postoperative recovery area. Perioperative information of 1763 consecutive patients who underwent a surgical procedure requiring general anesthesia were collected. The patients were grouped on the basis of previous diagnosis of PTSD. A total of 317 patients were identified with a positive history of PTSD and were compared to 1446 patients without such a history for the occurrence of EDL in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) as the primary endpoint. Duration of stay in PACU in minutes and the frequency of hospital admission were the secondary endpoints. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the predictors of EDL among the veteran population. Emergence delirium was reported in 37 cases (2.1%) after general anesthesia. Fifteen (4.7%) of 317 patients with PTSD and 22 (1.5%) of 1446 patients without history of PTSD demonstrated symptoms related to EDL in the PACU (P=.002). After propensity matching, there were 8 patients with EDL in the PTSD group whereas there were only 2 patients with EDL among controls. Posttraumatic stress disorder was also an independent predictor of EDL in multivariate analysis with an odds ratio of 6.66 and a 95% confidence interval of 2.04 to 21.72 (P=.002). Posttraumatic stress disorder independently predicted the frequency of EDL even after correcting for preexisting depression and anxiety disorders. A relatively longer duration of PACU stay in PTSD patients may reflect raised awareness of the health care workers about this debilitating mental disorder. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder in adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Bahareh

    2017-05-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the level of posttraumatic stress disorder between adults with and without congenital heart disease, and to examine the correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (e.g., sociodemographics). Cross-sectional. Two university-affiliated heart hospitals in Tehran, Iran. A sample of 347 adults with congenital heart disease aged 18-64 years (52% women), and 353 adults without congenital heart disease matched by sex and age (±2 years) was recruited. The PTSD Scale: Self-report version was used to assess the diagnosis and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder. Hierarchical multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to explore correlates of likely posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis among each group of participants. The posttraumatic stress disorder in the patients was comparable to those of the control group, except for increased arousal (P = .027) which was scored higher among the patients. Over 52% of adults with congenital heart disease met the criteria for a likely posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis compared with 48% of adults without congenital heart disease. The regression analyses among patients revealed that elevated depressive symptoms (OR = 1.27) and a positive history of cardiac surgery (OR = 2.02) were significantly associated with posttraumatic stress disorder. The model could explain 29% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder. The high and comparable prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder among patients and nonpatients highlight the significance of the context in which adults with congenital heart disease may face other/additional stressors than disease-related ones, an issue that clinicians need also take into account. Furthermore, the association of posttraumatic stress disorder with elevated depressive symptoms warrant a comprehensive psychological assessment and management of adults with congenital heart disease, in particular among those with a history of

  14. Trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder among homeless adults in Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kathryn M; Sharpe, Louise

    2008-03-01

    International studies indicate high prevalence rates of post-traumatic stress disorder within homeless populations. In Australia, studies indicate high rates of trauma among homeless adults, yet post-traumatic stress disorder has not been investigated in homeless Australian adults. The primary aim of this project was to determine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder among homeless adults in Sydney. Further, another aim of the study was to determine whether the onset of post-traumatic stress disorder preceded the first episode of homelessness or was a consequence of homelessness. The sample consisted of 70 homeless men and women aged 18-73 years, who were randomly sampled through eight homeless services. A computer-assisted face-to-face structured clinical interview was conducted with each participant. Lifetime prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder was determined via the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The majority of the sample had experienced at least one traumatic event in their lifetime (98%). Indeed, the mean number of traumas per person was six. The 12 month prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder was higher among homeless adults in Sydney in comparison to the Australian general population (41% vs 1.5%). But 79% of the sample had a lifetime prevalence of post-traumatic stress. In 59% of cases, the onset of post-traumatic stress disorder preceded the age of the first reported homeless episode. Homeless adults in Sydney frequently experience trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder. The study found that trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder more often precede homelessness, but re-victimization is common. These findings highlight the high mental health needs among homeless people and have implications for services for homeless people.

  15. Revised GCFR safety program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, A.P.; Boyack, B.E.; Torri, A.

    1980-05-01

    This paper presents a summary of the recently revised gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) safety program plan. The activities under this plan are organized to support six lines of protection (LOPs) for protection of the public from postulated GCFR accidents. Each LOP provides an independent, sequential, quantifiable risk barrier between the public and the radiological hazards associated with postulated GCFR accidents. To implement a quantitative risk-based approach in identifying the important technology requirements for each LOP, frequency and consequence-limiting goals are allocated to each. To ensure that all necessary tasks are covered to achieve these goals, the program plan is broken into a work breakdown structure (WBS). Finally, the means by which the plan is being implemented are discussed

  16. Radiological control manual. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloepping, R.

    1996-05-01

    This Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Radiological Control Manual (LBNL RCM) has been prepared to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements and interpretation of the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is one methodology to implement the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835 (10 CFR 835) and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. Information given in this manual is also intended to provide demonstration of compliance to specific requirements in 10 CFR 835. The LBNL RCM (Publication 3113) and LBNL Health and Safety Manual Publication-3000 form the technical basis for the LBNL RPP and will be revised as necessary to ensure that current requirements from Rules and Orders are represented. The LBNL RCM will form the standard for excellence in the implementation of the LBNL RPP.

  17. Potentialities of Revised Quantum Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The potentialities of a revised quantum electrodynamic theory (RQED earlier established by the author are reconsidered, also in respect to other fundamental theories such as those by Dirac and Higgs. The RQED theory is characterized by intrinsic linear symmetry breaking due to a nonzero divergence of the electric field strength in the vacuum state, as supported by the Zero Point Energy and the experimentally confirmed Casimir force. It includes the results of electron spin and antimatter by Dirac, as well as the rest mass of elementary particles predicted by Higgs in terms of spontaneous nonlinear symmetry breaking. It will here be put into doubt whether the approach by Higgs is the only theory which becomes necessary for explaining the particle rest masses. In addition, RQED theory leads to new results beyond those being available from the theories by Dirac, Higgs and the Standard Model, such as in applications to leptons and the photon.

  18. Hot sample archiving. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, C.B.

    1995-01-01

    This Engineering Study revision evaluated the alternatives to provide tank waste characterization analytical samples for a time period as recommended by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Program. The recommendation of storing 40 ml segment samples for a period of approximately 18 months (6 months past the approval date of the Tank Characterization Report) and then composite the core segment material in 125 ml containers for a period of five years. The study considers storage at 222-S facility. It was determined that the critical storage problem was in the hot cell area. The 40 ml sample container has enough material for approximately 3 times the required amount for a complete laboratory re-analysis. The final result is that 222-S can meet the sample archive storage requirements. During the 100% capture rate the capacity is exceeded in the hot cell area, but quick, inexpensive options are available to meet the requirements

  19. Radiological control manual. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloepping, R.

    1996-05-01

    This Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Radiological Control Manual (LBNL RCM) has been prepared to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements and interpretation of the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is one methodology to implement the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835 (10 CFR 835) and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. Information given in this manual is also intended to provide demonstration of compliance to specific requirements in 10 CFR 835. The LBNL RCM (Publication 3113) and LBNL Health and Safety Manual Publication-3000 form the technical basis for the LBNL RPP and will be revised as necessary to ensure that current requirements from Rules and Orders are represented. The LBNL RCM will form the standard for excellence in the implementation of the LBNL RPP

  20. A memory-based model of posttraumatic stress disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, David C.; Berntsen, Dorthe; Johansen, Marlene Klindt

    2008-01-01

    In the mnemonic model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the current memory of a negative event, not the event itself, determines symptoms. The model is an alternative to the current event-based etiology of PTSD represented in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed......., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). The model accounts for important and reliable findings that are often inconsistent with the current diagnostic view and that have been neglected by theoretical accounts of the disorder, including the following observations. The diagnosis needs...