WorldWideScience

Sample records for reviewing real-time performance

  1. Reviewing real-time performance of nuclear reactor safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preckshot, G.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining real-time performance of computer-based safety systems used in nuclear power plants. Three areas of guidance are covered in this report. The first area covers how to determine if, when, and what prototypes should be required of developers to make a convincing demonstration that specific problems have been solved or that performance goals have been met. The second area has recommendations for timing analyses that will prove that the real-time system will meet its safety-imposed deadlines. The third area has description of means for assessing expected or actual real-time performance before, during, and after development is completed. To ensure that the delivered real-time software product meets performance goals, the paper recommends certain types of code-execution and communications scheduling. Technical background is provided in the appendix on methods of timing analysis, scheduling real-time computations, prototyping, real-time software development approaches, modeling and measurement, and real-time operating systems.

  2. Reviewing real-time performance of nuclear reactor safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preckshot, G.G.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining real-time performance of computer-based safety systems used in nuclear power plants. Three areas of guidance are covered in this report. The first area covers how to determine if, when, and what prototypes should be required of developers to make a convincing demonstration that specific problems have been solved or that performance goals have been met. The second area has recommendations for timing analyses that will prove that the real-time system will meet its safety-imposed deadlines. The third area has description of means for assessing expected or actual real-time performance before, during, and after development is completed. To ensure that the delivered real-time software product meets performance goals, the paper recommends certain types of code-execution and communications scheduling. Technical background is provided in the appendix on methods of timing analysis, scheduling real-time computations, prototyping, real-time software development approaches, modeling and measurement, and real-time operating systems

  3. ISSUES IN MOBILE DISTRIBUTED REAL TIME DATABASES: PERFORMANCE AND REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    VISHNU SWAROOP,; Gyanendra Kumar Gupta,; UDAI SHANKER

    2011-01-01

    Increase in handy and small electronic devices in computing fields; it makes the computing more popularand useful in business. Tremendous advances in wireless networks and portable computing devices have led to development of mobile computing. Support of real time database system depending upon thetiming constraints, due to availability of data distributed database, and ubiquitous computing pull the mobile database concept, which emerges them in a new form of technology as mobile distributed ...

  4. Performance evaluation of real time radiographic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatraman, B.; Saravanan, S.; Jayakumar, T.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Baldev Raj

    1996-01-01

    The Real Time Radiography (RTR) system can be studied completely by knowing the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the whole system. The MTF curve is a special form of contrast/detail-size diagram in which the image contrast is plotted against the spatial frequency of a test object measured in line-pairs per millimetre (lp/mm). MTF curves are widely used to measure the characteristics of optical equipment, particularly for assessing the contribution of individual items in a complex imaging transfer system. Codes of practice indicate that the image intensifier systems should be checked periodically to assess its performance through the use of MTF curves and step wedges for contrast ratio. Authors, instead, suggest the use of performance curves which are simple to obtain and can be easily interpreted by radiographers. (author)

  5. Mixed - mode Operating System for Real - time Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan M. M.; Sultana S.; Foo C.K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface(GUI)operating system which is typicallynon-real-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time e...

  6. Mixed - mode Operating System for Real - time Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan M. M.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface(GUIoperating system which is typicallynon-real-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time events. In this research an i8751 microcontroller-based hardware was used to measure the performance of the system in real-time-only as well as non-real-time-only configurations. The real-time portion is an 486DX-40 IBM PC system running under DOS-based real-time kernel and the non-real-time portion is a Pentium IIIbased system running under Windows NT. It was found that mixed-mode systems performed as good as a typical real-time system and in fact, gave many additional benefits such as simplified/modular programming and load tolerance.

  7. Mixed-mode Operating System for Real-time Performance

    OpenAIRE

    M.M. Hasan; S. Sultana; C.K. Foo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface (GUI) operating system which is typically nonreal-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time...

  8. Performance evaluation of near-real-time accounting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Examples are given illustrating the application of near-real-time accounting concepts and principles to actual nuclear facilities. Experience with prototypical systems at the AGNS reprocessing plant and the Los Alamos plutonium facility is described using examples of actual data to illustrate the performance and effectiveness of near-real-time systems. The purpose of the session is to enable participants to: (1) identify the major components of near-real-time accounting systems; (2) describe qualitatively the advantages, limitations, and performance of such systems in real nuclear facilities; (3) identify process and facility design characteristics that affect the performance of near-real-time systems; and (4) describe qualitatively the steps necessary to implement a near-real-time accounting and control system in a nuclear facility

  9. Mixed-mode Operating System for Real-time Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Hasan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface (GUI operating system which is typically nonreal-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time events. In this research an i8751 microcontroller-based hardware was used to measure the performance of the system in real-time-only as well as non-real-time-only configurations. The real-time portion is an 486DX-40 IBM PC system running under DOS-based realtime kernel and the non-real-time portion is a Pentium III based system running under Windows NT. It was found that mixed-mode systems performed as good as a typical realtime system and in fact, gave many additional benefits such as simplified/modular programming and load tolerance.

  10. Real-Time Application Performance Steering and Adaptive Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    .... The objective of the Real-time Application Performance Steering and Adaptive Control project is to replace ad hoc, post-mortem performance optimization with an extensible, portable, and distributed...

  11. A Process For Performance Evaluation Of Real-Time Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Kornecki

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Real-time developers and engineers must not only meet the system functional requirements, but also the stringent timing requirements. One of the critical decisions leading to meeting these timing requirements is the selection of an operating system under which the software will be developed and run. Although there is ample documentation on real-time systems performance and evaluation, little can be found that combines such information into an efficient process for use by developers. As the software industry moves towards clearly defined processes, creation of appropriate guidelines describing a process for performance evaluation of real-time system would greatly benefit real-time developers. This technology transition research focuses on developing such a process. PROPERT (PROcess for Performance Evaluation of Real Time systems - the process described in this paper - is based upon established techniques for evaluating real-time systems. It organizes already existing real-time performance criteria and assessment techniques in a manner consistent with a well-formed process, based on the Personal Software Process concepts.

  12. Towards real-time feedback in high performance speed skating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Eb, Jeroen; Zandee, Willem; van den Bogaard, Timo; Geraets, Sjoerd; Veeger, H.E.J.; Beek, Peter; Potthast, Wolfgang; Niehoff, Anja; David, Sina

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to evaluate several performance indicators to be used as real-time feedback in the coming experiments to enhance performance of elite speeds skaters. Six speed skaters, wearing one IMU per skate, collected data over one full training season to evaluate and pinpoint

  13. High performance real-time flight simulation at NASA Langley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Jeff I., II

    1994-01-01

    In order to meet the stringent time-critical requirements for real-time man-in-the-loop flight simulation, computer processing operations must be deterministic and be completed in as short a time as possible. This includes simulation mathematical model computational and data input/output to the simulators. In 1986, in response to increased demands for flight simulation performance, personnel at NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC), working with the contractor, developed extensions to a standard input/output system to provide for high bandwidth, low latency data acquisition and distribution. The Computer Automated Measurement and Control technology (IEEE standard 595) was extended to meet the performance requirements for real-time simulation. This technology extension increased the effective bandwidth by a factor of ten and increased the performance of modules necessary for simulator communications. This technology is being used by more than 80 leading technological developers in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Included among the commercial applications of this technology are nuclear process control, power grid analysis, process monitoring, real-time simulation, and radar data acquisition. Personnel at LaRC have completed the development of the use of supercomputers for simulation mathematical model computational to support real-time flight simulation. This includes the development of a real-time operating system and the development of specialized software and hardware for the CAMAC simulator network. This work, coupled with the use of an open systems software architecture, has advanced the state of the art in real time flight simulation. The data acquisition technology innovation and experience with recent developments in this technology are described.

  14. GNSS global real-time augmentation positioning: Real-time precise satellite clock estimation, prototype system construction and performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Zhao, Qile; Hu, Zhigang; Jiang, Xinyuan; Geng, Changjiang; Ge, Maorong; Shi, Chuang

    2018-01-01

    Lots of ambiguities in un-differenced (UD) model lead to lower calculation efficiency, which isn't appropriate for the high-frequency real-time GNSS clock estimation, like 1 Hz. Mixed differenced model fusing UD pseudo-range and epoch-differenced (ED) phase observations has been introduced into real-time clock estimation. In this contribution, we extend the mixed differenced model for realizing multi-GNSS real-time clock high-frequency updating and a rigorous comparison and analysis on same conditions are performed to achieve the best real-time clock estimation performance taking the efficiency, accuracy, consistency and reliability into consideration. Based on the multi-GNSS real-time data streams provided by multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) and Wuhan University, GPS + BeiDou + Galileo global real-time augmentation positioning prototype system is designed and constructed, including real-time precise orbit determination, real-time precise clock estimation, real-time Precise Point Positioning (RT-PPP) and real-time Standard Point Positioning (RT-SPP). The statistical analysis of the 6 h-predicted real-time orbits shows that the root mean square (RMS) in radial direction is about 1-5 cm for GPS, Beidou MEO and Galileo satellites and about 10 cm for Beidou GEO and IGSO satellites. Using the mixed differenced estimation model, the prototype system can realize high-efficient real-time satellite absolute clock estimation with no constant clock-bias and can be used for high-frequency augmentation message updating (such as 1 Hz). The real-time augmentation message signal-in-space ranging error (SISRE), a comprehensive accuracy of orbit and clock and effecting the users' actual positioning performance, is introduced to evaluate and analyze the performance of GPS + BeiDou + Galileo global real-time augmentation positioning system. The statistical analysis of real-time augmentation message SISRE is about 4-7 cm for GPS, whlile 10 cm for Beidou IGSO/MEO, Galileo and about 30 cm

  15. Multivariate performance reliability prediction in real-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.; Lu, H.; Kolarik, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for predicting system performance reliability in real-time considering multiple failure modes. The technique includes on-line multivariate monitoring and forecasting of selected performance measures and conditional performance reliability estimates. The performance measures across time are treated as a multivariate time series. A state-space approach is used to model the multivariate time series. Recursive forecasting is performed by adopting Kalman filtering. The predicted mean vectors and covariance matrix of performance measures are used for the assessment of system survival/reliability with respect to the conditional performance reliability. The technique and modeling protocol discussed in this paper provide a means to forecast and evaluate the performance of an individual system in a dynamic environment in real-time. The paper also presents an example to demonstrate the technique

  16. Real-time individualization of the unified model of performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianbo; Ramakrishnan, Sridhar; Laxminarayan, Srinivas; Balkin, Thomas J; Reifman, Jaques

    2017-12-01

    Existing mathematical models for predicting neurobehavioural performance are not suited for mobile computing platforms because they cannot adapt model parameters automatically in real time to reflect individual differences in the effects of sleep loss. We used an extended Kalman filter to develop a computationally efficient algorithm that continually adapts the parameters of the recently developed Unified Model of Performance (UMP) to an individual. The algorithm accomplishes this in real time as new performance data for the individual become available. We assessed the algorithm's performance by simulating real-time model individualization for 18 subjects subjected to 64 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD) and 7 days of chronic sleep restriction (CSR) with 3 h of time in bed per night, using psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) data collected every 2 h during wakefulness. This UMP individualization process produced parameter estimates that progressively approached the solution produced by a post-hoc fitting of model parameters using all data. The minimum number of PVT measurements needed to individualize the model parameters depended upon the type of sleep-loss challenge, with ~30 required for TSD and ~70 for CSR. However, model individualization depended upon the overall duration of data collection, yielding increasingly accurate model parameters with greater number of days. Interestingly, reducing the PVT sampling frequency by a factor of two did not notably hamper model individualization. The proposed algorithm facilitates real-time learning of an individual's trait-like responses to sleep loss and enables the development of individualized performance prediction models for use in a mobile computing platform. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  17. High Performance Embedded System for Real-Time Pattern Matching

    CERN Document Server

    Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; The ATLAS collaboration; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Citraro, Saverio; Giannetti, Paola; Dell'Orso, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    We present an innovative and high performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching. This system is based on the evolution of hardware and algorithms developed for the field of High Energy Physics (HEP) and more specifically for the execution of extremely fast pattern matching for tracking of particles produced by proton-proton collisions in hadron collider experiments. A miniaturized version of this complex system is being developed for pattern matching in generic image processing applications. The design uses the flexibility of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) and the powerful Associative Memory Chip (ASIC) to achieve real-time performance. The system works as a contour identifier able to extract the salient features of an image. It is based on the principles of cognitive image processing, which means that it executes fast pattern matching and data reduction mimicking the operation of the human brain.

  18. Real-time performance monitoring and management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhraja, Vikram S [Los Angeles, CA; Dyer, James D [La Mirada, CA; Martinez Morales, Carlos A [Upland, CA

    2007-06-19

    A real-time performance monitoring system for monitoring an electric power grid. The electric power grid has a plurality of grid portions, each grid portion corresponding to one of a plurality of control areas. The real-time performance monitoring system includes a monitor computer for monitoring at least one of reliability metrics, generation metrics, transmission metrics, suppliers metrics, grid infrastructure security metrics, and markets metrics for the electric power grid. The data for metrics being monitored by the monitor computer are stored in a data base, and a visualization of the metrics is displayed on at least one display computer having a monitor. The at least one display computer in one said control area enables an operator to monitor the grid portion corresponding to a different said control area.

  19. Real-time Tsunami Inundation Prediction Using High Performance Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Y.; Imamura, F.; Sugawara, D.

    2014-12-01

    Recently off-shore tsunami observation stations based on cabled ocean bottom pressure gauges are actively being deployed especially in Japan. These cabled systems are designed to provide real-time tsunami data before tsunamis reach coastlines for disaster mitigation purposes. To receive real benefits of these observations, real-time analysis techniques to make an effective use of these data are necessary. A representative study was made by Tsushima et al. (2009) that proposed a method to provide instant tsunami source prediction based on achieving tsunami waveform data. As time passes, the prediction is improved by using updated waveform data. After a tsunami source is predicted, tsunami waveforms are synthesized from pre-computed tsunami Green functions of linear long wave equations. Tsushima et al. (2014) updated the method by combining the tsunami waveform inversion with an instant inversion of coseismic crustal deformation and improved the prediction accuracy and speed in the early stages. For disaster mitigation purposes, real-time predictions of tsunami inundation are also important. In this study, we discuss the possibility of real-time tsunami inundation predictions, which require faster-than-real-time tsunami inundation simulation in addition to instant tsunami source analysis. Although the computational amount is large to solve non-linear shallow water equations for inundation predictions, it has become executable through the recent developments of high performance computing technologies. We conducted parallel computations of tsunami inundation and achieved 6.0 TFLOPS by using 19,000 CPU cores. We employed a leap-frog finite difference method with nested staggered grids of which resolution range from 405 m to 5 m. The resolution ratio of each nested domain was 1/3. Total number of grid points were 13 million, and the time step was 0.1 seconds. Tsunami sources of 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake were tested. The inundation prediction up to 2 hours after the

  20. Spying on real-time computers to improve performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taff, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    The sampled program-counter histogram, an established technique for shortening the execution times of programs, is described for a real-time computer. The use of a real-time clock allows particularly easy implementation. (Auth.)

  1. Performances and recent evolutions of EMSC Real Time Information services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazet-Roux, G.; Godey, S.; Bossu, R.

    2009-04-01

    The EMSC (http://www.emsc-csem.org) operates Real Time Earthquake Information services for the public and the scientific community which aim at providing rapid and reliable information on the seismic-ity of the Euro-Mediterranean region and on significant earthquakes worldwide. These services are based on parametric data rapidly provided by 66 seismological networks which are automatically merged and processed at EMSC. A web page which is updated every minute displays a list and a map of the latest earthquakes as well as additional information like location maps, moment tensors solutions or past regional seismicity. Since 2004, the performances and the popularity of these services have dramatically increased. The number of messages received from the contributors and the number of published events have been multiplied by 2 since 2004 and by 1.6 since 2005 respectively. The web traffic and the numbers of users of the Earthquake Notification Service (ENS) have been multiplied by 15 and 7 respectively. In terms of performances of the ENS, the median dissemination time for Euro-Med events is minutes in 2008. In order to further improve its performances and especially the speed and robustness of the reception of real time data, EMSC has recently implemented a software named QWIDS (Quake Watch Information Distribution System) which provides a quick and robust data exchange system through permanent TCP connections. At the difference with emails that can sometimes be delayed or lost, QWIDS is an actual real time communication system that ensures the data delivery. In terms of hardware, EMSC imple-mented a high availability, dynamic load balancing, redundant and scalable web servers infrastructure, composed of two SUN T2000 and one F5 BIG-IP switch. This will allow coping with constantly increas-ing web traffic and the occurrence of huge peaks of traffic after widely felt earthquakes.

  2. High performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotiropoulou, C.-L.; Luciano, P.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Citraro, S.; Giannetti, P.; Dell'Orso, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present an innovative and high performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching. This system is based on the evolution of hardware and algorithms developed for the field of High Energy Physics and more specifically for the execution of extremely fast pattern matching for tracking of particles produced by proton–proton collisions in hadron collider experiments. A miniaturized version of this complex system is being developed for pattern matching in generic image processing applications. The system works as a contour identifier able to extract the salient features of an image. It is based on the principles of cognitive image processing, which means that it executes fast pattern matching and data reduction mimicking the operation of the human brain. The pattern matching can be executed by a custom designed Associative Memory chip. The reference patterns are chosen by a complex training algorithm implemented on an FPGA device. Post processing algorithms (e.g. pixel clustering) are also implemented on the FPGA. The pattern matching can be executed on a 2D or 3D space, on black and white or grayscale images, depending on the application and thus increasing exponentially the processing requirements of the system. We present the firmware implementation of the training and pattern matching algorithm, performance and results on a latest generation Xilinx Kintex Ultrascale FPGA device. - Highlights: • A high performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching is proposed. • It is based on a system developed for High Energy Physics experiment triggers. • It mimics the operation of the human brain (cognitive image processing). • The process can be executed on 2D and 3D, black and white or grayscale images. • The implementation uses FPGAs and custom designed associative memory (AM) chips.

  3. High performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotiropoulou, C.-L., E-mail: c.sotiropoulou@cern.ch [University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN-Pisa Section, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Luciano, P. [University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Gaetano di Biasio 43, Cassino 03043 (Italy); INFN-Pisa Section, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Gkaitatzis, S. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Citraro, S. [University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN-Pisa Section, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Giannetti, P. [INFN-Pisa Section, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dell' Orso, M. [University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN-Pisa Section, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2017-02-11

    In this paper we present an innovative and high performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching. This system is based on the evolution of hardware and algorithms developed for the field of High Energy Physics and more specifically for the execution of extremely fast pattern matching for tracking of particles produced by proton–proton collisions in hadron collider experiments. A miniaturized version of this complex system is being developed for pattern matching in generic image processing applications. The system works as a contour identifier able to extract the salient features of an image. It is based on the principles of cognitive image processing, which means that it executes fast pattern matching and data reduction mimicking the operation of the human brain. The pattern matching can be executed by a custom designed Associative Memory chip. The reference patterns are chosen by a complex training algorithm implemented on an FPGA device. Post processing algorithms (e.g. pixel clustering) are also implemented on the FPGA. The pattern matching can be executed on a 2D or 3D space, on black and white or grayscale images, depending on the application and thus increasing exponentially the processing requirements of the system. We present the firmware implementation of the training and pattern matching algorithm, performance and results on a latest generation Xilinx Kintex Ultrascale FPGA device. - Highlights: • A high performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching is proposed. • It is based on a system developed for High Energy Physics experiment triggers. • It mimics the operation of the human brain (cognitive image processing). • The process can be executed on 2D and 3D, black and white or grayscale images. • The implementation uses FPGAs and custom designed associative memory (AM) chips.

  4. High Performance Embedded System for Real-Time Pattern Matching

    CERN Document Server

    Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; The ATLAS collaboration; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Citraro, Saverio; Giannetti, Paola; Dell'Orso, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present an innovative and high performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching. This system is based on the evolution of hardware and algorithms developed for the field of High Energy Physics (HEP) and more specifically for the execution of extremely fast pattern matching for tracking of particles produced by proton-proton collisions in hadron collider experiments. A miniaturised version of this complex system is being developed for pattern matching in generic image processing applications. The system works as a contour identifier able to extract the salient features of an image. It is based on the principles of cognitive image processing, which means that it executes fast pattern matching and data reduction mimicking the operation of the human brain. The pattern matching can be executed by a custom designed Associative Memory (AM) chip. The reference patterns are chosen by a complex training algorithm implemented on an FPGA device. Post processing algorithms (e.g. pixel clustering...

  5. Movement retraining using real-time feedback of performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Michael Anthony

    2013-01-17

    Any modification of movement - especially movement patterns that have been honed over a number of years - requires re-organization of the neuromuscular patterns responsible for governing the movement performance. This motor learning can be enhanced through a number of methods that are utilized in research and clinical settings alike. In general, verbal feedback of performance in real-time or knowledge of results following movement is commonly used clinically as a preliminary means of instilling motor learning. Depending on patient preference and learning style, visual feedback (e.g. through use of a mirror or different types of video) or proprioceptive guidance utilizing therapist touch, are used to supplement verbal instructions from the therapist. Indeed, a combination of these forms of feedback is commonplace in the clinical setting to facilitate motor learning and optimize outcomes. Laboratory-based, quantitative motion analysis has been a mainstay in research settings to provide accurate and objective analysis of a variety of movements in healthy and injured populations. While the actual mechanisms of capturing the movements may differ, all current motion analysis systems rely on the ability to track the movement of body segments and joints and to use established equations of motion to quantify key movement patterns. Due to limitations in acquisition and processing speed, analysis and description of the movements has traditionally occurred offline after completion of a given testing session. This paper will highlight a new supplement to standard motion analysis techniques that relies on the near instantaneous assessment and quantification of movement patterns and the display of specific movement characteristics to the patient during a movement analysis session. As a result, this novel technique can provide a new method of feedback delivery that has advantages over currently used feedback methods.

  6. Research of real-time performance based on VxWorks embedded system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Daming; Li Haiming

    2011-01-01

    In the research of mechanism and heating efficiency of Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating, data acquisition system with high real-time performance needed. By the means of system logic analyzer, SPY and other relevant software on VxWorks embedded operating system for real-time testing gives real-time data of the system. Real-time level to achieve balances used time and processor idle time, real-time data acquisition, and minimize the interference of external to the system, ensure the system work in its own set of scheduling trajectory. Interrupt switching time and task context switching time meet the system requirements. (authors)

  7. Performance of Real-time Earthquake Information System in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, H.; Horiuchi, S.; Wu, C.; Yamamoto, S.

    2008-12-01

    Horiuchi et al. (2005) developed a real-time earthquake information system (REIS) using Hi-net, a densely deployed nationwide seismic network, which consists of about 800 stations operated by NIED, Japan. REIS determines hypocenter locations and earthquake magnitudes automatically within a few seconds after P waves arrive at the closest station and calculates focal mechanisms within about 15 seconds. Obtained hypocenter parameters are transferred immediately by using XML format to a computer in Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), who started the service of EEW to special users in June 2005. JMA also developed EEW using 200 stations. The results by the two systems are merged. Among all the first issued EEW reports by both systems, REIS information accounts for about 80 percent. This study examines the rapidity and credibility of REIS by analyzing the 4050 earthquakes which occurred around the Japan Islands since 2005 with magnitude larger than 3.0. REIS re-determines hypocenter parameters every one second according to the revision of waveform data. Here, we discuss only about the results by the first reports. On rapidness, our results show that about 44 percent of the first reports are issued within 5 seconds after the P waves arrives at the closest stations. Note that this 5-second time window includes time delay due to data package and transmission delay of about 2 seconds. REIS waits till two stations detect P waves for events in the network but four stations outside the network so as to get reliable solutions. For earthquakes with hypocentral distance less than 100km, 55 percent of earthquakes are warned in 5 seconds and 87 percent are warned in 10 seconds. Most of events having long time delay are small and triggered by S wave arrivals. About 80 percent of events have difference in epicenter distances less than 20km relative to JMA manually determined locations. Because of the existence of large lateral heterogeneity in seismic velocity, the difference depends

  8. [A review of progress of real-time tumor tracking radiotherapy technology based on dynamic multi-leaf collimator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fubo; Li, Guangjun; Shen, Jiuling; Li, Ligin; Bai, Sen

    2017-02-01

    While radiation treatment to patients with tumors in thorax and abdomen is being performed, further improvement of radiation accuracy is restricted by the tumor intra-fractional motion due to respiration. Real-time tumor tracking radiation is an optimal solution to tumor intra-fractional motion. A review of the progress of real-time dynamic multi-leaf collimator(DMLC) tracking is provided in the present review, including DMLC tracking method, time lag of DMLC tracking system, and dosimetric verification.

  9. Real-time supervision of building HVAC system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djuric, Natasa

    2008-07-01

    This thesis presents techniques for improving building HVAC system performance in existing buildings generated using simulation-based tools and real data. Therefore, one of the aims has been to research the needs and possibilities to assess and improve building HVAC system performance. In addition, this thesis aims at an advanced utilization of building energy management system (BEMS) and the provision of useful information to building operators using simulation tools. Buildings are becoming more complex systems with many elements, while BEMS provide many data about the building systems. There are, however, many faults and issues in building performance, but there are legislative and cost-benefit forces induced by energy savings. Therefore, both BEMS and the computer-based tools have to be utilized more efficiently to improve building performance. The thesis consists of four main parts that can be read separately. The first part explains the term commissioning and the commissioning tool work principal based on literature reviews. The second part presents practical experiences and issues introduced through the work on this study. The third part deals with the computer-based tools application in design and operation. This part is divided into two chapters. The first deals with improvement in the design, and the second deals with the improvement in the control strategies. The last part of the thesis gives several rules for fault diagnosis developed using simulation tools. In addition, this part aims at the practical explanation of the faults in the building HVAC systems. The practical background for the thesis was obtained though two surveys. The first survey was carried out with the aim to find the commissioning targets in Norwegian building facilities. In that way, an overview of the most typical buildings, HVAC equipment, and their related problems was obtained. An on-site survey was carried out on an example building, which was beneficial for introducing the

  10. FTA real-time transit information assessment : white paper on literature review of real-time transit information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real-time transit information systems are key technology applications within the transit industry designed to provide better customer service by disseminating timely and accurate information. Riders use this information to make various decisions abou...

  11. Real-Time Assessment and Diagnosis of Process Operating Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Sedghi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Over time, the performance of processes may deviate from the initial design due to process variations and uncertainties, making it necessary to develop systematic methods for online optimality assessment based on routine operating process data. Some processes have multiple operating modes caused by the set point change of the critical process variables to achieve different product specifications. On the other hand, the operating region in each operating mode can alter, due to uncertainties. In this paper, we will establish an optimality assessment framework for processes that typically have multi-mode, multi-region operations, as well as transitions between different modes. The kernel density approach for mode detection is adopted and improved for operating mode detection. For online mode detection, the model-based clustering discriminant analysis (MclustDA approach is incorporated with some a priori knowledge of the system. In addition, multi-modal behavior of steady-state modes is tackled utilizing the mixture probabilistic principal component regression (MPPCR method, and dynamic principal component regression (DPCR is used to investigate transitions between different modes. Moreover, a probabilistic causality detection method based on the sequential forward floating search (SFFS method is introduced for diagnosing poor or non-optimum behavior. Finally, the proposed method is tested on the Tennessee Eastman (TE benchmark simulation process in order to evaluate its performance.

  12. Power/performance trade-offs in real-time SDRAM command scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, S.L.M.; Chandrasekar, K.; Akesson, K.B.; Goossens, K.G.W.

    2016-01-01

    Real-time safety-critical systems should provide hard bounds on an applications’ performance. SDRAM controllers used in this domain should therefore have a bounded worst-case bandwidth, response time, and power consumption. Existing works on real-time SDRAM controllers only consider a narrow range

  13. Power/performance trade-offs in real-time SDRAM command scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Goossens, S.L.M.; Chandrasekar, K.; Akesson, K.B.; Goossens, K.G.W.

    2016-01-01

    Real-time safety-critical systems should provide hard bounds on an applications’ performance. SDRAM controllers used in this domain should therefore have a bounded worst-case bandwidth, response time, and power consumption. Existing works on real-time SDRAM controllers only consider a narrow range of memory devices, and do not evaluate how their schedulers’ performance varies across memory generations, nor how the scheduling algorithm influences power usage. The extent to which the number of ...

  14. Dynamic Reconfiguration in Real-Time Systems Energy, Performance, and Thermal Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Weixun; Ranka, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Given the widespread use of real-time multitasking systems, there are tremendous optimization opportunities if reconfigurable computing can be effectively incorporated while maintaining performance and other design constraints of typical applications. The focus of this book is to describe the dynamic reconfiguration techniques that can be safely used in real-time systems. This book provides comprehensive approaches by considering synergistic effects of computation, communication as well as storage together to significantly improve overall performance, power, energy and temperature.  Provides a comprehensive introduction to optimization and dynamic reconfiguration techniques in real-time embedded systems; Covers state-of-the-art techniques and ongoing research in reconfigurable architectures; Focuses on algorithms tuned for dynamic reconfiguration techniques in real-time systems;  Provides reference for anyone designing low-power systems, energy-/temperature-constrained devices, and power-performance efficie...

  15. Performance Improvement of Real-Time System for Plasma Control in RFX-mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchetta, A.; Manduchi, G.; Soppelsa, A.; Taliercio, C.

    2006-01-01

    The real-time system for plasma control has been used routinely in RFX-mod since commissioning (mid 2005). It is based on a modular hardware/software infrastructure, currently including 7 VME stations, capable of fulfilling the tight system requirements in terms of input/output channels (> 700 / > 250), real-time data flow (> 2 Mbyte/s), computation capability (> 1 GFLOP/s per station), and real-time constraints (application cycle times rd EPS Conf. on Plasma Physics, Rome Italy, June 19 - 23 2006]. The high flexibility of the system has stimulated the development of a large number of control schemes with progressively increasing requests in terms of computation complexity and real-time data flow, demanding, at the same time, strict control on cycle times and system latency. Even though careful optimisation of algorithm implementation and real-time data transmission have been performed, allowing to keep pace, so far, with the increased control requirements, future developments require to evolve the current technology, retaining the basic architecture and concepts. Two system enhancements are envisaged in the near future. The 500 MHz PowerPC-based Single Board Computer currently in use will be substituted with the 1 GHz version, whereas the real-time communication system will increase in bandwidth from 100 Mbit/s to 1 Gbit/s. These improvements will surely enhance the overall system performance, even if it is not possible to quantify a priori the exact performance boost, since other components may limit the performance in the new configuration. The paper reports in detail on the analysis of the bottlenecks of the current architecture. Based on measurements carried out in laboratory, it presents the results achieved with the proposed enhancements in terms of real-time data throughput, cycle times and latency. The paper analyses in detail the effects of the increased computing power on the components of the control system and of the improved bandwidth in real-time

  16. Performance Comparison of EPICS IOC and MARTe in a Hard Real-Time Control Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbalace, Antonio; Manduchi, Gabriele; Neto, A.; De Tommasi, G.; Sartori, F.; Valcarcel, D. F.

    2011-12-01

    EPICS is used worldwide mostly for controlling accelerators and large experimental physics facilities. Although EPICS is well fit for the design and development of automation systems, which are typically VME or PLC-based systems, and for soft real-time systems, it may present several drawbacks when used to develop hard real-time systems/applications especially when general purpose operating systems as plain Linux are chosen. This is in particular true in fusion research devices typically employing several hard real-time systems, such as the magnetic control systems, that may require strict determinism, and high performance in terms of jitter and latency. Serious deterioration of important plasma parameters may happen otherwise, possibly leading to an abrupt termination of the plasma discharge. The MARTe framework has been recently developed to fulfill the demanding requirements for such real-time systems that are alike to run on general purpose operating systems, possibly integrated with the low-latency real-time preemption patches. MARTe has been adopted to develop a number of real-time systems in different Tokamaks. In this paper, we first summarize differences and similarities between EPICS IOC and MARTe. Then we report on a set of performance measurements executed on an x86 64 bit multicore machine running Linux with an IO control algorithm implemented in an EPICS IOC and in MARTe.

  17. Hard Real-Time Performances in Multiprocessor-Embedded Systems Using ASMP-Linux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pierre Bovet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiprocessor systems, especially those based on multicore or multithreaded processors, and new operating system architectures can satisfy the ever increasing computational requirements of embedded systems. ASMP-LINUX is a modified, high responsiveness, open-source hard real-time operating system for multiprocessor systems capable of providing high real-time performance while maintaining the code simple and not impacting on the performances of the rest of the system. Moreover, ASMP-LINUX does not require code changing or application recompiling/relinking. In order to assess the performances of ASMP-LINUX, benchmarks have been performed on several hardware platforms and configurations.

  18. Hard Real-Time Performances in Multiprocessor-Embedded Systems Using ASMP-Linux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betti Emiliano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multiprocessor systems, especially those based on multicore or multithreaded processors, and new operating system architectures can satisfy the ever increasing computational requirements of embedded systems. ASMP-LINUX is a modified, high responsiveness, open-source hard real-time operating system for multiprocessor systems capable of providing high real-time performance while maintaining the code simple and not impacting on the performances of the rest of the system. Moreover, ASMP-LINUX does not require code changing or application recompiling/relinking. In order to assess the performances of ASMP-LINUX, benchmarks have been performed on several hardware platforms and configurations.

  19. Real time elastography endoscopic ultrasound (RTE-EUS), a comprehensive review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, C.F., E-mail: christoph.dietrich@ckbm.de [Med. Klinik 2, Caritas-Krankenhaus Bad Mergentheim (Germany); Department of Gastroenterology, Research Center of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova (Romania); Klinik für Innere Medizin, Krankenhaus Märkisch Oderland (Germany); Săftoiu, A.; Jenssen, C. [Med. Klinik 2, Caritas-Krankenhaus Bad Mergentheim (Germany); Department of Gastroenterology, Research Center of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova (Romania); Klinik für Innere Medizin, Krankenhaus Märkisch Oderland (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Real-time elastography (RTE) performed during endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a relatively new technique which allows the evaluation of tissue stiffness, with the intent of better characterising lesions during EUS examinations. The aim of this comprehensive review was to describe the technique of RTE-EUS, as well as the clinical applications, including the study of pancreatic lesions, but also hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal (GI) tract pathology (including anal canal), lymph nodes, adrenal glands, lung and mediastinum, as well as urogenital applications. One of the advantages of the RTE-EUS technique is especially the possibility to be used in various locations accessible from the GI tract. Future developments are also briefly discussed, as elastography is a tissue characterising technique that will certainly not replace biopsy, but will rather be an adjunct during EUS examinations, due to its ease of use and low cost.

  20. Real time elastography endoscopic ultrasound (RTE-EUS), a comprehensive review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, C.F.; Săftoiu, A.; Jenssen, C.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time elastography (RTE) performed during endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a relatively new technique which allows the evaluation of tissue stiffness, with the intent of better characterising lesions during EUS examinations. The aim of this comprehensive review was to describe the technique of RTE-EUS, as well as the clinical applications, including the study of pancreatic lesions, but also hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal (GI) tract pathology (including anal canal), lymph nodes, adrenal glands, lung and mediastinum, as well as urogenital applications. One of the advantages of the RTE-EUS technique is especially the possibility to be used in various locations accessible from the GI tract. Future developments are also briefly discussed, as elastography is a tissue characterising technique that will certainly not replace biopsy, but will rather be an adjunct during EUS examinations, due to its ease of use and low cost

  1. Real-Time Shop-Floor Production Performance Analysis Method for the Internet of Manufacturing Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingfeng Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Typical challenges that manufacturing enterprises are facing now are compounded by lack of timely, accurate, and consistent information of manufacturing resources. As a result, it is difficult to analyze the real-time production performance for the shop-floor. In this paper, the definition and overall architecture of the internet of manufacturing things is presented to provide a new paradigm by extending the techniques of internet of things (IoT to manufacturing field. Under this architecture, the real-time primitive events which occurred at different manufacturing things such as operators, machines, pallets, key materials, and so forth can be easily sensed. Based on these distributed primitive events, a critical event model is established to automatically analyze the real-time production performance. Here, the up-level production performance analysis is regarded as a series of critical events, and the real-time value of each critical event can be easily calculated according to the logical and sequence relationships among these multilevel events. Finally, a case study is used to illustrate how to apply the designed methods to analyze the real-time production performance.

  2. Real-Time and Real-Fast Performance of General-Purpose and Real-Time Operating Systems in Multithreaded Physical Simulation of Complex Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Garre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical simulation is a valuable tool in many fields of engineering for the tasks of design, prototyping, and testing. General-purpose operating systems (GPOS are designed for real-fast tasks, such as offline simulation of complex physical models that should finish as soon as possible. Interfacing hardware at a given rate (as in a hardware-in-the-loop test requires instead maximizing time determinism, for which real-time operating systems (RTOS are designed. In this paper, real-fast and real-time performance of RTOS and GPOS are compared when simulating models of high complexity with large time steps. This type of applications is usually present in the automotive industry and requires a good trade-off between real-fast and real-time performance. The performance of an RTOS and a GPOS is compared by running a tire model scalable on the number of degrees-of-freedom and parallel threads. The benchmark shows that the GPOS present better performance in real-fast runs but worse in real-time due to nonexplicit task switches and to the latency associated with interprocess communication (IPC and task switch.

  3. Design-time performance analysis of component-based real-time systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bondarev, E.

    2009-01-01

    In current real-time systems, performance metrics are one of the most challenging properties to specify, predict and measure. Performance properties depend on various factors, like environmental context, load profile, middleware, operating system, hardware platform and sharing of internal resources.

  4. Platform for Automated Real-Time High Performance Analytics on Medical Image Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, William J; Gabr, Refaat E; Tefera, Getaneh B; Pednekar, Amol S; Vaughn, Matthew W; Narayana, Ponnada A

    2018-03-01

    Biomedical data are quickly growing in volume and in variety, providing clinicians an opportunity for better clinical decision support. Here, we demonstrate a robust platform that uses software automation and high performance computing (HPC) resources to achieve real-time analytics of clinical data, specifically magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. We used the Agave application programming interface to facilitate communication, data transfer, and job control between an MRI scanner and an off-site HPC resource. In this use case, Agave executed the graphical pipeline tool GRAphical Pipeline Environment (GRAPE) to perform automated, real-time, quantitative analysis of MRI scans. Same-session image processing will open the door for adaptive scanning and real-time quality control, potentially accelerating the discovery of pathologies and minimizing patient callbacks. We envision this platform can be adapted to other medical instruments, HPC resources, and analytics tools.

  5. Real-time teleophthalmology versus face-to-face consultation: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Irene J; Dobson, Lucy P; Bartnik, Stephen; Muir, Josephine; Turner, Angus W

    2017-08-01

    Introduction Advances in imaging capabilities and the evolution of real-time teleophthalmology have the potential to provide increased coverage to areas with limited ophthalmology services. However, there is limited research assessing the diagnostic accuracy of face-to-face teleophthalmology consultation. This systematic review aims to determine if real-time teleophthalmology provides comparable accuracy to face-to-face consultation for the diagnosis of common eye health conditions. Methods A search of PubMed, Embase, Medline and Cochrane databases and manual citation review was conducted on 6 February and 7 April 2016. Included studies involved real-time telemedicine in the field of ophthalmology or optometry, and assessed diagnostic accuracy against gold-standard face-to-face consultation. The revised quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS-2) tool assessed risk of bias. Results Twelve studies were included, with participants ranging from four to 89 years old. A broad number of conditions were assessed and include corneal and retinal pathologies, strabismus, oculoplastics and post-operative review. Quality assessment identified a high or unclear risk of bias in patient selection (75%) due to an undisclosed recruitment processes. The index test showed high risk of bias in the included studies, due to the varied interpretation and conduct of real-time teleophthalmology methods. Reference standard risk was overall low (75%), as was the risk due to flow and timing (75%). Conclusion In terms of diagnostic accuracy, real-time teleophthalmology was considered superior to face-to-face consultation in one study and comparable in six studies. Store-and-forward image transmission coupled with real-time videoconferencing is a suitable alternative to overcome poor internet transmission speeds.

  6. Cloud computing platform for real-time measurement and verification of energy performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Ming-Tsun; Yeh, Chia-Hung; Su, Cheng-Jie

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Application of PSO algorithm can improve the accuracy of the baseline model. • M&V cloud platform automatically calculates energy performance. • M&V cloud platform can be applied in all energy conservation measures. • Real-time operational performance can be monitored through the proposed platform. • M&V cloud platform facilitates the development of EE programs and ESCO industries. - Abstract: Nations worldwide are vigorously promoting policies to improve energy efficiency. The use of measurement and verification (M&V) procedures to quantify energy performance is an essential topic in this field. Currently, energy performance M&V is accomplished via a combination of short-term on-site measurements and engineering calculations. This requires extensive amounts of time and labor and can result in a discrepancy between actual energy savings and calculated results. In addition, the M&V period typically lasts for periods as long as several months or up to a year, the failure to immediately detect abnormal energy performance not only decreases energy performance, results in the inability to make timely correction, and misses the best opportunity to adjust or repair equipment and systems. In this study, a cloud computing platform for the real-time M&V of energy performance is developed. On this platform, particle swarm optimization and multivariate regression analysis are used to construct accurate baseline models. Instantaneous and automatic calculations of the energy performance and access to long-term, cumulative information about the energy performance are provided via a feature that allows direct uploads of the energy consumption data. Finally, the feasibility of this real-time M&V cloud platform is tested for a case study involving improvements to a cold storage system in a hypermarket. Cloud computing platform for real-time energy performance M&V is applicable to any industry and energy conservation measure. With the M&V cloud platform, real-time

  7. Towards cycle-accurate performance predictions for real-time embedded systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triantafyllidis, K.; Bondarev, E.; With, de P.H.N.; Arabnia, H.R.; Deligiannidis, L.; Jandieri, G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a model-based performance analysis method for component-based real-time systems, featuring cycle-accurate predictions of latencies and enhanced system robustness. The method incorporates the following phases: (a) instruction-level profiling of SW components, (b) modeling the

  8. Real-Time Performance of Hybrid Mobile Robot Control Utilizing USB Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Augustyn

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the problem of usability of the USB 2.0 protocol in the area of real-time control of a mobile robot. Optimization methods of data transfer handling were proposed. The impact of the optimization results on the entire system's performance was examined in practice. As a test-bed, a hybrid system composed of two devices communicating by direct USB connection was implemented. The first of the mentioned devices was a 32-bit SoC micro-system serving as a direct control unit, and the second one was an off-the-shelf PDA providing supervisory control and logging. Due to this design, the system meets regimes of the real-time constraints and maintains continuity of a data stream at a large bandwidth. The real-time performances of subsystems and the entire system were experimentally examined depending on various operating conditions. Thanks to the performed experiments, the dependency of real-time limits on operational parameters has been determined.

  9. Use of high performance networks and supercomputers for real-time flight simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Jeff I., II

    1993-01-01

    In order to meet the stringent time-critical requirements for real-time man-in-the-loop flight simulation, computer processing operations must be consistent in processing time and be completed in as short a time as possible. These operations include simulation mathematical model computation and data input/output to the simulators. In 1986, in response to increased demands for flight simulation performance, NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC), working with the contractor, developed extensions to the Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) technology which resulted in a factor of ten increase in the effective bandwidth and reduced latency of modules necessary for simulator communication. This technology extension is being used by more than 80 leading technological developers in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Included among the commercial applications are nuclear process control, power grid analysis, process monitoring, real-time simulation, and radar data acquisition. Personnel at LaRC are completing the development of the use of supercomputers for mathematical model computation to support real-time flight simulation. This includes the development of a real-time operating system and development of specialized software and hardware for the simulator network. This paper describes the data acquisition technology and the development of supercomputing for flight simulation.

  10. Acoustic Performance of a Real-Time Three-Dimensional Sound-Reproduction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Kenneth J., II; Rizzi, Stephen A.; Aumann, Aric R.

    2013-01-01

    The Exterior Effects Room (EER) is a 39-seat auditorium at the NASA Langley Research Center and was built to support psychoacoustic studies of aircraft community noise. The EER has a real-time simulation environment which includes a three-dimensional sound-reproduction system. This system requires real-time application of equalization filters to compensate for spectral coloration of the sound reproduction due to installation and room effects. This paper describes the efforts taken to develop the equalization filters for use in the real-time sound-reproduction system and the subsequent analysis of the system s acoustic performance. The acoustic performance of the compensated and uncompensated sound-reproduction system is assessed for its crossover performance, its performance under stationary and dynamic conditions, the maximum spatialized sound pressure level it can produce from a single virtual source, and for the spatial uniformity of a generated sound field. Additionally, application examples are given to illustrate the compensated sound-reproduction system performance using recorded aircraft flyovers

  11. Performance testing of real-time AI systems using the activation framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, L.; Duckworth, J.; Laznovsky, A.; Green, P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes methods for automated performance testing of real-time artificial intelligence systems using the Activation Framework software development tool. The Activation Framework is suitable for applications such as the diagnosis of power system failures, which require the interpretation of large volumes of data in real-time. The Activation Framework consists of tools for compiling groups of Expert Systems rules into executable code modules, for automatically generating code modules from high level system configuration descriptions, and for automatically generating command files for program compilation and linking. It includes an operating system environment which provides the code which is common from one real-time AI applications to the next. It also includes mechanisms, described here, for automatic performance testing. The principal emphasis of this paper is on a rule based language which is used to capture performance specifications. This specification is compiled into code modules which are used to automatically test the system. This testing can validate that the system meets performance requirements during development and after maintenance. A large number of tests can be randomly generated and executed and the correctness of the outputs automatically validated. The paper also describes graph directed testing methods to minimize the number of test runs required

  12. Real-time monitoring through the use of technology to enhance performances throughout HIV cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Matthew; Mills, Stephen J; Stephan, Eric

    2017-09-01

    Controlling the HIV epidemic requires strong linkages across a 'cascade' of prevention, testing, and treatment services. Information and communications technology (ICT) offers the potential to monitor and improve the performance of this HIV cascade in real time. We assessed recent (media to expand reach and improve programmatic targeting; technology in healthcare settings to strengthen coordination, guide clinical decision-making and improve clinical interactions; and telephone-based follow-up to improve treatment retention and adherence. With exceptions, publications have tended to be descriptive rather than evaluative, and the evidence-base for the effectiveness of ICT-driven interventions remains mixed. There is widespread recognition of the potential for ICT to improve HIV cascade performance, but with significant challenges. Successful implementation of real-time cascade monitoring will depend upon stakeholder engagement, compatibility with existing workflows, appropriate resource allocation, and managing expectations.

  13. Manipulating motor performance and memory through real-time fMRI neurofeedback

    OpenAIRE

    Scharnowski, Frank; Veit, Ralf; Zopf, Regine; Studer, Petra; Bock, Simon; Diedrichsen, Jörn; Goebel, Rainer; Mathiak, Klaus; Birbaumer, Niels; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    Task performance depends on ongoing brain activity which can be influenced by attention, arousal, or motivation. However, such modulating factors of cognitive efficiency are unspecific, can be difficult to control, and are not suitable to facilitate neural processing in a regionally specific manner. Here, we non-pharmacologically manipulated regionally specific brain activity using technically sophisticated real-time fMRI neurofeedback. This was accomplished by training participants to simult...

  14. Real-Time Facial Segmentation and Performance Capture from RGB Input

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Shunsuke; Li, Tianye; Li, Hao

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the concept of unconstrained real-time 3D facial performance capture through explicit semantic segmentation in the RGB input. To ensure robustness, cutting edge supervised learning approaches rely on large training datasets of face images captured in the wild. While impressive tracking quality has been demonstrated for faces that are largely visible, any occlusion due to hair, accessories, or hand-to-face gestures would result in significant visual artifacts and loss of tracking ...

  15. A Method to Predict Compressor Stall in the TF34-100 Turbofan Engine Utilizing Real-Time Performance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A METHOD TO PREDICT COMPRESSOR STALL IN THE TF34-100 TURBOFAN ENGINE UTILIZING REAL-TIME PERFORMANCE...THE TF34-100 TURBOFAN ENGINE UTILIZING REAL-TIME PERFORMANCE DATA THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Systems Engineering and...036 A METHOD TO PREDICT COMPRESSOR STALL IN THE TF34-100 TURBOFAN ENGINE UTILIZING REAL-TIME PERFORMANCE DATA Shuxiang ‘Albert’ Li, BS

  16. Performances of the New Real Time Tsunami Detection Algorithm applied to tide gauges data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chierici, F.; Embriaco, D.; Morucci, S.

    2017-12-01

    Real-time tsunami detection algorithms play a key role in any Tsunami Early Warning System. We have developed a new algorithm for tsunami detection (TDA) based on the real-time tide removal and real-time band-pass filtering of seabed pressure time series acquired by Bottom Pressure Recorders. The TDA algorithm greatly increases the tsunami detection probability, shortens the detection delay and enhances detection reliability with respect to the most widely used tsunami detection algorithm, while containing the computational cost. The algorithm is designed to be used also in autonomous early warning systems with a set of input parameters and procedures which can be reconfigured in real time. We have also developed a methodology based on Monte Carlo simulations to test the tsunami detection algorithms. The algorithm performance is estimated by defining and evaluating statistical parameters, namely the detection probability, the detection delay, which are functions of the tsunami amplitude and wavelength, and the occurring rate of false alarms. In this work we present the performance of the TDA algorithm applied to tide gauge data. We have adapted the new tsunami detection algorithm and the Monte Carlo test methodology to tide gauges. Sea level data acquired by coastal tide gauges in different locations and environmental conditions have been used in order to consider real working scenarios in the test. We also present an application of the algorithm to the tsunami event generated by Tohoku earthquake on March 11th 2011, using data recorded by several tide gauges scattered all over the Pacific area.

  17. An inexpensive underwater mine countermeasures simulator with real-time 3D after action review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Stone

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a concept capability demonstration pilot study, the aim of which was to investigate how inexpensive gaming software and hardware technologies could be exploited in the development and evaluation of a simulator prototype for training Royal Navy mine clearance divers, specifically focusing on the detection and accurate reporting of the location and condition of underwater ordnance. The simulator was constructed using the Blender open source 3D modelling toolkit and game engine, and featured not only an interactive 3D editor for underwater scenario generation by instructors, but also a real-time, 3D After Action Review (AAR system for formative assessment and feedback. The simulated scenarios and AAR architecture were based on early human factors observations and briefings conducted at the UK's Defence Diving School (DDS, an organisation that provides basic military diving training for all Royal Navy and Army (Royal Engineers divers. An experimental pilot study was undertaken to determine whether or not basic navigational and mine detection components of diver performance could be improved as a result of exposing participants to the AAR system, delivered between simulated diving scenarios. The results suggest that the provision of AAR was accompanied by significant performance improvements in the positive identification of simulated underwater ordnance (in contrast to non-ordnance objects and on participants' description of their location, their immediate in-water or seabed context and their structural condition. Only marginal improvements were found with participants' navigational performance in terms of their deviation accuracies from a pre-programmed expert search path. Overall, this project contributes to the growing corpus of evidence supporting the development of simulators that demonstrate the value of exploiting open source gaming software and the significance of adopting established games design

  18. Performance results of cooperating expert systems in a distributed real-time monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwuttke, U. M.; Veregge, J. R.; Quan, A. G.

    1994-01-01

    data, hierarchical reporting of problems that extend beyond a single domain, and shared responsibility for problems that overlap domains. The system enables efficient diagnosis of complex system failures in real-time environments with high data volumes and moderate failure rates, as indicated by extensive performance measurements.

  19. Real-Time Projection-Based Augmented Reality System for Dynamic Objects in the Performing Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewoon Lee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the case study of applying projection-based augmented reality, especially for dynamic objects in live performing shows, such as plays, dancing, or musicals. Our study aims to project imagery correctly inside the silhouettes of flexible objects, in other words, live actors or the surface of actor’s costumes; the silhouette transforms its own shape frequently. To realize this work, we implemented a special projection system based on the real-time masking technique, that is to say real-time projection-based augmented reality system for dynamic objects in performing arts. We installed the sets on a stage for live performance, and rehearsed particular scenes of a musical. In live performance, using projection-based augmented reality technology enhances technical and theatrical aspects which were not possible with existing video projection techniques. The projected images on the surfaces of actor’s costume could not only express the particular scene of a performance more effectively, but also lead the audience to an extraordinary visual experience.

  20. Memory controllers for high-performance and real-time MPSoCs : requirements, architectures, and future trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akesson, K.B.; Huang, Po-Chun; Clermidy, F.; Dutoit, D.; Goossens, K.G.W.; Chang, Yuan-Hao; Kuo, Tei-Wei; Vivet, P.; Wingard, D.

    2011-01-01

    Designing memory controllers for complex real-time and high-performance multi-processor systems-on-chip is challenging, since sufficient capacity and (real-time) performance must be provided in a reliable manner at low cost and with low power consumption. This special session contains four

  1. Performance Characterization of a Real-Time Massive MIMO System with LOS Mobile Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Paul; Malkowsky, Steffen; Vieira, Joao; Hassan, Fredrik Tufvesson Wael Boukley; Liu, Liang; Beach, Mark; Armour, Simon; Edfors, Ove

    2017-01-01

    The first measured results for massive multiple input, multiple-output (MIMO) performance in a line-of-sight (LOS) scenario with moderate mobility are presented, with 8 users served in real-time using a 100 antenna base Station (BS) at 3.7 GHz. When such a large number of channels dynamically change, the inherent propagation and processing delay has a critical relationship with the rate of change, as the use of outdated channel information can result in severe detection and precoding inaccura...

  2. Performance Evaluation of RIPng, EIGRPv6 and OSPFv3 for Real Time Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sama Salam Samaan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this modern Internet era and the transition to IPv6, routing protocols must adjust to assist this transformation. RIPng, EIGRPv6 and OSPFv3 are the dominant IPv6 IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocols. Selecting the best routing protocol among the available is a critical task, which depends upon the network requirement and performance parameters of different real time applications. The primary motivation of this paper is to estimate the performance of these protocols in real time applications. The evaluation is based on a number of criteria including: network convergence duration, Http Page Response Time, DB Query Response Time, IPv6 traffic dropped, video packet delay variation and video packet end to end delay. After examining the simulation results, a conclusion will be extracted to reveal the findings of which protocol performs the best upon implementation within a IPv6 WAN. OPNET modeler simulator is used to evaluate the accomplishment of these protocols. To get the results, three scenarios are designed, one for each protocol.

  3. Improving the Multi-Objective Performance of Rainwater Harvesting Systems Using Real-Time Control Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei D. Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have identified the potential of rainwater harvesting (RWH systems to simultaneously augment potable water supply and reduce delivery of uncontrolled stormwater flows to downstream drainage networks. Potentially, such systems could also play a role in the controlled delivery of water to urban streams in ways which mimic baseflows. The performance of RWH systems to achieve these three objectives could be enhanced using Real-Time Control (RTC technology to receive rainfall forecasts and initiate pre-storm release in real time, although few studies have explored such potential. We used continuous simulation to model the ability of a range of allotment-scale RWH systems to simultaneously deliver: (i water supply; (ii stormwater retention; and (iii baseflow restoration. We compared the performance of RWH systems with RTC technology to conventional RWH systems and also systems designed with a passive baseflow release, rather than the active (RTC configuration. We found that RWH systems employing RTC technology were generally superior in simultaneously achieving water supply, stormwater retention and baseflow restoration benefits compared with the other types of system tested. The active operation provided by RTC allows the system to perform optimally across a wider range of climatic conditions, but needs to be carefully designed. We conclude that the active release mechanism employing RTC technology exhibits great promise; its ability to provide centralised control and failure detection also opens the possibility of delivering a more reliable rainwater harvesting system, which can be readily adapted to varying climate over both the short and long term.

  4. FPGA cluster for high-performance AO real-time control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Deli; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Basden, Alastair G.; Dipper, Nigel A.; Myers, Richard M.; Saunter, Chris D.

    2006-06-01

    Whilst the high throughput and low latency requirements for the next generation AO real-time control systems have posed a significant challenge to von Neumann architecture processor systems, the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) has emerged as a long term solution with high performance on throughput and excellent predictability on latency. Moreover, FPGA devices have highly capable programmable interfacing, which lead to more highly integrated system. Nevertheless, a single FPGA is still not enough: multiple FPGA devices need to be clustered to perform the required subaperture processing and the reconstruction computation. In an AO real-time control system, the memory bandwidth is often the bottleneck of the system, simply because a vast amount of supporting data, e.g. pixel calibration maps and the reconstruction matrix, need to be accessed within a short period. The cluster, as a general computing architecture, has excellent scalability in processing throughput, memory bandwidth, memory capacity, and communication bandwidth. Problems, such as task distribution, node communication, system verification, are discussed.

  5. Harmonizing electricity markets with physics : real time performance monitoring using grid-3PTM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budhraja, V.S.

    2003-01-01

    The Electric Power Group, LLC provides management and strategic consulting services for the electric power industry, with special emphasis on industry restructuring, competitive electricity markets, grid operations and reliability, power technologies, venture investments and start-ups. The Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions involves national laboratories, universities, and industry partners in researching, developing, and commercializing electric reliability technology solutions to protect and enhance the reliability of the American electric power system under the emerging competitive electricity market structure. Physics differentiate electric markets from other markets: there is real-time balancing, no storage, interconnected network, and power flows governed by physics. Some issues affecting both grid reliability and market issues are difficult to separate, such as security and congestion management, voltage management, reserves, frequency volatility, and others. The author examined the following investment challenges facing the electricity market: grid solutions, market solutions, and technology solutions. The real time performance monitoring and prediction platform, grid-3P was described and applications discussed, such as ACE-frequency monitoring, performance monitoring for automatic generation control (AGC) and frequency response, voltage/VAR monitoring, stability monitoring using phasor technology, and market monitoring. figs

  6. Real-Time Performance of Mechatronic PZT Module Using Active Vibration Feedback Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggogeri, Francesco; Borboni, Alberto; Merlo, Angelo; Pellegrini, Nicola; Ricatto, Raffaele

    2016-09-25

    This paper proposes an innovative mechatronic piezo-actuated module to control vibrations in modern machine tools. Vibrations represent one of the main issues that seriously compromise the quality of the workpiece. The active vibration control (AVC) device is composed of a host part integrated with sensors and actuators synchronized by a regulator; it is able to make a self-assessment and adjust to alterations in the environment. In particular, an innovative smart actuator has been designed and developed to satisfy machining requirements during active vibration control. This study presents the mechatronic model based on the kinematic and dynamic analysis of the AVC device. To ensure a real time performance, a H2-LQG controller has been developed and validated by simulations involving a machine tool, PZT actuator and controller models. The Hardware in the Loop (HIL) architecture is adopted to control and attenuate the vibrations. A set of experimental tests has been performed to validate the AVC module on a commercial machine tool. The feasibility of the real time vibration damping is demonstrated and the simulation accuracy is evaluated.

  7. Procrastination, Flow, and Academic Performance in Real Time Using the Experience Sampling Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaya, Isabel C; Darling, Emily

    2018-01-01

    The authors' aim was to first provide an alternative methodology in the assessment of procrastination and flow that would not reply on retrospective or prospective self-reports. Using real-time assessment of both procrastination and flow, the authors investigated how these factors impact academic performance by using the Experience Sampling Method. They assessed flow by measuring student self-reported skill versus challenge, and procrastination by measuring the days to completion of an assignment. Procrastination and flow were measured for six days before a writing assignment due date while students (n = 14) were enrolled in a research methods course. Regardless of status of flow, both the nonflow and flow groups showed high levels of procrastination. Students who experienced flow as they worked on their paper, in real time, earned significantly higher grades (M = 3.05 ± 0.30: an average grade of B) as compared with the nonflow group (M = 1.16 ± 0.33: an average grade of D; p = .007). Additionally, students experiencing flow were more accurate in predicting their grade (difference scores, flow M = 0.12 ± 0.33 vs. nonflow M = 1.39 ± 0.29; p = .015). Students in the nonflow group were nearly a grade and a half off in their prediction of their grade on the paper. To the authors' knowledge, the study is the first to provide experimental evidence showing differences in academic performance between students experiencing flow and nonflow students.

  8. A hybrid condenser model for real-time applications in performance monitoring, control and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xudong; Cai Wenjian; Jia Lei; Wen Changyun; Zhang Guiqing

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a simple, yet accurate hybrid modeling technique for condensers is presented. The method starts with fundamental physical principles but captures only few key operational characteristic parameters to predict the system performances. The advantages of the methods lie that linear or non-linear least-squares methods can be directly used to determine no more than four key operational characteristic parameters in the model, which can significantly reduce the computational burden. The developed model is verified with the experimental data taken from a pilot system. The testing results confirm that the proposed model can predict accurately the performance of the real-time operating condenser with the maximum error of less than ±10%. The model technique proposed will have wide applications not only in condenser operating optimization, but also in performance assessment and fault detection and diagnosis.

  9. Real-time chemical characterization of atmospheric particulate matter in China: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong Jie; Sun, Yele; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xue; Li, Mei; Zhou, Zhen; Chan, Chak K.

    2017-06-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) pollution has become a major health threat accompanying the rapid economic development in China. For decades, filter-based offline chemical analyses have been the most widely adopted means to investigate PM and have provided much information for understanding this type of pollution in China. However, offline analyses have low time resolutions and the chemical information thus obtained fail to reflect the dynamic nature of the sources and the rapid processes leading to the severe PM pollution in China. In recent years, advances in real-time PM chemical characterization have created a new paradigm for PM studies in China. In this review, we summarize those advances, focusing on the most widely used mass spectrometric and ion chromatographic techniques. We describe the findings from those studies in terms of spatiotemporal variabilities, degree of neutralization and oxygenation, source apportionment, secondary formation, as well as collocated measurements of the chemical and physical (hygroscopic and optical) properties of PM. We also highlight the new insights gained from those findings and suggest future directions for further advancing our understanding of PM pollution in China via real-time chemical characterization.

  10. Fluorescence probes for real-time remote cyanobacteria monitoring: A review of challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, Edoardo; Burford, Michele A; Hamilton, David P

    2018-05-10

    In recent years, there has been a widespread deployment of submersible fluorescence sensors by water utilities. They are used to measure diagnostic pigments and estimate algae and cyanobacteria abundance in near real-time. Despite being useful and promising tools, operators and decision-makers often rely on the data provided by these probes without a full understanding of their limitations. As a result, this may lead to wrong and misleading estimations which, in turn, means that researchers and technicians distrust these sensors. In this review paper, we list and discuss the main limitations of such probes, as well as identifying the effect of environmental factors on pigment production, and in turn, the conversion to cyanobacteria abundance estimation. We argue that a comprehensive calibration approach to obtain reliable readings goes well beyond manufacturers' recommendations, and should involve several context-specific experiments. We also believe that if such a comprehensive set of experiments is conducted, the data collected from fluorescence sensors could be used in artificial intelligence modelling approaches to reliably predict, in near real-time, the presence and abundance of different cyanobacteria species. This would have significant benefits for both drinking and recreational water management, given that cyanobacterial toxicity, and taste and odour compounds production, are species-dependent. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Performance analysis and kernel size study of the Lynx real-time operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan-Kwei; Gibson, James S.; Fernquist, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Lynx real-time operating system (LynxOS), which has been selected as the operating system for the Space Station Freedom Data Management System (DMS). The features of LynxOS are compared to other Unix-based operating system (OS). The tools for measuring the performance of LynxOS, which include a high-speed digital timer/counter board, a device driver program, and an application program, are analyzed. The timings for interrupt response, process creation and deletion, threads, semaphores, shared memory, and signals are measured. The memory size of the DMS Embedded Data Processor (EDP) is limited. Besides, virtual memory is not suitable for real-time applications because page swap timing may not be deterministic. Therefore, the DMS software, including LynxOS, has to fit in the main memory of an EDP. To reduce the LynxOS kernel size, the following steps are taken: analyzing the factors that influence the kernel size; identifying the modules of LynxOS that may not be needed in an EDP; adjusting the system parameters of LynxOS; reconfiguring the device drivers used in the LynxOS; and analyzing the symbol table. The reductions in kernel disk size, kernel memory size and total kernel size reduction from each step mentioned above are listed and analyzed.

  12. Real-Time Performance of a Self-Powered Environmental IoT Sensor Network System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Rüdiger, Christoph; Yuce, Mehmet Rasit

    2017-02-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) play an increasingly important role in monitoring applications in many areas. With the emergence of the Internet-of-Things (IoT), many more lowpower sensors will need to be deployed in various environments to collect and monitor data about environmental factors in real time. Providing power supply to these sensor nodes becomes a critical challenge for realizations of IoT applications as sensor nodes are normally battery-powered and have a limited lifetime. This paper proposes a wireless sensor network that is powered by solar energy harvesting. The sensor network monitors the environmental data with low-power sensor electronics and forms a network using multiple XBee wireless modules. A detailed performance analysis of the network system under solar energy harvesting has been presented. The sensor network system and the proposed energy-harvesting techniques are configured to achieve a continuous energy source for the sensor network. The proposed energy-harvesting system has been successfully designed to enable an energy solution in order to keep sensor nodes active and reliable for a whole day. The paper also outlines some of our experiences in real-time implementation of a sensor network system with energy harvesting.

  13. Performance enhancement of various real-time image processing techniques via speculative execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Mohamed F.; Sinha, Purnendu; Marlowe, Thomas J.; Stoyenko, Alexander D.

    1996-03-01

    In real-time image processing, an application must satisfy a set of timing constraints while ensuring the semantic correctness of the system. Because of the natural structure of digital data, pure data and task parallelism have been used extensively in real-time image processing to accelerate the handling time of image data. These types of parallelism are based on splitting the execution load performed by a single processor across multiple nodes. However, execution of all parallel threads is mandatory for correctness of the algorithm. On the other hand, speculative execution is an optimistic execution of part(s) of the program based on assumptions on program control flow or variable values. Rollback may be required if the assumptions turn out to be invalid. Speculative execution can enhance average, and sometimes worst-case, execution time. In this paper, we target various image processing techniques to investigate applicability of speculative execution. We identify opportunities for safe and profitable speculative execution in image compression, edge detection, morphological filters, and blob recognition.

  14. Real-Time Performance of a Self-Powered Environmental IoT Sensor Network System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs play an increasingly important role in monitoring applications in many areas. With the emergence of the Internet-of-Things (IoT, many more lowpower sensors will need to be deployed in various environments to collect and monitor data about environmental factors in real time. Providing power supply to these sensor nodes becomes a critical challenge for realizations of IoT applications as sensor nodes are normally battery-powered and have a limited lifetime. This paper proposes a wireless sensor network that is powered by solar energy harvesting. The sensor network monitors the environmental data with low-power sensor electronics and forms a network using multiple XBee wireless modules. A detailed performance analysis of the network system under solar energy harvesting has been presented. The sensor network system and the proposed energy-harvesting techniques are configured to achieve a continuous energy source for the sensor network. The proposed energy-harvesting system has been successfully designed to enable an energy solution in order to keep sensor nodes active and reliable for a whole day. The paper also outlines some of our experiences in real-time implementation of a sensor network system with energy harvesting.

  15. Performance evaluation of an interactive teleradiology system for real-time teleconsultation in different network environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Ping; Gong Jun; Zhuang Jun; Sun Jianyong; Yang Yuanyuan; Zhang Jianguo; Meng Lili

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Measure the performance of self-developed Interoperable teleradiology system at various communication conditions. Methods: Through three different network media ( satellite network, Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Loop (ADSL), and Shanghai health system's private broadband WAN), Digital images in radiology were transmitted and experiments on teleradiology consultation were applied. Results such as transmission time were recorded, effects of real-time consultation were evaluated subjectively, and experimental data were analyzed. Results: In satellite network, time spent on the transmission of images is long and effects of consultation is normal; in broadband network, time spent is short and no delay is observed in interoperation. Conclusion: teleconsultation can be hold on image sets composed of small matrix size images and compressed large matrix size images in satellite narrowband network, optimum transmission bandwidth is 192 kbps; original large matrix size images such as CR can be transmitted through broadband network and be used in teleconsultation. Real-time interoperation of the system doesn't require very high bandwidth. It can be implemented at various communication conditions

  16. Evaluating performance of MARTe as a real-time framework for feed-back control system at tokamak device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Sangwon; Lee, Woongryol; Lee, Taegu; Park, Mikyung; Lee, Sangil [National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI), Gwahangno 169-148, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Neto, André C. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Wallander, Anders [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Kim, Young-Kuk, E-mail: ykim@cnu.ac.kr [Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •We measured the performance of MARTe by measuring response time and jitter. •We compared the performance of application with and without MARTe. •We compared the performance of MARTe application on different O/Ss. -- Abstract: The Korea Super conducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is performing the task of “Demonstration and Evaluation of ITER CODAC Technologies at KSTAR” whose objective is the evaluation of real-time technologies for decision making on real-time operating systems (RTOS), real-time frameworks and 10 GbE networks. In this task, the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) has been evaluated as a real-time framework for real-time feedback control system. The performance of MARTe has been verified by measuring response time and jitter in a path of feedback control from an analog input of a monitoring system to an analog output of an actuator system. In addition, the evaluation has been performed in terms of applicability of MARTe and its performance depending on types of operating system and tuning of CPU affinity and priority. This paper describes the overview of MARTe as a real-time framework, the results of evaluation performance and its implementation.

  17. Evaluating performance of MARTe as a real-time framework for feed-back control system at tokamak device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Sangwon; Lee, Woongryol; Lee, Taegu; Park, Mikyung; Lee, Sangil; Neto, André C.; Wallander, Anders; Kim, Young-Kuk

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We measured the performance of MARTe by measuring response time and jitter. •We compared the performance of application with and without MARTe. •We compared the performance of MARTe application on different O/Ss. -- Abstract: The Korea Super conducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is performing the task of “Demonstration and Evaluation of ITER CODAC Technologies at KSTAR” whose objective is the evaluation of real-time technologies for decision making on real-time operating systems (RTOS), real-time frameworks and 10 GbE networks. In this task, the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) has been evaluated as a real-time framework for real-time feedback control system. The performance of MARTe has been verified by measuring response time and jitter in a path of feedback control from an analog input of a monitoring system to an analog output of an actuator system. In addition, the evaluation has been performed in terms of applicability of MARTe and its performance depending on types of operating system and tuning of CPU affinity and priority. This paper describes the overview of MARTe as a real-time framework, the results of evaluation performance and its implementation

  18. [Effects of real-time audiovisual feedback on secondary-school students' performance of chest compressions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelairas-Gómez, Cristian; Rodríguez-Núñez, Antonio; Vilas-Pintos, Elisardo; Prieto Saborit, José Antonio; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    To describe the quality of chest compressions performed by secondary-school students trained with a realtime audiovisual feedback system. The learners were 167 students aged 12 to 15 years who had no prior experience with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). They received an hour of instruction in CPR theory and practice and then took a 2-minute test, performing hands-only CPR on a child mannequin (Prestan Professional Child Manikin). Lights built into the mannequin gave learners feedback about how many compressions they had achieved and clicking sounds told them when compressions were deep enough. All the learners were able to maintain a steady enough rhythm of compressions and reached at least 80% of the targeted compression depth. Fewer correct compressions were done in the second minute than in the first (P=.016). Real-time audiovisual feedback helps schoolchildren aged 12 to 15 years to achieve quality chest compressions on a mannequin.

  19. Real-time monitoring energy efficiency and performance degradation of condensing boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, Simone; Quang, Thuan Le; Holub, Ondrej; Endel, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Fully-fledged set of fault detection and diagnosis tools for condensing boilers. • Detection of boiler performance degradation in condensing and noncondensing mode. • Virtual sensing for estimation of water mass flow rate. • Optimal Kalman detection of actuator and sensor faults. • Structural properties for detection and isolation of faults. - Abstract: Condensing boilers achieve higher efficiency than traditional boilers by using waste heat in flue gases to preheat cold return water entering the boiler. Water vapor produced during combustion is condensed into liquid form, thus recovering its latent heat of vaporization, leading to around 10–12% increased efficiency. Many countries have encouraged the use of condensing boilers with financial incentives. It is thus important to develop software tools to assess the correct functioning of the boiler and eventually detect problems. Current monitoring tools are based on boiler static maps and on large sets of historical data, and are unable to assess timely loss of performance due to degradation of the efficiency curve or water leakages. This work develops a set of fault detection and diagnosis tools for dynamic energy efficiency monitoring and assessment in condensing boilers, i.e. performance degradation and faults can be detected using real-time measurements: this real-time feature is particularly relevant because of the limited amount of data that can be stored by state-of-the-art building energy management systems. The monitoring tools are organized as follows: a bimodal parameter estimator to detect deviations of the efficiency of the boiler from nominal values in both condensing and noncondensing mode; a virtual sensor for the estimation of the water mass flow rate; filters to detect actuator and sensor faults, possibly due to control and sensing problems. Most importantly, structural properties for detection and isolation of actuators and sensing faults are given: these properties are

  20. CyNC - towards a General Tool for Performance Analysis of Complex Distributed Real Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Jessen, Jan Jakob; Nielsen, Jens F. Dalsgaard

    2005-01-01

    The paper addresses the current state and the ongoing activities of a tool for performance analysis of complex real time systems. The tool named CyNC is based on network calculus allowing for the computation of backlogs and delays in a system from specified lower and upper bounds of external...... workflow and computational resources. The current version of the tool implements an extension to previous work in that it allows for general workflow and resource bounds and provides optimal solutions even to systems with cyclic dependencies. Despite the virtues of the current tool, improvements...... and extensions still remain, which are in focus of ongoing activities. Improvements include accounting for phase information to improve bounds, whereas the tool awaits extension to include flow control models, which both depend on the possibility of accounting for propagation delay. Since the current version...

  1. Real-Time Communications in Autonomic Networks: System Implementation and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tselios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and prototype implementation of a communication platform aiming to provide voice and video communication in a distributed networking environment. Performance considerations and network characteristics have also been taken into account in order to provide the set of properties dictated by the sensitive nature and the real-time characteristics of the targeted application scenarios. The proposed system has been evaluated both by experimental means as well as subjective tests taken by an extensive number of users. The results show that the proposed platform operates seamlessly in two hops, while in the four hops scenario, audio and video are delivered with marginal distortion. The conducted survey indicates that the user experience in terms of Quality of Service has obtained higher scores in the scenario with the two hops.

  2. An open source/real-time atomic force microscope architecture to perform customizable force spectroscopy experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materassi, Donatello; Baschieri, Paolo; Tiribilli, Bruno; Zuccheri, Giampaolo; Samorì, Bruno

    2009-08-01

    We describe the realization of an atomic force microscope architecture designed to perform customizable experiments in a flexible and automatic way. Novel technological contributions are given by the software implementation platform (RTAI-LINUX), which is free and open source, and from a functional point of view, by the implementation of hard real-time control algorithms. Some other technical solutions such as a new way to estimate the optical lever constant are described as well. The adoption of this architecture provides many degrees of freedom in the device behavior and, furthermore, allows one to obtain a flexible experimental instrument at a relatively low cost. In particular, we show how such a system has been employed to obtain measures in sophisticated single-molecule force spectroscopy experiments [Fernandez and Li, Science 303, 1674 (2004)]. Experimental results on proteins already studied using the same methodologies are provided in order to show the reliability of the measure system.

  3. Real Time Supervisors and Monitors for Performing Health Monitoring and Fault Detection for Systems Operating in Multiple Regimes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaw, Link

    2003-01-01

    In this Phase I STTR, SMI and ARL have developed a Real Time Supervisor for fault detection and system reconfiguration in a team of micro UAVs, that are tasked to perform a team mission like surveillance or rendezvous...

  4. Performance Evaluation of New Joint EDF-RM Scheduling Algorithm for Real Time Distributed System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Real Time System, the achievement of deadline is the main target of every scheduling algorithm. Earliest Deadline First (EDF, Rate Monotonic (RM, and least Laxity First are some renowned algorithms that work well in their own context. As we know, there is a very common problem Domino's effect in EDF that is generated due to overloading condition (EDF is not working well in overloading situation. Similarly, performance of RM is degraded in underloading condition. We can say that both algorithms are complements of each other. Deadline missing in both events happens because of their utilization bounding strategy. Therefore, in this paper we are proposing a new scheduling algorithm that carries through the drawback of both existing algorithms. Joint EDF-RM scheduling algorithm is implemented in global scheduler that permits task migration mechanism in between processors in the system. In order to check the improved behavior of proposed algorithm we perform simulation. Results are achieved and evaluated in terms of Success Ratio (SR, Average CPU Utilization (ECU, Failure Ratio (FR, and Maximum Tardiness parameters. In the end, the results are compared with the existing (EDF, RM, and D_R_EDF algorithms. It has been shown that the proposed algorithm performs better during overloading condition as well in underloading condition.

  5. The potential of real-time fMRI neurofeedback for stroke rehabilitation: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianlu; Mantini, Dante; Gillebert, Celine R

    2017-09-18

    Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) neurofeedback aids the modulation of neural functions by training self-regulation of brain activity through operant conditioning. This technique has been applied to treat several neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders, but its effectiveness for stroke rehabilitation has not been examined yet. Here, we systematically review the effectiveness of rt-fMRI neurofeedback training in modulating motor and cognitive processes that are often impaired after stroke. Based on predefined search criteria, we selected and examined 33 rt-fMRI neurofeedback studies, including 651 healthy individuals and 15 stroke patients in total. The results of our systematic review suggest that rt-fMRI neurofeedback training can lead to a learned modulation of brain signals, with associated changes at both the neural and the behavioural level. However, more research is needed to establish how its use can be optimized in the context of stroke rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Amygdala real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback for major depressive disorder: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kymberly D; Zotev, Vadim; Phillips, Raquel; Misaki, Masaya; Drevets, Wayne C; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2018-04-23

    Advances in imaging technologies have allowed for the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data in real-time (rtfMRI), leading to the development of neurofeedback (nf) training. This rtfMRI-nf training utilizes functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tomographic localization capacity to allow a person to see and regulate the localized hemodynamic signal from his or her own brain. In this review, we summarize the results of several studies that have developed and applied neurofeedback training to healthy and depressed individuals with the amygdala as the neurofeedback target and the goal to increase the hemodynamic response during positive autobiographical memory recall. We review these studies and highlight some of the challenges and advances in developing an rtfMRI-nf paradigm for broader use in psychiatric populations. The work described focuses on our line of research aiming to develop the rtfMRI-nf into an intervention, and includes a discussion of the selection of a region of interest for feedback, selecting a control condition, behavioral and cognitive effects of training, and predicting which participants are most likely to respond well to training. While the results of these studies are encouraging and suggest the clinical potential of amygdala rtfMRI-nf in alleviating symptoms of major depressive disorder, larger studies are warranted to confirm its efficacy. © 2018 The Author. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2018 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  7. Real-time performance evaluation of media pipeline plug-in architectures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sentongo, VN

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Deployment of real-time applications has become ubiquitous in recent years. These applications (e.g. streaming video over the Internet) however, are processor intensive and require fast video-processing techniques for more flexible, efficient...

  8. Validation of performance of real-time kinematic PPP. A possible tool for deformation monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Furones, Ángel Esteban; Anquela Julián, Ana Belén; DIMAS PAGÉS, ALEJANDRO; Cos-Gayón López, Fernando José

    2015-01-01

    Structural failures (bridge or building collapses) and geohazards (landslides, ground subsi- dence or earthquakes) are worldwide problems that often lead to significant economic and loss of life. Monitoring the deformation of both natural phenomena and man-made struc- tures is a major key to assessing structural dynamic responses. Actually, this monitoring process is under real-time demand for developing warning and alert systems. One of the most used techniques for real-time deformation m...

  9. Interactive Light Stimulus Generation with High Performance Real-Time Image Processing and Simple Scripting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Szécsi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Light stimulation with precise and complex spatial and temporal modulation is demanded by a series of research fields like visual neuroscience, optogenetics, ophthalmology, and visual psychophysics. We developed a user-friendly and flexible stimulus generating framework (GEARS GPU-based Eye And Retina Stimulation Software, which offers access to GPU computing power, and allows interactive modification of stimulus parameters during experiments. Furthermore, it has built-in support for driving external equipment, as well as for synchronization tasks, via USB ports. The use of GEARS does not require elaborate programming skills. The necessary scripting is visually aided by an intuitive interface, while the details of the underlying software and hardware components remain hidden. Internally, the software is a C++/Python hybrid using OpenGL graphics. Computations are performed on the GPU, and are defined in the GLSL shading language. However, all GPU settings, including the GPU shader programs, are automatically generated by GEARS. This is configured through a method encountered in game programming, which allows high flexibility: stimuli are straightforwardly composed using a broad library of basic components. Stimulus rendering is implemented solely in C++, therefore intermediary libraries for interfacing could be omitted. This enables the program to perform computationally demanding tasks like en-masse random number generation or real-time image processing by local and global operations.

  10. Performance of a Real-time Multipurpose 2-Dimensional Clustering Algorithm Developed for the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00372074; The ATLAS collaboration; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Annovi, Alberto; Kordas, Kostantinos

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the performance of the 2D pixel clustering algorithm developed for the Input Mezzanine card of the ATLAS Fast TracKer system is presented. Fast TracKer is an approved ATLAS upgrade that has the goal to provide a complete list of tracks to the ATLAS High Level Trigger for each level-1 accepted event, at up to 100 kHz event rate with a very small latency, in the order of 100µs. The Input Mezzanine card is the input stage of the Fast TracKer system. Its role is to receive data from the silicon detector and perform real time clustering, thus to reduce the amount of data propagated to the subsequent processing levels with minimal information loss. We focus on the most challenging component on the Input Mezzanine card, the 2D clustering algorithm executed on the pixel data. We compare two different implementations of the algorithm. The first is one called the ideal one which searches clusters of pixels in the whole silicon module at once and calculates the cluster centroids exploiting the whole avail...

  11. Performance of a Real-time Multipurpose 2-Dimensional Clustering Algorithm Developed for the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the performance of the 2D pixel clustering algorithm developed for the Input Mezzanine card of the ATLAS Fast TracKer system is presented. Fast TracKer is an approved ATLAS upgrade that has the goal to provide a complete list of tracks to the ATLAS High Level Trigger for each level-1 accepted event, at up to 100 kHz event rate with a very small latency, in the order of 100 µs. The Input Mezzanine card is the input stage of the Fast TracKer system. Its role is to receive data from the silicon detector and perform real time clustering, thus to reduce the amount of data propagated to the subsequent processing levels with minimal information loss. We focus on the most challenging component on the Input Mezzanine card, the 2D clustering algorithm executed on the pixel data. We compare two different implementations of the algorithm. The first is one called the ideal one which searches clusters of pixels in the whole silicon module at once and calculates the cluster centroids exploiting the whole avai...

  12. ArControl: An Arduino-Based Comprehensive Behavioral Platform with Real-Time Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinfeng; Li, Haohong

    2017-01-01

    Studying animal behavior in the lab requires reliable delivering stimulations and monitoring responses. We constructed a comprehensive behavioral platform (ArControl: Arduino Control Platform) that was an affordable, easy-to-use, high-performance solution combined software and hardware components. The hardware component was consisted of an Arduino UNO board and a simple drive circuit. As for software, the ArControl provided a stand-alone and intuitive GUI (graphical user interface) application that did not require users to master scripts. The experiment data were automatically recorded with the built in DAQ (data acquisition) function. The ArControl also allowed the behavioral schedule to be entirely stored in and operated on the Arduino chip. This made the ArControl a genuine, real-time system with high temporal resolution (<1 ms). We tested the ArControl, based on strict performance measurements and two mice behavioral experiments. The results showed that the ArControl was an adaptive and reliable system suitable for behavioral research.

  13. Interactive Light Stimulus Generation with High Performance Real-Time Image Processing and Simple Scripting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szécsi, László; Kacsó, Ágota; Zeck, Günther; Hantz, Péter

    2017-01-01

    Light stimulation with precise and complex spatial and temporal modulation is demanded by a series of research fields like visual neuroscience, optogenetics, ophthalmology, and visual psychophysics. We developed a user-friendly and flexible stimulus generating framework (GEARS GPU-based Eye And Retina Stimulation Software), which offers access to GPU computing power, and allows interactive modification of stimulus parameters during experiments. Furthermore, it has built-in support for driving external equipment, as well as for synchronization tasks, via USB ports. The use of GEARS does not require elaborate programming skills. The necessary scripting is visually aided by an intuitive interface, while the details of the underlying software and hardware components remain hidden. Internally, the software is a C++/Python hybrid using OpenGL graphics. Computations are performed on the GPU, and are defined in the GLSL shading language. However, all GPU settings, including the GPU shader programs, are automatically generated by GEARS. This is configured through a method encountered in game programming, which allows high flexibility: stimuli are straightforwardly composed using a broad library of basic components. Stimulus rendering is implemented solely in C++, therefore intermediary libraries for interfacing could be omitted. This enables the program to perform computationally demanding tasks like en-masse random number generation or real-time image processing by local and global operations.

  14. Towards OpenVL: Improving Real-Time Performance of Computer Vision Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Changsong; Little, James J.; Fels, Sidney

    Meeting constraints for real-time performance is a main issue for computer vision, especially for embedded computer vision systems. This chapter presents our progress on our open vision library (OpenVL), a novel software architecture to address efficiency through facilitating hardware acceleration, reusability, and scalability for computer vision systems. A logical image understanding pipeline is introduced to allow parallel processing. We also discuss progress on our middleware—vision library utility toolkit (VLUT)—that enables applications to operate transparently over a heterogeneous collection of hardware implementations. OpenVL works as a state machine,with an event-driven mechanismto provide users with application-level interaction. Various explicit or implicit synchronization and communication methods are supported among distributed processes in the logical pipelines. The intent of OpenVL is to allow users to quickly and easily recover useful information from multiple scenes, in a cross-platform, cross-language manner across various software environments and hardware platforms. To validate the critical underlying concepts of OpenVL, a human tracking system and a local positioning system are implemented and described. The novel architecture separates the specification of algorithmic details from the underlying implementation, allowing for different components to be implemented on an embedded system without recompiling code.

  15. Manipulating motor performance and memory through real-time fMRI neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharnowski, Frank; Veit, Ralf; Zopf, Regine; Studer, Petra; Bock, Simon; Diedrichsen, Jörn; Goebel, Rainer; Mathiak, Klaus; Birbaumer, Niels; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2015-05-01

    Task performance depends on ongoing brain activity which can be influenced by attention, arousal, or motivation. However, such modulating factors of cognitive efficiency are unspecific, can be difficult to control, and are not suitable to facilitate neural processing in a regionally specific manner. Here, we non-pharmacologically manipulated regionally specific brain activity using technically sophisticated real-time fMRI neurofeedback. This was accomplished by training participants to simultaneously control ongoing brain activity in circumscribed motor and memory-related brain areas, namely the supplementary motor area and the parahippocampal cortex. We found that learned voluntary control over these functionally distinct brain areas caused functionally specific behavioral effects, i.e. shortening of motor reaction times and specific interference with memory encoding. The neurofeedback approach goes beyond improving cognitive efficiency by unspecific psychological factors such as attention, arousal, or motivation. It allows for directly manipulating sustained activity of task-relevant brain regions in order to yield specific behavioral or cognitive effects. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A design proposal of real-time monitoring stations: implementation and performance in contrasting environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose González

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of creating a real-time monitoring network for both oceanographic and meteorological data, a monitoring station conceptual design was developed. A common framework for software and electronics was adapted to different environmental conditions using two buoy approaches: one intended for oceanic waters, to be moored up to 30-40 m depth, where waves are the critical design factor, and one for continental waters (rivers, lakes and the inner part of estuaries, where currents are the critical design factor. When structures such as bridges are present in the area, the monitoring station can be installed on these structures, thus reducing its impact and increasing safety. In this paper, the design, implementation, operation and performance of these stations are described. A reliability index is calculated for the longest time series of the three related deployment options on the Galician coast: Cíes (oceanic buoy in front of the Ría de Vigo, Catoira (continental buoy in the Ulla river and Cortegada (installation in a bed in the Ría de Arousa.

  17. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF USART COMMUNICATION BETWEEN REAL TIME OPERATING SYSTEM (RTOS AND NATIVE INTERRUPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novian Habibie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Comunication between microcontrollers is one of the crucial point in embedded sytems. On the other hand, embedded system must be able to run many parallel task simultaneously. To handle this, we need a reliabe system that can do a multitasking without decreasing every task’s performance. The most widely used methods for multitasking in embedded systems are using Interrupt Service Routine (ISR or using Real Time Operating System (RTOS. This research compared perfomance of USART communication on system with RTOS to a system that use interrupt. Experiments run on two identical development board XMega A3BU-Xplained which used intenal sensor (light and temperature and used servo as external component. Perfomance comparison done by counting ping time (elapsing time to transmit data and get a reply as a mark that data has been received and compare it. This experiments divided into two scenarios: (1 system loaded with many tasks, (2 system loaded with few tasks. Result of the experiments show that communication will be faster if system only loaded with few tasks. System with RTOS has won from interrupt in case (1, but lose to interrupt in case (2.

  18. Manipulating motor performance and memory through real-time fMRI neurofeedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharnowski, Frank; Veit, Ralf; Zopf, Regine; Studer, Petra; Bock, Simon; Diedrichsen, Jörn; Goebel, Rainer; Mathiak, Klaus; Birbaumer, Niels; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    Task performance depends on ongoing brain activity which can be influenced by attention, arousal, or motivation. However, such modulating factors of cognitive efficiency are unspecific, can be difficult to control, and are not suitable to facilitate neural processing in a regionally specific manner. Here, we non-pharmacologically manipulated regionally specific brain activity using technically sophisticated real-time fMRI neurofeedback. This was accomplished by training participants to simultaneously control ongoing brain activity in circumscribed motor and memory-related brain areas, namely the supplementary motor area and the parahippocampal cortex. We found that learned voluntary control over these functionally distinct brain areas caused functionally specific behavioral effects, i.e. shortening of motor reaction times and specific interference with memory encoding. The neurofeedback approach goes beyond improving cognitive efficiency by unspecific psychological factors such as attention, arousal, or motivation. It allows for directly manipulating sustained activity of task-relevant brain regions in order to yield specific behavioral or cognitive effects. PMID:25796342

  19. Review of Real-Time 3-Dimensional Image Guided Radiation Therapy on Standard-Equipped Cancer Radiation Therapy Systems: Are We at the Tipping Point for the Era of Real-Time Radiation Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keall, Paul J; Nguyen, Doan Trang; O'Brien, Ricky; Zhang, Pengpeng; Happersett, Laura; Bertholet, Jenny; Poulsen, Per R

    2018-04-14

    To review real-time 3-dimensional (3D) image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) on standard-equipped cancer radiation therapy systems, focusing on clinically implemented solutions. Three groups in 3 continents have clinically implemented novel real-time 3D IGRT solutions on standard-equipped linear accelerators. These technologies encompass kilovoltage, combined megavoltage-kilovoltage, and combined kilovoltage-optical imaging. The cancer sites treated span pelvic and abdominal tumors for which respiratory motion is present. For each method the 3D-measured motion during treatment is reported. After treatment, dose reconstruction was used to assess the treatment quality in the presence of motion with and without real-time 3D IGRT. The geometric accuracy was quantified through phantom experiments. A literature search was conducted to identify additional real-time 3D IGRT methods that could be clinically implemented in the near future. The real-time 3D IGRT methods were successfully clinically implemented and have been used to treat more than 200 patients. Systematic target position shifts were observed using all 3 methods. Dose reconstruction demonstrated that the delivered dose is closer to the planned dose with real-time 3D IGRT than without real-time 3D IGRT. In addition, compromised target dose coverage and variable normal tissue doses were found without real-time 3D IGRT. The geometric accuracy results with real-time 3D IGRT had a mean error of real-time 3D IGRT methods using standard-equipped radiation therapy systems that could also be clinically implemented. Multiple clinical implementations of real-time 3D IGRT on standard-equipped cancer radiation therapy systems have been demonstrated. Many more approaches that could be implemented were identified. These solutions provide a pathway for the broader adoption of methods to make radiation therapy more accurate, impacting tumor and normal tissue dose, margins, and ultimately patient outcomes. Copyright © 2018

  20. Performance of real-time elastography for the staging of hepatic fibrosis: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huisuo Hong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the rapid development of real-time elastography (RTE, a variety of measuring methods have been developed for the assessment of hepatic fibrosis. We evaluated the overall performance of four methods based on RTE by performing meta-analysis of published literature. METHODS: Online journal databases and a manual search from April 2000 to April 2014 were used. Studies from different databases that meet inclusion criteria were enrolled. The statistical analysis was performed using a random-effects model and fixed-effects model for the overall effectiveness of RTE. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC was calculated for various means. Fagan plot analysis was used to estimate the clinical utility of RTE, and the heterogeneity of the studies was explored with meta-regression analysis. RESULTS: Thirteen studies from published articles were enrolled and analyzed. The combined AUROC of the liver fibrosis index (LFI for the evaluation of significant fibrosis (F≥2, advanced fibrosis (F≥3, and cirrhosis (F = 4 were 0.79, 0.94, and 0.85, respectively. The AUROC of the elasticity index (EI ranged from 0.75 to 0.92 for F≥2 and 0.66 to 0.85 for F = 4. The overall AUROC of the elastic ratio of the liver for the intrahepatic venous vessels were 0.94, 0.93, and 0.96, respectively. The AUROC of the elastic ratio of the liver for the intercostal muscle in diagnosing advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis were 0.96 and 0.92, respectively. There was significant heterogeneity in the diagnostic odds ratio (DOR for F≥2 of LFI mainly due to etiology (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: The elastic ratio of the liver for the intrahepatic vein has excellent precision in differentiating each stage of hepatic fibrosis and is recommend to be applied to the clinic.

  1. Accessible high performance computing solutions for near real-time image processing for time critical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielski, Conrad; Lemoine, Guido; Syryczynski, Jacek

    2009-09-01

    High Performance Computing (HPC) hardware solutions such as grid computing and General Processing on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) are now accessible to users with general computing needs. Grid computing infrastructures in the form of computing clusters or blades are becoming common place and GPGPU solutions that leverage the processing power of the video card are quickly being integrated into personal workstations. Our interest in these HPC technologies stems from the need to produce near real-time maps from a combination of pre- and post-event satellite imagery in support of post-disaster management. Faster processing provides a twofold gain in this situation: 1. critical information can be provided faster and 2. more elaborate automated processing can be performed prior to providing the critical information. In our particular case, we test the use of the PANTEX index which is based on analysis of image textural measures extracted using anisotropic, rotation-invariant GLCM statistics. The use of this index, applied in a moving window, has been shown to successfully identify built-up areas in remotely sensed imagery. Built-up index image masks are important input to the structuring of damage assessment interpretation because they help optimise the workload. The performance of computing the PANTEX workflow is compared on two different HPC hardware architectures: (1) a blade server with 4 blades, each having dual quad-core CPUs and (2) a CUDA enabled GPU workstation. The reference platform is a dual CPU-quad core workstation and the PANTEX workflow total computing time is measured. Furthermore, as part of a qualitative evaluation, the differences in setting up and configuring various hardware solutions and the related software coding effort is presented.

  2. Seismic Monitoring To Assess Performance Of Structures In Near-Real Time: Recent Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celebi, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    Earlier papers have described how observed data from classical accelerometers deployed in structures or from differential GPS with high sampling ratios deployed at roofs of tall buildings can be configured to establish seismic health monitoring of structures. In these configurations, drift ratios 1 are the main parametric indicator of damage condition of a structure or component of a structure.Real-time measurement of displacements are acquired either by double integration of accelerometer time-series data, or by directly using GPS. Recorded sensor data is then related to the performance level of a building. Performance-based design method stipulates that for a building the amplitude of relative displacement of the roof of a building (with respect to its base) indicates its performance.Usually, drift ratio is computed using relative displacement between two consecutive floors. When accelerometers are used, a specific software is used to compute displacements and drift ratios in realtime by double integration of accelerometer data from several floors. However, GPS-measured relative displacements are limited to being acquired only at the roof with respect to its reference base. Thus, computed drift ratio is the average drift ratio for the whole building. Until recently, the validity of measurements using GPS was limited to long-period structures (T>1 s) because GPS systems readily available were limited to 10-20 samples per seconds (sps) capability. However, presently, up to 50 sps differential GPS systems are available on the market and have been successfully used to monitor drift ratios [1,2]--thus enabling future usefulness of GPS to all types of structures. Several levels of threshold drift ratios can be postulated in order to make decisions for inspections and/or occupancy.Experience with data acquired from both accelerometers and GPS deployments indicates that they are reliable and provide pragmatic alternatives to alert the owners and other authorized parties

  3. Does spending time outdoors reduce stress? A review of real-time stress response to outdoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle C. Kondo; Sara F. Jacoby; Eugenia C. South

    2018-01-01

    Everyday environmental conditions impact human health. One mechanism underlying this relationship is the experience of stress. Through systematic review of published literature, we explore how stress has been measured in real-time non-laboratory studies of stress responses to deliberate exposure to outdoor environments. The types of exposures evaluated in this review...

  4. Performance Evaluation of a Synthetic Aperture Real-Time Ultrasound System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Matthias Bo; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the signal-to-noise ratio, the time stability, and the phase difference of the sampling in the experimental ultrasound scanner SARUS: A synthetic aperture, real-time ultrasound system. SARUS has 1024 independent transmit and receive channels and is capable of handling 2D probes...... arrays (FPGAs) making it very flexible and allowing implementation of other real-time ultrasound processing methods in the future. For conventional B-mode imaging, a penetration depth around 7 cm for a 7 MHz transducer is obtained (signal-tonoise ratio of 0 dB), which is comparable to commercial...... for 3D ultrasound imaging. It samples at 12 bits per sample and has a sampling rate of 70 MHz with the possibility of decimating the sampling frequency at the input. SARUS is capable of advanced real-time computations such as synthetic aperture imaging. The system is built using fieldprogrammable gate...

  5. Measuring Performance of Soft Real-Time Tasks on Multi-core Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rafiq, Salman

    2011-01-01

    Multi-core platforms are well established, and they are slowly moving into the area of embedded and real-time systems. Nowadays to take advantage of multi-core systems in terms of throughput, soft real-time applications are run together with general purpose applications under an operating system such as Linux. But due to shared hardware resources in multi-core architectures, it is likely that these applications will interfere and compete with each other. This can cause slower response times f...

  6. A high performance load balance strategy for real-time multicore systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Keng-Mao; Tsai, Chun-Wei; Chiu, Yi-Shiuan; Yang, Chu-Sing

    2014-01-01

    Finding ways to distribute workloads to each processor core and efficiently reduce power consumption is of vital importance, especially for real-time systems. In this paper, a novel scheduling algorithm is proposed for real-time multicore systems to balance the computation loads and save power. The developed algorithm simultaneously considers multiple criteria, a novel factor, and task deadline, and is called power and deadline-aware multicore scheduling (PDAMS). Experiment results show that the proposed algorithm can greatly reduce energy consumption by up to 54.2% and the deadline times missed, as compared to the other scheduling algorithms outlined in this paper.

  7. A High Performance Load Balance Strategy for Real-Time Multicore Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keng-Mao Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Finding ways to distribute workloads to each processor core and efficiently reduce power consumption is of vital importance, especially for real-time systems. In this paper, a novel scheduling algorithm is proposed for real-time multicore systems to balance the computation loads and save power. The developed algorithm simultaneously considers multiple criteria, a novel factor, and task deadline, and is called power and deadline-aware multicore scheduling (PDAMS. Experiment results show that the proposed algorithm can greatly reduce energy consumption by up to 54.2% and the deadline times missed, as compared to the other scheduling algorithms outlined in this paper.

  8. Real-Time Distribution Feeder Performance Monitoring, Advisory Control, and Health Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoupis, James; Mousavi, Mirrasoul

    2014-09-30

    provides this time and helps accelerate service restoration ultimately. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this feature, a demo system using substation data alone was set up to compare the minutes saved over a period of 22 months for two feeders where the real-time notification system has been deployed. The metric used for performance assessment is the time difference between the actual outage time from the OMS versus the time the notification email was received on the operators desk. Over the period of 22 months, we have accumulated over 7600 minutes (32 hours) ahead of actual outage time compared to the OMS timestamps. The significance of this analysis is that it shows the potential to reduce the SAIDI minutes and directly impact utility performance in terms of outage duration. If deployed at scale, it would have a significant impact on system reliability. To put this number in perspective, it would be helpful to assign a dollar figure to the potential savings that could be realized. According to the host utility, the average cost for each customer-minute-out (CMO) is approximately $0.30 across the operating company. This includes both direct and indirect costs such as bad press. The outage data over the previous 4 years show that the average customer count on primary/tap level outages is about 56. Accordingly, the total minutes saved amounts to 425,600 CMOs on the average. This would in turn result in a potential cost savings figure of $127,680 for two feeders alone over the period of performance. This empirical evidence validates the strong value proposition of the project that was contemplated at the onset and its potential impact to reduce outage duration in support of DOE’s goal of 20%

  9. Real-time MEG neurofeedback training of posterior alpha activity modulates subsequent visual detection performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okazaki, Y.O.; Horschig, J.; Luther, L.M.; Oostenveld, R.; Murakami, I.; Jensen, O.

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that alpha activity is lateralized when attention is directed to the left or right visual hemifield. We investigated whether real-time neurofeedback training of the alpha lateralization enhances participants' ability to modulate posterior alpha lateralization and causes

  10. Performance analysis of a real-time database with optimistic concurrency control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassen, S.A.E.; Wal, van der J.

    1997-01-01

    For a real-time shared-memory database with Optimistic Concurrency Control (OCC), an approximation for the transaction response-time distribution and thus for the deadline miss probability is obtained. Transactions arrive at the database according to a Poisson process. There is a limited number of

  11. Performance model for “Just-in-Time” problems in real-time multimedia applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.D. van der Mei (Rob); F.J. Seinstra; G.M. Koole (Ger); R. Yang (Ran); D. Roubos; H. Bal

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractOver the last few years, the use of large-scale multimedia data applications has been growing tremendously, and this growth is not likely to slow down in the near future. Many multimedia applications operate in a real-time environment (e.g., surveillance cameras, iris scans), which

  12. Performance Analysis of a Citywide Real-time Landslide Early Warning System in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon-Young; Lee, Seung-Rae; Kang, Sinhang; Lee, Deuk-hwan; Nedumpallile Vasu, Nikhil

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall-induced landslide has been one of the major disasters in Korea since the beginning of 21st century when the global climate change started to give rise to the growth of the magnitude and frequency of extreme precipitation events. In order to mitigate the increasing damage to properties and loss of lives and to provide an effective tool for public officials to manage the landslide disasters, a real-time landslide early warning system with an advanced concept has been developed by taking into account for Busan, the second largest metropolitan city in Korea, as an operational test-bed. The system provides with warning information based on a five-level alert scheme (Normal, Attention, Watch, Alert, and Emergency) using the forecasted/observed rainfall data or the data obtained from ground monitoring (volumetric water content and matric suction). The alert levels are determined by applying seven different thresholds in a step-wise manner following a decision tree. In the pursuit of improved reliability of an early warning level assigned to a specific area, the system makes assessments repetitively using the thresholds of different theoretical backgrounds including statistical(empirical), physically-based, and mathematical analyses as well as direct measurement-based approaches. By mapping the distribution of the five early warning levels determined independently for each of tens of millions grids covering the entire mountainous area of Busan, the regional-scale system can also provide with the early warning information for a specific local area. The fact that the highest warning level is determined by using a concept of a numerically-modelled potential debris-flow risk is another distinctive feature of the system. This study tested the system performance by applying it for four previous rainy seasons in order to validate the operational applicability. During the rainy seasons of 2009, 2011, and 2014, the number of landslides recorded throughout Busan's territory

  13. Practical Testing and Performance Analysis of Phasor Measurement Unit Using Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Leo; Rather, Zakir Hussain; Stearn, Nathen

    2012-01-01

    Wide Area Measurement Systems (WAMS) and Wide Area Monitoring, Protection and Control Systems (WAMPACS) have evolved rapidly over the last two decades [1]. This fast emerging technology enables real time synchronized monitoring of power systems. Presently, WAMS are mainly used for real time...... visualisation and post event analysis of power systems. It is expected however, that through integration with traditional Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, closed loop control applications will be possible. Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) are fundamental components of WAMS. Large WAMS...... proposed to realize highly precise phasoreasurements. Further a comparative study based on features of PMUs from different major manufacturers is presented. The selection of optimal parameters, such as phasor format and filter length is also discussed for various applications....

  14. Acquisition performance of LAPAN-A3/IPB multispectral imager in real-time mode of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, P. R.; Permala, R.; Jayani, A. P. S.

    2018-05-01

    LAPAN-A3/IPB satellite was launched in June 2016 and its multispectral imager has been producing Indonesian coverage images. In order to improve its support for remote sensing application, the imager should produce images with high quality and quantity. To improve the quantity of LAPAN-A3/IPB multispectral image captured, image acquisition could be executed in real-time mode from LAPAN ground station in Bogor when the satellite passes west Indonesia region. This research analyses the performance of LAPAN-A3/IPB multispectral imager acquisition in real-time mode, in terms of image quality and quantity, under assumption of several on-board and ground segment limitations. Results show that with real-time operation mode, LAPAN-A3/IPB multispectral imager could produce twice as much as image coverage compare to recorded mode. However, the images produced in real-time mode will have slightly degraded quality due to image compression process involved. Based on several analyses that have been done in this research, it is recommended to use real-time acquisition mode whenever it possible, unless for some circumstances that strictly not allow any quality degradation of the images produced.

  15. Review of Real-time Electricity Markets for Integrating Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The high penetration of both Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and Demand Response (DR) in modern power systems requires a sequence of advanced strategies and technologies for maintaining system reliability and flexibility. Real-time electricity markets (RTM) are the nondiscriminatory transaction...... platforms for providing necessary balancing services, where the market clearing (nodal or zonal prices depending on markets) is very close to real time operations of power systems. One of the primary functions of RTMs in modern power systems is establishing an efficient and effective mechanism for small DER...... and DR to participate in balancing market transactions, while handling their meteorological or intermittent characteristics, facilitating asset utilization, and stimulating their active responses. Consequently, RTMs are dedicated to maintaining the flexibility and reliability of power systems. This paper...

  16. Review of real-time on-line decision support system RODOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.

    1997-01-01

    RODOS (Real Time Off-site Decision Support System) is a research project, which aims at the development of a versatile decision support system for management of reactor accident off-site consequence assessments in real-time in Europe and in the western parts of the former Soviet Union. The system employs both local and regional environmental radiation monitoring results and meteorological forecasts by means of which the software prepares consistent predictions ranging from the release area to long distances covering all temporal phases of the accident. The data to be obtained from the environment will be processed and based on the mathematical and physical models and it will be prepared to intelligibly form about the prevalent or future environmental radiation situation. The software is intended for operative use of radiation safety authorities. Furthermore, the software is suitable for education and training of rescue field personnel. (refs.)

  17. Review of real-time on-line decision support system RODOS; RODOS-ohjelman arviointi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Nuclear Energy

    1997-01-01

    RODOS (Real Time Off-site Decision Support System) is a research project, which aims at the development of a versatile decision support system for management of reactor accident off-site consequence assessments in real-time in Europe and in the western parts of the former Soviet Union. The system employs both local and regional environmental radiation monitoring results and meteorological forecasts by means of which the software prepares consistent predictions ranging from the release area to long distances covering all temporal phases of the accident. The data to be obtained from the environment will be processed and based on the mathematical and physical models and it will be prepared to intelligibly form about the prevalent or future environmental radiation situation. The software is intended for operative use of radiation safety authorities. Furthermore, the software is suitable for education and training of rescue field personnel. (refs.).

  18. Evaluation of Real-Time Performance of the Virtual Seismologist Earthquake Early Warning Algorithm in Switzerland and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Y.; Cua, G. B.; Clinton, J. F.; Heaton, T. H.

    2012-12-01

    The Virtual Seismologist (VS) method is a Bayesian approach to regional network-based earthquake early warning (EEW) originally formulated by Cua and Heaton (2007). Implementation of VS into real-time EEW codes has been an on-going effort of the Swiss Seismological Service at ETH Zürich since 2006, with support from ETH Zürich, various European projects, and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). VS is one of three EEW algorithms - the other two being ElarmS (Allen and Kanamori, 2003) and On-Site (Wu and Kanamori, 2005; Boese et al., 2008) algorithms - that form the basis of the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) ShakeAlert system, a USGS-funded prototype end-to-end EEW system that could potentially be implemented in California. In Europe, VS is currently operating as a real-time test system in Switzerland. As part of the on-going EU project REAKT (Strategies and Tools for Real-Time Earthquake Risk Reduction), VS will be installed and tested at other European networks. VS has been running in real-time on stations of the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN) since July 2008, and on stations of the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN) and the USGS Menlo Park strong motion network in northern California since February 2009. In Switzerland, VS has been running in real-time on stations monitored by the Swiss Seismological Service (including stations from Austria, France, Germany, and Italy) since 2010. We present summaries of the real-time performance of VS in Switzerland and California over the past two and three years respectively. The empirical relationships used by VS to estimate magnitudes and ground motion, originally derived from southern California data, are demonstrated to perform well in northern California and Switzerland. Implementation in real-time and off-line testing in Europe will potentially be extended to southern Italy, western Greece, Istanbul, Romania, and Iceland. Integration of the VS algorithm into both the CISN Advanced

  19. Assessment of resident operative performance using a real-time mobile Web system: preparing for the milestone age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Justin P; Chen, David C; Donahue, Timothy R; Quach, Chi; Hines, O Joe; Hiatt, Jonathan R; Tillou, Areti

    2014-01-01

    : 0.55-1.38) than with CERP measures (mean = 0.37, CI: 0.34-0.41). Additionally, there were consistent increases in each of the OPRS subcategories. In contrast to CERPs, the OPRS fully satisfies the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and American Board of Surgery operative assessment requirements. The mobile Web platform provides a convenient interface, broad accessibility, automatic data compilation, and compatibility with common database and statistical software. Our mobile OPRS system encourages candid feedback dialog and generates a comprehensive review of individual and group-wide operative proficiency in real time. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Towards Optimal Power Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Real-Time: A Review on Methods, Challenges, and State-Of-The-Art Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Ali

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of increasing alerts about limited energy sources and environment degradation, it has become essential to search for alternatives to thermal engine-based vehicles which are a major source of air pollution and fossil fuel depletion. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs, encompassing multiple energy sources, are a short-term solution that meets the performance requirements and contributes to fuel saving and emission reduction aims. Power management methods such as regulating efficient energy flow to the vehicle propulsion, are core technologies of HEVs. Intelligent power management methods, capable of acquiring optimal power handling, accommodating system inaccuracies, and suiting real-time applications can significantly improve the powertrain efficiency at different operating conditions. Rule-based methods are simply structured and easily implementable in real-time; however, a limited optimality in power handling decisions can be achieved. Optimization-based methods are more capable of achieving this optimality at the price of augmented computational load. In the last few years, these optimization-based methods have been under development to suit real-time application using more predictive, recognitive, and artificial intelligence tools. This paper presents a review-based discussion about these new trends in real-time optimal power management methods. More focus is given to the adaptation tools used to boost methods optimality in real-time. The contribution of this work can be identified in two points: First, to provide researchers and scholars with an overview of different power management methods. Second, to point out the state-of-the-art trends in real-time optimal methods and to highlight promising approaches for future development.

  1. Evaluation of Real-Time and Off-Line Performance of the Virtual Seismologist Earthquake Early Warning Algorithm in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Yannik; Clinton, John; Cua, Georgia; Cauzzi, Carlo; Heimers, Stefan; Kästli, Philipp; Becker, Jan; Heaton, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The Virtual Seismologist (VS) method is a Bayesian approach to regional network-based earthquake early warning (EEW) originally formulated by Cua and Heaton (2007). Implementation of VS into real-time EEW codes has been an on-going effort of the Swiss Seismological Service at ETH Zürich since 2006, with support from ETH Zürich, various European projects, and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). VS is one of three EEW algorithms that form the basis of the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) ShakeAlert system, a USGS-funded prototype end-to-end EEW system that could potentially be implemented in California. In Europe, VS is currently operating as a real-time test system in Switzerland. As part of the on-going EU project REAKT (Strategies and Tools for Real-Time Earthquake Risk Reduction), VS installations in southern Italy, western Greece, Istanbul, Romania, and Iceland are planned or underway. In Switzerland, VS has been running in real-time on stations monitored by the Swiss Seismological Service (including stations from Austria, France, Germany, and Italy) since 2010. While originally based on the Earthworm system it has recently been ported to the SeisComp3 system. Besides taking advantage of SeisComp3's picking and phase association capabilities it greatly simplifies the potential installation of VS at networks in particular those already running SeisComp3. We present the architecture of the new SeisComp3 based version and compare its results from off-line tests with the real-time performance of VS in Switzerland over the past two years. We further show that the empirical relationships used by VS to estimate magnitudes and ground motion, originally derived from southern California data, perform well in Switzerland.

  2. Improved Performance and Quality of Configurators by Receiving Real-Time Information from Suppliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristjansdottir, Katrin; Shafiee, Sara; Bonev, Martin

    with including suppliers’ product specifications as sub-models and how these can be addressed by integrating configurators across supply chains to receive real-time information from suppliers. Based on established literature on the illustrated technical integration of configurators across the supply chains......Companies providing customized products are increasingly applying configurators in order to support the sales and design activities. Yet, especially for engineer-to-order (ETO) companies such activities are often divided across different organizations, where throughout the configuration process...... product specification has to be retrieved across the supply chains. Therefore, it is required that relevant information from suppliers is included in the configuration process, either as sub-models or by integrating configurators across the supply chains. This study investigates the challenges associated...

  3. Confabulation Based Real-time Anomaly Detection for Wide-area Surveillance Using Heterogeneous High Performance Computing Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    CONFABULATION BASED REAL-TIME ANOMALY DETECTION FOR WIDE-AREA SURVEILLANCE USING HETEROGENEOUS HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING ARCHITECTURE SYRACUSE...DETECTION FOR WIDE-AREA SURVEILLANCE USING HETEROGENEOUS HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING ARCHITECTURE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-12-1-0251 5b. GRANT...processors including graphic processor units (GPUs) and Intel Xeon Phi processors. Experimental results showed significant speedups, which can enable

  4. Clinical Studies of Real-Time Monitoring of Lithotripter Performance Using Passive Acoustic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, T. G.; Fedele, F.; Coleman, A. J.; McCarthy, C.; Ryves, S.; Hurrell, A. M.; De Stefano, A.; White, P. R.

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes the development and clinical testing of a passive device which monitors the passive acoustic emissions generated within the patient's body during Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL). Designed and clinically tested so that it can be operated by a nurse, the device analyses the echoes generated in the body in response to each ESWL shock, and so gives real time shock-by-shock feedback on whether the stone was at the focus of the lithotripter, and if so whether the previous shock contributed to stone fragmentation when that shock reached the focus. A shock is defined as being `effective' if these two conditions are satisfied. Not only can the device provide real-time feedback to the operator, but the trends in shock `effectiveness' can inform treatment. In particular, at any time during the treatment (once a statistically significant number of shocks have been delivered), the percentage of shocks which were `effective' provides a treatment score TS(t) which reflects the effectiveness of the treatment up to that point. The TS(t) figure is automatically delivered by the device without user intervention. Two clinical studies of the device were conducted, the ethics guidelines permitting only use of the value of TS(t) obtained at the end of treatment (this value is termed the treatment score TS0). The acoustically-derived treatment score was compared with the treatment score CTS2 given by the consultant urologist at the three-week patient's follow-up appointment. In the first clinical study (phase 1), records could be compared for 30 out of the 118 patients originally recruited, and the results of phase 1 were used to refine the parameter values (the `rules') with which the acoustic device provides its treatment score. These rules were tested in phase 2, for which records were compared for 49 of the 85 patients recruited. Considering just the phase 2 results (since the phase 1 data were used to draw up the `rules' under which phase 2 operated

  5. Real-time radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, R.H.; Oien, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    Real-time radiography is used for imaging both dynamic events and static objects. Fluorescent screens play an important role in converting radiation to light, which is then observed directly or intensified and detected. The radiographic parameters for real-time radiography are similar to conventional film radiography with special emphasis on statistics and magnification. Direct-viewing fluoroscopy uses the human eye as a detector of fluorescent screen light or the light from an intensifier. Remote-viewing systems replace the human observer with a television camera. The remote-viewing systems have many advantages over the direct-viewing conditions such as safety, image enhancement, and the capability to produce permanent records. This report reviews real-time imaging system parameters and components

  6. Effective Solar Indices for Ionospheric Modeling: A Review and a Proposal for a Real-Time Regional IRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignalberi, A.; Pezzopane, M.; Rizzi, R.; Galkin, I.

    2018-01-01

    The first part of this paper reviews methods using effective solar indices to update a background ionospheric model focusing on those employing the Kriging method to perform the spatial interpolation. Then, it proposes a method to update the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model through the assimilation of data collected by a European ionosonde network. The method, called International Reference Ionosphere UPdate (IRI UP), that can potentially operate in real time, is mathematically described and validated for the period 9-25 March 2015 (a time window including the well-known St. Patrick storm occurred on 17 March), using IRI and IRI Real Time Assimilative Model (IRTAM) models as the reference. It relies on foF2 and M(3000)F2 ionospheric characteristics, recorded routinely by a network of 12 European ionosonde stations, which are used to calculate for each station effective values of IRI indices IG_{12} and R_{12} (identified as IG_{{12{eff}}} and R_{{12{eff}}}); then, starting from this discrete dataset of values, two-dimensional (2D) maps of IG_{{12{eff}}} and R_{{12{eff}}} are generated through the universal Kriging method. Five variogram models are proposed and tested statistically to select the best performer for each effective index. Then, computed maps of IG_{{12{eff}}} and R_{{12{eff}}} are used in the IRI model to synthesize updated values of foF2 and hmF2. To evaluate the ability of the proposed method to reproduce rapid local changes that are common under disturbed conditions, quality metrics are calculated for two test stations whose measurements were not assimilated in IRI UP, Fairford (51.7°N, 1.5°W) and San Vito (40.6°N, 17.8°E), for IRI, IRI UP, and IRTAM models. The proposed method turns out to be very effective under highly disturbed conditions, with significant improvements of the foF2 representation and noticeable improvements of the hmF2 one. Important improvements have been verified also for quiet and moderately disturbed

  7. Real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Badr, Salah M.; Bruztman, Donald P.; Nelson, Michael L.; Byrnes, Ronald Benton

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to the basic issues involved in real-time systems. Both real-time operating sys and real-time programming languages are explored. Concurrent programming and process synchronization and communication are also discussed. The real-time requirements of the Naval Postgraduate School Autonomous Under Vehicle (AUV) are then examined. Autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), hard real-time system, real-time operating system, real-time programming language, real-time sy...

  8. Development of sustainable performance indicators to assess the benefits of real-time monitoring in mechanised underground mining

    OpenAIRE

    Govindan, Rajesh; Cao, Wenzhuo; Korre, Anna; Durucan, Sevket; Graham, Peter; Simon, Clara; Barlow, Glenn; Pemberton, Ross

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the development and quantification of a catalogue of Sustainable Performance Indicators (SPIs) for the assessment of the benefits real-time mining can offer in small and complex mechanised underground mining operations. The SPIs investigated in detail include: ‒ grade accuracy and error of the resource model, ‒ high/low grade ore classification accuracy and error, ‒ additional high grade ore identified per unit volume, ‒ profit expected per unit volume, ‒ or...

  9. Performance comparison of next generation controller and MPC in real time for a SISO process with low cost DAQ unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bagyaveereswaran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a brief overview of real time implementation of next generation Robust, Tracking, Disturbance rejecting, Aggressive (RTDA controller and Model Predictive Control (MPC is provided. The control algorithm is implemented through MATLAB. The plant model used in controller design is obtained using system identification tool and integral response method. The controller model is developed in Simulink using jMPC tool, which will be executed in real time. The outputs obtained are tested for various constraint values to obtain the desirable results. The implementation of Hardware in Loop is done by interfacing it with MATLAB using Arduino as data acquisition unit. The performance of RTDA is compared with those of MPC and Proportional Integral controller.

  10. Performance Evaluation of Components Using a Granularity-based Interface Between Real-Time Calculus and Timed Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Altisen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available To analyze complex and heterogeneous real-time embedded systems, recent works have proposed interface techniques between real-time calculus (RTC and timed automata (TA, in order to take advantage of the strengths of each technique for analyzing various components. But the time to analyze a state-based component modeled by TA may be prohibitively high, due to the state space explosion problem. In this paper, we propose a framework of granularity-based interfacing to speed up the analysis of a TA modeled component. First, we abstract fine models to work with event streams at coarse granularity. We perform analysis of the component at multiple coarse granularities and then based on RTC theory, we derive lower and upper bounds on arrival patterns of the fine output streams using the causality closure algorithm. Our framework can help to achieve tradeoffs between precision and analysis time.

  11. Performance optimization of PM-16QAM transmission system enabled by real-time self-adaptive coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhen; Li, Yao; Mo, Weiyang; Yang, Mingwei; Zhu, Shengxiang; Kilper, Daniel C; Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2017-10-15

    We experimentally demonstrate self-adaptive coded 5×100  Gb/s WDM polarization multiplexed 16 quadrature amplitude modulation transmission over a 100 km fiber link, which is enabled by a real-time control plane. The real-time optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) is measured using an optical performance monitoring device. The OSNR measurement is processed and fed back using control plane logic and messaging to the transmitter side for code adaptation, where the binary data are adaptively encoded with three types of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes with code rates of 0.8, 0.75, and 0.7 of large girth. The total code-adaptation latency is measured to be 2273 ms. Compared with transmission without adaptation, average net capacity improvements of 102%, 36%, and 7.5% are obtained, respectively, by adaptive LDPC coding.

  12. Performance of a real-time PCR assay in routine bovine mastitis diagnostics compared with in-depth conventional culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiitiö, Heidi; Riva, Rauna; Autio, Tiina; Pohjanvirta, Tarja; Holopainen, Jani; Pyörälä, Satu; Pelkonen, Sinikka

    2015-05-01

    Reliable identification of the aetiological agent is crucial in mastitis diagnostics. Real-time PCR is a fast, automated tool for detecting the most common udder pathogens directly from milk. In this study aseptically taken quarter milk samples were analysed with a real-time PCR assay (Thermo Scientific PathoProof Mastitis Complete-12 Kit, Thermo Fisher Scientific Ltd.) and by semi-quantitative, in-depth bacteriological culture (BC). The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the real-time PCR assay in routine use. A total of 294 quarter milk samples from routine mastitis cases were cultured in the national reference laboratory of Finland and examined with real-time PCR. With BC, 251 out of 294 (85.7%) of the milk samples had at least one colony on the plate and 38 samples were considered contaminated. In the PCR mastitis assay, DNA of target species was amplified in 244 samples out of 294 (83.0%). The most common bacterial species detected in the samples, irrespective of the diagnostic method, was the coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) group (later referred as Staphylococcus spp.) followed by Staphylococcus aureus. Sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) for the PCR assay to provide a positive Staph. aureus result was 97.0 and 95.8% compared with BC. For Staphylococcus spp., the corresponding figures were 86.7 and 75.4%. Our results imply that PCR performed well as a diagnostic tool to detect Staph. aureus but may be too nonspecific for Staphylococcus spp. in routine use with the current cut-off Ct value (37.0). Using PCR as the only microbiological method for mastitis diagnostics, clinical relevance of the results should be carefully considered before further decisions, for instance antimicrobial treatment, especially when minor pathogens with low amount of DNA have been detected. Introducing the concept of contaminated samples should also be considered.

  13. Design and Performance Evaluation of an Adaptive Resource Management Framework for Distributed Real-Time and Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yingming

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Achieving end-to-end quality of service (QoS in distributed real-time embedded (DRE systems require QoS support and enforcement from their underlying operating platforms that integrates many real-time capabilities, such as QoS-enabled network protocols, real-time operating system scheduling mechanisms and policies, and real-time middleware services. As standards-based quality of service (QoS enabled component middleware automates integration and configuration activities, it is increasingly being used as a platform for developing open DRE systems that execute in environments where operational conditions, input workload, and resource availability cannot be characterized accurately a priori. Although QoS-enabled component middleware offers many desirable features, however, it historically lacked the ability to allocate resources efficiently and enable the system to adapt to fluctuations in input workload, resource availability, and operating conditions. This paper presents three contributions to research on adaptive resource management for component-based open DRE systems. First, we describe the structure and functionality of the resource allocation and control engine (RACE, which is an open-source adaptive resource management framework built atop standards-based QoS-enabled component middleware. Second, we demonstrate and evaluate the effectiveness of RACE in the context of a representative open DRE system: NASA's magnetospheric multiscale mission system. Third, we present an empirical evaluation of RACE's scalability as the number of nodes and applications in a DRE system grows. Our results show that RACE is a scalable adaptive resource management framework and yields a predictable and high-performance system, even in the face of changing operational conditions and input workload.

  14. Design and Performance Evaluation of an Adaptive Resource Management Framework for Distributed Real-Time and Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyang Lu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Achieving end-to-end quality of service (QoS in distributed real-time embedded (DRE systems require QoS support and enforcement from their underlying operating platforms that integrates many real-time capabilities, such as QoS-enabled network protocols, real-time operating system scheduling mechanisms and policies, and real-time middleware services. As standards-based quality of service (QoS enabled component middleware automates integration and configuration activities, it is increasingly being used as a platform for developing open DRE systems that execute in environments where operational conditions, input workload, and resource availability cannot be characterized accurately a priori. Although QoS-enabled component middleware offers many desirable features, however, it historically lacked the ability to allocate resources efficiently and enable the system to adapt to fluctuations in input workload, resource availability, and operating conditions. This paper presents three contributions to research on adaptive resource management for component-based open DRE systems. First, we describe the structure and functionality of the resource allocation and control engine (RACE, which is an open-source adaptive resource management framework built atop standards-based QoS-enabled component middleware. Second, we demonstrate and evaluate the effectiveness of RACE in the context of a representative open DRE system: NASA's magnetospheric multiscale mission system. Third, we present an empirical evaluation of RACE's scalability as the number of nodes and applications in a DRE system grows. Our results show that RACE is a scalable adaptive resource management framework and yields a predictable and high-performance system, even in the face of changing operational conditions and input workload.

  15. A review on real time physical measurement techniques and their attempt to predict wear-out status of IGBT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) are key component in power converters. Reliability of power converters depend on wear-out process of power modules. A physical parameter such as the on-state collector-emitter voltage (Vce) shows the status of degradation of the IGBT after a certain cycles...... of difficulties in the measurement, the offline and online Vce measurement topologies are implemented to study the reliability of the power converters. This paper presents a review in wear-out prediction methods of IGBT power modules and freewheeling diodes based on the real time Vce measurement. The measurement...

  16. Performance of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG for Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, C. A.; Cartwright, C. P.; Colaninno, P.; Welsch, J.; Holden, J.; Ho, S. Y.; Webb, E. M.; Anderson, C.; Bertuzis, R.; Zhang, L.; Miller, T.; Leckie, G.; Abravaya, K.; Robinson, J.

    2010-01-01

    A multicenter clinical study was conducted to evaluate the performance characteristics of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay, a multiplex real-time PCR assay, for simultaneous detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The specimens were collected from a total of 3,832 male and female subjects at 16 geographically diverse sites. Specimens included male and female urine samples, male urethral swabs, female endocervical swabs, and self-collected and clinician-collected vaginal swabs. Specimens were tested with the automated Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay, Aptima Combo 2 assay (Gen-Probe), ProbeTec ET CT/GC assay (Becton Dickinson), and culture for N. gonorrhoeae. The Aptima Combo 2 assay, the ProbeTec assay, and the N. gonorrhoeae culture were used as the reference assays. For each subject, a patient infected status (PIS) was determined based on the combined results from the reference assays. The overall prevalence in female subjects was 8.9% for C. trachomatis and 3.8% for N. gonorrhoeae. The overall male prevalence was 18.2% for C. trachomatis and 16.7% for N. gonorrhoeae. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay were 92.4% and 99.2% for C. trachomatis and 96.9% and 99.7% for N. gonorrhoeae, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for the Aptima Combo 2 assay were 94.5% and 99.0% for C. trachomatis and 96.1% and 99.5% for N. gonorrhoeae, and those for the ProbeTec ET assay were 90.3% and 99.5% for C. trachomatis and 92.0% and 97.3% for N. gonorrhoeae in this study. The Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay offers C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae dual detection with high sensitivity and specificity. The automated assay provides a useful alternative nucleic acid amplification assay for clinical laboratories and clinicians. PMID:20668135

  17. Performance of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, C A; Cartwright, C P; Colaninno, P; Welsch, J; Holden, J; Ho, S Y; Webb, E M; Anderson, C; Bertuzis, R; Zhang, L; Miller, T; Leckie, G; Abravaya, K; Robinson, J

    2010-09-01

    A multicenter clinical study was conducted to evaluate the performance characteristics of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay, a multiplex real-time PCR assay, for simultaneous detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The specimens were collected from a total of 3,832 male and female subjects at 16 geographically diverse sites. Specimens included male and female urine samples, male urethral swabs, female endocervical swabs, and self-collected and clinician-collected vaginal swabs. Specimens were tested with the automated Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay, Aptima Combo 2 assay (Gen-Probe), ProbeTec ET CT/GC assay (Becton Dickinson), and culture for N. gonorrhoeae. The Aptima Combo 2 assay, the ProbeTec assay, and the N. gonorrhoeae culture were used as the reference assays. For each subject, a patient infected status (PIS) was determined based on the combined results from the reference assays. The overall prevalence in female subjects was 8.9% for C. trachomatis and 3.8% for N. gonorrhoeae. The overall male prevalence was 18.2% for C. trachomatis and 16.7% for N. gonorrhoeae. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay were 92.4% and 99.2% for C. trachomatis and 96.9% and 99.7% for N. gonorrhoeae, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for the Aptima Combo 2 assay were 94.5% and 99.0% for C. trachomatis and 96.1% and 99.5% for N. gonorrhoeae, and those for the ProbeTec ET assay were 90.3% and 99.5% for C. trachomatis and 92.0% and 97.3% for N. gonorrhoeae in this study. The Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay offers C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae dual detection with high sensitivity and specificity. The automated assay provides a useful alternative nucleic acid amplification assay for clinical laboratories and clinicians.

  18. Performance evaluation and modeling of a conformal filter (CF) based real-time standoff hazardous material detection sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Matthew P.; Tazik, Shawna K.; Bangalore, Arjun S.; Treado, Patrick J.; Klem, Ethan; Temple, Dorota

    2017-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) systems can provide detection and identification of a variety of targets in the presence of complex backgrounds. However, current generation sensors are typically large, costly to field, do not usually operate in real time and have limited sensitivity and specificity. Despite these shortcomings, HSI-based intelligence has proven to be a valuable tool, thus resulting in increased demand for this type of technology. By moving the next generation of HSI technology into a more adaptive configuration, and a smaller and more cost effective form factor, HSI technologies can help maintain a competitive advantage for the U.S. armed forces as well as local, state and federal law enforcement agencies. Operating near the physical limits of HSI system capability is often necessary and very challenging, but is often enabled by rigorous modeling of detection performance. Specific performance envelopes we consistently strive to improve include: operating under low signal to background conditions; at higher and higher frame rates; and under less than ideal motion control scenarios. An adaptable, low cost, low footprint, standoff sensor architecture we have been maturing includes the use of conformal liquid crystal tunable filters (LCTFs). These Conformal Filters (CFs) are electro-optically tunable, multivariate HSI spectrometers that, when combined with Dual Polarization (DP) optics, produce optimized spectral passbands on demand, which can readily be reconfigured, to discriminate targets from complex backgrounds in real-time. With DARPA support, ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISS™) in collaboration with Research Triangle Institute (RTI) International are developing a novel, real-time, adaptable, compressive sensing short-wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging technology called the Reconfigurable Conformal Imaging Sensor (RCIS) based on DP-CF technology. RCIS will address many shortcomings of current generation systems and offer improvements in

  19. Review: The Use of Real-Time Fluorescence Instrumentation to Monitor Ambient Primary Biological Aerosol Particles (PBAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehael J. Fennelly

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP encompass many particle types that are derived from several biological kingdoms. These aerosol particles can be composed of both whole living units such as pollen, bacteria, and fungi, as well as from mechanically formed particles, such as plant debris. They constitute a significant proportion of the overall atmospheric particle load and have been linked with adverse health issues and climatic effects on the environment. Traditional methods for their analysis have focused on the direct capture of PBAP before subsequent laboratory analysis. These analysis types have generally relied on direct optical microscopy or incubation on agar plates, followed by time-consuming microbiological investigation. In an effort to address some of these deficits, real-time fluorescence monitors have come to prominence in the analysis of PBAP. These instruments offer significant advantages over traditional methods, including the measurement of concentrations, as well as the potential to simultaneously identify individual analyte particles in real-time. Due to the automated nature of these measurements, large data sets can be collected and analyzed with relative ease. This review seeks to highlight and discuss the extensive literature pertaining to the most commonly used commercially available real-time fluorescence monitors (WIBS, UV-APS and BioScout. It discusses the instruments operating principles, their limitations and advantages, and the various environments in which they have been deployed. The review provides a detailed examination of the ambient fluorescent aerosol particle concentration profiles that are obtained by these studies, along with the various strategies adopted by researchers to analyze the substantial data sets the instruments generate. Finally, a brief reflection is presented on the role that future instrumentation may provide in revolutionizing this area of atmospheric research.

  20. Assessing air medical crew real-time readiness to perform critical tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braude, Darren; Goldsmith, Timothy; Weiss, Steven J

    2011-01-01

    Air medical transport has had problems with its safety record, attributed in part to human error. Flight crew members (FCMs) must be able to focus on critical safety tasks in the context of a stressful environment. Flight crew members' cognitive readiness (CR) to perform their jobs may be affected by sleep deprivation, personal problems, high workload, and use of alcohol and drugs. The current study investigated the feasibility of using a computer-based cognitive task to assess FCMs' readiness to perform their job. The FCMs completed a short questionnaire to evaluate their physiologic and psychological state at the beginning and end of each shift. The FCMs then performed 3 minutes of a computer-based cognitive task called synthetic work environment (SYNWIN test battery). Task performance was compared with the questionnaire variables using correlation and regression analysis. Differences between the beginning and end of each shift were matched and compared using a paired Students t test. SYNWIN performance was significantly worse at the end of a shift compared with the beginning of the shift (p = 0.028) primarily because of decrement in the memory component. The SYNWIN composite scores were negatively correlated to degree of irritability felt by the participant, both before (r = -0.25) and after (r = -0.34) a shift and were significantly correlated with amount of sleep (0.22), rest (0.30), and life satisfaction (0.30). Performance by FCMs on a simple, rapid, computer-based psychological test correlates well with self-reported sleep, rest, life satisfaction, and irritability. Although further studies are warranted, these findings suggest that assessment of the performance of FCMs on a simple, rapid, computer-based, multitasking battery is feasible as an approach to determine their readiness to perform critical safety tasks through the SYNWIN task battery.

  1. Reorganization of functional brain networks mediates the improvement of cognitive performance following real-time neurofeedback training of working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gaoyan; Yao, Li; Shen, Jiahui; Yang, Yihong; Zhao, Xiaojie

    2015-05-01

    Working memory (WM) is essential for individuals' cognitive functions. Neuroimaging studies indicated that WM fundamentally relied on a frontoparietal working memory network (WMN) and a cinguloparietal default mode network (DMN). Behavioral training studies demonstrated that the two networks can be modulated by WM training. Different from the behavioral training, our recent study used a real-time functional MRI (rtfMRI)-based neurofeedback method to conduct WM training, demonstrating that WM performance can be significantly improved after successfully upregulating the activity of the target region of interest (ROI) in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Zhang et al., [2013]: PloS One 8:e73735); however, the neural substrate of rtfMRI-based WM training remains unclear. In this work, we assessed the intranetwork and internetwork connectivity changes of WMN and DMN during the training, and their correlations with the change of brain activity in the target ROI as well as with the improvement of post-training behavior. Our analysis revealed an "ROI-network-behavior" correlation relationship underlying the rtfMRI training. Further mediation analysis indicated that the reorganization of functional brain networks mediated the effect of self-regulation of the target brain activity on the improvement of cognitive performance following the neurofeedback training. The results of this study enhance our understanding of the neural basis of real-time neurofeedback and suggest a new direction to improve WM performance by regulating the functional connectivity in the WM related networks. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Hybrid monitoring scheme for end-to-end performance enhancement of multicast-based real-time media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju-Won; Kim, JongWon

    2004-10-01

    As real-time media applications based on IP multicast networks spread widely, end-to-end QoS (quality of service) provisioning for these applications have become very important. To guarantee the end-to-end QoS of multi-party media applications, it is essential to monitor the time-varying status of both network metrics (i.e., delay, jitter and loss) and system metrics (i.e., CPU and memory utilization). In this paper, targeting the multicast-enabled AG (Access Grid) a next-generation group collaboration tool based on multi-party media services, the applicability of hybrid monitoring scheme that combines active and passive monitoring is investigated. The active monitoring measures network-layer metrics (i.e., network condition) with probe packets while the passive monitoring checks both application-layer metrics (i.e., user traffic condition by analyzing RTCP packets) and system metrics. By comparing these hybrid results, we attempt to pinpoint the causes of performance degradation and explore corresponding reactions to improve the end-to-end performance. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid monitoring can provide useful information to coordinate the performance improvement of multi-party real-time media applications.

  3. Manipulating motor performance and memory through real-time fMRI neurofeedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharnowski, Frank; Veit, Ralf; Zopf, Regine; Studer, Petra; Bock, Simon; Diedrichsen, Jörn; Goebel, R.; Mathiak, Klaus; Birbaumer, Niels; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    Task performance depends on ongoing brain activity which can be influenced by attention, arousal, or motivation. However, such modulating factors of cognitive efficiency are unspecific, can be difficult to control, and are not suitable to facilitate neural processing in a regionally specific manner.

  4. Improving supply chain performance : real-time demand information and flexible deliveries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shang, K.H.; Zhou, S.X.; Houtum, van G.J.J.A.N.

    2010-01-01

    In some supply chains, materials are ordered periodically according to local information. This paper investigates how to improve the performance of such a supply chain. Specifically, we consider a serial inventory system in which each stage implements a local reorder interval policy; i.e., each

  5. Improving supply chain performance : real-time demand information and responsive deliveries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shang, K.H.; Zhou, S.Y.; Houtum, van G.J.J.A.N.

    2008-01-01

    In some supply chains, materials are ordered periodically according to local information. This paper investigates how to improve the performance of such a supply chain. Specifically, we consider a serial inventory system in which each stage implements a local reorder interval policy, i.e., each

  6. A dynamic approach to real-time performance measurement in design projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skec, Stanko; Cash, Philip; Storga, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Recent developments in engineering design management point to the need for more dynamic, fine-grain measurement approaches able to deal with multi-dimensional, cross-level process performance in product design. Thus, this paper proposes a new approach to the measurement and management of individu...

  7. A High Performance Micro Channel Interface for Real-Time Industrial Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Drayer; Joseph G. Tront; Richard W. Conners

    1995-01-01

    Data collection and transfer devices are critical to the performance of any machine vision system. The interface described in this paper collects image data from a color line scan camera and transfers the data obtained into the system memory of a Micro Channel-based host computer. A maximum data transfer rate of 20 Mbytes/sec can be achieved using the DMA capabilities...

  8. Performance Characteristics and Comparison of Abbott and artus Real-Time Systems for Hepatitis B Virus DNA Quantification ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ashrafali M.; Sivakumar, Jayashree; Anantharam, Raghavendran; Dayalan, Sujitha; Samuel, Prasanna; Fletcher, Gnanadurai J.; Gnanamony, Manu; Abraham, Priya

    2011-01-01

    Virological monitoring of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA is critical to the management of HBV infection. With several HBV DNA quantification assays available, it is important to use the most efficient testing system for virological monitoring. In this study, we evaluated the performance characteristics and comparability of three HBV DNA quantification systems: Abbott HBV real-time PCR (Abbott PCR), artus HBV real-time PCR with QIAamp DNA blood kit purification (artus-DB), and artus HBV real-time PCR with the QIAamp DSP virus kit purification (artus-DSP). The lower limits of detection of these systems were established against the WHO international standards for HBV DNA and were found to be 1.43, 82, and 9 IU/ml, respectively. The intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation of plasma samples (1 to 6 log10 IU/ml) ranged between 0.05 to 8.34% and 0.16 to 3.48% for the Abbott PCR, 1.53 to 26.85% and 0.50 to 12.89% for artus-DB, and 0.29 to 7.42% and 0.94 to 3.01% for artus-DSP, respectively. Ninety HBV clinical samples were used for comparison of assays, and paired quantitative results showed strong correlation by linear regression analysis (artus-DB with Abbott PCR, r = 0.95; Abbott PCR with artus-DSP, r = 0.97; and artus-DSP with artus-DB, r = 0.94). Bland-Altman analysis showed a good level of agreement for Abbott PCR and artus-DSP, with a mean difference of 0.10 log10 IU/ml and limits of agreement of −0.91 to 1.11 log10 IU/ml. No genotype-specific bias was seen in all three systems for HBV genotypes A, C, and D, which are predominant in this region. This finding illustrates that the Abbott real-time HBV and artus-DSP systems show more comparable performance than the artus-DB system, meeting the current guidelines for assays to be used in the management of hepatitis B. PMID:21795507

  9. Performance characteristics and comparison of Abbott and artus real-time systems for hepatitis B virus DNA quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ashrafali M; Sivakumar, Jayashree; Anantharam, Raghavendran; Dayalan, Sujitha; Samuel, Prasanna; Fletcher, Gnanadurai J; Gnanamony, Manu; Abraham, Priya

    2011-09-01

    Virological monitoring of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA is critical to the management of HBV infection. With several HBV DNA quantification assays available, it is important to use the most efficient testing system for virological monitoring. In this study, we evaluated the performance characteristics and comparability of three HBV DNA quantification systems: Abbott HBV real-time PCR (Abbott PCR), artus HBV real-time PCR with QIAamp DNA blood kit purification (artus-DB), and artus HBV real-time PCR with the QIAamp DSP virus kit purification (artus-DSP). The lower limits of detection of these systems were established against the WHO international standards for HBV DNA and were found to be 1.43, 82, and 9 IU/ml, respectively. The intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation of plasma samples (1 to 6 log(10) IU/ml) ranged between 0.05 to 8.34% and 0.16 to 3.48% for the Abbott PCR, 1.53 to 26.85% and 0.50 to 12.89% for artus-DB, and 0.29 to 7.42% and 0.94 to 3.01% for artus-DSP, respectively. Ninety HBV clinical samples were used for comparison of assays, and paired quantitative results showed strong correlation by linear regression analysis (artus-DB with Abbott PCR, r = 0.95; Abbott PCR with artus-DSP, r = 0.97; and artus-DSP with artus-DB, r = 0.94). Bland-Altman analysis showed a good level of agreement for Abbott PCR and artus-DSP, with a mean difference of 0.10 log(10) IU/ml and limits of agreement of -0.91 to 1.11 log(10) IU/ml. No genotype-specific bias was seen in all three systems for HBV genotypes A, C, and D, which are predominant in this region. This finding illustrates that the Abbott real-time HBV and artus-DSP systems show more comparable performance than the artus-DB system, meeting the current guidelines for assays to be used in the management of hepatitis B.

  10. Design and Performance Evaluation of Real-time Endovascular Interventional Surgical Robotic System with High Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kundong; Chen, Bing; Lu, Qingsheng; Li, Hongbing; Liu, Manhua; Shen, Yu; Xu, Zhuoyan

    2018-05-15

    Endovascular interventional surgery (EIS) is performed under a high radiation environment at the sacrifice of surgeons' health. This paper introduces a novel endovascular interventional surgical robot that aims to reduce radiation to surgeons and physical stress imposed by lead aprons during fluoroscopic X-ray guided catheter intervention. The unique mechanical structure allowed the surgeon to manipulate the axial and radial motion of the catheter and guide wire. Four catheter manipulators (to manipulate the catheter and guide wire), and a control console which consists of four joysticks, several buttons and two twist switches (to control the catheter manipulators) were presented. The entire robotic system was established on a master-slave control structure through CAN (Controller Area Network) bus communication, meanwhile, the slave side of this robotic system showed highly accurate control over velocity and displacement with PID controlling method. The robotic system was tested and passed in vitro and animal experiments. Through functionality evaluation, the manipulators were able to complete interventional surgical motion both independently and cooperatively. The robotic surgery was performed successfully in an adult female pig and demonstrated the feasibility of superior mesenteric and common iliac artery stent implantation. The entire robotic system met the clinical requirements of EIS. The results show that the system has the ability to imitate the movements of surgeons and to accomplish the axial and radial motions with consistency and high-accuracy. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Real-time distributed fiber optic sensor for security systems: Performance, event classification and nuisance mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Seedahmed S.; Visagathilagar, Yuvaraja; Katsifolis, Jim

    2012-09-01

    The success of any perimeter intrusion detection system depends on three important performance parameters: the probability of detection (POD), the nuisance alarm rate (NAR), and the false alarm rate (FAR). The most fundamental parameter, POD, is normally related to a number of factors such as the event of interest, the sensitivity of the sensor, the installation quality of the system, and the reliability of the sensing equipment. The suppression of nuisance alarms without degrading sensitivity in fiber optic intrusion detection systems is key to maintaining acceptable performance. Signal processing algorithms that maintain the POD and eliminate nuisance alarms are crucial for achieving this. In this paper, a robust event classification system using supervised neural networks together with a level crossings (LCs) based feature extraction algorithm is presented for the detection and recognition of intrusion and non-intrusion events in a fence-based fiber-optic intrusion detection system. A level crossings algorithm is also used with a dynamic threshold to suppress torrential rain-induced nuisance alarms in a fence system. Results show that rain-induced nuisance alarms can be suppressed for rainfall rates in excess of 100 mm/hr with the simultaneous detection of intrusion events. The use of a level crossing based detection and novel classification algorithm is also presented for a buried pipeline fiber optic intrusion detection system for the suppression of nuisance events and discrimination of intrusion events. The sensor employed for both types of systems is a distributed bidirectional fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometer.

  12. Nonintrusive performance measurement of a gas turbine engine in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSilva, Upul P.; Claussen, Heiko

    2017-08-29

    Performance of a gas turbine engine is monitored by computing a mass flow rate through the engine. Acoustic time-of-flight measurements are taken between acoustic transmitters and receivers in the flow path of the engine. The measurements are processed to determine average speeds of sound and gas flow velocities along those lines-of-sound. A volumetric flow rate in the flow path is computed using the gas flow velocities together with a representation of the flow path geometry. A gas density in the flow path is computed using the speeds of sound and a measured static pressure. The mass flow rate is calculated from the gas density and the volumetric flow rate.

  13. Real-time screening tests for functional alignment of the trunk and lower extremities in adolescent – a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Tina; Wedderkopp, N; Juul-Kristensen, B

    mechanisms resulting in ACL injuries (Hewett, 2010). Prevention may therefore depend on identifying these potentially injury risk factors. Screening tools must thus include patterns of typical movements in sport and leisure time activities, consisting of high-load and multi-directional tests, focusing...... on functional alignment. In large epidemiological studies these tests must only require a minimum of time and technical equipment. Objective The purpose of the study was to accomplish a systematic review of screening tests for identification of adolescents at increased risk of knee injuries, focusing...... of knee alignment, there is a further need to evaluate reliability and validity of real-time functional alignment tests, before the can be used as screening tools for prevention of knee injuries among adolescents. Still the next step in this systematic review is to evaluate the quality and feasibility...

  14. Real Time Strategy Language

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Roy; Beling, Peter; Scherer, William

    2014-01-01

    Real Time Strategy (RTS) games provide complex domain to test the latest artificial intelligence (AI) research. In much of the literature, AI systems have been limited to playing one game. Although, this specialization has resulted in stronger AI gaming systems it does not address the key concerns of AI researcher. AI researchers seek the development of AI agents that can autonomously interpret learn, and apply new knowledge. To achieve human level performance, current AI systems rely on game...

  15. Practical performance of real-time shot-noise measurement in continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Peng; Zhou, Yingming; Liu, Weiqi; Zeng, Guihua

    2018-01-01

    In a practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) system, real-time shot-noise measurement (RTSNM) is an essential procedure for preventing the eavesdropper exploiting the practical security loopholes. However, the performance of this procedure itself is not analyzed under the real-world condition. Therefore, we indicate the RTSNM practical performance and investigate its effects on the CVQKD system. In particular, due to the finite-size effect, the shot-noise measurement at the receiver's side may decrease the precision of parameter estimation and consequently result in a tight security bound. To mitigate that, we optimize the block size for RTSNM under the ensemble size limitation to maximize the secure key rate. Moreover, the effect of finite dynamics of amplitude modulator in this scheme is studied and its mitigation method is also proposed. Our work indicates the practical performance of RTSNM and provides the real secret key rate under it.

  16. Evaluation on real-time dynamic performance of BDS in PPP, RTK, and INS tightly aided modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhouzheng; Li, Tuan; Zhang, Hongping; Ge, Maorong; Schuh, Harald

    2018-05-01

    Since China's BeiDou satellite navigation system (BDS) began to provide regional navigation service for Asia-Pacific region after 2012, more new generation BDS satellites have been launched to further expand BDS's coverage to be global. In this contribution, precise positioning models based on BDS and the corresponding mathematical algorithms are presented in detail. Then, an evaluation on BDS's real-time dynamic positioning and navigation performance is presented in Precise Point Positioning (PPP), Real-time Kinematic (RTK), Inertial Navigation System (INS) tightly aided PPP and RTK modes by processing a set of land-borne vehicle experiment data. Results indicate that BDS positioning Root Mean Square (RMS) in north, east, and vertical components are 2.0, 2.7, and 7.6 cm in RTK mode and 7.8, 14.7, and 24.8 cm in PPP mode, which are close to GPS positioning accuracy. Meanwhile, with the help of INS, about 38.8%, 67.5%, and 66.5% improvements can be obtained by using PPP/INS tight-integration mode. Such enhancements in RTK/INS tight-integration mode are 14.1%, 34.0%, and 41.9%. Moreover, the accuracy of velocimetry and attitude determination can be improved to be better than 1 cm/s and 0.1°, respectively. Besides, the continuity and reliability of BDS in both PPP and RTK modes can also be ameliorated significantly by INS during satellite signal missing periods.

  17. Performance of overlapped shield tunneling through an integrated physical model tests, numerical simulations and real-time field monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junlong Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, deformations and internal forces of an existing tunnel subjected to a closely overlapped shield tunneling are monitored and analyzed using a series of physical model experiments and numerical simulations. Effects of different excavation sequences and speeds are explicitly considered in the analysis. The results of the physical model experiments show that the bottom-up tunneling procedure is better than the top-down tunneling procedure. The incurred deformations and internal forces of the existing tunnel increase with the excavation speed and the range of influence areas also increase accordingly. For construction process control, real-time monitoring of the power tunnel is used. The monitoring processes feature full automation, adjustable frequency, real-time monitor and dynamic feedback, which are used to guide the construction to achieve micro-disturbance control. In accordance with the situation of crossing construction, a numerical study on the performance of power tunnel is carried out. Construction control measures are given for the undercrossing construction, which helps to accomplish the desired result and meet protection requirements of the existing tunnel structure. Finally, monitoring data and numerical results are compared, and the displacement and joint fracture change models in the power tunnel subject to the overlapped shield tunnel construction are analyzed. Keywords: Overlapped tunnel, Automatic monitoring, Micro-disturbance control

  18. Evaluation of the clinical performance of the Abbott RealTime High-Risk HPV for carcinogenic HPV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, Philippe; Benmoura, Dominique; Agostini, Aubert; Khiri, Hacene; Penaranda, Guillaume; Martineau, Agnes; Blanc, Bernard

    2010-08-01

    Abbott RealTime (RT) High-Risk (HR) HPV assay is a new qualitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay for the detection of 14 HR HPV DNA. The assay can differentiate between the infection by HPV 16, HPV 18 and non-HPV 16/18 types through the distinct fluorescent labels on the type specific probes. To evaluate the clinical performance of the Abbott RT HR HPV test, in comparison with biopsy, Hybrid Capture II (HCII), and Linear Array (LA), for detection of high-grade disease (CIN2+). The study population consisted of 143 women who were included in three referral gynecology clinics in Marseilles (France) between March 2007 and June 2008. The clinical performance of the RT HR HPV assay, performed on the fully automated m2000 system, was compared with HCII and LA. HR HPV positivity rate was similar for all tests (Abbott RT HR HPV and HCII, 62%, and LA 63%). All tests had high sensitivities and negative predictive values for CIN2+ detection (>90%). The agreement between HCII and Abbott RT HR HPV, and between HCII and LA were 93% (k=0.85) and 96% (k=0.91) respectively. As expected, HPV16 or HPV18 positivity was greater in advanced grades of disease, especially in CIN2+ patients: 85% in CIN2+ vs. 33% in Abbott RT HR HPV assay is good and closely correlated with the two other assays. The automation and ability to identify type 16 and 18 make this a very attractive option for HPV testing in laboratories and potentially provides improved patient management. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Performance and Quality Assessment of the Forthcoming Copernicus Marine Service Global Ocean Monitoring and Forecasting Real-Time System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellouche, J. M.; Le Galloudec, O.; Greiner, E.; Garric, G.; Regnier, C.; Drillet, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Mercator Ocean currently delivers in real-time daily services (weekly analyses and daily forecast) with a global 1/12° high resolution system. The model component is the NEMO platform driven at the surface by the IFS ECMWF atmospheric analyses and forecasts. Observations are assimilated by means of a reduced-order Kalman filter with a 3D multivariate modal decomposition of the forecast error. It includes an adaptive-error estimate and a localization algorithm. Along track altimeter data, satellite Sea Surface Temperature and in situ temperature and salinity vertical profiles are jointly assimilated to estimate the initial conditions for numerical ocean forecasting. A 3D-Var scheme provides a correction for the slowly-evolving large-scale biases in temperature and salinity.Since May 2015, Mercator Ocean opened the Copernicus Marine Service (CMS) and is in charge of the global ocean analyses and forecast, at eddy resolving resolution. In this context, R&D activities have been conducted at Mercator Ocean these last years in order to improve the real-time 1/12° global system for the next CMS version in 2016. The ocean/sea-ice model and the assimilation scheme benefit among others from the following improvements: large-scale and objective correction of atmospheric quantities with satellite data, new Mean Dynamic Topography taking into account the last version of GOCE geoid, new adaptive tuning of some observational errors, new Quality Control on the assimilated temperature and salinity vertical profiles based on dynamic height criteria, assimilation of satellite sea-ice concentration, new freshwater runoff from ice sheets melting …This presentation doesn't focus on the impact of each update, but rather on the overall behavior of the system integrating all updates. This assessment reports on the products quality improvements, highlighting the level of performance and the reliability of the new system.

  20. Embedded Electro-Optic Sensor Network for the On-Site Calibration and Real-Time Performance Monitoring of Large-Scale Phased Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Kyoung

    2005-01-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the Phase I SBIR project entitled "Embedded Electro-Optic Sensor Network for the On-Site Calibration and Real-Time Performance Monitoring of Large-Scale Phased Arrays...

  1. Real Time Text Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Ruchika Mehra Vijayan, E.

    2017-11-01

    This paper aims to illustrate real time analysis of large scale data. For practical implementation we are performing sentiment analysis on live Twitter feeds for each individual tweet. To analyze sentiments we will train our data model on sentiWordNet, a polarity assigned wordNet sample by Princeton University. Our main objective will be to efficiency analyze large scale data on the fly using distributed computation. Apache Spark and Apache Hadoop eco system is used as distributed computation platform with Java as development language

  2. The Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test is a clinically validated human papillomavirus assay for triage in the referral population and use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older: a review of validation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Mario; Oštrbenk, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has become an essential part of current clinical practice in the management of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. We reviewed the most important validation studies of a next-generation real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay, the RealTime High Risk HPV test (RealTime)(Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA), for triage in referral population settings and for use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older published in peer-reviewed journals from 2009 to 2013. RealTime is designed to detect 14 high-risk HPV genotypes with concurrent distinction of HPV-16 and HPV-18 from 12 other HPV genotypes. The test was launched on the European market in January 2009 and is currently used in many laboratories worldwide for routine detection of HPV. We concisely reviewed validation studies of a next-generation real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay: the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test. Eight validation studies of RealTime in referral settings showed its consistently high absolute clinical sensitivity for both CIN2+ (range 88.3-100%) and CIN3+ (range 93.0-100%), as well as comparative clinical sensitivity relative to the currently most widely used HPV test: the Qiagen/Digene Hybrid Capture 2 HPV DNA Test (HC2). Due to the significantly different composition of the referral populations, RealTime absolute clinical specificity for CIN2+ and CIN3+ varied greatly across studies, but was comparable relative to HC2. Four validation studies of RealTime performance in cervical cancer screening settings showed its consistently high absolute clinical sensitivity for both CIN2+ and CIN3+, as well as comparative clinical sensitivity and specificity relative to HC2 and GP5+/6+ PCR. RealTime has been extensively evaluated in the last 4 years. RealTime can be considered clinically validated for triage in referral population settings and for use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older.

  3. Comparison of the clinical performances of the AdvanSure HPV Screening Real-Time PCR, the Abbott Real-Time High-Risk HPV Test, and the Hybrid Capture High-Risk HPV DNA Test for Cervical Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hae-Sun; Hahm, Chorong; Lee, Miae

    2014-09-01

    The clinical performance of three human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA commercial assays for cervical cancer screening was evaluated; the AdvanSure HPV Screening Real-Time PCR (AdvanSure PCR; LG Life Sciences) that was developed recently for the detection of both high-risk and low-risk genotypes, the Abbott RealTime High-Risk HPV Test (Abbott PCR; Abbott Molecular) and the Hybrid Capture High-Risk HPV DNA test (HC2; Qiagen). The three different HPV DNA tests were compared using cytology samples obtained from 619 women who underwent routine cervical cancer screening. The gold-standard assay was histopathological confirmation of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse. The clinical sensitivities of the AdvanSure PCR, the Abbott PCR and the HC2 for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse were 95.5%, 95.5% and 100%, respectively, while the clinical specificities were 61.6%, 86.4% and 83.3%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the clinical sensitivities of the Abbott PCR and the AdvanSure PCR compared to the HC2. The clinical specificities of the Abbott PCR and the AdvanSure PCR for the detection of HPV types 16/18 were 97.8% and 98.5%, respectively. For cervical cancer screening, all three tests showed relatively good clinical sensitivities, but the AdvanSure PCR had lower clinical specificity than the Abbott PCR and the HC2. The AdvanSure PCR and the Abbott PCR assays have the advantage of being automated and the ability to distinguish between HPV types 16/18 and other HPV types. The two real-time PCR assays could be useful tools in HPV testing for cervical cancer screening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Real Time Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Phillip G.

    1985-12-01

    The call for abolishing photo reconnaissance in favor of real time is once more being heard. Ten years ago the same cries were being heard with the introduction of the Charge Coupled Device (CCD). The real time system problems that existed then and stopped real time proliferation have not been solved. The lack of an organized program by either DoD or industry has hampered any efforts to solve the problems, and as such, very little has happened in real time in the last ten years. Real time is not a replacement for photo, just as photo is not a replacement for infra-red or radar. Operational real time sensors can be designed only after their role has been defined and improvements made to the weak links in the system. Plodding ahead on a real time reconnaissance suite without benefit of evaluation of utility will allow this same paper to be used ten years from now.

  5. OSCAR API for Real-Time Low-Power Multicores and Its Performance on Multicores and SMP Servers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Keiji; Mase, Masayoshi; Mikami, Hiroki; Miyamoto, Takamichi; Shirako, Jun; Kasahara, Hironori

    OSCAR (Optimally Scheduled Advanced Multiprocessor) API has been designed for real-time embedded low-power multicores to generate parallel programs for various multicores from different vendors by using the OSCAR parallelizing compiler. The OSCAR API has been developed by Waseda University in collaboration with Fujitsu Laboratory, Hitachi, NEC, Panasonic, Renesas Technology, and Toshiba in an METI/NEDO project entitled "Multicore Technology for Realtime Consumer Electronics." By using the OSCAR API as an interface between the OSCAR compiler and backend compilers, the OSCAR compiler enables hierarchical multigrain parallel processing with memory optimization under capacity restriction for cache memory, local memory, distributed shared memory, and on-chip/off-chip shared memory; data transfer using a DMA controller; and power reduction control using DVFS (Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling), clock gating, and power gating for various embedded multicores. In addition, a parallelized program automatically generated by the OSCAR compiler with OSCAR API can be compiled by the ordinary OpenMP compilers since the OSCAR API is designed on a subset of the OpenMP. This paper describes the OSCAR API and its compatibility with the OSCAR compiler by showing code examples. Performance evaluations of the OSCAR compiler and the OSCAR API are carried out using an IBM Power5+ workstation, an IBM Power6 high-end SMP server, and a newly developed consumer electronics multicore chip RP2 by Renesas, Hitachi and Waseda. From the results of scalability evaluation, it is found that on an average, the OSCAR compiler with the OSCAR API can exploit 5.8 times speedup over the sequential execution on the Power5+ workstation with eight cores and 2.9 times speedup on RP2 with four cores, respectively. In addition, the OSCAR compiler can accelerate an IBM XL Fortran compiler up to 3.3 times on the Power6 SMP server. Due to low-power optimization on RP2, the OSCAR compiler with the OSCAR API

  6. Combining UML2 Application and SystemC Platform Modelling for Performance Evaluation of Real-Time Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Yang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Future mobile devices will be based on heterogeneous multiprocessing platforms accommodating several stand-alone applications. The network-on-chip communication and device networking combine the design challenges of conventional distributed systems and resource constrained real-time embedded systems. Interoperable design space exploration for both the application and platform development is required. Application designer needs abstract platform models to rapidly check the feasibility of a new feature or application. Platform designer needs abstract application models for defining platform computation and communication capacities. We propose a layered UML application/workload and SystemC platform modelling approach that allow application and platform to be modelled at several levels of abstraction, which enables early performance evaluation of the resulting system. The overall approach has been experimented with a mobile video player case study, while different load extraction methods have been validated by applying them to MPEG-4 encoder, Quake2 3D game, and MP3 decoder case studies previously.

  7. Statistical Techniques For Real-time Anomaly Detection Using Spark Over Multi-source VMware Performance Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solaimani, Mohiuddin [Univ. of Texas-Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States); Iftekhar, Mohammed [Univ. of Texas-Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States); Khan, Latifur [Univ. of Texas-Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States); Thuraisingham, Bhavani [Univ. of Texas-Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States); Ingram, Joey Burton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Anomaly detection refers to the identi cation of an irregular or unusual pat- tern which deviates from what is standard, normal, or expected. Such deviated patterns typically correspond to samples of interest and are assigned different labels in different domains, such as outliers, anomalies, exceptions, or malware. Detecting anomalies in fast, voluminous streams of data is a formidable chal- lenge. This paper presents a novel, generic, real-time distributed anomaly detection framework for heterogeneous streaming data where anomalies appear as a group. We have developed a distributed statistical approach to build a model and later use it to detect anomaly. As a case study, we investigate group anomaly de- tection for a VMware-based cloud data center, which maintains a large number of virtual machines (VMs). We have built our framework using Apache Spark to get higher throughput and lower data processing time on streaming data. We have developed a window-based statistical anomaly detection technique to detect anomalies that appear sporadically. We then relaxed this constraint with higher accuracy by implementing a cluster-based technique to detect sporadic and continuous anomalies. We conclude that our cluster-based technique out- performs other statistical techniques with higher accuracy and lower processing time.

  8. Critical review of real-time methods for solid waste characterisation: Informing material recovery and fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancken, C; Longhurst, P J; Wagland, S T

    2017-03-01

    Waste management processes generally represent a significant loss of material, energy and economic resources, so legislation and financial incentives are being implemented to improve the recovery of these valuable resources whilst reducing contamination levels. Material recovery and waste derived fuels are potentially valuable options being pursued by industry, using mechanical and biological processes incorporating sensor and sorting technologies developed and optimised for recycling plants. In its current state, waste management presents similarities to other industries that could improve their efficiencies using process analytical technology tools. Existing sensor technologies could be used to measure critical waste characteristics, providing data required by existing legislation, potentially aiding waste treatment processes and assisting stakeholders in decision making. Optical technologies offer the most flexible solution to gather real-time information applicable to each of the waste mechanical and biological treatment processes used by industry. In particular, combinations of optical sensors in the visible and the near-infrared range from 800nm to 2500nm of the spectrum, and different mathematical techniques, are able to provide material information and fuel properties with typical performance levels between 80% and 90%. These sensors not only could be used to aid waste processes, but to provide most waste quality indicators required by existing legislation, whilst offering better tools to the stakeholders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid detection of health-care-associated bloodstream infection in critical care using multipathogen real-time polymerase chain reaction technology: a diagnostic accuracy study and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhurst, Geoffrey; Dunn, Graham; Chadwick, Paul; Blackwood, Bronagh; McAuley, Daniel; Perkins, Gavin D; McMullan, Ronan; Gates, Simon; Bentley, Andrew; Young, Duncan; Carlson, Gordon L; Dark, Paul

    2015-05-01

    There is growing interest in the potential utility of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in diagnosing bloodstream infection by detecting pathogen deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in blood samples within a few hours. SeptiFast (Roche Diagnostics GmBH, Mannheim, Germany) is a multipathogen probe-based system targeting ribosomal DNA sequences of bacteria and fungi. It detects and identifies the commonest pathogens causing bloodstream infection. As background to this study, we report a systematic review of Phase III diagnostic accuracy studies of SeptiFast, which reveals uncertainty about its likely clinical utility based on widespread evidence of deficiencies in study design and reporting with a high risk of bias. Determine the accuracy of SeptiFast real-time PCR for the detection of health-care-associated bloodstream infection, against standard microbiological culture. Prospective multicentre Phase III clinical diagnostic accuracy study using the standards for the reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies criteria. Critical care departments within NHS hospitals in the north-west of England. Adult patients requiring blood culture (BC) when developing new signs of systemic inflammation. SeptiFast real-time PCR results at species/genus level compared with microbiological culture in association with independent adjudication of infection. Metrics of diagnostic accuracy were derived including sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios and predictive values, with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Latent class analysis was used to explore the diagnostic performance of culture as a reference standard. Of 1006 new patient episodes of systemic inflammation in 853 patients, 922 (92%) met the inclusion criteria and provided sufficient information for analysis. Index test assay failure occurred on 69 (7%) occasions. Adult patients had been exposed to a median of 8 days (interquartile range 4-16 days) of hospital care, had high levels of organ support activities and recent

  10. Diagnostic performance of Schistosoma real-time PCR in urine samples from Kenyan children infected with Schistosoma haematobium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinkeles Melchers, Natalie V. S.; van Dam, Govert J.; Shaproski, David

    2014-01-01

    treatment. METHODOLOGY: Previously collected urine samples (N = 390) from 114 preselected proven parasitological and/or clinical S. haematobium positive Kenyan schoolchildren were analyzed by a Schistosoma internal transcribed spacer-based real-time PCR after 14 years of storage. Pre-treatment day......, respectively. Based on the 'gold standard', PCR showed high sensitivity (>92%) as compared to >31% sensitivity for microscopy, both pre- and post-treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Detection and quantification of Schistosoma DNA in urine by real-time PCR was shown to be a powerful and specific diagnostic...

  11. Optimal Rule-Based Power Management for Online, Real-Time Applications in HEVs with Multiple Sources and Objectives: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedatri Moulik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The field of hybrid vehicles has undergone intensive research and development, primarily due to the increasing concern of depleting resources and increasing pollution. In order to investigate further options to optimize the performance of hybrid vehicles with regards to different criteria, such as fuel economy, battery aging, etc., a detailed state-of-the-art review is presented in this contribution. Different power management and optimization techniques are discussed focusing on rule-based power management and multi-objective optimization techniques. The extent of rule-based power management and optimization in solving battery aging issues is investigated along with an implementation in real-time driving scenarios where no pre-defined drive cycle is followed. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the significance and applications of rule-based power management optimization based on previous contributions.

  12. Comparison of the analytical and clinical performances of Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV, Hybrid Capture 2, and DNA Chip assays in gynecology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seungman; Kang, Youjin; Kim, Dong Geun; Kim, Eui-Chong; Park, Sung Sup; Seong, Moon-Woo

    2013-08-01

    The detection of high-risk (HR) HPV in cervical cancer screening is important for early diagnosis of cervical cancer or pre-cancerous lesions. We evaluated the analytical and clinical performances of 3 HR HPV assays in Gynecology patients. A total of 991 specimens were included in this study: 787 specimens for use with a Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and 204 specimens for a HPV DNA microarray (DNA Chip). All specimens were tested using an Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV assay (Real-time HR), PGMY PCR, and sequence analysis. Clinical sensitivities for severe abnormal cytology (severe than high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) were 81.8% for Real-time HR, 77.3% for HC2, and 66.7% for DNA Chip, and clinical sensitivities for severe abnormal histology (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+) were 91.7% for HC2, 87.5% for Real-time HR, and 73.3% for DNA Chip. As compared to results of the sequence analysis, HC2, Real-time HR, and DNA Chip showed concordance rates of 94.3% (115/122), 90.0% (117/130), and 61.5% (16/26), respectively. The HC2 assay and Real-time HR assay showed comparable results to each other in both clinical and analytical performances, while the DNA Chip assay showed poor clinical and analytical performances. The Real-time HR assay can be a good alternative option for HR HPV testing with advantages of allowing full automation and simultaneous genotyping of HR types 16 and 18. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A review on design of experiments and surrogate models in aircraft real-time and many-query aerodynamic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yondo, Raul; Andrés, Esther; Valero, Eusebio

    2018-01-01

    Full scale aerodynamic wind tunnel testing, numerical simulation of high dimensional (full-order) aerodynamic models or flight testing are some of the fundamental but complex steps in the various design phases of recent civil transport aircrafts. Current aircraft aerodynamic designs have increase in complexity (multidisciplinary, multi-objective or multi-fidelity) and need to address the challenges posed by the nonlinearity of the objective functions and constraints, uncertainty quantification in aerodynamic problems or the restrained computational budgets. With the aim to reduce the computational burden and generate low-cost but accurate models that mimic those full order models at different values of the design variables, Recent progresses have witnessed the introduction, in real-time and many-query analyses, of surrogate-based approaches as rapid and cheaper to simulate models. In this paper, a comprehensive and state-of-the art survey on common surrogate modeling techniques and surrogate-based optimization methods is given, with an emphasis on models selection and validation, dimensionality reduction, sensitivity analyses, constraints handling or infill and stopping criteria. Benefits, drawbacks and comparative discussions in applying those methods are described. Furthermore, the paper familiarizes the readers with surrogate models that have been successfully applied to the general field of fluid dynamics, but not yet in the aerospace industry. Additionally, the review revisits the most popular sampling strategies used in conducting physical and simulation-based experiments in aircraft aerodynamic design. Attractive or smart designs infrequently used in the field and discussions on advanced sampling methodologies are presented, to give a glance on the various efficient possibilities to a priori sample the parameter space. Closing remarks foster on future perspectives, challenges and shortcomings associated with the use of surrogate models by aircraft industrial

  14. Seismic performance evaluation of an MR elastomer-based smart base isolation system using real-time hybrid simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eem, S H; Jung, H J; Koo, J H

    2013-01-01

    Recently, magneto-rheological (MR) elastomer-based base isolation systems have been actively studied as alternative smart base isolation systems because MR elastomers are capable of adjusting their modulus or stiffness depending on the magnitude of the applied magnetic field. By taking advantage of the MR elastomers’ stiffness-tuning ability, MR elastomer-based smart base isolation systems strive to alleviate limitations of existing smart base isolation systems as well as passive-type base isolators. Until now, research on MR elastomer-based base isolation systems primarily focused on characterization, design, and numerical evaluations of MR elastomer-based isolators, as well as experimental tests with simple structure models. However, their applicability to large civil structures has not been properly studied yet because it is quite challenging to numerically emulate the complex behavior of MR elastomer-based isolators and to conduct experiments with large-size structures. To address these difficulties, this study employs the real-time hybrid simulation technique, which combines physical testing and computational modeling. The primary goal of the current hybrid simulation study is to evaluate seismic performances of an MR elastomer-based smart base isolation system, particularly its adaptability to distinctly different seismic excitations. In the hybrid simulation, a single-story building structure (non-physical, computational model) is coupled with a physical testing setup for a smart base isolation system with associated components (such as laminated MR elastomers and electromagnets) installed on a shaking table. A series of hybrid simulations is carried out under two seismic excitations having different dominant frequencies. The results show that the proposed smart base isolation system outperforms the passive base isolation system in reducing the responses of the structure for the excitations considered in this study. (paper)

  15. Performance evaluation of a full-scale advanced phase isolation ditch process by using real-time control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyosoo; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Minsoo; Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon; Gee, Jeasung

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes real-time control strategies that can be applied in a full-scale advanced phase isolation ditch (APID) process. Real-time operation mode control (OMC) and aeration section control (ASC) strategies were developed to cope more stably with fluctuations in the influent loading and to increase the nitrification and denitrification reactions within the entire volume. The real-time OMC and ASC strategies were evaluated using mathematical models. When the NH 4 -N in the reactor was maintained at a high level, appropriate control actions, such as continuing the aeration state, stopping the influent inflow and increasing the aeration section, were applied in the APID process. In contrast, when the NO X -N in the reactor was maintained at a high level, the non-aeration state, influent inflow, and decreased aeration section were continued. It was concluded that stable operation in the APID process could be achieved by applying real-time OMC and ASC strategies developed in this study

  16. Performance evaluation of a full-scale advanced phase isolation ditch process by using real-time control strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyosoo; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Minsoo; Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Gee, Jeasung [Taiwha Industrial Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    This paper proposes real-time control strategies that can be applied in a full-scale advanced phase isolation ditch (APID) process. Real-time operation mode control (OMC) and aeration section control (ASC) strategies were developed to cope more stably with fluctuations in the influent loading and to increase the nitrification and denitrification reactions within the entire volume. The real-time OMC and ASC strategies were evaluated using mathematical models. When the NH{sub 4}-N in the reactor was maintained at a high level, appropriate control actions, such as continuing the aeration state, stopping the influent inflow and increasing the aeration section, were applied in the APID process. In contrast, when the NO{sub X}-N in the reactor was maintained at a high level, the non-aeration state, influent inflow, and decreased aeration section were continued. It was concluded that stable operation in the APID process could be achieved by applying real-time OMC and ASC strategies developed in this study.

  17. Performance of a Nonlinear Real-Time Optimal Control System for HEVs/PHEVs during Car Following

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a real-time optimal control approach for the energy management problem of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs with slope information during car following. The new features of this study are as follows. First, the proposed method can optimize the engine operating points and the driving profile simultaneously. Second, the proposed method gives the freedom of vehicle spacing between the preceding vehicle and the host vehicle. Third, using the HEV/PHEV property, the desired battery state of charge is designed according to the road slopes for better recuperation of free braking energy. Fourth, all of the vehicle operating modes engine charge, electric vehicle, motor assist and electric continuously variable transmission, and regenerative braking, can be realized using the proposed real-time optimal control approach. Computer simulation results are shown among the nonlinear real-time optimal control approach and the ADVISOR rule-based approach. The conclusion is that the nonlinear real-time optimal control approach is effective for the energy management problem of the HEV/PHEV system during car following.

  18. In-situ real-time x-ray scattering for probing the processing-structure-performance relation

    KAUST Repository

    Smilgies, Detlef-M.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Materials Research Society. In-situ X-ray scattering methodology is discussed, in order to analyze the microstructure development of soft functional materials during coating, annealing, and drying processes in real-time. The relevance of a fundamental understanding of coating processes for future industrial production is pointed out.

  19. Real Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Knud Smed

    2000-01-01

    Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems.......Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems....

  20. A State-of-the-Art Review of the Real-Time Computer-Aided Study of the Writing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Latif, Muhammad M.

    2008-01-01

    Writing researchers have developed various methods for investigating the writing process since the 1970s. The early 1980s saw the occurrence of the real-time computer-aided study of the writing process that relies on the protocols generated by recording the computer screen activities as writers compose using the word processor. This article…

  1. Virtual chromoendoscopy for the real-time assessment of colorectal polyps in vivo: a systematic review and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, Joanna; Rose, Micah; Cooper, Keith; Pickett, Karen; Lord, Joanne; Harris, Petra; Whyte, Sophie; Böhning, Dankmar; Shepherd, Jonathan

    2017-12-01

    Current clinical practice is to remove a colorectal polyp detected during colonoscopy and determine whether it is an adenoma or hyperplastic by histopathology. Identifying adenomas is important because they may eventually become cancerous if untreated, whereas hyperplastic polyps do not usually develop into cancer, and a surveillance interval is set based on the number and size of adenomas found. Virtual chromoendoscopy (VCE) (an electronic endoscopic imaging technique) could be used by the endoscopist under strictly controlled conditions for real-time optical diagnosis of diminutive (≤ 5 mm) colorectal polyps to replace histopathological diagnosis. To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the VCE technologies narrow-band imaging (NBI), flexible spectral imaging colour enhancement (FICE) and i-scan for the characterisation and management of diminutive (≤ 5 mm) colorectal polyps using high-definition (HD) systems without magnification. Systematic review and economic analysis. People undergoing colonoscopy for screening or surveillance or to investigate symptoms suggestive of colorectal cancer. NBI, FICE and i-scan. Diagnostic accuracy, recommended surveillance intervals, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), adverse effects, incidence of colorectal cancer, mortality and cost-effectiveness of VCE compared with histopathology. Electronic bibliographic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects were searched for published English-language studies from inception to June 2016. Bibliographies of related papers, systematic reviews and company information were screened and experts were contacted to identify additional evidence. Systematic reviews of test accuracy and economic evaluations were undertaken in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Meta-analyses were conducted, where possible, to inform the independent

  2. Real-time shadows

    CERN Document Server

    Eisemann, Elmar; Assarsson, Ulf; Wimmer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Important elements of games, movies, and other computer-generated content, shadows are crucial for enhancing realism and providing important visual cues. In recent years, there have been notable improvements in visual quality and speed, making high-quality realistic real-time shadows a reachable goal. Real-Time Shadows is a comprehensive guide to the theory and practice of real-time shadow techniques. It covers a large variety of different effects, including hard, soft, volumetric, and semi-transparent shadows.The book explains the basics as well as many advanced aspects related to the domain

  3. Integrated inertial sensors and mobile computing for real-time cycling performance guidance via pedaling profile classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, James Y; Nan, Xiaomeng; Ebken, Victor; Wang, Yan; Pottie, Greg J; Kaiser, William J

    2015-03-01

    Today, the bicycle is utilized as a daily commute tool, a physical rehabilitation asset, and sporting equipment, prompting studies into the biomechanics of cycling. Of the number of important parameters that affect cycling efficiency, the foot angle profile is one of the most important as it correlates directly with the effective force applied to the bike. However, there has been no compact and portable solution for measuring the foot angle and for providing the cyclist with real-time feedback due to a number of difficulties of the current tracking and sensing technologies and the myriad types of bikes available. This paper presents a novel sensing and mobile computing system for classifying the foot angle profiles during cycling and for providing real-time guidance to the user to achieve the correct profile. Continuous foot angle tracking is firstly converted into a discrete problem requiring only recognition of acceleration profiles of the foot using a single shoe mounted tri-axial accelerometer during each pedaling cycle. A classification method is then applied to identify the pedaling profile. Finally, a mobile solution is presented to provide real-time signal processing and guidance.

  4. Dynamic quality of service model for improving performance of multimedia real-time transmission in industrial networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Ravichandran C; Karunakaran, Manivannan

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, quality of service (QoS) is very popular in various research areas like distributed systems, multimedia real-time applications and networking. The requirements of these systems are to satisfy reliability, uptime, security constraints and throughput as well as application specific requirements. The real-time multimedia applications are commonly distributed over the network and meet various time constraints across networks without creating any intervention over control flows. In particular, video compressors make variable bit-rate streams that mismatch the constant-bit-rate channels typically provided by classical real-time protocols, severely reducing the efficiency of network utilization. Thus, it is necessary to enlarge the communication bandwidth to transfer the compressed multimedia streams using Flexible Time Triggered- Enhanced Switched Ethernet (FTT-ESE) protocol. FTT-ESE provides automation to calculate the compression level and change the bandwidth of the stream. This paper focuses on low-latency multimedia transmission over Ethernet with dynamic quality-of-service (QoS) management. This proposed framework deals with a dynamic QoS for multimedia transmission over Ethernet with FTT-ESE protocol. This paper also presents distinct QoS metrics based both on the image quality and network features. Some experiments with recorded and live video streams show the advantages of the proposed framework. To validate the solution we have designed and implemented a simulator based on the Matlab/Simulink, which is a tool to evaluate different network architecture using Simulink blocks.

  5. Real-Time Three-Dimensional Echocardiography: Characterization of Cardiac Anatomy and Function-Current Clinical Applications and Literature Review Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Omar; Beckett, Morgan Q; James, Aaron W; Loehr, Megan N; Lewis, Taylor G; Hassan, Tahmin; Janardhanan, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Our review of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) discusses the diagnostic utility of RT3DE and provides a comparison with two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) in clinical cardiology. A Pubmed literature search on RT3DE was performed using the following key words: transthoracic, two-dimensional, three-dimensional, real-time, and left ventricular (LV) function. Articles included perspective clinical studies and meta-analyses in the English language, and focused on the role of RT3DE in human subjects. Application of RT3DE includes analysis of the pericardium, right ventricular (RV) and LV cavities, wall motion, valvular disease, great vessels, congenital anomalies, and traumatic injury, such as myocardial contusion. RT3DE, through a transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), allows for increasingly accurate volume and valve motion assessment, estimated LV ejection fraction, and volume measurements. Chamber motion and LV mass approximation have been more accurately evaluated by RT3DE by improved inclusion of the third dimension and quantification of volumetric movement. Moreover, RT3DE was shown to have no statistical significance when comparing the ejection fractions of RT3DE to cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Analysis of RT3DE data sets of the LV endocardial exterior allows for the volume to be directly quantified for specific phases of the cardiac cycle, ranging from end systole to end diastole, eliminating error from wall motion abnormalities and asymmetrical left ventricles. RT3DE through TTE measures cardiac function with superior diagnostic accuracy in predicting LV mass, systolic function, along with LV and RV volume when compared with 2DE with comparable results to CMR.

  6. Real-Time Three-Dimensional Echocardiography: Characterization of Cardiac Anatomy and Function—Current Clinical Applications and Literature Review Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Q. Beckett

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Our review of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE discusses the diagnostic utility of RT3DE and provides a comparison with two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE in clinical cardiology. A Pubmed literature search on RT3DE was performed using the following key words: transthoracic, two-dimensional, three-dimensional, real-time, and left ventricular (LV function. Articles included perspective clinical studies and meta-analyses in the English language, and focused on the role of RT3DE in human subjects. Application of RT3DE includes analysis of the pericardium, right ventricular (RV and LV cavities, wall motion, valvular disease, great vessels, congenital anomalies, and traumatic injury, such as myocardial contusion. RT3DE, through a transthoracic echocardiography (TTE, allows for increasingly accurate volume and valve motion assessment, estimated LV ejection fraction, and volume measurements. Chamber motion and LV mass approximation have been more accurately evaluated by RT3DE by improved inclusion of the third dimension and quantification of volumetric movement. Moreover, RT3DE was shown to have no statistical significance when comparing the ejection fractions of RT3DE to cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR. Analysis of RT3DE data sets of the LV endocardial exterior allows for the volume to be directly quantified for specific phases of the cardiac cycle, ranging from end systole to end diastole, eliminating error from wall motion abnormalities and asymmetrical left ventricles. RT3DE through TTE measures cardiac function with superior diagnostic accuracy in predicting LV mass, systolic function, along with LV and RV volume when compared with 2DE with comparable results to CMR.

  7. Real time expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Tohru; Hashimoto, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Seiichi

    1992-01-01

    Recently, aiming at the application to the plant control for nuclear reactors and traffic and communication control, the research and the practical use of the expert system suitable to real time processing have become conspicuous. In this report, the condition for the required function to control the object that dynamically changes within a limited time is presented, and the technical difference between the real time expert system developed so as to satisfy it and the expert system of conventional type is explained with the actual examples and from theoretical aspect. The expert system of conventional type has the technical base in the problem-solving equipment originating in STRIPS. The real time expert system is applied to the fields accompanied by surveillance and control, to which conventional expert system is hard to be applied. The requirement for the real time expert system, the example of the real time expert system, and as the techniques of realizing real time processing, the realization of interruption processing, dispersion processing, and the mechanism of maintaining the consistency of knowledge are explained. (K.I.)

  8. Evaluation of the analytical performance of the new Abbott RealTime RT-PCRs for the quantitative detection of HCV and HIV-1 RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Martin; Fries, E; Burghoorn-Maas, C; Niesters, H G M

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite FDA approval and CE marking of commercial tests, manufacturer independent testing of technical aspects is important. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the analytical performance of the new Abbott RealTime HCV and HIV-1 viral load tests. STUDY DESIGN: Sensitivity, specificity and

  9. Performance Evaluation of the Real-Q Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Quantification Kit Using Two Real-Time PCR Systems for Quantifying CMV DNA in Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Eun; Kim, Ji Youn; Yun, Sun Ae; Lee, Myoung Keun; Huh, Hee Jae; Kim, Jong Won; Ki, Chang Seok

    2016-11-01

    Standardized cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA quantification is important for managing CMV disease. We evaluated the performance of the Real-Q CMV Quantification Kit (Real-Q assay; BioSewoom, Korea) using whole blood (WB), with nucleic acid extraction using MagNA Pure 96 (Roche Diagnostics, Germany). Real-time PCR was performed on two platforms: the 7500 Fast real-time PCR (7500 Fast; Applied Biosystems, USA) and CFX96 real-time PCR detection (CFX96; Bio-Rad, USA) systems. The WHO international standard, diluted with CMV-negative WB, was used to validate the analytical performance. We used 90 WB clinical samples for comparison with the artus CMV RG PCR kit (artus assay; Qiagen, Germany). Limits of detections (LODs) in 7500 Fast and CFX96 were 367 and 479 IU/mL, respectively. The assay was linear from the LOD to 10⁶ IU/mL (R² ≥0.9886). The conversion factors from copies to IU in 7500 Fast and CFX96 were 0.95 and 1.06, respectively. Compared with the artus assay, for values 1,000 copies/mL, 73.3% and 80.6% of samples in 7500 Fast and CFX96, respectively, had real-time PCR platforms.

  10. Performance of real-time strain elastography, transient elastography, and aspartate-to-platelet ratio index in the assessment of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraioli, Giovanna; Tinelli, Carmine; Malfitano, Antonello; Dal Bello, Barbara; Filice, Gaetano; Filice, Carlo; Above, Elisabetta; Barbarini, Giorgio; Brunetti, Enrico; Calderon, Willy; Di Gregorio, Marta; Lissandrin, Raffaella; Ludovisi, Serena; Maiocchi, Laura; Michelone, Giuseppe; Mondelli, Mario; Patruno, Savino F A; Perretti, Alessandro; Poma, Gianluigi; Sacchi, Paolo; Zaramella, Marco; Zicchetti, Mabel

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of transient elastography, real-time strain elastography, and aspartate-to-platelet ratio index in assessing fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C by using histologic Metavir scores as reference standard. Consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis C scheduled for liver biopsy were enrolled. Liver biopsy was performed on the same day as transient elastography and real-time strain elastography. Transient elastography and real-time strain elastography were performed in the same patient encounter by a single investigator using a medical device based on elastometry and an ultrasound machine, respectively. Diagnostic performance was assessed by using receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis. One hundred thirty patients (91 men and 39 women) were analyzed. The cutoff values for transient elastography, real-time strain elastography, and aspartate-to-platelet ratio index were 6.9 kPa, 1.82, and 0.37, respectively, for fibrosis score of 2 or higher; 7.3 kPa, 1.86, and 0.70, respectively, for fibrosis score of 3 or higher; and 9.3 kPa, 2.33, and 0.70, respectively, for fibrosis score of 4. AUC values of transient elastography, real-time strain elastography, aspartate-to-platelet ratio index were 0.88, 0.74, and 0.86, respectively, for fibrosis score of 2 or higher; 0.95, 0.80, and 0.89, respectively, for fibrosis score of 3 or higher; and 0.97, 0.80, and 0.84, respectively, for fibrosis score of 4. A combination of the three methods, when two of three were in agreement, showed AUC curves of 0.93, 0.95, and 0.95 for fibrosis scores of 2 or higher, 3 or higher, and 4, respectively. Transient elastography, real-time strain elastography, and aspartate-to-platelet ratio index values were correlated with histologic stages of fibrosis. Transient elastography offered excellent diagnostic performance in assessing severe fibrosis and

  11. Statistical Real-time Model for Performance Prediction of Ship Detection from Microsatellite Electro-Optical Imagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapierre FabianD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For locating maritime vessels longer than 45 meters, such vessels are required to set up an Automatic Identification System (AIS used by vessel traffic services. However, when a boat is shutting down its AIS, there are no means to detect it in open sea. In this paper, we use Electro-Optical (EO imagers for noncooperative vessel detection when the AIS is not operational. As compared to radar sensors, EO sensors have lower cost, lower payload, and better computational processing load. EO sensors are mounted on LEO microsatellites. We propose a real-time statistical methodology to estimate sensor Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves. It does not require the computation of the entire image received at the sensor. We then illustrate the use of this methodology to design a simple simulator that can help sensor manufacturers in optimizing the design of EO sensors for maritime applications.

  12. A polythematic real-time synergistic hybrid data telecommunication system for scientific research with bidirectional fuzzy feedback peer review by expert referees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Petratos

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous research environments, interests and locations do not necessarily coincide, thus hitherto the primary method of communication amongst researchers has been email. In this article a novel unified polythematic, real-time, synergistic, data telecommunication system is proposed with peer-reviewed, bidirectional fuzzy feedback for research scientists, to facilitate scientific information exchange via the extensible markup language (XML on multiple scientific topics, e.g. in mathematics, physics, biology and chemistry.

  13. Does real-time objective feedback and competition improve performance and quality in manikin CPR training--a prospective observational study from several European EMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, J R; Kranz, K; Carmona, F; Lindner, T W; Newton, A

    2015-10-15

    Previous studies have reported that the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is important for patient survival. Real time objective feedback during manikin training has been shown to improve CPR performance. Objective measurement could facilitate competition and help motivate participants to improve their CPR performance. The aims of this study were to investigate whether real time objective feedback on manikins helps improve CPR performance and whether competition between separate European Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and between participants at each EMS helps motivation to train. Ten European EMS took part in the study and was carried out in two stages. At Stage 1, each EMS provided 20 pre-hospital professionals. A questionnaire was completed and standardised assessment scenarios were performed for adult and infant out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). CPR performance was objectively measured and recorded but no feedback given. Between Stage 1 and 2, each EMS was given access to manikins for 6 months and instructed on how to use with objective real-time CPR feedback available. Stage 2 was undertaken and was a repeat of Stage 1 with a questionnaire with additional questions relating to usefulness of feedback and the competition nature of the study (using a 10 point Likert score). The EMS that improved the most from Stage 1 to Stage 2 was declared the winner. An independent samples Student t-test was used to analyse the objective CPR metrics with the significance level taken as p Competition between EMS organisations recorded a mean score of 5.8 and competition between participants recorded a mean score of 6.0. The results suggest that the use of real time objective feedback can significantly help improve CPR performance. Competition, especially between participants, appeared to encourage staff to practice and this study suggests that competition might have a useful role to help motivate staff to perform CPR training.

  14. System and Method for Aiding Pilot Preview, Rehearsal, Review, and Real-Time Visual Acquisition of Flight Mission Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, III, Lawrence J. (Inventor); Pope, Alan T. (Inventor); Williams, Steven P. (Inventor); Bailey, Randall E. (Inventor); Arthur, Jarvis J. (Inventor); Kramer, Lynda J. (Inventor); Schutte, Paul C. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Embodiments of the invention permit flight paths (current and planned) to be viewed from various orientations to provide improved path and terrain awareness via graphical two-dimensional or three-dimensional perspective display formats. By coupling the flight path information with a terrain database, uncompromising terrain awareness relative to the path and ownship is provided. In addition, missed approaches, path deviations, and any navigational path can be reviewed and rehearsed before performing the actual task. By rehearsing a particular mission, check list items can be reviewed, terrain awareness can be highlighted, and missed approach procedures can be discussed by the flight crew. Further, the use of Controller Pilot Datalink Communications enables data-linked path, flight plan changes, and Air Traffic Control requests to be integrated into the flight display of the present invention.

  15. Evaluation of the tumor registration error in biopsy procedures performed under real-time PET/CT guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanchon, Louise M; Apte, Adytia; Schmidtlein, C Ross; Yorke, Ellen; Hu, Yu-Chi; Dogan, Snjezana; Hatt, Mathieu; Visvikis, Dimitris; Humm, John L; Solomon, Stephen B; Kirov, Assen S

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify tumor displacement during real-time PET/CT guided biopsy and to investigate correlations between tumor displacement and false-negative results. 19 patients who underwent real-time 18 F-FDG PET-guided biopsy and were found positive for malignancy were included in this study under IRB approval. PET/CT images were acquired for all patients within minutes prior to biopsy to visualize the FDG-avid region and plan the needle insertion. The biopsy needle was inserted and a post-insertion CT scan was acquired. The two CT scans acquired before and after needle insertion were registered using a deformable image registration (DIR) algorithm. The DIR deformation vector field (DVF) was used to calculate the mean displacement between the pre-insertion and post-insertion CT scans for a region around the tip of the biopsy needle. For 12 patients one biopsy core from each was tracked during histopathological testing to investigate correlations of the mean displacement between the two CT scans and false-negative or true-positive biopsy results. For 11 patients, two PET scans were acquired; one at the beginning of the procedure, pre-needle insertion, and an additional one with the needle in place. The pre-insertion PET scan was corrected for intraprocedural motion by applying the DVF. The corrected PET was compared with the post-needle insertion PET to validate the correction method. The mean displacement of tissue around the needle between the pre-biopsy CT and the postneedle insertion CT was 5.1 mm (min = 1.1 mm, max = 10.9 mm and SD = 3.0 mm). For mean displacements larger than 7.2 mm, the biopsy cores gave false-negative results. Correcting pre-biopsy PET using the DVF improved the PET/CT registration in 8 of 11 cases. The DVF obtained from DIR of the CT scans can be used for evaluation and correction of the error in needle placement with respect to the FDG-avid area. Misregistration between the pre-biopsy PET and the CT acquired with the

  16. Diagnostic potential of real-time elastography (RTE) and shear wave elastography (SWE) to differentiate benign and malignant thyroid nodules: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiangdong; Liu, Yujiang; Qian, Linxue

    2017-10-01

    Real-time elastography (RTE) and shear wave elastography (SWE) are noninvasive and easily available imaging techniques that measure the tissue strain, and it has been reported that the sensitivity and the specificity of elastography were better in differentiating between benign and malignant thyroid nodules than conventional technologies. Relevant articles were searched in multiple databases; the comparison of elasticity index (EI) was conducted with the Review Manager 5.0. Forest plots of the sensitivity and specificity and SROC curve of RTE and SWE were performed with STATA 10.0 software. In addition, sensitivity analysis and bias analysis of the studies were conducted to examine the quality of articles; and to estimate possible publication bias, funnel plot was used and the Egger test was conducted. Finally 22 articles which eventually satisfied the inclusion criteria were included in this study. After eliminating the inefficient, benign and malignant nodules were 2106 and 613, respectively. The meta-analysis suggested that the difference of EI between benign and malignant nodules was statistically significant (SMD = 2.11, 95% CI [1.67, 2.55], P benign and malignant thyroid nodules.

  17. Big Data Analytics Embedded Smart City Architecture for Performance Enhancement through Real-Time Data Processing and Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagya Nathali Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the smart city is widely favored, as it enhances the quality of life of urban citizens, involving multiple disciplines, that is, smart community, smart transportation, smart healthcare, smart parking, and many more. Continuous growth of the complex urban networks is significantly challenged by real-time data processing and intelligent decision-making capabilities. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a smart city framework based on Big Data analytics. The proposed framework operates on three levels: (1 data generation and acquisition level collecting heterogeneous data related to city operations, (2 data management and processing level filtering, analyzing, and storing data to make decisions and events autonomously, and (3 application level initiating execution of the events corresponding to the received decisions. In order to validate the proposed architecture, we analyze a few major types of dataset based on the proposed three-level architecture. Further, we tested authentic datasets on Hadoop ecosystem to determine the threshold and the analysis shows that the proposed architecture offers useful insights into the community development authorities to improve the existing smart city architecture.

  18. A systematic review of near real-time and point-of-care clinical decision support in anesthesia information management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpao, Allan F; Tan, Jonathan M; Lingappan, Arul M; Gálvez, Jorge A; Morgan, Sherry E; Krall, Michael A

    2017-10-01

    Anesthesia information management systems (AIMS) are sophisticated hardware and software technology solutions that can provide electronic feedback to anesthesia providers. This feedback can be tailored to provide clinical decision support (CDS) to aid clinicians with patient care processes, documentation compliance, and resource utilization. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed articles on near real-time and point-of-care CDS within AIMS using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols. Studies were identified by searches of the electronic databases Medline and EMBASE. Two reviewers screened studies based on title, abstract, and full text. Studies that were similar in intervention and desired outcome were grouped into CDS categories. Three reviewers graded the evidence within each category. The final analysis included 25 articles on CDS as implemented within AIMS. CDS categories included perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis, post-operative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis, vital sign monitors and alarms, glucose management, blood pressure management, ventilator management, clinical documentation, and resource utilization. Of these categories, the reviewers graded perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis and clinical documentation as having strong evidence per the peer reviewed literature. There is strong evidence for the inclusion of near real-time and point-of-care CDS in AIMS to enhance compliance with perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis and clinical documentation. Additional research is needed in many other areas of AIMS-based CDS.

  19. Route around real time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrier, Francois

    1996-01-01

    The greater and greater autonomy and complexity asked to the control and command systems lead to work on introducing techniques such as Artificial Intelligence or concurrent object programming in industrial applications. However, while the critical feature of these systems impose to control the dynamics of the proposed solutions, their complexity often imposes a high adaptability to a partially modelled environment. The studies presented start from low level control and command systems to more complex applications at higher levels, such as 'supervision systems'. Techniques such as temporal reasoning and uncertainty management are proposed for the first studies, while the second are tackled with programming techniques based on the real time object paradigm. The outcomes of this itinerary crystallize on the ACCORD project which targets to manage - on the whole life cycle of a real time application - these two problematics, sometimes antagonistic: control of the dynamics and adaptivity. (author) [fr

  20. Real time falling leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Alcocer, Pere Pau; Balsa, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing interest in simulating natural phenomena in computer graphics applications. Animating natural scenes in real time is one of the most challenging problems due to the inherent complexity of their structure, formed by millions of geometric entities, and the interactions that happen within. An example of natural scenario that is needed for games or simulation programs are forests. Forests are difficult to render because the huge amount of geometric entities and the large amount...

  1. Real Time Processing

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; ANDERSON, Dustin James; DOGLIONI, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    The LHC provides experiments with an unprecedented amount of data. Experimental collaborations need to meet storage and computing requirements for the analysis of this data: this is often a limiting factor in the physics program that would be achievable if the whole dataset could be analysed. In this talk, I will describe the strategies adopted by the LHCb, CMS and ATLAS collaborations to overcome these limitations and make the most of LHC data: data parking, data scouting, and real-time analysis.

  2. The Performance Analysis of a Real-Time Integrated INS/GPS Vehicle Navigation System with Abnormal GPS Measurement Elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhen-Kai Liao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The integration of an Inertial Navigation System (INS and the Global Positioning System (GPS is common in mobile mapping and navigation applications to seamlessly determine the position, velocity, and orientation of the mobile platform. In most INS/GPS integrated architectures, the GPS is considered to be an accurate reference with which to correct for the systematic errors of the inertial sensors, which are composed of biases, scale factors and drift. However, the GPS receiver may produce abnormal pseudo-range errors mainly caused by ionospheric delay, tropospheric delay and the multipath effect. These errors degrade the overall position accuracy of an integrated system that uses conventional INS/GPS integration strategies such as loosely coupled (LC and tightly coupled (TC schemes. Conventional tightly coupled INS/GPS integration schemes apply the Klobuchar model and the Hopfield model to reduce pseudo-range delays caused by ionospheric delay and tropospheric delay, respectively, but do not address the multipath problem. However, the multipath effect (from reflected GPS signals affects the position error far more significantly in a consumer-grade GPS receiver than in an expensive, geodetic-grade GPS receiver. To avoid this problem, a new integrated INS/GPS architecture is proposed. The proposed method is described and applied in a real-time integrated system with two integration strategies, namely, loosely coupled and tightly coupled schemes, respectively. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, field tests with various scenarios are conducted and the results are compared with a reliable reference system.

  3. Performance of data acceptance criteria over 50 months from an automatic real-time environmental radiation surveillance network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanovas, R.; Morant, J.J.; Lopez, M.; Hernandez-Giron, I.; Batalla, E.; Salvado, M.

    2011-01-01

    The automatic real-time environmental radiation surveillance network of Catalonia (Spain) comprises two subnetworks; one with 9 aerosol monitors and the other with 8 Geiger monitors together with 2 water monitors located in the Ebre river. Since September 2006, several improvements were implemented in order to get better quality and quantity of data, allowing a more accurate data analysis. However, several causes (natural causes, equipment failure, artificial external causes and incidents in nuclear power plants) may produce radiological measured values mismatched with the own station background, whether spurious without significance or true radiological values. Thus, data analysis for a 50-month period was made and allowed to establish an easily implementable statistical criterion to find those values that require special attention. This criterion proved a very useful tool for creating a properly debugged database and to give a quick response to equipment failures or possible radiological incidents. This paper presents the results obtained from the criterion application, including the figures for the expected, raw and debugged data, percentages of missing data grouped by causes and radiological measurements from the networks. Finally, based on the discussed information, recommendations for the improvement of the network are identified to obtain better radiological information and analysis capabilities. - Highlights: → Causes producing data mismatching with the own stations background are described. → Causes may be natural, equipment failure, external or nuclear plants incidents. → These causes can produce either spurious or true radiological data. → A criterion to find these data was implemented and tested for a 50-month period. → Recommendations for the improvement of the network are identified.

  4. Performance Analysis of FLC Controlled PV-Wind Hybrid Power System for dc Load with Real-Time Data in Matlab, Simulink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavan Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid power system is a combination of different but complementary energy generation systems based on renewable energies. The Hybrid power system harnesses most of the power from the environmental conditions, reduces the losses and repetitive maintenance, thus improving efficiency and reliability of the system. This is achieved by proper coordination control between the Renewable Energy Sources (RES. This paper focuses on the implementation of Photovoltaic - Wind hybrid power system with real-time data of environmental conditions. The continuous real-time values of the solar irradiation and wind speed are obtained from the weather monitoring system at the location. The PV will be the primary source of generation during the day and wind generation can act as power conditioning. The Hybrid model is implemented in Matlab Simulink and its performance is examined under variable environmental conditions with a variable resistive load. A scale down experiment set-up of PV-Wind hybrid system is utilized to evaluate the performance of the proposed control logic. It has emerged from the simulation and experimental study that the hybrid system implemented with the real-time data maintains the output voltage constant irrespective of environmental conditions and load condition.

  5. The diagnosis of microorganism involved in infective endocarditis (IE by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and real-time PCR: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Faraji

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Broad-range bacterial rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR followed by sequencing may be identified as the etiology of infective endocarditis (IE from surgically removed valve tissue; therefore, we reviewed the value of molecular testing in identifying organisms' DNA in the studies conducted until 2016. We searched Google Scholar, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Cochrane, PubMed, and Medline electronic databases without any time limitations up to December 2016 for English studies reporting microorganisms involved in infective endocarditis microbiology using PCR and real-time PCR. Most studies were prospective. Eleven out of 12 studies used valve tissue samples and blood cultures while only 1 study used whole blood. Also, 10 studies used the molecular method of PCR while 2 studies used real-time PCR. Most studies used 16S rDNA gene as the target gene. The bacteria were identified as the most common microorganisms involved in infective endocarditis. Streptococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. were, by far, the most predominant bacteria detected. In all studies, PCR and real-time PCR identified more pathogens than blood and tissue cultures; moreover, the sensitivity and specificity of PCR and real-time PCR were more than cultures in most of the studies. The highest sensitivity and specificity were 96% and 100%, respectively. The gram positive bacteria were the most frequent cause of infective endocarditis. The molecular methods enjoy a greater sensitivity compared to the conventional blood culture methods; yet, they are applicable only to the valve tissue of the patients undergoing cardiac valve surgery.

  6. The diagnosis of microorganism involved in infective endocarditis (IE) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Reza; Behjati-Ardakani, Mostafa; Moshtaghioun, Seyed Mohammad; Kalantar, Seyed Mehdi; Namayandeh, Seyedeh Mahdieh; Soltani, Mohammadhossien; Emami, Mahmood; Zandi, Hengameh; Firoozabadi, Ali Dehghani; Kazeminasab, Mahmood; Ahmadi, Nastaran; Sarebanhassanabadi, Mohammadtaghi

    2018-02-01

    Broad-range bacterial rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by sequencing may be identified as the etiology of infective endocarditis (IE) from surgically removed valve tissue; therefore, we reviewed the value of molecular testing in identifying organisms' DNA in the studies conducted until 2016. We searched Google Scholar, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Cochrane, PubMed, and Medline electronic databases without any time limitations up to December 2016 for English studies reporting microorganisms involved in infective endocarditis microbiology using PCR and real-time PCR. Most studies were prospective. Eleven out of 12 studies used valve tissue samples and blood cultures while only 1 study used whole blood. Also, 10 studies used the molecular method of PCR while 2 studies used real-time PCR. Most studies used 16S rDNA gene as the target gene. The bacteria were identified as the most common microorganisms involved in infective endocarditis. Streptococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. were, by far, the most predominant bacteria detected. In all studies, PCR and real-time PCR identified more pathogens than blood and tissue cultures; moreover, the sensitivity and specificity of PCR and real-time PCR were more than cultures in most of the studies. The highest sensitivity and specificity were 96% and 100%, respectively. The gram positive bacteria were the most frequent cause of infective endocarditis. The molecular methods enjoy a greater sensitivity compared to the conventional blood culture methods; yet, they are applicable only to the valve tissue of the patients undergoing cardiac valve surgery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  7. Analytical Performances of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 RNA-Based Amplix® Real-Time PCR Platform for HIV-1 RNA Quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Diamant Mossoro-Kpinde

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We evaluated the performances of Amplix real-time PCR platform developed by Biosynex (Strasbourg, France, combining automated station extraction (Amplix station 16 Dx and real-time PCR (Amplix NG, for quantifying plasma HIV-1 RNA by lyophilized HIV-1 RNA-based Amplix reagents targeting gag and LTR, using samples from HIV-1-infected adults from Central African Republic. Results. Amplix real-time PCR assay showed low limit of detection (28 copies/mL, across wide dynamic range (1.4–10 log copies/mL, 100% sensitivity and 99% specificity, high reproducibility, and accuracy with mean bias < 5%. The assay showed excellent correlations and concordance of 95.3% with the reference HIV-1 RNA load assay (Roche, with mean absolute bias of +0.097 log copies/mL by Bland-Altman analysis. The assay was able to detect and quantify the most prevalent HIV-1 subtype strains and the majority of non-B subtypes, CRFs of HIV-1 group M, and HIV-1 groups N and O circulating in Central Africa. The Amplix assay showed 100% sensitivity and 99.6% specificity to diagnose virological failure in clinical samples from antiretroviral drug-experienced patients. Conclusions. The HIV-1 RNA-based Amplix real-time PCR platform constitutes sensitive and reliable system for clinical monitoring of HIV-1 RNA load in HIV-1-infected children and adults, particularly adapted to intermediate laboratory facilities in sub-Saharan Africa.

  8. Real-time polymerase chain reaction for diagnosing infectious mononucleosis in pediatric patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Sha-Yi; Yang, Jing-Wei; Shao, Jing-Bo; Liao, Xue-Lian; Lu, Zheng-Hua; Jiang, Hui

    2016-05-01

    In this meta-analysis, we evaluated the diagnostic role of Epstein-Barr virus deoxyribonucleic acid detection and quantitation in the serum of pediatric and young adult patients with infectious mononucleosis. The primary outcome of this meta-analysis was the sensitivity and specificity of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) detection and quantitation using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by searching for articles that were published through September 24, 2014 in the following databases: Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. The following keywords were used for the search: "Epstein-Barr virus," "infectious mononucleosis," "children/young adults/infant/pediatric," and "polymerase chain reaction or PCR." Three were included in this analysis. We found that for detection by PCR, the pooled sensitivity for detecting EBV DNA was 77% (95%CI, 66-86%) and the pooled specificity for was 98% (95%CI, 93-100%). Our findings indicate that this PCR-based assay has high specificity and good sensitivity for detecting of EBV DNA, indicating it may useful for identifying patients with infectious mononucleosis. This assay may also be helpful to identify young athletic patients or highly physically active pediatric patients who are at risk for a splenic rupture due to acute infectious mononucleosis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Real-time specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, A.; Larsen, K.G.; Legay, A.

    2015-01-01

    A specification theory combines notions of specifications and implementations with a satisfaction relation, a refinement relation, and a set of operators supporting stepwise design. We develop a specification framework for real-time systems using Timed I/O Automata as the specification formalism......, with the semantics expressed in terms of Timed I/O Transition Systems. We provide constructs for refinement, consistency checking, logical and structural composition, and quotient of specifications-all indispensable ingredients of a compositional design methodology. The theory is implemented in the new tool Ecdar...

  10. Real time Faraday spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jr., Tommy E.; Struve, Kenneth W.; Colella, Nicholas J.

    1991-01-01

    This invention uses a dipole magnet to bend the path of a charged particle beam. As the deflected particles exit the magnet, they are spatially dispersed in the bend-plane of the magnet according to their respective momenta and pass to a plurality of chambers having Faraday probes positioned therein. Both the current and energy distribution of the particles is then determined by the non-intersecting Faraday probes located along the chambers. The Faraday probes are magnetically isolated from each other by thin metal walls of the chambers, effectively providing real time current-versus-energy particle measurements.

  11. Real time Faraday spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.E.; Struve, K.W.; Colella, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an invention which uses a dipole magnet to bend the path of a charged particle beam. As the deflected particles exit the magnet, they are spatially dispersed in the bend-plane of the magnet according to their respective momenta and pass to a plurality of chambers having Faraday probes positioned therein. Both the current and energy distribution of the particles is then determined by the non-intersecting Faraday probes located along the chambers. The Faraday probes are magnetically isolated from each other by thin metal walls of the chambers, effectively providing real time current-versus-energy particle measurements

  12. Performance of the new automated Abbott RealTime MTB assay for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J H K; She, K K K; Kwong, T-C; Wong, O-Y; Siu, G K H; Leung, C-C; Chang, K-C; Tam, C-M; Ho, P-L; Cheng, V C C; Yuen, K-Y; Yam, W-C

    2015-09-01

    The automated high-throughput Abbott RealTime MTB real-time PCR assay has been recently launched for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) clinical diagnosis. This study would like to evaluate its performance. We first compared its diagnostic performance with the Roche Cobas TaqMan MTB assay on 214 clinical respiratory specimens. Prospective analysis of a total 520 specimens was then performed to further evaluate the Abbott assay. The Abbott assay showed a lower limit of detection at 22.5 AFB/ml, which was more sensitive than the Cobas assay (167.5 AFB/ml). The two assays demonstrated a significant difference in diagnostic performance (McNemar's test; P = 0.0034), in which the Abbott assay presented significantly higher area under curve (AUC) than the Cobas assay (1.000 vs 0.880; P = 0.0002). The Abbott assay demonstrated extremely low PCR inhibition on clinical respiratory specimens. The automated Abbott assay required only very short manual handling time (0.5 h), which could help to improve the laboratory management. In the prospective analysis, the overall estimates for sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott assay were both 100 % among smear-positive specimens, whereas the smear-negative specimens were 96.7 and 96.1 %, respectively. No cross-reactivity with non-tuberculosis mycobacterial species was observed. The superiority in sensitivity of the Abbott assay for detecting MTBC in smear-negative specimens could further minimize the risk in MTBC false-negative detection. The new Abbott RealTime MTB assay has good diagnostic performance which can be a useful diagnostic tool for rapid MTBC detection in clinical laboratories.

  13. Analytical Performance of Four Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR and Real Time PCR (qPCR Assays for the Detection of Six Leishmania Species DNA in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cielo M. León

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis comprises a spectrum of parasitic diseases caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania. Molecular tools have been widely employed for the detection of Leishmania due to its high sensitivity and specificity. However, the analytical performance of molecular platforms as PCR and real time PCR (qPCR including a wide variety of molecular markers has never been evaluated. Herein, the aim was to evaluate the analytical performance of 4 PCR-based assays (designed on four different targets and applied on conventional and real-time PCR platforms. We evaluated the analytical performance of conventional PCR and real time PCR, determining exclusivity and inclusivity, Anticipated Reportable Range (ARR, limit of detection (LoD and accuracy using primers directed to kDNA, HSP70, 18S and ITS-1 targets. We observed that the kDNA was the most sensitive but does not meet the criterion of exclusivity. The HSP70 presented a higher LoD in conventional PCR and qPCR in comparison with the other markers (1 × 101 and 1 × 10-1 equivalent parasites/mL respectively and had a higher coefficient of variation in qPCR. No statistically significant differences were found between the days of the test with the four molecular markers. The present study revealed that the 18S marker presented the best performance in terms of analytical sensitivity and specificity for the qPCR in the species tested (species circulating in Colombia. Therefore, we recommend to explore the analytical and diagnostic performance in future studies using a broader number of species across America.

  14. Analytical Performance of Four Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Real Time PCR (qPCR) Assays for the Detection of Six Leishmania Species DNA in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Cielo M.; Muñoz, Marina; Hernández, Carolina; Ayala, Martha S.; Flórez, Carolina; Teherán, Aníbal; Cubides, Juan R.; Ramírez, Juan D.

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniasis comprises a spectrum of parasitic diseases caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania. Molecular tools have been widely employed for the detection of Leishmania due to its high sensitivity and specificity. However, the analytical performance of molecular platforms as PCR and real time PCR (qPCR) including a wide variety of molecular markers has never been evaluated. Herein, the aim was to evaluate the analytical performance of 4 PCR-based assays (designed on four different targets) and applied on conventional and real-time PCR platforms. We evaluated the analytical performance of conventional PCR and real time PCR, determining exclusivity and inclusivity, Anticipated Reportable Range (ARR), limit of detection (LoD) and accuracy using primers directed to kDNA, HSP70, 18S and ITS-1 targets. We observed that the kDNA was the most sensitive but does not meet the criterion of exclusivity. The HSP70 presented a higher LoD in conventional PCR and qPCR in comparison with the other markers (1 × 101 and 1 × 10-1 equivalent parasites/mL respectively) and had a higher coefficient of variation in qPCR. No statistically significant differences were found between the days of the test with the four molecular markers. The present study revealed that the 18S marker presented the best performance in terms of analytical sensitivity and specificity for the qPCR in the species tested (species circulating in Colombia). Therefore, we recommend to explore the analytical and diagnostic performance in future studies using a broader number of species across America. PMID:29046670

  15. Measuring and Comparing Descend in Elite Race Cycling with a Perspective on Real-Time Feedback for Improving Individual Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Reijne, M.M.; Bregman, D.J.J.; Schwab, A.L.; Espinosa, Hugo G.; Rowlands, David R.; Shepherd, Jonathan; Thiel, David V.

    2018-01-01

    Descend technique and performance vary among elite racing cyclists and it is not clear what slower riders should do to improve their performance. An observation study was performed of the descending technique of members of a World Tour cycling team and the technique of each member was compared with the fastest descender amongst them. The obtained data gives us guidelines for rider specific feedback in order to improve his performance. The bicycles were equipped with a system that could measur...

  16. Measuring and Comparing Descend in Elite Race Cycling with a Perspective on Real-Time Feedback for Improving Individual Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijne, M.M.; Bregman, D.J.J.; Schwab, A.L.; Espinosa, Hugo G.; Rowlands, David R.; Shepherd, Jonathan; Thiel, David V.

    2018-01-01

    Descend technique and performance vary among elite racing cyclists and it is not clear what slower riders should do to improve their performance. An observation study was performed of the descending technique of members of a World Tour cycling team and the technique of each member was compared with

  17. Quantitative (real-time) PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, S.E.; McSweeney, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    Many nucleic acid-based probe and PCR assays have been developed for the detection tracking of specific microbes within the rumen ecosystem. Conventional PCR assays detect PCR products at the end stage of each PCR reaction, where exponential amplification is no longer being achieved. This approach can result in different end product (amplicon) quantities being generated. In contrast, using quantitative, or real-time PCR, quantification of the amplicon is performed not at the end of the reaction, but rather during exponential amplification, where theoretically each cycle will result in a doubling of product being created. For real-time PCR, the cycle at which fluorescence is deemed to be detectable above the background during the exponential phase is termed the cycle threshold (Ct). The Ct values obtained are then used for quantitation, which will be discussed later

  18. Research in Distributed Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamala, R.

    1997-01-01

    This document summarizes the progress we have made on our study of issues concerning the schedulability of real-time systems. Our study has produced several results in the scalability issues of distributed real-time systems. In particular, we have used our techniques to resolve schedulability issues in distributed systems with end-to-end requirements. During the next year (1997-98), we propose to extend the current work to address the modeling and workload characterization issues in distributed real-time systems. In particular, we propose to investigate the effect of different workload models and component models on the design and the subsequent performance of distributed real-time systems.

  19. The development of real-time stability supports visual working memory performance: Young children's feature binding can be improved through perceptual structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmering, Vanessa R; Wood, Chelsey M

    2017-08-01

    Working memory is a basic cognitive process that predicts higher-level skills. A central question in theories of working memory development is the generality of the mechanisms proposed to explain improvements in performance. Prior theories have been closely tied to particular tasks and/or age groups, limiting their generalizability. The cognitive dynamics theory of visual working memory development has been proposed to overcome this limitation. From this perspective, developmental improvements arise through the coordination of cognitive processes to meet demands of different behavioral tasks. This notion is described as real-time stability, and can be probed through experiments that assess how changing task demands impact children's performance. The current studies test this account by probing visual working memory for colors and shapes in a change detection task that compares detection of changes to new features versus swaps in color-shape binding. In Experiment 1, 3- to 4-year-old children showed impairments specific to binding swaps, as predicted by decreased real-time stability early in development; 5- to 6-year-old children showed a slight advantage on binding swaps, but 7- to 8-year-old children and adults showed no difference across trial types. Experiment 2 tested the proposed explanation of young children's binding impairment through added perceptual structure, which supported the stability and precision of feature localization in memory-a process key to detecting binding swaps. This additional structure improved young children's binding swap detection, but not new-feature detection or adults' performance. These results provide further evidence for the cognitive dynamics and real-time stability explanation of visual working memory development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Measuring and Comparing Descend in Elite Race Cycling with a Perspective on Real-Time Feedback for Improving Individual Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Reijne

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Descend technique and performance vary among elite racing cyclists and it is not clear what slower riders should do to improve their performance. An observation study was performed of the descending technique of members of a World Tour cycling team and the technique of each member was compared with the fastest descender amongst them. The obtained data gives us guidelines for rider specific feedback in order to improve his performance. The bicycles were equipped with a system that could measure: velocity, cadence, pedal power, position, steer angle, 3D orientation, rotational speeds and linear accelerations of the rear frame and brake force front and rear. From our observation study, the brake point and apex position turned out to be distinctive indicators of a fast cornering technique in a descent for a tight, hairpin corner. These two indicators can be used as feedback for a slower rider to improve his descend performance.

  1. Influence of Incident Polarization State on Performance of Real-time Transverse Force Sensing using Stokes Parameters in Fiber Bragg Grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yang; Fu, Xinhao; Zhou, Hua; Zhu, Yong; Zhang, Baofu; Cai, Guangyu; Guo, Yang

    2017-06-01

    Stokes parameters can be advantageously used to obtain real-time transverse force measurements with uniform FBGs. In this paper, we demonstrate here that the state of polarization (SOP) of incident light can be used to improve the performance of the sensor. The model and the simulations are presented. A 3-paddle fiber polarization controller was used to adjust the azimuth angle and ellipse angle of the light. The experimental results show the great influences of incident SOP on the sensitivity and linear range of the system, which is well agreed with the theoretical prediction. The highest sensitivity of 0.9475/kgf was obtained with good linearity.

  2. Real time spectrum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blunden, A.; O'Prey, D.G.; Tait, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the separation of a composite pulse-height spectrum into its unresolved component parts, which belong to a set of measured library spectra. The method allows real-time estimation giving running estimates during acquisition of the spectrum, minimises computation space, especially for a number of parallel calculations, estimates in advance the rms errors, and produces a significance measure for the hypothesis that the composite contains only the library spectra. Least squares curve-fitting, and other methods, can be compared, with the formalism developed, allowing analytical comparison of the effect of detector energy resolution and detection efficiency. A rational basis for the choice between the various methods of spectrum analysis follows from the theory, minimising rms estimation errors. The method described is applicable for very low numbers of counts and poor resolution. (orig.)

  3. Real time production optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saputelli, Luigi; Otavio, Joao; Araujo, Turiassu; Escorcia, Alvaro [Halliburton, Houston, TX (United States). Landmark Division

    2004-07-01

    Production optimization encompasses various activities of measuring, analyzing, modeling, prioritizing and implementing actions to enhance productivity of a field. We present a state-of-the-art framework for optimizing production on a continuous basis as new sensor data is acquired in real time. Permanently acquired data is modeled and analyzed in order to create predictive models. A model based control strategy is used to regulate well and field instrumentation. The optimum field operating point, which changes with time, satisfies the maximum economic return. This work is a starting point for further development in automatic, intelligent reservoir technologies which get the most out of the abilities of permanent, instrumented wells and remotely activated downhole completions. The strategy, tested with history-matched data from a compartmentalised giant field, proved to reduce operating costs while increasing oil recovery by 27% in this field. (author)

  4. Real time urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ruiz Varona

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, given the technological revolution of the society of information, the administrative management of the cities faces a new problem not as related to the projection of the urban space as to the capacity of controlling and measuring the process of direct and centralized production of the cities by part of some non-homogeneous social multitudes, in a hyper-accelerated time towards instantaneity. Against libertarian apologies of the new “participative urbanisms”, the article puts forward a discourse that shows the lost associated to the new problem of temporal instantaneity. In this regard we claim new process of mediation that allow administrations and urbanist monitoring the production of the city. To that end, a previous and necessary step will be the redefinition of the role of a new real time urbanist.

  5. Performance enhancement of multi-core fiber transmission using real-time FPGA based pre-emphasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasanuzzaman, G. K.M.; Spolitis, S.; Salgals, T.; Braunfelds, J.; Morales, A.; Gonzalez, L. E.; Rommel, S.; Puerta, R.; Asensio, P.; Bobrovs, V.; Iezekiel, S.; Tafur Monroy, I.

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate pre-emphasis based performance for a 2 km long 7-core multicore fiber link. Simultaneous transmission below the FEC threshold is achievable for all cores by using signal equalization in a FPGA.

  6. Real-time performance assessment and adaptive control for a water chiller unit in an HVAC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jianbo; Li, Yang; Chen, Jianhao

    2018-02-01

    The paper proposes an adaptive control method for a water chiller unit in a HVAC system. Based on the minimum variance evaluation, the adaptive control method was used to realize better control of the water chiller unit. To verify the performance of the adaptive control method, the proposed method was compared with an a conventional PID controller, the simulation results showed that adaptive control method had superior control performance to that of the conventional PID controller.

  7. Performance enhancement of multi-core fiber transmission using real-time FPGA based pre-emphasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasanuzzaman, G. K.M.; Spolitis, Sandis; Salgals, T.

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate pre-emphasis based performance for a 2 km long 7-core multicore fiber link. Simultaneous transmission below the FEC threshold is achievable for all cores by using signal equalization in a FPGA.......We experimentally demonstrate pre-emphasis based performance for a 2 km long 7-core multicore fiber link. Simultaneous transmission below the FEC threshold is achievable for all cores by using signal equalization in a FPGA....

  8. The Feasibility of Real-Time Intraoperative Performance Assessment With SIMPL (System for Improving and Measuring Procedural Learning): Early Experience From a Multi-institutional Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnen, Jordan D; George, Brian C; Williams, Reed G; Schuller, Mary C; DaRosa, Debra A; Torbeck, Laura; Mullen, John T; Meyerson, Shari L; Auyang, Edward D; Chipman, Jeffrey G; Choi, Jennifer N; Choti, Michael A; Endean, Eric D; Foley, Eugene F; Mandell, Samuel P; Meier, Andreas H; Smink, Douglas S; Terhune, Kyla P; Wise, Paul E; Soper, Nathaniel J; Zwischenberger, Joseph B; Lillemoe, Keith D; Dunnington, Gary L; Fryer, Jonathan P

    Intraoperative performance assessment of residents is of growing interest to trainees, faculty, and accreditors. Current approaches to collect such assessments are limited by low participation rates and long delays between procedure and evaluation. We deployed an innovative, smartphone-based tool, SIMPL (System for Improving and Measuring Procedural Learning), to make real-time intraoperative performance assessment feasible for every case in which surgical trainees participate, and hypothesized that SIMPL could be feasibly integrated into surgical training programs. Between September 1, 2015 and February 29, 2016, 15 U.S. general surgery residency programs were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved trial. SIMPL was made available after 70% of faculty and residents completed a 1-hour training session. Descriptive and univariate statistics analyzed multiple dimensions of feasibility, including training rates, volume of assessments, response rates/times, and dictation rates. The 20 most active residents and attendings were evaluated in greater detail. A total of 90% of eligible users (1267/1412) completed training. Further, 13/15 programs began using SIMPL. Totally, 6024 assessments were completed by 254 categorical general surgery residents (n = 3555 assessments) and 259 attendings (n = 2469 assessments), and 3762 unique operations were assessed. There was significant heterogeneity in participation within and between programs. Mean percentage (range) of users who completed ≥1, 5, and 20 assessments were 62% (21%-96%), 34% (5%-75%), and 10% (0%-32%) across all programs, and 96%, 75%, and 32% in the most active program. Overall, response rate was 70%, dictation rate was 24%, and mean response time was 12 hours. Assessments increased from 357 (September 2015) to 1146 (February 2016). The 20 most active residents each received mean 46 assessments by 10 attendings for 20 different procedures. SIMPL can be feasibly integrated into surgical training programs

  9. Development of a Real-Time Thermal Performance Diagnostic Monitoring system Using Self-Organizing Neural Network for Kori-2 Nuclear Power Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun Gook; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1996-01-01

    In this work, a PC-based thermal performance monitoring system is developed for the nuclear power plants. the system performs real-time thermal performance monitoring and diagnosis during plant operation. Specifically, a prototype for the Kori-2 nuclear power unit is developed and examined is very difficult because the system structure is highly complex and the components are very much inter-related. In this study, some major diagnostic performance parameters are selected in order to represent the thermal cycle effectively and to reduce the computing time. The Fuzzy ARTMAP, a self-organizing neural network, is used to recognize the characteristic pattern change of the performance parameters in abnormal situation. By examination, the algorithm is shown to be ale to detect abnormality and to identify the fault component or the change of system operation condition successfully. For the convenience of operators, a graphical user interface is also constructed in this work. 5 figs., 3 tabs., 11 refs. (Author)

  10. Real-time communication protocols: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, F.T.Y.; Jansen, P.G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes several existing data link layer protocols that provide real-time capabilities on wired networks, focusing on token-ring and Carrier Sense Multiple Access based networks. Existing modifications to provide better real-time capabilities and performance are also described. Finally

  11. Performance evaluation and accuracy of passive capillary samplers (PCAPs) for estimating real-time drainage water fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful monitoring of pollutant transport through the soil profile requires accurate, reliable, and appropriate instrumentation to measure amount of drainage water or flux within the vadose layer. We evaluated the performance and accuracy of automated passive capillary wick samplers (PCAPs) for ...

  12. Effects of different real-time feedback types on human performance in high-demanding work conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, I.; Brinkman, W.P.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Experiencing stress during training is a way to prepare professionals for real-life crises. With the help of feedback tools, professionals can train to recognize and overcome negative effects of stress on task performances. This paper reports two studies that empirically examined the effect of such

  13. Performance of solid-state sensors for continuous, real-time measurement of soil CO2 concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in sensor technology provide a robust capability for continuous measurement of soil gases. The performance of solid-state CO2 sensors (Model GMM220 series, Vaisala, Finland) was evaluated in laboratory, greenhouse, and irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In ambient CO2 concentrat...

  14. Model predictive control of urban drainage systems: A review and perspective towards smart real-time water management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Nadia Schou Vorndran; Falk, Anne Katrine Vinther; Borup, Morten

    2018-01-01

    Model predictive control (MPC) can be used to manage combined urban drainage systems more efficiently for protection of human health and the environment, but examples of operational implementations are rare. This paper reviews more than 30 years of partly heterogeneous research on the topic. We...... propose a terminology for MPC of urban drainage systems and a hierarchical categorization where we emphasize four overall components: the “receding horizon principle”, the “optimization model”, the “optimization solver”, and the “internal MPC model”. Most of the reported optimization models share...... of the components in the receding horizon principle. The large number of MPC formulations and evaluation approaches makes it problematic to compare different MPC methods. This review highlights methods, challenges, and research gaps in order to make MPC of urban drainage systems accessible for researchers...

  15. A novel approach for evaluating the performance of real time quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Gavin J; Svenstrup, Helle F; Donald, Carol E; Carder, Caroline; Stephenson, Judith M; Morris-Jones, Stephen; Huggett, Jim F; Foy, Carole A

    2014-12-01

    Molecular diagnostic measurements are currently underpinned by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There are also a number of alternative nucleic acid amplification technologies, which unlike PCR, work at a single temperature. These 'isothermal' methods, reportedly offer potential advantages over PCR such as simplicity, speed and resistance to inhibitors and could also be used for quantitative molecular analysis. However there are currently limited mechanisms to evaluate their quantitative performance, which would assist assay development and study comparisons. This study uses a sexually transmitted infection diagnostic model in combination with an adapted metric termed isothermal doubling time (IDT), akin to PCR efficiency, to compare quantitative PCR and quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplification (qLAMP) assays, and to quantify the impact of matrix interference. The performance metric described here facilitates the comparison of qLAMP assays that could assist assay development and validation activities.

  16. A novel approach for evaluating the performance of real time quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin J. Nixon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular diagnostic measurements are currently underpinned by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. There are also a number of alternative nucleic acid amplification technologies, which unlike PCR, work at a single temperature. These ‘isothermal’ methods, reportedly offer potential advantages over PCR such as simplicity, speed and resistance to inhibitors and could also be used for quantitative molecular analysis. However there are currently limited mechanisms to evaluate their quantitative performance, which would assist assay development and study comparisons. This study uses a sexually transmitted infection diagnostic model in combination with an adapted metric termed isothermal doubling time (IDT, akin to PCR efficiency, to compare quantitative PCR and quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplification (qLAMP assays, and to quantify the impact of matrix interference. The performance metric described here facilitates the comparison of qLAMP assays that could assist assay development and validation activities.

  17. Real-time bias-adjusted O 3 and PM 2.5 air quality index forecasts and their performance evaluations over the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Daiwen; Mathur, Rohit; Trivikrama Rao, S.

    2010-06-01

    The National Air Quality Forecast Capacity (NAQFC) system, which links NOAA's North American Mesoscale (NAM) meteorological model with EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, provided operational ozone (O 3) and experimental fine particular matter (PM 2.5) forecasts over the continental United States (CONUS) during 2008. This paper describes the implementation of a real-time Kalman Filter (KF) bias-adjustment technique to improve the accuracy of O 3 and PM 2.5 forecasts at discrete monitoring locations. The operational surface-level O 3 and PM 2.5 forecasts from the NAQFC system were post-processed by the KF bias-adjusted technique using near real-time hourly O 3 and PM 2.5 observations obtained from EPA's AIRNow measurement network. The KF bias-adjusted forecasts were created daily, providing 24-h hourly bias-adjusted forecasts for O 3 and PM 2.5 at all AIRNow monitoring sites within the CONUS domain. The bias-adjustment post-processing implemented in this study requires minimal computational cost; requiring less than 10 min of CPU on a single processor Linux machine to generate 24-h hourly bias-adjusted forecasts over the entire CONUS domain. The results show that the real-time KF bias-adjusted forecasts for both O 3 and PM 2.5 have performed as well as or even better than the previous studies when the same technique was applied to the historical O 3 and PM 2.5 time series from archived AQF in earlier years. Compared to the raw forecasts, the KF forecasts displayed significant improvement in the daily maximum 8-h O 3 and daily mean PM 2.5 forecasts in terms of both discrete (i.e., reduced errors, increased correlation coefficients, and index of agreement) and categorical (increased hit rate and decreased false alarm ratio) evaluation metrics at almost all locations during the study period in 2008.

  18. PAU/GNSS-R: Implementation, Performance and First Results of a Real-Time Delay-Doppler Map Reflectometer Using Global Navigation Satellite System Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric Valencia

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Signals from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS were originally conceived for position and speed determination, but they can be used as signals of opportunity as well. The reflection process over a given surface modifies the properties of the scattered signal, and therefore, by processing the reflected signal, relevant geophysical data regarding the surface under study (land, sea, ice… can be retrieved. In essence, a GNSS-R receiver is a multi-channel GNSS receiver that computes the received power from a given satellite at a number of different delay and Doppler bins of the incoming signal. The first approaches to build such a receiver consisted of sampling and storing the scattered signal for later post-processing. However, a real-time approach to the problem is desirable to obtain immediately useful geophysical variables and reduce the amount of data. The use of FPGA technology makes this possible, while at the same time the system can be easily reconfigured. The signal tracking and processing constraints made necessary to fully design several new blocks. The uniqueness of the implemented system described in this work is the capability to compute in real-time Delay-Doppler maps (DDMs either for four simultaneous satellites or just one, but with a larger number of bins. The first tests have been conducted from a cliff over the sea and demonstrate the successful performance of the instrument to compute DDMs in real-time from the measured reflected GNSS/R signals. The processing of these measurements shall yield quantitative relationships between the sea state (mainly driven by the surface wind and the swell and the overall DDM shape. The ultimate goal is to use the DDM shape to correct the sea state influence on the L-band brightness temperature to improve the retrieval of the sea surface salinity (SSS.

  19. A Novel Supervisory Control Algorithm to Improve the Performance of a Real-Time PV Power-Hardware-In-Loop Simulator with Non-RTDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Jin Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A programmable direct current (DC power supply with Real-time Digital Simulator (RTDS-based photovoltaic (PV Power Hardware-In-the-Loop (PHIL simulators has been used to improve the control algorithm and reliability of a PV inverter. This paper proposes a supervisory control algorithm for a PV PHIL simulator with a non-RTDS device that is an alternative solution to a high-cost PHIL simulator. However, when such a simulator with the conventional algorithm which is used in an RTDS is connected to a PV inverter, the output is in the transient state and it makes it impossible to evaluate the performance of the PV inverter. Therefore, the proposed algorithm controls the voltage and current target values according to constant voltage (CV and constant current (CC modes to overcome the limitation of the Computing Unit and DC power supply, and it also uses a multi-rate system to account for the characteristics of each component of the simulator. A mathematical model of a PV system, programmable DC power supply, isolated DC measurement device, and Computing Unit are integrated to form a real-time processing simulator. Performance tests are carried out with a commercial PV inverter and prove the superiority of this proposed algorithm against the conventional algorithm.

  20. Study on large scale knowledge base with real time operation for autonomous nuclear power plant. 1. Basic concept and expecting performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Yoshihiko; Suda, Kazunori; Yoshikawa, Shinji; Ozawa, Kenji

    1996-04-01

    Since it is desired to enhance availability and safety of nuclear power plants operation and maintenance by removing human factor, there are many researches and developments for intelligent operation or diagnosis using artificial intelligence (AI) technique. We have been developing an autonomous operation and maintenance system for nuclear power plants by substituting AI's and intelligent robots. It is indispensable to use various and large scale knowledge relative to plant design, operation, and maintenance, that is, whole life cycle data of the plant for the autonomous nuclear power plant. These knowledge must be given to AI system or intelligent robots adequately and opportunely. Moreover, it is necessary to insure real time operation using the large scale knowledge base for plant control and diagnosis performance. We have been studying on the large scale and real time knowledge base system for autonomous plant. In the report, we would like to present the basic concept and expecting performance of the knowledge base for autonomous plant, especially, autonomous control and diagnosis system. (author)

  1. CRionScan: A stand-alone real time controller designed to perform ion beam imaging, dose controlled irradiation and proton beam writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudin, L.; Barberet, Ph.; Serani, L.; Moretto, Ph.

    2013-07-01

    High resolution ion microbeams, usually used to perform elemental mapping, low dose targeted irradiation or ion beam lithography needs a very flexible beam control system. For this purpose, we have developed a dedicated system (called “CRionScan”), on the AIFIRA facility (Applications Interdisciplinaires des Faisceaux d'Ions en Région Aquitaine). It consists of a stand-alone real-time scanning and imaging instrument based on a Compact Reconfigurable Input/Output (Compact RIO) device from National Instruments™. It is based on a real-time controller, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), input/output modules and Ethernet connectivity. We have implemented a fast and deterministic beam scanning system interfaced with our commercial data acquisition system without any hardware development. CRionScan is built under LabVIEW™ and has been used on AIFIRA's nanobeam line since 2009 (Barberet et al., 2009, 2011) [1,2]. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) embedded in the Compact RIO as a web page is used to control the scanning parameters. In addition, a fast electrostatic beam blanking trigger has been included in the FPGA and high speed counters (15 MHz) have been implemented to perform dose controlled irradiation and on-line images on the GUI. Analog to Digital converters are used for the beam current measurement and in the near future for secondary electrons imaging. Other functionalities have been integrated in this controller like LED lighting using Pulse Width Modulation and a “NIM Wilkinson ADC” data acquisition.

  2. CRionScan: A stand-alone real time controller designed to perform ion beam imaging, dose controlled irradiation and proton beam writing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daudin, L., E-mail: daudin@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Université Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Barberet, Ph.; Serani, L.; Moretto, Ph. [Université Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France)

    2013-07-01

    High resolution ion microbeams, usually used to perform elemental mapping, low dose targeted irradiation or ion beam lithography needs a very flexible beam control system. For this purpose, we have developed a dedicated system (called “CRionScan”), on the AIFIRA facility (Applications Interdisciplinaires des Faisceaux d’Ions en Région Aquitaine). It consists of a stand-alone real-time scanning and imaging instrument based on a Compact Reconfigurable Input/Output (Compact RIO) device from National Instruments™. It is based on a real-time controller, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), input/output modules and Ethernet connectivity. We have implemented a fast and deterministic beam scanning system interfaced with our commercial data acquisition system without any hardware development. CRionScan is built under LabVIEW™ and has been used on AIFIRA’s nanobeam line since 2009 (Barberet et al., 2009, 2011) [1,2]. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) embedded in the Compact RIO as a web page is used to control the scanning parameters. In addition, a fast electrostatic beam blanking trigger has been included in the FPGA and high speed counters (15 MHz) have been implemented to perform dose controlled irradiation and on-line images on the GUI. Analog to Digital converters are used for the beam current measurement and in the near future for secondary electrons imaging. Other functionalities have been integrated in this controller like LED lighting using Pulse Width Modulation and a “NIM Wilkinson ADC” data acquisition.

  3. Review of the 3rd biennial conference on real-time computer applications in nuclear and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    The topics presented at this conference, held in May 1983 at Berkeley, centered on computer technologies and architecture as they affect the data-acquisition and data-reduction process. Data-acquisition hardware activities were represented with discussions of CAMAC, FASTBUS, and specialized hardware for data sorting, pipelined operations, and parallel processing. Data-acquisition software and software systems and data-reduction and analysis software systems were presented and discussed, as were graphics, data-base management, networking, interactive techniques, and IC technologies, and their impact on scientific applications. This review summarizes the more important papers presented at the conference

  4. Performance in wireless networks and industrial wireless networks on control processes in real time under industrial environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Monsalve-Posada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing use of Ethernet networks on the industrial automation pyramid has led many companies to develop new devices to operate in requirements of this level, nowadays it is called Industrial Ethernet network, on the market there are various sensors and actuators to industrial scale equipped with this technology, many of these devices are very expensive. In this paper, the performance of two wireless networks is evaluated, the first network has conventional Ethernet devices, and the second network has Industrial Ethernet devices. For the process we vary four parameters such as distance, number of bytes, the signal to noise ratio, and the packet error rate, and then we measure delays and compare with metric statistics results, Box Plot graphs were used for the analysis. Finally, we conclude that under the parameters and conditions tested, wireless networks can serve as a communication system in control applications with allowable delays of up to 50 ms, in addition, the results show a better performance of Industrial Ethernet networks over conventional networks, with differences in the RTT of milliseconds. Therefore, it is recommended to establish what risk is for the process to control these delays to determine if the equipment conventional applies, since under certain features like humidity and temperature can operate properly for a considerable time and at lower cost than devices to Industrial Ethernet.

  5. Real-time RT-PCR systems for CTC detection from blood samples of breast cancer and gynaecological tumour patients (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andergassen, Ulrich; Kölbl, Alexandra C; Mahner, Sven; Jeschke, Udo

    2016-04-01

    Cells, which detach from a primary epithelial tumour and migrate through lymphatic vessels and blood stream are called 'circulating tumour cells'. These cells are considered to be the main root of remote metastasis and are correlated to a worse prognosis concerning progression-free and overall survival of the patients. Therefore, the detection of the minimal residual disease is of great importance regarding therapeutic decisions. Many different detection strategies are already available, but only one method, the CellSearch® system, reached FDA approval. The present review focusses on the detection of circulating tumour cells by means of real-time PCR, a highly sensitive method based on differences in gene expression between normal and malignant cells. Strategies for an enrichment of tumour cells are mentioned, as well as a large panel of potential marker genes. Drawbacks and advantages of the technique are elucidated, whereas, the greatest advantage might be, that by selection of appropriate marker genes, also tumour cells, which have already undergone epithelial to mesenchymal transition can be detected. Finally, the application of real-time PCR in different gynaecological malignancies is described, with breast cancer being the most studied cancer entity.

  6. Analytical and clinical performance of the CDC real time RT-PCR assay for detection and typing of dengue virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto A Santiago

    Full Text Available Dengue is an acute illness caused by the positive-strand RNA dengue virus (DENV. There are four genetically distinct DENVs (DENV-1-4 that cause disease in tropical and subtropical countries. Most patients are viremic when they present with symptoms; therefore, RT-PCR has been increasingly used in dengue diagnosis. The CDC DENV-1-4 RT-PCR Assay has been developed as an in-vitro diagnostic platform and was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA for detection of dengue in patients with signs or symptoms of mild or severe dengue. The primers and probes of this test have been designed to detect currently circulating strains of DENV-1-4 from around the world at comparable sensitivity. In a retrospective study with 102 dengue cases confirmed by IgM anti-DENV seroconversion in the convalescent sample, the RT-PCR Assay detected DENV RNA in 98.04% of the paired acute samples. Using sequencing as a positive indicator, the RT-PCR Assay had a 97.92% positive agreement in 86 suspected dengue patients with a single acute serum sample. After extensive validations, the RT-PCR Assay performance was highly reproducible when evaluated across three independent testing sites, did not produce false positive results for etiologic agents of other febrile illnesses, and was not affected by pathological levels of potentially interfering biomolecules. These results indicate that the CDC DENV-1-4 RT-PCR Assay provides a reliable diagnostic platform capable for confirming dengue in suspected cases.

  7. Analytical and clinical performance of the CDC real time RT-PCR assay for detection and typing of dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Gilberto A; Vergne, Edgardo; Quiles, Yashira; Cosme, Joan; Vazquez, Jesus; Medina, Juan F; Medina, Freddy; Colón, Candimar; Margolis, Harold; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is an acute illness caused by the positive-strand RNA dengue virus (DENV). There are four genetically distinct DENVs (DENV-1-4) that cause disease in tropical and subtropical countries. Most patients are viremic when they present with symptoms; therefore, RT-PCR has been increasingly used in dengue diagnosis. The CDC DENV-1-4 RT-PCR Assay has been developed as an in-vitro diagnostic platform and was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for detection of dengue in patients with signs or symptoms of mild or severe dengue. The primers and probes of this test have been designed to detect currently circulating strains of DENV-1-4 from around the world at comparable sensitivity. In a retrospective study with 102 dengue cases confirmed by IgM anti-DENV seroconversion in the convalescent sample, the RT-PCR Assay detected DENV RNA in 98.04% of the paired acute samples. Using sequencing as a positive indicator, the RT-PCR Assay had a 97.92% positive agreement in 86 suspected dengue patients with a single acute serum sample. After extensive validations, the RT-PCR Assay performance was highly reproducible when evaluated across three independent testing sites, did not produce false positive results for etiologic agents of other febrile illnesses, and was not affected by pathological levels of potentially interfering biomolecules. These results indicate that the CDC DENV-1-4 RT-PCR Assay provides a reliable diagnostic platform capable for confirming dengue in suspected cases.

  8. Ovation Prime Real-Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ovation Prime Real-Time (OPRT) product is a real-time forecast and nowcast model of auroral power and is an operational implementation of the work by Newell et...

  9. Impact of inter-genotypic recombination and probe cross-reactivity on the performance of the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay for hepatitis C genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Siddharth; Yip, Cyril C Y; Chan, Jasper F W; To, Kelvin K W; Cheng, Vincent C C; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2018-05-01

    The Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay (Abbott-RT-HCV assay) is a real-time PCR based genotyping method for hepatitis C virus (HCV). This study measured the impact of inter-genotypic recombination and probe cross-reactivity on the performance of the Abbott-RT-HCV assay. 517 samples were genotyped using the Abbott-RT-HCV assay over a one-year period, 34 (6.6%) were identified as HCV genotype 1 without further subtype designation raising the possibility of inaccurate genotyping. These samples were subjected to confirmatory sequencing. 27 of these 34 (79%) samples were genotype 1b while five (15%) were genotype 6. One HCV isolate was an inter-genotypic 1a/4o recombinant. This is a novel natural HCV recombinant that has never been reported. Inter-genotypic recombination and probe cross-reactivity can affect the accuracy of the Abbott-RT-HCV assay, both of which have significant implications on antiviral regimen choice. Confirmatory sequencing of ambiguous results is crucial for accurate genotyping. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Microsatellite instability typing in serum and tissue of patients with colorectal cancer: comparing real time PCR with hybridization probe and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokarram, P; Rismanchi, M; Alizadeh Naeeni, M; Mirab Samiee, S; Paryan, M; Alipour, A; Honardar, Z; Kavousipour, S; Naghibalhossaini, F; Mostafavi-Pour, Z; Monabati, A; Hosseni, S V; Shamsdin, S A

    2014-05-01

    Allelic variation of BAT-25 (a 25-repeat quasimonomorphic poly T) and BAT-26 (a 26-repeat quasimonomorphic polyA) loci as two mononucleotide microsatellite markers, were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) compared with Real-Time PCR using hybridization probes. BAT-26 and BAT-25 markers were used to determine an appropriate screening technique with high sensitivity and specificity to diagnose microsatellite instability (MSI) status in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). One of the pathways in colorectal tumor genesis is microsatellite instability (MSI+). MSI is detected in about 15% of all CRCs; 3% are of these are associated with Lynch syndrome and the other 12% are caused by sporadic. Colorectal tumors with MSI have distinctive features compared with microsatellite stable tumors. Due to the high percentage of MSI+ CRC in Iran, screening of this type of CRC is imperative. Two markers were analyzed in tissues and sera of 44 normal volunteers and tumor and matched normal mucosal tissues as well as sera of 44 patients with sporadic CRC. The sensitivity and specificity of BAT-26 with real time PCR method (Hybridization probe) were 100% in comparison with sequencing method as the gold standard, while HPLC had a lower sensitivity and specificity. According to HPLC data, BAT-26 was more sensitive than BAT-25 in identifying MSI tumors. Therefore, MSI typing using the BAT-26 hybridization probe method compared to HPLC could be considered as an accurate method for diagnosing MSI in CRC tumors but not in serum circulating DNAs.

  11. Real-Time Analysis of Online Product Reviews by Means of Multi-Layer Feed-Forward Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhold Decker

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, the quantitative analysis of online product reviews (OPRs has become a popular manifestation of marketing intelligence activities focusing on products that are frequently subject to electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM. Typical elements of OPRs are overall star ratings, product at- tribute scores, recommendations, pros and cons, and free texts. The first three elements are of pa r- ticular interest because they provide an aggregate view of reviewers’ opinions about the products of interest. However, the significance of individual product attributes in the overall evaluation pro c- ess  can  vary  in  the  course  of  time.  Accordingly,  ad  hoc  analyses  of  OPRs  that  have  been downloaded at a certain point in time are of limited value for dynamic eWOM monitoring because of their snapshot character. On the other hand, opinion platforms can increase the meaningfulness of the OPRs posted there and, therewith, the usefulness of the platform as a whole, by directing eWOM activities to those product attributes that really matter at present. This paper therefore in- troduces a neural network-based approach that allows the dynamic tracking of the influence the posted scores of product attributes have on the overall star ratings of the concerning products. By using an elasticity measure, this approach supports the identification of those attributes that tend to lose or gain significance in the product evaluation process over time. The usability of this ap- proach is demonstrated using real OPR data on digital cameras and hotels.

  12. Non performing loans (NPLs) in a crisis economy: Long-run equilibrium analysis with a real time VEC model for Greece (2001-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantakis, Konstantinos N.; Michaelides, Panayotis G.; Vouldis, Angelos T.

    2016-06-01

    As a result of domestic and international factors, the Greek economy faced a severe crisis which is directly comparable only to the Great Recession. In this context, a prominent victim of this situation was the country's banking system. This paper attempts to shed light on the determining factors of non-performing loans in the Greek banking sector. The analysis presents empirical evidence from the Greek economy, using aggregate data on a quarterly basis, in the time period 2001-2015, fully capturing the recent recession. In this work, we use a relevant econometric framework based on a real time Vector Autoregressive (VAR)-Vector Error Correction (VEC) model, which captures the dynamic interdependencies among the variables used. Consistent with international evidence, the empirical findings show that both macroeconomic and financial factors have a significant impact on non-performing loans in the country. Meanwhile, the deteriorating credit quality feeds back into the economy leading to a self-reinforcing negative loop.

  13. Real time programming environment for Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, D.R. [LaBelle (Dennis R.), Clifton Park, NY (United States)

    1998-04-01

    This document provides a description of the Real Time Programming Environment (RTProE). RTProE tools allow a programmer to create soft real time projects under general, multi-purpose operating systems. The basic features necessary for real time applications are provided by RTProE, leaving the programmer free to concentrate efforts on his specific project. The current version supports Microsoft Windows{trademark} 95 and NT. The tasks of real time synchronization and communication with other programs are handled by RTProE. RTProE includes a generic method for connecting a graphical user interface (GUI) to allow real time control and interaction with the programmer`s product. Topics covered in this paper include real time performance issues, portability, details of shared memory management, code scheduling, application control, Operating System specific concerns and the use of Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools. The development of RTProE is an important step in the expansion of the real time programming community. The financial costs associated with using the system are minimal. All source code for RTProE has been made publicly available. Any person with access to a personal computer, Windows 95 or NT, and C or FORTRAN compilers can quickly enter the world of real time modeling and simulation.

  14. Shifting paradigm of maternal and perinatal death review system in Bangladesh: A real time approach to address sustainable developmental goal 3 by 2030 [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Biswas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in reducing maternal and neonatal morality, even though the millennium developmental goal to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality was not achieved. Sustainable Developmental Goal (SDG 3 has already been set for a new target to reduce maternal and neonatal deaths by 2030. The country takes this timely initiative to introduce a maternal and perinatal death review system. This review will discuss the shifting paradigm of the maternal and perinatal death review system in Bangladesh and its challenges in reaching the SDG on time. This review uses existing literature on the maternal and perinatal death review system in Bangladesh, and other systems in similar settings, as well as reports, case studies, news, government letters and meeting minutes. Bangladesh introduced the maternal and perinatal death review system in 2010. Prior to this there was no such comprehensive death review system practiced in Bangladesh. The system was established within the government health system and has brought about positive effects and outcomes. Therefore, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of Bangladesh gradually scaled up the maternal and perinatal death review system nationwide in 2016 within the government health system. The present death review system highlighted real-time data use, using the district health information software(DHIS-2. Health mangers are able to take remedial action plans and implement strategies based on findings in DHIS-2. Therefore, effective utilization of data can play a pivotal role in the reduction of maternal and perinatal deaths in Bangladesh. Overall, the maternal and perinatal death review system provides a great opportunity to achieve the SDG 3 on time. However, the system needs continuous monitoring at different levels to ensure its quality and validity of information, as well as effective utilization of findings for planning and implementation under a measureable

  15. From advance exploration to real time steering of TBMs: A review on pertinent research in the Collaborative Research Center “Interaction Modeling in Mechanized Tunneling”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Meschke

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on planning and construction related results from research performed at the Collaborative Research Center “Interaction Modeling in Mechanized Tunneling” at Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany. Research covers a broad spectrum of topics relevant for mechanized tunneling in soft soil conditions. This includes inverse numerical methods for advance exploration and models for the characterization of the in situ ground conditions, the interaction of the face support and the tail gap grouting with the porous soil, multi-scale models for the design of fiber reinforced segmental linings with enhanced robustness, computational methods for the numerical simulation of the tunnel advancement, the soil excavation and the material transport in the pressure chamber, logistics processes and risk analysis in urban tunneling. Targeted towards the continuous support of the construction process, a concept for real-time steering support of tunnel boring machines in conjunction with model update procedures and methods of uncertainty quantification is addressed. Keywords: Mechanized tunneling, Computational simulation, Tunnel reconnaissance, Tunnel linings, Face support, Tail void grouting, Real-time analysis, Abrasion, Process simulation

  16. Performance evaluation of the QIAGEN EZ1 DSP Virus Kit with Abbott RealTime HIV-1, HBV and HCV assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, George J; Kuper, Kevin G; Abravaya, Klara; Mullen, Carolyn R; Schmidt, Marion; Bunse-Grassmann, Astrid; Sprenger-Haussels, Markus

    2009-04-01

    Automated sample preparation systems must meet the demands of routine diagnostics laboratories with regard to performance characteristics and compatibility with downstream assays. In this study, the performance of QIAGEN EZ1 DSP Virus Kit on the BioRobot EZ1 DSP was evaluated in combination with the Abbott RealTime HIV-1, HCV, and HBV assays, followed by thermalcycling and detection on the Abbott m2000rt platform. The following performance characteristics were evaluated: linear range and precision, sensitivity, cross-contamination, effects of interfering substances and correlation. Linearity was observed within the tested ranges (for HIV-1: 2.0-6.0 log copies/ml, HCV: 1.3-6.9 log IU/ml, HBV: 1.6-7.6 log copies/ml). Excellent precision was obtained (inter-assay standard deviation for HIV-1: 0.06-0.17 log copies/ml (>2.17 log copies/ml), HCV: 0.05-0.11 log IU/ml (>2.09 log IU/ml), HBV: 0.03-0.07 log copies/ml (>2.55 log copies/ml)), with good sensitivity (95% hit rates for HIV-1: 50 copies/ml, HCV: 12.5 IU/ml, HBV: 10 IU/ml). No cross-contamination was observed, as well as no negative impact of elevated levels of various interfering substances. In addition, HCV and HBV viral load measurements after BioRobot EZ1 DSP extraction correlated well with those obtained after Abbott m2000sp extraction. This evaluation demonstrates that the QIAGEN EZ1 DSP Virus Kit provides an attractive solution for fully automated, low throughput sample preparation for use with the Abbott RealTime HIV-1, HCV, and HBV assays.

  17. Real time analysis under EDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneberk, D.

    1985-07-01

    This paper describes the analysis component of the Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) developed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Four different types of analysis are performed on data acquired through EDS: (1) absorption spectroscopy on laser-generated spectral lines, (2) mass spectrometer analysis, (3) general purpose waveform analysis, and (4) separation performance calculations. The information produced from this data includes: measures of particle density and velocity, partial pressures of residual gases, and overall measures of isotope enrichment. The analysis component supports a variety of real-time modeling tasks, a means for broadcasting data to other nodes, and a great degree of flexibility for tailoring computations to the exact needs of the process. A particular data base structure and program flow is common to all types of analysis. Key elements of the analysis component are: (1) a fast access data base which can configure all types of analysis, (2) a selected set of analysis routines, (3) a general purpose data manipulation and graphics package for the results of real time analysis. Each of these components are described with an emphasis upon how each contributes to overall system capability. 3 figs

  18. RISMA: A Rule-based Interval State Machine Algorithm for Alerts Generation, Performance Analysis and Monitoring Real-Time Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Shaban; El-Desouky, Aly

    2013-04-01

    The monitoring of real-time systems is a challenging and complicated process. So, there is a continuous need to improve the monitoring process through the use of new intelligent techniques and algorithms for detecting exceptions, anomalous behaviours and generating the necessary alerts during the workflow monitoring of such systems. The interval-based or period-based theorems have been discussed, analysed, and used by many researches in Artificial Intelligence (AI), philosophy, and linguistics. As explained by Allen, there are 13 relations between any two intervals. Also, there have also been many studies of interval-based temporal reasoning and logics over the past decades. Interval-based theorems can be used for monitoring real-time interval-based data processing. However, increasing the number of processed intervals makes the implementation of such theorems a complex and time consuming process as the relationships between such intervals are increasing exponentially. To overcome the previous problem, this paper presents a Rule-based Interval State Machine Algorithm (RISMA) for processing, monitoring, and analysing the behaviour of interval-based data, received from real-time sensors. The proposed intelligent algorithm uses the Interval State Machine (ISM) approach to model any number of interval-based data into well-defined states as well as inferring them. An interval-based state transition model and methodology are presented to identify the relationships between the different states of the proposed algorithm. By using such model, the unlimited number of relationships between similar large numbers of intervals can be reduced to only 18 direct relationships using the proposed well-defined states. For testing the proposed algorithm, necessary inference rules and code have been designed and applied to the continuous data received in near real-time from the stations of International Monitoring System (IMS) by the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Preparatory

  19. MARTe: A Multiplatform Real-Time Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, André C.; Sartori, Filippo; Piccolo, Fabio; Vitelli, Riccardo; De Tommasi, Gianmaria; Zabeo, Luca; Barbalace, Antonio; Fernandes, Horacio; Valcarcel, Daniel F.; Batista, Antonio J. N.

    2010-04-01

    Development of real-time applications is usually associated with nonportable code targeted at specific real-time operating systems. The boundary between hardware drivers, system services, and user code is commonly not well defined, making the development in the target host significantly difficult. The Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) is a framework built over a multiplatform library that allows the execution of the same code in different operating systems. The framework provides the high-level interfaces with hardware, external configuration programs, and user interfaces, assuring at the same time hard real-time performances. End-users of the framework are required to define and implement algorithms inside a well-defined block of software, named Generic Application Module (GAM), that is executed by the real-time scheduler. Each GAM is reconfigurable with a set of predefined configuration meta-parameters and interchanges information using a set of data pipes that are provided as inputs and required as output. Using these connections, different GAMs can be chained either in series or parallel. GAMs can be developed and debugged in a non-real-time system and, only once the robustness of the code and correctness of the algorithm are verified, deployed to the real-time system. The software also supplies a large set of utilities that greatly ease the interaction and debugging of a running system. Among the most useful are a highly efficient real-time logger, HTTP introspection of real-time objects, and HTTP remote configuration. MARTe is currently being used to successfully drive the plasma vertical stabilization controller on the largest magnetic confinement fusion device in the world, with a control loop cycle of 50 ?s and a jitter under 1 ?s. In this particular project, MARTe is used with the Real-Time Application Interface (RTAI)/Linux operating system exploiting the new ?86 multicore processors technology.

  20. Jean Claude Risset’s Duet for One Pianist: Challenges of a Real-Time Performance Interaction with a Computer-Controlled Acoustic Piano 16 Years Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Lourenço

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to discuss the work Duet for one Pianist (1989 by the French composer Jean-Claude Risset (b. 13 March 1938 by analyzing the challenges of the music performance of this Computer-Aided Composition work Disklavier and implies Human-Computer Interaction performance. Extremely honored to perform the revised version of the 8 Sketches for One Pianist and Disklavier within a research project of CITAR and a new Sketch Reflections (2012 by Jean-Claude Risset dedicated to me in a World premiere in the closing ceremony of Black&White 2012 Film Festival promoted by the Catholic University of Portugal. Several issues on the performance of this work are analysed as a case-study, from the point of view of the performer, particularly the components of expressive performance in a real-time interaction between performer and computer. These components can work as analysis criteria of a piano interpretation, in here, of a pianist and Disklavier interpretation. 

  1. Real time monitoring of electron processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nablo, S.V.; Kneeland, D.R.; McLaughlin, W.L.

    1995-01-01

    A real time radiation monitor (RTRM) has been developed for monitoring the dose rate (current density) of electron beam processors. The system provides continuous monitoring of processor output, electron beam uniformity, and an independent measure of operating voltage or electron energy. In view of the device's ability to replace labor-intensive dosimetry in verification of machine performance on a real-time basis, its application to providing archival performance data for in-line processing is discussed. (author)

  2. Comparison of the performance in detection of HPV infections between the high-risk HPV genotyping real time PCR and the PCR-reverse dot blot assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lahong; Dai, Yibei; Chen, Jiahuan; Hong, Liquan; Liu, Yuhua; Ke, Qiang; Chen, Yiwen; Cai, Chengsong; Liu, Xia; Chen, Zhaojun

    2018-01-01

    A new multiplex real-time PCR assay, the high-risk HPV genotyping real time PCR assay (HR HPV RT-PCR), has been developed to detect 15 high-risk HPV types with respective viral loads. In this report, a total of 684 cervical specimens from women diagnosed with vaginitis were assessed by the HR HPV RT-PCR and the PCR reaction and reverse dot blot (PCR-RDB) assays, using a PCR-sequencing method as a reference standard. A total coincidence of 97.7% between the HR HPV RT PCR and the PCR-RDB assays was determined with a Kappa value of 0.953. The HR HPV RT PCR assay had sensitivity, specificity, and concordance rates (accuracy) of 99.7%, 99.7%, and 99.7%, respectively, as confirmed by PCR-sequencing, while the PCR-RDB assay had respective rates of 98.8%, 97.1%, and 98.0%. The overall rate of HPV infection, determined by PCR-sequencing, in women diagnosed with vaginitis was 49.85%, including 36.26% of single infection and 13.6% of multiple infections. The most common infections among the 15 high-risk HPV types in women diagnosed with vaginitis were HPV-52, HPV-16, and HPV-58, with a total detection rate of 10.23%, 7.75%, and 5.85%, respectively. We conclude that the HR HPV RT PCR assay exhibits better clinical performance than the PCR-RDB assay, and is an ideal alternative method for HPV genotyping. In addition, the HR HPV RT PCR assay provides HPV DNA viral loads, and could serve as a quantitative marker in the diagnosis and treatment of single and multiple HPV infections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Dependable Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-30

    0196 or 413 545-0720 PI E-mail Address: krithi@nirvan.cs.umass.edu, stankovic(ocs.umass.edu Grant or Contract Title: Dependable Real - Time Systems Grant...Dependable Real - Time Systems " Grant or Contract Number: N00014-85-k-0398 L " Reporting Period: 1 Oct 87 - 30 Sep 91 , 2. Summary of Accomplishments ’ 2.1 Our...in developing a sound approach to scheduling tasks in complex real - time systems , (2) developed a real-time operating system kernel, a preliminary

  4. Feasibility of Remote Real-Time Guidance of a Cardiac Examination Performed by Novices Using a Pocket-Sized Ultrasound Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan V. Mai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The potential of pocket-sized ultrasound devices (PUDs to improve global healthcare delivery is limited by the lack of a suitable imaging protocol and trained users. Therefore, we investigated the feasibility of performing a brief, evidence-based cardiac limited ultrasound exam (CLUE through wireless guidance of novice users. Methods. Three trainees applied PUDs on 27 subjects while directed by an off-site cardiologist to obtain a CLUE to screen for LV systolic dysfunction (LVSD, LA enlargement (LAE, ultrasound lung comets (ULC+, and elevated CVP (eCVP. Real-time remote audiovisual guidance and interpretation by the cardiologist were performed using the iPhone 4/iPod (FaceTime, Apple, Inc. attached to the PUD and transmitted data wirelessly. Accuracy and technical quality of transmitted images were compared to on-site, gold-standard echo thresholds. Results. Novice versus sonographer imaging yielded technically adequate views in 122/135 (90% versus 130/135 (96% (. CLUE’s combined SN, SP, and ACC were 0.67, 0.96, and 0.90. Technical adequacy (% and accuracy for each abnormality ( were LVSD (85%, 0.93, , LAE (89%, 0.74, , ULC+ (100%, 0.94, , and eCVP (78%, 0.91, . Conclusion. A novice can perform the CLUE using PUD when wirelessly guided by an expert. This method could facilitate PUD use for off-site bedside medical decision making and triaging of patients.

  5. Usage of NASA's Near Real-Time Solar and Meteorological Data for Monitoring Building Energy Systems Using RETScreen International's Performance Analysis Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Charles, Robert W.; Chandler, William S.; Hoell, James M.; Westberg, David; Zhang, Taiping; Ziegler, Urban; Leng, Gregory J.; Meloche, Nathalie; Bourque, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes building energy system production and usage monitoring using examples from the new RETScreen Performance Analysis Module, called RETScreen Plus. The module uses daily meteorological (i.e., temperature, humidity, wind and solar, etc.) over a period of time to derive a building system function that is used to monitor building performance. The new module can also be used to target building systems with enhanced technologies. If daily ambient meteorological and solar information are not available, these are obtained over the internet from NASA's near-term data products that provide global meteorological and solar information within 3-6 days of real-time. The accuracy of the NASA data are shown to be excellent for this purpose enabling RETScreen Plus to easily detect changes in the system function and efficiency. This is shown by several examples, one of which is a new building at the NASA Langley Research Center that uses solar panels to provide electrical energy for building energy and excess energy for other uses. The system shows steady performance within the uncertainties of the input data. The other example involves assessing the reduction in energy usage by an apartment building in Sweden before and after an energy efficiency upgrade. In this case, savings up to 16% are shown.

  6. Effectiveness of real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pathological samples: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel O. Babafemi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB is key to manage the disease and to control and prevent its transmission. Many established diagnostic methods suffer from low sensitivity or delay of timely results and are inadequate for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB in pulmonary and extra-pulmonary clinical samples. This study examined whether a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay, with a turn-a-round time of 2 h, would prove effective for routine detection of MTB by clinical microbiology laboratories. Methods A systematic literature search was performed for publications in any language on the detection of MTB in pathological samples by RT-PCR assay. The following sources were used MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE, BIOSIS Citation Index, Web of Science, SCOPUS, ISI Web of Knowledge and Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialised Register, grey literature, World Health Organization and Centres for Disease Control and Prevention websites. Forty-six studies met set inclusion criteria. Generated pooled summary estimates (95% CIs were calculated for overall accuracy and bivariate meta-regression model was used for meta-analysis. Results Summary estimates for pulmonary TB (31 studies were as follows: sensitivity 0.82 (95% CI 0.81–0.83, specificity 0.99 (95% CI 0.99–0.99, positive likelihood ratio 43.00 (28.23–64.81, negative likelihood ratio 0.16 (0.12–0.20, diagnostic odds ratio 324.26 (95% CI 189.08–556.09 and area under curve 0.99. Summary estimates for extra-pulmonary TB (25 studies were as follows: sensitivity 0.70 (95% CI 0.67–0.72, specificity 0.99 (95% CI 0.99–0.99, positive likelihood ratio 29.82 (17.86–49.78, negative likelihood ratio 0.33 (0.26–0.42, diagnostic odds ratio 125.20 (95% CI 65.75–238.36 and area under curve 0.96. Conclusions RT-PCR assay demonstrated a high degree of sensitivity for pulmonary TB and good sensitivity for extra-pulmonary TB. It indicated a

  7. Teaching leadership in trauma resuscitation: Immediate feedback from a real-time, competency-based evaluation tool shows long-term improvement in resident performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Shea C; Heffernan, Daithi S; Connolly, Michael D; Stephen, Andrew H; Leuckel, Stephanie N; Harrington, David T; Machan, Jason T; Adams, Charles A; Cioffi, William G

    2016-10-01

    Limited data exist on how to develop resident leadership and communication skills during actual trauma resuscitations. An evaluation tool was developed to grade senior resident performance as the team leader during full-trauma-team activations. Thirty actions that demonstrated the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies were graded on a Likert scale of 1 (poor) to 5 (exceptional). These actions were grouped by their respective core competencies on 5 × 7-inch index cards. In Phase 1, baseline performance scores were obtained. In Phase 2, trauma-focused communication in-services were conducted early in the academic year, and immediate, personalized feedback sessions were performed after resuscitations based on the evaluation tool. In Phase 3, residents received only evaluation-based feedback following resuscitations. In Phase 1 (October 2009 to April 2010), 27 evaluations were performed on 10 residents. In Phase 2 (April 2010 to October 2010), 28 evaluations were performed on nine residents. In Phase 3 (October 2010 to January 2012), 44 evaluations were performed on 13 residents. Total scores improved significantly between Phases 1 and 2 (p = 0.003) and remained elevated throughout Phase 3. When analyzing performance by competency, significant improvement between Phases 1 and 2 (p competencies (patient care, knowledge, system-based practice, practice-based learning) with the exception of "communication and professionalism" (p = 0.56). Statistically similar scores were observed between Phases 2 and 3 in all competencies with the exception of "medical knowledge," which showed ongoing significant improvement (p = 0.003). Directed resident feedback sessions utilizing data from a real-time, competency-based evaluation tool have allowed us to improve our residents' abilities to lead trauma resuscitations over a 30-month period. Given pressures to maximize clinical educational opportunities among work-hour constraints, such a model may help

  8. Performance evaluation of cobas HBV real-time PCR assay on Roche cobas 4800 System in comparison with COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HBV Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hanah; Hur, Mina; Bae, Eunsin; Lee, Kyung-A; Lee, Woo-In

    2018-02-19

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) is important for the diagnosis and management of HBV infection. We evaluated the analytical performance of the cobas HBV NAAT (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) on the cobas 4800 System in comparison with COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HBV Test (CAP/CTM HBV). Precision was evaluated using three levels of cobas HBV/HCV/HIV-1 Control Kit, and linearity was evaluated across the anticipated measuring range (10.0-1.0×109 IU/mL) at seven levels using clinical samples. Detection capability, including limit of blank (LOB), limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ), was verified using the 4th WHO International Standard for HBV DNA for NAT (NIBSC code: 10/266). Correlation between the two systems was compared using 205 clinical samples (102 sera and 103 EDTA plasma). Repeatability and total imprecision (coefficient of variation) ranged from 0.5% to 3.8% and from 0.5% to 3.5%, respectively. Linearity (coefficient of determination, R2) was 0.999. LOB, LOD and LOQ were all acceptable within the observed proportion rate (85%). Correlation was very high between the two systems in both serum and plasma samples (correlation coefficient [r]=0.995). The new cobas HBV real-time PCR assay on the cobas 4800 System showed reliable analytical performances.

  9. Structure and performance of a real-time algorithm to detect tsunami or tsunami-like alert conditions based on sea-level records analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bressan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to present an original real-time algorithm devised for detection of tsunami or tsunami-like waves we call TEDA (Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm, and to introduce a methodology to evaluate its performance. TEDA works on the sea level records of a single station and implements two distinct modules running concurrently: one to assess the presence of tsunami waves ("tsunami detection" and the other to identify high-amplitude long waves ("secure detection". Both detection methods are based on continuously updated time functions depending on a number of parameters that can be varied according to the application. In order to select the most adequate parameter setting for a given station, a methodology to evaluate TEDA performance has been devised, that is based on a number of indicators and that is simple to use. In this paper an example of TEDA application is given by using data from a tide gauge located at the Adak Island in Alaska, USA, that resulted in being quite suitable since it recorded several tsunamis in the last years using the sampling rate of 1 min.

  10. A Review of Wearable Technologies for Elderly Care that Can Accurately Track Indoor Position, Recognize Physical Activities and Monitor Vital Signs in Real Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growth of the aged population has caused an immense increase in the demand for healthcare services. Generally, the elderly are more prone to health problems compared to other age groups. With effective monitoring and alarm systems, the adverse effects of unpredictable events such as sudden illnesses, falls, and so on can be ameliorated to some extent. Recently, advances in wearable and sensor technologies have improved the prospects of these service systems for assisting elderly people. In this article, we review state-of-the-art wearable technologies that can be used for elderly care. These technologies are categorized into three types: indoor positioning, activity recognition and real time vital sign monitoring. Positioning is the process of accurate localization and is particularly important for elderly people so that they can be found in a timely manner. Activity recognition not only helps ensure that sudden events (e.g., falls will raise alarms but also functions as a feasible way to guide people’s activities so that they avoid dangerous behaviors. Since most elderly people suffer from age-related problems, some vital signs that can be monitored comfortably and continuously via existing techniques are also summarized. Finally, we discussed a series of considerations and future trends with regard to the construction of “smart clothing” system.

  11. A Review of Wearable Technologies for Elderly Care that Can Accurately Track Indoor Position, Recognize Physical Activities and Monitor Vital Signs in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihua; Yang, Zhaochu; Dong, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Rapid growth of the aged population has caused an immense increase in the demand for healthcare services. Generally, the elderly are more prone to health problems compared to other age groups. With effective monitoring and alarm systems, the adverse effects of unpredictable events such as sudden illnesses, falls, and so on can be ameliorated to some extent. Recently, advances in wearable and sensor technologies have improved the prospects of these service systems for assisting elderly people. In this article, we review state-of-the-art wearable technologies that can be used for elderly care. These technologies are categorized into three types: indoor positioning, activity recognition and real time vital sign monitoring. Positioning is the process of accurate localization and is particularly important for elderly people so that they can be found in a timely manner. Activity recognition not only helps ensure that sudden events (e.g., falls) will raise alarms but also functions as a feasible way to guide people’s activities so that they avoid dangerous behaviors. Since most elderly people suffer from age-related problems, some vital signs that can be monitored comfortably and continuously via existing techniques are also summarized. Finally, we discussed a series of considerations and future trends with regard to the construction of “smart clothing” system. PMID:28208620

  12. Real-time PCR in virology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Ian M; Arden, Katherine E; Nitsche, Andreas

    2002-03-15

    The use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in molecular diagnostics has increased to the point where it is now accepted as the gold standard for detecting nucleic acids from a number of origins and it has become an essential tool in the research laboratory. Real-time PCR has engendered wider acceptance of the PCR due to its improved rapidity, sensitivity, reproducibility and the reduced risk of carry-over contamination. There are currently five main chemistries used for the detection of PCR product during real-time PCR. These are the DNA binding fluorophores, the 5' endonuclease, adjacent linear and hairpin oligoprobes and the self-fluorescing amplicons, which are described in detail. We also discuss factors that have restricted the development of multiplex real-time PCR as well as the role of real-time PCR in quantitating nucleic acids. Both amplification hardware and the fluorogenic detection chemistries have evolved rapidly as the understanding of real-time PCR has developed and this review aims to update the scientist on the current state of the art. We describe the background, advantages and limitations of real-time PCR and we review the literature as it applies to virus detection in the routine and research laboratory in order to focus on one of the many areas in which the application of real-time PCR has provided significant methodological benefits and improved patient outcomes. However, the technology discussed has been applied to other areas of microbiology as well as studies of gene expression and genetic disease.

  13. Performance of 2 commercial real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection of Aspergillus and Pneumocystis DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from critical care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Carlotta Francesca; Gennari, William; Venturelli, Claudia; La Regina, Annunziata; Pecorari, Monica; Righi, Elena; Machetti, Marco; Blasi, Elisabetta

    2012-06-01

    This article investigates the performance of 2 commercial real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, MycAssay™ Aspergillus (Myc(Asp)Assay) and MycAssay™ Pneumocystis (Myc(PCP)Assay), on the ABI 7300 platform for the detection of Aspergillus (Asp) or Pneumocystis jirovecii (Pj) DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 20 patients. Operationally, patients enrolled were clustered into 3 groups: invasive aspergillosis group (IA, 7 patients), Pj pneumonia group (PCP, 8 patients), and negative control group (5 patients). All the IA patients were Myc(Asp)Assay positive, whereas 12 non-IA patients returned negative PCR results. Furthermore, 7 of 8 PCP patients were Myc(PCP)Assay positive, while 9 non-PCP patients were PCR negative. In conclusion, these data provide an early indication of the effectiveness of both the Myc(Asp)Assay and Myc(PCP)Assay on the ABI 7300 platform for the detection of either Asp or Pj DNA in BAL from patients with deep fungal infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance of Droplet Digital PCR in Non-Invasive Fetal RHD Genotyping - Comparison with a Routine Real-Time PCR Based Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Svobodová

    Full Text Available Detection and characterization of circulating cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA from maternal circulation requires an extremely sensitive and precise method due to very low cffDNA concentration. In our study, droplet digital PCR (ddPCR was implemented for fetal RHD genotyping from maternal plasma to compare this new quantification alternative with real-time PCR (qPCR as a golden standard for quantitative analysis of cffDNA. In the first stage of study, a DNA quantification standard was used. Clinical samples, including 10 non-pregnant and 35 pregnant women, were analyzed as a next step. Both methods' performance parameters-standard curve linearity, detection limit and measurement precision-were evaluated. ddPCR in comparison with qPCR has demonstrated sufficient sensitivity for analysing of cffDNA and determination of fetal RhD status from maternal circulation, results of both methods strongly correlated. Despite the more demanding workflow, ddPCR was found to be slightly more precise technology, as evaluated using quantitative standard. Regarding the clinical samples, the precision of both methods equalized with decreasing concentrations of tested DNA samples. In case of cffDNA with very low concentrations, variance parameters of both techniques were comparable. Detected levels of fetal cfDNA in maternal plasma were slightly higher than expected and correlated significantly with gestational age as measured by both methods (ddPCR r = 0.459; qPCR r = 0.438.

  15. Systematic Review of Real-time Remote Health Monitoring System in Triage and Priority-Based Sensor Technology: Taxonomy, Open Challenges, Motivation and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albahri, O S; Albahri, A S; Mohammed, K I; Zaidan, A A; Zaidan, B B; Hashim, M; Salman, Omar H

    2018-03-22

    The new and ground-breaking real-time remote monitoring in triage and priority-based sensor technology used in telemedicine have significantly bounded and dispersed communication components. To examine these technologies and provide researchers with a clear vision of this area, we must first be aware of the utilised approaches and existing limitations in this line of research. To this end, an extensive search was conducted to find articles dealing with (a) telemedicine, (b) triage, (c) priority and (d) sensor; (e) comprehensively review related applications and establish the coherent taxonomy of these articles. ScienceDirect, IEEE Xplore and Web of Science databases were checked for articles on triage and priority-based sensor technology in telemedicine. The retrieved articles were filtered according to the type of telemedicine technology explored. A total of 150 articles were selected and classified into two categories. The first category includes reviews and surveys of triage and priority-based sensor technology in telemedicine. The second category includes articles on the three-tiered architecture of telemedicine. Tier 1 represents the users. Sensors acquire the vital signs of the users and send them to Tier 2, which is the personal gateway that uses local area network protocols or wireless body area network. Medical data are sent from Tier 2 to Tier 3, which is the healthcare provider in medical institutes. Then, the motivation for using triage and priority-based sensor technology in telemedicine, the issues related to the obstruction of its application and the development and utilisation of telemedicine are examined on the basis of the findings presented in the literature.

  16. High-performance GPU-based rendering for real-time, rigid 2D/3D-image registration and motion prediction in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerk, Jakob; Gendrin, Christelle; Weber, Christoph; Figl, Michael; Pawiro, Supriyanto Ardjo; Furtado, Hugo; Fabri, Daniella; Bloch, Christoph; Bergmann, Helmar; Gröller, Eduard; Birkfellner, Wolfgang

    2012-02-01

    A common problem in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of lung cancer as well as other malignant diseases is the compensation of periodic and aperiodic motion during dose delivery. Modern systems for image-guided radiation oncology allow for the acquisition of cone-beam computed tomography data in the treatment room as well as the acquisition of planar radiographs during the treatment. A mid-term research goal is the compensation of tumor target volume motion by 2D/3D Registration. In 2D/3D registration, spatial information on organ location is derived by an iterative comparison of perspective volume renderings, so-called digitally rendered radiographs (DRR) from computed tomography volume data, and planar reference x-rays. Currently, this rendering process is very time consuming, and real-time registration, which should at least provide data on organ position in less than a second, has not come into existence. We present two GPU-based rendering algorithms which generate a DRR of 512×512 pixels size from a CT dataset of 53 MB size at a pace of almost 100 Hz. This rendering rate is feasible by applying a number of algorithmic simplifications which range from alternative volume-driven rendering approaches - namely so-called wobbled splatting - to sub-sampling of the DRR-image by means of specialized raycasting techniques. Furthermore, general purpose graphics processing unit (GPGPU) programming paradigms were consequently utilized. Rendering quality and performance as well as the influence on the quality and performance of the overall registration process were measured and analyzed in detail. The results show that both methods are competitive and pave the way for fast motion compensation by rigid and possibly even non-rigid 2D/3D registration and, beyond that, adaptive filtering of motion models in IGRT. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. High-performance GPU-based rendering for real-time, rigid 2D/3D-image registration and motion prediction in radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spoerk, Jakob; Gendrin, Christelle; Weber, Christoph [Medical University of Vienna (Austria). Center of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering] [and others

    2012-07-01

    A common problem in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of lung cancer as well as other malignant diseases is the compensation of periodic and aperiodic motion during dose delivery. Modern systems for image-guided radiation oncology allow for the acquisition of cone-beam computed tomography data in the treatment room as well as the acquisition of planar radiographs during the treatment. A mid-term research goal is the compensation of tumor target volume motion by 2D/3D Registration. In 2D/3D registration, spatial information on organ location is derived by an iterative comparison of perspective volume renderings, so-called digitally rendered radiographs (DRR) from computed tomography volume data, and planar reference X-rays. Currently, this rendering process is very time consuming, and real-time registration, which should at least provide data on organ position in less than a second, has not come into existence. We present two GPU-based rendering algorithms which generate a DRR of 512 x 512 pixels size from a CT dataset of 53 MB size at a pace of almost 100 Hz. This rendering rate is feasible by applying a number of algorithmic simplifications which range from alternative volume-driven rendering approaches - namely so-called wobbled splatting - to sub-sampling of the DRR-image by means of specialized raycasting techniques. Furthermore, general purpose graphics processing unit (GPGPU) programming paradigms were consequently utilized. Rendering quality and performance as well as the influence on the quality and performance of the overall registration process were measured and analyzed in detail. The results show that both methods are competitive and pave the way for fast motion compensation by rigid and possibly even non-rigid 2D/3D registration and, beyond that, adaptive filtering of motion models in IGRT. (orig.)

  18. Real-Time Parameter Identification

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers have implemented in the control room a technique for estimating in real time the aerodynamic parameters that describe the stability and control...

  19. Prototyping real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Clynch, Gary

    1994-01-01

    The traditional software development paradigm, the waterfall life cycle model, is defective when used for developing real-time systems. This thesis puts forward an executable prototyping approach for the development of real-time systems. A prototyping system is proposed which uses ESML (Extended Systems Modelling Language) as a prototype specification language. The prototyping system advocates the translation of non-executable ESML specifications into executable LOOPN (Language of Object ...

  20. Real-time vision systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-yee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Many industrial and defence applications require an ability to make instantaneous decisions based on sensor input of a time varying process. Such systems are referred to as `real-time systems` because they process and act on data as it occurs in time. When a vision sensor is used in a real-time system, the processing demands can be quite substantial, with typical data rates of 10-20 million samples per second. A real-time Machine Vision Laboratory (MVL) was established in FY94 to extend our years of experience in developing computer vision algorithms to include the development and implementation of real-time vision systems. The laboratory is equipped with a variety of hardware components, including Datacube image acquisition and processing boards, a Sun workstation, and several different types of CCD cameras, including monochrome and color area cameras and analog and digital line-scan cameras. The equipment is reconfigurable for prototyping different applications. This facility has been used to support several programs at LLNL, including O Division`s Peacemaker and Deadeye Projects as well as the CRADA with the U.S. Textile Industry, CAFE (Computer Aided Fabric Inspection). To date, we have successfully demonstrated several real-time applications: bullet tracking, stereo tracking and ranging, and web inspection. This work has been documented in the ongoing development of a real-time software library.

  1. Current Evidence of Gait Modification with Real-time Biofeedback to Alter Kinetic, Temporospatial, and Function-Related Outcomes: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladipo Eddo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gait retraining using real-time biofeedback (RTB may have positive outcomes in decreasing knee adduction moment (KAM in healthy individuals and has shown equal likelihood in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA. Currently, there is no consensus regarding the most effective gait modification strategy, mode of biofeedback or treatment dosage. Objective: The purpose of this review was: i to assess if gait retraining interventions using RTB are valuable to reduce KAM, pain, and improve function in individuals with knee osteoarthritis, ii to evaluate the effectiveness of different gait modifications and modes of RTB in reducing KAM in healthy individuals, and iii to assess the impact of gait retraining interventions with RTB on other variables that may affect clinical outcomes. Methods: Seven electronic databases were searched using five search terms. Studies that utilized any form of gait retraining with RTB to improve one or a combination of the following measures were included: KAM, knee pain, and function. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria, evaluating eleven distinctive gait modifications and three modes of RTB. Results: All but one study showed positive outcomes. Self-selected and multi-parameter gait modifications showed the greatest reductions in KAM with visual and haptic RTB being more effective than auditory. Conclusions: Current evidence suggests that gait modification using RTB can Positively alter KAM in asymptomatic and symptomatic participants. However, the existing literature is limited and of low quality, with the optimal combination strategies remaining unclear (gait and biofeedback mode. Future studies should employ randomized controlled study designs to compare the effects of different gait modification strategies and biofeedback modes on individuals with knee OA.

  2. Standardization and performance evaluation of "modified" and "ultrasensitive" versions of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay, adapted to quantify minimal residual viremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, Alessandra; Bloisi, Maria; Marsella, Patrizia; Sabatini, Rosella; Bibbò, Angela; Angeletti, Claudio; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2011-09-01

    Numerous studies investigating clinical significance of HIV-1 minimal residual viremia (MRV) suggest potential utility of assays more sensitive than those routinely used to monitor viral suppression. However currently available methods, based on different technologies, show great variation in detection limit and input plasma volume, and generally suffer from lack of standardization. In order to establish new tools suitable for routine quantification of minimal residual viremia in patients under virological suppression, some modifications were introduced into standard procedure of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay leading to a "modified" and an "ultrasensitive" protocols. The following modifications were introduced: calibration curve extended towards low HIV-1 RNA concentration; 4 fold increased sample volume by concentrating starting material; reduced volume of internal control; adoption of "open-mode" software for quantification. Analytical performances were evaluated using the HIV-1 RNA Working Reagent 1 for NAT assays (NIBSC). Both tests were applied to clinical samples from virologically suppressed patients. The "modified" and the "ultrasensitive" configurations of the assay reached a limit of detection of 18.8 (95% CI: 11.1-51.0 cp/mL) and 4.8 cp/mL (95% CI: 2.6-9.1 cp/mL), respectively, with high precision and accuracy. In clinical samples from virologically suppressed patients, "modified" and "ultrasensitive" protocols allowed to detect and quantify HIV RNA in 12.7% and 46.6%, respectively, of samples resulted "not-detectable", and in 70.0% and 69.5%, respectively, of samples "detected laboratories for measuring MRV. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Real time 3D photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Balbuena, A. A.; Vazquez-Molini, D.; García-Botella, A.; Romo, J.; Serrano, Ana

    2017-09-01

    The photometry and radiometry measurement is a well-developed field. The necessity of measuring optical systems performance involves the use of several techniques like Gonio-photometry. The Gonio photometers are a precise measurement tool that is used in the lighting area like office, luminaire head car lighting, concentrator /collimator measurement and all the designed and fabricated optical systems that works with light. There is one disadvantage in this kind of measurements that obtain the intensity polar curves and the total flux of the optical system. In the industry, there are good Gonio photometers that are precise and reliable but they are very expensive and the measurement time is long. In industry the cost can be of minor importance but measuring time that is around 30 minutes is of major importance due to trained staff cost. We have designed a system to measure photometry in real time; it consists in a curved screen to get a huge measurement angle and a CCD. The system to be measured projects light onto the screen and the CCD records a video of the screen obtaining an image of the projected profile. A complex calibration permits to trace screen data (x,y,z) to intensity polar curve (I,αγ). This intensity is obtained in candels (cd) with an image + processing time below one second.

  4. Stateless Puzzles for Real Time Online Fraud Preemption

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mizanur; Recabarren, Ruben; Carbunar, Bogdan; Lee, Dongwon

    2017-01-01

    The profitability of fraud in online systems such as app markets and social networks marks the failure of existing defense mechanisms. In this paper, we propose FraudSys, a real-time fraud preemption approach that imposes Bitcoin-inspired computational puzzles on the devices that post online system activities, such as reviews and likes. We introduce and leverage several novel concepts that include (i) stateless, verifiable computational puzzles, that impose minimal performance overhead, but e...

  5. Prospective Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Real-Time Peer Review Quality Assurance Rounds Incorporating Direct Physical Examination for Head and Neck Cancer Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Carlos E; Mohamed, Abdallah S R; Tao, Randa; Wong, Andrew J R; Awan, Mussadiq J; Kuruvila, Shirly; Aristophanous, Michalis; Gunn, G Brandon; Phan, Jack; Beadle, Beth M; Frank, Steven J; Garden, Adam S; Morrison, William H; Fuller, Clifton D; Rosenthal, David I

    2017-07-01

    Our department has a long-established comprehensive quality assurance (QA) planning clinic for patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for head and neck cancer. Our aim is to assess the impact of a real-time peer review QA process on the quantitative and qualitative radiation therapy plan changes in the era of intensity modulated RT (IMRT). Prospective data for 85 patients undergoing head and neck IMRT who presented at a biweekly QA clinic after simulation and contouring were collected. A standard data collection form was used to document alterations made during this process. The original pre-QA clinical target volumes (CTVs) approved by the treating-attending physicians were saved before QA and compared with post-QA consensus CTVs. Qualitative assessment was done according to predefined criteria. Dice similarity coefficients (DSC) and other volume overlap metrics were calculated for each CTV level and were used for quantitative comparison. Changes are categorized as major, minor, and trivial according to the degree of overlap. Patterns of failure were analyzed and correlated to plan changes. All 85 patients were examined by at least 1 head and neck subspecialist radiation oncologist who was not the treating-attending physician; 80 (94%) were examined by ≥3 faculty members. New clinical findings on physical examination were found in 12 patients (14%) leading to major plan changes. Quantitative DSC analysis revealed significantly better agreement in CTV1 (0.94 ± 0.10) contours than in CTV2 (0.82 ± 0.25) and CTV3 (0.86 ± 0.2) contours (P=.0002 and P=.03, respectively; matched-pair Wilcoxon test). The experience of the treating-attending radiation oncologist significantly affected DSC values when all CTV levels were considered (P=.012; matched-pair Wilcoxon text). After a median follow-up time of 38 months, only 10 patients (12%) had local recurrence, regional recurrence, or both, mostly in central high-dose areas. Comprehensive peer review planning

  6. Analytical and clinical performance characteristics of the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance, an assay for the detection of rifampicin and isoniazid resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pulmonary specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostera, Joshua; Leckie, Gregor; Tang, Ning; Lampinen, John; Szostak, Magdalena; Abravaya, Klara; Wang, Hong

    2016-12-01

    Clinical management of drug-resistant tuberculosis patients continues to present significant challenges to global health. To tackle these challenges, the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance assay was developed to accelerate the diagnosis of rifampicin and/or isoniazid resistant tuberculosis to within a day. This article summarizes the performance of the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance assay; including reliability, analytical sensitivity, and clinical sensitivity/specificity as compared to Cepheid GeneXpert MTB/RIF version 1.0 and Hain MTBDRplus version 2.0. The limit of detection (LOD) of the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance assay was determined to be 32 colony forming units/milliliter (cfu/mL) using the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strain H37Rv cell line. For rifampicin resistance detection, the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance assay demonstrated statistically equivalent clinical sensitivity and specificity as compared to Cepheid GeneXpert MTB/RIF. For isoniazid resistance detection, the assay demonstrated statistically equivalent clinical sensitivity and specificity as compared to Hain MTBDRplus. The performance data presented herein demonstrate that the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance assay is a sensitive, robust, and reliable test for realtime simultaneous detection of first line anti-tuberculosis antibiotics rifampicin and isoniazid in patient specimens. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Based Real Time Remote Health Monitoring Systems: A Review on Patients Prioritization and Related "Big Data" Using Body Sensors information and Communication Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalid, Naser; Zaidan, A A; Zaidan, B B; Salman, Omar H; Hashim, M; Muzammil, H

    2017-12-29

    The growing worldwide population has increased the need for technologies, computerised software algorithms and smart devices that can monitor and assist patients anytime and anywhere and thus enable them to lead independent lives. The real-time remote monitoring of patients is an important issue in telemedicine. In the provision of healthcare services, patient prioritisation poses a significant challenge because of the complex decision-making process it involves when patients are considered 'big data'. To our knowledge, no study has highlighted the link between 'big data' characteristics and real-time remote healthcare monitoring in the patient prioritisation process, as well as the inherent challenges involved. Thus, we present comprehensive insights into the elements of big data characteristics according to the six 'Vs': volume, velocity, variety, veracity, value and variability. Each of these elements is presented and connected to a related part in the study of the connection between patient prioritisation and real-time remote healthcare monitoring systems. Then, we determine the weak points and recommend solutions as potential future work. This study makes the following contributions. (1) The link between big data characteristics and real-time remote healthcare monitoring in the patient prioritisation process is described. (2) The open issues and challenges for big data used in the patient prioritisation process are emphasised. (3) As a recommended solution, decision making using multiple criteria, such as vital signs and chief complaints, is utilised to prioritise the big data of patients with chronic diseases on the basis of the most urgent cases.

  8. WE-AB-BRA-04: Evaluation of the Tumor Registration Error in Biopsy Procedures Performed Under Real Time PET/CT Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanchon, L; Apte, A; Dzyubak, O; Mageras, G; Yorke, E; Solomon, S; Kirov, A; Visvikis, D; Hatt, M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: PET/CT guidance is used for biopsies of metabolically active lesions, which are not well seen on CT alone or to target the metabolically active tissue in tumor ablations. It has also been shown that PET/CT guided biopsies provide an opportunity to verify the location of the lesion border at the place of needle insertion. However the error in needle placement with respect to the metabolically active region may be affected by motion between the PET/CT scan performed at the start of the procedure and the CT scan performed with the needle in place and this error has not been previously quantified. Methods: Specimens from 31 PET/CT guided biopsies were investigated and correlated to the intraoperative PET scan under an IRB approved HIPAA compliant protocol. For 4 of the cases in which larger motion was suspected a second PET scan was obtained with the needle in place. The CT and the PET images obtained before and after the needle insertion were used to calculate the displacement of the voxels along the needle path. CTpost was registered to CTpre using a free form deformable registration and then fused with PETpre. The shifts between the PET image contours (42% of SUVmax) for PETpre and PETpost were obtained at the needle position. Results: For these extreme cases the displacement of the CT voxels along the needle path ranged from 2.9 to 8 mm with a mean of 5 mm. The shift of the PET image segmentation contours (42% of SUVmax) at the needle position ranged from 2.3 to 7 mm between the two scans. Conclusion: Evaluation of the mis-registration between the CT with the needle in place and the pre-biopsy PET can be obtained using deformable registration of the respective CT scans and can be used to indicate the need of a second PET in real-time. This work is supported in part by a grant from Biospace Lab, S.A

  9. Towards Real-Time Argumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente JULIÁN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we deal with the problem of real-time coordination with the more general approach of reaching real-time agreements in MAS. Concretely, this work proposes a real-time argumentation framework in an attempt to provide agents with the ability of engaging in argumentative dialogues and come with a solution for their underlying agreement process within a bounded period of time. The framework has been implemented and evaluated in the domain of a customer support application. Concretely, we consider a society of agents that act on behalf of a group of technicians that must solve problems in a Technology Management Centre (TMC within a bounded time. This centre controls every process implicated in the provision of technological and customer support services to private or public organisations by means of a call centre. The contract signed between the TCM and the customer establishes penalties if the specified time is exceeded.

  10. Failure analysis of real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalashgar, A.; Stoelen, K.

    1998-01-01

    This paper highlights essential aspects of real-time software systems that are strongly related to the failures and their course of propagation. The significant influence of means-oriented and goal-oriented system views in the description, understanding and analysing of those aspects is elaborated. The importance of performing failure analysis prior to reliability analysis of real-time systems is equally addressed. Problems of software reliability growth models taking the properties of such systems into account are discussed. Finally, the paper presents a preliminary study of a goal-oriented approach to model the static and dynamic characteristics of real-time systems, so that the corresponding analysis can be based on a more descriptive and informative picture of failures, their effects and the possibility of their occurrence. (author)

  11. Real-Time PCR Detection of Paenibacillus spp. in Raw Milk To Predict Shelf Life Performance of Pasteurized Fluid Milk Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ranieri, Matthew L.; Ivy, Reid A.; Mitchell, W. Robert; Call, Emma; Masiello, Stephanie N.; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J.

    2012-01-01

    Psychrotolerant sporeformers, specifically Paenibacillus spp., are important spoilage bacteria for pasteurized, refrigerated foods such as fluid milk. While Paenibacillus spp. have been isolated from farm environments, raw milk, processing plant environments, and pasteurized fluid milk, no information on the number of Paenibacillus spp. that need to be present in raw milk to cause pasteurized milk spoilage was available. A real-time PCR assay targeting the 16S rRNA gene was designed to detect...

  12. Real-time systems design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laplante, Phillip A

    2004-01-01

    "Real-Time Systems Design and Analysis, Third Edition is essential for students and practicing software engineers who want improved designs, faster computation, and ultimate cost savings. Chapters discuss hardware considerations and software requirements, software systems design, the software production process, performance estimation and optimization, and engineering considerations."--Jacket.

  13. Real Time Linux - The RTOS for Astronomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, P. N.

    The BoF was attended by about 30 participants and a free CD of real time Linux-based upon RedHat 5.2-was available. There was a detailed presentation on the nature of real time Linux and the variants for hard real time: New Mexico Tech's RTL and DIAPM's RTAI. Comparison tables between standard Linux and real time Linux responses to time interval generation and interrupt response latency were presented (see elsewhere in these proceedings). The present recommendations are to use RTL for UP machines running the 2.0.x kernels and RTAI for SMP machines running the 2.2.x kernel. Support, both academically and commercially, is available. Some known limitations were presented and the solutions reported e.g., debugging and hardware support. The features of RTAI (scheduler, fifos, shared memory, semaphores, message queues and RPCs) were described. Typical performance statistics were presented: Pentium-based oneshot tasks running > 30kHz, 486-based oneshot tasks running at ~ 10 kHz, periodic timer tasks running in excess of 90 kHz with average zero jitter peaking to ~ 13 mus (UP) and ~ 30 mus (SMP). Some detail on kernel module programming, including coding examples, were presented showing a typical data acquisition system generating simulated (random) data writing to a shared memory buffer and a fifo buffer to communicate between real time Linux and user space. All coding examples were complete and tested under RTAI v0.6 and the 2.2.12 kernel. Finally, arguments were raised in support of real time Linux: it's open source, free under GPL, enables rapid prototyping, has good support and the ability to have a fully functioning workstation capable of co-existing hard real time performance. The counter weight-the negatives-of lack of platforms (x86 and PowerPC only at present), lack of board support, promiscuous root access and the danger of ignorance of real time programming issues were also discussed. See ftp://orion.tuc.noao.edu/pub/pnd/rtlbof.tgz for the StarOffice overheads

  14. Real time automatic scene classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, R.; Israël, Menno; Taatgen, N.; van den Broek, Egon; van der Putten, Peter; Schomaker, L.; den Uyl, Marten J.

    2004-01-01

    This work has been done as part of the EU VICAR (IST) project and the EU SCOFI project (IAP). The aim of the first project was to develop a real time video indexing classification annotation and retrieval system. For our systems, we have adapted the approach of Picard and Minka [3], who categorized

  15. Real time freeway incident detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The US Department of Transportation (US-DOT) estimates that over half of all congestion : events are caused by highway incidents rather than by rush-hour traffic in big cities. Real-time : incident detection on freeways is an important part of any mo...

  16. Real Time Conference 2016 Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetta, Adriano

    2017-06-01

    This is a special issue of the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science containing papers from the invited, oral, and poster presentation of the 20th Real Time Conference (RT2016). The conference was held June 6-10, 2016, at Centro Congressi Padova “A. Luciani,” Padova, Italy, and was organized by Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA) and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. The Real Time Conference is multidisciplinary and focuses on the latest developments in real-time techniques in high-energy physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics and astroparticle physics, nuclear fusion, medical physics, space instrumentation, nuclear power instrumentation, general radiation instrumentation, and real-time security and safety. Taking place every second year, it is sponsored by the Computer Application in Nuclear and Plasma Sciences technical committee of the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society. RT2016 attracted more than 240 registrants, with a large proportion of young researchers and engineers. It had an attendance of 67 students from many countries.

  17. Designing Real Time Assistive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Obel, Carsten; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    activities and assists the child in maintaining attention. From a preliminary evaluation of CASTT with 20 children in several schools, we and found that: 1) it is possible to create a wearable sensor system for children with ADHD that monitors physical and physiological activities in real time; and that 2...

  18. "Internet of Things" Real-Time Free Flap Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hun; Shin, Ho Seong; Lee, Sang Hwan

    2018-01-01

    Free flaps are a common treatment option for head and neck reconstruction in plastic reconstructive surgery, and monitoring of the free flap is the most important factor for flap survival. In this study, the authors performed real-time free flap monitoring based on an implanted Doppler system and "internet of things" (IoT)/wireless Wi-Fi, which is a convenient, accurate, and efficient approach for surgeons to monitor a free flap. Implanted Doppler signals were checked continuously until the patient was discharged by the surgeon and residents using their own cellular phone or personal computer. If the surgeon decided that a revision procedure or exploration was required, the authors checked the consumed time (positive signal-to-operating room time) from the first notification when the flap's status was questioned to the determination for revision surgery according to a chart review. To compare the efficacy of real-time monitoring, the authors paired the same number of free flaps performed by the same surgeon and monitored the flaps using conventional methods such as a physical examination. The total survival rate was greater in the real-time monitoring group (94.7% versus 89.5%). The average time for the real-time monitoring group was shorter than that for the conventional group (65 minutes versus 86 minutes). Based on this study, real-time free flap monitoring using IoT technology is a method that surgeon and reconstruction team can monitor simultaneously at any time in any situation.

  19. ISTTOK real-time architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ivo S., E-mail: ivoc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Hekkert, Tiago; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • All real-time diagnostics and actuators were integrated in the same control platform. • A 100 μs control cycle was achieved under the MARTe framework. • Time-windows based control with several event-driven control strategies implemented. • AC discharges with exception handling on iron core flux saturation. • An HTML discharge configuration was developed for configuring the MARTe system. - Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak was upgraded with a plasma control system based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard. This control system was designed to improve the discharge stability and to extend the operational space to the alternate plasma current (AC) discharges as part of the ISTTOK scientific program. In order to accomplish these objectives all ISTTOK diagnostics and actuators relevant for real-time operation were integrated in the control system. The control system was programmed in C++ over the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) which provides, among other features, a real-time scheduler, an interrupt handler, an intercommunications interface between code blocks and a clearly bounded interface with the external devices. As a complement to the MARTe framework, the BaseLib2 library provides the foundations for the data, code introspection and also a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) server service. Taking advantage of the modular nature of MARTe, the algorithms of each diagnostic data processing, discharge timing, context switch, control and actuators output reference generation, run on well-defined blocks of code named Generic Application Module (GAM). This approach allows reusability of the code, simplified simulation, replacement or editing without changing the remaining GAMs. The ISTTOK control system GAMs run sequentially each 100 μs cycle on an Intel{sup ®} Q8200 4-core processor running at 2.33 GHz located in the ATCA crate. Two boards (inside the ATCA crate) with 32 analog

  20. ISTTOK real-time architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Ivo S.; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Hekkert, Tiago; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • All real-time diagnostics and actuators were integrated in the same control platform. • A 100 μs control cycle was achieved under the MARTe framework. • Time-windows based control with several event-driven control strategies implemented. • AC discharges with exception handling on iron core flux saturation. • An HTML discharge configuration was developed for configuring the MARTe system. - Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak was upgraded with a plasma control system based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard. This control system was designed to improve the discharge stability and to extend the operational space to the alternate plasma current (AC) discharges as part of the ISTTOK scientific program. In order to accomplish these objectives all ISTTOK diagnostics and actuators relevant for real-time operation were integrated in the control system. The control system was programmed in C++ over the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) which provides, among other features, a real-time scheduler, an interrupt handler, an intercommunications interface between code blocks and a clearly bounded interface with the external devices. As a complement to the MARTe framework, the BaseLib2 library provides the foundations for the data, code introspection and also a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) server service. Taking advantage of the modular nature of MARTe, the algorithms of each diagnostic data processing, discharge timing, context switch, control and actuators output reference generation, run on well-defined blocks of code named Generic Application Module (GAM). This approach allows reusability of the code, simplified simulation, replacement or editing without changing the remaining GAMs. The ISTTOK control system GAMs run sequentially each 100 μs cycle on an Intel ® Q8200 4-core processor running at 2.33 GHz located in the ATCA crate. Two boards (inside the ATCA crate) with 32 analog

  1. Effectiveness of real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pathological samples: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babafemi, Emmanuel O; Cherian, Benny P; Banting, Lee; Mills, Graham A; Ngianga, Kandala

    2017-10-25

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is key to manage the disease and to control and prevent its transmission. Many established diagnostic methods suffer from low sensitivity or delay of timely results and are inadequate for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in pulmonary and extra-pulmonary clinical samples. This study examined whether a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with a turn-a-round time of 2 h, would prove effective for routine detection of MTB by clinical microbiology laboratories. A systematic literature search was performed for publications in any language on the detection of MTB in pathological samples by RT-PCR assay. The following sources were used MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE, BIOSIS Citation Index, Web of Science, SCOPUS, ISI Web of Knowledge and Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialised Register, grey literature, World Health Organization and Centres for Disease Control and Prevention websites. Forty-six studies met set inclusion criteria. Generated pooled summary estimates (95% CIs) were calculated for overall accuracy and bivariate meta-regression model was used for meta-analysis. Summary estimates for pulmonary TB (31 studies) were as follows: sensitivity 0.82 (95% CI 0.81-0.83), specificity 0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99), positive likelihood ratio 43.00 (28.23-64.81), negative likelihood ratio 0.16 (0.12-0.20), diagnostic odds ratio 324.26 (95% CI 189.08-556.09) and area under curve 0.99. Summary estimates for extra-pulmonary TB (25 studies) were as follows: sensitivity 0.70 (95% CI 0.67-0.72), specificity 0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99), positive likelihood ratio 29.82 (17.86-49.78), negative likelihood ratio 0.33 (0.26-0.42), diagnostic odds ratio 125.20 (95% CI 65.75-238.36) and area under curve 0.96. RT-PCR assay demonstrated a high degree of sensitivity for pulmonary TB and good sensitivity for extra-pulmonary TB. It indicated a high degree of specificity for ruling in TB infection from sampling

  2. Real-time data access layer for MDSplus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manduchi, G.; Luchetta, A.; Taliercio, C.; Fredian, T.; Stillerman, J.

    2008-01-01

    Recent extensions to MDSplus allow data handling in long discharges and provide a real-time data access and communication layer. The real-time data access layer is an additional component of MDSplus: it is possible to use the traditional MDSplus API during normal operation, and to select a subset of data items to be used in real time. Real-time notification is provided by a communication layer using a publish-subscribe pattern. The notification covers processes sharing the same data items even running on different machines, thus allowing the implementation of distributed control systems. The real-time data access layer has been developed for Windows, Linux, and VxWorks; it is currently being ported to Linux RTAI. In order to quantify the fingerprint of the presented system, the performance of the real-time access layer approach is compared with that of an ad hoc, manually optimized program in a sample real-time application

  3. Integration of MDSplus in real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchetta, A.; Manduchi, G.; Taliercio, C.

    2006-01-01

    RFX-mod makes extensive usage of real-time systems for feedback control and uses MDSplus to interface them to the main Data Acquisition system. For this purpose, the core of MDSplus has been ported to VxWorks, the operating system used for real-time control in RFX. Using this approach, it is possible to integrate real-time systems, but MDSplus is used only for non-real-time tasks, i.e. those tasks which are executed before and after the pulse and whose performance does not affect the system time constraints. More extensive use of MDSplus in real-time systems is foreseen, and a real-time layer for MDSplus is under development, which will provide access to memory-mapped pulse files, shared by the tasks running on the same CPU. Real-time communication will also be integrated in the MDSplus core to provide support for distributed memory-mapped pulse files

  4. Real-Time Teleguidance of a Non-Surgeon Crew Medical Officer Performing Orthopedic Surgery at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station During Winter-Over

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The Amundsen-Scott South Pole Research station located at the geographic South Pole, is the most isolated, permanently inhabited human outpost on Earth. Medical care is provided to station personnel by a non-surgeon crew medical officer (CMO). During the winter-over period from February to October, the station is isolated, with no incoming or outgoing flights due to severe weather conditions. In late June, four months after the station had closed for the austral winter, a 31 year old meteorologist suffered a complete rupture of his patellar tendon while sliding done an embankment. An evacuation was deemed to be too risky to aircrews due to the extreme cold and darkness. A panel of physicians from Massachusetts General Hospital, Johns Hopkins University and the University of Texas Medical Branch were able to assess the patient remotely via telemedicine and agreed that surgery was the only means to restore mobility and prevent long term disability. The lack of a surgical facility and a trained surgical team were overcome by conversion of the clinic treatment area, and intensive preparation of medical laypersons as surgical assistants. The non-surgeon CMO and CMO assistant at South Pole, were guided through the administration of spinal anesthetic, and the two-hour operative repair by medical consultants at Massachusetts General Hospital. Real-time video of the operative field, directions from the remote consultants and audio communication were provided by videoconferencing equipment, operative cameras, and high bandwidth satellite communications. In real-time, opening incision/exposure, tendon relocation, hemostatsis, and operative closure by the CMO was closely monitored and guided and by the remote consultants. The patient s subsequent physical rehabilitation over the ensuing months of isolation was also monitored remotely via telemedicine. This was the first time in South Pole s history that remote teleguidance had been used for surgery and represents a model for

  5. A real-time monitoring system for the assessment of stability and performance of in abandoned room and pillar lignite mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydan, O.; Tano, H.; Sakamoto, A.; Yamada, N.; Sugiura, K.

    2005-01-01

    The authors have been involved with the stability of abandoned mines beneath urbanized residential areas in Tokai region. These abandoned lignite mines were in operation until 1960's. There is a great concern about the stability of these abandoned mines during large earthquakes. The 2003 Miyagi Hokubu earthquake caused great damage to abandoned mines and resulted in collapses. The authors describe an integrated real-time monitoring system and they report some measured data up to now. The responses of monitoring system during a large roof collapse under gravitational condition as well as during and after two earthquakes are presented and their implications are discussed. (authors)

  6. A real-time monitoring system for the assessment of stability and performance of in abandoned room and pillar lignite mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydan, O. [Tokai Univ., Dept.of Marine Civil Engineering, Shizuoka (Japan); Tano, H. [Nihon Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Koriyama (Japan); Sakamoto, A.; Yamada, N.; Sugiura, K. [Tobishima Construction Company, Nagoya Branch (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    The authors have been involved with the stability of abandoned mines beneath urbanized residential areas in Tokai region. These abandoned lignite mines were in operation until 1960's. There is a great concern about the stability of these abandoned mines during large earthquakes. The 2003 Miyagi Hokubu earthquake caused great damage to abandoned mines and resulted in collapses. The authors describe an integrated real-time monitoring system and they report some measured data up to now. The responses of monitoring system during a large roof collapse under gravitational condition as well as during and after two earthquakes are presented and their implications are discussed. (authors)

  7. Performance of a Highly Sensitive Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Real-Time PCR Assay for Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a Low-Prevalence Setting: a Prospective Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinuesa, Víctor; Borrás, Rafael; Briones, María Luisa; Clari, María Ángeles; Cresencio, Vicenta; Giménez, Estela; Muñoz, Carmen; Oltra, Rosa; Servera, Emilio; Scheelje, Talia; Tornero, Carlos; Navarro, David

    2018-05-01

    The potential impact of routine real-time PCR testing of respiratory specimens from patients with presumptive tuberculosis in terms of diagnostic accuracy and time to tuberculosis treatment inception in low-prevalence settings remains largely unexplored. We conducted a prospective intervention cohort study. Respiratory specimens from 1,020 patients were examined by acid-fast bacillus smear microscopy, tested by a real-time Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex PCR assay (Abbott RealTi me MTB PCR), and cultured in mycobacterial media. Seventeen patients tested positive by PCR (5 were acid-fast bacillus smear positive and 12 acid-fast bacillus smear negative), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis was recovered from cultures for 12 of them. Patients testing positive by PCR and negative by culture ( n = 5) were treated and deemed to have responded to antituberculosis therapy. There were no PCR-negative/culture-positive cases, and none of the patients testing positive for nontuberculous mycobacteria ( n = 20) yielded a positive PCR result. The data indicated that routine testing of respiratory specimens from patients with presumptive tuberculosis by the RealTi me MTB PCR assay improves the tuberculosis diagnostic yield and may reduce the time to antituberculosis treatment initiation. On the basis of our data, we propose a novel mycobacterial laboratory algorithm for tuberculosis diagnosis. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Intelligent automation of high-performance liquid chromatography method development by means of a real-time knowledge-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    I, Ting-Po; Smith, Randy; Guhan, Sam; Taksen, Ken; Vavra, Mark; Myers, Douglas; Hearn, Milton T W

    2002-09-27

    We describe the development, attributes and capabilities of a novel type of artificial intelligence system, called LabExpert, for automation of HPLC method development. Unlike other computerised method development systems, LabExpert operates in real-time, using an artificial intelligence system and design engine to provide experimental decision outcomes relevant to the optimisation of complex separations as well as the control of the instrumentation, column selection, mobile phase choice and other experimental parameters. LabExpert manages every input parameter to a HPLC data station and evaluates each output parameter of the HPLC data station in real-time as part of its decision process. Based on a combination of inherent and user-defined evaluation criteria, the artificial intelligence system programs use a reasoning process, applying chromatographic principles and acquired experimental observations to iteratively provide a regime for a priori development of an acceptable HPLC separation method. Because remote monitoring and control are also functions of LabExpert, the system allows full-time utilisation of analytical instrumentation and associated laboratory resources. Based on our experience with LabExpert with a wide range of analyte mixtures, this artificial intelligence system consistently identified in a similar or faster time-frame preferred sets of analytical conditions that are equal in resolution, efficiency and throughput to those empirically determined by highly experienced chromatographic scientists. An illustrative example, demonstrating the potential of LabExpert in the process of method development of drug substances, is provided.

  9. Real time psychrometric data collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, K.H.

    1996-01-01

    Eight Mine Weather Stations (MWS) installed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to monitor the underground ventilation system are helping to simulate real-time ventilation scenarios. Seasonal weather extremes can result in variations of Natural Ventilation Pressure (NVP) which can significantly effect the ventilation system. The eight MWS(s) (which previously collected and stored temperature, barometric pressure and relative humidity data for subsequent NVP calculations) were upgraded to provide continuous real-time data to the site wide Central monitoring System. This data can now be utilized by the ventilation engineer to create realtime ventilation simulations and trends which assist in the prediction and mitigation of NVP and psychrometric related events

  10. Real-time holographic endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigielski, Paul; Albe, Felix; Dischli, Bernard

    1992-08-01

    Some new experiments concerning holographic endoscopy are presented. The quantitative measurements of deformations of objects are obtained by the double-exposure and double- reference beam method, using either a cw-laser or a pulsed laser. Qualitative experiments using an argon laser with time-average holographic endoscopy are also presented. A video film on real-time endoscopic holographic interferometry was recorded with the help of a frequency-doubled YAG-laser working at 25 Hz for the first time.

  11. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  12. PERTS: A Prototyping Environment for Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay; Liu, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    PERTS is a prototyping environment for real-time systems. It is being built incrementally and will contain basic building blocks of operating systems for time-critical applications, tools, and performance models for the analysis, evaluation and measurement of real-time systems and a simulation/emulation environment. It is designed to support the use and evaluation of new design approaches, experimentations with alternative system building blocks, and the analysis and performance profiling of prototype real-time systems.

  13. Effect of diet phase change, dietary Ca and P level and phytase on bird performance and real-time gizzard pH measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S A; Dunne, J; Mottram, T; Bedford, M R

    2017-06-01

    In this study, a novel capsule technique was used to capture real-time pH readings from the gizzard over several hours, in response to different dietary treatments. 1. The first experiment was a preliminary study into capsule administration and pH recordings using 9 male Ross 308 broilers from 20 d. In the second experiment, broilers (576) were fed in two phases (0-21 and 21-42 d) with 4 treatment groups; low and adequate Ca and AvP diets with and without Quantum Blue phytase (1500 FTU/kg). Capsules were administered to 8 birds from each treatment group, pre and post diet phase change, with readings captured over a 2.5 h period. 2. Phytase addition improved body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of birds fed low dietary Ca, while having no significant effect on birds fed adequate Ca diets. Unexpectantly, diets with higher Ca levels gave a lower average gizzard pH compared to the low Ca diet. Phytase addition, irrespective of Ca level, increased average gizzard pH. Fluctuations in gizzard pH (0.6-3.8) were observed across all treatment groups. Higher frequencies of pH readings below pH 1.0 were seen in birds fed an adequate Ca diet and with phytase supplementation of a low Ca diet. 3. These results signify the potential use of capsule techniques to monitor real-time pH changes. The implication on gastric protein and fibre hydrolysis as a result of large fluctuations in pH should be considered.

  14. Real-time sonography in obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S G

    1978-03-01

    Three hundred fifty real-time scans were performed on pregnant women for various indications. Placental localization was satisfactorily obtained in 173 of 174 studies. Estimates of fetal gestation from directly measured biparietal diameter were +/-2 weeks of actual gestation in 153 of 172 (88.9%) measurements. The presence or absence of fetal motion and cardiac activity established a diagnosis of fetal viability or fetal death in 32 patients after the first trimester. Accurate diagnosis was made in 52 of 57 patients with threatened abortions, and two of these errors occurred in scans performed before completion of the eighth postmenstrual week. Because of the ability to demonstrate fetal motion, real-time sonography should have many applications in obstetrics.

  15. Satellite on-board real-time SAR processor prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Alain; Doucet, Michel; Harnisch, Bernd; Suess, Martin; Marchese, Linda; Bourqui, Pascal; Desnoyers, Nicholas; Legros, Mathieu; Guillot, Ludovic; Mercier, Luc; Châteauneuf, François

    2017-11-01

    A Compact Real-Time Optronic SAR Processor has been successfully developed and tested up to a Technology Readiness Level of 4 (TRL4), the breadboard validation in a laboratory environment. SAR, or Synthetic Aperture Radar, is an active system allowing day and night imaging independent of the cloud coverage of the planet. The SAR raw data is a set of complex data for range and azimuth, which cannot be compressed. Specifically, for planetary missions and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems with limited communication data rates this is a clear disadvantage. SAR images are typically processed electronically applying dedicated Fourier transformations. This, however, can also be performed optically in real-time. Originally the first SAR images were optically processed. The optical Fourier processor architecture provides inherent parallel computing capabilities allowing real-time SAR data processing and thus the ability for compression and strongly reduced communication bandwidth requirements for the satellite. SAR signal return data are in general complex data. Both amplitude and phase must be combined optically in the SAR processor for each range and azimuth pixel. Amplitude and phase are generated by dedicated spatial light modulators and superimposed by an optical relay set-up. The spatial light modulators display the full complex raw data information over a two-dimensional format, one for the azimuth and one for the range. Since the entire signal history is displayed at once, the processor operates in parallel yielding real-time performances, i.e. without resulting bottleneck. Processing of both azimuth and range information is performed in a single pass. This paper focuses on the onboard capabilities of the compact optical SAR processor prototype that allows in-orbit processing of SAR images. Examples of processed ENVISAT ASAR images are presented. Various SAR processor parameters such as processing capabilities, image quality (point target analysis), weight and

  16. The real time rolling shutter

    OpenAIRE

    Monaghan, David; O'Connor, Noel E.; Cleary, Anne; Connolly, Denis

    2015-01-01

    From an early age children are often told either, you are creative you should do art but stay away from science and maths. Or that you are mathematical you should do science but you're not that creative. Compounding this there also exist some traditional barriers of artistic rhetoric that say, "don't touch, don't think and don't be creative, we've already done that for you, you can just look...". The Real Time Rolling Shutter is part of a collaborative Art/Science partnership whose core tenet...

  17. Real-time Astrometry Using Phase Congruency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, A.; Polo, M.; Tang, Y.

    Phase congruency is a computer vision technique that proves to perform well for determining the tracks of optical objects (Flewelling, AMOS 2014). We report on a real-time implementation of this using an FPGA and CMOS Image Sensor, with on-sky data. The lightweight instrument can provide tracking update signals to the mount of the telescope, as well as determine abnormal objects in the scene.

  18. Real-time volumetric scintillation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddar, S

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this brief review is to review the current status of real-time 3D scintillation dosimetry and what has been done so far in this area. The basic concept is to use a large volume of a scintillator material (liquid or solid) to measure or image the dose distributions from external radiation therapy (RT) beams in three dimensions. In this configuration, the scintillator material fulfills the dual role of being the detector and the phantom material in which the measurements are being performed. In this case, dose perturbations caused by the introduction of a detector within a phantom will not be at issue. All the detector configurations that have been conceived to date used a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera to measure the light produced within the scintillator. In order to accurately measure the scintillation light, one must correct for various optical artefacts that arise as the light propagates from the scintillating centers through the optical chain to the CCD chip. Quenching, defined in its simplest form as a nonlinear response to high-linear energy transfer (LET) charged particles, is one of the disadvantages when such systems are used to measure the absorbed dose from high-LET particles such protons. However, correction methods that restore the linear dose response through the whole proton range have been proven to be effective for both liquid and plastic scintillators. Volumetric scintillation dosimetry has the potential to provide fast, high-resolution and accurate 3D imaging of RT dose distributions. Further research is warranted to optimize the necessary image reconstruction methods and optical corrections needed to achieve its full potential

  19. Real time processor for array speckle interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, G.; Florez, J.; Borelli, R.; Fong, W.; Miko, J.; Trujillo, C.

    1989-01-01

    With the construction of several new large aperture telescopes and the development of large format array detectors in the near IR, the ability to obtain diffraction limited seeing via IR array speckle interferometry offers a powerful tool. We are constructing a real-time processor to acquire image frames, perform array flat-fielding, execute a 64 x 64 element 2D complex FFT, and to average the power spectrum all within the 25 msec coherence time for speckles at near IR wavelength. The processor is a compact unit controlled by a PC with real time display and data storage capability. It provides the ability to optimize observations and obtain results on the telescope rather than waiting several weeks before the data can be analyzed and viewed with off-line methods

  20. Real time processor for array speckle interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Gordon; Florez, Jose; Borelli, Renan; Fong, Wai; Miko, Joseph; Trujillo, Carlos

    1989-02-01

    The authors are constructing a real-time processor to acquire image frames, perform array flat-fielding, execute a 64 x 64 element two-dimensional complex FFT (fast Fourier transform) and average the power spectrum, all within the 25 ms coherence time for speckles at near-IR (infrared) wavelength. The processor will be a compact unit controlled by a PC with real-time display and data storage capability. This will provide the ability to optimize observations and obtain results on the telescope rather than waiting several weeks before the data can be analyzed and viewed with offline methods. The image acquisition and processing, design criteria, and processor architecture are described.

  1. Real Time Structured Light and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilm, Jakob

    Structured light scanning is a versatile method for 3D shape acquisition. While much faster than most competing measurement techniques, most high-end structured light scans still take in the order of seconds to complete. Low-cost sensors such as Microsoft Kinect and time of flight cameras have made......, increased processing power, and methods presented in this thesis, it is possible to perform structured light scans in real time with 20 depth measurements per second. This offers new opportunities for studying dynamic scenes, quality control, human-computer interaction and more. This thesis discusses...... several aspects of real time structured light systems and presents contributions within calibration, scene coding and motion correction aspects. The problem of reliable and fast calibration of such systems is addressed with a novel calibration scheme utilising radial basis functions [Contribution B...

  2. [Validation of a real time RT-PCR assay to detect foot-and-mouth disease virus and assessment of its performance in acute infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondevila, Norberto; Compaired, Diego; Maradei, Eduardo; Duffy, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    A specific real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCRrt) for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus was validated using the LightCycler thermocycler 2.0 and its reagents as recommended by the World Organization for Animal Health and was assessed for the detection of the virus in acute infection of cattle experimentally vaccinated and challenged with virus A Argentina/2001 or A24 Cruzeiro. The technique proved to be robust, showing coefficients of variation lower than 4% for different ARN extractions, days or repetitions and was able to detect up to 0,4 TCID 50%, and/or up to 100 RNA molecules. In probang samples, diagnostic sensitivity was 93.1 (95% CI 86.5-96.6) and diagnostic specificity 100 (95% CI 96.3-100). The results of the challenge in vaccinated or multivaccinated bovines showed that although there were high levels of clinical protection in the vaccinated group, FMDV could be detected in all challenged groups. However, detection was 100 times lower in immunized animals. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Performance of the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH resistance assay when used to test Mycobacterium tuberculosis specimens from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostera J

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Joshua Kostera, Gregor Leckie, Klara Abravaya, Hong Wang Abbott Molecular, Abbott Laboratories, Des Plaines, IL, USA Introduction: The Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance Assay (RT MTB RIF/INH is an assay for the detection of rifampicin (RIF- and/or isoniazid (INH-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB. The assay can be used to test sputum, bronchial alveolar lavage, and N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NALC/NaOH pellets prepared from these samples. The assay can be used in direct testing mode, or in reflex mode following a MTB positive result produced by its companion assay, Abbott RT MTB. Methods: In this study, the direct testing mode was used to test paired sputum and NALC/NaOH pellets prepared from sputum collected from Bangladesh TB patients. One hundred and thirty two paired samples were tested. Results: The RT MTB RIF/INH inhibition rate was 0%. One hundred and twenty-two paired samples had results above the assay limit of detection and were analyzed by comparing with results from phenotypic drug sensitivity testing, GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert, and MTBDR plus (Hain. RT MTB RIF/INH results were in good agreement with those of GeneXpert and Hain. Conclusion: The ability of this assay to detect RIF and INH resistance may contribute to the global control of multidrug resistant tuberculosis. Keywords: tuberculosis, rifampicin, isoniazid, resistance

  4. Real-Time PCR in Clinical Microbiology: Applications for Routine Laboratory Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espy, M. J.; Uhl, J. R.; Sloan, L. M.; Buckwalter, S. P.; Jones, M. F.; Vetter, E. A.; Yao, J. D. C.; Wengenack, N. L.; Rosenblatt, J. E.; Cockerill, F. R.; Smith, T. F.

    2006-01-01

    Real-time PCR has revolutionized the way clinical microbiology laboratories diagnose many human microbial infections. This testing method combines PCR chemistry with fluorescent probe detection of amplified product in the same reaction vessel. In general, both PCR and amplified product detection are completed in an hour or less, which is considerably faster than conventional PCR detection methods. Real-time PCR assays provide sensitivity and specificity equivalent to that of conventional PCR combined with Southern blot analysis, and since amplification and detection steps are performed in the same closed vessel, the risk of releasing amplified nucleic acids into the environment is negligible. The combination of excellent sensitivity and specificity, low contamination risk, and speed has made real-time PCR technology an appealing alternative to culture- or immunoassay-based testing methods for diagnosing many infectious diseases. This review focuses on the application of real-time PCR in the clinical microbiology laboratory. PMID:16418529

  5. Memory controllers for real-time embedded systems predictable and composable real-time systems

    CERN Document Server

    Akesson, Benny

    2012-01-01

      Verification of real-time requirements in systems-on-chip becomes more complex as more applications are integrated. Predictable and composable systems can manage the increasing complexity using formal verification and simulation.  This book explains the concepts of predictability and composability and shows how to apply them to the design and analysis of a memory controller, which is a key component in any real-time system. This book is generally intended for readers interested in Systems-on-Chips with real-time applications.   It is especially well-suited for readers looking to use SDRAM memories in systems with hard or firm real-time requirements. There is a strong focus on real-time concepts, such as predictability and composability, as well as a brief discussion about memory controller architectures for high-performance computing. Readers will learn step-by-step how to go from an unpredictable SDRAM memory, offering highly variable bandwidth and latency, to a predictable and composable shared memory...

  6. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  7. Design and performance of the CDC real-time reverse transcriptase PCR swine flu panel for detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Bo; Wu, Kai-Hui; Emery, Shannon; Villanueva, Julie; Johnson, Roy; Guthrie, Erica; Berman, LaShondra; Warnes, Christine; Barnes, Nathelia; Klimov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Stephen

    2011-07-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) have been shown to sporadically infect humans and are infrequently identified by the Influenza Division of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after being received as unsubtypeable influenza A virus samples. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) procedures for detection and characterization of North American lineage (N. Am) SIV were developed and implemented at CDC for rapid identification of specimens from cases of suspected infections with SIV. These procedures were utilized in April 2009 for detection of human cases of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic (pdm) influenza virus infection. Based on genetic sequence data derived from the first two viruses investigated, the previously developed rRT-PCR procedures were optimized to create the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel for detection of the 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza virus. The analytical sensitivity of the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was shown to be 5 copies of RNA per reaction and 10(-1.3 - -0.7) 50% infectious doses (ID(50)) per reaction for cultured viruses. Cross-reactivity was not observed when testing human clinical specimens or cultured viruses that were positive for human seasonal A (H1N1, H3N2) and B influenza viruses. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was distributed to public health laboratories in the United States and internationally from April 2009 until June 2010. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel served as an effective tool for timely and specific detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza viruses and facilitated subsequent public health response implementation.

  8. Design and performance testing of a DNA extraction assay for sensitive and reliable quantification of acetic acid bacteria directly in red wine using real time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric eLONGIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although strategies exist to prevent AAB contamination, the increased interest for wines with low sulfite addition leads to greater AAB spoilage. Hence there is a real need for a rapid, specific, sensitive and reliable method for detecting these spoilage bacteria. All these requirements are met by real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (or quantitative PCR; qPCR. Here, we compare existing methods of isolating DNA and their adaptation to a red wine matrix. Two different protocols for isolating DNA and three PCR mix compositions were tested to select the best method. The addition of insoluble polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP at 1% (v/v during DNA extraction using a protocol succeeded in eliminating PCR inhibitors from red wine. We developed a bacterial internal control which was efficient in avoiding false negative results due to decreases in the efficiency of DNA isolation and/or amplification. The specificity, linearity, repeatability and reproducibility of the method were evaluated. A standard curve was established for the enumeration of AAB inoculated into red wines. The limit of quantification in red wine was 3.7 log AAB/mL and about 2.8 log AAB/mL when the volume of the samples was increased from 1 mL to 10 mL. Thus the DNA extraction method developed in this paper allows sensitive and reliable AAB quantification without underestimation thanks to the presence of an internal control. Moreover, monitoring of both the AAB population and the amount of acetic acid in ethanol medium and red wine highlighted that a minimum about 6.0 log cells/mL of AAB is needed to significantly increase the production of acetic acid leading to spoilage.

  9. Real-time PCR detection of Paenibacillus spp. in raw milk to predict shelf life performance of pasteurized fluid milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Matthew L; Ivy, Reid A; Mitchell, W Robert; Call, Emma; Masiello, Stephanie N; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J

    2012-08-01

    Psychrotolerant sporeformers, specifically Paenibacillus spp., are important spoilage bacteria for pasteurized, refrigerated foods such as fluid milk. While Paenibacillus spp. have been isolated from farm environments, raw milk, processing plant environments, and pasteurized fluid milk, no information on the number of Paenibacillus spp. that need to be present in raw milk to cause pasteurized milk spoilage was available. A real-time PCR assay targeting the 16S rRNA gene was designed to detect Paenibacillus spp. in fluid milk and to discriminate between Paenibacillus and other closely related spore-forming bacteria. Specificity was confirmed using 16 Paenibacillus and 17 Bacillus isolates. All 16 Paenibacillus isolates were detected with a mean cycle threshold (C(T)) of 19.14 ± 0.54. While 14/17 Bacillus isolates showed no signal (C(T) > 40), 3 Bacillus isolates showed very weak positive signals (C(T) = 38.66 ± 0.65). The assay provided a detection limit of approximately 3.25 × 10(1) CFU/ml using total genomic DNA extracted from raw milk samples inoculated with Paenibacillus. Application of the TaqMan PCR to colony lysates obtained from heat-treated and enriched raw milk provided fast and accurate detection of Paenibacillus. Heat-treated milk samples where Paenibacillus (≥1 CFU/ml) was detected by this colony TaqMan PCR showed high bacterial counts (>4.30 log CFU/ml) after refrigerated storage (6°C) for 21 days. We thus developed a tool for rapid detection of Paenibacillus that has the potential to identify raw milk with microbial spoilage potential as a pasteurized product.

  10. Real-time monitoring of non-viable airborne particles correlates with airborne colonies and represents an acceptable surrogate for daily assessment of cell-processing cleanroom performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Jay S; Koch, Eileen; Donnenberg, Albert D

    2012-10-01

    Airborne particulate monitoring is mandated as a component of good manufacturing practice. We present a procedure developed to monitor and interpret airborne particulates in an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) class 7 cleanroom used for the cell processing of Section 351 and Section 361 products. We collected paired viable and non-viable airborne particle data over a period of 1 year in locations chosen to provide a range of air quality. We used receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis to determine empirically the relationship between non-viable and viable airborne particle counts. Viable and non-viable particles were well-correlated (r(2) = 0.78), with outlier observations at the low end of the scale (non-viable particles without detectable airborne colonies). ROC analysis predicted viable counts ≥ 0.5/feet(3) (a limit set by the United States Pharmacopeia) at an action limit of ≥ 32 000 particles (≥ 0.5 µ)/feet(3), with 95.6% sensitivity and 50% specificity. This limit was exceeded 2.6 times during 18 months of retrospective daily cleanroom data (an expected false alarm rate of 1.3 times/year). After implementing this action limit, we were alerted in real time to an air-handling failure undetected by our hospital facilities management. A rational action limit for non-viable particles was determined based on the correlation with airborne colonies. Reaching or exceeding the action limit of 32 000 non-viable particles/feet(3) triggers suspension of cleanroom cell-processing activities, deep cleaning, investigation of air handling, and a deviation management process. Our full procedure for particle monitoring is available as an online supplement.

  11. Real-time video quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Narvekar, Niranjan; Wang, Beibei; Ding, Ran; Zou, Dekun; Cash, Glenn; Bhagavathy, Sitaram; Bloom, Jeffrey

    2011-12-01

    The ITU-T Recommendation G.1070 is a standardized opinion model for video telephony applications that uses video bitrate, frame rate, and packet-loss rate to measure the video quality. However, this model was original designed as an offline quality planning tool. It cannot be directly used for quality monitoring since the above three input parameters are not readily available within a network or at the decoder. And there is a great room for the performance improvement of this quality metric. In this article, we present a real-time video quality monitoring solution based on this Recommendation. We first propose a scheme to efficiently estimate the three parameters from video bitstreams, so that it can be used as a real-time video quality monitoring tool. Furthermore, an enhanced algorithm based on the G.1070 model that provides more accurate quality prediction is proposed. Finally, to use this metric in real-world applications, we present an example emerging application of real-time quality measurement to the management of transmitted videos, especially those delivered to mobile devices.

  12. Temporal logics and real time expert systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, J A

    1996-10-01

    This paper introduces temporal logics. Due to the eternal compromise between expressive adequacy and reasoning efficiency that must decided upon in any application, full (first order logic or modal logic based) temporal logics are frequently not suitable. This is especially true in real time expert systems, where a fixed (and usually small) response time must be guaranteed. One such expert system, Fagan's VM, is reviewed, and a delineation is given of how to formally describe and reason with time in medical protocols. It is shown that Petri net theory is a useful tool to check the correctness of formalised protocols.

  13. Real-Time Operating Systems for Multicore Embedded Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Honda, Shinya; Takada, Hiroaki

    2008-01-01

    Multicore systems-on-chip have become popular inthe design of embedded systems in order to simultaneously achieve high performance and low power consumption. On the software side, real-time operating systems are necessary in orderto handle growing complexity of embedded software. This paper describes requirements, design principles and implementation techniques for real-time operating systems to be used inasymmetric multicore systems.

  14. Real time control of plasmas and ECRH systems on TCV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paley, J.I.; Felici, F.; Berrino, J.; Coda, S.; Cruz, N.; Duval, B.P.; Goodman, T.P.; Martin, Y.; Moret, J.-M.; Piras, F.; Rodrigues, A.P.; Santos, B.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Developments in the real time control hardware on TCV paired with the flexibility of plasma shaping and ECRH actuators are opening many opportunities to perform real time experiments and develop algorithms and methods for fusion applications. The ability to control MHD instabilities is particularly

  15. Real time control of plasmas and ECRH systems on TCV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paley, J.I.; Berrino, J.; Coda, S.; Cruz, N.; Duval, B.P.; Felici, F.; Goodman, T.P.; Martin, Y.; Moret, J.-M.; Piras, F.; Rodriques, A.P.; Santos, B.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2009-01-01

    Developments in the real time control hardware on Tokamak Configuration Variable (TCV) coupled with the flexibility of plasma shaping and electron cyclotron (EC) heating and current drive actuators are opening many opportunities to perform real time experiments and develop algorithms and methods for

  16. Multiplex real-time quantitative PCR, microscopy and rapid diagnostic immuno-chromatographic tests for the detection of Plasmodium spp: performance, limit of detection analysis and quality assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralevski Filip

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate laboratory diagnosis of malaria species in returning travelers is paramount in the treatment of this potentially fatal infectious disease. Materials and methods A total of 466 blood specimens from returning travelers to Africa, Asia, and South/Central America with suspected malaria infection were collected between 2007 and 2009 at the reference public health laboratory. These specimens were assessed by reference microscopy, multipex real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR, and two rapid diagnostic immuno-chromatographic tests (ICT in a blinded manner. Key clinical laboratory parameters such as limit of detection (LOD analysis on clinical specimens by parasite stage, inter-reader variability of ICTs, staffing implications, quality assurance and cost analysis were evaluated. Results QPCR is the most analytically sensitive method (sensitivity 99.41%, followed by CARESTART (sensitivity 88.24%, and BINAXNOW (sensitivity 86.47% for the diagnosis of malaria in returning travelers when compared to reference microscopy. However, microscopy was unable to specifically identify Plasmodia spp. in 18 out of 170 positive samples by QPCR. Moreover, the 17 samples that were negative by microscopy and positive by QPCR were also positive by ICTs. Quality assurance was achieved for QPCR by exchanging a blinded proficiency panel with another reference laboratory. The Kappa value of inter-reader variability among three readers for BINAXNOW and CARESTART was calculated to be 0.872 and 0.898 respectively. Serial dilution studies demonstrated that the QPCR cycle threshold correlates linearly with parasitemia (R2 = 0.9746 in a clinically relevant dynamic range and retains a LOD of 11 rDNA copies/μl for P. falciparum, which was several log lower than reference microscopy and ICTs. LOD for QPCR is affected not only by parasitemia but the parasite stage distribution of each clinical specimen. QPCR was approximately 6-fold more

  17. Approaching near real-time biosensing: microfluidic microsphere based biosensor for real-time analyte detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Noa; Sabhachandani, Pooja; Golberg, Alexander; Konry, Tania

    2015-04-15

    In this study we describe a simple lab-on-a-chip (LOC) biosensor approach utilizing well mixed microfluidic device and a microsphere-based assay capable of performing near real-time diagnostics of clinically relevant analytes such cytokines and antibodies. We were able to overcome the adsorption kinetics reaction rate-limiting mechanism, which is diffusion-controlled in standard immunoassays, by introducing the microsphere-based assay into well-mixed yet simple microfluidic device with turbulent flow profiles in the reaction regions. The integrated microsphere-based LOC device performs dynamic detection of the analyte in minimal amount of biological specimen by continuously sampling micro-liter volumes of sample per minute to detect dynamic changes in target analyte concentration. Furthermore we developed a mathematical model for the well-mixed reaction to describe the near real time detection mechanism observed in the developed LOC method. To demonstrate the specificity and sensitivity of the developed real time monitoring LOC approach, we applied the device for clinically relevant analytes: Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α cytokine and its clinically used inhibitor, anti-TNF-α antibody. Based on the reported results herein, the developed LOC device provides continuous sensitive and specific near real-time monitoring method for analytes such as cytokines and antibodies, reduces reagent volumes by nearly three orders of magnitude as well as eliminates the washing steps required by standard immunoassays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mobile real time radiography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-11-01

    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights {approximately}38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility.

  19. Mobile real time radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.

    1997-01-01

    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights ∼38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility

  20. A real time monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanini, Horacio; Galdoz, Erwin

    1989-01-01

    A real time monitoring system is described. It was initially developed to be used as a man-machine interface between a basic principles simulator of the Embalse Nuclear Power Plant and the operators. This simulator is under construction at the Bariloche Atomic Center's Process Control Division. Due to great design flexibility, this system can also be used in real plants. The system is designed to be run on a PC XT or AT personal computer with high resolution graphics capabilities. Three interrelated programs compose the system: 1) Graphics Editor, to build static image to be used as a reference frame where to show dynamically updated data. 2) Data acquisition and storage module. It is a memory resident module to acquire and store data in background. Data can be acquired and stored without interference with the operating system, via serial port or through analog-to-digital converter attached to the personal computer. 3) Display module. It shows the acquired data according to commands received from configuration files prepared by the operator. (Author) [es

  1. Real-time communication for distributed plasma control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luchetta, A. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)], E-mail: adriano.luchetta@igi.cnr.it; Barbalace, A.; Manduchi, G.; Soppelsa, A.; Taliercio, C. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2008-04-15

    Real-time control applications will benefit in the near future from the enhanced performance provided by multi-core processor architectures. Nevertheless real-time communication will continue to be critical in distributed plasma control systems where the plant under control typically is distributed over a wide area. At RFX-mod real-time communication is crucial for hard real-time plasma control, due to the distributed architecture of the system, which consists of several VMEbus stations. The system runs under VxWorks and uses Gigabit Ethernet for sub-millisecond real-time communication. To optimize communication in the system, a set of detailed measurements has been carried out on the target platforms (Motorola MVME5100 and MVME5500) using either the VxWorks User Datagram Protocol (UDP) stack or raw communication based on the data link layer. Measurements have been carried out also under Linux, using its UDP stack or, in alternative, RTnet, an open source hard real-time network protocol stack. RTnet runs under Xenomai or RTAI, two popular real-time extensions based on the Linux kernel. The paper reports on the measurements carried out and compares the results, showing that the performance obtained by using open source code is suitable for sub-millisecond real-time communication in plasma control.

  2. Scalable Real-Time Negotiation Toolkit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lesser, Victor

    2004-01-01

    ... to implement an adaptive distributed sensor network. These activities involved the development of a distributed soft, real-time heuristic resource allocation protocol, the development of a domain-independent soft, real time agent architecture...

  3. Linear Regression Based Real-Time Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misel Batmend

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces real time filtering method based on linear least squares fitted line. Method can be used in case that a filtered signal is linear. This constraint narrows a band of potential applications. Advantage over Kalman filter is that it is computationally less expensive. The paper further deals with application of introduced method on filtering data used to evaluate a position of engraved material with respect to engraving machine. The filter was implemented to the CNC engraving machine control system. Experiments showing its performance are included.

  4. Hard Real-Time Networking on Firewire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yuchen; Orlic, Bojan; Visser, Peter; Broenink, Jan

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of using standard, low-cost, widely used FireWire as a new generation fieldbus medium for real-time distributed control applications. A real-time software subsys- tem, RT-FireWire was designed that can, in combination with Linux-based real-time operating

  5. Modular specification of real-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inal, Recep

    1994-01-01

    Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic, has been embedded in the Z specification language to provide a notation for real-time systems that combines the modularisation and abstraction facilities of Z with a logic suitable for reasoning about real-time properties. In this article the notation...

  6. Students Collecting Real time Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P.

    2006-05-01

    Students Collecting Real-Time Data The Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary has created opportunities for middle and high school students to become Student Researchers and to be involved in real-time marine data collection. It is important that we expose students to different fields of science and encourage them to enter scientific fields of study. The Humpback Whale Sanctuary has an education visitor center in Kihei, Maui. Located right on the beach, the site has become a living classroom facility. There is a traditional Hawaiian fishpond fronting the property. The fishpond wall is being restored, using traditional methods. The site has the incredible opportunity of incorporating Hawaiian cultural practices with scientific studies. The Sanctuary offers opportunities for students to get involved in monitoring and data collection studies. Invasive Seaweed Study: Students are collecting data on invasive seaweed for the University of Hawaii. They pull a large net through the shallow waters. Seaweed is sorted, identified and weighed. The invasive seaweeds are removed. The data is recorded and sent to UH. Remote controlled monitoring boats: The sanctuary has 6 boogie board sized remote controlled boats used to monitor reefs. Boats have a camera with lights on the underside. The boats have water quality monitoring devices and GPS units. The video from the underwater camera is transmitted via a wireless transmission. Students are able to monitor the fish, limu and invertebrate populations on the reef and collect water quality data via television monitors or computers. The boat can also pull a small plankton tow net. Data is being compiled into data bases. Artificial Reef Modules: The Sanctuary has a scientific permit from the state to build and deploy artificial reef modules. High school students are designing and building modules. These are deployed out in the Fishpond fronting the Sanctuary site and students are monitoring them on a weekly basis

  7. Recent achievements in real-time computational seismology in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Liang, W.; Huang, B.

    2012-12-01

    Real-time computational seismology is currently possible to be achieved which needs highly connection between seismic database and high performance computing. We have developed a real-time moment tensor monitoring system (RMT) by using continuous BATS records and moment tensor inversion (CMT) technique. The real-time online earthquake simulation service is also ready to open for researchers and public earthquake science education (ROS). Combine RMT with ROS, the earthquake report based on computational seismology can provide within 5 minutes after an earthquake occurred (RMT obtains point source information ROS completes a 3D simulation real-time now. For more information, welcome to visit real-time computational seismology earthquake report webpage (RCS).

  8. The FERMI-Elettra distributed real-time framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivetta, L.; Gaio, G.; Passuello, R.; Scalamera, G.

    2012-01-01

    FERMI-Elettra is a Free Electron Laser (FEL) based on a 1.5 GeV linac. The pulsed operation of the accelerator and the necessity to characterize and control each electron bunch requires synchronous acquisition of the beam diagnostics together with the ability to drive actuators in real-time at the linac repetition rate. The Adeos/Xenomai real-time extensions have been adopted in order to add real-time capabilities to the Linux based control system computers running the Tango software. A software communication protocol based on Gigabit Ethernet and known as Network Reflective Memory (NRM) has been developed to implement a shared memory across the whole control system, allowing computers to communicate in real-time. The NRM architecture, the real-time performance and the integration in the control system are described. (authors)

  9. Survey of real-time processing systems for big data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Lftikhar, Nadeem; Xie, Xike

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, real-time processing and analytics systems for big data–in the context of Business Intelligence (BI)–have received a growing attention. The traditional BI platforms that perform regular updates on daily, weekly or monthly basis are no longer adequate to satisfy the fast......-changing business environments. However, due to the nature of big data, it has become a challenge to achieve the real-time capability using the traditional technologies. The recent distributed computing technology, MapReduce, provides off-the-shelf high scalability that can significantly shorten the processing time...... for big data; Its open-source implementation such as Hadoop has become the de-facto standard for processing big data, however, Hadoop has the limitation of supporting real-time updates. The improvements in Hadoop for the real-time capability, and the other alternative real-time frameworks have been...

  10. Real-time software for the COMPASS tokamak plasma control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcarcel, D.F.; Duarte, A.S.; Neto, A.; Carvalho, I.S.; Carvalho, B.B.; Fernandes, H.; Sousa, J.; Sartori, F.; Janky, F.; Cahyna, P.; Hron, M.; Panek, R.

    2010-01-01

    The COMPASS tokamak has started its operation recently in Prague and to meet the necessary operation parameters its real-time system, for data processing and control, must be designed for both flexibility and performance, allowing the easy integration of code from several developers and to guarantee the desired time cycle. For this purpose an Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture based real-time system has been deployed with a solution built on a multi-core x86 processor. It makes use of two software components: the BaseLib2 and the MARTe (Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor) real-time frameworks. The BaseLib2 framework is a generic real-time library with optimized objects for the implementation of real-time algorithms. This allowed to build a library of modules that process the acquired data and execute control algorithms. MARTe executes these modules in kernel space Real-Time Application Interface allowing to attain the required cycle time and a jitter of less than 1.5 μs. MARTe configuration and data storage are accomplished through a Java hardware client that connects to the FireSignal control and data acquisition software. This article details the implementation of the real-time system for the COMPASS tokamak, in particular the organization of the control code, the design and implementation of the communications with the actuators and how MARTe integrates with the FireSignal software.

  11. Real-time software for the COMPASS tokamak plasma control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valcarcel, D.F., E-mail: danielv@ipfn.ist.utl.p [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Duarte, A.S.; Neto, A.; Carvalho, I.S.; Carvalho, B.B.; Fernandes, H.; Sousa, J. [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Sartori, F. [Euratom-UKAEA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB Oxon (United Kingdom); Janky, F.; Cahyna, P.; Hron, M.; Panek, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-15

    The COMPASS tokamak has started its operation recently in Prague and to meet the necessary operation parameters its real-time system, for data processing and control, must be designed for both flexibility and performance, allowing the easy integration of code from several developers and to guarantee the desired time cycle. For this purpose an Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture based real-time system has been deployed with a solution built on a multi-core x86 processor. It makes use of two software components: the BaseLib2 and the MARTe (Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor) real-time frameworks. The BaseLib2 framework is a generic real-time library with optimized objects for the implementation of real-time algorithms. This allowed to build a library of modules that process the acquired data and execute control algorithms. MARTe executes these modules in kernel space Real-Time Application Interface allowing to attain the required cycle time and a jitter of less than 1.5 {mu}s. MARTe configuration and data storage are accomplished through a Java hardware client that connects to the FireSignal control and data acquisition software. This article details the implementation of the real-time system for the COMPASS tokamak, in particular the organization of the control code, the design and implementation of the communications with the actuators and how MARTe integrates with the FireSignal software.

  12. Real-Time Pretreatment Review Limits Unacceptable Deviations on a Cooperative Group Radiation Therapy Technique Trial: Quality Assurance Results of RTOG 0933

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondi, Vinai; Cui, Yunfeng; Mehta, Minesh P.; Manfredi, Denise; Xiao, Ying; Galvin, James M.; Rowley, Howard; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: RTOG 0933 was a phase II trial of hippocampal avoidance during whole brain radiation therapy for patients with brain metastases. The results demonstrated improvement in short-term memory decline, as compared with historical control individuals, and preservation of quality of life. Integral to the conduct of this trial were quality assurance processes inclusive of pre-enrollment credentialing and pretreatment centralized review of enrolled patients. Methods and Materials: Before enrolling patients, all treating physicians and sites were required to successfully complete a “dry-run” credentialing test. The treating physicians were credentialed based on accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging–computed tomography image fusion and hippocampal and normal tissue contouring, and the sites were credentialed based on protocol-specified dosimetric criteria. Using the same criteria, pretreatment centralized review of enrolled patients was conducted. Physicians enrolling 3 consecutive patients without unacceptable deviations were permitted to enroll further patients without pretreatment review, although their cases were reviewed after treatment. Results: In all, 113 physicians and 84 sites were credentialed. Eight physicians (6.8%) failed hippocampal contouring on the first attempt; 3 were approved on the second attempt. Eight sites (9.5%) failed intensity modulated radiation therapy planning on the first attempt; all were approved on the second attempt. One hundred thirteen patients were enrolled in RTOG 0933; 100 were analyzable. Eighty-seven cases were reviewed before treatment; 5 (5.7%) violated the eligibility criteria, and 21 (24%) had unacceptable deviations. With feedback, 18 cases were approved on the second attempt and 2 cases on the third attempt. One patient was treated off protocol. Twenty-two cases were reviewed after treatment; 1 (4.5%) violated the eligibility criteria, and 5 (23%) had unacceptable deviations. Conclusions: Although >95% of the

  13. Real-Time Pretreatment Review Limits Unacceptable Deviations on a Cooperative Group Radiation Therapy Technique Trial: Quality Assurance Results of RTOG 0933

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondi, Vinai, E-mail: vgondi@chicagocancer.org [Cadence Brain Tumor Center and CDH Proton Center, Warrenville, Illinois (United States); University of Wisconsin School of Medicine & Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Cui, Yunfeng [Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Mehta, Minesh P. [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Manfredi, Denise [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group—RTQA, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Xiao, Ying; Galvin, James M. [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Rowley, Howard [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine & Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Tome, Wolfgang A. [Montefiore Medical Center and Institute for Onco-Physics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: RTOG 0933 was a phase II trial of hippocampal avoidance during whole brain radiation therapy for patients with brain metastases. The results demonstrated improvement in short-term memory decline, as compared with historical control individuals, and preservation of quality of life. Integral to the conduct of this trial were quality assurance processes inclusive of pre-enrollment credentialing and pretreatment centralized review of enrolled patients. Methods and Materials: Before enrolling patients, all treating physicians and sites were required to successfully complete a “dry-run” credentialing test. The treating physicians were credentialed based on accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging–computed tomography image fusion and hippocampal and normal tissue contouring, and the sites were credentialed based on protocol-specified dosimetric criteria. Using the same criteria, pretreatment centralized review of enrolled patients was conducted. Physicians enrolling 3 consecutive patients without unacceptable deviations were permitted to enroll further patients without pretreatment review, although their cases were reviewed after treatment. Results: In all, 113 physicians and 84 sites were credentialed. Eight physicians (6.8%) failed hippocampal contouring on the first attempt; 3 were approved on the second attempt. Eight sites (9.5%) failed intensity modulated radiation therapy planning on the first attempt; all were approved on the second attempt. One hundred thirteen patients were enrolled in RTOG 0933; 100 were analyzable. Eighty-seven cases were reviewed before treatment; 5 (5.7%) violated the eligibility criteria, and 21 (24%) had unacceptable deviations. With feedback, 18 cases were approved on the second attempt and 2 cases on the third attempt. One patient was treated off protocol. Twenty-two cases were reviewed after treatment; 1 (4.5%) violated the eligibility criteria, and 5 (23%) had unacceptable deviations. Conclusions: Although >95% of the

  14. Real-time fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Zhiwei; Ding, Steven X.; Cecati, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This "Special Section on Real-Time Fault Diagnosis and Fault-Tolerant Control" of the IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics is motivated to provide a forum for academic and industrial communities to report recent theoretic/application results in real-time monitoring, diagnosis, and fault-tolerant design, and exchange the ideas about the emerging research direction in this field. Twenty-three papers were eventually selected through a strict peer-reviewed procedure, which represent the mo...

  15. Overview of real-time operating systems on microprocessor platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luong, T.T.

    1994-01-01

    This paper attempts to overview the real-time operating systems on microprocessor platforms in the field of experimental physics facility controls. The key issues regarding operating systems as well as standards and development environment are discussed. As an illustration, some current industrial products are indicated. Also, real-time systems operating in some institutes of the EPS/EPCS inter divisional group are reviewed. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs

  16. Real-time measurements of temperature, pressure and moisture profiles in High-Performance Concrete exposed to high temperatures during neutron radiography imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropovs, N., E-mail: nikolajs.toropovs@rtu.lv [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Riga Technical University, Institute of Materials and Structures, Riga (Latvia); Lo Monte, F. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Milan (Italy); Wyrzykowski, M. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Lodz University of Technology, Department of Building Physics and Building Materials, Lodz (Poland); Weber, B. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Sahmenko, G. [Riga Technical University, Institute of Materials and Structures, Riga (Latvia); Vontobel, P. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Villigen (Switzerland); Felicetti, R. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Milan (Italy); Lura, P. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Institute for Building Materials (IfB), Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-02-15

    High-Performance Concrete (HPC) is particularly prone to explosive spalling when exposed to high temperature. Although the exact causes that lead to spalling are still being debated, moisture transport during heating plays an important role in all proposed mechanisms. In this study, slabs made of high-performance, low water-to-binder ratio mortars with addition of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) and polypropylene fibers (PP) were heated from one side on a temperature-controlled plate up to 550 °C. A combination of measurements was performed simultaneously on the same sample: moisture profiles via neutron radiography, temperature profiles with embedded thermocouples and pore pressure evolution with embedded pressure sensors. Spalling occurred in the sample with SAP, where sharp profiles of moisture and temperature were observed. No spalling occurred when PP-fibers were introduced in addition to SAP. The experimental procedure described here is essential for developing and verifying numerical models and studying measures against fire spalling risk in HPC.

  17. Diagnostic performance of fecal quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of Lawsonia intracellularis–associated proliferative enteropathy in nursery pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ken Steen; Stege, Helle; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) tests for detection and quantification of Lawsonia intracellularis in feces from pigs have been developed. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a fecal qPCR test for detection of nursery pigs with L. intrace......Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) tests for detection and quantification of Lawsonia intracellularis in feces from pigs have been developed. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a fecal qPCR test for detection of nursery pigs with L...

  18. Performance evaluation of full-scale tuned liquid dampers (TLDs) for vibration control of large wind turbines using real-time hybrid testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zili; Staino, Andrea; Basu, Biswajit

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •Performance evaluation of full-scale tuned liquid dampers carried out for wind turbines. •Coupled blade-tower model considered in the numerical sub-structure. •Stochastic turbulence due to rotationally sampled spectra considered. •Effect of damping screens experimentally investigated...

  19. The Development of Real-Time Stability Supports Visual Working Memory Performance: Young Children's Feature Binding Can Be Improved through Perceptual Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmering, Vanessa R.; Wood, Chelsey M.

    2017-01-01

    Working memory is a basic cognitive process that predicts higher-level skills. A central question in theories of working memory development is the generality of the mechanisms proposed to explain improvements in performance. Prior theories have been closely tied to particular tasks and/or age groups, limiting their generalizability. The cognitive…

  20. Prototype real-time baseband signal combiner. [deep space network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    The design and performance of a prototype real-time baseband signal combiner, used to enhance the received Voyager 2 spacecraft signals during the Jupiter flyby, is described. Hardware delay paths, operating programs, and firmware are discussed.

  1. Integrating SHM and Time Variant System Performance of Naval Ship Structures For Near Real Time Decision Making Under Uncertainty: A Comprehensive Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-06

    performance of damaged ships. Reducing risk associated with loss of ship due to a post-accident collapse or disintegration of the hull during tow or rescue...In order to allow small regions of the hull extremities to plastify, it is assumed that the plasticized area is located within the extreme plates and...the damage is based on the percentage of plasticized area within the considered hull section. Therefore, the damage ratios associated with each

  2. Identification of Performance Problems in a Commercial Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Enzyme Immunoassay by Multiuser External Quality Control Monitoring and Real-Time Data Analysis▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, J.; Swantee, C.; Lee, B.; Gunning, H.; Chow, A.; Sidaway, F.; Sherlock, C.; Garceau, R.; Dimech, W.; Malloch, L.

    2009-01-01

    In June 2005, a pilot program was implemented in Canadian laboratories to monitor the performance of the Abbott human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1/2) gO enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Two different external quality control (QC) reagents and a “real-time” software analysis program were evaluated. In November 2005, higher-than-expected calibrator rate values in these kits were first reported at the Ontario Ministry of Health (Etobicoke), followed by the Alberta Provincial Public Healt...

  3. Performance evaluation of a real time OFDM radio over fiber system at 2.5 GHz using software defined radio SDR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David Cepeda, Juan; Rodriguez, Santiago Isaac; Rico-Martinez, Monica

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of an OFDM radio over fiber (RoF) system at 2.5 GHz using software defined radio (SDR). In this work, first we present an introduction of the main concepts about radio over fiber and an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) system at 2.5 GHz......, then we present a comparison of an OFDM RoF system in three scenarios, modifying the wireless distances and the optical fiber distance in order to evaluate the performance of the system taking into account the symbol error rate (SER) vs signal to noise ratio (SNR) curves....

  4. Simulated and measured performance of a real-time processor for RFI detection and mitigation on-board spaceborne microwave radiometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl

    2017-01-01

    An RFI processor breadboard has been designed and developed for future spaceborne microwave radiometer systems. RFI detection is based on the anomalous amplitude, kurtosis, and cross-frequency algorithms. These are implemented in VHDL code in an FPGA. Thus algorithm performance can be assessed...... by proper code simulation. The breadboard has been integrated with a Ku band radiometer subjected to RFI-like signals from a laboratory generator. Simulations show that the algorithms as implemented work according to theory when subjected to pulsed sinusoidal and QPSK signals. The laboratory measurements...

  5. VERSE - Virtual Equivalent Real-time Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yang; Martin, Bryan J.; Villaume, Nathaniel

    2005-01-01

    Distributed real-time simulations provide important timing validation and hardware in the- loop results for the spacecraft flight software development cycle. Occasionally, the need for higher fidelity modeling and more comprehensive debugging capabilities - combined with a limited amount of computational resources - calls for a non real-time simulation environment that mimics the real-time environment. By creating a non real-time environment that accommodates simulations and flight software designed for a multi-CPU real-time system, we can save development time, cut mission costs, and reduce the likelihood of errors. This paper presents such a solution: Virtual Equivalent Real-time Simulation Environment (VERSE). VERSE turns the real-time operating system RTAI (Real-time Application Interface) into an event driven simulator that runs in virtual real time. Designed to keep the original RTAI architecture as intact as possible, and therefore inheriting RTAI's many capabilities, VERSE was implemented with remarkably little change to the RTAI source code. This small footprint together with use of the same API allows users to easily run the same application in both real-time and virtual time environments. VERSE has been used to build a workstation testbed for NASA's Space Interferometry Mission (SIM PlanetQuest) instrument flight software. With its flexible simulation controls and inexpensive setup and replication costs, VERSE will become an invaluable tool in future mission development.

  6. Effect of food matrix and thermal processing on the performance of a normalised quantitative real-time PCR approach for lupine (Lupinus albus) detection as a potential allergenic food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Caterina; Costa, Joana; Gondar, Cristina; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2018-10-01

    Lupine is widely used as an ingredient in diverse food products, but it is also a source of allergens. This work aimed at proposing a method to detect/quantify lupine as an allergen in processed foods based on a normalised real-time PCR assay targeting the Lup a 4 allergen-encoding gene of Lupinus albus. Sensitivities down to 0.0005%, 0.01% and 0.05% (w/w) of lupine in rice flour, wheat flour and bread, respectively, and 1 pg of L. albus DNA were obtained, with adequate real-time PCR performance parameters using the ΔCt method. Both food matrix and processing affected negatively the quantitative performance of the assay. The method was successfully validated with blind samples and applied to processed foods. Lupine was estimated between 4.12 and 22.9% in foods, with some results suggesting the common practice of precautionary labelling. In this work, useful and effective tools were proposed for the detection/quantification of lupine in food products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Real-time inextensible surgical thread simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lang; Liu, Qian

    2018-03-27

    This paper discusses a real-time simulation method of inextensible surgical thread based on the Cosserat rod theory using position-based dynamics (PBD). The method realizes stable twining and knotting of surgical thread while including inextensibility, bending, twisting and coupling effects. The Cosserat rod theory is used to model the nonlinear elastic behavior of surgical thread. The surgical thread model is solved with PBD to achieve a real-time, extremely stable simulation. Due to the one-dimensional linear structure of surgical thread, the direct solution of the distance constraint based on tridiagonal matrix algorithm is used to enhance stretching resistance in every constraint projection iteration. In addition, continuous collision detection and collision response guarantee a large time step and high performance. Furthermore, friction is integrated into the constraint projection process to stabilize the twining of multiple threads and complex contact situations. Through comparisons with existing methods, the surgical thread maintains constant length under large deformation after applying the direct distance constraint in our method. The twining and knotting of multiple threads correspond to stable solutions to contact and friction forces. A surgical suture scene is also modeled to demonstrate the practicality and simplicity of our method. Our method achieves stable and fast simulation of inextensible surgical thread. Benefiting from the unified particle framework, the rigid body, elastic rod, and soft body can be simultaneously simulated. The method is appropriate for applications in virtual surgery that require multiple dynamic bodies.

  8. Real time water chemistry monitoring and diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudreau, T.M.; Choi, S.S.

    2002-01-01

    EPRI has produced a real time water chemistry monitoring and diagnostic system. This system is called SMART ChemWorks and is based on the EPRI ChemWorks codes. System models, chemistry parameter relationships and diagnostic approaches from these codes are integrated with real time data collection, an intelligence engine and Internet technologies to allow for automated analysis of system chemistry. Significant data management capabilities are also included which allow the user to evaluate data and create automated reporting. Additional features have been added to the system in recent years including tracking and evaluation of primary chemistry as well as the calculation and tracking of primary to secondary leakage in PWRs. This system performs virtual sensing, identifies normal and upset conditions, and evaluates the consistency of on-line monitor and grab sample readings. The system also makes use of virtual fingerprinting to identify the cause of any chemistry upsets. This technology employs plant-specific data and models to determine the chemical state of the steam cycle. (authors)

  9. Real-time data processing and inflow forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olason, T.; Lafreniere, M.

    1998-01-01

    One of the key inputs into the short-term scheduling of hydroelectric generation is inflow forecasting which is needed for natural or unregulated inflows into various lakes, reservoirs and river sections. The forecast time step and time horizon are determined by the time step and the scheduling horizon. Acres International Ltd. has developed the Vista Decision Support System (DSS) in which the time step is one hour and the scheduling can be done up to two weeks into the future. This paper presents the basis of the operational flow-forecasting module of the Vista DSS software and its application to flow forecasting for 16 basins within Nova Scotia Power's hydroelectric system. Among the tasks performed by the software are collection and treatment of data (in real time) regarding meteorological forecasts, reviews and monitoring of hydro-meteorological data, updating of the state variables in the module, and the review and adjustment of sub-watershed forecasts

  10. Prototyping Real-Time Control in the SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, J; Jensen, L; Jones, R; Lamont, M; Wenninger, J; Wijnands, Thijs; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2003-01-01

    Real-time control of beam related parameters will be required in the LHC. In order to gain experience of the issues involved in implementing distributed real-time control over large distances, a prototype local orbit feedback system is being developed in the SPS. This will use 6 pickups, each equipped with the full LHC acquisition electronics chain and linked to a real-time communication and feedback system. This reports summarises the .rst tests performed with this system in October 2002, where the data from four pickups was successfully acquired and displayed at 10 Hz in the control room.

  11. Real-time Avatar Animation from a Single Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragih, Jason M; Lucey, Simon; Cohn, Jeffrey F

    2011-01-01

    A real time facial puppetry system is presented. Compared with existing systems, the proposed method requires no special hardware, runs in real time (23 frames-per-second), and requires only a single image of the avatar and user. The user's facial expression is captured through a real-time 3D non-rigid tracking system. Expression transfer is achieved by combining a generic expression model with synthetically generated examples that better capture person specific characteristics. Performance of the system is evaluated on avatars of real people as well as masks and cartoon characters.

  12. Distributed Issues for Ada Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-23

    NUMBERS Distributed Issues for Ada Real - Time Systems MDA 903-87- C- 0056 S. AUTHOR(S) Thomas E. Griest 7. PERFORMING ORGANiZATION NAME(S) AND ADORESS(ES) 8...considerations. I Adding to the problem of distributed real - time systems is the issue of maintaining a common sense of time among all of the processors...because -omeone is waiting for the final output of a very large set of computations. However in real - time systems , consistent meeting of short-term

  13. Formal methods for dependable real-time systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushby, John

    1993-01-01

    The motivation for using formal methods to specify and reason about real time properties is outlined and approaches that were proposed and used are sketched. The formal verifications of clock synchronization algorithms are concluded as showing that mechanically supported reasoning about complex real time behavior is feasible. However, there was significant increase in the effectiveness of verification systems since those verifications were performed, at it is to be expected that verifications of comparable difficulty will become fairly routine. The current challenge lies in developing perspicuous and economical approaches to the formalization and specification of real time properties.

  14. A Distributed Computing Network for Real-Time Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-03

    7 ) AU2 o NAVA TUNDEWATER SY$TEMS CENTER NEWPORT RI F/G 9/2 UIS RIBUT E 0 COMPUTIN G N LTWORK FOR REAL - TIME SYSTEMS .(U) UASSIFIED NOV Al 6 1...MORAIS - UT 92 dLEVEL c A Distributed Computing Network for Real - Time Systems . 11 𔃺-1 Gordon E/Morson I7 y tm- ,r - t "en t As J 2 -p .. - 7 I’ cNaval...NUMBER TD 5932 / N 4. TITLE mand SubotI. S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED A DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING NETWORK FOR REAL - TIME SYSTEMS 6. PERFORMING ORG

  15. Expert systems for real-time monitoring and fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S. J.; Caglayan, A. K.

    1989-01-01

    Methods for building real-time onboard expert systems were investigated, and the use of expert systems technology was demonstrated in improving the performance of current real-time onboard monitoring and fault diagnosis applications. The potential applications of the proposed research include an expert system environment allowing the integration of expert systems into conventional time-critical application solutions, a grammar for describing the discrete event behavior of monitoring and fault diagnosis systems, and their applications to new real-time hardware fault diagnosis and monitoring systems for aircraft.

  16. The Implementation of a Real-Time Polyphase Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Adámek, Karel; Novotný, Jan; Armour, Wes

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study the suitability of dierent computational accelerators for the task of real-time data processing. The algorithm used for comparison is the polyphase filter, a standard tool in signal processing and a well established algorithm. We measure performance in FLOPs and execution time, which is a critical factor for real-time systems. For our real-time studies we have chosen a data rate of 6.5GB/s, which is the estimated data rate for a single channel on the SKAs Low Frequenc...

  17. Real-time earthquake monitoring: Early warning and rapid response

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    A panel was established to investigate the subject of real-time earthquake monitoring (RTEM) and suggest recommendations on the feasibility of using a real-time earthquake warning system to mitigate earthquake damage in regions of the United States. The findings of the investigation and the related recommendations are described in this report. A brief review of existing real-time seismic systems is presented with particular emphasis given to the current California seismic networks. Specific applications of a real-time monitoring system are discussed along with issues related to system deployment and technical feasibility. In addition, several non-technical considerations are addressed including cost-benefit analysis, public perceptions, safety, and liability.

  18. Space Weather and Real-Time Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Watari

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent advance of information and communications technology enables to collect a large amount of ground-based and space-based observation data in real-time. The real-time data realize nowcast of space weather. This paper reports a history of space weather by the International Space Environment Service (ISES in association with the International Geophysical Year (IGY and importance of real-time monitoring in space weather.

  19. Archtecture of distributed real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wing Leung, Cheuk

    2013-01-01

    CRAFTERS (Constraint and Application Driven Framework for Tailoring Embedded Real-time System) project aims to address the problem of uncertainty and heterogeneity in a distributed system by providing seamless, portable connectivity and middleware. This thesis contributes to the project by investigating the techniques that can be used in a distributed real-time embedded system. The conclusion is that, there is a list of specifications to be meet in order to provide a transparent and real-time...

  20. Research Directions in Real-Time Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes a survey of published research in real time systems . Material is presented that provides an overview of the topic, focusing on...communications protocols and scheduling techniques. It is noted that real - time systems deserve special attention separate from other areas because of...formal tools for design and analysis of real - time systems . The early work on applications as well as notable theoretical advances are summarized

  1. A Real-Time Systems Symposium Preprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Real - Time Systems Symposium Preprint Interim Tech...estimate of the occurence of the error. Unclassii ledSECUqITY CLASSIF’ICA T" NO MI*IA If’ inDI /’rrd erter for~~ble. ’Corrputnqg A REAL - TIME SYSTEMS SYMPOSIUM...ABSTRACT This technical report contains a preprint of a paper accepted for presentation at the REAL - TIME SYSTEMS SYMPOSIUM, Arlington,

  2. Essays in real-time forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Liebermann, Joelle

    2012-01-01

    This thesis contains three essays in the field of real-time econometrics, and more particularlyforecasting.The issue of using data as available in real-time to forecasters, policymakers or financialmarkets is an important one which has only recently been taken on board in the empiricalliterature. Data available and used in real-time are preliminary and differ from ex-postrevised data, and given that data revisions may be quite substantial, the use of latestavailable instead of real-time can s...

  3. Real-time Pricing in Power Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Schwenen, Sebastian

    We examine welfare e ects of real-time pricing in electricity markets. Before stochastic energy demand is known, competitive retailers contract with nal consumers who exogenously do not have real-time meters. After demand is realized, two electricity generators compete in a uniform price auction...... to satisfy demand from retailers acting on behalf of subscribed customers and from consumers with real-time meters. Increasing the number of consumers on real-time pricing does not always increase welfare since risk-averse consumers dislike uncertain and high prices arising through market power...

  4. Real-time Pricing in Power Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Schwenen, Sebastian

    We examine welfare eects of real-time pricing in electricity markets. Before stochastic energy demand is known, competitive retailers contract with nal consumers who exogenously do not have real-time meters. After demand is realized, two electricity generators compete in a uniform price auction...... to satisfy demand from retailers acting on behalf of subscribed customers and from consumers with real-time meters. Increasing the number of consumers on real-time pricing does not always increase welfare since risk-averse consumers dislike uncertain and high prices arising through market power...

  5. A Flattened Hierarchical Scheduler for Real-Time Virtual Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Drescher, Michael Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The recent trend of migrating legacy computer systems to a virtualized, cloud-based environment has expanded to real-time systems. Unfortunately, modern hypervisors have no mechanism in place to guarantee the real-time performance of applications running on virtual machines. Past solutions to this problem rely on either spatial or temporal resource partitioning, both of which under-utilize the processing capacity of the host system. Paravirtualized solutions in which the guest communicates it...

  6. Real-time detection of musical onsets with linear prediction and sinusoidal modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, John; Lazzarini, Victor; Timoney, Joseph

    2011-12-01

    Real-time musical note onset detection plays a vital role in many audio analysis processes, such as score following, beat detection and various sound synthesis by analysis methods. This article provides a review of some of the most commonly used techniques for real-time onset detection. We suggest ways to improve these techniques by incorporating linear prediction as well as presenting a novel algorithm for real-time onset detection using sinusoidal modelling. We provide comprehensive results for both the detection accuracy and the computational performance of all of the described techniques, evaluated using Modal, our new open source library for musical onset detection, which comes with a free database of samples with hand-labelled note onsets.

  7. Real time ray tracing based on shader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, JiangHeng; Li, Min

    2017-07-01

    Ray tracing is a rendering algorithm for generating an image through tracing lights into an image plane, it can simulate complicate optical phenomenon like refraction, depth of field and motion blur. Compared with rasterization, ray tracing can achieve more realistic rendering result, however with greater computational cost, simple scene rendering can consume tons of time. With the GPU's performance improvement and the advent of programmable rendering pipeline, complicated algorithm can also be implemented directly on shader. So, this paper proposes a new method that implement ray tracing directly on fragment shader, mainly include: surface intersection, importance sampling and progressive rendering. With the help of GPU's powerful throughput capability, it can implement real time rendering of simple scene.

  8. Real-time rockmass response from microseismics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew King; Michael Lofgren; Matt van de Werken [CSIRO Exploration and Mining (Australia)

    2009-06-15

    The primary objective of this project was to develop a prototype real-time microseismic monitoring system for strata control management and forewarning of geotechnical hazards. Power and communications problems have been addressed by developing a wirelessly connected network of solar-powered acquisition nodes, one at the top of each instrumented borehole. The open-source 'earthworm' earthquake acquisition software, which can run on different hardware platforms and use different acquisition cards, was modified for use in a coal environment by developing special new arrival-picking and event-location procedures. The system was field-trialled at Moranbah North mine. The acquisition software performed well, as did wireless communications and solar power. There were issues with the acquisition hardware selected, including problems with timing synchronisation, which is essential for seismic event location. Although these were fixed during the test, different hardware is likely to be used in future installations.

  9. REAL TIME SPEED ESTIMATION FROM MONOCULAR VIDEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Temiz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, detailed studies have been performed for developing a real time system to be used for surveillance of the traffic flow by using monocular video cameras to find speeds of the vehicles for secure travelling are presented. We assume that the studied road segment is planar and straight, the camera is tilted downward a bridge and the length of one line segment in the image is known. In order to estimate the speed of a moving vehicle from a video camera, rectification of video images is performed to eliminate the perspective effects and then the interest region namely the ROI is determined for tracking the vehicles. Velocity vectors of a sufficient number of reference points are identified on the image of the vehicle from each video frame. For this purpose sufficient number of points from the vehicle is selected, and these points must be accurately tracked on at least two successive video frames. In the second step, by using the displacement vectors of the tracked points and passed time, the velocity vectors of those points are computed. Computed velocity vectors are defined in the video image coordinate system and displacement vectors are measured by the means of pixel units. Then the magnitudes of the computed vectors in the image space are transformed to the object space to find the absolute values of these magnitudes. The accuracy of the estimated speed is approximately ±1 – 2 km/h. In order to solve the real time speed estimation problem, the authors have written a software system in C++ programming language. This software system has been used for all of the computations and test applications.

  10. Real-time image fusion involving diagnostic ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertsen, Caroline; Săftoiu, Adrian; Gruionu, Lucian G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our article is to give an overview of the current and future possibilities of real-time image fusion involving ultrasound. We present a review of the existing English-language peer-reviewed literature assessing this technique, which covers technical solutions (for ultrasound...

  11. Towards Real-Time GOMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-28

    as possible, thinking aloud as he played. Gray videotaped KP performing this task to provide observed behavior against which to measure the...Lehman, J. F., Newell, A., Rosenblom, P. S., Simon , T., & Tessler, S. G. "Soar as a Unified Theory of Cognition: Spring 1990. in the Proceedings of the...Center Brown University Dr. Michael Blackburns User Interface Institute Department of Psychology Code 943 P.O. Box 704 Proience. RI 02912 Naval Ocean

  12. Real-time UNIX in HEP data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buono, S.; Gaponenko, I.; Jones, R.; Mapelli, L.; Mornacchi, G.; Prigent, D.; Sanchez-Corral, E.; Skiadelli, M.; Toppers, A.; Duval, P.Y.; Ferrato, D.; Le Van Suu, A.; Qian, Z.; Rondot, C.; Ambrosini, G.; Fumagalli, G.; Aguer, M.; Huet, M.

    1994-01-01

    Today's experimentation in high energy physics is characterized by an increasing need for sensitivity to rare phenomena and complex physics signatures, which require the use of huge and sophisticated detectors and consequently a high performance readout and data acquisition. Multi-level triggering, hierarchical data collection and an always increasing amount of processing power, distributed throughout the data acquisition layers, will impose a number of features on the software environment, especially the need for a high level of standardization. Real-time UNIX seems, today, the best solution for the platform independence, operating system interface standards and real-time features necessary for data acquisition in HEP experiments. We present the results of the evaluation, in a realistic application environment, of a Real-Time UNIX operating system: the EP/LX real-time UNIX system. ((orig.))

  13. Towards exascale real-time RFI mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwpoort, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design and implementation of an extremely scalable real-time RFI mitigation method, based on the offline AOFlagger. All algorithms scale linearly in the number of samples. We describe how we implemented the flagger in the LOFAR real-time pipeline, on both CPUs and GPUs. Additionally,

  14. Real time refractive index measurement by ESPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torroba, R.; Joenathan, C.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a method to measure refractive index variations in real time is reported. A technique to introduce reference fringes in real time is discussed. Both the theoretical and experimental results are presented and an example with phase shifting is given. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs

  15. De toekomst van Real Time Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, J. van den; Berg, C.H. van den

    2013-01-01

    Al direct vanaf de start van de Nationale Politie is gewerkt aan het opzetten van tien real-time intelligence centra in Nederland. Van daaruit worden 24 uur per dag en zeven dagen in de week agenten op straat actief ondersteund met real-time informatie bij de melding waar ze op af gaan. In de visie

  16. Heterogeneous Embedded Real-Time Systems Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2003-290 Final Technical Report December 2003 HETEROGENEOUS EMBEDDED REAL - TIME SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENT Integrated...HETEROGENEOUS EMBEDDED REAL - TIME SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENT 6. AUTHOR(S) Cosmo Castellano and James Graham 5. FUNDING NUMBERS C - F30602-97-C-0259

  17. Validation of RNAi by real time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Lee, Ying Chiu

    2011-01-01

    Real time PCR is the analytic tool of choice for quantification of gene expression, while RNAi is concerned with downregulation of gene expression. Together, they constitute a powerful approach in any loss of function studies of selective genes. We illustrate here the use of real time PCR to verify...

  18. Storm real-time processing cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Quinton

    2013-01-01

    A Cookbook with plenty of practical recipes for different uses of Storm.If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of real-time processing and would like to learn Storm to process unbounded streams of data in real time, then this book is for you.

  19. Performance of a commercial assay for the diagnosis of influenza A (H1N1 infection in comparison to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention protocol of real time RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María G Barbás

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available At the time of influenza A (H1N1 emergency, the WHO responded with remarkable speed by releasing guidelines and a protocol for a real-time RT-PCR assay (rRT-PCR. The aim of the present study was to evalúate the performance of the "Real Time Ready Influenza A/H1N1 Detection Set" (June 2009-Roche kit in comparison to the CDC reference rRT-PCR protocol. The overall sensitivity of the Roche assay for detection of the Inf A gene in the presence or absence of the H1 gene was 74.5 %. The sensitivity for detecting samples that were only positive for the Inf A gene (absence of the H1 gene was 53.3 % whereas the sensitivity for H1N1-positive samples (presence of the Inf A gene and any other swine gene was 76.4 %. The specificity of the assay was 97.1 %. A new version of the kit (November 2009 is now available, and a recent evaluation of its performance showed good sensitivity to detect pandemic H1N1 compared to other molecular assays.Durante la pandemia de influenza A (H1N1, la OMS recomendó algoritmos y protocolos de detección del virus mediante RT-PCR en tiempo real. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el desempeño del equipo que comercializa la empresa Roche, Real Time Ready Influenza A/H1N1 Detection Set (junio de 2009, en comparación con el protocolo de RT-PCR en tiempo real de los CDC. La sensibilidad global del ensayo de Roche para la detección del gen Inf A en presencia o ausencia del gen H1 fue 74,5 %. La sensibilidad para la detección de muestras positivas solo para el gen Inf A (ausencia del gen H1 fue 53,3 % y la sensibilidad para la detección de muestras positivas para H1N1 (presencia del gen Inf A y cualquier otro gen porcino fue 76,4 %. La especificidad fue 97,1 %. Existe una nueva versión del equipo (noviembre 2009 que, según se ha descrito, presenta buena sensibilidad en comparación con otros ensayos moleculares para detectar H1N1 pandémica.

  20. LabVIEW Real-Time

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Flockhart, Ronald Bruce; Seppey, P

    2003-01-01

    With LabVIEW Real-Time, you can choose from a variety of RT Series hardware. Add a real-time data acquisition component into a larger measurement and automation system or create a single stand-alone real-time solution with data acquisition, signal conditioning, motion control, RS-232, GPIB instrumentation, and Ethernet connectivity. With the various hardware options, you can create a system to meet your precise needs today, while the modularity of the system means you can add to the solution as your system requirements grow. If you are interested in Reliable and Deterministic systems for Measurement and Automation, you will profit from this seminar. Agenda: Real-Time Overview LabVIEW RT Hardware Platforms - Linux on PXI Programming with LabVIEW RT Real-Time Operating Systems concepts Timing Applications Data Transfer

  1. Real Time Advanced Clustering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Spampinato

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a system to gather information from a stationary camera to identify moving objects. The proposed solution makes only use of motion vectors between adjacent frames, obtained from any algorithm. Starting from them, the system is able to retrieve clusters of moving objects in a scene acquired by an image sensor device. Since all the system is only based on optical flow, it is really simple and fast, to be easily integrated directly in low cost cameras. The experimental results show fast and robust performance of our method. The ANSI-C code has been tested on the ARM Cortex A15 CPU @2.32GHz, obtaining an impressive fps, about 3000 fps, excluding optical flow computation and I/O. Moreover, the system has been tested for different applications, cross traffic alert and video surveillance, in different conditions, indoor and outdoor, and with different lenses.

  2. Advanced Hard Real-Time Operating System, the Maruti Project. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Real - Time Operating System , The Maruti Project DASG-60-92-C-0055 5b. Program Element # 62301E 6. Author(s...The maruti hard real - time " operating system . A CM SIGOPS, Operating Systems Review. 23:90-106, July 1989. 254 !1 110) C. L. Liu and J. Layland...February 14, 1995 Abstract The Maruti Real - Time Operating System was developed for applications that must meet hard real-time constraints. In order

  3. Large, real time detectors for solar neutrinos and magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, L.

    1990-01-01

    We discuss the present status of superheated superconducting granules (SSG) development for the real time detection of magnetic monopoles of any speed and of low energy solar neutrinos down to the pp region (indium project). Basic properties of SSG and progress made in the recent years are briefly reviewed. Possible ways for further improvement are discussed. The performances reached in ultrasonic grain production at ∼ 100 μm size, as well as in conventional read-out electronics, look particularly promising for a large scale monopole experiment. Alternative approaches are briefly dealt with: induction loops for magnetic monopoles; scintillators, semiconductors or superconducting tunnel junctions for a solar neutrino detector based on an indium target

  4. Image Acquisition in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In 1995, Carlos Jorquera left NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to focus on erasing the growing void between high-performance cameras and the requisite software to capture and process the resulting digital images. Since his departure from NASA, Jorquera s efforts have not only satisfied the private industry's cravings for faster, more flexible, and more favorable software applications, but have blossomed into a successful entrepreneurship that is making its mark with improvements in fields such as medicine, weather forecasting, and X-ray inspection. Formerly a JPL engineer who constructed imaging systems for spacecraft and ground-based astronomy projects, Jorquera is the founder and president of the three-person firm, Boulder Imaging Inc., based in Louisville, Colorado. Joining Jorquera to round out the Boulder Imaging staff are Chief Operations Engineer Susan Downey, who also gained experience at JPL working on space-bound projects including Galileo and the Hubble Space Telescope, and Vice President of Engineering and Machine Vision Specialist Jie Zhu Kulbida, who has extensive industrial and research and development experience within the private sector.

  5. Facial Expression Emotion Detection for Real-Time Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Turabzadeh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, real-time facial expression recognition has attracted more and more research. In this study, an automatic facial expression real-time system was built and tested. Firstly, the system and model were designed and tested on a MATLAB environment followed by a MATLAB Simulink environment that is capable of recognizing continuous facial expressions in real-time with a rate of 1 frame per second and that is implemented on a desktop PC. They have been evaluated in a public dataset, and the experimental results were promising. The dataset and labels used in this study were made from videos, which were recorded twice from five participants while watching a video. Secondly, in order to implement in real-time at a faster frame rate, the facial expression recognition system was built on the field-programmable gate array (FPGA. The camera sensor used in this work was a Digilent VmodCAM — stereo camera module. The model was built on the Atlys™ Spartan-6 FPGA development board. It can continuously perform emotional state recognition in real-time at a frame rate of 30. A graphical user interface was designed to display the participant’s video in real-time and two-dimensional predict labels of the emotion at the same time.

  6. The FireWork air quality forecast system with near-real-time biomass burning emissions: Recent developments and evaluation of performance for the 2015 North American wildfire season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Radenko; Chen, Jack; Anderson, Kerry; Moran, Michael D; Beaulieu, Paul-André; Davignon, Didier; Cousineau, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Environment and Climate Change Canada's FireWork air quality (AQ) forecast system for North America with near-real-time biomass burning emissions has been running experimentally during the Canadian wildfire season since 2013. The system runs twice per day with model initializations at 00 UTC and 12 UTC, and produces numerical AQ forecast guidance with 48-hr lead time. In this work we describe the FireWork system, which incorporates near-real-time biomass burning emissions based on the Canadian Wildland Fire Information System (CWFIS) as an input to the operational Regional Air Quality Deterministic Prediction System (RAQDPS). To demonstrate the capability of the system we analyzed two forecast periods in 2015 (June 2-July 15, and August 15-31) when fire activity was high, and observed fire-smoke-impacted areas in western Canada and the western United States. Modeled PM2.5 surface concentrations were compared with surface measurements and benchmarked with results from the operational RAQDPS, which did not consider near-real-time biomass burning emissions. Model performance statistics showed that FireWork outperformed RAQDPS with improvements in forecast hourly PM2.5 across the region; the results were especially significant for stations near the path of fire plume trajectories. Although the hourly PM2.5 concentrations predicted by FireWork still displayed bias for areas with active fires for these two periods (mean bias [MB] of -7.3 µg m(-3) and 3.1 µg m(-3)), it showed better forecast skill than the RAQDPS (MB of -11.7 µg m(-3) and -5.8 µg m(-3)) and demonstrated a greater ability to capture temporal variability of episodic PM2.5 events (correlation coefficient values of 0.50 and 0.69 for FireWork compared to 0.03 and 0.11 for RAQDPS). A categorical forecast comparison based on an hourly PM2.5 threshold of 30 µg m(-3) also showed improved scores for probability of detection (POD), critical success index (CSI), and false alarm rate (FAR). Smoke from wildfires

  7. Research of real-time communication software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maotang; Guo, Jingbo; Liu, Yuzhong; Li, Jiahong

    2003-11-01

    Real-time communication has been playing an increasingly important role in our work, life and ocean monitor. With the rapid progress of computer and communication technique as well as the miniaturization of communication system, it is needed to develop the adaptable and reliable real-time communication software in the ocean monitor system. This paper involves the real-time communication software research based on the point-to-point satellite intercommunication system. The object-oriented design method is adopted, which can transmit and receive video data and audio data as well as engineering data by satellite channel. In the real-time communication software, some software modules are developed, which can realize the point-to-point satellite intercommunication in the ocean monitor system. There are three advantages for the real-time communication software. One is that the real-time communication software increases the reliability of the point-to-point satellite intercommunication system working. Second is that some optional parameters are intercalated, which greatly increases the flexibility of the system working. Third is that some hardware is substituted by the real-time communication software, which not only decrease the expense of the system and promotes the miniaturization of communication system, but also aggrandizes the agility of the system.

  8. Making real-time reactive systems reliable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzullo, Keith; Wood, Mark

    1990-01-01

    A reactive system is characterized by a control program that interacts with an environment (or controlled program). The control program monitors the environment and reacts to significant events by sending commands to the environment. This structure is quite general. Not only are most embedded real time systems reactive systems, but so are monitoring and debugging systems and distributed application management systems. Since reactive systems are usually long running and may control physical equipment, fault tolerance is vital. The research tries to understand the principal issues of fault tolerance in real time reactive systems and to build tools that allow a programmer to design reliable, real time reactive systems. In order to make real time reactive systems reliable, several issues must be addressed: (1) How can a control program be built to tolerate failures of sensors and actuators. To achieve this, a methodology was developed for transforming a control program that references physical value into one that tolerates sensors that can fail and can return inaccurate values; (2) How can the real time reactive system be built to tolerate failures of the control program. Towards this goal, whether the techniques presented can be extended to real time reactive systems is investigated; and (3) How can the environment be specified in a way that is useful for writing a control program. Towards this goal, whether a system with real time constraints can be expressed as an equivalent system without such constraints is also investigated.

  9. Real time sensor for therapeutic radiation delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, M.; Craig, R.A.; Reeder, P.L.

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a real time sensor for therapeutic radiation. A probe is placed in or near the patient that senses in real time the dose at the location of the probe. The strength of the dose is determined by either an insertion or an exit probe. The location is determined by a series of vertical and horizontal sensing elements that gives the operator a real time read out dose location relative to placement of the patient. The increased accuracy prevents serious tissue damage to the patient by preventing overdose or delivery of a dose to a wrong location within the body. 14 figs

  10. Real time detecting system for turning force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaobin, Yue [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China). Inst. of Machinery Manufacturing Technology

    2001-07-01

    How to get the real-time value of forces dropped on the tool in the course of processing by piezoelectric sensors is introduced. First, the analog signals of the cutting force were achieved by these sensors, amplified and transferred into digital signals by A/D transferring card. Then real-time software reads the information, put it into its own coordinate, drew the curve of forces, displayed it on the screen by the real time and saved it for the technicians to analyze the situation of the tool. So the cutting parameter can be optimized to improve surface quality of the pieces.

  11. Real-Time Accumulative Computation Motion Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saturnino Maldonado-Bascón

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The neurally inspired accumulative computation (AC method and its application to motion detection have been introduced in the past years. This paper revisits the fact that many researchers have explored the relationship between neural networks and finite state machines. Indeed, finite state machines constitute the best characterized computational model, whereas artificial neural networks have become a very successful tool for modeling and problem solving. The article shows how to reach real-time performance after using a model described as a finite state machine. This paper introduces two steps towards that direction: (a A simplification of the general AC method is performed by formally transforming it into a finite state machine. (b A hardware implementation in FPGA of such a designed AC module, as well as an 8-AC motion detector, providing promising performance results. We also offer two case studies of the use of AC motion detectors in surveillance applications, namely infrared-based people segmentation and color-based people tracking, respectively.

  12. Multiprocessor scheduling for real-time systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baruah, Sanjoy; Buttazzo, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of both theoretical and pragmatic aspects of resource-allocation and scheduling in multiprocessor and multicore hard-real-time systems.  The authors derive new, abstract models of real-time tasks that capture accurately the salient features of real application systems that are to be implemented on multiprocessor platforms, and identify rules for mapping application systems onto the most appropriate models.  New run-time multiprocessor scheduling algorithms are presented, which are demonstrably better than those currently used, both in terms of run-time efficiency and tractability of off-line analysis.  Readers will benefit from a new design and analysis framework for multiprocessor real-time systems, which will translate into a significantly enhanced ability to provide formally verified, safety-critical real-time systems at a significantly lower cost.

  13. Coordinating Transit Transfers in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Transfers are a major source of travel time variability for transit passengers. Coordinating transfers between transit routes in real time can reduce passenger waiting times and travel time variability, but these benefits need to be contrasted with t...

  14. Real-Time Penetrating Particle Analyzer (PAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Ambrosi, G.; Bertucci, B.

    2018-02-01

    The PAN can measure penetrating particles with great precision to study energetic particles, solar activities, and the origin and propagation of cosmic rays. The real-time monitoring of penetrating particles is crucial for deep space human travel.

  15. Scala for Real-Time Systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Java served well as a general-purpose language. However, during its two decades of constant change it has gotten some weight and legacy in the language syntax and the libraries. Furthermore, Java's success for real-time systems is mediocre. Scala is a modern object-oriented and functional language...... with interesting new features. Although a new language, it executes on a Java virtual machine, reusing that technology. This paper explores Scala as language for future real-time systems....

  16. Real time control of plasmas and ECRH systems on TCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paley, J.I.; Berrino, J.; Coda, S.; Duval, B.P.; Felici, F.; Goodman, T.P.; Martin, Y.; Moret, J.M.; Piras, F.; Cruz, N.; Rodriques, A.P.; Santos, B.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2009-01-01

    Developments in the real time control hardware on Tokamak a Configuration Variable (TCV) coupled with the flexibility of plasma shaping and electron cyclotron (EC) heating and current drive actuators are opening many opportunities to perform real time experiments and develop algorithms and methods for fusion applications. The ability to control magnetohydrodynamic instabilities is particularly important for achieving high performance fusion plasmas and EC is envisaged as a key actuator in maintaining high performance. We have successfully demonstrated control of the sawtooth instability using the EC launcher injection angle to modify the current profile around the q =1 surface. This paper presents an overview of recent real time control experiments on TCV, developments in the hardware and algorithms together with plans for the future.

  17. Real-Time 3D Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Butler Hine, former director of the Intelligent Mechanism Group (IMG) at Ames Research Center, and five others partnered to start Fourth Planet, Inc., a visualization company that specializes in the intuitive visual representation of dynamic, real-time data over the Internet and Intranet. Over a five-year period, the then NASA researchers performed ten robotic field missions in harsh climes to mimic the end- to-end operations of automated vehicles trekking across another world under control from Earth. The core software technology for these missions was the Virtual Environment Vehicle Interface (VEVI). Fourth Planet has released VEVI4, the fourth generation of the VEVI software, and NetVision. VEVI4 is a cutting-edge computer graphics simulation and remote control applications tool. The NetVision package allows large companies to view and analyze in virtual 3D space such things as the health or performance of their computer network or locate a trouble spot on an electric power grid. Other products are forthcoming. Fourth Planet is currently part of the NASA/Ames Technology Commercialization Center, a business incubator for start-up companies.

  18. An improved real time superresolution FPGA system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi Narasimha, Pramod; Mudigoudar, Basavaraj; Yue, Zhanfeng; Topiwala, Pankaj

    2009-05-01

    In numerous computer vision applications, enhancing the quality and resolution of captured video can be critical. Acquired video is often grainy and low quality due to motion, transmission bottlenecks, etc. Postprocessing can enhance it. Superresolution greatly decreases camera jitter to deliver a smooth, stabilized, high quality video. In this paper, we extend previous work on a real-time superresolution application implemented in ASIC/FPGA hardware. A gradient based technique is used to register the frames at the sub-pixel level. Once we get the high resolution grid, we use an improved regularization technique in which the image is iteratively modified by applying back-projection to get a sharp and undistorted image. The algorithm was first tested in software and migrated to hardware, to achieve 320x240 -> 1280x960, about 30 fps, a stunning superresolution by 16X in total pixels. Various input parameters, such as size of input image, enlarging factor and the number of nearest neighbors, can be tuned conveniently by the user. We use a maximum word size of 32 bits to implement the algorithm in Matlab Simulink as well as in FPGA hardware, which gives us a fine balance between the number of bits and performance. The proposed system is robust and highly efficient. We have shown the performance improvement of the hardware superresolution over the software version (C code).

  19. Benefits of real-time gas management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolty, R.; Dolezalek, D. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    In today's competitive gas gathering, processing, storage and transportation business environment, the requirements to do business are continually changing. These changes arise from government regulations such as the amendments to the Clean Air Act concerning the environment and FERC Order 636 concerning business practices. Other changes are due to advances in technology such as electronic flow measurement (EFM) and real-time communications capabilities within the gas industry. Gas gathering, processing, storage and transportation companies must be flexible in adapting to these changes to remain competitive. These dynamic requirements can be met with an open, real-time gas management computer information system. Such a system provides flexible services with a variety of software applications. Allocations, nominations management and gas dispatching are examples of applications that are provided on a real-time basis. By providing real-time services, the gas management system enables operations personnel to make timely adjustments within the current accounting period. Benefits realized from implementing a real-time gas management system include reduced unaccountable gas, reduced imbalance penalties, reduced regulatory violations, improved facility operations and better service to customers. These benefits give a company the competitive edge. This article discusses the applications provided, the benefits from implementing a real-time gas management system, and the definition of such a system

  20. Real-time thermal neutron radiographic detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Bracher, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Systems for real-time detection of thermal neutron images are reviewed. Characteristics of one system are presented; the data include contrast, resolution and speed of response over the thermal neutron intensity range 2.5 10 3 n/cm 2 -sec to 10 7 n/cm 2 -sec

  1. Real-time alerts and reminders using information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanderer, Jonathan P; Sandberg, Warren S; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M

    2011-09-01

    Adoption of information systems throughout the hospital environment has enabled the development of real-time physiologic alerts and clinician reminder systems. These clinical tools can be made available through the deployment of anesthesia information management systems (AIMS). Creating usable alert systems requires understanding of technical considerations. Various successful implementations are reviewed, encompassing cost reduction, improved revenue capture, timely antibiotic administration, and postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis. Challenges to the widespread use of real-time alerts and reminders include AIMS adoption rates and the difficulty in choosing appropriate areas and approaches for information systems support. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Identifying Optimal Temporal Scale for the Correlation of AOD and Ground Measurements of PM2.5 to Improve the Model Performance in a Real-time Air Quality Estimation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Faruque, Fazlay; Williams, Worth; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Crosson, William; Rickman, Douglas; Limaye, Ashutosh

    2009-01-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD), an indirect estimate of particle matter using satellite observations, has shown great promise in improving estimates of PM 2.5 air quality surface. Currently, few studies have been conducted to explore the optimal way to apply AOD data to improve the model accuracy of PM 2.5 surface estimation in a real-time air quality system. We believe that two major aspects may be worthy of consideration in that area: 1) the approach to integrate satellite measurements with ground measurements in the pollution estimation, and 2) identification of an optimal temporal scale to calculate the correlation of AOD and ground measurements. This paper is focused on the second aspect on the identifying the optimal temporal scale to correlate AOD with PM2.5. Five following different temporal scales were chosen to evaluate their impact on the model performance: 1) within the last 3 days, 2) within the last 10 days, 3) within the last 30 days, 4) within the last 90 days, and 5) the time period with the highest correlation in a year. The model performance is evaluated for its accuracy, bias, and errors based on the following selected statistics: the Mean Bias, the Normalized Mean Bias, the Root Mean Square Error, Normalized Mean Error, and the Index of Agreement. This research shows that the model with the temporal scale of within the last 30 days displays the best model performance in this study area using 2004 and 2005 data sets.

  3. Real-Time Imaging System for the OpenPET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashima, Hideaki; Yoshida, Eiji; Kinouchi, Shoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inadama, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo; Suga, Mikio; Haneishi, Hideaki; Yamaya, Taiga

    2012-02-01

    The OpenPET and its real-time imaging capability have great potential for real-time tumor tracking in medical procedures such as biopsy and radiation therapy. For the real-time imaging system, we intend to use the one-pass list-mode dynamic row-action maximum likelihood algorithm (DRAMA) and implement it using general-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU) techniques. However, it is difficult to make consistent reconstructions in real-time because the amount of list-mode data acquired in PET scans may be large depending on the level of radioactivity, and the reconstruction speed depends on the amount of the list-mode data. In this study, we developed a system to control the data used in the reconstruction step while retaining quantitative performance. In the proposed system, the data transfer control system limits the event counts to be used in the reconstruction step according to the reconstruction speed, and the reconstructed images are properly intensified by using the ratio of the used counts to the total counts. We implemented the system on a small OpenPET prototype system and evaluated the performance in terms of the real-time tracking ability by displaying reconstructed images in which the intensity was compensated. The intensity of the displayed images correlated properly with the original count rate and a frame rate of 2 frames per second was achieved with average delay time of 2.1 s.

  4. Real-Time Software for the Compass Tokamak Plasma Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valcarcel, D.F.; Duarte, A.S.; Neto, A.; Carvalho, I.S.; Carvalho, B.B.; Fernandes, H.; Sousa, J. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Sartori, F. [Euratom-UKAEA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB Oxon (United Kingdom); Janky, F.; Cahyna, P.; Hron, M.; Panek, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM / IPP.CR, Prague (Costa Rica)

    2009-07-01

    This poster presents the flexible and high-performance real time system that guarantees the desired time cycles for plasma control on the COMPASS tokamak: 500 {mu}s for toroidal field, current, equilibrium and shaping; 50 {mu}s for fast control of the equilibrium and vertical instability. This system was developed on top of a high-performance processor and a software framework (MARTe) tailored for real-time. The preliminary measurements indicate that the time constraints will be met on the final solution. The system allows the making of modifications in the future to improve software components. (A.C.)

  5. Reduction Methods for Real-time Simulations in Hybrid Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid testing constitutes a cost-effective experimental full scale testing method. The method was introduced in the 1960's by Japanese researchers, as an alternative to conventional full scale testing and small scale material testing, such as shake table tests. The principle of the method...... is performed on a glass fibre reinforced polymer composite box girder. The test serves as a pilot test for prospective real-time tests on a wind turbine blade. The Taylor basis is implemented in the test, used to perform the numerical simulations. Despite of a number of introduced errors in the real...... is to divide a structure into a physical substructure and a numerical substructure, and couple these in a test. If the test is conducted in real-time it is referred to as real time hybrid testing. The hybrid testing concept has developed significantly since its introduction in the 1960', both with respect...

  6. Building flexible real-time systems using the Flex language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Kevin B.; Lin, Kwei-Jay

    1991-01-01

    The design and implementation of a real-time programming language called Flex, which is a derivative of C++, are presented. It is shown how different types of timing requirements might be expressed and enforced in Flex, how they might be fulfilled in a flexible way using different program models, and how the programming environment can help in making binding and scheduling decisions. The timing constraint primitives in Flex are easy to use yet powerful enough to define both independent and relative timing constraints. Program models like imprecise computation and performance polymorphism can carry out flexible real-time programs. In addition, programmers can use a performance measurement tool that produces statistically correct timing models to predict the expected execution time of a program and to help make binding decisions. A real-time programming environment is also presented.

  7. Designing a fuzzy scheduler for hard real-time systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, John; Lee, Jonathan; Pfluger, Nathan; Natarajan, Swami

    1992-01-01

    In hard real-time systems, tasks have to be performed not only correctly, but also in a timely fashion. If timing constraints are not met, there might be severe consequences. Task scheduling is the most important problem in designing a hard real-time system, because the scheduling algorithm ensures that tasks meet their deadlines. However, the inherent nature of uncertainty in dynamic hard real-time systems increases the problems inherent in scheduling. In an effort to alleviate these problems, we have developed a fuzzy scheduler to facilitate searching for a feasible schedule. A set of fuzzy rules are proposed to guide the search. The situation we are trying to address is the performance of the system when no feasible solution can be found, and therefore, certain tasks will not be executed. We wish to limit the number of important tasks that are not scheduled.

  8. Criticality: static profiling for real-time programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandner, Florian; Hepp, Stefan; Jordan, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing performance demand in real-time systems it becomes more and more important to provide feedback to programmers and software development tools on the performance-relevant code parts of a real-time program. So far, this information was limited to an estimation of the worst....... Experiments using well-established real-time benchmark programs show an interesting distribution of the criticality values, revealing considerable amounts of highly critical as well as uncritical code. The metric thus provides ideal information to programmers and software development tools to optimize...... view covering the entire code base, tools in the spirit of program profiling are required. This work proposes an efficient approach to compute worst-case timing information for all code parts of a program using a complementary metric, called criticality. Every statement of a program is assigned...

  9. Real time biometric surveillance with gait recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Subasish; Swain, Anisha; Das, Manaswini; Mohanty, Subhadarshini

    2018-04-01

    Bio metric surveillance has become indispensable for every system in the recent years. The contribution of bio metric authentication, identification, and screening purposes are widely used in various domains for preventing unauthorized access. A large amount of data needs to be updated, segregated and safeguarded from malicious software and misuse. Bio metrics is the intrinsic characteristics of each individual. Recently fingerprints, iris, passwords, unique keys, and cards are commonly used for authentication purposes. These methods have various issues related to security and confidentiality. These systems are not yet automated to provide the safety and security. The gait recognition system is the alternative for overcoming the drawbacks of the recent bio metric based authentication systems. Gait recognition is newer as it hasn't been implemented in the real-world scenario so far. This is an un-intrusive system that requires no knowledge or co-operation of the subject. Gait is a unique behavioral characteristic of every human being which is hard to imitate. The walking style of an individual teamed with the orientation of joints in the skeletal structure and inclinations between them imparts the unique characteristic. A person can alter one's own external appearance but not skeletal structure. These are real-time, automatic systems that can even process low-resolution images and video frames. In this paper, we have proposed a gait recognition system and compared the performance with conventional bio metric identification systems.

  10. Real-time control of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, B.; Sousa, J.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2010-01-01

    The next generation fusion experiments, e.g. ITER, will be highly complex and raise new challenges in the field of control and data acquisition systems. The more advanced operation scenarios have to be capable of sustaining long pulse steady-state plasma and to suppress plasma instabilities almost completely. Such scenarios will heavily rely on Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) fast control systems. To ensure safety for the operation these systems have to be robust and resilient to faults while ensuring high availability. Mindful of the importance of such features for future fusion experiments ATCA based systems have been successfully used in fusion experiment as MIMO fast controller. This is the most promising architecture to substantially enhance the performance and capability of existing standard systems delivering well high throughput as well as high availability. The real-time control needs of a fusion experiment, the rational for the presently pursued solutions, the existing problems and the broad scientific and technical questions that need to be addressed on the path to a fusion power plant will be discussed.

  11. Real-time ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katragadda, Gopichand; Nair, Satish; Liu, Harry; Brown, Lawrence M.

    1996-11-01

    Ultrasonic testing techniques are currently used as an alternative to radiography for detecting, classifying,and sizing weld defects, and for evaluating weld quality. Typically, ultrasonic weld inspections are performed manually, which require significant operator expertise and time. Thus, in recent years, the emphasis is to develop automated methods to aid or replace operators in critical weld inspections where inspection time, reliability, and operator safety are major issues. During this period, significant advances wee made in the areas of weld defect classification and sizing. Very few of these methods, however have found their way into the market, largely due to the lack of an integrated approach enabling real-time implementation. Also, not much research effort was directed in improving weld acceptance criteria. This paper presents an integrated system utilizing state-of-the-art techniques for a complete automation of the weld inspection procedure. The modules discussed include transducer tracking, classification, sizing, and weld acceptance criteria. Transducer tracking was studied by experimentally evaluating sonic and optical position tracking techniques. Details for this evaluation are presented. Classification is obtained using a multi-layer perceptron. Results from different feature extraction schemes, including a new method based on a combination of time and frequency-domain signal representations are given. Algorithms developed to automate defect registration and sizing are discussed. A fuzzy-logic acceptance criteria for weld acceptance is presented describing how this scheme provides improved robustness compared to the traditional flow-diagram standards.

  12. Near Real Time Ship Detection Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusch, S.; Lehner, S.; Schwarz, E.; Fritz, T.

    2010-04-01

    A new Near Real Time (NRT) ship detection processor SAINT (SAR AIS Integrated Toolbox) was developed in the framework of the ESA project MARISS. Data are received at DLRs ground segment DLR-BN (Neustrelitz, Germany). Results of the ship detection are available on ftp server within 30 min after the acquisition started. The detectability of ships on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ERS-2, ENVISAT ASAR and TerraSAR-X (TS-X) images is validated by coastal (live) AIS and space AIS. The monitoring areas chosen for surveillance are the North-, Baltic Sea, and Cape Town. The detectability in respect to environmental parameters like wind field, sea state, currents and changing coastlines due to tidal effects is investigated. In the South Atlantic a tracking experiment of the German research vessel Polarstern has been performed. Issues of piracy in particular in respect to ships hijacked at the Somali coast are discussed. Some examples using high resolution images from TerraSAR-X are given.

  13. Real-time scheduling of software tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, L.T.

    1995-01-01

    When designing real-time systems, it is often desirable to schedule execution of software tasks based on the occurrence of events. The events may be clock ticks, interrupts from a hardware device, or software signals from other software tasks. If the nature of the events, is well understood, this scheduling is normally a static part of the system design. If the nature of the events is not completely understood, or is expected to change over time, it may be necessary to provide a mechanism for adjusting the scheduling of the software tasks. RHIC front-end computers (FECs) provide such a mechanism. The goals in designing this mechanism were to be as independent as possible of the underlying operating system, to allow for future expansion of the mechanism to handle new types of events, and to allow easy configuration. Some considerations which steered the design were programming paradigm (object oriented vs. procedural), programming language, and whether events are merely interesting moments in time, or whether they intrinsically have data associated with them. The design also needed to address performance and robustness tradeoffs involving shared task contexts, task priorities, and use of interrupt service routine (ISR) contexts vs. task contexts. This paper will explore these considerations and tradeoffs

  14. Optimizing near real time accountability for reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipiti, Benjamin B.

    2010-01-01

    Near Real Time Accountability (NRTA) of actinides at high precision in reprocessing plants has been a long sought-after goal in the safeguards community. Achieving this goal is hampered by the difficulty of making precision measurements in the reprocessing environment, equipment cost, and impact to plant operations. Thus the design of future reprocessing plants requires an optimization of different approaches. The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model, developed at Sandia National Laboratories, was used to evaluate a number of NRTA strategies in a UREX+ reprocessing plant. Strategies examined include the incorporation of additional actinide measurements of internal plant vessels, more use of process monitoring data, and the option of periodic draining of inventory to key tanks. Preliminary results show that the addition of measurement technologies can increase the overall measurement uncertainty due to additional error propagation, so care must be taken when designing an advanced system. Initial results also show that relying on a combination of different NRTA techniques will likely be the best option. The model provides a platform for integrating all the data. The modeling results for the different NRTA options under various material loss conditions will be presented.

  15. REAL TIME SYSTEM OPERATIONS 2006-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Parashar, Manu; Lewis, Nancy Jo

    2008-08-15

    The Real Time System Operations (RTSO) 2006-2007 project focused on two parallel technical tasks: (1) Real-Time Applications of Phasors for Monitoring, Alarming and Control; and (2) Real-Time Voltage Security Assessment (RTVSA) Prototype Tool. The overall goal of the phasor applications project was to accelerate adoption and foster greater use of new, more accurate, time-synchronized phasor measurements by conducting research and prototyping applications on California ISO's phasor platform - Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System (RTDMS) -- that provide previously unavailable information on the dynamic stability of the grid. Feasibility assessment studies were conducted on potential application of this technology for small-signal stability monitoring, validating/improving existing stability nomograms, conducting frequency response analysis, and obtaining real-time sensitivity information on key metrics to assess grid stress. Based on study findings, prototype applications for real-time visualization and alarming, small-signal stability monitoring, measurement based sensitivity analysis and frequency response assessment were developed, factory- and field-tested at the California ISO and at BPA. The goal of the RTVSA project was to provide California ISO with a prototype voltage security assessment tool that runs in real time within California ISO?s new reliability and congestion management system. CERTS conducted a technical assessment of appropriate algorithms, developed a prototype incorporating state-of-art algorithms (such as the continuation power flow, direct method, boundary orbiting method, and hyperplanes) into a framework most suitable for an operations environment. Based on study findings, a functional specification was prepared, which the California ISO has since used to procure a production-quality tool that is now a part of a suite of advanced computational tools that is used by California ISO for reliability and congestion management.

  16. A real-time radar pulse signal detection method and its performance analysis%一种实时雷达脉冲信号检测算法及其性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 王旭东; 潘明海

    2012-01-01

    提出了一种新的实时雷达脉冲信号检测算法,该算法首先将数据分为两路,对一路进行单点滑动、取共轭,然后与另一路信号相乘,再累加、取模,最后与门限比较,得到检测结果.算法具有递推和流水结构,硬件实现时只需一个复数乘法器、一个复数加法器、一个复数减法器和一个复数取模运算器.在此采用一阶扰动分析,推导了算法起始点检测误差的解析式,给出了算法性能边界,仿真结果验证了理论推导的正确性.与其他信号检测算法相比,该算法结构规整,易于硬件应用,可实现实时检测.%A real-time radar pulse signal detection method is proposed. Firstly, two input data sequence are got by a demultiplexer, then taking conjugate and one point delay operation is applied to one of them. Secondly, multiplying these two sequence, accumulating the multiply result and outputting its complex magnitude. Finally, after comparing with a threshold, the detection result can be gained. Since the detection algorithm is very simple, the hardware can be designed using a small a-mount of circuitry, consisting of only 1 complex multiplier, 1 complex adder, 1 complex subtracter and 1 complex magnitude calculator. Therefore, it can realize the high-speed detection of target signals by constructing a pipeline architecture. The start-point estimation error is derived based upon first order purterbation analysis, and then the performance boundary of this method is presented. Simulation results confirm the derivation. Comparing with other radar pulse signal detection method, this proposed algorithm leads to clear and neat structure, good real-time and suitable for hardware implementation.

  17. A real-time architecture for time-aware agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouskas, Konstantinos-Vassileios; Pitt, Jeremy V

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes the specification and implementation of a new three-layer time-aware agent architecture. This architecture is designed for applications and environments where societies of humans and agents play equally active roles, but interact and operate in completely different time frames. The architecture consists of three layers: the April real-time run-time (ART) layer, the time aware layer (TAL), and the application agents layer (AAL). The ART layer forms the underlying real-time agent platform. An original online, real-time, dynamic priority-based scheduling algorithm is described for scheduling the computation time of agent processes, and it is shown that the algorithm's O(n) complexity and scalable performance are sufficient for application in real-time domains. The TAL layer forms an abstraction layer through which human and agent interactions are temporally unified, that is, handled in a common way irrespective of their temporal representation and scale. A novel O(n2) interaction scheduling algorithm is described for predicting and guaranteeing interactions' initiation and completion times. The time-aware predicting component of a workflow management system is also presented as an instance of the AAL layer. The described time-aware architecture addresses two key challenges in enabling agents to be effectively configured and applied in environments where humans and agents play equally active roles. It provides flexibility and adaptability in its real-time mechanisms while placing them under direct agent control, and it temporally unifies human and agent interactions.

  18. Upgrade of the COMPASS tokamak real-time control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janky, F., E-mail: filip.janky.work@gmail.com [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 18200 Prague (Czech Republic); Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic); Havlicek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 18200 Prague (Czech Republic); Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic); Batista, A.J.N. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Kudlacek, O.; Seidl, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 18200 Prague (Czech Republic); Neto, A.C. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Pipek, J.; Hron, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 18200 Prague (Czech Republic); Mikulin, O. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 18200 Prague (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic); and others

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • An upgrade of the COMPASS real-time system has been made to generally improve the plasma performance. • Stability of discharges in SNT configuration has been increased. • Plasma flat-top phase length has been extended. • Central solenoid protection has been developed. • Plasma position estimation has been improved. - Abstract: The COMPASS plasma control system is based on the MARTe real-time framework. Thanks to MARTe modularity and flexibility new algorithms have been developed for plasma diagnostic (plasma position calculation), control (shaping field control), and protection systems (central solenoid protection). Moreover, the MARTe framework itself was modified to broaden the communication capabilities via Aurora. This paper presents the recent upgrades and improvements made to the COMPASS real-time plasma control system, focusing on the issues related to precision of the real-time calculations, and discussing the improvements in terms of discharge parameters and stability. In particular, the new real-time system has given the possibility to analyze and to minimize the transport delays of each control loop.

  19. Simultaneous real-time monitoring of multiple cortical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Disha; Jeremy Hill, N; Brunner, Peter; Gunduz, Aysegul; Ritaccio, Anthony L; Schalk, Gerwin

    2014-10-01

    Real-time monitoring of the brain is potentially valuable for performance monitoring, communication, training or rehabilitation. In natural situations, the brain performs a complex mix of various sensory, motor or cognitive functions. Thus, real-time brain monitoring would be most valuable if (a) it could decode information from multiple brain systems simultaneously, and (b) this decoding of each brain system were robust to variations in the activity of other (unrelated) brain systems. Previous studies showed that it is possible to decode some information from different brain systems in retrospect and/or in isolation. In our study, we set out to determine whether it is possible to simultaneously decode important information about a user from different brain systems in real time, and to evaluate the impact of concurrent activity in different brain systems on decoding performance. We study these questions using electrocorticographic signals recorded in humans. We first document procedures for generating stable decoding models given little training data, and then report their use for offline and for real-time decoding from 12 subjects (six for offline parameter optimization, six for online experimentation). The subjects engage in tasks that involve movement intention, movement execution and auditory functions, separately, and then simultaneously. Main Results: Our real-time results demonstrate that our system can identify intention and movement periods in single trials with an accuracy of 80.4% and 86.8%, respectively (where 50% would be expected by chance). Simultaneously, the decoding of the power envelope of an auditory stimulus resulted in an average correlation coefficient of 0.37 between the actual and decoded power envelopes. These decoders were trained separately and executed simultaneously in real time. This study yielded the first demonstration that it is possible to decode simultaneously the functional activity of multiple independent brain systems. Our

  20. An advanced joint inversion system for CO2 storage modeling with large date sets for characterization and real-time monitoring-enhancing storage performance and reducing failure risks under uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitanidis, Peter [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2016-04-30

    As large-scale, commercial storage projects become operational, the problem of utilizing information from diverse sources becomes more critically important. In this project, we developed, tested, and applied an advanced joint data inversion system for CO2 storage modeling with large data sets for use in site characterization and real-time monitoring. Emphasis was on the development of advanced and efficient computational algorithms for joint inversion of hydro-geophysical data, coupled with state-of-the-art forward process simulations. The developed system consists of (1) inversion tools using characterization data, such as 3D seismic survey (amplitude images), borehole log and core data, as well as hydraulic, tracer and thermal tests before CO2 injection, (2) joint inversion tools for updating the geologic model with the distribution of rock properties, thus reducing uncertainty, using hydro-geophysical monitoring data, and (3) highly efficient algorithms for directly solving the dense or sparse linear algebra systems derived from the joint inversion. The system combines methods from stochastic analysis, fast linear algebra, and high performance computing. The developed joint inversion tools have been tested through synthetic CO2 storage examples.

  1. Real-time fMRI neurofeedback: Progress and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzer, J.; Haller, S.; Scharnowski, F.; Weiskopf, N.; Birbaumer, N.; Blefari, M.L.; Bruehl, A.B.; Cohen, L.G.; deCharms, R.C.; Gassert, R.; Goebel, R.; Herwig, U.; LaConte, S.; Linden, D.; Luft, A.; Seifritz, E.; Sitaram, R.

    2016-01-01

    In February of 2012, the first international conference on real time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) neurofeedback was held at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETHZ), Switzerland. This review summarizes progress in the field, introduces current debates, elucidates open questions, and offers viewpoints derived from the conference. The review offers perspectives on study design, scientific and clinical applications, rtfMRI learning mechanisms and future outlook. PMID:23541800

  2. Real-time position reconstruction with hippocampal place cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guger, Christoph; Gener, Thomas; Pennartz, Cyriel M A; Brotons-Mas, Jorge R; Edlinger, Günter; Bermúdez I Badia, S; Verschure, Paul; Schaffelhofer, Stefan; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V

    2011-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) are using the electroencephalogram, the electrocorticogram and trains of action potentials as inputs to analyze brain activity for communication purposes and/or the control of external devices. Thus far it is not known whether a BCI system can be developed that utilizes the states of brain structures that are situated well below the cortical surface, such as the hippocampus. In order to address this question we used the activity of hippocampal place cells (PCs) to predict the position of an rodent in real-time. First, spike activity was recorded from the hippocampus during foraging and analyzed off-line to optimize the spike sorting and position reconstruction algorithm of rats. Then the spike activity was recorded and analyzed in real-time. The rat was running in a box of 80 cm × 80 cm and its locomotor movement was captured with a video tracking system. Data were acquired to calculate the rat's trajectories and to identify place fields. Then a Bayesian classifier was trained to predict the position of the rat given its neural activity. This information was used in subsequent trials to predict the rat's position in real-time. The real-time experiments were successfully performed and yielded an error between 12.2 and 17.4% using 5-6 neurons. It must be noted here that the encoding step was done with data recorded before the real-time experiment and comparable accuracies between off-line (mean error of 15.9% for three rats) and real-time experiments (mean error of 14.7%) were achieved. The experiment shows proof of principle that position reconstruction can be done in real-time, that PCs were stable and spike sorting was robust enough to generalize from the training run to the real-time reconstruction phase of the experiment. Real-time reconstruction may be used for a variety of purposes, including creating behavioral-neuronal feedback loops or for implementing neuroprosthetic control.

  3. Testing of real-time-software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesland, G.; Ovenhausen, H.

    1975-05-01

    The situation in the area of testing real-time-software is unsatisfactory. During the first phase of the project PROMOTE (prozessorientiertes Modul- und Gesamttestsystem) an analysis of the momentary situation took place, results of which are summarized in the following study about some user interviews and an analysis of relevant literature. 22 users (industry, software-houses, hardware-manufacturers, and institutes) have been interviewed. Discussions were held about reliability of real-time software with special interest to error avoidance, testing, and debugging. Main aims of the analysis of the literature were elaboration of standard terms, comparison of existing test methods and -systems, and the definition of boundaries to related areas. During the further steps of this project some means and techniques will be worked out to systematically test real-time software. (orig.) [de

  4. Real-time computational photon-counting LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Matthew; Johnson, Steven; Phillips, David; Padgett, Miles

    2018-03-01

    The availability of compact, low-cost, and high-speed MEMS-based spatial light modulators has generated widespread interest in alternative sampling strategies for imaging systems utilizing single-pixel detectors. The development of compressed sensing schemes for real-time computational imaging may have promising commercial applications for high-performance detectors, where the availability of focal plane arrays is expensive or otherwise limited. We discuss the research and development of a prototype light detection and ranging (LiDAR) system via direct time of flight, which utilizes a single high-sensitivity photon-counting detector and fast-timing electronics to recover millimeter accuracy three-dimensional images in real time. The development of low-cost real time computational LiDAR systems could have importance for applications in security, defense, and autonomous vehicles.

  5. Evaluation of Real-time operating systems for FGC controls

    CERN Document Server

    Chalas, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Power Converter Control for various experiments at CERN, is con- ducted using a machine called Function Generator Controller. The cur- rent generation of FGCs being deployed is FGC3. A certain number of FGCs require very fast and precise control, and for these systems, there is uncertainty of whether the existing hardware will be able to provide the level of determinism required. I have worked in the CCS section as a summer student on a project to study the potential of ARM-based CPUs to provide a real time behaviour fit for a future high-performance FGC4. In this paper, i will present the results of my research into real-time vari- ants of Linux and other real-time operating systems on two different ARM CPUs.

  6. Real time capable infrared thermography for ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieglin, B., E-mail: Bernhard.Sieglin@ipp.mpg.de; Faitsch, M.; Herrmann, A.; Brucker, B.; Eich, T.; Kammerloher, L.; Martinov, S. [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Infrared (IR) thermography is widely used in fusion research to study power exhaust and incident heat load onto the plasma facing components. Due to the short pulse duration of today’s fusion experiments, IR systems have mostly been designed for off-line data analysis. For future long pulse devices (e.g., Wendelstein 7-X, ITER), a real time evaluation of the target temperature and heat flux is mandatory. This paper shows the development of a real time capable IR system for ASDEX Upgrade. A compact IR camera has been designed incorporating the necessary magnetic and electric shielding for the detector, cooler assembly. The camera communication is based on the Camera Link industry standard. The data acquisition hardware is based on National Instruments hardware, consisting of a PXIe chassis inside and a fibre optical connected industry computer outside the torus hall. Image processing and data evaluation are performed using real time LabVIEW.

  7. Real time equilibrium reconstruction for tokamak discharge control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferron, J.R.; Walker, M.L.; Lao, L.L.; St John, H.E.; Humphreys, D.A.; Leuer, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    A practical method for performing a tokamak equilibrium reconstruction in real time for arbitrary time varying discharge shapes and current profiles is described. An approximate solution to the Grad-Shafranov equilibrium relation is found which best fits the diagnostic measurements. Thus, a solution for the spatial distribution of poloidal flux and toroidal current density is available in real time that is consistent with plasma force balance, allowing accurate evaluation of parameters such as discharge shape and safety factor profile. The equilibrium solutions are produced at a rate sufficient for discharge control. This equilibrium reconstruction algorithm has been implemented on the digital plasma control system for the DIII-D tokamak. The first application of real time equilibrium reconstruction to discharge shape control is described. (author)

  8. Real-time simulation of large-scale floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q.; Qin, Y.; Li, G. D.; Liu, Z.; Cheng, D. J.; Zhao, Y. H.

    2016-08-01

    According to the complex real-time water situation, the real-time simulation of large-scale floods is very important for flood prevention practice. Model robustness and running efficiency are two critical factors in successful real-time flood simulation. This paper proposed a robust, two-dimensional, shallow water model based on the unstructured Godunov- type finite volume method. A robust wet/dry front method is used to enhance the numerical stability. An adaptive method is proposed to improve the running efficiency. The proposed model is used for large-scale flood simulation on real topography. Results compared to those of MIKE21 show the strong performance of the proposed model.

  9. A Contribution to Real-Time Experiments in Remote Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Janík

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on realization of hard real-time control of experiments in on-line laboratories. The presented solution utilizes already developed on-line laboratory portal that is based on open-source Scilab environment. The customized solution is based on Linux RTAI platform with RTAI-XML server, Comedi and jRTAILab with support of ScicosLab environment. It generates real-time executable code that is used to operate student experiments performed on Humusoft CE152 Magnetic Levitation plant.

  10. Real-time on a standard UNIX workstation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glanzman, T.

    1992-09-01

    This is a report of an ongoing R ampersand D project which is investigating the use of standard UNIX workstations for the real-time data acquisition from a major new experimental initiative, the SLAC B Factory (PEP II). For this work an IBM RS/6000 workstation running the AIX operating system is used. Real-time extensions to the UNIX operating system are explored and performance measured. These extensions comprise a set of AIX-specific and POSIX-compliant system services. Benchmark comparisons are made with embedded processor technologies. Results are presented for a simple prototype on-line system for laboratory-testing of a new prototype drift chamber

  11. Axial Tomography from Digitized Real Time Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnay, A. S.; McDonald, W. M.; Doupont, P. A.; McKinney, R. L.; Lee, M. M.

    1985-01-18

    Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.

  12. Replacing OSE with Real Time capable Linux

    OpenAIRE

    Boman, Simon; Rutgersson, Olof

    2009-01-01

    For many years OSE has been a common used operating system, with real time extensions enhancements, in embed-ded systems. But in the last decades, Linux has grown and became a competitor to common operating systems and, in recent years, even as an operating system with real time extensions. With this in mind, ÅF was interested in replacing the quite expensive OSE with some distribution of the open source based Linux on a PowerPC MPC8360. Therefore, our purpose with thesis is to implement Linu...

  13. SignalR real time application development

    CERN Document Server

    Ingebrigtsen, Einar

    2013-01-01

    This step-by-step guide gives you practical advice, tips, and tricks that will have you writing real-time apps quickly and easily.If you are a .NET developer who wants to be at the cutting edge of development, then this book is for you. Real-time application development is made simple in this guide, so as long as you have basic knowledge of .NET, a copy of Visual Studio, and NuGet installed, you are ready to go.

  14. Real-time systems scheduling 2 focuses

    CERN Document Server

    Chetto, Maryline

    2014-01-01

    Real-time systems are used in a wide range of applications, including control, sensing, multimedia, etc. Scheduling is a central problem for these computing/communication systems since it is responsible for software execution in a timely manner. This book, the second of two volumes on the subject, brings together knowledge on specific topics and discusses the recent advances for some of them.  It addresses foundations as well as the latest advances and findings in real-time scheduling, giving comprehensive references to important papers, but the chapters are short and not overloaded with co

  15. Real-time ISEE data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Baker, D. N.

    1979-01-01

    A real-time ISEE data system directed toward predicting geomagnetic substorms and storms is discussed. Such a system may allow up to 60+ minutes advance warning of magnetospheric substorms and up to 30 minute warnings of geomagnetic storms (and other disturbances) induced by high-speed streams and solar flares. The proposed system utilizes existing capabilities of several agencies (NASA, NOAA, USAF), and thereby minimizes costs. This same concept may be applicable to data from other spacecraft, and other NASA centers; thus, each individual experimenter can receive quick-look data in real time at his or her base institution.

  16. Mobile waste inspection real time radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.; Rael, C.; Martinez, F.; Mendez, J.

    1995-01-01

    The 450-KeV Mobile Real Time Radiography System was designed and purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Mobile Real Time Radiography System has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from 5-gal. buckets to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). The fact that this unit is mobile makes it an attractive alternative to the costly road closures associated with moving waste from the waste generator to storage or disposal facilities

  17. Real-time systems scheduling fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Chetto, Maryline

    2014-01-01

    Real-time systems are used in a wide range of applications, including control, sensing, multimedia, etc.  Scheduling is a central problem for these computing/communication systems since responsible of software execution in a timely manner. This book provides state of knowledge in this domain with special emphasis on the key results obtained within the last decade. This book addresses foundations as well as the latest advances and findings in Real-Time Scheduling, giving all references to important papers. But nevertheless the chapters will be short and not overloaded with confusing details.

  18. Automated real-time software development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Denise R.; Walker, Carrie K.; Turkovich, John J.

    1993-01-01

    A Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) system has been developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL) under the direction of the NASA Langley Research Center. The CSDL CASE tool provides an automated method of generating source code and hard copy documentation from functional application engineering specifications. The goal is to significantly reduce the cost of developing and maintaining real-time scientific and engineering software while increasing system reliability. This paper describes CSDL CASE and discusses demonstrations that used the tool to automatically generate real-time application code.

  19. Functional Fault Modeling Conventions and Practices for Real-Time Fault Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Bob; Lewis, Mark; Perotti, Jose; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Brown, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the conventions, best practices, and processes that were established based on the prototype development of a Functional Fault Model (FFM) for a Cryogenic System that would be used for real-time Fault Isolation in a Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR) system. The FDIR system is envisioned to perform health management functions for both a launch vehicle and the ground systems that support the vehicle during checkout and launch countdown by using a suite of complimentary software tools that alert operators to anomalies and failures in real-time. The FFMs were created offline but would eventually be used by a real-time reasoner to isolate faults in a Cryogenic System. Through their development and review, a set of modeling conventions and best practices were established. The prototype FFM development also provided a pathfinder for future FFM development processes. This paper documents the rationale and considerations for robust FFMs that can easily be transitioned to a real-time operating environment.

  20. Hardware Algorithms For Tile-Based Real-Time Rendering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crisu, D.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, we present the GRAphics AcceLerator (GRAAL) framework for developing embedded tile-based rasterization hardware for mobile devices, meant to accelerate real-time 3-D graphics (OpenGL compliant) applications. The goal of the framework is a low-cost, low-power, high-performance

  1. DRAM selection and configuration for real-time mobile systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomony, M.D.; Weis, C.; Akesson, K.B.; Wehn, N.; Goossens, K.G.W.

    2012-01-01

    The performance and power consumption of mobile DRAMs (LPDDRs) depend on the configuration of system-level parameters, such as operating frequency, interface width, request size, and memory map. In mobile systems running both realtime and non-real-time applications, the memory configuration must

  2. Real time traffic models, decision support for traffic management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, Luc Johannes Josephus; de Romph, E.; Friso, K.; Zantema, K.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and accurate short-term traffic state prediction can improve the performance of real-time traffic management systems significantly. Using this short-time prediction based on current measurements delivered by advanced surveillance systems will support decision-making processes on various

  3. Real Time Traffic Models, Decision Support for Traffic Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, L.; De Romph, E.; Friso, K.; Zantema, K.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and accurate short-term traffic state prediction can improve the performance of real-time traffic management systems significantly. Using this short-time prediction based on current measurements delivered by advanced surveillance systems will support decision-making processes on various

  4. ADL: a graphical design language for real time parallel applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. van Steen; T. Vogel; A. ten Dam

    1993-01-01

    textabstractDesigning parallel applications is generally experienced as a tedious and difficult task, especially when hard real-time performance requirements have to be met. This paper discusses on-going work concerning the construction of a Design Entry System which supports the design phase of

  5. Real-time resource allocation for tracking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satsangi, Y.; Whiteson, S.; Oliehoek, F.A.; Bouma, H.

    2017-01-01

    Automated tracking is key to many computer vision applications. However, many tracking systems struggle to perform in real-time due to the high computational cost of detecting people, especially in ultra high resolution images. We propose a new algorithm called PartiMax that greatly reduces this

  6. Validation of Magnetic Reconstruction Codes for Real-Time Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon, D.; Murari, A.; Boulbe, C.; Faugeras, B.; Blum, J.; Svensson, J.; Quilichini, T.; Gelfusa, M.

    2010-01-01

    The real-time reconstruction of the plasma magnetic equilibrium in a tokamak is a key point to access high-performance regimes. Indeed, the shape of the plasma current density profile is a direct output of the reconstruction and has a leading effect for reaching a steady-state high-performance regime of operation. The challenge is thus to develop real-time methods and algorithms that reconstruct the magnetic equilibrium from the perspective of using these outputs for feedback control purposes. In this paper the validation of the JET real-time equilibrium reconstruction codes using both a Bayesian approach and a full equilibrium solver named Equinox will be detailed, the comparison being performed with the off-line equilibrium code EFIT (equilibrium fitting) or the real-time boundary reconstruction code XLOC (X-point local expansion). In this way a significant database, a methodology, and a strategy for the validation are presented. The validation of the results has been performed using a validated database of 130 JET discharges with a large variety of magnetic configurations. Internal measurements like polarimetry and motional Stark effect have been also used for the Equinox validation including some magnetohydrodynamic signatures for the assessment of the reconstructed safety profile and current density. (authors)

  7. A Stack Cache for Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Nielsen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Real-time systems need time-predictable computing platforms to allowfor static analysis of the worst-case execution time. Caches are important for good performance, but data caches arehard to analyze for the worst-case execution time. Stack allocated data has different properties related...

  8. Scheduling and Communication Synthesis for Distributed Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul

    2000-01-01

    on aspects of scheduling and communication for embedded real-time systems. Special emphasis has been placed on the impact of the communication infrastructure and protocol on the overall system performance. The scheduling and communication strategies proposed are based on an abstract graph representation...

  9. Hard Real-Time Linux for Off-The-Shelf Multicore Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Radder, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    This document describes the research results that were obtained from the development of a real-time extension for the Linux operating system. The paper describes a full extension of the kernel, which enables hard real-time performance on a 64-bit x86 architecture. In the first part of this study, real-time systems are categorized and concepts of real-time operating systems are introduced to the reader. In addition, numerous well-known real-time operating systems are considered. QNX Neutrino, ...

  10. The evolution of real-time control systems at JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodyear, A.; Dorling, S.; Felton, R

    2001-07-01

    Real-time feedback control of the JET experiment is based upon a collection of diagnostics providing signals which are processed by various controllers that manipulate actuator parameters for plasma current, shape and heating. The real-time data network (RTDN) connects the diagnostic, controller and actuator systems to form a flexible feedback and protection system for plasma monitoring and control. The controllers are mainly VME systems based on the Motorola 680X0 (68K) processor with some computationally intensive systems utilising Texas Instruments TMS320C40 (C40) digital signal processors (DSP), though lately there has been a move towards PowerPC 750 based processors. The majority of 68K VME systems use VxWorks, a hard real time operating system. There is an ongoing requirement to improve the efficiency of the real-time control systems at JET. This is driven by a desire to either add more input signals, reduce the feedback cycle time or increase algorithm complexity. New technology has a major role to play in the upgrade of the real-time control systems but the novel redeployment of existing equipment can also be used to enhance performance. This paper examines the configuration of existing systems, both hardware and software, and how new technology can be gradually integrated without jeopardising the current functionality. The adoption of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) as the connection medium for the RTDN is key to the evolutional development of the control systems. The ATM network is extremely flexible to configure and benefits from low message latency and deterministic delivery time, essential properties for a real-time network. (author)

  11. Compiling models into real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormoy, J.L.; Cherriaux, F.; Ancelin, J.

    1992-08-01

    This paper presents an architecture for building real-time systems from models, and model-compiling techniques. This has been applied for building a real-time model-based monitoring system for nuclear plants, called KSE, which is currently being used in two plants in France. We describe how we used various artificial intelligence techniques for building it: a model-based approach, a logical model of its operation, a declarative implementation of these models, and original knowledge-compiling techniques for automatically generating the real-time expert system from those models. Some of those techniques have just been borrowed from the literature, but we had to modify or invent other techniques which simply did not exist. We also discuss two important problems, which are often underestimated in the artificial intelligence literature: size, and errors. Our architecture, which could be used in other applications, combines the advantages of the model-based approach with the efficiency requirements of real-time applications, while in general model-based approaches present serious drawbacks on this point

  12. Real-Time Operating System/360

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R. L.; Kopp, R. S.; Mueller, H. H.; Pollan, W. D.; Van Sant, B. W.; Weiler, P. W.

    1969-01-01

    RTOS has a cost savings advantage for real-time applications, such as those with random inputs requiring a flexible data routing facility, display systems simplified by a device independent interface language, and complex applications needing added storage protection and data queuing.

  13. Advances in Real-Time Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Samarjit

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains the lectures given in honor to Georg Farber as tribute to his contributions in the area of real-time and embedded systems. The chapters of many leading scientists cover a wide range of aspects, like robot or automotive vision systems or medical aspects.

  14. Refactoring Real-Time Java Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Thomsen, Bent; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2011-01-01

    Just like other software, Java profiles benefits from refactoring when they have been used and have evolved for some time. This paper presents a refactoring of the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ) and the Safety Critical Java (SCJ) profile (JSR-302). It highlights core concepts and makes...

  15. Collecting data in real time with postcards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yee, Kwang Chien; Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    Systems. These methods often involve cross-sectional, retrospective data collection. This paper describes the postcard method for prospective real-time data collection, both in paper format and electronic format. This paper then describes the results obtained using postcard techniques in Denmark...

  16. Studying Complex Interactions in Real Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The study of human behavior must take into account the social context, and real-time, networked experiments with multiple participants is one increasingly popular way to achieve this. In this paper a framework based on Python and XMPP is presented that aims to make it easy to develop...

  17. Feedback as Real-Time Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a re-description of feedback and the significance of time in feedback constructions based on systems theory. It describes feedback as internal, real-time constructions in a learning system. From this perspective, feedback is neither immediate nor delayed, but occurs in the very moment it takes place. This article argues for a…

  18. Interactive Real-time Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Lau

    seeks to implement and assess existing reconstruction algorithms using multi-processors of modern graphics cards and many-core computer processors and to cover some of the potential clinical applications which might benefit from using an interactive real-time MRI system. First an off...

  19. Real-time PCR gene expression profiling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubista, Mikael; Sjögreen, B.; Forootan, A.; Šindelka, Radek; Jonák, Jiří; Andrade, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1, - (2007), s. 56-60 ISSN 1360-8606 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB500520601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : real - time PCR, * expression profiling * statistical analysis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  20. Real Time Grid Reliability Management 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joe; Eto, Joe; Lesieutre, Bernard; Lewis, Nancy Jo; Parashar, Manu

    2008-07-07

    The increased need to manage California?s electricity grid in real time is a result of the ongoing transition from a system operated by vertically-integrated utilities serving native loads to one operated by an independent system operator supporting competitive energy markets. During this transition period, the traditional approach to reliability management -- construction of new transmission lines -- has not been pursued due to unresolved issues related to the financing and recovery of transmission project costs. In the absence of investments in new transmission infrastructure, the best strategy for managing reliability is to equip system operators with better real-time information about actual operating margins so that they can better understand and manage the risk of operating closer to the edge. A companion strategy is to address known deficiencies in offline modeling tools that are needed to ground the use of improved real-time tools. This project: (1) developed and conducted first-ever demonstrations of two prototype real-time software tools for voltage security assessment and phasor monitoring; and (2) prepared a scoping study on improving load and generator response models. Additional funding through two separate subsequent work authorizations has already been provided to build upon the work initiated in this project.

  1. Model Checking Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouyer, Patricia; Fahrenberg, Uli; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2018-01-01

    This chapter surveys timed automata as a formalism for model checking real-time systems. We begin with introducing the model, as an extension of finite-state automata with real-valued variables for measuring time. We then present the main model-checking results in this framework, and give a hint...

  2. Testing Real-Time Systems Using UPPAAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Anders; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mikucionis, Marius

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents principles and techniques for model-based black-box conformance testing of real-time systems using the Uppaal model-checking tool-suite. The basis for testing is given as a network of concurrent timed automata specified by the test engineer. Relativized input...

  3. Temporal logics and real time expert systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces temporal logics. Due to the eternal compromise between expressive adequacy and reasoning efficiency that must decided upon in any application, full (first order logic or modal logic based) temporal logics are frequently not suitable. This is especially true in real time expert

  4. Ray Tracing for Real-time Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes efficient rendering algorithms based on ray tracing, and the application of these algorithms to real-time games. Compared to rasterizationbased approaches, rendering based on ray tracing allows elegant and correct simulation of important global effects, such as shadows,

  5. Compiling models into real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormoy, J.L.; Cherriaux, F.; Ancelin, J.

    1992-08-01

    This paper presents an architecture for building real-time systems from models, and model-compiling techniques. This has been applied for building a real-time model-base monitoring system for nuclear plants, called KSE, which is currently being used in two plants in France. We describe how we used various artificial intelligence techniques for building it: a model-based approach, a logical model of its operation, a declarative implementation of these models, and original knowledge-compiling techniques for automatically generating the real-time expert system from those models. Some of those techniques have just been borrowed from the literature, but we had to modify or invent other techniques which simply did not exist. We also discuss two important problems, which are often underestimated in the artificial intelligence literature: size, and errors. Our architecture, which could be used in other applications, combines the advantages of the model-based approach with the efficiency requirements of real-time applications, while in general model-based approaches present serious drawbacks on this point

  6. Scene independent real-time indirect illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Christensen, Niels Jørgen; Falster, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A novel method for real-time simulation of indirect illumination is presented in this paper. The method, which we call Direct Radiance Mapping (DRM), is based on basal radiance calculations and does not impose any restrictions on scene geometry or dynamics. This makes the method tractable for rea...

  7. Composing Synchronisation and Real-Time Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Lodewijk; Aksit, Mehmet

    There have been a number of publications illustrating the successes of object-oriented techniques in creating highly reusable software systems. Several concurrent languages have been proposed for specifying reusable synchronization specifications. Recently, a number of real-time object-oriented

  8. The FireWork air quality forecast system with near-real-time biomass burning emissions: Recent developments and evaluation of performance for the 2015 North American wildfire season

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovic, Radenko; Chen, Jack; Anderson, Kerry; Moran, Michael D.; Beaulieu, Paul-Andr?; Davignon, Didier; Cousineau, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Environment and Climate Change Canada?s FireWork air quality (AQ) forecast system for North America with near-real-time biomass burning emissions has been running experimentally during the Canadian wildfire season since 2013. The system runs twice per day with model initializations at 00 UTC and 12 UTC, and produces numerical AQ forecast guidance with 48-hr lead time. In this work we describe the FireWork system, which incorporates near-real-time biomass burning emissions based on th...

  9. Concepts of real time and semi-real time material control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovett, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief consideration of the traditional material balance accounting on an MBA basis, this paper explores the basic concepts of real time and semi-real time material control, together with some of the major problems to be solved. Three types of short-term material control are discussed: storage, batch processing, and continuous processing. (DLC)

  10. Analytic performance studies and clinical reproducibility of a real-time PCR assay for the detection of epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutations in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Donnell, Patrick; Shieh, Felice; Wei, Wen; Lawrence, H Jeffrey; Wu, Lin; Schilling, Robert; Bloom, Kenneth; Maltzman, Warren; Anderson, Steven; Soviero, Stephen; Ferguson, Jane; Shyu, Johnny; Current, Robert; Rehage, Taraneh; Tsai, Julie; Christensen, Mari; Tran, Ha Bich; Chien, Sean Shih-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations identify patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have a high likelihood of benefiting from treatment with anti-EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Sanger sequencing is widely used for mutation detection but can be technically challenging, resulting in longer turn-around-time, with limited sensitivity for low levels of mutations. This manuscript details the technical performance verification studies and external clinical reproducibility studies of the cobas EGFR Mutation Test, a rapid multiplex real-time PCR assay designed to detect 41 mutations in exons 18, 19, 20 and 21. The assay’s limit of detection was determined using 25 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPET)-derived and plasmid DNA blends. Assay performance for a panel of 201 specimens was compared against Sanger sequencing with resolution of discordant specimens by quantitative massively parallel pyrosequencing (MPP). Internal and external reproducibility was assessed using specimens tested in duplicate by different operators, using different reagent lots, instruments and at different sites. The effects on the performance of the cobas EGFR test of endogenous substances and nine therapeutic drugs were evaluated in ten FFPET specimens. Other tests included an evaluation of the effects of necrosis, micro-organisms and homologous DNA sequences on assay performance, and the inclusivity of the assay for less frequent mutations. A >95% hit rate was obtained in blends with >5% mutant alleles, as determined by MPP analysis, at a total DNA input of 150 ng. The overall percent agreement between Sanger sequencing and the cobas test was 96.7% (negative percent agreement 97.5%; positive percent agreement 95.8%). Assay repeatability was 98% when tested with two operators, instruments, and reagent lots. In the external reproducibility study, the agreement was > 99% across all sites, all operators and all reagent lots for 11/12 tumors tested. Test

  11. Environmental performance reviews. Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This review of Estonia is the first environmental performance review (EPR) carried out under the auspices of the ECE Committee on Environmental Policy. This pilot ECE study builds, inter alia, on the experience gained in the preparation of pilot environmental performance reviews of Poland and Bulgaria, which were carried out in 1994-1995 by OECD in cooperation with ECE. The report focuses on capacity building; air, water, waste, and nature management; the integration of environmental and economic policies both generally and more specifically within the energy sector; and cooperation of Estonia with the international community. The review examines the current situation, recent and likely future trends, pressures, policy responses and their effectiveness. The principal conclusions and recommendations for improving Estonia's environmental performance are brought together in the concluding chapter.

  12. Leveraging GIS in a real-time data environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemeth, D.B. [Panhandle Energy, Houston, TX, (United States); Spangler, J. [Global Information Systems, Kearney, MO (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed a project to integrate Gas Control (GC) with a Geographic Information System (GIS) for meeting asset, schematic, and mapping needs. The new system allows maps to be updated accurately and in real time, thereby avoiding first-flow delays. This is a substantial improvement over the previous system, in which maps were updated annually. GC users required a greater depth of data, the authority of update data and send commands, and viewing capability for real-time values for flow and pressure, with multiple concurrent views of the system and near constant availability of views and data. GC users needed to be able to see asset attributes with real-time values; send commands to facilities/equipment to control product flow; coordinate with asset management teams to control product flow; and have strict data/quality control processes. The project team defined and refined the system requirements, reviewed technologies that could be leveraged into a solution, provided data clean-up/migration services to supplement the GIS database with additional data needed for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA), and created overlays of pipe information for map viewing annotated with real-time data readings/asset information. Detailed schematics were presented for the data flow migration. The project resulted in the completed data capture process to supplement GIS asset data for the 5,000-mile Florida Gas Transmission (FGT) system, the completed clean-up of network and schematic diagrams, and the linking of real-time operations data for FGT. The presentation concluded with a discussion regarding opportunities for improvement to the user interface. 24 figs.

  13. Integrating Real-time Earthquakes into Natural Hazard Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, K. P.; Benz, H. M.; Whitlock, J. S.; Bittenbinder, A. N.; Bogaert, B. B.

    2001-12-01

    Natural hazard courses are playing an increasingly important role in college and university earth science curricula. Students' intrinsic curiosity about the subject and the potential to make the course relevant to the interests of both science and non-science students make natural hazards courses popular additions to a department's offerings. However, one vital aspect of "real-life" natural hazard management that has not translated well into the classroom is the real-time nature of both events and response. The lack of a way to entrain students into the event/response mode has made implementing such real-time activities into classroom activities problematic. Although a variety of web sites provide near real-time postings of natural hazards, students essentially learn of the event after the fact. This is particularly true for earthquakes and other events with few precursors. As a result, the "time factor" and personal responsibility associated with natural hazard response is lost to the students. We have integrated the real-time aspects of earthquake response into two natural hazard courses at Penn State (a 'general education' course for non-science majors, and an upper-level course for science majors) by implementing a modification of the USGS Earthworm system. The Earthworm Database Management System (E-DBMS) catalogs current global seismic activity. It provides earthquake professionals with real-time email/cell phone alerts of global seismic activity and access to the data for review/revision purposes. We have modified this system so that real-time response can be used to address specific scientific, policy, and social questions in our classes. As a prototype of using the E-DBMS in courses, we have established an Earthworm server at Penn State. This server receives national and global seismic network data and, in turn, transmits the tailored alerts to "on-duty" students (e-mail, pager/cell phone notification). These students are responsible to react to the alarm

  14. Real-time ISEE data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurutani, B.T.; Baker, D.N.

    1979-01-01

    Prediction of geomagnetic substorms and storms would be of great scientific and commercial interest. A real-time ISEE data system directed toward this purpose is discussed in detail. Such a system may allow up to 60+ minutes advance warning of magnetospheric substorms and up to 30 minute warnings of geomagnetic storms (and other disturbances) induced by high-speed streams and solar flares. The proposed system utilizes existing capabilities of several agencies (NASA, NOAA, USAF), and thereby minimizes costs. This same concept may be applicable to data from other spacecraft, and other NASA centers; thus, each individual experimenter can receive quick-look data in real time at his or her base institution. 6 figures, 1 table

  15. Real time animation of space plasma phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, K.F.; Greenstadt, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    In pursuit of real time animation of computer simulated space plasma phenomena, the code was rewritten for the Massively Parallel Processor (MPP). The program creates a dynamic representation of the global bowshock which is based on actual spacecraft data and designed for three dimensional graphic output. This output consists of time slice sequences which make up the frames of the animation. With the MPP, 16384, 512 or 4 frames can be calculated simultaneously depending upon which characteristic is being computed. The run time was greatly reduced which promotes the rapid sequence of images and makes real time animation a foreseeable goal. The addition of more complex phenomenology in the constructed computer images is now possible and work proceeds to generate these images

  16. Real Time Radiation Monitoring Using Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing (Inventor); Hanratty, James J. (Inventor); Wilkins, Richard T. (Inventor); Lu, Yijiang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    System and method for monitoring receipt and estimating flux value, in real time, of incident radiation, using two or more nanostructures (NSs) and associated terminals to provide closed electrical paths and to measure one or more electrical property change values .DELTA.EPV, associated with irradiated NSs, during a sequence of irradiation time intervals. Effects of irradiation, without healing and with healing, of the NSs, are separately modeled for first order and second order healing. Change values.DELTA.EPV are related to flux, to cumulative dose received by NSs, and to radiation and healing effectivity parameters and/or.mu., associated with the NS material and to the flux. Flux and/or dose are estimated in real time, based on EPV change values, using measured .DELTA.EPV values. Threshold dose for specified changes of biological origin (usually undesired) can be estimated. Effects of time-dependent radiation flux are analyzed in pre-healing and healing regimes.

  17. Real time gamma-ray signature identifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Mark [Alamo, CA; Gosnell, Tom B [Moraga, CA; Ham, Cheryl [Livermore, CA; Perkins, Dwight [Livermore, CA; Wong, James [Dublin, CA

    2012-05-15

    A real time gamma-ray signature/source identification method and system using principal components analysis (PCA) for transforming and substantially reducing one or more comprehensive spectral libraries of nuclear materials types and configurations into a corresponding concise representation/signature(s) representing and indexing each individual predetermined spectrum in principal component (PC) space, wherein an unknown gamma-ray signature may be compared against the representative signature to find a match or at least characterize the unknown signature from among all the entries in the library with a single regression or simple projection into the PC space, so as to substantially reduce processing time and computing resources and enable real-time characterization and/or identification.

  18. Real time automatic discriminating of ultrasonic flaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhairy Sani; Mohd Hanif Md Saad; Marzuki Mustafa; Mohd Redzwan Rosli

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the real time automatic discriminating of flaws from two categories; i. cracks (planar defect) and ii. Non-cracks (volumetric defect such as cluster porosity and slag) using pulse-echo ultrasound. The raw ultrasonic flaws signal were collected from a computerized robotic plane scanning system over the whole of each reflector as the primary source of data. The signal is then filtered and the analysis in both time and frequency domain were executed to obtain the selected feature. The real time feature analysis techniques measured the number of peaks, maximum index, pulse duration, rise time and fall time. The obtained features could be used to distinguish between quantitatively classified flaws by using various tools in artificial intelligence such as neural networks. The proposed algorithm and complete system were implemented in a computer software developed using Microsoft Visual BASIC 6.0 (author)

  19. Real-time imaging of quantum entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickler, Robert; Krenn, Mario; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Ramelow, Sven; Zeilinger, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Entanglement is widely regarded as one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics and quantum information science. Although, photonic entanglement is routinely studied in many experiments nowadays, its signature has been out of the grasp for real-time imaging. Here we show that modern technology, namely triggered intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) cameras are fast and sensitive enough to image in real-time the effect of the measurement of one photon on its entangled partner. To quantitatively verify the non-classicality of the measurements we determine the detected photon number and error margin from the registered intensity image within a certain region. Additionally, the use of the ICCD camera allows us to demonstrate the high flexibility of the setup in creating any desired spatial-mode entanglement, which suggests as well that visual imaging in quantum optics not only provides a better intuitive understanding of entanglement but will improve applications of quantum science.

  20. Real-time control using open source RTOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Philip C.; Johnson, Richard L., Jr.

    2002-12-01

    Complex telescope systems such as interferometers tend to rely heavily on hard real-time operating systems (RTOS). It has been standard practice at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and many other institutions to use costly commercial RTOSs and hardware. After developing a real-time toolkit for VxWorks on the PowerPC platform (dubbed RTC), the interferometry group at JPL is porting this code to the real-time Application Interface (RTAI), an open source RTOS that is essentially an extension to the Linux kernel. This port has the potential to reduce software and hardware costs for future projects, while increasing the level of performance. The goals of this paper are to briefly describe the RTC toolkit, highlight the successes and pitfalls of porting the toolkit from VxWorks to Linux-RTAI, and to discuss future enhancements that will be implemented as a direct result of this port. The first port of any body of code is always the most difficult since it uncovers the OS-specific calls and forces "red flags" into those portions of the code. For this reason, It has also been a huge benefit that the project chose a generic, platform independent OS extension, ACE, and its CORBA counterpart, TAO. This port of RTC will pave the way for conversions to other environments, the most interesting of which is a non-real-time simulation environment, currently being considered by the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) and the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) Projects.