WorldWideScience

Sample records for review ofadvanced applications

  1. Trends in Energy Management Technology - Part 4: Review ofAdvanced Applications in Energy Management, Control, and InformationSystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Gaymond; Webster, Tom

    2003-08-01

    In this article, the fourth in a series, we provide a review of advanced applications in Energy Management, Control, and Information Systems (EMCIS). The available features for these products are summarized and analyzed with regard to emerging trends in EMCIS and potential benefits to the Federal sector. The first article [1] covered enabling technologies for emerging energy management systems. The second article [2] serves as a basic reference for building control system (BCS) networking fundamentals and includes an assessment of current approaches to open communications. The third article [3] evaluated several products that exemplify the current state of practice in EMCIS. It is important for energy managers in the Federal sector to have a high level of knowledge and understanding of these complex energy management systems. This series of articles provides energy practitioners with some basic informational and educational tools to help make decisions relative to energy management systems design, specification, procurement, and energy savings potential.

  2. Biomedical applications of nanodiamond (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcheniuk, K.; Mochalin, Vadym N.

    2017-06-01

    The interest in nanodiamond applications in biology and medicine is on the rise over recent years. This is due to the unique combination of properties that nanodiamond provides. Small size (∼5 nm), low cost, scalable production, negligible toxicity, chemical inertness of diamond core and rich chemistry of nanodiamond surface, as well as bright and robust fluorescence resistant to photobleaching are the distinct parameters that render nanodiamond superior to any other nanomaterial when it comes to biomedical applications. The most exciting recent results have been related to the use of nanodiamonds for drug delivery and diagnostics—two components of a quickly growing area of biomedical research dubbed theranostics. However, nanodiamond offers much more in addition: it can be used to produce biodegradable bone surgery devices, tissue engineering scaffolds, kill drug resistant microbes, help us to fight viruses, and deliver genetic material into cell nucleus. All these exciting opportunities require an in-depth understanding of nanodiamond. This review covers the recent progress as well as general trends in biomedical applications of nanodiamond, and underlines the importance of purification, characterization, and rational modification of this nanomaterial when designing nanodiamond based theranostic platforms.

  3. 43 CFR 36.5 - Application review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application review. 36.5 Section 36.5... ACROSS, AND ACCESS INTO, CONSERVATION SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA § 36.5 Application review. (a) When there is... the purpose of coordinating appropriate Federal agency actions in the review and processing of the SF...

  4. 48 CFR 519.7011 - Application review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS GSA Mentor-Protégé Program 519.7011 Application review. (a) The... of the application. The contracting officer must provide feedback to the Program Manager no later...

  5. Grant Application Development, Submission, Review, & Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    This infographic shows the National Cancer Institute general timeline progression through Grant Application Development, Submission, Review, and Award Infographic. In the first month, Applicant prepares and submits Grant Application to Grants.gov in response to FOA. In month two, The Center for Scientific Review (CSR) assigns applications that fall under the category of R01s, etc. to a Scientific Review Group (SRG) or the CSR assigns applications that fall under the category of Program Projects and Center Grants to NCI Division of Extramural Activities (DEA). Months four through five: First-level review by Scientific Review Group (SRG) for Scientific Merit: SRG assigns Impact Scores. Month five Summary Sstatements are prepared and are available to NCI Program staff and applicants. Month six, second-level review by National Cancer Advisory board (NCAB) for NCI Funding determination begins. NCAB makes recommendation to NCI Director, NCI develops funding plan, Applications selected for Funding, “Paylists” forwarded to Office of Grant Administration (OGA). Month ten, Award Negotiations and Issuance: Award issued, Award received by Institution, and Investigator begins work. www.cancer.gov Icons made by Freepik from http://www.flaticon.com is licensed by CC BY3.0

  6. Review process for license renewal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, John W.; Kuo, P.T.

    1991-01-01

    In preparation for license renewal reviews, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has recently published for public review and comment a proposed rule for license renewal and a draft Standard Review Plan as well as a draft Regulatory Guide relating to the implementation of the proposed rule. In support of future license renewal applications, the nuclear industry has also submitted 11 industry reports for NRC review and approval. This paper briefly describe how these parallel regulatory and industry activities will be factored into the NRC review process for license renewal. (author)

  7. Applications of Entropy in Finance: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanqun Tong

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the concept of entropy is originated from thermodynamics, its concepts and relevant principles, especially the principles of maximum entropy and minimum cross-entropy, have been extensively applied in finance. In this paper, we review the concepts and principles of entropy, as well as their applications in the field of finance, especially in portfolio selection and asset pricing. Furthermore, we review the effects of the applications of entropy and compare them with other traditional and new methods.

  8. Pulse Holography: Review Of Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigielski, Paul

    1990-04-01

    Pulse Holography includes studies concerning time-varying phase objects as well as time-varying reflective objects involving the use of pulse ruby- and YAG-lasers. The paper is divided in two parts. One part concerns the direct use of 3-1) images reconstructed from holograms, i.e. applications to particle size analysis, 3-I) velocity measurements, 3-I) cinematography ... The second part describes applications using holographic interferometry in laboratory or in an industrial environment, i.e. applications to fluid mechanics, vibration analysis, non-destructive testing ... Recent developments including interferornetric cineholography, fiber optics, measurement of non-interferometric displacements ... , are also described. The future of holography depends to a great extent on data processing and interpretation of informations contained in holograms or holographic intericrograms. Therefore, we give the state of art in this field in Europe illustrated with some industrial applications.

  9. Review of magnetohydrodynamic pump applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Al-Habahbeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD principle is an important interdisciplinary field. One of the most important applications of this effect is pumping of materials that are hard to pump using conventional pumps. In this work, the progress achieved in this field is surveyed and organized according to the type of application. The literature of the past 27 years is searched for the major developments of MHD applications. MHD seawater thrusters are promising for a variety of applications requiring high flow rates and velocity. MHD molten metal pump is important replacement to conventional pumps because their moving parts cannot stand the molten metal temperature. MHD molten salt pump is used for nuclear reactor coolants due to its no-moving-parts feature. Nanofluid MHD pumping is a promising technology especially for bioapplications. Advantages of MHD include silence due to no-moving-parts propulsion. Much progress has been made, but with MHD pump still not suitable for wider applications, this remains a fertile area for future research.

  10. Regulatory Review of Early Site Permit Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has received and is reviewing three applications for early site permits (ESPs). The ESP process allows early resolution of site-related issues affecting possible construction and operation of a new nuclear power plant. The nuclear industry views a successful and predictable ESP process as an important step in assessing whether to seek authorization to construct and operate a new generation of nuclear power reactors in the United States. Because consideration of ESP applications is a first-of-a-kind activity, a number of issues have emerged prior to and during the reviews of the first three applications. Issues have included the need for design information at the ESP stage, accident analyses, quality assurance, and seismic analyses. The NRC has been working to resolve identified issues to support a Commission decision on whether to issue an ESP approximately 33-37 months after receipt of each ESP application. (authors)

  11. Ceramics for Dental Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. Holloway

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past forty years, the technological evolution of ceramics for dental applications has been remarkable, as new materials and processing techniques are steadily being introduced. The improvement in both strength and toughness has made it possible to expand the range of indications to long-span fixed partial prostheses, implant abutments and implants. The present review provides a state of the art of ceramics for dental applications.

  12. Microcomputer applications for NSSS data package review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, D.J.; Smith, F.M.

    1984-01-01

    Associated with each component of a Nuclear Steam Supply System are the necessary supporting documents which demonstrate compliance with applicable codes, specifications and design criteria. The documents are grouped into individual data packages, and may exceed 800 in number for a major installation. A complete review, initiated by a utility in response to federal code regulations (10 CFR 50), can involve a tremendous number of review transactions. A data management system to assist the reviewer in the tracking and resolution of discrepancy items is currently under development and use. The system uses microcomputer-based relational database management software and provides complete and flexible capabilities to process database components and attributes based on user specified criteria. The completed database is a ''portable'' system, and can be utilized on an as-needed basis after the review is completed. A discrepancy analysis is performed to identify relations between manufacturer and discrepancy occurrence, part type vs. discrepancy type, etc. These results may prove useful in subsequent reviews or application to existing QA procedures

  13. Medical imaging technology reviews and computational applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dewi, Dyah

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the latest research findings and reviews in the field of medical imaging technology, covering ultrasound diagnostics approaches for detecting osteoarthritis, breast carcinoma and cardiovascular conditions, image guided biopsy and segmentation techniques for detecting lung cancer, image fusion, and simulating fluid flows for cardiovascular applications. It offers a useful guide for students, lecturers and professional researchers in the fields of biomedical engineering and image processing.

  14. Health related smartphone applications: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis Stergiannis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The rapid evolution of technology, has offered access to a variety of applications and technologies to healthcare professionals. New operating systems developed in the field of mobile devices revolutionized the way in which they are used. One of the main features offered by advanced software of a smartphone is the user’s access to a wealth of new, impressive applications across several operating systems for smartphones. The health related applications provided through smartphones, promote more active involvement of patients and healthcare professionals to provided care and are a new tool for improving health. The purpose of this abstract paper or article was to refer to applications currently used in the health sector, indicating specific capabilities they offer through review of electronic literature, focusing on scientific articles published in databases (PubMed, Scopus, etc. referring to the potentials they offer. It seems that several health related applications have been developed, that can be classified into two main categories. One category comprises applications that are informative, i.e. provide information to the user about health issues, allowing a person to read, gather resources to make decisions, but also to introduce its own data. These applications are mostly used by health care professionals. The second major category of applications refers to those related to help with the diagnosis, treatment and decision-making on various health related issues and in some cases take the form of consultancy, substituting the health care professional. As technology advances, the development of new health related applications is expected, specialized, with new features. Finally, the use of such applications by health care professionals is essential.

  15. Future superconductivity applications in space - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishen, Kumar; Ignatiev, Alex

    High temperature superconductor (HISC) materials and devices can provide immediate applications for many space missions. The in-space thermal environment provides an opportunity to develop, test, and apply this technology to enhance performance and reliability for many applications of crucial importance to NASA. Specifically, the technology development areas include: (1) high current power transmission, (2) microwave components, devices, and antennas, (3) microwave, optical, and infrared sensors, (4) signal processors, (5) submillimeter wave components and systems, (6) ultra stable space clocks, (7) electromagnetic launch systems, and (8) accelerometers and position sensors for flight operations. HTSC is expected to impact NASA's Lunar Bases, Mars exploration, Mission to Earth, and Planetary exploration programs providing enabling and cost-effect technology. A review of the space applications of the HTSC technology is presented. Problem areas in technology development needing special attention are identified.

  16. Nanotechnology applications in urology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Michael; Liu, James; Mandava, Sree Harsha; Callaghan, Cameron; John, Vijay; Lee, Benjamin R

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this review are to discuss the current literature and summarise some of the promising areas with which nanotechnology may improve urological care. A Medline literature search was performed to elucidate all relevant studies of nanotechnology with specific attention to its application in urology. Urological applications of nanotechnology include its use in medical imaging, gene therapy, drug delivery, and photothermal ablation of tumours. In vitro and animal studies have shown initial encouraging results. Further study of nanotechnology for urological applications is warranted to bridge the gap between preclinical studies and translation into clinical practice, but nanomedicine has shown significant potential to improve urological patient care. © 2014 The Authors. BJU International © 2014 BJU International.

  17. Bioadhesives for internal medical applications: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenzhen; Chuah, Yon Jin; Wang, Dong-An

    2018-04-22

    Bioadhesives such as tissue adhesives, hemostatic agents, and tissue sealants have gained increasing popularity in different areas of clinical operations during the last three decades. Bioadhesives can be categorized into internal and external ones according to their application conditions. External bioadhesives are generally applied in topical medications such as wound closure and epidermal grafting. Internal bioadhesives are mainly used in intracorporal conditions with direct contact to internal environment including tissues, organs and body fluids, such as chronic organ leak repair and bleeding complication reduction. This review focuses on internal bioadhesives that, in contrast with external bioadhesives, emphasize much more on biocompatibility and adhesive ability to wet surfaces rather than on gluing time and intensity. The crosslinking mechanisms of present internal bioadhesives can be generally classified as follows: 1) chemical conjugation between reactive groups; 2) free radical polymerization by light or redox initiation; 3) biological or biochemical coupling with specificity; and 4) biomimetic adhesion inspired from natural phenomena. In this review, bioadhesive products of each class are summarized and discussed by comparing their designs, features, and applications as well as their prospects for future development. Despite the emergence of numerous novel bioadhesive formulations in recent years, thus far, the classification of internal and external bioadhesives has not been well defined and universally acknowledged. Many of the formulations have been proposed for treatment of several diseases even though they are not applicable for such conditions. This is because of the lack of a systematic standard or evaluation protocol during the development of a new adhesive product. In this review, the definition of internal and external bioadhesives is given for the first time, and with a focus on internal bioadhesives, the criteria of an ideal internal

  18. Acoustic emission: technical review for PWR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, P.G.

    1981-07-01

    Acoustic emission has been studied since the early 1960's, particularly with a view to periodic or continuous monitoring of steel pressure vessels. In the years 1970-75 it was realised that ductile steels, used in nuclear vessels, give small amplitude signals which are barely detectable by available instruments. The technique for application in periodic or continuous monitoring and also as applied to leak detection and weld fabrication monitoring is reviewed. It is concluded that manufacturing defects may be detectable during pre-service hydrotest, but that there is insufficient evidence on which to base an estimate of detection probability. In-service hydrotest or continuous monitoring is unlikely to detect growing cracks because of the quiet nature of the material and the noisy reactor background. Both leak detection and fabrication weld monitoring show some promise of successful application in the future. (author)

  19. A Review of Antennas for Picosatellite Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Halim Lokman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cube Satellite (CubeSat technology is an attractive emerging alternative to conventional satellites in radio astronomy, earth observation, weather forecasting, space research, and communications. Its size, however, poses a more challenging restriction on the circuitry and components as they are expected to be closely spaced and very power efficient. One of the main components that will require careful design for CubeSats is their antennas, as they are needed to be lightweight, small in size, and compact or deployable for larger antennas. This paper presents a review of antennas suitable for picosatellite applications. An overview of the applications of picosatellites will first be explained, prior to a discussion on their antenna requirements. Material and antenna topologies which have been used will be subsequently discussed prior to the presentation of several deployable configurations. Finally, a perspective and future research work on CubeSat antennas will be discussed in the conclusion.

  20. Thermoelectric generators: A review of applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champier, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper reviews the state of the art of thermoelectric generators. • The latest thermoelectric modules are introduced. • Waste heat recovery in transport and industry with thermoelectric generators. • Domestic and industrial applications of thermoelectric generators. • Thermoelectric generators in space, micro-generation and solar conversion. - Abstract: In past centuries, men have mainly looked to increase their production of energy in order to develop their industry, means of transport and quality of life. Since the recent energy crisis, researchers and industrials have looked mainly to manage energy in a better way, especially by increasing energy system efficiency. This context explains the growing interest for thermoelectric generators. Today, thermoelectric generators allow lost thermal energy to be recovered, energy to be produced in extreme environments, electric power to be generated in remote areas and microsensors to be powered. Direct solar thermal energy can also be used to produce electricity. This review begins with the basic principles of thermoelectricity and a presentation of existing and future materials. Design and optimization of generators are addressed. Finally in this paper, we developed an exhaustive presentation of thermoelectric generation applications covering electricity generation in extreme environments, waste heat recovery in transport and industry, domestic production in developing and developed countries, micro-generation for sensors and microelectronics and solar thermoelectric generators. Many recent applications are presented, as well as the future applications which are currently being studied in research laboratories or in industry. The main purpose of this paper is to clearly demonstrate that, almost anywhere in industry or in domestic uses, it is worth checking whether a TEG can be added whenever heat is moving from a hot source to a cold source.

  1. A review of fusion torch applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastlund, B.J.; Gough, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Fusion Torch is a concept developed in 1968 to propose the investigation of non-electrical uses of the flux of particle and electromagnetic radiation capable of being produced from a fusion plasma (leakage). The proposed applications include direct recycling of material, the use of electromagnetic radiation to produce H 2 fuel and novel methods of heat transfer. The purpose of this paper is to review progress, and to discuss ideas that have resulted from new magnetic containment concepts. The practicality of the Fusion Torch concept for direct recycling with D-T fuel cycles was questioned because of neutron-activation. Since 1968, low neutron fusion reactions have received serious consideration. The economics of adding applications features to a fusion reactor must be studied in relation to specific reactor designs. Calculations are presented to illustrate the large advantages applications could offer for low Q, high circulating power systems such as mirrors, small Tokamaks and linear pinches. Little advantage is predicated for high Q, high thermal efficiency systems typified by large Tokamaks. The production of fuels such as H 2 has received study using high temperature electrolysis, radiation chemistry, and thermochemical cycles. Ore reduction using differential ionization is also described. A summary of applications areas are presented along with ideas on the potential of large scale use of such systems

  2. Physical applications of GPS geodesy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Yehuda; Melgar, Diego

    2016-10-01

    Geodesy, the oldest science, has become an important discipline in the geosciences, in large part by enhancing Global Positioning System (GPS) capabilities over the last 35 years well beyond the satellite constellation's original design. The ability of GPS geodesy to estimate 3D positions with millimeter-level precision with respect to a global terrestrial reference frame has contributed to significant advances in geophysics, seismology, atmospheric science, hydrology, and natural hazard science. Monitoring the changes in the positions or trajectories of GPS instruments on the Earth's land and water surfaces, in the atmosphere, or in space, is important for both theory and applications, from an improved understanding of tectonic and magmatic processes to developing systems for mitigating the impact of natural hazards on society and the environment. Besides accurate positioning, all disturbances in the propagation of the transmitted GPS radio signals from satellite to receiver are mined for information, from troposphere and ionosphere delays for weather, climate, and natural hazard applications, to disturbances in the signals due to multipath reflections from the solid ground, water, and ice for environmental applications. We review the relevant concepts of geodetic theory, data analysis, and physical modeling for a myriad of processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales, and discuss the extensive global infrastructure that has been built to support GPS geodesy consisting of thousands of continuously operating stations. We also discuss the integration of heterogeneous and complementary data sets from geodesy, seismology, and geology, focusing on crustal deformation applications and early warning systems for natural hazards.

  3. Toward Optical Sensors: Review and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, Naseer; Aljunid, S A; Ahmad, R B; Salim, M S; Kamaruddin, R

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in fiber optics (FOs) and the numerous advantages of light over electronic systems have boosted the utility and demand for optical sensors in various military, industry and social fields. Environmental and atmospheric monitoring, earth and space sciences, industrial chemical processing and biotechnology, law enforcement, digital imaging, scanning, and printing are exemplars of them. The ubiquity of photonic technologies could drive down prices which reduced the cost of optical fibers and lasers. Fiber optic sensors (FOSs) offer a wide spectrum of advantages over traditional sensing systems, such as small size and longer lifetime. Immunity to electromagnetic interference, amenability to multiplexing, and high sensitivity make FOs the sensor technology of choice in several fields, including the healthcare and aerospace sectors. FOSs show reliable and rigid sensing tasks over conventional electrical and electronic sensors. This paper presents an executive review of optical fiber sensors and the most beneficial applications.

  4. Toward Optical Sensors: Review and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Naseer; Aljunid, S. A.; Salim, M. S.; Ahmad, R. B.; Kamaruddin, R.

    2013-04-01

    Recent advances in fiber optics (FOs) and the numerous advantages of light over electronic systems have boosted the utility and demand for optical sensors in various military, industry and social fields. Environmental and atmospheric monitoring, earth and space sciences, industrial chemical processing and biotechnology, law enforcement, digital imaging, scanning, and printing are exemplars of them. The ubiquity of photonic technologies could drive down prices which reduced the cost of optical fibers and lasers. Fiber optic sensors (FOSs) offer a wide spectrum of advantages over traditional sensing systems, such as small size and longer lifetime. Immunity to electromagnetic interference, amenability to multiplexing, and high sensitivity make FOs the sensor technology of choice in several fields, including the healthcare and aerospace sectors. FOSs show reliable and rigid sensing tasks over conventional electrical and electronic sensors. This paper presents an executive review of optical fiber sensors and the most beneficial applications.

  5. 7 CFR 205.402 - Review of application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Certification § 205.402 Review of application. (a) Upon acceptance of an application for certification, a certifying agent must: (1) Review the application to ensure completeness...

  6. Medical applications of infrared thermography: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Bagavathiappan, S.; Jayakumar, T.; Philip, John

    2012-07-01

    Abnormal body temperature is a natural indicator of illness. Infrared thermography (IRT) is a fast, passive, non-contact and non-invasive alternative to conventional clinical thermometers for monitoring body temperature. Besides, IRT can also map body surface temperature remotely. Last five decades witnessed a steady increase in the utility of thermal imaging cameras to obtain correlations between the thermal physiology and skin temperature. IRT has been successfully used in diagnosis of breast cancer, diabetes neuropathy and peripheral vascular disorders. It has also been used to detect problems associated with gynecology, kidney transplantation, dermatology, heart, neonatal physiology, fever screening and brain imaging. With the advent of modern infrared cameras, data acquisition and processing techniques, it is now possible to have real time high resolution thermographic images, which is likely to surge further research in this field. The present efforts are focused on automatic analysis of temperature distribution of regions of interest and their statistical analysis for detection of abnormalities. This critical review focuses on advances in the area of medical IRT. The basics of IRT, essential theoretical background, the procedures adopted for various measurements and applications of IRT in various medical fields are discussed in this review. Besides background information is provided for beginners for better understanding of the subject.

  7. Nanotechnology applications in hematological malignancies (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAMIR, AHMED; ELGAMAL, BASMA M; GABR, HALA; SABAAWY, HATEM E

    2015-01-01

    A major limitation to current cancer therapies is the development of therapy-related side-effects and dose limiting complications. Moreover, a better understanding of the biology of cancer cells and the mechanisms of resistance to therapy is rapidly developing. The translation of advanced knowledge and discoveries achieved at the molecular level must be supported by advanced diagnostic, therapeutic and delivery technologies to translate these discoveries into useful tools that are essential in achieving progress in the war against cancer. Nanotechnology can play an essential role in this aspect providing a transforming technology that can translate the basic and clinical findings into novel diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive tools useful in different types of cancer. Hematological malignancies represent a specific class of cancer, which attracts special attention in the applications of nanotechnology for cancer diagnosis and treatment. The aim of the present review is to elucidate the emerging applications of nanotechnology in cancer management and describe the potentials of nanotechnology in changing the key fundamental aspects of hematological malignancy diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. PMID:26134389

  8. Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Storage Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael U. Niemann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials have attracted great interest in recent years because of the unusual mechanical, electrical, electronic, optical, magnetic and surface properties. The high surface/volume ratio of these materials has significant implications with respect to energy storage. Both the high surface area and the opportunity for nanomaterial consolidation are key attributes of this new class of materials for hydrogen storage devices. Nanostructured systems including carbon nanotubes, nano-magnesium based hydrides, complex hydride/carbon nanocomposites, boron nitride nanotubes, TiS2/MoS2 nanotubes, alanates, polymer nanocomposites, and metal organic frameworks are considered to be potential candidates for storing large quantities of hydrogen. Recent investigations have shown that nanoscale materials may offer advantages if certain physical and chemical effects related to the nanoscale can be used efficiently. The present review focuses the application of nanostructured materials for storing atomic or molecular hydrogen. The synergistic effects of nanocrystalinity and nanocatalyst doping on the metal or complex hydrides for improving the thermodynamics and hydrogen reaction kinetics are discussed. In addition, various carbonaceous nanomaterials and novel sorbent systems (e.g. carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, nanofibers, polyaniline nanospheres and metal organic frameworks etc. and their hydrogen storage characteristics are outlined.

  9. 28 CFR 65.41 - Review of State applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review of State applications. 65.41 Section 65.41 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY FEDERAL LAW ENFORCEMENT.... The Act provides the basis for review and approval or disapproval of state applications. Federal law...

  10. System Integration Testing ofAdvanced Driver Assistance Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cioran, Anders

    2015-01-01

    En viktig faktor for att fortsatta forbattra traksakerheten ar genom att utveckla ochimplementera avancerade forarstodsfunktioner (ADAS) i fordon. Gemensamma aspekterhos de undersokta ADAS ar deras formagor att detektera och undvika farliga traksituationergenom att nyttja sensordata och fordonstillstand for att kontrollera fordonetsforyttning. Nya testmetoder maste overvagas eftersom nyutvecklade ADAS ar mer komplexaoch sakerhetskritiska. Detta arbete undersoker hur man kan testa nya ADAS fra...

  11. Review of applications of microneedling in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iriarte C

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Iriarte,1 Olabola Awosika,2 Monica Rengifo-Pardo,1,2 Alison Ehrlich1,2 1George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, USA; 2Department of Dermatology, The George Washington Medical Faculty Associates, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Microneedling (MN is a novel therapeutic modality in dermatology. Through physical trauma from needle penetration, MN induces a wound healing cascade with minimal damage to the epidermis. This allows for enhancement in the absorption of mainstay topical therapies across the thick stratum corneum. MN has become increasingly utilized over the last several years as it is a relatively simple procedure that is cost-effective, well tolerated, and offers both cosmetic and therapeutic benefits. The ability to treat localized areas of disease has led to numerous studies gauging its potential in focal diseases of inflammation, dyschromia, and photodamage. This review discusses the principles and evidence behind the expanding applications of MN. It has shown promising results as an adjuvant therapy for enhanced drug delivery in the treatment of atrophic scars, alopecia, actinic keratoses, and disorders of pigmentation such as melasma. The efficacy in treatment of vitiligo remains limited. Overall, the procedure has few adverse sequelae compared to other therapies, is highly efficacious, and is a viable resurfacing option for skin of color. Future research is needed to determine the frequency, interval, and specific device settings that foster optimal results. Additionally, large controlled trials are needed to shed light on the utility of MN as an evidence-based regimen for the treatment of various dermatologic conditions. Keywords: microneedling, scars, acne, alopecia, hyperpigmentation, actinic keratosis

  12. 47 CFR 1.104 - Preserving the right of review; deferred consideration of application for review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preserving the right of review; deferred... Actions Taken by the Commission and Pursuant to Delegated Authority; Effective Dates and Finality Dates of Actions § 1.104 Preserving the right of review; deferred consideration of application for review. (a) The...

  13. Evolution of PHP Applications: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alinaswe Siame

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews, some of the research work done in the evolution of PHP applications that have been around and are vastly used. PHP is currently one of the most popular programming languages, widely used in both the open source community and in industry to build large web-focused applications and application frameworks. This review looks at how PHP applications have evolved in terms of the use of libraries, the software maturity, adoption of object-orientation paradigm, the evolution of complexity and security. The results suggest that these systems undergo systematic maintenance and evolution is helping the underlying programming language to grow.

  14. Nanofluidic technology for biomolecule applications: a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napoli, M.; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Pennathur, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we present nanofluidic phenomena, particularly as they relate to applications involving analysis of biomolecules within nanofabricated devices. The relevant length scales and physical phenomena that govern biomolecule transport and manipulation within nanofabricated nanofluidic

  15. Peer Review of Grant Applications: Criteria Used and Qualitative Study of Reviewer Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoul, Hendy; Perrey, Christophe; Amiel, Philippe; Tubach, Florence; Gottot, Serge; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Alberti, Corinne

    2012-01-01

    Background Peer review of grant applications has been criticized as lacking reliability. Studies showing poor agreement among reviewers supported this possibility but usually focused on reviewers’ scores and failed to investigate reasons for disagreement. Here, our goal was to determine how reviewers rate applications, by investigating reviewer practices and grant assessment criteria. Methods and Findings We first collected and analyzed a convenience sample of French and international calls for proposals and assessment guidelines, from which we created an overall typology of assessment criteria comprising nine domains relevance to the call for proposals, usefulness, originality, innovativeness, methodology, feasibility, funding, ethical aspects, and writing of the grant application. We then performed a qualitative study of reviewer practices, particularly regarding the use of assessment criteria, among reviewers of the French Academic Hospital Research Grant Agencies (Programmes Hospitaliers de Recherche Clinique, PHRCs). Semi-structured interviews and observation sessions were conducted. Both the time spent assessing each grant application and the assessment methods varied across reviewers. The assessment criteria recommended by the PHRCs were listed by all reviewers as frequently evaluated and useful. However, use of the PHRC criteria was subjective and varied across reviewers. Some reviewers gave the same weight to each assessment criterion, whereas others considered originality to be the most important criterion (12/34), followed by methodology (10/34) and feasibility (4/34). Conceivably, this variability might adversely affect the reliability of the review process, and studies evaluating this hypothesis would be of interest. Conclusions Variability across reviewers may result in mistrust among grant applicants about the review process. Consequently, ensuring transparency is of the utmost importance. Consistency in the review process could also be improved by

  16. Application of CFD in Indonesian Research: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, H.; Siregar, M. R.; Kishinami, K.; Daimaruya, M.; Kawai, H.

    2018-04-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a numerical method that solves fluid flow and related governing equations using a computational tool. The studies on CFD, its methodology and its application as a research tool, are increasing. In this study, application of CFD by Indonesian researcher is briefly reviewed. The main objective is to explore the characteristics of CFD applications in Indonesian researchers. Considering the size and reputation, this study uses Scopus publications indexed data base. All of the documents in Scopus related to CFD which is affiliated by at least one of Indonesian researcher are collected to be reviewed. Research topics, CFD method, and simulation results are reviewed in brief. The results show that there are 260 documents found in literature indexed by Scopus. These documents divided into research articles 125 titles, conference paper 135 titles, book 1 title and review 1 title. In the research articles, only limited researchers focused on the development of CFD methodology. Almost all of the articles focus on using CFD in a particular application, as a research tool, such as aircraft application, wind power and heat exchanger. The topics of the 125 research articles can be divided into 12 specific applications and 1 miscellaneous application. The most popular application is Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning and followed by Reactor, Transportation and Heat Exchanger applications. The most popular commercial CFD code used is ANSYS Fluent and only several researchers use CFX.

  17. Application of design review in the heavy power plant industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yound, N.

    1977-01-01

    The application of design review technique in a company engaged in the design and manufacture of turbo-generators for power stations, is described. One benefit arising from design review is its use as a means of design verification. (U.K.)

  18. Gravimetry and its application to geohydrology: a review | Mahed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The application of gravity to Geohydrology is reviewed. A short background and history related to the application of geophysics to Geohydrology is outlined. Multiple works related to ground based gravimetry applied to the hydrological sciences in general are examined. These include the possible errors which might occur ...

  19. 10 CFR 2.102 - Administrative review of application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... proceeding to confer with the NRC staff informally. In the case of docketed application for a limited work... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative review of application. 2.102 Section 2.102... ORDERS Procedure for Issuance, Amendment, Transfer, or Renewal of a License, and Standard Design Approval...

  20. Review on Polymers for Thermoelectric Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Culebras

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we report the state-of-the-art of polymers in thermoelectricity. Classically, a number of inorganic compounds have been considered as the best thermoelectric materials. Since the prediction of the improvement of the figure of merit by means of electronic confinement in 1993, it has been improved by a factor of 3–4. In the mean time, organic materials, in particular intrinsically conducting polymers, had been considered as competitors of classical thermoelectrics, since their figure of merit has been improved several orders of magnitude in the last few years. We review here the evolution of the figure of merit or the power factor during the last years, and the best candidates to compete with inorganic materials. We also outline the best polymers to substitute classical thermoelectric materials and the advantages they present in comparison with inorganic systems.

  1. Review on Polymers for Thermoelectric Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culebras, Mario; Gómez, Clara M; Cantarero, Andrés

    2014-09-18

    In this review, we report the state-of-the-art of polymers in thermoelectricity. Classically, a number of inorganic compounds have been considered as the best thermoelectric materials. Since the prediction of the improvement of the figure of merit by means of electronic confinement in 1993, it has been improved by a factor of 3-4. In the mean time, organic materials, in particular intrinsically conducting polymers, had been considered as competitors of classical thermoelectrics, since their figure of merit has been improved several orders of magnitude in the last few years. We review here the evolution of the figure of merit or the power factor during the last years, and the best candidates to compete with inorganic materials. We also outline the best polymers to substitute classical thermoelectric materials and the advantages they present in comparison with inorganic systems.

  2. Magnet operating experience review for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1991-11-01

    This report presents a review of magnet operating experiences for normal-conducting and superconducting magnets from fusion, particle accelerator, medical technology, and magnetohydrodynamics research areas. Safety relevant magnet operating experiences are presented to provide feedback on field performance of existing designs and to point out the operational safety concerns. Quantitative estimates of magnet component failure rates and accident event frequencies are also presented, based on field experience and on performance of similar components in other industries

  3. Review on Micro- and Nanolithography Techniques and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werayut Srituravanich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews major micro- and nanolithography techniques and their applications from commercial micro devices to emerging applications in nanoscale science and engineering. Micro- and nanolithography has been the key technology in manufacturing of integrated circuits and microchips in the semiconductor industry. Such a technology is also sparking a magnificent transformation of nanotechnology. The lithography techniques including photolithography, electron beam lithography, focused ion beam lithography, soft lithography, nanoimprint lithography and scanning probe lithography are discussed. Furthermore, their applications are reviewed and summarized into four major areas: electronics and microsystems, medical and biotech, optics and photonics, and environment and energy harvesting.

  4. Environmental Standard Review Plan for the review of license renewal applications for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.; Kim, T.J.; Reynolds, S.

    1991-08-01

    The Environmental Standard Review Plan for the Review of License Applications for Nuclear Power Plants (ESRP-LR) is to be used by the NRC staff when performing environmental reviews of applications for the renewal of power reactor licenses. The use of the ESRP-LR provides a framework for the staff to determine whether or not environmental issues important to license renewal have been identified and the impacts evaluated and provides acceptance standards to help the reviewers comply with the National Environmental Policy Act

  5. Review of radionuclide applications in industrial measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechlak, B.; Thyn, J.

    1980-01-01

    The Radiotracer Service Group of the UVVVR Prague has developed and has been applying in practice radioactive tracer techniques for monitoring material flow through technological and transport systems, handling gases, liquids and solids. The techniques allow monitoring the quality of output materials (the degree of homogenization etc.), the material balance and the function of specific equipment. Standard methods are briefly characterized for computer processing of the results. The applications are described of radioactive tracer techniques in the production of concrete and in the detection of leaks of heating systems which supply several houses. (Ha)

  6. Antimicrobial Peptides for Therapeutic Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsogbadrakh Mishig-Ochir

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have been considered as potential therapeutic sources of future antibiotics because of their broad-spectrum activities and different mechanisms of action compared to conventional antibiotics. Although AMPs possess considerable benefits as new generation antibiotics, their clinical and commercial development still have some limitations, such as potential toxicity, susceptibility to proteases, and high cost of peptide production. In order to overcome those obstacles, extensive efforts have been carried out. For instance, unusual amino acids or peptido-mimetics are introduced to avoid the proteolytic degradation and the design of short peptides retaining antimicrobial activities is proposed as a solution for the cost issue. In this review, we focus on small peptides, especially those with less than twelve amino acids, and provide an overview of the relationships between their three-dimensional structures and antimicrobial activities. The efforts to develop highly active AMPs with shorter sequences are also described.

  7. Review of Cadw Mobile App [application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Rothenberg

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Welsh Government's historic environment service, Cadw (Welsh: 'to keep, protect', released a mobile app in early 2016 so that members of the public can learn about and plan visits to heritage sites cared for by Cadw. With more than one hundred archaeological sites available for browsing, conveniently ordered by spatial proximity to the user, and with a clean and accessible user-interface, the app effectively showcases the richness and distinctive character of Wales's archaeological record. The app is free and available to download for both iOS and Android devices (from Apple's App Store and the Google Play Store, and is also well signposted on Cadw's website. This article is a review of the Cadw mobile app.

  8. A Review of Biogas Applications across Continents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; kofi Ackom, Emmanuel; Cudjoe Bensah, Edem

    This paper analyses the biogas development within Ghana, Thailand and Denmark to shed light on the different development patterns and future trends that is seen within the biogas sector. Literature review in the form of journal articles and reports is assessed, interviews with agricultural...... and biogas experts - as well as policy makers within the field of renewable energy - is being conducted. The biogas technology was analysed according to ‘historical development’, ‘feedstock utilization’ and ‘future development’. As far as the future prospects for the biogas technology the paper concludes...... are required to move forward. Thailand and Denmark has set up support programs and emphasized on using industrial organic feedstock for biogas production, and Denmark has formulated political targets for utilizing organic household waste as biogas feedstock. For all three countries apply, despite...

  9. REVIEW OF WATER JET APPLICATIONS IN MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk MENDİ

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Usage of water jets in manufacturing processes, has been known for many decades. A wide range of engineering materials can be cut by water jets with satisfactory results. Enhanced reliability and efficiency of the technique, have yielded the technology greater interest for manufacturing applications. Water jets are used to cut soft materials such as wood, plastics, aluminium and copper. Abrasive water jets are used to cut very hard materials such as titanium, inconel, glass and ceramics. It is impossible to cut these materials with classical cutting technics. A water jet processing system utilises water pressure in the range of 100Mpa-400Mpa, for the different applications. In abrasive water jet milling and abrasive water jet cutting processes, the pressure of the jet is about 400Mpa. In water jet surface penning, the jet pressure is about 100Mpa. The process of abrasives mixing with the water stream is a complex phenomena. Erosion processes involved in cutting not yet fully understood. The lack of understanding the process call for other strategies in finding appropriate ways to obtain a precision depth in cutting operation. In this paper the principles of water jet systems had been explained. Results of experiments that made on cutting process and surface strengthening with water jet had been given.

  10. Teleconference versus Face-to-Face Scientific Peer Review of Grant Application: Effects on Review Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Stephen A.; Carpenter, Afton S.; Glisson, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    Teleconferencing as a setting for scientific peer review is an attractive option for funding agencies, given the substantial environmental and cost savings. Despite this, there is a paucity of published data validating teleconference-based peer review compared to the face-to-face process. Our aim was to conduct a retrospective analysis of scientific peer review data to investigate whether review setting has an effect on review process and outcome measures. We analyzed reviewer scoring data from a research program that had recently modified the review setting from face-to-face to a teleconference format with minimal changes to the overall review procedures. This analysis included approximately 1600 applications over a 4-year period: two years of face-to-face panel meetings compared to two years of teleconference meetings. The average overall scientific merit scores, score distribution, standard deviations and reviewer inter-rater reliability statistics were measured, as well as reviewer demographics and length of time discussing applications. The data indicate that few differences are evident between face-to-face and teleconference settings with regard to average overall scientific merit score, scoring distribution, standard deviation, reviewer demographics or inter-rater reliability. However, some difference was found in the discussion time. These findings suggest that most review outcome measures are unaffected by review setting, which would support the trend of using teleconference reviews rather than face-to-face meetings. However, further studies are needed to assess any correlations among discussion time, application funding and the productivity of funded research projects. PMID:23951223

  11. Teleconference versus face-to-face scientific peer review of grant application: effects on review outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Gallo

    Full Text Available Teleconferencing as a setting for scientific peer review is an attractive option for funding agencies, given the substantial environmental and cost savings. Despite this, there is a paucity of published data validating teleconference-based peer review compared to the face-to-face process. Our aim was to conduct a retrospective analysis of scientific peer review data to investigate whether review setting has an effect on review process and outcome measures. We analyzed reviewer scoring data from a research program that had recently modified the review setting from face-to-face to a teleconference format with minimal changes to the overall review procedures. This analysis included approximately 1600 applications over a 4-year period: two years of face-to-face panel meetings compared to two years of teleconference meetings. The average overall scientific merit scores, score distribution, standard deviations and reviewer inter-rater reliability statistics were measured, as well as reviewer demographics and length of time discussing applications. The data indicate that few differences are evident between face-to-face and teleconference settings with regard to average overall scientific merit score, scoring distribution, standard deviation, reviewer demographics or inter-rater reliability. However, some difference was found in the discussion time. These findings suggest that most review outcome measures are unaffected by review setting, which would support the trend of using teleconference reviews rather than face-to-face meetings. However, further studies are needed to assess any correlations among discussion time, application funding and the productivity of funded research projects.

  12. Nanomaterials for biosensing applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eHolzinger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A biosensor device is defined by its biological, or bioinspired receptor unit with unique specificities towards corresponding analytes. These analytes are often of biological origin like DNAs or proteins from the immune system (antibodies, antigens of diseases or infections. Such analytes can also be simple molecules like glucose or pollutants when a biological receptor unit with particular specificity is available. One of many other challenges in biosensor development is the efficient signal capture of the biological recognition event (transduction. Such transducers translate the interaction of the analyte with the biological element into electrochemical, electrochemiluminescent, magnetic, gravimetric, or optical signals. In order to increase sensitivities and to lower detection limits down to even individual molecules, nanomaterials are promising candidates due to the possibility to immobilize an enhanced quantity of bioreceptor units at reduced volumes and even to act itself as transduction element. Among such nanomaterials, gold nanoparticles, semi-conductor quantum dots, polymer nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, nanodiamonds, and graphene are intensively studied. Due to the vast evolution of this research field, this review summarizes in a non-exhaustive way the advantages of nanomaterials by focusing on nano-objects which provide further beneficial properties than just an enhanced surface area.

  13. Review of CdTe medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entine, G; Garcia, D A; Tow, D E

    1977-02-01

    CdTe sensors are now being used in several areas of nuclear medicine. CdTe probe technics, originally developed to study dental pathology in dog models, are being used clinically to diagnose venous thrombosis of the legs and to detect occult dental infections in patients scheduled for prosthetic cardiovascular and orthopedic surgery. Similar instrumentation is in use in animal research of myocardial infarction and synthetic tooth substitutes. Transmission technics have also been developed to diagnose pulmonary edema and to measure bone mineral changes in space flight. Investigations are also underway in the use of linear or two-dimensional arrays of CdTe gamma sensors for medical imaging. Economic considerations have slowed this work, but the technology appears to be available. Development of photoconductive CdTe X-ray detectors for scintigraphic scanners has also begun. Rapid detector improvement will be needed for success in this field, but the potential usefulness is very great. Together, the present application results are encouraging and wide use of CdTe detectors should occur within only a few years.

  14. Inulin, a flexible oligosaccharide. II: Review of its pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, Maarten A; Frijlink, Henderik W; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees; Hinrichs, Wouter L J

    2015-12-10

    Inulin is a flexible oligosaccharide which has been used primarily in food for decades. Recently new applications in the pharmaceutical arena were described. In a previous review (Mensink et al. (2015). Carbohydrate Polymers, 130, 405) we described the physicochemical characteristics of inulin, characteristics which make inulin a highly versatile substance. Here, we review its pharmaceutical applications. Applications of inulin that are addressed are stabilization of proteins, modified drug delivery (dissolution rate enhancement and drug targeting), and lastly physiological and disease-modifying effects of inulin. Further uses of inulin include colon specific drug administration and stabilizing and adjuvating vaccine formulations. Overall, the uses of inulin in the pharmaceutical area are very diverse and research is still continuing, particularly with chemically modified inulins. It is therefore likely that even more applications will be found for this flexible oligosaccharide. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Review of Recent Type-2 Fuzzy Controller Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Tai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Type-2 fuzzy logic controllers (T2 FLC can be viewed as an emerging class of intelligent controllers because of their abilities in handling uncertainties; in many cases, they have been shown to outperform their Type-1 counterparts. This paper presents a literature review on recent applications of T2 FLCs. To follow the developments in this field, we first review general T2 FLCs and the most well-known interval T2 FLS algorithms that have been used for control design. Certain applications of these controllers include robotic control, bandwidth control, industrial systems control, electrical control and aircraft control. The most promising applications are found in the robotics and automotive areas, where T2 FLCs have been demonstrated and proven to perform better than traditional controllers. With the development of enhanced algorithms, along with the advancement in both hardware and software, we shall witness increasing applications of these frontier controllers.

  16. A review of calixarene applications in nuclear industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahram Mokhtari; Iranian Offshore Oil Company, Lavan Island; Kobra Pourabdollah; Naser Dallali

    2011-01-01

    Calixarenes has been subject to extensive research in development of many extractants, transporters, stationary phases, electrode ionophores and optical and electrochemical sensors over the past four decades. In this paper, the nuclear applications of calixarenes are summarized in six fields including complexation studies, solvent extraction, membrane transport, chromatography, luminescent and colorimetric applications, and electroanalytical applications. In the first to fourth sections, the extractability, extraction equilibria and extraction constants of lanthanide, actinide and other nuclear waste cations ions, which were subjected to solvent extraction by the macrocyclic ligands, are reviewed. In two last sections, the analytical applications of calixarene complexes towards nuclear waste cations, including spectroscopic and electroanalytic sensors, are discussed. The examples described in this review illustrate the potential of calixarene derivatives in the rapidly growing field of cations recognition in nuclear wastes. (author)

  17. A review of multifunctional structure technology for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairajan, K. K.; Aglietti, G. S.; Mani, K. M.

    2016-03-01

    The emerging field of multifunctional structure (MFS) technologies enables the design of systems with reduced mass and volume, thereby improving their overall efficiency. It requires developments in different engineering disciplines and their integration into a single system without degrading their individual performances. MFS is particularly suitable for aerospace applications where mass and volume are critical to the cost of the mission. This article reviews the current state of the art of multifunctional structure technologies relevant to aerospace applications.

  18. Clinical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The advantages and present limitations of the clinical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are reviewed in outline, with passing references to skeletal muscular studies, in particular a group of children with advanced Duchenne dystrophy, and the applications to the study of cerebral metabolism of neonates, excised kidneys, biopsy studies of breast and axillary lymph node samples, and NMR spectroscopy performed during chemotherapy of a secondary rhabdomyosarcoma in the skin. (U.K.)

  19. Clinical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, R.J. (Glasgow Western Infirmary (UK))

    1984-09-01

    The advantages and present limitations of the clinical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are reviewed in outline, with passing references to skeletal muscular studies, in particular a group of children with advanced Duchenne dystrophy, and the applications to the study of cerebral metabolism of neonates, excised kidneys, biopsy studies of breast and axillary lymph node samples, and NMR spectroscopy performed during chemotherapy of a secondary rhabdomyosarcoma in the skin.

  20. Cross-Linked Hydrogel for Pharmaceutical Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabinarayan parhi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels are promising biomaterials because of their important qualities such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, hydrophilicity and non-toxicity. These qualities make hydrogels suitable for application in medical and pharmaceutical field. Recently, a tremendous growth of hydrogel application is seen, especially as gel and patch form, in transdermal drug delivery. This review mainly focuses on the types of hydrogels based on cross-linking and; secondly to describe the possible synthesis methods to design hydrogels for different pharmaceutical applications. The synthesis and chemistry of these hydrogels are discussed using specific pharmaceutical examples. The structure and water content in a typical hydrogel have also been discussed.

  1. Inulin, a flexible oligosaccharide. II : Review of its pharmaceutical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, Maarten A; Frijlink, Henderik W; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees; Hinrichs, Wouter L J

    2015-01-01

    Inulin is a flexible oligosaccharide which has been used primarily in food for decades. Recently new applications in the pharmaceutical arena were described. In a previous review (Mensink et al. (2015). Carbohydrate Polymers, 130, 405) we described the physicochemical characteristics of inulin,

  2. 7 CFR 61.8 - Application for review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for review. 61.8 Section 61.8 Agriculture... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COTTONSEED SOLD OR OFFERED FOR SALE FOR CRUSHING PURPOSES (INSPECTION, SAMPLING AND CERTIFICATION) Regulations Administrative and...

  3. 9 CFR 355.6 - Review of applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review of applications. 355.6 Section 355.6 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY...

  4. A review of thermoelectric cooling: Materials, modeling and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Dongliang; Tan, Gang

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews the recent advances of thermoelectric materials, modeling approaches, and applications. Thermoelectric cooling systems have advantages over conventional cooling devices, including compact in size, light in weight, high reliability, no mechanical moving parts, no working fluid, being powered by direct current, and easily switching between cooling and heating modes. In this study, historical development of thermoelectric cooling has been briefly introduced first. Next, the development of thermoelectric materials has been given and the achievements in past decade have been summarized. To improve thermoelectric cooling system's performance, the modeling techniques have been described for both the thermoelement modeling and thermoelectric cooler (TEC) modeling including standard simplified energy equilibrium model, one-dimensional and three-dimensional models, and numerical compact model. Finally, the thermoelectric cooling applications have been reviewed in aspects of domestic refrigeration, electronic cooling, scientific application, and automobile air conditioning and seat temperature control, with summaries for the commercially available thermoelectric modules and thermoelectric refrigerators. It is expected that this study will be beneficial to thermoelectric cooling system design, simulation, and analysis. - Highlights: •Thermoelectric cooling has great prospects with thermoelectric material's advances. •Modeling techniques for both thermoelement and TEC have been reviewed. •Principle thermoelectric cooling applications have been reviewed and summarized

  5. 25 CFR 1001.4 - Application review and approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application review and approval. 1001.4 Section 1001.4 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SELF-GOVERNANCE... package and determine whether or not it is complete. Upon determination that it is complete, the name of...

  6. SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATION IN WASTE TREATMENT- A REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review is an exposure on the various ways that solar energy can be harnessed for numerous waste treatment processes. Almost all forms of waste treatment require energy which is scarcely available considering the global energy crisis. The objective of this study is to enumerate the solar energy applications in waste ...

  7. Therapeutic Applications of Interleukin 24 (IL24): A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IL24 has growth suppressive properties in a wide variety of human cancer cell lines without inducing harmful effects in normal cells. This review is focused on the role of IL 24 on tumor cell biology and its potential therapeutic applications. Keywords: Melanoma differentiation, Protein, Therapeutics, Interleukin, ...

  8. Usability evaluation techniques in mobile commerce applications: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.

    2016-08-01

    Obviously, there are a number of literatures concerning the usability of mobile commerce (m-commerce) applications and related areas, but they do not adequately provide knowledge about usability techniques used in most of the empirical usability evaluation for m-commerce application. Therefore, this paper is aimed at producing the usability techniques frequently used in the aspect of usability evaluation for m-commerce applications. To achieve the stated objective, systematic literature review was employed. Sixty seven papers were downloaded in usability evaluation for m-commerce and related areas; twenty one most relevant studies were selected for review in order to extract the appropriate information. The results from the review shows that heuristic evaluation, formal test and think aloud methods are the most commonly used methods in m-commerce application in comparison to cognitive walkthrough and the informal test methods. Moreover, most of the studies applied control experiment (33.3% of the total studies); other studies that applied case study for usability evaluation are 14.28%. The results from this paper provide additional knowledge to the usability practitioners and research community for the current state and use of usability techniques in m-commerce application.

  9. A review on phase change energy storage: materials and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farid, Mohammed M.; Khudhair, Amar M.; Razack, Siddique Ali K.; Al-Hallaj, Said

    2004-01-01

    Latent heat storage is one of the most efficient ways of storing thermal energy. Unlike the sensible heat storage method, the latent heat storage method provides much higher storage density, with a smaller temperature difference between storing and releasing heat. This paper reviews previous work on latent heat storage and provides an insight to recent efforts to develop new classes of phase change materials (PCMs) for use in energy storage. Three aspects have been the focus of this review: PCM materials, encapsulation and applications. There are large numbers of phase change materials that melt and solidify at a wide range of temperatures, making them attractive in a number of applications. Paraffin waxes are cheap and have moderate thermal energy storage density but low thermal conductivity and, hence, require large surface area. Hydrated salts have larger energy storage density and higher thermal conductivity but experience supercooling and phase segregation, and hence, their application requires the use of some nucleating and thickening agents. The main advantages of PCM encapsulation are providing large heat transfer area, reduction of the PCMs reactivity towards the outside environment and controlling the changes in volume of the storage materials as phase change occurs. The different applications in which the phase change method of heat storage can be applied are also reviewed in this paper. The problems associated with the application of PCMs with regards to the material and the methods used to contain them are also discussed

  10. Designed graphene-peptide nanocomposites for biosensor applications: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Yujie; Wu, Aiguo; Wei, Gang

    2017-01-01

    The modification of graphene with biomacromolecules like DNA, protein, peptide, and others extends the potential applications of graphene materials in various fields. The bound biomacromolecules could improve the biocompatibility and bio-recognition ability of graphene-based nanocomposites, therefore could greatly enhance their biosensing performances on both selectivity and sensitivity. In this review, we presented a comprehensive introduction and discussion on recent advance in the synthesis and biosensor applications of graphene-peptide nanocomposites. The biofunctionalization of graphene with specifically designed peptides, and the synthesis strategies of graphene-peptide (monomer, nanofibrils, and nanotubes) nanocomposites were demonstrated. On the other hand, the fabrication of graphene-peptide nanocomposite based biosensor architectures for electrochemical, fluorescent, electronic, and spectroscopic biosensing were further presented. This review includes nearly all the studies on the fabrication and applications of graphene-peptide based biosensors recently, which will promote the future developments of graphene-based biosensors in biomedical detection and environmental analysis. - Highlights: • A comprehensive review on the fabrication and application of graphene-peptide nanocomposites was presented. • The design of peptide sequences for biofunctionalization of various graphene materials was presented. • Multi-strategies on the fabrication of biosensors with graphene-peptide nanocomposites were discussed. • Designed graphene-peptide nanocomposites showed wide biosensor applications.

  11. Fabrication, Properties and Applications of Dense Hydroxyapatite: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythili Prakasam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last five decades, there have been vast advances in the field of biomaterials, including ceramics, glasses, glass-ceramics and metal alloys. Dense and porous ceramics have been widely used for various biomedical applications. Current applications of bioceramics include bone grafts, spinal fusion, bone repairs, bone fillers, maxillofacial reconstruction, etc. Amongst the various calcium phosphate compositions, hydroxyapatite, which has a composition similar to human bone, has attracted wide interest. Much emphasis is given to tissue engineering, both in porous and dense ceramic forms. The current review focusses on the various applications of dense hydroxyapatite and other dense biomaterials on the aspects of transparency and the mechanical and electrical behavior. Prospective future applications, established along the aforesaid applications of hydroxyapatite, appear to be promising regarding bone bonding, advanced medical treatment methods, improvement of the mechanical strength of artificial bone grafts and better in vitro/in vivo methodologies to afford more particular outcomes.

  12. Fabrication, Properties and Applications of Dense Hydroxyapatite: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakasam, Mythili; Locs, Janis; Salma-Ancane, Kristine; Loca, Dagnija; Largeteau, Alain; Berzina-Cimdina, Liga

    2015-01-01

    In the last five decades, there have been vast advances in the field of biomaterials, including ceramics, glasses, glass-ceramics and metal alloys. Dense and porous ceramics have been widely used for various biomedical applications. Current applications of bioceramics include bone grafts, spinal fusion, bone repairs, bone fillers, maxillofacial reconstruction, etc. Amongst the various calcium phosphate compositions, hydroxyapatite, which has a composition similar to human bone, has attracted wide interest. Much emphasis is given to tissue engineering, both in porous and dense ceramic forms. The current review focusses on the various applications of dense hydroxyapatite and other dense biomaterials on the aspects of transparency and the mechanical and electrical behavior. Prospective future applications, established along the aforesaid applications of hydroxyapatite, appear to be promising regarding bone bonding, advanced medical treatment methods, improvement of the mechanical strength of artificial bone grafts and better in vitro/in vivo methodologies to afford more particular outcomes. PMID:26703750

  13. Business model framework applications in health care: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Jens Jacob; Mazzocato, Pamela; Muhammed, Rafiq; Savage, Carl

    2017-11-01

    It has proven to be a challenge for health care organizations to achieve the Triple Aim. In the business literature, business model frameworks have been used to understand how organizations are aligned to achieve their goals. We conducted a systematic literature review with an explanatory synthesis approach to understand how business model frameworks have been applied in health care. We found a large increase in applications of business model frameworks during the last decade. E-health was the most common context of application. We identified six applications of business model frameworks: business model description, financial assessment, classification based on pre-defined typologies, business model analysis, development, and evaluation. Our synthesis suggests that the choice of business model framework and constituent elements should be informed by the intent and context of application. We see a need for harmonization in the choice of elements in order to increase generalizability, simplify application, and help organizations realize the Triple Aim.

  14. The clinical application of PET/CT: a contemporary review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, Z.; Partridge, M.; Trapp, J.V.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The combination of positron emission tomography (PET) scanners and x-ray computed tomography (CT) scanners into a single PET CT scanner has resulted in significant improvements in the diagnosis and staging of disease, particularly in the field of oncology. A decade on from the publication of the details of the first PET/CT scanner, we review the technology and applications of the modality. We examine the design aspects of combining two different imaging types into a single scanner, and the artefacts produced such as attenuation correction, motion and CT truncation artefacts. The article also provides a discussion and literature review of the applications of PET/CT to date, covering detection of tumours, radiotherapy treatment planning, patient management, and applications external to the field of oncology.

  15. Cellulosic Nanomaterials in Food and Nutraceutical Applications: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Avik; Wen, Yangbing; Huq, Tanzina; Ni, Yonghao

    2018-01-10

    Cellulosic nanomaterials (CNMs) are organic, green nanomaterials that are obtained from renewable sources and possess exceptional mechanical strength and biocompatibility. The associated unique physical and chemical properties have made these nanomaterials an intriguing prospect for various applications including the food and nutraceutical industry. From the immobilization of various bioactive agents and enzymes, emulsion stabilization, direct food additives, to the development of intelligent packaging systems or pathogen or pH detectors, the potential food related applications for CNMs are endless. Over the past decade, there have been several reviews published covering different aspects of cellulosic nanomaterials, such as processing-structure-property relationship, physical and chemical properties, rheology, extraction, nanocomposites, etc. In this critical review, we have discussed and provided a summary of the recent developments in the utilization of cellulosic nanomaterials in applications related to food and nutraceuticals.

  16. From initial application to routine operation: Reviewing the Applications for Power Uprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garis, Ninos; Skaanberg, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Current plans for power uprates in Swedish nuclear power plants will lead to significant increases in seven units and a lesser increase in one unit. To date SKI has received six applications, and two more are due in 2007. A power uprate process is initiated by the application to the Government by a licensee for approval to increase the thermal output of a reactor unit. This request is addressed to the Government and is forwarded to SKI for a preliminary safety review. The result of the review is then provided by SKI as a basis for a governmental decision. Six applications have been taken through the first stage of the process; of these, three have received governmental approval and three are currently awaiting a decision. If the licensee's application is approved by the Government, deeper analyses and studies are required in order to modify the plant and update the safety analysis report and the associated technical specifications. SKI reviews this material on a continuous basis prior to test and routine operation at the increased power level. There are four stages that require attention and review by SKI; 1. Review of the application to the Government for approval to operate at increased power levels, and preparation of a suitable answer. 2. Review and approval of the preliminary safety analysis report (PSAR) 3. Review and approval of the application for testing at the higher power level 4. Review and approval of routine operation at the higher power level. A thorough description of the handling of a power uprate process can be found in the SKI PM (SKI-PM 04:11) that is available on the SKI website (in Swedish)

  17. Text mining applications in psychiatry: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbe, Adeline; Grouin, Cyril; Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Falissard, Bruno

    2016-06-01

    The expansion of biomedical literature is creating the need for efficient tools to keep pace with increasing volumes of information. Text mining (TM) approaches are becoming essential to facilitate the automated extraction of useful biomedical information from unstructured text. We reviewed the applications of TM in psychiatry, and explored its advantages and limitations. A systematic review of the literature was carried out using the CINAHL, Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases. In this review, 1103 papers were screened, and 38 were included as applications of TM in psychiatric research. Using TM and content analysis, we identified four major areas of application: (1) Psychopathology (i.e. observational studies focusing on mental illnesses) (2) the Patient perspective (i.e. patients' thoughts and opinions), (3) Medical records (i.e. safety issues, quality of care and description of treatments), and (4) Medical literature (i.e. identification of new scientific information in the literature). The information sources were qualitative studies, Internet postings, medical records and biomedical literature. Our work demonstrates that TM can contribute to complex research tasks in psychiatry. We discuss the benefits, limits, and further applications of this tool in the future. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Healthcare Applications of Smart Watches. A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tsung-Chien; Fu, Chia-Ming; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming; Fang, Cheng-Chung; Turner, Anne M

    2016-09-14

    The aim of this systematic review is to synthesize research studies involving the use of smart watch devices for healthcare. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was chosen as the systematic review methodology. We searched PubMed, CINAHL Plus, EMBASE, ACM, and IEEE Xplore. In order to include ongoing clinical trials, we also searched ClinicalTrials.gov. Two investigators evaluated the retrieved articles for inclusion. Discrepancies between investigators regarding article inclusion and extracted data were resolved through team discussion. 356 articles were screened and 24 were selected for review. The most common publication venue was in conference proceedings (13, 54%). The majority of studies were published or presented in 2015 (19, 79%). We identified two registered clinical trials underway. A large proportion of the identified studies focused on applications involving health monitoring for the elderly (6, 25%). Five studies focused on patients with Parkinson's disease and one on cardiac arrest. There were no studies which reported use of usability testing before implementation. Most of the reviewed studies focused on the chronically ill elderly. There was a lack of detailed description of user-centered design or usability testing before implementation. Based on our review, the most commonly used platform in healthcare research was that of the Android Wear. The clinical application of smart watches as assistive devices deserves further attention. Smart watches are unobtrusive and easy to wear. While smart watch technology supplied with biosensors has potential to be useful in a variety of healthcare applications, rigorous research with their use in clinical settings is needed.

  19. Non-parametric Bayesian networks: Improving theory and reviewing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanea, Anca; Morales Napoles, Oswaldo; Ababei, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Applications in various domains often lead to high dimensional dependence modelling. A Bayesian network (BN) is a probabilistic graphical model that provides an elegant way of expressing the joint distribution of a large number of interrelated variables. BNs have been successfully used to represent uncertain knowledge in a variety of fields. The majority of applications use discrete BNs, i.e. BNs whose nodes represent discrete variables. Integrating continuous variables in BNs is an area fraught with difficulty. Several methods that handle discrete-continuous BNs have been proposed in the literature. This paper concentrates only on one method called non-parametric BNs (NPBNs). NPBNs were introduced in 2004 and they have been or are currently being used in at least twelve professional applications. This paper provides a short introduction to NPBNs, a couple of theoretical advances, and an overview of applications. The aim of the paper is twofold: one is to present the latest improvements of the theory underlying NPBNs, and the other is to complement the existing overviews of BNs applications with the NPNBs applications. The latter opens the opportunity to discuss some difficulties that applications pose to the theoretical framework and in this way offers some NPBN modelling guidance to practitioners. - Highlights: • The paper gives an overview of the current NPBNs methodology. • We extend the NPBN methodology by relaxing the conditions of one of its fundamental theorems. • We propose improvements of the data mining algorithm for the NPBNs. • We review the professional applications of the NPBNs.

  20. Application of BCI systems in neurorehabilitation: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamdad, Mahdi; Zarshenas, Homayoon; Auais, Mohammad A

    2015-01-01

    To review various types of electroencephalographic activities of the brain and present an overview of brain-computer interface (BCI) systems' history and their applications in rehabilitation. A scoping review of published English literature on BCI application in the field of rehabilitation was undertaken. IEEE Xplore, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar and Scopus databases were searched since inception up to August 2012. All experimental studies published in English and discussed complete cycle of the BCI process was included in the review. In total, 90 articles met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Various approaches that improve the accuracy and performance of BCI systems were discussed. Based on BCI's clinical application, reviewed articles were categorized into three groups: motion rehabilitation, speech rehabilitation and virtual reality control (VRC). Almost half of the reviewed papers (48%) concentrated on VRC. Speech rehabilitation and motion rehabilitation made up 33% and 19% of the reviewed papers, respectively. Among different types of electroencephalography signals, P300, steady state visual evoked potentials and motor imagery signals were the most common. This review discussed various applications of BCI in rehabilitation and showed how BCI can be used to improve the quality of life for people with neurological disabilities. It will develop and promote new models of communication and finally, will create an accurate, reliable, online communication between human brain and computer and reduces the negative effects of external stimuli on BCI performance. Implications for Rehabilitation The field of brain-computer interfaces (BCI) is rapidly advancing and it is expected to fulfill a critical role in rehabilitation of neurological disorders and in movement restoration in the forthcoming years. In the near future, BCI has notable potential to become a major tool used by people with disabilities to control locomotion and communicate with surrounding

  1. Theory, Instrumentation and Applications of Magnetoelastic Resonance Sensors: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Craig A.; Roy, Somnath C.; Rani, Sanju; Cai, Qingyun

    2011-01-01

    Thick-film magnetoelastic sensors vibrate mechanically in response to a time varying magnetic excitation field. The mechanical vibrations of the magnetostrictive magnetoelastic material launch, in turn, a magnetic field by which the sensor can be monitored. Magnetic field telemetry enables contact-less, remote-query operation that has enabled many practical uses of the sensor platform. This paper builds upon a review paper we published in Sensors in 2002 (Grimes, C.A.; et al. Sensors 2002, 2, 294–313), presenting a comprehensive review on the theory, operating principles, instrumentation and key applications of magnetoelastic sensing technology. PMID:22163768

  2. Theory, Instrumentation and Applications of Magnetoelastic Resonance Sensors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Grimes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Thick-film magnetoelastic sensors vibrate mechanically in response to a time varying magnetic excitation field. The mechanical vibrations of the magnetostrictive magnetoelastic material launch, in turn, a magnetic field by which the sensor can be monitored. Magnetic field telemetry enables contact-less, remote-query operation that has enabled many practical uses of the sensor platform. This paper builds upon a review paper we published in Sensors in 2002 (Grimes, C.A.; et al. Sensors 2002, 2, 294-313, presenting a comprehensive review on the theory, operating principles, instrumentation and key applications of magnetoelastic sensing technology.

  3. Applications of micro/nanoparticles in microfluidic sensors: a review.

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Yusheng

    2014-04-21

    This paper reviews the applications of micro/nanoparticles in microfluidics device fabrication and analytical processing. In general, researchers have focused on two properties of particles--electric behavior and magnetic behavior. The applications of micro/nanoparticles could be summarized on the chip fabrication level and on the processing level. In the fabrication of microfluidic chips (chip fabrication level), particles are good additives in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to prepare conductive or magnetic composites which have wide applications in sensors, valves and actuators. On the other hand, particles could be manipulated according to their electric and magnetic properties under external electric and magnetic fields when they are travelling in microchannels (processing level). Researchers have made a great progress in preparing modified PDMS and investigating the behaviors of particles in microchannels. This article attempts to present a discussion on the basis of particles applications in microfluidics.

  4. Seed lipases: sources, applications and properties - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barros

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview regarding the main aspects of seed lipases, such as the reactions catalyzed, physiological functions, specificities, sources and applications. Lipases are ubiquitous in nature and are produced by several plants, animals and microorganisms. These enzymes exhibit several very interesting features, such as low cost and easy purification, which make their commercial exploitation as industrial enzymes a potentially attractive alternative. The applications of lipases in food, detergents, oils and fats, medicines and fine chemistry, effluent treatment, biodiesel production and in the cellulose pulp industry, as well as the main sources of oilseed and cereal seed lipases, are reviewed.

  5. Molecular structure, functionality and applications of oxidized starches: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanier, Nathan Levien; El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; da Rosa Zavareze, Elessandra

    2017-04-15

    During oxidation, the hydroxyl groups of starch molecules are first oxidized to carbonyl groups, then to carboxyl groups. The contents of the carbonyl and carboxyl groups in a starch molecule therefore indicate the extent of starch oxidation. The mechanisms of starch oxidation with different oxidizing agents, including sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, ozone and sodium periodate, are described in this review. The effects of these oxidizing agents on the molecular, physicochemical, thermal, pasting and morphological properties of starch are described as well. In addition, the main industrial applications of oxidized starches are presented. The present review is important for understanding the effects of oxidation on starch properties, and this information may facilitate the development of novel oxidized starches for both food and non-food applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A review on the applications of crowdsourcing in human pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshanak Alialy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of the digital pathology has introduced new avenues of diagnostic medicine. Among them, crowdsourcing has attracted researchers' attention in the recent years, allowing them to engage thousands of untrained individuals in research and diagnosis. While there exist several articles in this regard, prior works have not collectively documented them. We, therefore, aim to review the applications of crowdsourcing in human pathology in a semi-systematic manner. We first, introduce a novel method to do a systematic search of the literature. Utilizing this method, we, then, collect hundreds of articles and screen them against a predefined set of criteria. Furthermore, we crowdsource part of the screening process, to examine another potential application of crowdsourcing. Finally, we review the selected articles and characterize the prior uses of crowdsourcing in pathology.

  7. A Review on Virtual Hospital Concept and its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hassankhani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Virtual hospital is an informational-interactive system that seeks to ensure that the benefits of modern medicine are available to everyone. The aim of this non-systematic narrative study was to review virtual hospital concept and its applications. Information collecting was conducted by literature review and visiting virtual hospitals' websites. Most of the already existing articles were about virtual hospitals modeling and its application in patients' management. Present data show that virtual hospitals' websites had some role in education, decreasing hospital infection rate, improving patient outcome, etc. In general, virtual hospitals have both many advantages and disadvantages. As a result, all the outcomes should be considered when modeling this new technology. ​

  8. Planar Bragg Grating Sensors—Fabrication and Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. G. Sparrow

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the background and technology of planar Bragg grating sensors, reviewing their development and describing the latest developments. The physical operating principles are discussed, relating device operation to user requirements. Recent performance of such devices includes a planar Bragg grating sensor design which allows refractive index resolution of 1.9×10−6 RIU and temperature resolution of 0.03∘C. This sensor design is incorporated into industrialised applications allowing the sensor to be used for real time sensing in intrinsically safe, high-pressure pipelines, or for insertion probe applications such as fermentation. Initial data demonstrating the ability to identify solvents and monitor long term industrial processes is presented. A brief review of the technology used to fabricate the sensors is given along with examples of the flexibility afforded by the technique.

  9. A Review on the Applications of Crowdsourcing in Human Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alialy, Roshanak; Tavakkol, Sasan; Tavakkol, Elham; Ghorbani-Aghbologhi, Amir; Ghaffarieh, Alireza; Kim, Seon Ho; Shahabi, Cyrus

    2018-01-01

    The advent of the digital pathology has introduced new avenues of diagnostic medicine. Among them, crowdsourcing has attracted researchers’ attention in the recent years, allowing them to engage thousands of untrained individuals in research and diagnosis. While there exist several articles in this regard, prior works have not collectively documented them. We, therefore, aim to review the applications of crowdsourcing in human pathology in a semi-systematic manner. We first, introduce a novel method to do a systematic search of the literature. Utilizing this method, we, then, collect hundreds of articles and screen them against a predefined set of criteria. Furthermore, we crowdsource part of the screening process, to examine another potential application of crowdsourcing. Finally, we review the selected articles and characterize the prior uses of crowdsourcing in pathology. PMID:29531847

  10. Review of Positive Psychology Applications in Clinical Medical Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Ann Macaskill

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the application of positive psychology concepts in physical health care contexts. Positive psychology aims to promote well-being in the general population. Studies identifying character strengths associated with well-being in healthy populations are numerous. Such strengths have been classified and Positive Psychology Interventions (PPIs) created to develop these strengths further in individuals. Positive psychology research is increasingly being undertaken in health care...

  11. Advanced Applications of Neural Networks and Artificial Intelligence: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Koushal Kumar; Gour Sundar Mitra Thakur

    2012-01-01

    Artificial Neural Network is a branch of Artificial intelligence and has been accepted as a new computing technology in computer science fields. This paper reviews the field of Artificial intelligence and focusing on recent applications which uses Artificial Neural Networks (ANN’s) and Artificial Intelligence (AI). It also considers the integration of neural networks with other computing methods Such as fuzzy logic to enhance the interpretation ability of data. Artificial Neural Networks is c...

  12. Review of diffusion tensor imaging and its application in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorona, Gregory A. [Children' s Hospital of Richmond at Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Radiology, Richmond, VA (United States); Berman, Jeffrey I. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Diffusion MRI is an imaging technique that uses the random motion of water to probe tissue microstructure. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can quantitatively depict the organization and connectivity of white matter. Given the non-invasiveness of the technique, DTI has become a widely used tool for researchers and clinicians to examine the white matter of children. This review covers the basics of diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging and discusses examples of their clinical application in children. (orig.)

  13. Transport in nanofluidic systems: a review of theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparreboom, W; Van den Berg, A; Eijkel, J C T

    2010-01-01

    In this paper transport through nanochannels is assessed, both of liquids and of dissolved molecules or ions. First, we review principles of transport at the nanoscale, which will involve the identification of important length scales where transitions in behavior occur. We also present several important consequences that a high surface-to-volume ratio has for transport. We review liquid slip, chemical equilibria between solution and wall molecules, molecular adsorption to the channel walls and wall surface roughness. We also identify recent developments and trends in the field of nanofluidics, mention key differences with microfluidic transport and review applications. Novel opportunities are emphasized, made possible by the unique behavior of liquids at the nanoscale.

  14. The effectiveness of telemental health applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailey, David; Roine, Risto; Ohinmaa, Arto

    2008-11-01

    To review the evidence of benefit from use of telemental health (TMH) in studies that reported clinical or administrative outcomes. Relevant publications were identified through computerized literature searches using several electronic databases. Included for review were scientifically valid articles that described controlled studies, comparing TMH with a non-TMH alternative, and uncontrolled studies that had no fewer than 20 participants. Quality of the evidence was assessed with an approach that considers both study performance and study design. Judgments were made on whether further data were needed to establish each TMH application as suitable for routine clinical use. Included in the review were 72 papers that described 65 clinical studies; 32 (49%) studies were of high or good quality. Quality of evidence was higher for Internet- and telephone-based interventions than for video conferencing approaches. There was evidence of success with TMH in the areas of child psychiatry, depression, dementia, schizophrenia, suicide prevention, posttraumatic stress, panic disorders, substance abuse, eating disorders, and smoking prevention. Evidence of success for general TMH programs and in the management of obsessive-compulsive disorder were less convincing. Further study was judged to be necessary or desirable in 53 (82%) of the studies. Evidence of benefit from TMH applications is encouraging, though still limited. There is a need for more good-quality studies on the use of TMH in routine care. The emerging use of Internet-based applications is an important development that deserves further evaluation.

  15. Applications and Preparation Methods of Copper Chromite Catalysts: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Prasad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this review article various applications and preparation methods of copper chromite catalysts have been discussed. While discussing it is concluded that copper chromite is a versatile catalyst which not only catalyses numerous processes of commercial importance and national program related to defence and space research but also finds applications in the most concerned problem worldwide i.e. environmental pollution control. Several other very useful applications of copper chromite catalysts are in production of clean energy, drugs and agro chemicals, etc. Various preparation methods about 15 have been discussed which depicts clear idea about the dependence of catalytic activity and selectivity on way of preparation of catalyst. In view of the globally increasing interest towards copper chromite catalysis, reexamination on the important applications of such catalysts and their useful preparation methods is thus the need of the time. This review paper encloses 369 references including a well-conceivable tabulation of the newer state of the art. Copyright © 2011 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.(Received: 19th March 2011, Revised: 03rd May 2011, Accepted: 23rd May 2011[How to Cite: R. Prasad, and P. Singh. (2011. Applications and Preparation Methods of Copper Chromite Catalysts: A Review. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6 (2: 63-113. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.2.829.63-113][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.2.829.63-113 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/829 ] | View in 

  16. REVIEW ARTICLE: Spectrophotometric applications of digital signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawski, Roman Z.

    2006-09-01

    Spectrophotometry is more and more often the method of choice not only in analysis of (bio)chemical substances, but also in the identification of physical properties of various objects and their classification. The applications of spectrophotometry include such diversified tasks as monitoring of optical telecommunications links, assessment of eating quality of food, forensic classification of papers, biometric identification of individuals, detection of insect infestation of seeds and classification of textiles. In all those applications, large numbers of data, generated by spectrophotometers, are processed by various digital means in order to extract measurement information. The main objective of this paper is to review the state-of-the-art methodology for digital signal processing (DSP) when applied to data provided by spectrophotometric transducers and spectrophotometers. First, a general methodology of DSP applications in spectrophotometry, based on DSP-oriented models of spectrophotometric data, is outlined. Then, the most important classes of DSP methods for processing spectrophotometric data—the methods for DSP-aided calibration of spectrophotometric instrumentation, the methods for the estimation of spectra on the basis of spectrophotometric data, the methods for the estimation of spectrum-related measurands on the basis of spectrophotometric data—are presented. Finally, the methods for preprocessing and postprocessing of spectrophotometric data are overviewed. Throughout the review, the applications of DSP are illustrated with numerous examples related to broadly understood spectrophotometry.

  17. Review and classification of variability analysis techniques with clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Andrea; Longtin, André; Seely, Andrew J E

    2011-10-10

    Analysis of patterns of variation of time-series, termed variability analysis, represents a rapidly evolving discipline with increasing applications in different fields of science. In medicine and in particular critical care, efforts have focussed on evaluating the clinical utility of variability. However, the growth and complexity of techniques applicable to this field have made interpretation and understanding of variability more challenging. Our objective is to provide an updated review of variability analysis techniques suitable for clinical applications. We review more than 70 variability techniques, providing for each technique a brief description of the underlying theory and assumptions, together with a summary of clinical applications. We propose a revised classification for the domains of variability techniques, which include statistical, geometric, energetic, informational, and invariant. We discuss the process of calculation, often necessitating a mathematical transform of the time-series. Our aims are to summarize a broad literature, promote a shared vocabulary that would improve the exchange of ideas, and the analyses of the results between different studies. We conclude with challenges for the evolving science of variability analysis.

  18. Review and classification of variability analysis techniques with clinical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of patterns of variation of time-series, termed variability analysis, represents a rapidly evolving discipline with increasing applications in different fields of science. In medicine and in particular critical care, efforts have focussed on evaluating the clinical utility of variability. However, the growth and complexity of techniques applicable to this field have made interpretation and understanding of variability more challenging. Our objective is to provide an updated review of variability analysis techniques suitable for clinical applications. We review more than 70 variability techniques, providing for each technique a brief description of the underlying theory and assumptions, together with a summary of clinical applications. We propose a revised classification for the domains of variability techniques, which include statistical, geometric, energetic, informational, and invariant. We discuss the process of calculation, often necessitating a mathematical transform of the time-series. Our aims are to summarize a broad literature, promote a shared vocabulary that would improve the exchange of ideas, and the analyses of the results between different studies. We conclude with challenges for the evolving science of variability analysis. PMID:21985357

  19. Applications of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT): A Short Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanti Bera, Tushar

    2018-03-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a tomographic imaging method which solves an ill posed inverse problem using the boundary voltage-current data collected from the surface of the object under test. Though the spatial resolution is comparatively low compared to conventional tomographic imaging modalities, due to several advantages EIT has been studied for a number of applications such as medical imaging, material engineering, civil engineering, biotechnology, chemical engineering, MEMS and other fields of engineering and applied sciences. In this paper, the applications of EIT have been reviewed and presented as a short summary. The working principal, instrumentation and advantages are briefly discussed followed by a detail discussion on the applications of EIT technology in different areas of engineering, technology and applied sciences.

  20. Synthesis, Properties and Potential Applications of Porous Graphene: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paola Russo; Anming Hu; Giuseppe Compagnini

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of graphene, many efforts have been done to modify the graphene structure for integrating this novel material to nanoelectronics, fuel cells, energy storage devices and in many other applications. This leads to the production of different types of graphene-based materials, which possess properties different from those of pure graphene. Porous graphene is an example of this type of materials. It can be considered as a graphene sheet with some holes/pores within the atomic plane. Due to its spongy structure, porous graphene can have potential applications as membranes for molecular sieving, energy storage components and in nanoelectronics. In this review, we present the recent progress in the synthesis of porous graphene. The properties and the potential applications of this new material are also discussed.

  1. Applications of nanotechnology in wastewater treatment--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Tanujjal; Dutta, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    Water on Earth is a precious and finite resource, which is endlessly recycled in the water cycle. Water, whose physical, chemical, or biological properties have been altered due to the addition of contaminants such as organic/inorganic materials, pathogens, heavy metals or other toxins making it unsafe for the ecosystem, can be termed as wastewater. Various schemes have been adopted by industries across the world to treat wastewater prior to its release to the ecosystem, and several new concepts and technologies are fast replacing the traditional methods. This article briefly reviews the recent advances and application of nanotechnology for wastewater treatment. Nanomaterials typically have high reactivity and a high degree of functionalization, large specific surface area, size-dependent properties etc., which makes them suitable for applications in wastewater treatment and for water purification. In this article, the application of various nanomaterials such as metal nanoparticles, metal oxides, carbon compounds, zeolite, filtration membranes, etc., in the field of wastewater treatment is discussed.

  2. Classifications, applications, and design challenges of drones: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanalian, M.; Abdelkefi, A.

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays, there is a growing need for flying drones with diverse capabilities for both civilian and military applications. There is also a significant interest in the development of novel drones which can autonomously fly in different environments and locations and can perform various missions. In the past decade, the broad spectrum of applications of these drones has received most attention which led to the invention of various types of drones with different sizes and weights. In this review paper, we identify a novel classification of flying drones that ranges from unmanned air vehicles to smart dusts at both ends of this spectrum, with their new defined applications. Design and fabrication challenges of micro drones, existing methods for increasing their endurance, and various navigation and control approaches are discussed in details. Limitations of the existing drones, proposed solutions for the next generation of drones, and recommendations are also presented and discussed.

  3. Application of nanohydrogels in drug delivery systems: recent patents review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalwadi, Chintan; Patel, Gayatri

    2015-01-01

    Nanohydrogel combines the advantages of hydrogel and nano particulate systems. Similar to the hydrogel and macrogel, nanohydrogel can protect the drug and control drug release by stimuli responsive conformation or biodegradable bond into the polymer networks. Nanohydrogel has drawn huge interest due to their potential applications, such as carrier in target-specific controlled drug delivery, absorbents, chemical/biological sensors, and bio-mimetic materials. Similar to the nanoparticles, stimuli responsive nanohydrogel can easily be delivered in the liquid form for parenteral drug delivery application. This review highlights the methods to prepare nanohydrogel based on natural and synthetic polymers for diverse applications in drug delivery. It also encompasses the drug loading and drug release mechanism of the nanohydrogel formulation and patents related to the composition and chemical methods for preparation of nanohydrogel formulation with current status in clinical trials.

  4. A review of current sleep screening applications for smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Joachim; Roebuck, Aoife; Domingos, João S; Gederi, Elnaz; Clifford, Gari D

    2013-07-01

    Sleep disorders are a common problem and contribute to a wide range of healthcare issues. The societal and financial costs of sleep disorders are enormous. Sleep-related disorders are often diagnosed with an overnight sleep test called a polysomnogram, or sleep study involving the measurement of brain activity through the electroencephalogram. Other parameters monitored include oxygen saturation, respiratory effort, cardiac activity (through the electrocardiogram), as well as video recording, sound and movement activity. Monitoring can be costly and removes the patients from their normal sleeping environment, preventing repeated unbiased studies. The recent increase in adoption of smartphones, with high quality on-board sensors has led to the proliferation of many sleep screening applications running on the phone. However, with the exception of simple questionnaires, no existing sleep-related application available for smartphones is based on scientific evidence. This paper reviews the existing smartphone applications landscape used in the field of sleep disorders and proposes possible advances to improve screening approaches.

  5. Review of Compact Commercial Accelerator Products and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, Y.

    1997-05-01

    Historically, particle accelerators were developed initially for nuclear, then for particle physics research. From this research resulted applications of accelerators in the field of medicine and industry. These application-oriented accelerators are generally built commercially, and they often emphasize other qualities than the accelerators for research. The research applications frequently require energies or beam qualities at the limit of the existing technologies. They offer the largest flexibility in term of particles and beam properties, but are more complex, more expensive and often require large and highly qualified staff to operate and maintain them. In contrast, most applications are done with low to moderate energy protons or electrons, but often with large average beam power. The accelerators are generally specialized for a specific application, and are therefore very simple and inexpensive to operate. The author will review some applications in the field of medicine, such as the production of radio-isotopes for medical diagnostic or the production of electrons, protons or fast neutron beams for cancer therapy. In the industrial field, high power electron beam are used for sterilization and for the modification of materials. Log No. 1001

  6. Review of Mechanics and Applications of Auxetic Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Mir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the important mechanical properties of materials is Poisson’s ratio, which is positive for most of the materials. However, certain materials exhibit “auxetic” properties; that is, they have a negative Poisson’s ratio. Thus auxetic and non-auxetic materials exhibit different deformation mechanisms. A specific microscopic structure in the auxetic materials is important for maintaining a negative Poisson’s ratio. Based on their distinct nature auxetic materials execute certain unique properties in contrast to other materials, which are reviewed in this paper. Thus auxetic materials have important applications in the biomedical field which are also a part of this review article. Many auxetic materials have been discovered, fabricated, and synthesized which differ on the basis of structure, scale and deformation mechanism. The different types of auxetic materials such as auxetic cellular solids, microscopic auxetic polymers, molecular auxetic materials, and auxetic composites have been reviewed comprehensively in this paper. Modeling of auxetic structures is of considerable importance and needs appropriate stress strain configurations; thus different aspects of auxetic modeling have also been reviewed. Packing parameters and relative densities are of prime importance in this regard. This review would thus help the researchers in determining and deciding the various aspects of auxetic nature for their products.

  7. Mobile Health Applications for Pediatric Care: Review and Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Samantha Sangie; Murugiah, Muthu Kumar; Soh, Yee Chang; Wong, Tin Wui; Ming, Long Chiau

    2018-05-01

    Despite the surge in mobile health (mHealth) applications (apps) about pediatric care in commercial app stores, to our knowledge, reviews of the quality of such apps are lacking. Consequently, it is a great challenge for health care professionals (HCPs) to identify appropriate and reliable mHealth apps for delivering health care services. Thus, we performed a structured review of the extant literature about mHealth apps in pediatric care and quality assessment of selected apps found in commercial app stores. A review and comparison of mHealth apps in pediatric care found in Google's Play Store (Android system) and Apple's App Store (iOS system) were performed. For the structured review of the available literature, Google Scholar, PubMed, IEEE Xplore Digital Library, and Science Direct online databases were used for the literature search. The assessment criteria used for comparison included requirement for Internet connection, size of application, information on disease, diagnostic tools, medical calculator, information on disease treatments, dosage recommendations, and drug interaction checker. Fifty mHealth apps for general pediatric care and 8 mHealth apps for specific pediatric diseases were discussed in the literature. Of the 90 mHealth apps we reviewed, 27 that fulfilled the study criteria were selected for quality assessment. Medscape, Skyscape, and iGuideline scored the highest (score=7), while PediaBP scored the lowest (score=3). Medscape, Skyscape, and iGuideline are the most comprehensive mHealth apps for HCPs as quick references for pediatric care. More studies about mHealth apps in pediatric care are warranted to ensure the quality and reliability of mHealth apps.

  8. Film forming microbial biopolymers for commercial applications--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayendra, S V N; Shamala, T R

    2014-12-01

    Microorganisms synthesize intracellular, structural and extracellular polymers also referred to as biopolymers for their function and survival. These biopolymers play specific roles as energy reserve materials, protective agents, aid in cell functioning, the establishment of symbiosis, osmotic adaptation and support the microbial genera to function, adapt, multiply and survive efficiently under changing environmental conditions. Viscosifying, gelling and film forming properties of these have been exploited for specific significant applications in food and allied industries. Intensive research activities and recent achievements in relevant and important research fields of global interest regarding film forming microbial biopolymers is the subject of this review. Microbial polymers such as pullulan, kefiran, bacterial cellulose (BC), gellan and levan are placed under the category of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and have several other functional properties including film formation, which can be used for various applications in food and allied industries. In addition to EPS, innumerable bacterial genera are found to synthesis carbon energy reserves in their cells known as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), microbial polyesters, which can be extruded into films with excellent moisture and oxygen barrier properties. Blow moldable biopolymers like PHA along with polylactic acid (PLA) synthesized chemically in vitro using lactic acid (LA), which is produced by LA bacteria through fermentation, are projected as biodegradable polymers of the future for packaging applications. Designing and creating of new property based on requirements through controlled synthesis can lead to improvement in properties of existing polysaccharides and create novel biopolymers of great commercial interest and value for wider applications. Incorporation of antimicrobials such as bacteriocins or silver and copper nanoparticles can enhance the functionality of polymer films especially in food packaging

  9. Review and update of the applications of organic petrology: Part 2, geological and multidisciplinary applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel; Flores, Deolinda; Mendonça Filho, João Graciano; Hackley, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper is focused on organic petrology applied to unconventional and multidisciplinary investigations and is the second part of a two part review that describes the geological applications and uses of this branch of earth sciences. Therefore, this paper reviews the use of organic petrology in investigations of: (i) ore genesis when organic matter occurs associated with mineralization; (ii) the behavior of organic matter in coal fires (self-heating and self-combustion); (iii) environmental and anthropogenic impacts associated with the management and industrial utilization of coal; (iv) archeology and the nature and geographical provenance of objects of organic nature such as jet, amber, other artifacts and coal from archeological sites; and (v) forensic science connected with criminal behavior or disasters. This second part of the review outlines the most recent research and applications of organic petrology in those fields.

  10. Reviewing model application to support animal health decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Alexander; Salman, Mo; Thulke, Hans-Hermann

    2011-04-01

    Animal health is of societal importance as it affects human welfare, and anthropogenic interests shape decision making to assure animal health. Scientific advice to support decision making is manifold. Modelling, as one piece of the scientific toolbox, is appreciated for its ability to describe and structure data, to give insight in complex processes and to predict future outcome. In this paper we study the application of scientific modelling to support practical animal health decisions. We reviewed the 35 animal health related scientific opinions adopted by the Animal Health and Animal Welfare Panel of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Thirteen of these documents were based on the application of models. The review took two viewpoints, the decision maker's need and the modeller's approach. In the reviewed material three types of modelling questions were addressed by four specific model types. The correspondence between tasks and models underpinned the importance of the modelling question in triggering the modelling approach. End point quantifications were the dominating request from decision makers, implying that prediction of risk is a major need. However, due to knowledge gaps corresponding modelling studies often shed away from providing exact numbers. Instead, comparative scenario analyses were performed, furthering the understanding of the decision problem and effects of alternative management options. In conclusion, the most adequate scientific support for decision making - including available modelling capacity - might be expected if the required advice is clearly stated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Schumann Resonances and Their Potential Applications: a Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Fathi Alrais

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Schumann resonances is an important topic gains great interest in research areas which has extensive use of Schumann resonances in a variety of desplines such as biological evolutionary processes, the optimal functioning of the human brain waves and lightning-related studies. Materials and Methods: This dictates the major emphasis on economic, environmental, and engineering applications and hazard assessments in the form of earthquake and volcano monitoring. Results: This review is aimed at the reader generally unfamiliar with the Schumann Resonances. It is our hope that this review will increase the interest in SR among researchers previously unfamiliar with this phenomenon. Discussion and Conclusions: In this review paper, a brief introduction about Schumann resonances is presented. A general description of Earth’s ionosphere is outlined. The electromagnetic waves spectrum from lightning is discussed. The history of Schumann resonances is briefly presented. The connection of man with nature through Schumann resonances is introduced. Present Schumann resonances researches are briefly outlined. Schumann (global electromagnetic resonances in the cavity Earth – ionosphere play a critical role in all biological evolutionary processes. However, there is a great need for independent research into the bio-compatibility between natural and manmade signals. Serious attention must now be paid to the possible biological role of standing waves in the atmosphere. Being a global phenomenon, Schumann resonances have numerous applications in lightning research.

  12. Review on thin-film transistor technology, its applications, and possible new applications to biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixier-Mita, Agnès; Ihida, Satoshi; Ségard, Bertrand-David; Cathcart, Grant A.; Takahashi, Takuya; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a review on state-of-the-art of thin-film transistor (TFT) technology and its wide range of applications, not only in liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCDs), but also in sensing devices. The history of the evolution of the technology is first given. Then the standard applications of TFT-LCDs, and X-ray detectors, followed by state-of-the-art applications in the field of chemical and biochemical sensing are presented. TFT technology allows the fabrication of dense arrays of independent and transparent microelectrodes on large glass substrates. The potential of these devices as electrical substrates for biological cell applications is then described. The possibility of using TFT array substrates as new tools for electrical experiments on biological cells has been investigated for the first time by our group. Dielectrophoresis experiments and impedance measurements on yeast cells are presented here. Their promising results open the door towards new applications of TFT technology.

  13. Review of soft x-ray lasers and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.

    1991-03-01

    The emerging technology of soft x-ray lasers is in a transition phase between the first laboratory demonstrations of gain and the acceptance of soft x-ray lasers as practical tools for novel applications. Current research is focused on several fronts. The operational wavelength range has been extended to the ''water window'', important for applications in the life sciences. Gain has also been generated with substantially simpler technology (such as a 6J laser) and this augurs well for the commercially availability in the near future of soft x-ray lasers for a variety of applications. Advanced soft x-ray laser concepts are being developed from investigations into ultra-high intensity laser/matter interactions. The first paper a brief historical perspective of x-ray microscopy and holography have begun. In this paper a brief historical perspective of x-ray laser development will be followed by a review of recent advances in recombination, collisional and photo-pumped systems and applications. A summary of current gain-length performance achieved in laboratories worldwide is presented. Near term prospects for applications to novel fields are discussed. 81 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  14. SSNTD applications in science and technology - A brief review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.A.; Qureshi, I.E.

    1999-01-01

    The technique of Solid State Nuclear Track Detection (SSNTD) has matured since long as a viable method of charged particle detection. The usage of this method has been successfully extended to neutron detection and gamma dose measurements as well. The etch-track mechanism has been further exploited to generate a major application area of nuclear track filters. In spite of the remarkable diversity of SSNTD applications that have emerged over the years in different fields, its potential is by no means saturated. In this article, a brief review of SSNTD applications is presented with reference to contemporary interests in science and technology. For convenience, the coverage of topics is organized under broad categories of Nuclear Physics, Materials Research, Geology, Environmental Science and allied technologies. While identifying high interest areas, those with limited but innovative applications are also mentioned. In some cases, the important results are quoted for the purpose of illustrating the strength of track detection method. In general, the presentation is aimed at providing a broad perspective of current SSNTD uses instead of detailed description of individual applications. The coverage is selective rather than exhaustive and portrays authors' preferences. Some comments related to the adoption of this technique as a mainstream method of detection are also given

  15. Neurorehabilitation and apps: A systematic review of mobile applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Rodríguez, M T; Collado Vázquez, S; Martín Casas, P; Cano de la Cuerda, R

    2015-12-17

    Mobile health or mHealth, defined as the provision of health information or healthcare by means of mobile devices or tablets, is emerging as a major game-changer for patients, care providers, and investors. An app is a program with special characteristics installed on a small mobile device, either a tablet or smartphone, with which the user interacts via a touch-based interface. The purpose of the app is to facilitate completion of a certain task or assist with daily activities. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of published information on apps directed at the field of neurorehabilitation, in order to classify them and describe their main characteristics. A systematic review was carried out by means of a literature search in biomedical databases and other information sources related to mobile applications. Apps were classified into five categories: health habits, information, assessment, treatment, and specific uses. There are numerous applications with potential for use in the field of neurorehabilitation, so it is important that developers and designers understand the needs of people with neurological disorders so that their products will be valid and effective in light of those needs. Similarly, professionals, patients, families, and caregivers should have clear criteria and indicators to help them select the best applications for their specific situations. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. A review of current sleep screening applications for smartphones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behar, Joachim; Roebuck, Aoife; Domingos, João S; Gederi, Elnaz; Clifford, Gari D

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders are a common problem and contribute to a wide range of healthcare issues. The societal and financial costs of sleep disorders are enormous. Sleep-related disorders are often diagnosed with an overnight sleep test called a polysomnogram, or sleep study involving the measurement of brain activity through the electroencephalogram. Other parameters monitored include oxygen saturation, respiratory effort, cardiac activity (through the electrocardiogram), as well as video recording, sound and movement activity. Monitoring can be costly and removes the patients from their normal sleeping environment, preventing repeated unbiased studies. The recent increase in adoption of smartphones, with high quality on-board sensors has led to the proliferation of many sleep screening applications running on the phone. However, with the exception of simple questionnaires, no existing sleep-related application available for smartphones is based on scientific evidence. This paper reviews the existing smartphone applications landscape used in the field of sleep disorders and proposes possible advances to improve screening approaches. (topical review)

  17. A Review on Catalytic Membranes Production and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Abdallah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of the chemical industry regarding reducing the production cost and obtaining a high-quality product with low environmental impact became the essential requirements of the world in these days. The catalytic membrane is considered as one of the new alternative solutions of catalysts problems in the industries, where the reaction and separation can be amalgamated in one unit. The catalytic membrane has numerous advantages such as breaking the thermodynamic equilibrium limitation, increasing conversion rate, reducing the recycle and separation costs. But the limitation or most disadvantages of catalytic membranes related to the high capital costs for fabrication or the fact that manufacturing process is still under development. This review article summarizes the most recent advances and research activities related to preparation, characterization, and applications of catalytic membranes. In this article, various types of catalytic membranes are displayed with different applications and explained the positive impacts of using catalytic membranes in various reactions. Copyright © 2017 BCREC Group. All rights reserved. Received: 1st April 2016; Revised: 14th February 2017; Accepted: 22nd February 2017 How to Cite: Abdallah, H. (2017. A Review on Catalytic Membranes Production and Applications. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (2: 136-156 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.2.462.136-156 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.12.2.462.136-156

  18. Preparation, characteristics, convection and applications of magnetic nanofluids: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aditya; Subudhi, Sudhakar

    2018-02-01

    Magnetic nanofluids (MNfs), the colloidal suspension of ferromagnetic nanomaterial, have been taken into research fascinatingly. After contemplating its distinctive interesting properties and unique eximious features it offers innumerous application not only in heat transfer field but also immensely prevalent in medical, biological, aerospace, electronics and solar sciences. This review paper epitomizes and perusing the research work done on heat transfer application of MNfs and encapsulate it for the future research support. Moreover, numerical and experimental, both the approaches has been included for the insightful analysis of phenomenon to apprehend augmentation in heat transfer by MNfs. This article first underlines the importance of appropriate methods of preparation of MNfs as well as its effects on the thermophysical properties of MNfs. Subsequently, the paper comprehended the descriptive analysis of augmentation of convection heat transfer and the effect of magnetic field on the behavior MNfs. Additionally, the effect of magnetic field intensity has been taken as a pertinent parameter and correlations have been developed for thermal conductivity, viscosity and heat transfer coefficient based on the reviewed data. The paper concluded with the tremendous applications of the MNfs and the futuristic plan to support the potential areas for future research.

  19. Application of systematic review methodology to the field of nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Alice H; Yetley, Elizabeth A; Lau, Joseph

    2008-12-01

    Systematic reviews represent a rigorous and transparent approach to synthesizing scientific evidence that minimizes bias. They evolved within the medical community to support development of clinical and public health practice guidelines, set research agendas, and formulate scientific consensus statements. The use of systematic reviews for nutrition-related topics is more recent. Systematic reviews provide independently conducted comprehensive and objective assessments of available information addressing precise questions. This approach to summarizing available data is a useful tool for identifying the state of science including knowledge gaps and associated research needs, supporting development of science-based recommendations and guidelines, and serving as the foundation for updates as new data emerge. Our objective is to describe the steps for performing systematic reviews and highlight areas unique to the discipline of nutrition that are important to consider in data assessment. The steps involved in generating systematic reviews include identifying staffing and planning for outside expert input, forming a research team, developing an analytic framework, developing and refining research questions, defining eligibility criteria, identifying search terms, screening abstracts according to eligibility criteria, retrieving articles for evaluation, constructing evidence and summary tables, assessing methodological quality and applicability, and synthesizing results including performing meta-analysis, if appropriate. Unique and at times challenging, nutrition-related considerations include baseline nutrient exposure, nutrient status, bioequivalence of bioactive compounds, bioavailability, multiple and interrelated biological functions, undefined nature of some interventions, and uncertainties in intake assessment. Systematic reviews are a valuable and independent component of decision-making processes by groups responsible for developing science-based recommendations

  20. Applicability of HRA to support advanced MMI design review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Inn Seock

    2000-01-01

    More than half of all incidents in large complex technological systems, particularly in nuclear power or aviation industries, were attributable in some way to human erroneous actions. These incidents were largely due to the human engineering deficiencies of man-machine interface (MMI). In nuclear industry, advanced computer-based MMI designs are emerging as part of new reactor designs. The impact of advanced MMI technology on the operator performance, and as a result, on plant safety should be thoroughly evaluated before such technology is actually adopted in nuclear power plants. This paper discusses the applicability of human reliability analysis (HRA) to support the design review process. Both the first-generation and the second-generation HRA methods are considered focusing on a couple of promising HRA methods, i.e., ATHEANA and CREAM, with the potential to assist the design review process. (author)

  1. A review on one dimensional perovskite nanocrystals for piezoelectric applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Qian Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, one-dimensional piezoelectric nanomaterials have become a research topic of interest because of their special morphology and excellent piezoelectric properties. This article presents a short review on one dimensional perovskite piezoelectric materials in different systems including Pb(Zr,TiO3, BaTiO3 and (K,NaNbO3 (KNN. We emphasize KNN as a promising lead-free piezoelectric compound with a high Curie temperature and high piezoelectric properties and describe its synthesis and characterization. In particular, details are presented for nanoscale piezoelectricity characterization of a single KNN nanocrystal by piezoresponse force microscopy. Finally, this review describes recent progress in applications based on one dimensional piezoelectric nanostructures with a focus on energy harvesting composite materials.

  2. Quantum Dots and Their Multimodal Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Holloway

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Semiconducting quantum dots, whose particle sizes are in the nanometer range, have very unusual properties. The quantum dots have band gaps that depend in a complicated fashion upon a number of factors, described in the article. Processing-structure-properties-performance relationships are reviewed for compound semiconducting quantum dots. Various methods for synthesizing these quantum dots are discussed, as well as their resulting properties. Quantum states and confinement of their excitons may shift their optical absorption and emission energies. Such effects are important for tuning their luminescence stimulated by photons (photoluminescence or electric field (electroluminescence. In this article, decoupling of quantum effects on excitation and emission are described, along with the use of quantum dots as sensitizers in phosphors. In addition, we reviewed the multimodal applications of quantum dots, including in electroluminescence device, solar cell and biological imaging.

  3. A review of visual MODFLOW applications in groundwater modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, V.; Shankar, M. Uma

    2017-11-01

    Visual MODLOW is a Graphical User Interface for the USGS MODFLOW. It is a commercial software that is popular among the hydrogeologists for its user-friendly features. The software is mainly used for Groundwater flow and contaminant transport models under different conditions. This article is intended to review the versatility of its applications in groundwater modelling for the last 22 years. Agriculture, airfields, constructed wetlands, climate change, drought studies, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), landfills, mining operations, river and flood plain monitoring, salt water intrusion, soil profile surveys, watershed analyses, etc., are the areas where the software has been reportedly used till the current date. The review will provide a clarity on the scope of the software in groundwater modelling and research.

  4. Applicable or non-applicable: investigations of clinical heterogeneity in systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Chess

    2016-02-01

    characteristics they initially chose as potential for clinical heterogeneity. Very few studies mentioned clinician training, compliance, brand, co-interventions, dose route, ethnicity, prognostic markers and psychosocial variables as covariates to investigate as potentially clinically heterogeneous. Addressing aspects of clinical heterogeneity was not different between Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews. Conclusions The ability to quantify and compare the clinical differences of trials within a meta-analysis is crucial to determining its applicability and use in clinical practice. Despite Cochrane Collaboration emphasis on methodology, the proportion of reviews that assess clinical heterogeneity is less than those of non-Cochrane reviews. Our assessment reveals that there is room for improvement in assessing clinical heterogeneity in both Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews.

  5. Fire protection system operating experience review for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a review of fire protection system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of fire protection system component failure rates and fire accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with these systems are discussed, including spurious operation. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

  6. Review of Biological Network Data and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghyeon Yu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying biological networks, such as protein-protein interactions, is key to understanding complex biological activities. Various types of large-scale biological datasets have been collected and analyzed with high-throughput technologies, including DNA microarray, next-generation sequencing, and the two-hybrid screening system, for this purpose. In this review, we focus on network-based approaches that help in understanding biological systems and identifying biological functions. Accordingly, this paper covers two major topics in network biology: reconstruction of gene regulatory networks and network-based applications, including protein function prediction, disease gene prioritization, and network-based genome-wide association study.

  7. Fire protection system operating experience review for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a review of fire protection system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of fire protection system component failure rates and fire accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with these systems are discussed, including spurious operation. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  8. Microfiber-Based Bragg Gratings for Sensing Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Long Kou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfiber-based Bragg gratings (MFBGs are an emerging concept in ultra-small optical fiber sensors. They have attracted great attention among researchers in the fiber sensing area because of their large evanescent field and compactness. In this review, the basic techniques for the fabrication of MFBGs are introduced first. Then, the sensing properties and applications of MFBGs are discussed, including measurement of refractive index (RI, temperature, and strain/force. Finally a summary of selected MFBG sensing elements from previous literature are tabulated.

  9. Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys: A Review of Material Development and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud-Sharma, Dharam; McGoron, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium based alloys possess a natural ability to biodegrade due to corrosion when placed within aqueous substances, which is promising for cardiovascular and orthopedic medical device applications. These materials can serve as a temporary scaffold when placed in vivo, which is desirable for treatments when temporary supportive structures are required to assist in the wound healing process. The nature of these materials to degrade is attributed to the high oxidative corrosion rates of magnesium. In this review, a summary is presented for magnesium material development, biocorrosion characteristics, as well as a biological translation for these results. PMID:22408600

  10. RF power harvesting: a review on designing methodologies and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Le-Giang; Cha, Hyouk-Kyu; Park, Woo-Tae

    2017-12-01

    Wireless power transmission was conceptualized nearly a century ago. Certain achievements made to date have made power harvesting a reality, capable of providing alternative sources of energy. This review provides a summ ary of radio frequency (RF) power harvesting technologies in order to serve as a guide for the design of RF energy harvesting units. Since energy harvesting circuits are designed to operate with relatively small voltages and currents, they rely on state-of-the-art electrical technology for obtaining high efficiency. Thus, comprehensive analysis and discussions of various designs and their tradeoffs are included. Finally, recent applications of RF power harvesting are outlined.

  11. Application of microbial transglutaminase in meat foods: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhi, D; Kalaikannan, A; Malairaj, P; Arun Prabhu, S

    2017-07-03

    Microbial transglutaminase (MTG) is an enzyme isolated from a variant of Streptomyces mobaraensis that forms covalent cross-links between protein molecules. Studies are being conducted since last two decades on utilization of MTG in meat foods to improve their characteristics, such as gelation, water-binding, emulsion stability, purge loss, cooking loss, etc. MTG is one of the important topics of interest in meat processing industry due to its advantages in practical utilization and commercial exploitation. This review will discuss about the overall applications of MTG in manipulating the functional properties of meat and meat products by means of various processes such as restructuring, value addition, etc.

  12. Cryogenic system operating experience review for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents a review of cryogenic system operating experiences, from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, space research, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of cryogenic component failure rates and accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with cryogenic systems are discussed, including ozone formation, effects of spills, and modeling spill behavior. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design

  13. [Ecological memory and its potential applications in ecology: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhong-yu; Ren, Hai

    2011-03-01

    Ecological memory (EM) is defined as the capability of the past states or experiences of a community to influence the present or future ecological responses of the community. As a relatively new concept, EM has received considerable attention in the study of ecosystem structure and function, such as community succession, ecological restoration, biological invasion, and natural resource management. This review summarized the definition, components, and categories of EM, and discussed the possible mechanisms and affecting factors of EM. Also, the potential applications of EM were proposed, in order to further understand the mechanisms of community succession and to guide ecological restoration.

  14. Review on Cyber Security Programs for NPP Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Eung Se [KEPRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Increased history records of cyber security (CS) attacks and concerns for computers and networks technical mishaps pull out cyber security to open places. In spite of secrete nature of security, transparent and shared knowledge of many security features are more required at modern plant floors. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), US Government and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requested to develop cyber security plans and enforce their implementing to the NPPs. [KINS; CFR; RG 5.71] This paper reviews various cyber security guidelines and suggests an applicable cyber security program development models during the life cycle of NPP's Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems

  15. Review on Cyber Security Programs for NPP Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Eung Se

    2010-01-01

    Increased history records of cyber security (CS) attacks and concerns for computers and networks technical mishaps pull out cyber security to open places. In spite of secrete nature of security, transparent and shared knowledge of many security features are more required at modern plant floors. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), US Government and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requested to develop cyber security plans and enforce their implementing to the NPPs. [KINS] [CFR] [RG 5.71] This paper reviews various cyber security guidelines and suggests an applicable cyber security program development models during the life cycle of NPP's Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems

  16. Technology, applications and modelling of ohmic heating: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, K Shiby; Pandey, M C; Radhakrishna, K; Bawa, A S

    2014-10-01

    Ohmic heating or Joule heating has immense potential for achieving rapid and uniform heating in foods, providing microbiologically safe and high quality foods. This review discusses the technology behind ohmic heating, the current applications and thermal modeling of the process. The success of ohmic heating depends on the rate of heat generation in the system, the electrical conductivity of the food, electrical field strength, residence time and the method by which the food flows through the system. Ohmic heating is appropriate for processing of particulate and protein rich foods. A vast amount of work is still necessary to understand food properties in order to refine system design and maximize performance of this technology in the field of packaged foods and space food product development. Various economic studies will also play an important role in understanding the overall cost and viability of commercial application of this technology in food processing. Some of the demerits of the technology are also discussed.

  17. Evolution of RFID Applications in Construction: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Enrique; Adán, Antonio; Cerrada, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been widely used in the field of construction during the last two decades. Basically, RFID facilitates the control on a wide variety of processes in different stages of the lifecycle of a building, from its conception to its inhabitance. The main objective of this paper is to present a review of RFID applications in the construction industry, pointing out the existing developments, limitations and gaps. The paper presents the establishment of the RFID technology in four main stages of the lifecycle of a facility: planning and design, construction and commission and operation and maintenance. Concerning this last stage, an RFID application aiming to facilitate the identification of pieces of furniture in scanned inhabited environments is presented. Conclusions and future advances are presented at the end of the paper. PMID:26151210

  18. Surfactin – A Review on Biosynthesis, Fermentation, Purification and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil S. Shaligram

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfactin, a bacterial cyclic lipopeptide, is produced by various strains of Bacillus subtilis and is primarily recognized as one of the most effective biosurfactants. It has the ability to reduce surface tension of water from 72 to 27 mN/m at a concentration as low as 0.005 %. The structure of surfactin consists of seven amino acids bonded to the carboxyl and hydroxyl groups of a 14-carbon fatty acid. Surfactin possesses a number of biological activities such as the ability to lyse erythrocytes, inhibit clot formation, lyse bacterial spheroplasts and protoplasts, and inhibit cyclic 3',5-monophosphate diesterase. The high cost of production and low yields have limited its use in various commercial applications. Both submerged and solid-state fermentation have been investigated with the mutational approach to improve the productivity. In this review, current state of knowledge on biosynthesis of surfactin, its fermentative production, purification, analytical methods and biomedical applications is presented.

  19. Review of neutron radiographic applications in industrial and biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.M.; Khan, A.R.

    1992-10-01

    Neutron radiography is a non-destructive testing technique and is being used worldwide for the design and the development of reactor fuels for research and power reactors. It is also being used for non-destructive examination of nuclear industrial products. In addition to its explosives and other industrial sectors. In addition to its applications in industrial sectors, the technique is widely used for research and development activities in biological systems. A review of technical applications of neutron radiography in different fields particularly in nuclear fuel management, aerospace industry, explosives and biology is presented. The methodology of neutron radiography is also discussed in detail along with the advantages of the technique. In addition, the potential of the neutron radiography facility at PINSTECH has been described. (author)

  20. Review of high Z materials for PSI applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Tetsuo; Noda, Nobuaki; Nakamura, Hiroo.

    1992-06-01

    Application of carbon based low Z materials to PFM has significantly improved plasma parameters in large tokamaks. There are, however, serious concerns of erosion, neutron damage etc. for application of low Z materials in future D - T burning machine. To apply high Z metals to PFM, there are several issues to be solved; high Z impurity production by sputtering, their accumulation in plasma center, and high radiation loss. Because of these concerns high Z metals are not widely employed nor planned to be used in the present large tokamaks. Since our efforts have been concentrated to optimize the low Z materials, little systematic investigations for high Z materials in tokamak have been done, lacking data base especially those concerning the impacts on plasma core. In order to employ high Z material as PFM near future, material properties related to impurity production and hydrogen recycling are reviewed and discussed what is important and what shall be done. (author) 109 refs

  1. Classification, processing and application of hydrogels: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Faheem; Othman, Muhammad Bisyrul Hafi; Javed, Fatima; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Md Akil, Hazizan

    2015-12-01

    This article aims to review the literature concerning the choice of selectivity for hydrogels based on classification, application and processing. Super porous hydrogels (SPHs) and superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) represent an innovative category of recent generation highlighted as an ideal mould system for the study of solution-dependent phenomena. Hydrogels, also termed as smart and/or hungry networks, are currently subject of considerable scientific research due to their potential in hi-tech applications in the biomedical, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, bioseparation, biosensor, agriculture, oil recovery and cosmetics fields. Smart hydrogels display a significant physiochemical change in response to small changes in the surroundings. However, such changes are reversible; therefore, the hydrogels are capable of returning to its initial state after a reaction as soon as the trigger is removed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A review of mechanochemistry applications in waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xiuying; Xiang Dong; Duan Guanghong; Mou Peng

    2010-01-01

    Mechanochemistry is defined to describe the chemical and physicochemical transformation of substances during the aggregation caused by the mechanical energy. Mechanochemical technology has several advantages, such as simple process, ecological safety and the possibility of obtaining a product in the metastable state. It potentially has a prospective application in pollution remediation and waste management. Therefore, this paper aims to give an overall review of the mechanochemistry applications in waste management and the related mechanisms. Based on our study, the modification of fly ash and asbestos-containing wastes (ACWs) can be achieved by mechanochemical technology. Waste metal oxides can be transformed into easily recyclable sulfide by mechanochemical sulfidization. Besides, the waste plastics and rubbers, which are usually very difficult to be recycled, can also be recycled by mechanochemical technology.

  3. Hydrothermal Carbonization: Modeling, Final Properties Design and Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Román

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Active research on biomass hydrothermal carbonization (HTC continues to demonstrate its advantages over other thermochemical processes, in particular the interesting benefits that are associated with carbonaceous solid products, called hydrochar (HC. The areas of applications of HC range from biofuel to doped porous material for adsorption, energy storage, and catalysis. At the same time, intensive research has been aimed at better elucidating the process mechanisms and kinetics, and how the experimental variables (temperature, time, biomass load, feedstock composition, as well as their interactions affect the distribution between phases and their composition. This review provides an analysis of the state of the art on HTC, mainly with regard to the effect of variables on the process, the associated kinetics, and the characteristics of the solid phase (HC, as well as some of the more studied applications so far. The focus is on research made over the last five years on these topics.

  4. Wideband and UWB Antennas for Wireless Applications: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cicchetti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive review concerning the geometry, the manufacturing technologies, the materials, and the numerical techniques, adopted for the analysis and design of wideband and ultrawideband (UWB antennas for wireless applications, is presented. Planar, printed, dielectric, and wearable antennas, achievable on laminate (rigid and flexible, and textile dielectric substrates are taken into account. The performances of small, low-profile, and dielectric resonator antennas are illustrated paying particular attention to the application areas concerning portable devices (mobile phones, tablets, glasses, laptops, wearable computers, etc. and radio base stations. This information provides a guidance to the selection of the different antenna geometries in terms of bandwidth, gain, field polarization, time-domain response, dimensions, and materials useful for their realization and integration in modern communication systems.

  5. Review of game theory applications for situation awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik; Shen, Dan; Pham, Khanh D.; Chen, Genshe

    2015-05-01

    Game theoretical methods have been used for spectral awareness, space situational awareness (SSA), cyber situational awareness (CSA), and Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance situation awareness (ISA). Each of these cases, awareness is supported by sensor estimation for assessment and the situation is determined from the actions of multiple players. Game theory assumes rational actors in a defined scenario; however, variations in social, cultural and behavioral factors include the dynamic nature of the context. In a dynamic data-driven application system (DDDAS), modeling must include both the measurements but also how models are used by different actors with different priorities. In this paper, we highlight the applications of game theory by reviewing the literature to determine the current state of the art and future needs. Future developments would include building towards knowledge awareness with information technology (e.g., data aggregation, access, indexing); multiscale analysis (e.g., space, time, and frequency), and software methods (e.g., architectures, cloud computing, protocols).

  6. Pulsed electric fields (PEF applications on wine production: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozturk Burcu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel techniques have been searched in the last decades as a result of increasing demand for high quality food products. Non-thermal processing technologies, such as pulsed electric fields (PEF have been improved to achieve inhibition of deleterious effects on quality-related compounds. The working principle of PEF is based on the application of pulses of high voltage (typically above 20 kV/cm up to 70 kV/cm to liquid foods placed between two electrodes. Pulsed electric fields technique has also been studied in winemaking process. Certain positive influences of PEF on vinification have been reported as elimination of pathogenic microorganisms, reduction of maceration time, increase in phenolic compounds extraction , acceleration of wine aging and inactivation of oxidative enzymes. The aim of this review is to summarize the potential applications of PEF in winemaking and to express its effects on quality of wine.

  7. Applications of Nanomaterials in Dental Science: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Jitendra; Singh, Shivani; Lale, Shantanu V; Mishra, Monu; Koul, Veena; Kharbanda, P

    2017-04-01

    Nanotechnology has revolutionized health care industry in a large scale and its applications are a boon to modern medicine and dental science. It is expected to pervade and further revolutionize the art and science of dentistry and may well have important applications spanning all the aspects of oral diseases, diagnosis, prevention and treatment. Materials science in dentistry has embraced the technology to produce nanomaterials that are being used in caries inhibitors, antimicrobial resins, hard tissue remineralizing agents, targeted drug delivery, scaffolds, bio-membranes, nanocrystalline hydroxyl apatite, restorative cements, adhesion promoters and boosters, bioactive glass, tissue conditioners, reinforced methacrylate resins, root canal disinfectants, friction free orthodontic arch wires and nano composites life. These upcoming technologies have potential to bring about significant benefits in the form of improvement in dental science and to society. The present review presents the latest recent developments in this interdisciplinary field bridging nanotechnology and dental science.

  8. Application of microbial α-amylase in industry - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Monteiro de Souza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Amylases are one of the main enzymes used in industry. Such enzymes hydrolyze the starch molecules into polymers composed of glucose units. Amylases have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, fermentation and pharmaceutical industries. α-Amylases can be obtained from plants, animals and microorganisms. However, enzymes from fungal and bacterial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. The production of α-amylase is essential for conversion of starches into oligosaccharides. Starch is an important constituent of the human diet and is a major storage product of many economically important crops such as wheat, rice, maize, tapioca, and potato. Starch-converting enzymes are used in the production of maltodextrin, modified starches, or glucose and fructose syrups. A large number of microbial α-amylases has applications in different industrial sectors such as food, textile, paper and detergent industries. The production of α-amylases has generally been carried out using submerged fermentation, but solid state fermentation systems appear as a promising technology. The properties of each α-amylase such as thermostability, pH profile, pH stability, and Ca-independency are important in the development of fermentation process. This review focuses on the production of bacterial and fungal α-amylases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications.

  9. Application of microbial α-amylase in industry - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Paula Monteiro; de Oliveira Magalhães, Pérola

    2010-10-01

    Amylases are one of the main enzymes used in industry. Such enzymes hydrolyze the starch molecules into polymers composed of glucose units. Amylases have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, fermentation and pharmaceutical industries. α-Amylases can be obtained from plants, animals and microorganisms. However, enzymes from fungal and bacterial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. The production of α-amylase is essential for conversion of starches into oligosaccharides. Starch is an important constituent of the human diet and is a major storage product of many economically important crops such as wheat, rice, maize, tapioca, and potato. Starch-converting enzymes are used in the production of maltodextrin, modified starches, or glucose and fructose syrups. A large number of microbial α-amylases has applications in different industrial sectors such as food, textile, paper and detergent industries. The production of α-amylases has generally been carried out using submerged fermentation, but solid state fermentation systems appear as a promising technology. The properties of each α-amylase such as thermostability, pH profile, pH stability, and Ca-independency are important in the development of fermentation process. This review focuses on the production of bacterial and fungal α-amylases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications.

  10. A short review of nanographenes: structures, properties and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yafei; Liu, Yi; Ding, Kai; Yang, Jinlong

    2018-04-01

    Graphene has attracted great interest in the science and technology since it was exfoliated mechanically from the graphite in 2004. Although graphene has various potential applications, its practical applications are constrained enormously by its serious drawbacks, such as zero band gap, tendency of aggregation between layers and hydrophobicity, which mainly caused by the infinite planar hexagonal structure of graphene. Considering that the structural defects in the honeycomb lattice and the edges of graphene break the infinite structure and thus change the properties, which may improve the application efficiency, nanographene (NG) is proposed and attracts extensive attention. In this work, we review the structures of multifarious well-defined NGs synthesised in recent experiments. The effects of the shape, size, edges and substituents of NGs to the properties are discussed in detail and the regulation for various properties of NG is analysed. For the well-defined NGs, including planar and non-planar ones, the challenges and perspectives of their potential applications in nonlinear optical material, gas molecular detector and gas separation material, hydrogen storage material, and hole-transporting material in perovskite solar cells are envisioned.

  11. Review of computational fluid dynamics applications in biotechnology processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C; Malhotra, D; Rathore, A S

    2011-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is well established as a tool of choice for solving problems that involve one or more of the following phenomena: flow of fluids, heat transfer,mass transfer, and chemical reaction. Unit operations that are commonly utilized in biotechnology processes are often complex and as such would greatly benefit from application of CFD. The thirst for deeper process and product understanding that has arisen out of initiatives such as quality by design provides further impetus toward usefulness of CFD for problems that may otherwise require extensive experimentation. Not surprisingly, there has been increasing interest in applying CFD toward a variety of applications in biotechnology processing in the last decade. In this article, we will review applications in the major unit operations involved with processing of biotechnology products. These include fermentation,centrifugation, chromatography, ultrafiltration, microfiltration, and freeze drying. We feel that the future applications of CFD in biotechnology processing will focus on establishing CFD as a tool of choice for providing process understanding that can be then used to guide more efficient and effective experimentation. This article puts special emphasis on the work done in the last 10 years. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers

  12. Silk-microfluidics for advanced biotechnological applications: A progressive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konwarh, Rocktotpal; Gupta, Prerak; Mandal, Biman B

    2016-01-01

    Silk based biomaterials have not only carved a unique niche in the domain of regenerative medicine but new avenues are also being explored for lab-on-a-chip applications. It is pertinent to note that biospinning of silk represents nature's signature microfluidic-maneuver. Elucidation of non-Newtonian flow of silk in the glands of spiders and silkworms has inspired researchers to fabricate devices for continuous extrusion and concentration of silk. Microfluidic channel networks within porous silk scaffolds ensure optimal nutrient and oxygen supply apart from serving as precursors for vascularization in tissue engineering applications. On the other hand, unique topographical features and surface wettability of natural silk fibers have inspired development of a number of simple and cost-effective devices for applications like blood typing and chemical sensing. This review mirrors the recent progress and challenges in the domain of silk-microfluidics for prospective avant-garde applications in the realm of biotechnology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Review of piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Joontaek; Lee, Wonjun; Kang, Woojin; Shin, Eunjung; Choi, Hongsoo; Ryu, Jungho

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, micromachined ultrasonic transducers (MUTs) have been investigated as an alternative to conventional piezocomposite ultrasonic transducers, primarily due to the advantages that microelectromechanical systems provide. Miniaturized ultrasonic systems require ultrasonic transducers integrated with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits. Hence, piezoelectric MUTs (pMUTs) and capacitive MUTs (cMUTs) have been developed as the most favorable solutions. This paper reviews the basic equations to understand the characteristics of thin-film-based piezoelectric devices and presents recent research on pMUTs, including current approaches and limitations. Methods to improve the coupling coefficient of pMUTs are also investigated, such as device structure, materials, and fabrication techniques. The device structure improvements include multielectrode pMUTs, partially clamped boundary conditions, and 3D pMUTs (curved and domed types), where the latter can provide an electromechanical coupling coefficient of up to 45%. The piezoelectric coefficient ( e 31 ) can be increased by controlling the crystal texture (seed layer of γ -Al 2 O 3 ), using single-crystal (PMN-PT) materials, or control of residual stresses (using SiO 2 layer). Arrays of pMUTs can be implemented for various applications including intravascular ultrasound, fingerprint sensors, rangefinders in air, and wireless power supply systems. pMUTs are expected to be an ideal solution for applications such as mobile biometric security (fingerprint sensors) and rangefinders due to their superior power efficiency and compact size. (topical review)

  14. Gradient metasurfaces: a review of fundamentals and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fei; Pors, Anders; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I

    2018-02-01

    In the wake of intense research on metamaterials the two-dimensional analogue, known as metasurfaces, has attracted progressively increasing attention in recent years due to the ease of fabrication and smaller insertion losses, while enabling an unprecedented control over spatial distributions of transmitted and reflected optical fields. Metasurfaces represent optically thin planar arrays of resonant subwavelength elements that can be arranged in a strictly or quasi periodic fashion, or even in an aperiodic manner, depending on targeted optical wavefronts to be molded with their help. This paper reviews a broad subclass of metasurfaces, viz. gradient metasurfaces, which are devised to exhibit spatially varying optical responses resulting in spatially varying amplitudes, phases and polarizations of scattered fields. Starting with introducing the concept of gradient metasurfaces, we present classification of different metasurfaces from the viewpoint of their responses, differentiating electrical-dipole, geometric, reflective and Huygens' metasurfaces. The fundamental building blocks essential for the realization of metasurfaces are then discussed in order to elucidate the underlying physics of various physical realizations of both plasmonic and purely dielectric metasurfaces. We then overview the main applications of gradient metasurfaces, including waveplates, flat lenses, spiral phase plates, broadband absorbers, color printing, holograms, polarimeters and surface wave couplers. The review is terminated with a short section on recently developed nonlinear metasurfaces, followed by the outlook presenting our view on possible future developments and perspectives for future applications.

  15. Gradient metasurfaces: a review of fundamentals and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fei; Pors, Anders; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2018-02-01

    In the wake of intense research on metamaterials the two-dimensional analogue, known as metasurfaces, has attracted progressively increasing attention in recent years due to the ease of fabrication and smaller insertion losses, while enabling an unprecedented control over spatial distributions of transmitted and reflected optical fields. Metasurfaces represent optically thin planar arrays of resonant subwavelength elements that can be arranged in a strictly or quasi periodic fashion, or even in an aperiodic manner, depending on targeted optical wavefronts to be molded with their help. This paper reviews a broad subclass of metasurfaces, viz. gradient metasurfaces, which are devised to exhibit spatially varying optical responses resulting in spatially varying amplitudes, phases and polarizations of scattered fields. Starting with introducing the concept of gradient metasurfaces, we present classification of different metasurfaces from the viewpoint of their responses, differentiating electrical-dipole, geometric, reflective and Huygens’ metasurfaces. The fundamental building blocks essential for the realization of metasurfaces are then discussed in order to elucidate the underlying physics of various physical realizations of both plasmonic and purely dielectric metasurfaces. We then overview the main applications of gradient metasurfaces, including waveplates, flat lenses, spiral phase plates, broadband absorbers, color printing, holograms, polarimeters and surface wave couplers. The review is terminated with a short section on recently developed nonlinear metasurfaces, followed by the outlook presenting our view on possible future developments and perspectives for future applications.

  16. Application of radiation technology to sewage sludge processing: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianlong; Wang Jiazhuo

    2007-01-01

    Sewage sludge is unwanted residual solid wastes generated in wastewater treatment and its management is one of the most critical environmental issues of today. The treatment and disposal of sludge contribute a considerable proportion of the cost for running a wastewater treatment plant. The increasing amount of swage sludge and more and more legislative regulation of its disposal have stimulated the need for developing new technologies to process sewage sludge efficiently and economically. One ideal consideration is to recycle it after proper treatment. Radiation technology is regarded to be a promising alternative for its high efficiency in pathogen inactivation, organic pollutants oxidation, odor nuisance elimination and some other characteristics enhancement, which will facilitate the down-stream process of sludge treatment and disposal. Here we present a brief review of application of radiation technology on sewage sludge processing. Some basic information of two currently available irradiation systems and fundamental radiation chemistry are introduced firstly; then the world-wide application of this promising technology is reviewed; various effects of radiation on sludge is discussed in detail; and some concluding remarks are given and some future directions are also proposed

  17. A comprehensive review of telementoring applications in laparoscopic general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Stavros A; Antoniou, George A; Franzen, Jan; Bollmann, Stefan; Koch, Oliver O; Pointner, Rudolf; Granderath, Frank A

    2012-08-01

    Incorporation of advanced laparoscopic procedures in the practice of institutions without respective experience is a significant impediment in the dissemination of minimally invasive techniques. On-site mentoring programs carry several cost-related and practical constraints. Telementoring has emerged as a practical and cost-effective alternative mentoring tool. The present study aimed to review the pertinent literature on telementoring applications in laparoscopic general surgery. A systematic review using the Medline database was performed. Articles reporting on clinical experience with telementoring applications in general surgery were included. Variations in methodology, study design, and operative procedures precluded cumulative outcome evaluation. Instead, a critical appraisal of current evidence was undertaken. Seventy-five articles were identified in the primary search, and ten studies were considered eligible. No randomized studies comparing on-site mentoring with telementoring were identified. The included studies reported on a total of 96 laparoscopic telementored procedures: 50 cholecystectomies, 23 colorectal resections, 7 fundoplications, 9 adrenalectomies, 6 hernia repairs, and 2 splenectomies. Completion of remotely assisted procedures was feasible in the vast majority of cases, whereas technical difficulties included video and audio latency with low transfer rates (programs in general surgery. Their clinical effectiveness as teaching alternatives to traditional mentoring programs remains to be further evaluated.

  18. A review of waste heat recovery technologies for maritime applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Dig Vijay; Pedersen, Eilif

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Major waste heat sources available on ships have been reviewed. • A review of suitable waste heat recovery systems was conducted for marine vessels. • Technologies have been compared for their potential and suitability for marine use. • Kalina cycle offers the highest potential for marine waste heat recovery. • Turbo compound system most suitable for recovering diesel exhaust pressure energy. - Abstract: A waste heat recovery system produces power by utilizing the heat energy lost to the surroundings from thermal processes, at no additional fuel input. For marine vessels, about 50 percent of the total fuel energy supplied to diesel power-plant aboard is lost to the surroundings. While the total amount of wasted energy is considerable, the quality of this energy is quite low due to its low temperature and has limited potential for power production. Effective waste heat recovery systems use the available low temperature waste heat to produce mechanical/electrical power with high efficiency value. In this study a review of different waste heat recovery systems has been conducted, to lay out the potential recovery efficiencies and suitability for marine applications. This work helps in identifying the most suitable heat recovery technologies for maritime use depending on the properties of shipboard waste heat and achievable recovery efficiencies, whilst discussing the features of each type of system.

  19. Applications of piezoelectric surgery in endodontic surgery: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Francesc; de Ribot, Joan; Doria, Guillermo; Duran-Sindreu, Fernando; Roig, Miguel

    2014-03-01

    Piezosurgery (piezoelectric bone surgery) devices were developed to cut bone atraumatically using ultrasonic vibrations and to provide an alternative to the mechanical and electrical instruments used in conventional oral surgery. Indications for piezosurgery are increasing in oral and maxillofacial surgery, as in other disciplines, such as endodontic surgery. Key features of piezosurgery instruments include their ability to selectively cut bone without damaging adjacent soft tissue, to provide a clear operative field, and to cut without generating heat. Although piezosurgery instruments can be used at most stages of endodontic surgery (osteotomy, root-end resection, and root-end preparation), no published data are available on the effect of piezosurgery on the outcomes of endodontic surgery. To our knowledge, no study has evaluated the effect of piezosurgery on root-end resection, and only 1 has investigated root-end morphology after retrograde cavity preparation using piezosurgery. We conducted a search of the PubMed and Cochrane databases using appropriate terms and keywords related to the use and applications of piezoelectric surgery in endodontic surgery. A hand search also was conducted of issues published in the preceding 2 years of several journals. Two independent reviewers obtained and analyzed the full texts of the selected articles. A total of 121 articles published between January 2000 and December 2013 were identified. This review summarizes the operating principles of piezoelectric devices and outlines the applications of piezosurgery in endodontic surgery using clinical examples. Piezosurgery is a promising technical modality with applications in several aspects of endodontic surgery, but further studies are necessary to determine the influence of piezosurgery on root-end resection and root-end preparation. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Watershed water environment pollution models and their applications: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yao; Liang, Zhi-Wei; Li, Wei; Yang, Yi; Yang, Mu-Yi; Mao, Wei; Xu, Han-Li; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2013-10-01

    Watershed water environment pollution model is the important tool for studying watershed environmental problems. Through the quantitative description of the complicated pollution processes of whole watershed system and its parts, the model can identify the main sources and migration pathways of pollutants, estimate the pollutant loadings, and evaluate their impacts on water environment, providing a basis for watershed planning and management. This paper reviewed the watershed water environment models widely applied at home and abroad, with the focuses on the models of pollutants loading (GWLF and PLOAD), water quality of received water bodies (QUAL2E and WASP), and the watershed models integrated pollutant loadings and water quality (HSPF, SWAT, AGNPS, AnnAGNPS, and SWMM), and introduced the structures, principles, and main characteristics as well as the limitations in practical applications of these models. The other models of water quality (CE-QUAL-W2, EFDC, and AQUATOX) and watershed models (GLEAMS and MIKE SHE) were also briefly introduced. Through the case analysis on the applications of single model and integrated models, the development trend and application prospect of the watershed water environment pollution models were discussed.

  1. Affinity monolith chromatography: A review of general principles and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao; Rodriguez, Elliott; Azaria, Shiden; Pekarek, Allegra; Hage, David S

    2017-11-01

    Affinity monolith chromatography, or AMC, is a liquid chromatographic method in which the support is a monolith and the stationary phase is a biological-binding agent or related mimic. AMC has become popular for the isolation of biochemicals, for the measurement of various analytes, and for studying biological interactions. This review will examine the principles and applications of AMC. The materials that have been used to prepare AMC columns will be discussed, which have included various organic polymers, silica, agarose, and cryogels. Immobilization schemes that have been used in AMC will also be considered. Various binding agents and applications that have been reported for AMC will then be described. These applications will include the use of AMC for bioaffinity chromatography, immunoaffinity chromatography, dye-ligand affinity chromatography, and immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography. The use of AMC with chiral stationary phases and as a tool to characterize biological interactions will also be examined. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Applications of additive manufacturing in dentistry: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargav, Aishwarya; Sanjairaj, Vijayavenkatraman; Rosa, Vinicius; Feng, Lu Wen; Fuh Yh, Jerry

    2017-07-24

    Additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing has been hailed as the third industrial revolution as it has caused a paradigm shift in the way objects have been manufactured. Conventionally, converting a raw material to a fully finished and assembled, usable product comprises several steps which can be eliminated by using this process as functional products can be created directly from the raw material at a fraction of the time originally consumed. Thus, AM has found applications in several sectors including automotive, aerospace, printed electronics, and healthcare. AM is increasingly being used in the healthcare sector, given its potential to fabricate patient-specific customized implants with required accuracy and precision. Implantable heart valves, rib cages, and bones are some of the examples where AM technologies are used. A vast variety of materials including ceramics, metals, polymers, and composites have been processed to fabricate intricate implants using 3D printing. The applications of AM in dentistry include maxillofacial implants, dentures, and other prosthetic aids. It may also be used in surgical training and planning, as anatomical models can be created at ease using AM. This article gives an overview of the AM process and reviews in detail the applications of 3D printing in dentistry. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Standard Review Plan for the review of a license application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) (NUREG-1200) provides guidance to staff reviewers in the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards who perform safety reviews of applications to construct and operate low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The SRP ensures the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews and presents a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of the staff reviews. The SRP makes information about the regulatory licensing process widely available and serves to improve the understanding of the staff's review process by interested members of the public and the industry. Each individual SRP addresses the responsibilities of persons performing the review, the matters that are reviewed, the Commission's regulations and acceptance criteria necessary for the review, how the review is accomplished, the conclusions that are appropriate, and the implementation requirements

  4. Induced pluripotent stem cells, from generation to application: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Moradi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent stem cells which have the ability to indefinitely self-renew and differentiate into all differentiated cells of the body. Regarding their two main properties (unlimited self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation, these cells have various biomedical applications in basic research and cell based therapy. Because the transplantation of differentiated cells that are derived from embryonic stem cells is allogenic, they face the problem of immune rejection following the transplantation of embryonic stem cell-derived cells into patients. In 2006, researchers from Japan reported the derivation of a new type of pluripotent stem cells which could overcome the problem of immune rejection that is associated with the application of embryonic stem cells. They designated these cells as induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells, because their production was ‘induced’ from differentiated somatic cells using a combination of four embryonic stem cell-associated transcription factors. Importantly, these pluripotent stem cells exhibit all the key features of embryonic stem cells including unlimited self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential, and can pass the most stringent test of pluripotency which is known as the tetraploid (4n complementation. Hence, in addition to bypassing the problem of immune rejection, iPS cells have all of the potential applications of embryonic stem cells, including in developmental studies, toxicology research, drug discovery and disease modeling. Also, considering that they could be generated from patient’s own cells, iPS cells hold great promise in the future of patient-specific cell replacement therapies using pluripotent stem cells. In this review article, we will present a comprehensive review on the how and why of the generation of iPS cell from somatic cells of the body and discuss how they should be characterized in terms of morphologically, pluripotent stem cell behavior, and

  5. Ventilation Systems Operating Experience Review for Fusion Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1999-01-01

    This report is a collection and review of system operation and failure experiences for air ventilation systems in nuclear facilities. These experiences are applicable for magnetic and inertial fusion facilities since air ventilation systems are support systems that can be considered generic to nuclear facilities. The report contains descriptions of ventilation system components, operating experiences with these systems, component failure rates, and component repair times. Since ventilation systems have a role in mitigating accident releases in nuclear facilities, these data are useful in safety analysis and risk assessment of public safety. An effort has also been given to identifying any safety issues with personnel operating or maintaining ventilation systems. Finally, the recommended failure data were compared to an independent data set to determine the accuracy of individual values. This comparison is useful for the International Energy Agency task on fusion component failure rate data collection

  6. Vacuum system operating experience review for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1994-03-01

    This report presents a review of vacuum system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, space simulation chamber, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of vacuum system component failure rates and accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with vacuum systems are discussed, including personnel safety, foreign material intrusion, and factors relevant to vacuum systems being the primary confinement boundary for tritium and activated dusts. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

  7. A review of nanoclay applications in the pervious concrete pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakrani, Shahrul Azwan; Ayob, Afizah; Rahim, Mohd Asri Ab

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, the use of nanoclay has received various interests in order to enhance the properties of construction materials which can also be eligible for pavement technology and engineering application. This review paper summarizes the effect of nanoclay as cement replacement and additive to the performance of pervious concrete pavement. The addition of nanoclay to pervious concrete has demonstrated improvements in strength properties such as compressive and flexural strength, durability such as freeze-thaw and chloride penetration resistance, shrinkage, and denser microstructure but at the same time reduced the porosity, permeability and water absorption properties. This enhancement is due to the roles of nanoclay as nanoreinforcements, nanofillers, nucleation site, and reactive pozzolans in order to promote hydration and improve material properties.

  8. Review of possible applications of cosmic muon tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Checchia, P.

    2016-01-01

    Muon radiographic methods can be used to explore inaccessible volumes profiting of the property of muons to penetrate thick materials. An extension of the muon radiographic methods, the muon scattering tomography, was proposed for the first time in 2003 and it is based on the measurement of the multiple Coulomb scattering of muons crossing the volume under investigation. In this talk, the principles of tomographic image reconstruction are first outlined and then the experimental setup and the most adequate detectors are described. A review of the possible applications of this technique is reported, with specific reference to security in transports and monitoring of industrial processes. The technique can also be used to provide precise measurements of the properties of various materials. The experimental challenge related to this activity is discussed.

  9. Smart packaging systems for food applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biji, K B; Ravishankar, C N; Mohan, C O; Srinivasa Gopal, T K

    2015-10-01

    Changes in consumer preference for safe food have led to innovations in packaging technologies. This article reviews about different smart packaging systems and their applications in food packaging, packaging research with latest innovations. Active and intelligent packing are such packaging technologies which offer to deliver safer and quality products. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additives into the package with the aim of maintaining or extending the product quality and shelf life. The intelligent systems are those that monitor the condition of packaged food to give information regarding the quality of the packaged food during transportation and storage. These technologies are designed to the increasing demand for safer foods with better shelf life. The market for active and intelligent packaging systems is expected to have a promising future by their integration into packaging materials or systems.

  10. Flavonoid electrochemistry: a review on the electroanalytical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Gil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds widespread in vegetal kingdom. They present a C-15 skeleton, which is divided into three units A, B and C. Unit C is an oxygen containing heterocyclic, whose oxidation state and saturation level define major subclasses. Units A and B are aromatic rings, in which four major types of substituents, i. e. hydroxyl, methoxyl, prenyl and glycosides, lead to over 8000 different flavonoids. The great healthy-protecting value of these phytochemical biomarkers has attracted the attention of scientific community. Their main biological actions include anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties, which are strictly linked to antioxidant activities. So that, electroanalysis have been extensively applied on mechanistic studies and also for analytical determinations. This review presents the state of the art regarding the main applications of electroanalysis on the flavonoid research. The approaches on redox behavior characterization leading to a better understanding of structure antioxidant activity relationships are highlighted.

  11. Flavonoid electrochemistry: a review on the electroanalytical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Gil

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds widespread in vegetal kingdom. They present a C-15 skeleton, which is divided into three units A, B and C. Unit C is an oxygen containing heterocyclic, whose oxidation state and saturation level define major subclasses. Units A and B are aromatic rings, in which four major types of substituents, i. e. hydroxyl, methoxyl, prenyl and glycosides, lead to over 8000 different flavonoids. The great healthy-protecting value of these phytochemical biomarkers has attracted the attention of scientific community. Their main biological actions include anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties, which are strictly linked to antioxidant activities. So that, electroanalysis have been extensively applied on mechanistic studies and also for analytical determinations. This review presents the state of the art regarding the main applications of electroanalysis on the flavonoid research. The approaches on redox behavior characterization leading to a better understanding of structure antioxidant activity relationships are highlighted.

  12. Review of possible applications of cosmic muon tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checchia, P.

    2016-12-01

    Muon radiographic methods can be used to explore inaccessible volumes profiting of the property of muons to penetrate thick materials. An extension of the muon radiographic methods, the muon scattering tomography, was proposed for the first time in 2003 and it is based on the measurement of the multiple Coulomb scattering of muons crossing the volume under investigation. In this talk, the principles of tomographic image reconstruction are first outlined and then the experimental setup and the most adequate detectors are described. A review of the possible applications of this technique is reported, with specific reference to security in transports and monitoring of industrial processes. The technique can also be used to provide precise measurements of the properties of various materials. The experimental challenge related to this activity is discussed.

  13. Applications of quantum cascade lasers in plasma diagnostics: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Röpcke, J; Lang, N; Davies, P B; Rousseau, A; Welzel, S

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy based on quantum cascade lasers operating over the region from 3 to 12 µm and called quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy or QCLAS has progressed considerably as a powerful diagnostic technique for in situ studies of the fundamental physics and chemistry of molecular plasmas. The increasing interest in processing plasmas containing hydrocarbons, fluorocarbons, nitrogen oxides and organo-silicon compounds has led to further applications of QCLAS because most of these compounds and their decomposition products are infrared active. QCLAS provides a means of determining the absolute concentrations of the ground states of stable and transient molecular species at time resolutions below a microsecond, which is of particular importance for the investigation of reaction kinetics and dynamics. Information about gas temperature and population densities can also be derived from QCLAS measurements. Since plasmas with molecular feed gases are used in many applications such as thin film deposition, semiconductor processing, surface activation and cleaning, and materials and waste treatment, this has stimulated the adaptation of QCLAS techniques to industrial requirements including the development of new diagnostic equipment. The recent availability of external cavity (EC) QCLs offers a further new option for multi-component detection. The aim of this paper is fourfold: (i) to briefly review spectroscopic issues arising from applying pulsed QCLs, (ii) to report on recent achievements in our understanding of molecular phenomena in plasmas and at surfaces, (iii) to describe the current status of industrial process monitoring in the mid-infrared and (iv) to discuss the potential of advanced instrumentation based on EC-QCLs for plasma diagnostics. (topical review)

  14. 7 CFR 4290.360 - Initial review of Applicant's management team's qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial review of Applicant's management team's...'s management team's qualifications. The Secretary will review the information submitted by the Applicant concerning the qualifications of the Applicant's management team to determine in his or her sole...

  15. Carbon nanotubes applications in separation science: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera-Herrera, Antonio V.; Gonzalez-Curbelo, Miguel Angel [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez s/n, 38206 La Laguna (Tenerife) (Spain); Hernandez-Borges, Javier, E-mail: jhborges@ull.es [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez s/n, 38206 La Laguna (Tenerife) (Spain); Rodriguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez s/n, 38206 La Laguna (Tenerife) (Spain)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of CNTs in Separation Science in the period 2009-2011 is reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNTs as stationary phases in LC, CE and GC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNTs as pseudostationary phases in EKC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNTs as sorbents in SPE and SPME. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Other uses of CNTs in separation science, as LDI substrates or in membranes. - Abstract: Due to the intensive and multidisciplinary research carried out during the last two decades on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), the scientific community understands nowadays much better the chemistry, structure and properties of these interesting materials. In fact, they have found their particular place in a wide number of application fields (nanotechnology, electronics, optics, medicine, etc.) among which Analytical Chemistry is becoming more and more important. The aim of this review is to provide an updated report of the most recent manuscripts (years 2009-2011) regarding the use of CNTs in Separation Science. In particular, the use of CNTs as solid-phase extraction and microextraction sorbents, as part of membranes as well as their use in chromatography and electrophoresis will be discussed and commented. Besides, although not as fully related to Separation Science as the previous techniques, the use of CNTs as laser desorption/ionization substrates has also been considered because of its importance in the field.

  16. Review of selective laser melting: Materials and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, C. Y., E-mail: cyap001@e.ntu.edu.sg [Singapore Centre for 3D Printing, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Block N3.1 - B2c - 01, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Energy Research Institute @ NTU, Interdisciplinary Graduate School, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Block S2 - B3a - 01, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Chua, C. K., E-mail: mckchua@ntu.edu.sg; Liu, Z. H., E-mail: azhliu@ntu.edu.sg; Zhang, D. Q., E-mail: zhangdq@ntu.edu.sg; Loh, L. E., E-mail: leloh1@e.ntu.edu.sg; Sing, S. L., E-mail: sing0011@e.ntu.edu.sg [Singapore Centre for 3D Printing, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Block N3.1 - B2c - 01, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Dong, Z. L., E-mail: zldong@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Block N4.1, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-12-15

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is a particular rapid prototyping, 3D printing, or Additive Manufacturing (AM) technique designed to use high power-density laser to melt and fuse metallic powders. A component is built by selectively melting and fusing powders within and between layers. The SLM technique is also commonly known as direct selective laser sintering, LaserCusing, and direct metal laser sintering, and this technique has been proven to produce near net-shape parts up to 99.9% relative density. This enables the process to build near full density functional parts and has viable economic benefits. Recent developments of fibre optics and high-power laser have also enabled SLM to process different metallic materials, such as copper, aluminium, and tungsten. Similarly, this has also opened up research opportunities in SLM of ceramic and composite materials. The review presents the SLM process and some of the common physical phenomena associated with this AM technology. It then focuses on the following areas: (a) applications of SLM materials and (b) mechanical properties of SLM parts achieved in research publications. The review is not meant to put a ceiling on the capabilities of the SLM process but to enable readers to have an overview on the material properties achieved by the SLM process so far. Trends in research of SLM are also elaborated in the last section.

  17. Atomic Force Microscopy Application in Biological Research: A Review Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surena Vahabi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Atomic force microscopy (AFM is a three-dimensional topographic technique with a high atomic resolution to measure surface roughness. AFM is a kind of scanning probe microscope, and its near-field technique is based on the interaction between a sharp tip and the atoms of the sample surface. There are several methods and many ways to modify the tip of the AFM to investigate surface properties, including measuring friction, adhesion forces and viscoelastic properties as well as determining the Young modulus and imaging magnetic or electrostatic properties. The AFM technique can analyze any kind of samples such as polymers, adsorbed molecules, films or fibers, and powders in the air whether in a controlled atmosphere or in a liquid medium. In the past decade, the AFM has emerged as a powerful tool to obtain the nanostructural details and biomechanical properties of biological samples, including biomolecules and cells. The AFM applications, techniques, and -in particular- its ability to measure forces, are not still familiar to most clinicians. This paper reviews the literature on the main principles of the AFM modality and highlights the advantages of this technique in biology, medicine, and- especially- dentistry. This literature review was performed through E-resources, including Science Direct, PubMed, Blackwell Synergy, Embase, Elsevier, and Scholar Google for the references published between 1985 and 2010.

  18. Reasonable application of antibiotic prophylaxis in maxillofacial trauma: Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Yadegari Naeeni

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Despite advances in trauma management, treatment of the consequent infections has remained a major challenge. Antibiotic prophylaxis has been widely applied to reduce such infections. Although bacteria are present in most body parts, severe infections after treatment are less frequent in the head and neck of healthy individuals. The aim of the present study was to review the reasonable application of antibiotic prophylaxis in maxillofacial trauma. Materials and Methods: In this review article, PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched for studies on antibiotic prophylaxis in maxillofacial trauma published during 2000-2014. Conclusion: Antibiotics were not prescribed for tears and small clean wounds in the face and mouth. However, prophylaxis was applied for extensive mouth injuries which involved the facial skin. In case of maxillofacial fractures, 24-hour administration of antibiotics sufficed for compound fractures of the mandible and other parts of the face. Antibiotics were not required in other types of fractures. Prophylaxis should be applied over short pre- or post-operative periods based on the severity and complexity of maxillofacial fractures and their relations with intra- and extraoral environments. Apparently, more detailed studies are warranted to further clarify the subject.

  19. Carbon nanotubes applications in separation science: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera-Herrera, Antonio V.; González-Curbelo, Miguel Ángel; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Ángel

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The use of CNTs in Separation Science in the period 2009–2011 is reviewed. ► CNTs as stationary phases in LC, CE and GC. ► CNTs as pseudostationary phases in EKC. ► CNTs as sorbents in SPE and SPME. ► Other uses of CNTs in separation science, as LDI substrates or in membranes. - Abstract: Due to the intensive and multidisciplinary research carried out during the last two decades on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), the scientific community understands nowadays much better the chemistry, structure and properties of these interesting materials. In fact, they have found their particular place in a wide number of application fields (nanotechnology, electronics, optics, medicine, etc.) among which Analytical Chemistry is becoming more and more important. The aim of this review is to provide an updated report of the most recent manuscripts (years 2009–2011) regarding the use of CNTs in Separation Science. In particular, the use of CNTs as solid-phase extraction and microextraction sorbents, as part of membranes as well as their use in chromatography and electrophoresis will be discussed and commented. Besides, although not as fully related to Separation Science as the previous techniques, the use of CNTs as laser desorption/ionization substrates has also been considered because of its importance in the field.

  20. Review of selective laser melting: Materials and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, C. Y.; Chua, C. K.; Dong, Z. L.; Liu, Z. H.; Zhang, D. Q.; Loh, L. E.; Sing, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is a particular rapid prototyping, 3D printing, or Additive Manufacturing (AM) technique designed to use high power-density laser to melt and fuse metallic powders. A component is built by selectively melting and fusing powders within and between layers. The SLM technique is also commonly known as direct selective laser sintering, LaserCusing, and direct metal laser sintering, and this technique has been proven to produce near net-shape parts up to 99.9% relative density. This enables the process to build near full density functional parts and has viable economic benefits. Recent developments of fibre optics and high-power laser have also enabled SLM to process different metallic materials, such as copper, aluminium, and tungsten. Similarly, this has also opened up research opportunities in SLM of ceramic and composite materials. The review presents the SLM process and some of the common physical phenomena associated with this AM technology. It then focuses on the following areas: (a) applications of SLM materials and (b) mechanical properties of SLM parts achieved in research publications. The review is not meant to put a ceiling on the capabilities of the SLM process but to enable readers to have an overview on the material properties achieved by the SLM process so far. Trends in research of SLM are also elaborated in the last section.

  1. MAGNETIC BACTERIA AND THEIR POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS: A REVIEW ARTICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rajab Eljmeli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This outline explores the scientific discovery concerning the magnetotactic bacteria (MTB. The results of the discovery are used in microbiology, mineralogy, limnology, physics, biophysics, chemistry, biochemistry, geology, crystallography, and astrobiology. Magnetosomes of the MTB are organized in linear chains and orient the cell body along geomagnetic field lines while flagella actively propel the cells, resulting in so-called magnetotaxis. Materials and Methods: The review article about the magnetotactic bacteria is a collection of many research papers from different institutes. The emerging important points about this review lie in: (1 any biological system is capable of producing magnetic biomaterials such as magnetite (Fe3O4 and gregite (Fe3S4; (2 the navigation of these nano-crystals in the biological system is interconnected with the Earth’s magnetic field. Results: The researchers involved in the study have shown that the magnetotactic bacteria do respond to a magnetic field. This makes them attractive for biomedical and industrial applications because of the availability of superior electromagnets, superconducting magnets and permanent magnet. Magnetic bacteria can also be used as a diagnostic tool in the detection of imperfections even at the nanoscale. Discussion and Conclusions: Although the importance of this issue is still limitedly used in medical area, more performance is necessary to explore the world of these bacteria that are candidate for new industry and new therapy strategies in biotechnology and medical fields.

  2. An ethernet/IP security review with intrusion detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughter, S. A.; Williams, R. D.

    2006-01-01

    Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and automation networks, used throughout utility and manufacturing applications, have their own specific set of operational and security requirements when compared to corporate networks. The modern climate of heightened national security and awareness of terrorist threats has made the security of these systems of prime concern. There is a need to understand the vulnerabilities of these systems and how to monitor and protect them. Ethernet/IP is a member of a family of protocols based on the Control and Information Protocol (CIP). Ethernet/IP allows automation systems to be utilized on and integrated with traditional TCP/IP networks, facilitating integration of these networks with corporate systems and even the Internet. A review of the CIP protocol and the additions Ethernet/IP makes to it has been done to reveal the kind of attacks made possible through the protocol. A set of rules for the SNORT Intrusion Detection software is developed based on the results of the security review. These can be used to monitor, and possibly actively protect, a SCADA or automation network that utilizes Ethernet/IP in its infrastructure. (authors)

  3. Review of selective laser melting: Materials and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, C. Y.; Chua, C. K.; Liu, Z. H.; Zhang, D. Q.; Loh, L. E.; Sing, S. L.; Dong, Z. L.

    2015-01-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is a particular rapid prototyping, 3D printing, or Additive Manufacturing (AM) technique designed to use high power-density laser to melt and fuse metallic powders. A component is built by selectively melting and fusing powders within and between layers. The SLM technique is also commonly known as direct selective laser sintering, LaserCusing, and direct metal laser sintering, and this technique has been proven to produce near net-shape parts up to 99.9% relative density. This enables the process to build near full density functional parts and has viable economic benefits. Recent developments of fibre optics and high-power laser have also enabled SLM to process different metallic materials, such as copper, aluminium, and tungsten. Similarly, this has also opened up research opportunities in SLM of ceramic and composite materials. The review presents the SLM process and some of the common physical phenomena associated with this AM technology. It then focuses on the following areas: (a) applications of SLM materials and (b) mechanical properties of SLM parts achieved in research publications. The review is not meant to put a ceiling on the capabilities of the SLM process but to enable readers to have an overview on the material properties achieved by the SLM process so far. Trends in research of SLM are also elaborated in the last section

  4. Carbon Nano tube Composites for Electronic Packaging Applications: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryasomayajula, L.; Wolter, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    Composite engineering comprises of metal matrix composites. They have high strength-weight ratio, better stiffness, economical production, and ease of availability of raw materials. The discovery of carbon nano tubes has opened new possibilities to face challenges better. Carbon Nano tubes are known for their high mechanical strength, excellent thermal and electrical properties. Recent research has made progress in fabricating carbon nano tube metal matrix and polymer-based composites. The methods of fabrication of these composites, their properties and possible applications restricted to the field of electronic packaging have been discussed in this paper. Experimental and theoretical calculations have shown improved mechanical and physical properties like tensile stress, toughness, and improved electrical and thermal properties. They have also demonstrated the ease of production of the composites and their adaptability as one can tailor their properties as per the requirement. This paper reviews work reported on fabricating and characterizing carbon- nano tube-based metal matrix and polymer composites. The focus of this paper is mainly to review the importance of these composites in the field of electronics packaging.

  5. Telerehabilitation Store and Forward Applications: A Review of Applications and Privacy Considerations in Physical and Occupational Therapy Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Peterson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of store and forward applications commonly used in physical and occupational therapy practice is reviewed with respect to regulation, privacy, security, and clinical applications. A privacy and security checklist provides a clear reference of pertinent regulatory issues regarding these software applications. A case study format is used to highlight clinical applications of store and forward software features. Important considerations of successful implementation of store and forward applications are also identified and discussed.

  6. Telerehabilitation store and forward applications: a review of applications and privacy considerations in physical and occupational therapy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher; Watzlaf, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    An overview of store and forward applications commonly used in physical and occupational therapy practice is reviewed with respect to regulation, privacy, security, and clinical applications. A privacy and security checklist provides a clear reference of pertinent regulatory issues regarding these software applications. A case study format is used to highlight clinical applications of store and forward software features. Important considerations of successful implementation of store and forward applications are also identified and discussed.

  7. Drug-targeting methodologies with applications: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstreuer, Clement; Feng, Yu; Childress, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery to solid tumors is a very active research area, focusing mainly on improved drug formulation and associated best delivery methods/devices. Drug-targeting has the potential to greatly improve drug-delivery efficacy, reduce side effects, and lower the treatment costs. However, the vast majority of drug-targeting studies assume that the drug-particles are already at the target site or at least in its direct vicinity. In this review, drug-delivery methodologies, drug types and drug-delivery devices are discussed with examples in two major application areas: (1) inhaled drug-aerosol delivery into human lung-airways; and (2) intravascular drug-delivery for solid tumor targeting. The major problem addressed is how to deliver efficiently the drug-particles from the entry/infusion point to the target site. So far, most experimental results are based on animal studies. Concerning pulmonary drug delivery, the focus is on the pros and cons of three inhaler types, i.e., pressurized metered dose inhaler, dry powder inhaler and nebulizer, in addition to drug-aerosol formulations. Computational fluid-particle dynamics techniques and the underlying methodology for a smart inhaler system are discussed as well. Concerning intravascular drug-delivery for solid tumor targeting, passive and active targeting are reviewed as well as direct drug-targeting, using optimal delivery of radioactive microspheres to liver tumors as an example. The review concludes with suggestions for future work, considereing both pulmonary drug targeting and direct drug delivery to solid tumors in the vascular system. PMID:25516850

  8. A review of extractions of seaweed hydrocolloids: Properties and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. S. Abdul Khalil

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The term hydrocolloid generally refers to substances that form gels or provide viscous dispersion in the presence of water. Alginate, agar, and carrageenan are three commercially valuable hydrocolloids derived from certain brown and red seaweed and each has their distinct physicochemical properties (i.e. functional and bioactive. Various applications of these seaweed hydrocolloids as thickeners, stabilizers, coagulants and salves (in the wound and burn dressings and materials to produce bio-medical impressions in the food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnology industries are highlighted in this review. Although the existing industrial methods of extraction for these seaweed hydrocolloids are well-established, still growing demand has exposed certain limitations of those methods, notably efficiency and product consistency. In order to achieve targeted hydrocolloids for specific purposes and functionalities, some novel and green extraction methods have also been proposed and discussed. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE, enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, pressurized solvent extractions (PSE, reactive extrusion and photobleaching process are selectively presented as highly promising candidates that can avoid the use of chemicals and provide novel means of access to seaweed hydrocolloids with both economic and environmental benefits. However, this review does not provide the ‘best’ method or procedure as many are still under development. Hence, the review gives ‘food for thought’as to new processes which might be adopted industrially and concluded that further research is required in order to contribute additional new knowledge and refinement to this field of study.

  9. Thin-film voltammetry and its analytical applications: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Huihui; Li, Yunchao; Shao, Huibo; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrochemistry at immiscible liquid–liquid interfaces is fundamentally important. • Methods for studying redox processes at liquid–liquid interfaces are reviewed. • Thin-film voltammetry is simple in experimental operation and kinetic data analysis. • Thin-film voltammetry’s analytical applications are prevailing and comprehensive. - Abstract: Electrochemical reactions at the interfaces of immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES) are of fundamental importance in the fields of chemical, biological and pharmaceutical sciences. Four-electrode cell setup, scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and thin-film voltammetry are the three most frequently used methods for studying the electrochemical processes at these interfaces. The principle, experimental design, advantages and challenges of the three methods are described and compared. The thin-film voltammetry is highlighted for its simplicity in experimental operation and kinetic data analysis. Its versatile analytical applications are discussed in detail, including the study of redox properties of hydrophobic compounds, evaluation of interfacial electron transfer kinetics, synthesis of nanoparticles/nanostructures, and illustration of cross-membrane ion transport phenomena

  10. Diphonix trademark Resin: A review of its properties and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarizia, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    The recently developed Diphonix trademark resin is a new multifunctional chelating ion exchange resin containing seminally substituted diphosphonic acid ligands chemically bonded to a styrene-based polymeric matrix. Diphonix can be regarded as a dual mechanism polymer, with a sulfonic acid cation exchange group allowing for rapid access, mostly non-specific, of ions into the polymeric network, and the diphosphonic acid group responsible for specificity (recognition) for a number of metal cations. The Diphonix resin exhibits an extraordinarily strong affinity for actinides, especially in the tetra- and hexavalent oxidation states. It has potential applications in TRU and mixed waste treatment and characterization, and in the development of new procedures for rapid actinide preconcentration and separation from environmental samples. Metal uptake studies have been extended to alkaline earth cations, to transition and post transition metal species, and to metal sorption from neutral or near neutral solutions. Also the kinetic behavior of the resin has been investigated in detail. Influence of the most commonly occurring matrix constituents (Na, Ca, Al, Fe, hydrofluoric, sulfuric, oxalic and phosphoric acids) on the uptake of actinide ions has been measured. This review paper summarizes the most important results studies on the Diphonix resin and gives an overview of the applications already in existence or under development in the fields of mixed waste treatment, actinide separation procedures, treatment of radwaste from nuclear power plants, and removal of iron from copper electrowinning solutions

  11. Biotechnological valorization of pectinolytics and their industrial applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Muhammad; Asgher, Muhammad; Anwar, Zahid; Ahmad, Aftab

    2014-11-01

    In the last several years, in serious consideration of the worldwide economic and environmental issues there has been an increasing research interest in the value of naturally occurring bio-sourced materials. Agro-industrial based biomass comprised of pectin is an inexpensive, renewable, abundant natural resource that could be utilized for large-scale and cost-effective production of natural products i.e., pectinolytics. Pectinolytics are one of the most widely distributed enzymes in bacteria, fungi and plants. From ancient times to date, many methods have been introduced to improve the optimization of pectinolytics to obtain high yields of maximal purity. To expand the range of natural bio-resources the rapidly evolving tools of biotechnology can lower the conversion costs and also enhance target yield of the product of interest. This green biotechnology presents a promising approach to convert most of the agricultural materials into a value-added product with multiple applications. Major advances have already been achieved in recent years in order to obtain high levels of purity with optimal yields. The present review begins with an overview of pectinolytics and their physico-chemical features, and their specific role with classification based on pectic materials. Information is also given on the culture influences and potential sources of pectinolytics, followed by a brief summary of various industrial and biotechnological applications and future considerations.

  12. Nanotechnology applications in hematological malignancies (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samir, Ahmed; Elgamal, Basma M; Gabr, Hala; Sabaawy, Hatem E

    2015-09-01

    A major limitation to current cancer therapies is the development of therapy-related side-effects and dose limiting complications. Moreover, a better understanding of the biology of cancer cells and the mechanisms of resistance to therapy is rapidly developing. The translation of advanced knowledge and discoveries achieved at the molecular level must be supported by advanced diagnostic, therapeutic and delivery technologies to translate these discoveries into useful tools that are essential in achieving progress in the war against cancer. Nanotechnology can play an essential role in this aspect providing a transforming technology that can translate the basic and clinical findings into novel diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive tools useful in different types of cancer. Hematological malignancies represent a specific class of cancer, which attracts special attention in the applications of nanotechnology for cancer diagnosis and treatment. The aim of the present review is to elucidate the emerging applications of nanotechnology in cancer management and describe the potentials of nanotechnology in changing the key fundamental aspects of hematological malignancy diagnosis, treatment and follow-up.

  13. APPLICATION OF USABILITY CONCEPTS IN WINE MARKETING: A MULTIDISCIPLINARY REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina CHIVU-DRAGHIA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have shown that the wine consumption decline in young generation could be influenced by the perception of wine as intimidating and difficult to understand, and by the lack of adaptability of the product’s communication strategy and packaging design to their lifestyle. Information available on the packaging is often complex and confusing for novice wine consumers and sometimes even irrelevant in regards to the intrinsic characteristics of the product. Furthermore, wine is seen by young adult consumers as old fashion, formal and mostly not associated with their relaxed attitude and “on the move” lifestyle. The objective of this paper is to analyse the usability key principles and heuristic and their applicability in wine marketing as a mean to improve the perception and increase understanding of wine for the young and/or novice consumers. The paper aims to review the existing knowledge and findings about the concept of usability (with special emphasis on Usability Engineering and Human Computer Interaction (HCI, in order to explore the aspects applicable in wine marketing. The usability concept proves useful in wine marketing to simplify the decision process, to make the meeting with the product less intimidating and more engaging, and to decrease the risk perception for the inexperienced wine consumers.

  14. Control chart applications in healthcare: a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Gaurav; Prajapati, DeoRaj

    2018-05-01

    The concept of Statistical process control (SPC) was given by the physicist Walter Shewhart in order to improve the industrial manufacturing. The SPC was firstly applied in laboratory and after then shifted to patient level in hospitals. As there is more involvement of human in healthcare, the chances of errors are also more. SPC i.e., control chart can help in determining the source of errors by identifying the special and common causes of variations. This paper presents the review of literature on the application of SPC and control chart in healthcare sector. Forty articles are selected out of 142 potentially relevant searched studies. Selected studies are categorised into eight departments. Literature survey shows that most of work on control chart applications in healthcare is carried out in Surgery, Emergency and Epidemiology departments. US, UK and Australia are the main customers where maximum amount of work was done. The US is the country where control chart in healthcare sector have been used at regular interval. This shows the gap of deploying control chart in different departments and different countries as well. The CUSUM and EWMA chart came into picture in healthcare sector after 2008 and are used at regular interval.

  15. Nano/micromotors for security/defense applications. A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Virendra V.; Wang, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    The new capabilities of man-made micro/nanomotors open up considerable opportunities for diverse security and defense applications. This review highlights new micromotor-based strategies for enhanced security monitoring and detoxification of chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA). The movement of receptor-functionalized nanomotors offers great potential for sensing and isolating target bio-threats from complex samples. New mobile reactive materials based on zeolite or activated carbon offer considerable promise for the accelerated removal of chemical warfare agents. A wide range of proof-of-concept motor-based approaches, including the detection and destruction of anthrax spores, `on-off' nerve-agent detection or effective neutralization of chemical warfare agents have thus been demonstrated. The propulsion of micromotors and their corresponding bubble tails impart significant mixing that greatly accelerates such detoxification processes. These nanomotors will thus empower sensing and destruction where stirring large quantities of decontaminating reagents and controlled mechanical agitation are impossible or undesired. New technological breakthroughs and greater sophistication of micro/nanoscale machines will lead to rapid translation of the micromotor research activity into practical defense applications, addressing the escalating threat of CBWA.

  16. Cellulosic Bionanocomposites: A Review of Preparation, Properties and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Dufresne

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose is the most abundant biomass material in nature. Extracted from natural fibers, its hierarchical and multi-level organization allows different kinds of nanoscaled cellulosic fillers—called cellulose nanocrystals or microfibrillated cellulose (MFC—to be obtained. Recently, such cellulose nanoparticles have been the focus of an exponentially increasing number of works or reviews devoted to understanding such materials and their applications. Major studies over the last decades have shown that cellulose nanoparticles could be used as fillers to improve mechanical and barrier properties of biocomposites. Their use for industrial packaging is being investigated, with continuous studies to find innovative solutions for efficient and sustainable systems. Processing is more and more important and different systems are detailed in this paper depending on the polymer solubility, i.e., (i hydrosoluble systems, (ii non-hydrosoluble systems, and (iii emulsion systems. This paper intends to give a clear overview of cellulose nanoparticles reinforced composites with more than 150 references by describing their preparation, characterization, properties and applications.

  17. Vacuum insulation panels for building applications: A review and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baetens, Ruben [Department of Building Materials and Structures, SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, NO-7465 Trondheim (Norway); Department of Civil and Transport Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Laboratory of Building Physics, Department of Civil Engineering, Catholic University of Leuven (KUL), BE-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Jelle, Bjoern Petter [Department of Building Materials and Structures, SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, NO-7465 Trondheim (Norway); Department of Civil and Transport Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Thue, Jan Vincent [Department of Civil and Transport Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Tenpierik, Martin J. [Faculty of Architecture, Urbanism and Building Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 134, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands); Grynning, Steinar; Uvsloekk, Sivert [Department of Building Materials and Structures, SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, NO-7465 Trondheim (Norway); Gustavsen, Arild [Department of Architectural Design, History and Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2010-02-15

    Vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) are regarded as one of the most promising high performance thermal insulation solutions on the market today. Thermal performances three to six times better than still-air are achieved by applying a vacuum to an encapsulated micro-porous material, resulting in a great potential for combining the reduction of energy consumption in buildings with slim constructions. However, thermal bridging due to the panel envelope and degradation of thermal performance through time occurs with current technology. Furthermore, VIPs cannot be cut on site and the panels are fragile towards damaging. These effects have to be taken into account for building applications as they may diminish the overall usability and thermal performance. This paper is as far as the authors know the first comprehensive review on VIPs. Properties, requirements and possibilities of foil encapsulated VIPs for building applications are studied based on available literature, emphasizing thermal bridging and degradation through time. An extension is made towards gas-filled panels and aerogels, showing that other high performance thermal insulation solutions do exist. Combining the technology of these solutions and others may lead to a new leap forward. Feasible paths beyond VIPs are investigated and possibilities such as vacuum insulation materials (VIMs) and nano insulation materials (NIMs) are proposed. (author)

  18. Review of piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Joontaek; Lee, Wonjun; Kang, Woojin; Shin, Eunjung; Ryu, Jungho; Choi, Hongsoo

    2017-11-01

    In recent decades, micromachined ultrasonic transducers (MUTs) have been investigated as an alternative to conventional piezocomposite ultrasonic transducers, primarily due to the advantages that microelectromechanical systems provide. Miniaturized ultrasonic systems require ultrasonic transducers integrated with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits. Hence, piezoelectric MUTs (pMUTs) and capacitive MUTs (cMUTs) have been developed as the most favorable solutions. This paper reviews the basic equations to understand the characteristics of thin-film-based piezoelectric devices and presents recent research on pMUTs, including current approaches and limitations. Methods to improve the coupling coefficient of pMUTs are also investigated, such as device structure, materials, and fabrication techniques. The device structure improvements include multielectrode pMUTs, partially clamped boundary conditions, and 3D pMUTs (curved and domed types), where the latter can provide an electromechanical coupling coefficient of up to 45%. The piezoelectric coefficient (e 31) can be increased by controlling the crystal texture (seed layer of γ-Al2O3), using single-crystal (PMN-PT) materials, or control of residual stresses (using SiO2 layer). Arrays of pMUTs can be implemented for various applications including intravascular ultrasound, fingerprint sensors, rangefinders in air, and wireless power supply systems. pMUTs are expected to be an ideal solution for applications such as mobile biometric security (fingerprint sensors) and rangefinders due to their superior power efficiency and compact size.

  19. Review of Remote Sensing Needs and Applications in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2007-01-01

    Remote sensing data has had an important role in identifying and responding to inter-annual variations in the African environment during the past three decades. As a largely agricultural region with diverse but generally limited government capacity to acquire and distribute ground observations of rainfall, temperature and other parameters, remote sensing is sometimes the only reliable measure of crop growing conditions in Africa. Thus, developing and maintaining the technical and scientific capacity to analyze and utilize satellite remote sensing data in Africa is critical to augmenting the continent's local weather/climate observation networks as well as its agricultural and natural resource development and management. The report Review of Remote Sensing Needs and Applications in Africa' has as its central goal to recommend to the US Agency for International Development an appropriate approach to support sustainable remote sensing applications at African regional remote sensing centers. The report focuses on "RS applications" to refer to the acquisition, maintenance and archiving, dissemination, distribution, analysis, and interpretation of remote sensing data, as well as the integration of interpreted data with other spatial data products. The report focuses on three primary remote sensing centers: (1) The AGRHYMET Regional Center in Niamey, Niger, created in 1974, is a specialized institute of the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS), with particular specialization in science and techniques applied to agricultural development, rural development, and natural resource management. (2) The Regional Centre for Maiming of Resources for Development (RCMRD) in Nairobi, Kenya, established in 1975 under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa and the Organization of African Unity (now the African Union), is an intergovernmental organization, with 15 member states from eastern and southern Africa. (3) The

  20. Microbial siderophores and their potential applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Maumita; Sarkar, Subhasis; Sarkar, Biplab; Sharma, Bipin Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Tribedi, Prosun

    2016-03-01

    Siderophores are small organic molecules produced by microorganisms under iron-limiting conditions which enhance the uptake of iron to the microorganisms. In environment, the ferric form of iron is insoluble and inaccessible at physiological pH (7.35-7.40). Under this condition, microorganisms synthesize siderophores which have high affinity for ferric iron. These ferric iron-siderophore complexes are then transported to cytosol. In cytosol, the ferric iron gets reduced into ferrous iron and becomes accessible to microorganism. In recent times, siderophores have drawn much attention due to its potential roles in different fields. Siderophores have application in microbial ecology to enhance the growth of several unculturable microorganisms and can alter the microbial communities. In the field of agriculture, different types of siderophores promote the growth of several plant species and increase their yield by enhancing the Fe uptake to plants. Siderophores acts as a potential biocontrol agent against harmful phyto-pathogens and holds the ability to substitute hazardous pesticides. Heavy-metal-contaminated samples can be detoxified by applying siderophores, which explicate its role in bioremediation. Siderophores can detect the iron content in different environments, exhibiting its role as a biosensor. In the medical field, siderophore uses the "Trojan horse strategy" to form complexes with antibiotics and helps in the selective delivery of antibiotics to the antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Certain iron overload diseases for example sickle cell anemia can be treated with the help of siderophores. Other medical applications of siderophores include antimalarial activity, removal of transuranic elements from the body, and anticancer activity. The aim of this review is to discuss the important roles and applications of siderophores in different sectors including ecology, agriculture, bioremediation, biosensor, and medicine.

  1. 76 FR 40453 - Agency Information Collection (Application for VA Education Benefits) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... (Application for VA Education Benefits) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... Education Benefits, VA Form 22-1990. b. Application for Family Member to Use Transferred Benefits, VA Form 22-1990E. [[Page 40454

  2. Hybrid Electric Energy Storages: Their Specific Features and Application (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popel', O. S.; Tarasenko, A. B.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents a review of various aspects related to development and practical use of hybrid electric energy storages (i.e., those uniting different energy storage technologies and devices in an integrated system) in transport and conventional and renewable power engineering applications. Such devices, which were initially developed for transport power installations, are increasingly being used by other consumers characterized by pronounced nonuniformities of their load schedule. A range of tasks solved using such energy storages is considered. It is shown that, owing to the advent of new types of energy storages and the extended spectrum of their performance characteristics, new possibilities for combining different types of energy storages and for developing hybrid systems have become available. This, in turn, opens up the possibility of making energy storages with better mass and dimension characteristics and achieving essentially lower operational costs. The possibility to secure more comfortable (base) operating modes of primary sources of energy (heat engines and renewable energy source based power installations) and to achieve a higher capacity utilization factor are unquestionable merits of hybrid energy storages. Development of optimal process circuit solutions, as well as energy conversion and control devices facilitating the fullest utilization of the properties of each individual energy storage included in the hybrid system, is among the important lines of research carried out in this field in Russia and abroad. Our review of existing developments has shown that there are no universal technical solutions in this field (the specific features of a consumer have an essential effect on the process circuit solutions and on the composition of a hybrid energy storage), a circumstance that dictates the need to extend the scope of investigations in this promising field.

  3. Application of nanofluids in plate heat exchanger: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Vikas; Tiwari, Arun Kumar; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Use of nanofluid improves the heat transfer performance of plate heat exchanger. • Thermo-physical properties of the nanofluid have been discussed. • Optimum particle concentrations for maximum heat transfer is found to exist. - Abstract: Writing, or even making an attempt to write anything on or about Plate Heat Exchangers (Henceforth, PHE) would be no more than a futile effort to reassert and glorify an already stronghold state of PHEs, as is evident with the kind of multilayered and multi-tasked functions it performs, obviously in different forms, in various domains of work & walks of life, since a good long time. Nonetheless, in a bid to bring about a certain makeshift in the way the PHE has been functioning and sustaining, there was a need to revisit the structural pattern and the fluids that contribute to the performance of PHE. Summarily, this brings the researcher and designers to shift the focus not only from the conventional design but also to introduce a new substance which could further contribute to enhance the performance of the PHE. That is why, in recent times, the miniaturization of PHE and energy efficiency have become focal point of attention, discourse and research. While exploring for better alternates, the nanofluids have surfaced as probable (replaceable) substitutes. The Nanofluid is a relatively recent (in contrast with the PHEs) finding that promises, pronouncedly, greater heat absorbing and heat transport ability. The review article attempts to take a sneak peak into some of the important published articles that deal with the function and performance of PHEs using nanofluids. The first section of the paper presents observations by several authors on experimental and numerical results regarding thermal conductivity, viscosity, specific heat and heat transfer coefficients. The second section talks of application of nanofluids in plate heat exchangers. It has also examined the utility of nanofluids, particularly in PHEs

  4. BOOK REVIEW: Light, Visible and Invisible and its Medical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newing, Angela

    2000-09-01

    This book is based on various lectures given by Professor Newing over the last few years covering the centenaries of the discovery of x-rays, radioactivity, the electron and radium. It is a splendid follow-up read after studying the more formal presentations in A-level textbooks. The theory of each technique is touched on and the reader is provided with a full list of references for deeper analysis. Intermittently within the text are paragraphs of historical and developmental details, illustrated by contemporary drawings and photographs. These passages, which appear in a different typeface, add greatly to the enjoyment of the book, but could be skipped by an impatient reader seeking to gain an appropriate review knowledge of the subject of medical radiation physics. The areas of physiological measurement and medical engineering are not covered, neither is medical computing. Chapters discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of x-rays. Different methods of scanning are outlined and the appropriateness of techniques brought up-to-date. Treatment with ionizing radiations is expanded to touch on electron radiotherapy, neutron therapy and brachytherapy. Phototherapy and photochemotherapy are considered in the section on treatments using non-ionizing radiations. The story starts with evidence from the ancient worlds of Egypt and Greece, accelerating through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to the many treatments around today. The laser is shown to be a versatile and exact tool, available in a complete range of wavelengths for different surgical uses. The scientific principles and current applications of nuclear medicine, ultrasound and MRI are described. For each type of procedure, the author includes comments on advantages, disadvantages and operational safety. Dosimetry and quality assurance are touched upon. The book reflects Professor Newing's enthusiasm for her role as a medical physicist both as practitioner and teacher. To any students studying

  5. n-ary algebras: a review with applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Azcarraga, J A; Izquierdo, J M

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the properties and applications of certain n-ary generalizations of Lie algebras in a self-contained and unified way. These generalizations are algebraic structures in which the two-entry Lie bracket has been replaced by a bracket with n entries. Each type of n-ary bracket satisfies a specific characteristic identity which plays the role of the Jacobi identity for Lie algebras. Particular attention will be paid to generalized Lie algebras, which are defined by even multibrackets obtained by antisymmetrizing the associative products of its n components and that satisfy the generalized Jacobi identity, and to Filippov (or n-Lie) algebras, which are defined by fully antisymmetric n-brackets that satisfy the Filippov identity. 3-Lie algebras have surfaced recently in multi-brane theory in the context of the Bagger-Lambert-Gustavsson model. As a result, Filippov algebras will be discussed at length, including the cohomology complexes that govern their central extensions and their deformations (it turns out that Whitehead's lemma extends to all semisimple n-Lie algebras). When the skewsymmetry of the Lie or n-Lie algebra bracket is relaxed, one is led to a more general type of n-algebras, the n-Leibniz algebras. These will be discussed as well, since they underlie the cohomological properties of n-Lie algebras. The standard Poisson structure may also be extended to the n-ary case. We shall review here the even generalized Poisson structures, whose generalized Jacobi identity reproduces the pattern of the generalized Lie algebras, and the Nambu-Poisson structures, which satisfy the Filippov identity and determine Filippov algebras. Finally, the recent work of Bagger-Lambert and Gustavsson on superconformal Chern-Simons theory will be briefly discussed. Emphasis will be made on the appearance of the 3-Lie algebra structure and on why the A 4 model may be formulated in terms of an ordinary Lie algebra, and on its Nambu bracket generalization. (topical

  6. Applications of corneal topography and tomography: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rachel; Chan, Tommy Cy; Prakash, Gaurav; Jhanji, Vishal

    2018-03-01

    Corneal imaging is essential for diagnosing and management of a wide variety of ocular diseases. Corneal topography is used to characterize the shape of the cornea, specifically, the anterior surface of the cornea. Most corneal topographical systems are based on Placido disc that analyse rings that are reflected off the corneal surface. The posterior corneal surface cannot be characterized using Placido disc technology. Imaging of the posterior corneal surface is useful for diagnosis of corneal ectasia. Unlike corneal topographers, tomographers generate a three-dimensional recreation of the anterior segment and provide information about the corneal thickness. Scheimpflug imaging is one of the most commonly used techniques for corneal tomography. The cross-sectional images generated by a rotating Scheimpflug camera are used to locate the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces. The clinical uses of corneal topography include, diagnosis of corneal ectasia, assessment of corneal astigmatism, and refractive surgery planning. This review will discuss the applications of corneal topography and tomography in clinical practice. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  7. Review of flat panel display programs and defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnade, Bruce; Schulze, Raymond; Henderson, Girardeau L.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1997-07-01

    Flat panel display research has comprised a substantial portion of the national investment in new technology for economic and national security for the past nine years. These investments have ben made principally via several Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) programs, known collectively as the continuing High Definition Systems Program, and the Office of the Secretary of Defense Production Act Title III Program. Using input from the Army, Navy, and Air Force to focus research and identify insertion opportunities, DARPA and the Title III Program Office have made investments to develop the national technology base and manufacturing infrastructure necessary to meet the twin challenge of providing affordable displays in current systems and enabling the DoD strategy of winning future conflicts by getting more information to all participants during the battle. These research programs are reviewed and opportunities for applications are described. Future technology development, transfer, and transition requirements are identified. Strategy and vision are documented to assist the identification of areas meriting further consideration.

  8. Surface Renewal Application for Estimating Evapotranspiration: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongguang Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of evapotranspiration (ET is essential for meteorological modeling of surface exchange processes, as well as for the agricultural practice of irrigation management. Hitherto, a number of methods for estimation of ET at different temporal scales and climatic conditions are constantly under investigation and improvement. One of these methods is surface renewal (SR. Therefore, the premise of this review is to present recent developments and applications of SR for ET measurements. The SR method is based on estimating the turbulent exchange of sensible heat flux between plant canopy and atmosphere caused by the instantaneous replacement of air parcels in contact with the surface. Additional measurements of net radiation and soil heat flux facilitate extracting ET using the shortened energy balance equation. The challenge, however, is the calibration of SR results against direct sensible heat flux measurements. For the classical SR method, only air temperature measured at high frequency is required. In addition, a new model suggests that the SR method could be exempted from calibration by measuring additional micrometeorological variables. However, further improvement of the SR method is required to provide improved results in the future.

  9. Multivariate missing data in hydrology - Review and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Aissia, Mohamed-Aymen; Chebana, Fateh; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Water resources planning and management require complete data sets of a number of hydrological variables, such as flood peaks and volumes. However, hydrologists are often faced with the problem of missing data (MD) in hydrological databases. Several methods are used to deal with the imputation of MD. During the last decade, multivariate approaches have gained popularity in the field of hydrology, especially in hydrological frequency analysis (HFA). However, treating the MD remains neglected in the multivariate HFA literature whereas the focus has been mainly on the modeling component. For a complete analysis and in order to optimize the use of data, MD should also be treated in the multivariate setting prior to modeling and inference. Imputation of MD in the multivariate hydrological framework can have direct implications on the quality of the estimation. Indeed, the dependence between the series represents important additional information that can be included in the imputation process. The objective of the present paper is to highlight the importance of treating MD in multivariate hydrological frequency analysis by reviewing and applying multivariate imputation methods and by comparing univariate and multivariate imputation methods. An application is carried out for multiple flood attributes on three sites in order to evaluate the performance of the different methods based on the leave-one-out procedure. The results indicate that, the performance of imputation methods can be improved by adopting the multivariate setting, compared to mean substitution and interpolation methods, especially when using the copula-based approach.

  10. Mobile phone applications in Parkinson's disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares-Del Rey, M; Vela-Desojo, L; Cano-de la Cuerda, R

    2017-05-23

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. However, diagnosing, assessing, and treating these patients is a complex process requiring continuous monitoring. In this context, smartphones may be useful in the management of patients with PD. The purpose of this study is to perform a systematic review of the literature addressing the use of mobile phone applications (apps) in PD. We conducted a literature search of articles published in English or Spanish between 2011 and 2016 analysing or validating apps specifically designed for or useful in PD. In addition, we searched for apps potentially useful for PD patients in the leading app stores. The literature and app searches yielded a total of 125 apps, 56 of which were classified as potentially useful in PD and 69 as specifically designed for PD (23 information apps, 29 assessment apps, 13 treatment apps, and 4 assessment and treatment apps). Numerous mobile apps are potentially useful in or specifically designed for PD management. However, scientific evidence of their usefulness is scarce and of poor quality. Further studies are needed to validate these tools and regulate their use. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. A review on biodegradable materials for cardiovascular stent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Li-Da; Li, Zhen; Pan, Yu; Sabir, MuhammadIqbal; Zheng, Yu-Feng; Li, Li

    2016-09-01

    A stent is a medical device designed to serve as a temporary or permanent internal scaffold to maintain or increase the lumen of a body conduit. The researchers and engineers diverted to investigate biodegradable materials due to the limitation of metallic materials in stent application such as stent restenosis which requires prolonged anti platelet therapy, often result in smaller lumen after implantation and obstruct re-stenting treatments. Biomedical implants with temporary function for the vascular intervention are extensively studied in recent years. The rationale for biodegradable stent is to provide the support for the vessel in predicted period of time and then degrading into biocompatible constituent. The degradation of stent makes the re-stenting possible after several months and also ameliorates the vessel wall quality. The present article focuses on the biodegradable materials for the cardiovascular stent. The objective of this review is to describe the possible biodegradable materials for stent and their properties such as design criteria, degradation behavior, drawbacks and advantages with their recent clinical and preclinical trials.

  12. A Comprehensive Review on Clinical Applications of Comet Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekarana, Vidya; Chand, Parkash

    2015-01-01

    Increased levels of DNA damage and ineffective repair mechanisms are the underlying bio-molecular events in the pathogenesis of most of the life-threatening diseases like cancer and degenerative diseases. The sources of DNA damage can be either exogenous or endogenous in origin. Imbalance between the oxidants and antioxidants resulting in increased reactive oxygen species mostly accounts for the endogenously derived attacks on DNA. Among the various methods employed in the estimation of DNA damage, alkaline comet assay is proven to be a relatively simple and versatile tool in the assessment of DNA damage and also in determining the efficacy of DNA repair mechanism. The aim of this article is to review the application of comet assay in the field of medicine towards human biomonitoring, understanding the pathogenesis of cancer and progression of chronic and degenerative diseases, prediction of tumour radio & chemosensitivity and in male infertility. A standardized protocol and analysis system of various variants of comet assay in different types of cells, across the labs will be of useful and reliable clinical tool in the field of Medicine for the estimation of levels of DNA damage and repair mechanisms. PMID:25954633

  13. Application of Shape Memory Alloys in Seismic Isolation: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaghayegh Alvandi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, there has been an increasing interest in structural engineering control methods. Shape memory alloys and seismic isolation systems are examples of passive control systems that use of any one alone, effectively improve the seismic performance of the structure. Characteristics such as large strain range without any residual deformation, high damping capacity, excellent re-centering, high resistance to fatigue and corrosion and durability have made shape memory alloy an effective damping device or part of base isolators. A unique characteristic of shape memory alloys is in recovering residual deformations even after strong ground excitations. Seismic isolation is a device to lessen earthquake damage prospects. In the latest research studies, shape memory alloy is utilized in combination with seismic isolation system and their results indicate the effectiveness of the application of them to control the response of the structures. This paper reviews the findings of research studies on base isolation system implemented in the building and/or bridge structures by including the unique behavior of shape memory alloys. This study includes the primary information about the characteristic of the isolation system as well as the shape memory material. The efficiency and feasibility of the two mechanisms are also presented by few cases in point.

  14. Gold Nanoparticles in Photonic Crystals Applications: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Iole

    2017-01-24

    This review concerns the recently emerged class of composite colloidal photonic crystals (PCs), in which gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are included in the photonic structure. The use of composites allows achieving a strong modification of the optical properties of photonic crystals by involving the light scattering with electronic excitations of the gold component (surface plasmon resonance, SPR) realizing a combination of absorption bands with the diffraction resonances occurring in the body of the photonic crystals. Considering different preparations of composite plasmonic-photonic crystals, based on 3D-PCs in presence of AuNPs, different resonance phenomena determine the optical response of hybrid crystals leading to a broadly tunable functionality of these crystals. Several chemical methods for fabrication of opals and inverse opals are presented together with preparations of composites plasmonic-photonic crystals: the influence of SPR on the optical properties of PCs is also discussed. Main applications of this new class of composite materials are illustrated with the aim to offer the reader an overview of the recent advances in this field.

  15. Gold Nanoparticles in Photonic Crystals Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iole Venditti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This review concerns the recently emerged class of composite colloidal photonic crystals (PCs, in which gold nanoparticles (AuNPs are included in the photonic structure. The use of composites allows achieving a strong modification of the optical properties of photonic crystals by involving the light scattering with electronic excitations of the gold component (surface plasmon resonance, SPR realizing a combination of absorption bands with the diffraction resonances occurring in the body of the photonic crystals. Considering different preparations of composite plasmonic-photonic crystals, based on 3D-PCs in presence of AuNPs, different resonance phenomena determine the optical response of hybrid crystals leading to a broadly tunable functionality of these crystals. Several chemical methods for fabrication of opals and inverse opals are presented together with preparations of composites plasmonic-photonic crystals: the influence of SPR on the optical properties of PCs is also discussed. Main applications of this new class of composite materials are illustrated with the aim to offer the reader an overview of the recent advances in this field.

  16. Entropy Applications to Water Monitoring Network Design: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongho Keum

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Having reliable water monitoring networks is an essential component of water resources and environmental management. A standardized process for the design of water monitoring networks does not exist with the exception of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO general guidelines about the minimum network density. While one of the major challenges in the design of optimal hydrometric networks has been establishing design objectives, information theory has been successfully adopted to network design problems by providing measures of the information content that can be deliverable from a station or a network. This review firstly summarizes the common entropy terms that have been used in water monitoring network designs. Then, this paper deals with the recent applications of the entropy concept for water monitoring network designs, which are categorized into (1 precipitation; (2 streamflow and water level; (3 water quality; and (4 soil moisture and groundwater networks. The integrated design method for multivariate monitoring networks is also covered. Despite several issues, entropy theory has been well suited to water monitoring network design. However, further work is still required to provide design standards and guidelines for operational use.

  17. Mucor indicus: biology and industrial application perspectives: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Keikhosro; Zamani, Akram

    2013-01-01

    Mucor indicus, one of the most important strains of zygomycetes fungi, has been the subject of several studies since a couple of hundred years ago. This fungus, regarded as a non-pathogenic dimorphic microorganism, is used for production of several beers and foods. Morphology of the fungus can be manipulated and well controlled by changing a number of parameters. Furthermore, M. indicus can grow on a variety of substrates including lignocellulosic hydrolysates which are mixtures of hexoses, pentoses, and different severe fermentation inhibitors. Indeed, high yield ethanol production is among the most important features of this strain. Presence of considerable amounts of chitosan in the cell wall is another important aspect of the fungus. Besides production of ethanol and chitosan, the biomass of this fungus has shown a great potential to be used as a rich nutritional source, e.g. fish feed. The fungus is also among the oleaginous fungi and produces high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids particularly γ-linolenic acid. Furthermore, the biomass autolysate has a high potential for yeast extract replacement in fermentation by the fungus. Additionally, the strain has shown promising results in heavy metal removal from wastewaters. This review discusses different aspects of biology and industrial application perspectives of M. indicus. Furthermore, open areas for the future basic and applied levels of research are also presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reviews on laser cutting technology for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangpool, T.; Pullteap, S.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, an overview of the laser technology applied for the industrial has been reviewed. In general, this technology was used in several engineering applications such as industrial, medical, science, research sectors, etc. Focusing on the laser technology in the industrial section, it was, normally, employed for many purposes i.e. target marking, welding, drilling, and also cutting. Consequently, the laser cutting technology was, however, divided into three classifications YAG, CO2, and fiber laser, respectively. Each laser types have different advantages and disadvantages depending on the material type. The advantages by using laser cutting compared with the general cutting machines were exploited in terms of narrow kerf, high cutting speed, low heat-affected zone (HAZ), improve efficiency of the cutting process, high accuracy, etc. However, the main objectives from the technology used were increasing of the products and also decreasing the production cost. In the opposite way, some disadvantages of the technology were summarized by complexity to operate, high maintenance cost, and also high power consumption. In Thailand industry, there were many factories used this technology as a cutting process. Unfortunately, only few researches were published. It might explains that this technology were difficulty to develop, high investment, and also easy to import from aboard. For becoming to the Thailand 4.0 community, the Thailand industry might awareness to reduce the importing machine and boosting some policies to create novel innovative / know-how from the own country.

  19. New agrophysics divisions: application of GIS and fuzzy multi attributive comparison of alternatives (review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review paper is devoted to review the new scientific divisions that emerged in agrophysics in the last 10-15 years. Among them are the following: 1) application of Geographic Information Systems, 2) development and application of fuzzy multi attributive comparison of alternatives. In recent yea...

  20. 78 FR 40507 - Appendix B Guidelines for Reviewing Applications for Compensation and Reimbursement of Expenses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Appendix B Guidelines for Reviewing Applications for Compensation and Reimbursement of Expenses Filed Under United States Code by Attorneys in Larger Chapter 11 Cases; Correction... reviewing applications for compensation and reimbursement of expenses filed by attorneys in larger chapter...

  1. 40 CFR 725.370 - EPA review of the TME application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... unreasonable risk of injury to health and the environment as a result of test marketing. ... Marketing § 725.370 EPA review of the TME application. General procedures for review of all submissions... with test marketing activities after receipt of EPA approval. (c) In approving a TME application, EPA...

  2. Phenomenological Studies on Sodium for CSP Applications: A Safety Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Andraka, Charles E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.

    2016-09-01

    Sodium as a heat transfer fluid (HTF) can achieve temperatures above 700°C to improve power cycle performance for reducing large infrastructure costs of high-temperature systems. Current concentrating solar power (CSP) sensible HTF’s (e.g. air, salts) have poor thermal conductivity, and thus low heat transfer capabilities, requiring a large receiver. The high thermal conductivity of sodium has demonstrated high heat transfer rates on dish and towers systems, which allow a reduction in receiver area by a factor of two to four, reducing re-radiation and convection losses and cost by a similar factor. Sodium produces saturated vapor at pressures suitable for transport starting at 600°C and reaches one atmosphere at 870°C, providing a wide range of suitable latent operating conditions that match proposed high temperature, isothermal input power cycles. This advantage could increase the receiver and system efficiency while lowering the cost of CSP tower systems. Although there are a number of desirable thermal performance advantages associated with sodium, its propensity to rapidly oxidize presents safety challenges. This investigation presents a literature review that captures historical operations/handling lessons for advanced sodium systems, and the current state-of-knowledge related to sodium combustion behavior. Technical and operational solutions addressing sodium safety and applications in CSP will be discussed, including unique safety hazards and advantages using latent sodium. Operation and maintenance experience from the nuclear industry with sensible and latent systems will also be discussed in the context of safety challenges and risk mitigation solutions.

  3. Collagen: A review on its sources and potential cosmetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila Rodríguez, María Isabela; Rodríguez Barroso, Laura G; Sánchez, Mirna Lorena

    2018-02-01

    Collagen is a fibrillar protein that conforms the conjunctive and connective tissues in the human body, essentially skin, joints, and bones. This molecule is one of the most abundant in many of the living organisms due to its connective role in biological structures. Due to its abundance, strength and its directly proportional relation with skin aging, collagen has gained great interest in the cosmetic industry. It has been established that the collagen fibers are damaged with the pass of time, losing thickness and strength which has been strongly related with skin aging phenomena [Colágeno para todo. 60 y más. 2016. http://www.revista60ymas.es/InterPresent1/groups/revistas/documents/binario/ses330informe.pdf.]. As a solution, the cosmetic industry incorporated collagen as an ingredient of different treatments to enhance the user youth and well-being, and some common presentations are creams, nutritional supplement for bone and cartilage regeneration, vascular and cardiac reconstruction, skin replacement, and augmentation of soft skin among others [J App Pharm Sci. 2015;5:123-127]. Nowadays, the biomolecule can be obtained by extraction from natural sources such as plants and animals or by recombinant protein production systems including yeast, bacteria, mammalian cells, insects or plants, or artificial fibrils that mimic collagen characteristics like the artificial polymer commercially named as KOD. Because of its increased use, its market size is valued over USD 6.63 billion by 2025 [Collagen Market By Source (Bovine, Porcine, Poultry, Marine), Product (Gelatin, Hydrolyzed Collagen), Application (Food & Beverages, Healthcare, Cosmetics), By Region, And Segment Forecasts, 2014 - 2025. Grand View Research. http://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/collagen-market. Published 2017.]. Nevertheless, there has been little effort on identifying which collagen types are the most suitable for cosmetic purposes, for which the present review will try to enlighten

  4. Technical review of process heat applications using the HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brierley, G.

    1976-06-01

    The demand for process heat applications is surveyed. Those applications which can be served only by the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) are identified and the status of process heat applications in Europe, USA, and Japan in December 1975 is discussed. Technical problems associated with the HTGR for process heat applications are outlined together with an appraisal of the safety considerations involved. (author)

  5. Application of project design peer review to improve quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, F.E.

    1989-01-01

    DOE ORDER 5481.1B Safety Analysis and Review Systems and DOE ORDER 6430.1A General Design Criteria require that the design of facilities shall incorporate the necessary Quality Assurance review requirements to assure that the established program quality assurance objectives are met in the design criteria and the construction documents. The use of Project Design Peer Review to satisfy these requirements is presented. The University of California manages the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the Los Alamos National Scientific Laboratory. The 1988 University Seismic Safety Policy requires the use of independent Project Design Peer Review in its capital improvement and seismic reconstruction program

  6. Land Application of Biosolids in the USA: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Land application of biosolids has proven a cost-effective method of waste disposal by beneficially recycling organic matter and nutrients and improving soil quality; however, it may also pose potential threat to the environment and human health. The purpose of this paper is to provide information on recent research progresses and regulation efforts regarding land application of biosolids, including forms and types and nutrient values of biosolids, environmental and health concerns, and related best management practices (BMPs of biosolids application, with emphasis on its land application in agriculture. More research and regulations are expected to minimize potential risks of biosolids land application, especially its long-term impacts.

  7. Making literature reviews more reliable through application of lessons from systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddaway, N R; Woodcock, P; Macura, B; Collins, A

    2015-12-01

    Review articles can provide valuable summaries of the ever-increasing volume of primary research in conservation biology. Where findings may influence important resource-allocation decisions in policy or practice, there is a need for a high degree of reliability when reviewing evidence. However, traditional literature reviews are susceptible to a number of biases during the identification, selection, and synthesis of included studies (e.g., publication bias, selection bias, and vote counting). Systematic reviews, pioneered in medicine and translated into conservation in 2006, address these issues through a strict methodology that aims to maximize transparency, objectivity, and repeatability. Systematic reviews will always be the gold standard for reliable synthesis of evidence. However, traditional literature reviews remain popular and will continue to be valuable where systematic reviews are not feasible. Where traditional reviews are used, lessons can be taken from systematic reviews and applied to traditional reviews in order to increase their reliability. Certain key aspects of systematic review methods that can be used in a context-specific manner in traditional reviews include focusing on mitigating bias; increasing transparency, consistency, and objectivity, and critically appraising the evidence and avoiding vote counting. In situations where conducting a full systematic review is not feasible, the proposed approach to reviewing evidence in a more systematic way can substantially improve the reliability of review findings, providing a time- and resource-efficient means of maximizing the value of traditional reviews. These methods are aimed particularly at those conducting literature reviews where systematic review is not feasible, for example, for graduate students, single reviewers, or small organizations. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. In situ hybridization; principles and applications: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Nozhat

    2015-06-01

    suspected after microscope analysis. In this technique different fluorescent labels are attached to the probes. In this review article ISH, its different types, their application, advantages and disadvantages have been considered.

  9. Safety evaluation review of the prototype license application safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and consultants reviewed a Prototype License Application Safety Analysis Report (PLASAR) submitted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the belowground vault (BGV) alternative method of low-level radioactive waste disposal. In Volume 1 of NUREG-1375, the NRC staff provided the safety review results for an earth-mounded concrete bunker PLASAR. In the current report, the staff focused its review on the design, construction, and operational aspects of the BGV PLASAR. The staff developed review comments and questions using the Standard Review Plan (SRP), Rev. 1 (NUREG-1200) as the basis for evaluating the acceptability of the information provided in the BGV PLASAR. The detailed review comments provided in this report are intended to be useful guidance to facility developers and State regulators in addressing issues likely to be encountered in the review of a license application for a low-level-waste disposal facility. 44 refs

  10. Preliminary Design Review: PCA Integrated Radar-Tracker Application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lebak, J

    2002-01-01

    The DARPA Polymorphous Computing Architecture (PCA) program is building advanced computer architectures that can reorganize their computation and communication structure to achieve better overall application performance...

  11. Application of systematic review methodology to the field of nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Systematic reviews represent a rigorous and transparent approach of synthesizing scientific evidence that minimizes bias. They evolved within the medical community to support development of clinical and public health practice guidelines, set research agendas and formulate scientific consensus state...

  12. 45 CFR 170.430 - Review of application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT § 170.430 Review of...

  13. Software Reviews. PC Software for Artificial Intelligence Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Helmut; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Contrasts artificial intelligence and conventional programming languages. Reviews Personal Consultant Plus, Smalltalk/V, and Nexpert Object, which are PC-based products inspired by problem-solving paradigms. Provides information on background and operation of each. (RT)

  14. Location-based social networking media for restaurant promotion and food review using mobile application

    OpenAIRE

    Luhur H.S.; Widjaja N.D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is focusing on the development of a mobile application for searching restaurants and promotions with location based and social networking features. The main function of the application is to search restaurant information. Other functions are also available in this application such as add restaurant, add promotion, add photo, add food review, and other features including social networking features. The restaurant and promotion searching application will be developed under Android pl...

  15. Trends in HFE Methods and Tools and Their Applicability to Safety Reviews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J.M.; Plott, C.; Milanski, J.; Ronan, A.; Scheff, S.; Laux, L.; and Bzostek, J.

    2009-09-30

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) conducts human factors engineering (HFE) safety reviews of applicant submittals for new plants and for changes to existing plants. The reviews include the evaluation of the methods and tools (M&T) used by applicants as part of their HFE program. The technology used to perform HFE activities has been rapidly evolving, resulting in a whole new generation of HFE M&Ts. The objectives of this research were to identify the current trends in HFE methods and tools, determine their applicability to NRC safety reviews, and identify topics for which the NRC may need additional guidance to support the NRC's safety reviews. We conducted a survey that identified over 100 new HFE M&Ts. The M&Ts were assessed to identify general trends. Seven trends were identified: Computer Applications for Performing Traditional Analyses, Computer-Aided Design, Integration of HFE Methods and Tools, Rapid Development Engineering, Analysis of Cognitive Tasks, Use of Virtual Environments and Visualizations, and Application of Human Performance Models. We assessed each trend to determine its applicability to the NRC's review by considering (1) whether the nuclear industry is making use of M&Ts for each trend, and (2) whether M&Ts reflecting the trend can be reviewed using the current design review guidance. We concluded that M&T trends that are applicable to the commercial nuclear industry and are expected to impact safety reviews may be considered for review guidance development. Three trends fell into this category: Analysis of Cognitive Tasks, Use of Virtual Environments and Visualizations, and Application of Human Performance Models. The other trends do not need to be addressed at this time.

  16. Trends in HFE Methods and Tools and Their Applicability to Safety Reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.; Plott, C.; Milanski, J.; Ronan, A.; Scheff, S.; Laux, L.; Bzostek, J.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) conducts human factors engineering (HFE) safety reviews of applicant submittals for new plants and for changes to existing plants. The reviews include the evaluation of the methods and tools (M and T) used by applicants as part of their HFE program. The technology used to perform HFE activities has been rapidly evolving, resulting in a whole new generation of HFE M and Ts. The objectives of this research were to identify the current trends in HFE methods and tools, determine their applicability to NRC safety reviews, and identify topics for which the NRC may need additional guidance to support the NRC's safety reviews. We conducted a survey that identified over 100 new HFE M and Ts. The M and Ts were assessed to identify general trends. Seven trends were identified: Computer Applications for Performing Traditional Analyses, Computer-Aided Design, Integration of HFE Methods and Tools, Rapid Development Engineering, Analysis of Cognitive Tasks, Use of Virtual Environments and Visualizations, and Application of Human Performance Models. We assessed each trend to determine its applicability to the NRC's review by considering (1) whether the nuclear industry is making use of M and Ts for each trend, and (2) whether M and Ts reflecting the trend can be reviewed using the current design review guidance. We concluded that M and T trends that are applicable to the commercial nuclear industry and are expected to impact safety reviews may be considered for review guidance development. Three trends fell into this category: Analysis of Cognitive Tasks, Use of Virtual Environments and Visualizations, and Application of Human Performance Models. The other trends do not need to be addressed at this time.

  17. 7 CFR 1942.5 - Application review and approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Collection Policies for Consumer or Commercial Debts,” organization, business operations, insurance and..., management agreements, or other agreements when facility management will be provided by other than the... applicant bears a close and genuine relationship to the original applicant (such as two organizations that...

  18. 18 CFR 1304.4 - Application review and approval process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hearing is requested by the USACE pursuant to the TVA/Corps joint processing Memorandum of Understanding... the application as appropriate. (b) If a hearing is held for any of the reasons described in paragraph... contained in the hearing notice. (c) Hearings concerning approval of applications are conducted (in...

  19. Random elements on lattices: Review and statistical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potocký, Rastislav; Villarroel, Claudia Navarro; Sepúlveda, Maritza; Luna, Guillermo; Stehlík, Milan

    2017-07-01

    We discuss important contributions to random elements on lattices. We relate to both algebraic and probabilistic properties. Several applications and concepts are discussed, e.g. positive dependence, Random walks and distributions on lattices, Super-lattices, learning. The application to Chilean Ecology is given.

  20. 15 CFR 747.5 - SIRL application review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... establish the reliability of the proposed parties to the application, it may deny the application, or modify... potential impact of the proposed transaction on the security situation in Iraq; and (v) The reliability of... BIS approval: (i) License holder address, contact information, or license value; or (ii) Removing...

  1. A Systematic Review of Healthcare Applications for Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosa Abu Saleh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advanced mobile communications and portable computation are now combined in handheld devices called “smartphones”, which are also capable of running third-party software. The number of smartphone users is growing rapidly, including among healthcare professionals. The purpose of this study was to classify smartphone-based healthcare technologies as discussed in academic literature according to their functionalities, and summarize articles in each category. Methods In April 2011, MEDLINE was searched to identify articles that discussed the design, development, evaluation, or use of smartphone-based software for healthcare professionals, medical or nursing students, or patients. A total of 55 articles discussing 83 applications were selected for this study from 2,894 articles initially obtained from the MEDLINE searches. Results A total of 83 applications were documented: 57 applications for healthcare professionals focusing on disease diagnosis (21, drug reference (6, medical calculators (8, literature search (6, clinical communication (3, Hospital Information System (HIS client applications (4, medical training (2 and general healthcare applications (7; 11 applications for medical or nursing students focusing on medical education; and 15 applications for patients focusing on disease management with chronic illness (6, ENT-related (4, fall-related (3, and two other conditions (2. The disease diagnosis, drug reference, and medical calculator applications were reported as most useful by healthcare professionals and medical or nursing students. Conclusions Many medical applications for smartphones have been developed and widely used by health professionals and patients. The use of smartphones is getting more attention in healthcare day by day. Medical applications make smartphones useful tools in the practice of evidence-based medicine at the point of care, in addition to their use in mobile clinical communication. Also

  2. A systematic review of healthcare applications for smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosa, Abu Saleh Mohammad; Yoo, Illhoi; Sheets, Lincoln

    2012-07-10

    Advanced mobile communications and portable computation are now combined in handheld devices called "smartphones", which are also capable of running third-party software. The number of smartphone users is growing rapidly, including among healthcare professionals. The purpose of this study was to classify smartphone-based healthcare technologies as discussed in academic literature according to their functionalities, and summarize articles in each category. In April 2011, MEDLINE was searched to identify articles that discussed the design, development, evaluation, or use of smartphone-based software for healthcare professionals, medical or nursing students, or patients. A total of 55 articles discussing 83 applications were selected for this study from 2,894 articles initially obtained from the MEDLINE searches. A total of 83 applications were documented: 57 applications for healthcare professionals focusing on disease diagnosis (21), drug reference (6), medical calculators (8), literature search (6), clinical communication (3), Hospital Information System (HIS) client applications (4), medical training (2) and general healthcare applications (7); 11 applications for medical or nursing students focusing on medical education; and 15 applications for patients focusing on disease management with chronic illness (6), ENT-related (4), fall-related (3), and two other conditions (2). The disease diagnosis, drug reference, and medical calculator applications were reported as most useful by healthcare professionals and medical or nursing students. Many medical applications for smartphones have been developed and widely used by health professionals and patients. The use of smartphones is getting more attention in healthcare day by day. Medical applications make smartphones useful tools in the practice of evidence-based medicine at the point of care, in addition to their use in mobile clinical communication. Also, smartphones can play a very important role in patient education

  3. A review of the applications to solids of the laser ion source in mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conzemius, R.J.; Capellen, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The review is intended to provide a panoramic view of the broadening applications of the laser ion source in mass spectrometry. In these applications a laser beam has been used to excite a solid specimen to the ionized state or to the vaporized state in the ion source of a mass spectrometer. The review is divided into two main sections: Analytical features and applications. The analytical features section has been subdivided into five areas: Detection sensitivity, ionisation efficiency, collection efficiency, quantification, and crater-depth analysis. Applications have been separated into ten different areas: Biological, carbon, fossil fuels, gaseous impurities, geological, inorganics, isotopic analysis, metals, organics and polymers. (EBE)

  4. 78 FR 42699 - Application for Review of a Decision of the Wireline Competition Bureau by Dooly County School...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ...] Application for Review of a Decision of the Wireline Competition Bureau by Dooly County School System; Schools... part and dismisses in part an Application for Review filed by the Dooly County School System and... applications for review arising from Universal Service Administrative Company-related proceedings. DATES...

  5. Applications of Smartphone-Based Sensors in Agriculture: A Systematic Review of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suporn Pongnumkul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones have become a useful tool in agriculture because their mobility matches the nature of farming, the cost of the device is highly accessible, and their computing power allows a variety of practical applications to be created. Moreover, smartphones are nowadays equipped with various types of physical sensors which make them a promising tool to assist diverse farming tasks. This paper systematically reviews smartphone applications mentioned in research literature that utilize smartphone built-in sensors to provide agricultural solutions. The initial 1,500 articles identified through database search were screened based on exclusion criteria and then reviewed thoroughly in full text, resulting in 22 articles included in this review. The applications are categorized according to their agricultural functions. Those articles reviewed describe 12 farming applications, 6 farm management applications, 3 information system applications, and 4 extension service applications. GPS and cameras are the most popular sensors used in the reviewed papers. This shows an opportunity for future applications to utilize other sensors such as accelerometer to provide advanced agricultural solutions.

  6. 76 FR 40451 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... reduced automatically by one-half from its present face value on the day before a policyholder's 65th and... (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration...) of 1995 [[Page 40452

  7. A Comprehensive Review of Permanent Magnet Transverse Flux Machines for Direct Drive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Husain, Tausif [University of Akron; Hasan, Iftekhar [University of Akron; Sozer, Yilmaz [University of Akron; Husain, Iqbal [North Carolina State University

    2017-11-07

    The use of direct drive machines in renewable and industrial applications are increasing at a rapid rate. Transverse flux machines (TFM) are ideally suited for direct drive applications due to their high torque density. In this paper, a comprehensive review of the permanent magnet (PM) TFMs for direct drive applications is presented. The paper introduces TFMs and their operating principle and then reviews the different type of TFMs proposed in the literature. The TFMs are categorized according to the number of stator sides, types of stator cores and magnet arrangement in the rotor. The review covers different design topologies, materials used for manufacturing, structural and thermal analysis, modeling and design optimization and cogging torque minimization in TFMs. The paper also reviews various applications and comparisons for TFMs that have been presented in the literature.

  8. Applications of Desensitization Procedures for School-Related Problems; A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prout, H. Thompson; Harvey, John R.

    1978-01-01

    A variety of desensitization and counterconditioning procedures have been utilized to deal with school-related problems. These procedures are reviewed with respect to applications for treating school phobia, test anxiety, and other academic anxieties. (Author)

  9. Review of creep resistant alloys for power plant applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nagode

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A paper describes the most popular alloys for power plant application as well as the most promising alloys for future application in that technology. The components in power plants operate in severe conditions (high temperatures and pressures and they are expected reliable service for 30 years and more. The correct choice of the material is, thus, of a very importance. The paper describes the development as well as advantages and disadvantages of convenient ferritic/martensitic steels, ferritic/bainitic steels, austenitic stainless steels and the new alloys for the application at temperatures of 650°C and more.

  10. Mixture design: A review of recent applications in the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Yeliz Buruk Şahin; Ezgi Aktar Demirtaş; Nimetullah Burnak

    2016-01-01

    Design of experiments (DOE) is a systematic approach to applying statistical methods to the experimental process. The main purpose of this study is to provide useful insights into mixture design as a special type of DOE and to present a review of current mixture design applications in the food industry. The theoretical principles of mixture design and its application in the food industry, based on an extensive review of the literature, are described. Mixture design types, such as simplex-latt...

  11. 14 CFR 415.25 - Application requirements for policy review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... vehicle and all propellants. (c) Identify foreign ownership of the applicant as follows: (1) For a sole proprietorship or partnership, identify all foreign ownership; (2) For a corporation, identify any foreign...

  12. A review of European applications of artificial intelligence to space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Mark (Editor); Stewart, Helen (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose is to describe the applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to the European Space program that are being developed or have been developed. The results of a study sponsored by the Artificial Intelligence Research and Development program of NASA's Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT) are described. The report is divided into two sections. The first consists of site reports, which are descriptions of the AI applications seen at each place visited. The second section consists of two summaries which synthesize the information in the site reports by organizing this information in two different ways. The first organizes the material in terms of the type of application, e.g., data analysis, planning and scheduling, and procedure management. The second organizes the material in terms of the component technologies of Artificial Intelligence which the applications used, e.g., knowledge based systems, model based reasoning, procedural reasoning, etc.

  13. #%Applications of artificial intelligence in intelligent manufacturing: a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    #

    2017-01-01

    #%Based on research into the applications of artificial intelligence (AI) technology in the manufacturing industry in recent years, we analyze the rapid development of core technologies in the new era of 'Internet plus AI', which is triggering a great change in the models, means, and ecosystems of the manufacturing industry, as well as in the development of AI. We then propose new models, means, and forms of intelligent manufacturing, intelligent manufacturing system architecture, and intelligent man-ufacturing technology system, based on the integration of AI technology with information communications, manufacturing, and related product technology. Moreover, from the perspectives of intelligent manufacturing application technology, industry, and application demonstration, the current development in intelligent manufacturing is discussed. Finally, suggestions for the appli-cation of AI in intelligent manufacturing in China are presented.

  14. Applications of micro/nanoparticles in microfluidic sensors: a review.

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Yusheng; Wang, Hui; Li, Shunbo; Wen, Weijia

    2014-01-01

    or magnetic composites which have wide applications in sensors, valves and actuators. On the other hand, particles could be manipulated according to their electric and magnetic properties under external electric and magnetic fields when they are travelling

  15. 20 CFR 655.140 - Review of applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....140 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY... Temporary Employment Certification and job order for compliance with all applicable program requirements... provided address via traditional methods to assure next day delivery. The employer's response to such a...

  16. Review of Industrial Applications of Structural Reliability Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    For the last two decades we have seen an increasing interest in applying structural reliability theory to many different industries. However, the number of real practical applications is much smaller than what one would expect.......For the last two decades we have seen an increasing interest in applying structural reliability theory to many different industries. However, the number of real practical applications is much smaller than what one would expect....

  17. Review of the GOTHIC code and trial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, M; Galanis, N; Millette, J [Marcel Lacroix Enr., Sherbrooke, PQ (Canada)

    1996-01-01

    A critical review of the performance of the generic computer code GOTHIC for the generation of thermalhydraulic information for containments was conducted. Several analyses were performed with GOTHIC to predict the flow behaviour and distribution of hydrogen concentration within containments whose geometrical complexity ranged from two simple interconnected rooms to a full scale reactor building. Sensitivity analysis studies were carried out to examine the effect of various modeling parameters. The implementation of physics by the code is reviewed and recommendations on its use for performing blowdown/hydrogen release analyses are made.(author) 5 refs., 9 tabs., 105 figs.

  18. Review of the GOTHIC code and trial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, M.; Galanis, N.; Millette, J.

    1996-01-01

    A critical review of the performance of the generic computer code GOTHIC for the generation of thermalhydraulic information for containments was conducted. Several analyses were performed with GOTHIC to predict the flow behaviour and distribution of hydrogen concentration within containments whose geometrical complexity ranged from two simple interconnected rooms to a full scale reactor building. Sensitivity analysis studies were carried out to examine the effect of various modeling parameters. The implementation of physics by the code is reviewed and recommendations on its use for performing blowdown/hydrogen release analyses are made.(author) 5 refs., 9 tabs., 105 figs

  19. Public perceptions of agrifood applications of Genetic modification – A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Lans, van der I.A.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Reinders, M.J.; Menozzi, D.; Zhang, X.Y.; Berg, van den I.; Zimmermann, K.L.

    2012-01-01

    An extensive literature relating to public perceptions of genetically modified foods applied to agri-food production has been identified through the process of systematic review. Application of systematic review criteria indicated that 335 papers were of appropriate quality or relevance to be

  20. 30 CFR 773.9 - Review of applicant, operator, and ownership and control information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operator's organizational structure and ownership or control relationships. (b) We must conduct the review... and control information. 773.9 Section 773.9 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION....9 Review of applicant, operator, and ownership and control information. (a) We, the regulatory...

  1. Methods, Mechanism, and Applications of Photodeposition in Photocatalysis: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenderich, Kasper; Mul, Guido

    2016-01-01

    In this review, for a variety of metals and semiconductors, an attempt is made to generalize observations in the literature on the effect of process conditions applied during photodeposition on (i) particle size distributions, (ii) oxidation states of the metals obtained, and (iii) consequences for

  2. 7 CFR 1737.50 - Review of completed loan application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., commercial facilities, system and exchange boundaries, and proposed acquisitions. RUS shall review the LD to determine that the system design is acceptable to RUS, that the design is technically correct, that the cost... any nonrural areas are served and if municipal franchises are required. Any RUS lending for nonrural...

  3. Review of the application of strategic analysis to material accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, C.A.; Goldman, A.J.; Higinbotham, W.A.; Jaech, J.L.; Lucas, W.F.; Lumb, R.F.

    1979-08-01

    The Peer Review Group feels that game theory may provide a useful basis for formulating safeguards problems and for arriving at decisions. Game theory should be considered as a complement to other methods for acting on nuclear material inventory differences, but it is not mature yet to be used in the NRC decision-making process. Recommendations are given

  4. A review of function modeling : Approaches and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erden, M.S.; Komoto, H.; Van Beek, T.J.; D'Amelio, V.; Echavarria, E.; Tomiyama, T.

    2008-01-01

    This work is aimed at establishing a common frame and understanding of function modeling (FM) for our ongoing research activities. A comparative review of the literature is performed to grasp the various FM approaches with their commonalities and differences. The relations of FM with the research

  5. Technologies for the Study of Speech: Review and an Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babatsouli, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Technologies used for the study of speech are classified here into non-intrusive and intrusive. The paper informs on current non-intrusive technologies that are used for linguistic investigations of the speech signal, both phonological and phonetic. Providing a point of reference, the review covers existing technological advances in language…

  6. Application of Nanotechnology in the Manufacturing Sector: A Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review of the manufacturing processes in the evolving field of nanotechnology describes the production of nanomaterials by the modification of conventional production techniques. A number of the manufacturing techniques for nanomaterials production and the challenges in the adaptation of the processes to enable ...

  7. Transport in nanofluidic systems: a review of theory and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparreboom, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper transport through nanochannels is assessed, both of liquids and of dissolved molecules or ions. First, we review principles of transport at the nanoscale, which will involve the identification of important length scales where transitions in behavior occur. We also present several

  8. Biochemical and biomedical applications of multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Shih-Hung; Juang, Ruey-Shin

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers tremendous potential for future medical diagnosis and therapy. Various types of nanoparticles have been extensively studied for numerous biochemical and biomedical applications. Magnetic nanoparticles are well-established nanomaterials that offer controlled size, ability to be manipulated by an external magnetic field, and enhancement of contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. As a result, these nanoparticles could have many applications including bacterial detection, protein purification, enzyme immobilization, contamination decorporation, drug delivery, hyperthermia, etc. All these biochemical and biomedical applications require that these nanoparticles should satisfy some prerequisites including high magnetization, good stability, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Because of the potential benefits of multimodal functionality in biomedical applications, in this account highlights some general strategies to generate magnetic nanoparticle-based multifunctional nanostructures. After these magnetic nanoparticles are conjugated with proper ligands (e.g., nitrilotriacetate), polymers (e.g., polyacrylic acid, chitosan, temperature- and pH-sensitive polymers), antibodies, enzymes, and inorganic metals (e.g., gold), such biofunctional magnetic nanoparticles exhibit many advantages in biomedical applications. In addition, the multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles have been widely applied in biochemical fields including enzyme immobilization and protein purification.

  9. Location-based social networking media for restaurant promotion and food review using mobile application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhur, H. S.; Widjaja, N. D.

    2014-03-01

    This paper is focusing on the development of a mobile application for searching restaurants and promotions with location based and social networking features. The main function of the application is to search restaurant information. Other functions are also available in this application such as add restaurant, add promotion, add photo, add food review, and other features including social networking features. The restaurant and promotion searching application will be developed under Android platform. Upon completion of this paper, heuristic evaluation and usability testing have been conducted. The result of both testing shows that the application is highly usable. Even though there are some usability problems discovered, the problems can be eliminated immediately by implementing the recommendations from the expert evaluators and the users as the testers of the application. Further improvement made to the application will ensure that the application can really be beneficial for the users of the application.

  10. Location-based social networking media for restaurant promotion and food review using mobile application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhur H.S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focusing on the development of a mobile application for searching restaurants and promotions with location based and social networking features. The main function of the application is to search restaurant information. Other functions are also available in this application such as add restaurant, add promotion, add photo, add food review, and other features including social networking features. The restaurant and promotion searching application will be developed under Android platform. Upon completion of this paper, heuristic evaluation and usability testing have been conducted. The result of both testing shows that the application is highly usable. Even though there are some usability problems discovered, the problems can be eliminated immediately by implementing the recommendations from the expert evaluators and the users as the testers of the application. Further improvement made to the application will ensure that the application can really be beneficial for the users of the application.

  11. Review on production, characterization and applications of microbial levan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Rapala; Reddy, Chinta H S S Sundhar; Siddartha, Gudimalla; Ramaiah, M Janaki; Uppuluri, Kiran Babu

    2015-04-20

    Levan is a homopolymer of fructose naturally obtained from both plants and microorganisms. Microbial levans are more advantageous, economical and industrially feasible with numerous applications. Bacterial levans are much larger than those produced by plants with multiple branches and molecular weights ranging from 2 to 100 million Da. However levans from plants generally have molecular weights ranging from about 2000 to 33,000 Da. Microbial levans have wide range of applications in food, medicine, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and commercial industrial sectors. With excellent polymeric medicinal properties and ease of production, microbial levan appear as a valuable and versatile biopolymer of the future. The present article summarizes and discusses the most essential properties of bioactive microbial levan and recent developments in its production, characterization and the emerging applications in health and industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Review of biotechnology applications to nuclear waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, N.V.; Roach, D.J.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the feasibility of the application of biotechnology to nuclear waste treatment. Many living and dead organisms accumulate heavy metals and radionuclides. The controlled use of this phenomenon forms the basis for the application of biotechnology to the removal of radionuclides from nuclear waste streams. An overview of biotechnology areas, namely the use of biopolymers and biosorption using biomass applicable to the removal of radionuclides from industrial nuclear effluents is given. The potential of biomagnetic separation technology, genetic engineering and monoclonal antibody technology is also to be examined. The most appropriate technologies to develop for radionuclide removal in the short term appear to be those based on biosorption of radionuclides by biomass and the use of modified and unmodified biopolymers in the medium term. (author)

  13. Guar gum: processing, properties and food applications-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, Bhupendar Singh

    2014-03-01

    Guar gum is a novel agrochemical processed from endosperm of cluster bean. It is largely used in the form of guar gum powder as an additive in food, pharmaceuticals, paper, textile, explosive, oil well drilling and cosmetics industry. Industrial applications of guar gum are possible because of its ability to form hydrogen bonding with water molecule. Thus, it is chiefly used as thickener and stabilizer. It is also beneficial in the control of many health problems like diabetes, bowel movements, heart disease and colon cancer. This article focuses on production, processing, composition, properties, food applications and health benefits of guar gum.

  14. The implications and applications of nanotechnology in dentistry: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlKahtani, Rawan N

    2018-04-01

    The emerging science of nanotechnology, especially within the dental and medical fields, sparked a research interest in their potential applications and benefits in comparison to conventional materials used. Therefore, a better understanding of the science behind nanotechnology is essential to appreciate how these materials can be utilised in our daily practice. The present paper will help the reader understand nanoscience, and the benefits and limitations of nanotechnology by addressing its ethical, social, and health implications. Additionally, nano-applications in dental diagnostics, dental prevention, and in dental materials will be addressed, with examples of commercially available products and evidence on their clinical performance.

  15. 18 CFR 157.9 - Notice of application and notice of schedule for environmental review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of application and notice of schedule for environmental review. 157.9 Section 157.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC...

  16. A review on the electrochemical applications of room temperature ionic liquids in nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, K.A.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    A mini review on the electrochemical applications of room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL) in nuclear fuel cycle is presented. It is shown that how the fascinating properties of RTIL can be tuned to deliver desirable application in aqueous and non-aqueous reprocessing and in nuclear waste management. (author)

  17. Design of experiments for microencapsulation applications: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Filipa; Santos, Lúcia

    2017-08-01

    Microencapsulation techniques have been intensively explored by many research sectors such as pharmaceutical and food industries. Microencapsulation allows to protect the active ingredient from the external environment, mask undesired flavours, a possible controlled release of compounds among others. The purpose of this review is to provide a background of design of experiments in microencapsulation research context. Optimization processes are required for an accurate research in these fields and therefore, the right implementation of micro-sized techniques at industrial scale. This article critically reviews the use of the response surface methodologies in pharmaceutical and food microencapsulation research areas. A survey of optimization procedures in the literature, in the last few years is also presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A review of function modeling: Approaches and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Erden, M.S.; Komoto, H.; Van Beek, T.J.; D'Amelio, V.; Echavarria, E.; Tomiyama, T.

    2008-01-01

    This work is aimed at establishing a common frame and understanding of function modeling (FM) for our ongoing research activities. A comparative review of the literature is performed to grasp the various FM approaches with their commonalities and differences. The relations of FM with the research fields of artificial intelligence, design theory, and maintenance are discussed. In this discussion the goals are to highlight the features of various classical approaches in relation to FM, to delin...

  19. Iron oxides and their applications in catalytic processes: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Luiz C. A.; Fabris, José D.; Pereira, Márcio C.

    2013-01-01

    A review of most of the reported studies on the use of iron oxides as catalyst in specific processes, namely Haber-Bosch reaction, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, Fenton oxidation and photolytic molecular splitting of water to produce gaseous hydrogen, was carried out. An essential overview is thus presented, intending to address the fundamental meaning, as well as the corresponding chemical mechanisms, and perspectives on new technological potentialities of natural and synthetic iron oxides, more...

  20. A systematic review of smartphone applications for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Brianna L; Lesperance, Donna; Gibbons, Patric; Boudreaux, Edwin D

    2017-06-01

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the USA. However, limited data exists regarding smoking cessation mobile app quality and intervention effectiveness. Innovative and scalable interventions are needed to further alleviate the public health implications of tobacco addiction. The proliferation of the smartphone and the advent of mobile phone health interventions have made treatment more accessible than ever. The purpose of this review was to examine the relation between published scientific literature and available commercial smartphone health apps for smoking cessation to identify the percentage of scientifically supported apps that were commercially available to consumers and to determine how many of the top commercially available apps for smoking cessation were supported by the published scientific literature. Adhering to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, apps were reviewed in four phases: (1) identified apps from the scientific literature, (2) searched app stores for apps identified in the literature, (3) identified top apps available in leading app stores, and (4) determined which top apps available in stores had scientific support. Seven articles identified six apps with some level of scientific support, three (50%) were available in at least one app store. Conversely, among the top 50 apps suggested by each of the leading app stores, only two (4%) had any scientific support. While half of the scientifically vetted apps remain available to consumers, they are difficult to find among the many apps that are identified through app store searches.

  1. 44 CFR 209.8 - Application and review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or ever has been used for commercial or industrial purposes, and (ii) Any information regarding...; (iv) Latitude and longitude; (v) The date of construction; (vi) Proximity to the 100-year floodplain...-event fair market value of the home. Applicants will estimate the value of properties using the best...

  2. Bioinformatics and its application in animal health: a review | Soetan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary subject, which uses computer application, statistics, mathematics and engineering for the analysis and management of biological information. It has become an important tool for basic and applied research in veterinary sciences. Bioinformatics has brought about advancements into ...

  3. Solar energy applications in transportation facilities : a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of the literature and other sources to determine the types of application that have been made of solar energy in the transportation field. The use of solar energy for powering automatic traffic counters, v...

  4. A review on software testing approaches for cloud applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamanna Siddiqui

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has actually been invented to be the latest computing standard that will work several distinctive research areas, such as software testing. Testing cloud applications will keep its unique characteristics that involve more recent testing techniques. Software testing helps to reduce the need for hardware and software services and also provide adaptable and valuable cloud platform. Testing within the cloud platform is easily manageable based on new test models and criteria. Prioritization approach is made responsive to build much better relationship between test cases. These test cases are clustered dependent on priority level. The resources can be used properly by applying load balancing algorithm. Cloud guarantees maximum usage of existing resources. But, security defined as a primary problem in cloud. At the present time, organizations are progressively moving excited about deploying and making use of ready-prepared business applications, with particular short-term to the marketplace. The possible lack of capital budgets for software planning and on principle deployments, along with the swift progression of cloud these are the reasons why one should make the interest on business application. However, these are the interests that help make the SaaS based business application on-demand. In this paper different approaches has been discussed that will help to extend the cloud environment. Also, the study of several well-known software testing approaches.

  5. Polymerase chain reaction: Theory, practice and application: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    one cycle can serve as a template in the next. Hence the number of target DNA copies approximately doubles at every cycle. Since its inception, PCR has had an enormous impact in both basic and diagnostic aspects of molecular biology. Like the PCR itself, the number of applications has been accumulating exponentially.

  6. A review of hyperspectral remote sensing and its application in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-04-02

    Apr 2, 2007 ... Over the past two decades, advances in sensor technology have made it possible for ... Multi- spectral systems commonly collect data in three to six spectral bands in a ... synoptic view space provides and the economies of scale, since ...... STUMPF RP (2001) Applications of satellite ocean color sensors for.

  7. 32 CFR 176.35 - HUD's review of the application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... other existing housing, social service, community economic, or other development plans adopted by the... to the expressed interest and requests of representatives of the homeless, whether the application... communities in the vicinity of the installation. (2) Impact of notices of interest. Takes into consideration...

  8. A review on sustainable yeast biotechnological processes and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandy, Subir Kumar; Srivastava, R. K.

    2018-01-01

    Yeast is very well known eukaryotic organism for its remarkable biodiversity and extensive industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most widely used microorganisms in biotechnology with successful applications in the biochemical production. Biological conversion with the fo......Yeast is very well known eukaryotic organism for its remarkable biodiversity and extensive industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most widely used microorganisms in biotechnology with successful applications in the biochemical production. Biological conversion...... with the focus on the different utilization of renewable feedstocks into fuels and chemicals has been intensively investigated due to increasing concerns on sustainability issues worldwide. Compared with its counterparts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the baker's yeast, is more industrially relevant due to known...... genetic and physiological background, the availability of a large collection of genetic tools, the compatibility of high-density and large-scale fermentation, and optimize the pathway for variety of products. Therefore, S. cerevisiae is one of the most popular cell factories and has been successfully used...

  9. Superconductors-A Review of Their Properties and Applications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Superconductors are a special class of materials which exhibit a number of remarkable properties distinct from normal materials. These materials have found varied industrial and technological applications since the phenomenon of superconductivity was first discovered in 1911. A great deal of efforts are being made world ...

  10. 40 CFR 307.23 - EPA's review of preauthorization applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE... importance of the response activity when compared with competing demands on the Fund; (3) Whether there is... management, project management, financial management and documentation procedures; (12) Whether the applicant...

  11. Standard review plan for applications for sealed source and device evaluations and registrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the reviewer of a request for a sealed source or device safety evaluation with the information and materials necessary to make a determination that the product is acceptable for licensing purposes. It provides the reviewer with a listing of the applicable regulations and industry standards, policies affecting evaluation and registration, certain administrative procedures to be followed, and information on how to perform the evaluation and write the registration certificate. Standard review plans are prepared for the guidance of the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards staff responsible for the review of a sealed source or device application. This document is made available to the public as part of the Commission's policy to inform the nuclear industry and the general public of regulatory procedures and policies. Standard review plans are not substitutes for regulatory guides or the Commission's regulations and compliance with them is not required

  12. Standard review plan for applications for sealed source and device evaluations and registrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the reviewer of a request for a sealed source or device safety evaluation with the information and materials necessary to make a determination that the product is acceptable for licensing purposes. It provides the reviewer with a listing of the applicable regulations and industry standards, policies affecting evaluation and registration, certain administrative procedures to be followed, and information on how to perform the evaluation and write the registration certificate. Standard review plans are prepared for the guidance of the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards staff responsible for the review of a sealed source or device application. This document is made available to the public as part of the Commission`s policy to inform the nuclear industry and the general public of regulatory procedures and policies. Standard review plans are not substitutes for regulatory guides or the Commission`s regulations and compliance with them is not required.

  13. Mapping ergonomics application to improve SMEs working condition in industrially developing countries: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawati, Setia; Lawson, Glyn; Sutarto, Auditya Purwandini

    2014-01-01

    In industrially developing countries (IDC), small and medium enterprises (SMEs) account for the highest proprotion of employment. Unfortunately, the working conditions in SMEs are often very poor and expose employees to a potentially wide range of health and safety risks. This paper presents a comprehensive review of 161 articles related to ergonomics application in SMEs, using Indonesia as a case study. The aim of this paper is to investigate the extent of ergonomics application and identify areas that can be improved to promote effective ergonomics for SMEs in IDC. The most urgent issue found is the need for adopting participatory approach in contrast to the commonly implemented top-down approach. Some good practices in ergonomics application were also revealed from the review, e.g. a multidisciplinary approach, unsophisticated and low-cost solutions, and recognising the importance of productivity. The review also found that more work is still required to achieve appropriate cross-cultural adaptation of ergonomics application.

  14. Reviews on the Japanese Patent Applications Regarding Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taihei Ouchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese Patent Applications filed on the topic of nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH batteries have been reviewed. Patent applications filed by the top nine battery manufacturers (Matsushita, Sanyo, Hitachi Maxell, Yuasa, Toshiba, FDK, Furukawa, Japan Storage, and Shin-kobe, five component suppliers (Tanaka, Mitsui, Santoku, Japan Metals & Chemicals Co. (JMC, and Shin-Etsu, and three research institutes (Industrial Research Institute (ISI, Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST, and Toyota R & D were chosen as the main subjects for this review, based on their production volume and contribution to the field. By reviewing these patent applications, we can have a clear picture of the technology development in the Japanese battery industry. These patent applications also provide insights, know-how, and future directions for engineers and scientists working in the rechargeable battery field.

  15. Indispensable role of biochar-inherent mineral constituents in its environmental applications: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyun; Zhao, Yinghao; Sima, Jingke; Zhao, Ling; Mašek, Ondřej; Cao, Xinde

    2017-10-01

    Biochar typically consists of both carbon and mineral fractions, and the carbon fraction has been generally considered to determine its properties and applications. Recently, an increasing body of research has demonstrated that mineral components inherent in biochar, such as alkali or alkaline earth metals in the form of carbonates, phosphates, or oxides, could also influence the properties and thus the applications. The review articles published thus far have mainly focused on multiple environmental and agronomic applications of biochar, including carbon sequestration, soil improvement, environmental remediation, etc. This review aims to highlight the indispensable role of the mineral fraction of biochar in these different applications, especially in environmental applications. Specifically, it provides a critical review of current research findings related to the mineral composition of biochar and the effect of the mineral fraction on the physicochemical properties, contaminant sorption, carbon retention and stability, and nutrient bioavailability of biochar. Furthermore, the role of minerals in the emerging applications of biochar, as a precursor for fuel cells, supercapacitors, and photoactive components, is also summarized. Overall, inherent minerals should be fully considered while determining the most appropriate application for any given biochar. A thorough understanding of the role of biochar-bound minerals in different applications will also allow the design or selection of the most suitable biochar for specific applications based on the consideration of feedstock composition, production parameters, and post-treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecularly engineered graphene surfaces for sensing applications: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jingquan; Liu, Zhen; Barrow, Colin J.; Yang, Wenrong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The importance of surface chemistry of graphene materials is clearly described. • We discuss molecularly engineered graphene surfaces for sensing applications. • We describe the latest developments of these materials for sensing technology. - Abstract: Graphene is scientifically and commercially important because of its unique molecular structure which is monoatomic in thickness, rigorously two-dimensional and highly conjugated. Consequently, graphene exhibits exceptional electrical, optical, thermal and mechanical properties. Herein, we critically discuss the surface modification of graphene, the specific advantages that graphene-based materials can provide over other materials in sensor research and their related chemical and electrochemical properties. Furthermore, we describe the latest developments in the use of these materials for sensing technology, including chemical sensors and biosensors and their applications in security, environmental safety and diseases detection and diagnosis

  17. Critical review of thermoelectrics in modern power generation applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saqr Khalid M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermoelectric complementary effects have been discovered in the nineteenth century. However, their role in engineering applications has been very limited until the first half of the twentieth century, the beginning of space exploration era. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators have been the actual motive for the research community to develop efficient, reliable and advanced thermoelectrics. The efficiency of thermoelectric materials has been doubled several times during the past three decades. Nevertheless, there are numerous challenges to be resolved in order to develop thermoelectric systems for our modern applications. This paper discusses the recent advances in thermoelectric power systems and sheds the light on the main problematic concerns which confront contemporary research efforts in that field.

  18. Molecularly engineered graphene surfaces for sensing applications: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jingquan, E-mail: jliu@qdu.edu.cn [College of Chemical Science and Engineering, Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao (China); Liu, Zhen; Barrow, Colin J. [Centre for Chemistry and Biotechnology, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3217 (Australia); Yang, Wenrong, E-mail: wenrong.yang@deakin.edu.au [Centre for Chemistry and Biotechnology, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3217 (Australia)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • The importance of surface chemistry of graphene materials is clearly described. • We discuss molecularly engineered graphene surfaces for sensing applications. • We describe the latest developments of these materials for sensing technology. - Abstract: Graphene is scientifically and commercially important because of its unique molecular structure which is monoatomic in thickness, rigorously two-dimensional and highly conjugated. Consequently, graphene exhibits exceptional electrical, optical, thermal and mechanical properties. Herein, we critically discuss the surface modification of graphene, the specific advantages that graphene-based materials can provide over other materials in sensor research and their related chemical and electrochemical properties. Furthermore, we describe the latest developments in the use of these materials for sensing technology, including chemical sensors and biosensors and their applications in security, environmental safety and diseases detection and diagnosis.

  19. Regulatory requirements on PSA level 2: Review, aspects and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husarcek, J.

    2003-01-01

    The general requirements concerning utility obligations, probabilistic safety criteria (CDF should not exceed 1.0E-4/reactor year and LERF should not exceed 1.0E-5/reactor year), documentation and results, living PSA requirements and major steps in level 2 PSA are presented. PSA developments in Slovakia, collection and assembly of information, plant damage states, containment performance and failure modes, severe accident progression analyses, containment failure modes and source terms as a part of performed level 2 PSA are discussed. The PSA applications in design and operation evaluation, support to plant upgrade and modifications are also described. At the end, the following conclusion is made: more extensive PSA application needs to foster the exchange of experience and communication between PSA specialists, non-PSA engineers, designers, and the regulatory body staff responsible for safety assessment, inspection and enforcement

  20. Production and Application of Biosensors: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Emílio Amador Salomão

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In a modern world where efficiency, precision and time savings have been prioritized, a new frontier has been seen in the biosensors to be explored. A potential alternative to the current means of quantification and qualification, the biosensors have been gaining more and more prominence as they are devices of quantification and qualification cheaper and simple, when compared with the current techniques and with the advantage of being able to be used many times in the place where the sample is collected. According to its application is produced by different methods, in which it has in its basic constitution a sensor element of biological origin, an inorganic half-conductor used as a transducer and a signal processing device. In this article we show the scientific production involving biosensors, together with their synthesis method, which differs according to their application in order to detect the most varied analytes, chemical species and even living organisms.

  1. Applications of prebiotics in food industry: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Vinti; Chakkaravarthi, S

    2017-12-01

    Benefits of prebiotics for stimulating a healthy intestinal tract are well known. From suppression of pathogens to proliferation of indigenous bacteria of intestines, prebiotics have it all. Since the research on the scope of prebiotics is expanding, new applications are coming up every day thus upgrading the choices consumer has for a healthy living. Incorporation of prebiotics in a wide range of products that food industry offers on shelf is an innovative way to replace fat and sugars along with enhancing the mouthfeel by providing better tongue lubrication. In some cases, the thermal stability of the product is improved along with other sensory, textural and physiological benefits. This paper gives an overview of the various prebiotics available from different sources and their applications in various segments of food industry, notably dairy, beverage, processed fruit-vegetable, bakery, confectionary, extruded snack, sweetener, infant formula, pet food and livestock industry. The effects observed on addition of various prebiotics are also elaborated.

  2. Review for the military application of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    In order to understand the broad technology of nuclear energy, we have explored how our present knowledge of nuclear energy has been developed, and how some of this knowledge is applied. Techniques learned from nuclear physics are used the build fearsome weapons of mass destruction, whose proliferation is a constant threat to our future. To develop military applications of nuclear technology systematically, high level human resources and creative brains should be sufficiently trained and secured

  3. Gyroscope Technology and Applications: A Review in the Industrial Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio M. N. Passaro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an overview of current gyroscopes and their roles based on their applications. The considered gyroscopes include mechanical gyroscopes and optical gyroscopes at macro- and micro-scale. Particularly, gyroscope technologies commercially available, such as Mechanical Gyroscopes, silicon MEMS Gyroscopes, Ring Laser Gyroscopes (RLGs and Fiber-Optic Gyroscopes (FOGs, are discussed. The main features of these gyroscopes and their technologies are linked to their performance.

  4. Review on the Synthesis and Applications of Nano materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Tang, Y.; Liang, B.; Zhong, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Fe 3 O 4 nano materials have attracted tremendous attention because of their favorable electric and magnetic properties. Fe 3 O 4 nano structures with various morphologies have been successfully synthesized and have been used in many fields such as lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), wastewater treatment, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. In this paper, we provide an in-depth discussion of recent development of Fe 3 O 4 nano materials, including their effective synthetic methods and potential applications.

  5. Current applications of nanotechnology in dentistry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavikatti, Shaeesta Khaleelahmed; Bhardwaj, Smiti; Prabhuji, M L V

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing demand for advances in diagnosis and treatment modalities, nanotechnology is being considered as a groundbreaking and viable research subject. This technology, which deals with matter in nanodimensions, has widened our views of poorly understood health issues and provided novel means of diagnosis and treatment. Researchers in the field of dentistry have explored the potential of nanoparticles in existing therapeutic modalities with moderate success. The key implementations in the field of dentistry include local drug delivery agents, restorative materials, bone graft materials, and implant surface modifications. This review provides detailed insights about current developments in the field of dentistry, and discusses potential future uses of nanotechnology.

  6. Adsorption Properties and Potential Applications of Bamboo Charcoal: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa S.S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo charcoal was produced by pyrolysis or carbonization process with extraordinary properties such as high conductivity, large surface area and adsorption property. These properties can be improved by activation process that can be done thermally or chemically. In this paper, carbonization and activation process of bamboo, its structural and adsorption properties will be presented. Herein, the adsorption properties of bamboo charcoal that has fully utilized in solar cell as the electrode, adsorbent for water purification and electromagnetic wave absorber are reviewed.

  7. A review of free-piston engine history and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikalsen, R.; Roskilly, A.P. [School of Marine Science and Technology, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    This document reviews the history of free-piston internal combustion engines, from the air compressors and gas generators used in the mid-20th century through to recent free-piston hydraulic engines and linear electric generators. Unique features of the free-piston engine are presented and their effects on engine operation are discussed, along with potential advantages and disadvantages compared to conventional engines. The paper focuses mainly on developed engines where operational data has been reported. Finally, the potential of the free-piston engine is evaluated and the most promising designs identified. (author)

  8. DFRFT: A Classified Review of Recent Methods with Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the literature, there are various algorithms available for computing the discrete fractional Fourier transform (DFRFT. In this paper, all the existing methods are reviewed, classified into four categories, and subsequently compared to find out the best alternative from the view point of minimal computational error, computational complexity, transform features, and additional features like security. Subsequently, the correlation theorem of FRFT has been utilized to remove significantly the Doppler shift caused due to motion of receiver in the DSB-SC AM signal. Finally, the role of DFRFT has been investigated in the area of steganography.

  9. Review and Application of Ship Collision and Grounding Analysis Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2010-01-01

    It is the purpose of the paper to present a review of prediction and analysis tools for collision and grounding analyses and to outline a probabilistic procedure for which these tools can be used by the maritime industry to develop performance based rules to reduce the risk associated with human,......, environmental and economic costs of collision and grounding events. The main goal of collision and grounding research should be to identify the most economic risk control options associated with prevention and mitigation of collision and grounding events....

  10. Ohmic Heating: Concept and Applications-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Nimratbir; Singh, A K

    2016-10-25

    Ohmic heating, also known as Joule heating, electrical resistance heating, and direct electrical resistance heating, is a process of heating the food by passing electric current. In ohmic heating the energy is dissipated directly into the food. Electrical conductivity is a key parameter in the design of an effective ohmic heater. A large number of potential applications exist for ohmic heating, including blanching, evaporation, dehydration, fermentation, sterilization, pasteurization, and heating of foods. Beyond heating, applied electric field under ohmic heating causes electroporation of cell membranes, which increase extraction rates, and reduce gelatinization temperature and enthalpy. Ohmic heating results in faster heating of food along with maintenance of color and nutritional value of food. Water absorption index, water solubility index, thermal properties, and pasting properties are altered with the application of ohmic heating. Ohmic heating results in pre-gelatinized starches, which reduce energy requirement during processing. But its higher initial cost, lack of its applications in foods containing fats and oils, and less awareness limit its use.

  11. Review On Applications Of Neural Network To Computer Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Nasrabadi, Nasser M.

    1989-03-01

    Neural network models have many potential applications to computer vision due to their parallel structures, learnability, implicit representation of domain knowledge, fault tolerance, and ability of handling statistical data. This paper demonstrates the basic principles, typical models and their applications in this field. Variety of neural models, such as associative memory, multilayer back-propagation perceptron, self-stabilized adaptive resonance network, hierarchical structured neocognitron, high order correlator, network with gating control and other models, can be applied to visual signal recognition, reinforcement, recall, stereo vision, motion, object tracking and other vision processes. Most of the algorithms have been simulated on com-puters. Some have been implemented with special hardware. Some systems use features, such as edges and profiles, of images as the data form for input. Other systems use raw data as input signals to the networks. We will present some novel ideas contained in these approaches and provide a comparison of these methods. Some unsolved problems are mentioned, such as extracting the intrinsic properties of the input information, integrating those low level functions to a high-level cognitive system, achieving invariances and other problems. Perspectives of applications of some human vision models and neural network models are analyzed.

  12. Nanotechnology in meat processing and packaging: potential applications - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandraiah, Karna; Han, Sung Gu; Chin, Koo Bok

    2015-02-01

    Growing demand for sustainable production, increasing competition and consideration of health concerns have led the meat industries on a path to innovation. Meat industries across the world are focusing on the development of novel meat products and processes to meet consumer demand. Hence, a process innovation, like nanotechnology, can have a significant impact on the meat processing industry through the development of not only novel functional meat products, but also novel packaging for the products. The potential benefits of utilizing nanomaterials in food are improved bioavailability, antimicrobial effects, enhanced sensory acceptance and targeted delivery of bioactive compounds. However, challenges exist in the application of nanomaterials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients such as nanopowders, stability of delivery systems in meat products and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. For the success of nanotechnology in meat products, challenges in public acceptance, economics and the regulation of food processed with nanomaterials which may have the potential to persist, accumulate and lead to toxicity need to be addressed. So far, the most promising area for nanotechnology application seems to be in meat packaging, but the long term effects on human health and environment due to migration of the nanomaterials from the packaging needs to be studied further. The future of nanotechnology in meat products depends on the roles played by governments, regulatory agencies and manufacturers in addressing the challenges related to the application of nanomaterials in food.

  13. Biomedical applications of diamond-like carbon coatings: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ritwik Kumar; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol

    2007-10-01

    Owing to its superior tribological and mechanical properties with corrosion resistance, biocompatibility, and hemocompatibility, diamond-like carbon (DLC) has emerged as a promising material for biomedical applications. DLC films with various atomic bond structures and compositions are finding places in orthopedic, cardiovascular, and dental applications. Cells grew on to DLC coating without any cytotoxity and inflammation. DLC coatings in orthopedic applications reduced wear, corrosion, and debris formation. DLC coating also reduced thrombogenicity by minimizing the platelet adhesion and activation. However, some contradictory results (Airoldi et al., Am J Cardiol 2004;93:474-477, Taeger et al., Mat-wiss u Werkstofftech 2003;34:1094-1100) were also reported that no significant improvement was observed in the performance of DLC-coated stainless stent or DLC-coated femoral head. This controversy should be discussed based on the detailed information of the coating such as atomic bond structure, composition, and/or electronic structure. In addition, instability of the DLC coating caused by its high level of residual stress and poor adhesion in aqueous environment should be carefully considered. Further in vitro and in vivo studies are thus required to confirm its use for medical devices.

  14. A review on battery thermal management in electric vehicle application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guodong; Cao, Lei; Bi, Guanglong

    2017-11-01

    The global issues of energy crisis and air pollution have offered a great opportunity to develop electric vehicles. However, so far, cycle life of power battery, environment adaptability, driving range and charging time seems far to compare with the level of traditional vehicles with internal combustion engine. Effective battery thermal management (BTM) is absolutely essential to relieve this situation. This paper reviews the existing literature from two levels that are cell level and battery module level. For single battery, specific attention is paid to three important processes which are heat generation, heat transport, and heat dissipation. For large format cell, multi-scale multi-dimensional coupled models have been developed. This will facilitate the investigation on factors, such as local irreversible heat generation, thermal resistance, current distribution, etc., that account for intrinsic temperature gradients existing in cell. For battery module based on air and liquid cooling, series, series-parallel and parallel cooling configurations are discussed. Liquid cooling strategies, especially direct liquid cooling strategies, are reviewed and they may advance the battery thermal management system to a new generation.

  15. Elemental hair analysis: A review of procedures and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozebon, D.; Scheffler, G.L.; Dressler, V.L.

    2017-01-01

    Although exogenous contamination and unreliable reference values have limited the utility of scalp hair as a biomarker of chemical elements exposure, its use in toxicological, clinical, environmental and forensic investigations is growing and becoming more extensive. Therefore, hair elemental analysis is reviewed in the current manuscript which spans articles published in the last 10 years. It starts with a general discussion of history, morphology and possible techniques for elemental analysis, where inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is clearly highlighted since this technique is leading quantitative ultra-trace elemental analysis. Emphasis over sampling, quality assurance, washing procedures and sample decomposition is given with detailed protocols compiled in tables as well as the utility of hair to identify human gender, age, diseases, healthy conditions, nutrition status and contamination sites. Isotope ratio information, chemical speciation analysis and analyte preconcentration are also considered for hair. Finally, the potential of laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) to provide spatial resolution and time-track the monitoring of elements in hair strands instead of conventional bulk analysis is spotlighted as a real future trend in the field. - Highlights: • Elemental analysis of hair is critically reviewed, with focus on ICP-MS employment. • Standards protocols of hair washing and sample decomposition are compiled. • The usefulness of elemental and/or isotopic analysis of hair is demonstrated. • The potential of LA-ICP-MS for elemental time tracking in hair is highlighted.

  16. Progress of nanofluid application in solar collectors: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Sujit Kumar; Tiwari, Arun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanoparticles are more suited and adapt to enhance the performance of solar systems. • Extinction coefficient and refractive index of nanofluids are found higher. • Optimum range of volume fraction for which enhancement in heat transfer coefficient is maximum. • Overall response of specific heat capacity of nanofluids is highly anomalous. - Abstract: In recent times solar energy has attracted the attention of scientists to a great deal. On the surface, there are two reasons for it: primarily, the scientists are interested in it with the intent to innovating new devices and secondly, developing new methods to harness it. Miniaturization of devices and energy efficiency are the major focal domains around which new materials are being worked on. The design of solar system may get some basic changes, if the new materials get applied successfully. Albeit, the nanofluids are a comparatively recent innovation which exhibit enhanced heat absorbing and heat transport ability. This paper intends to reinforce the working of nanofluids applied on solar system in the light of works done earlier; it further also explores the variable performance of the solar-system with and without application of nano-fluids. This work has been segmented into two parts: the first part focuses on presenting the experimental and numerical results for the thermal conductivity, viscosity, specific heat and the heat transfer coefficient reported by several authors. The second part deals with the application of nanofluids on different types of solar systems: solar collectors, photovoltaic systems, and solar thermoelectric and energy storage system. A study of the works earlier done seems to be suggesting that the nanofluids have great potential to enhance the functioning of various thermal systems. The recent results of the application of nanofluids in PV/T systems too have been consolidating. It can be safely assumed further that it might enhance the overall performance of the

  17. Evaluation of a Web-based Online Grant Application Review Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Daniel PETRISOR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the evaluation of a web-based application used in grant application evaluations, software developed in our university, and underlines the need for simple solutions, based on recent technology, specifically tailored to one’s needs. We asked the reviewers to answer a short questionnaire, in order to assess their satisfaction with such a web-based grant application evaluation solution. All 20 reviewers accepted to answer the questionnaire, which contained 8 closed items (YES/NO answers related to reviewer’s previous experience in evaluating grant applications, previous use of such software solutions and his familiarity in using computer systems. The presented web-based application, evaluated by the users, shown a high level of acceptance and those respondents stated that they are willing to use such a solution in the future.

  18. BOOK REVIEW EDUCATIONAL DATA MINING: APPLICATIONS AND TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin OZTURK

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Educational Data Mining (EDM is a developing field based on data mining techniques. EDM emerged as a combination of areas such as machine learning, statistics, computer science, education, cognitive science, and psychometry. EDM focuses on learner characteristics, behaviors, academic achievements, process of learning, educational functionalities, domain knowledge content, assessments, and applications. Educational data mining is defined by Baker (2010 as ‘‘an emerging discipline, concerned with developing methods for exploring the unique types of data that come from educational settings, and using those methods to better understand students, and the settings which they learn in’’. EDM is concerned with improving the learning process and environment.

  19. Fiber optic sensors for environmental applications: A brief review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossabi, J.

    1992-04-01

    Understanding the flow a groundwater quality. This understanding is achieved by measurement of the appropriate chemical and physical subsurface parameters. The ideal measurement would accurately assess a parameter without affecting the parameter or its environment. Fiber optic spectroscopy offers some of the most promising techniques for accurate, non-invasive measurements of environmental parameters. Fiber optic sensors for subsurface applications are currently being developed by several Department of Energy laboratories. Some of these sensors have been successfully deployed in the field and are attaining the goals of accurate, noninvasive, real time measurements in the subsurface

  20. Ultrasound in obstetric anaesthesia: a review of current applications.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ecimovic, P

    2010-07-01

    Ultrasound equipment is increasingly used by non-radiologists to perform interventional techniques and for diagnostic evaluation. Equipment is becoming more portable and durable, with easier user-interface and software enhancement to improve image quality. While obstetric utilisation of ultrasound for fetal assessment has developed over more than 40years, the same technology has not found a widespread role in obstetric anaesthesia. Within the broader specialty of anaesthesia; vascular access, cardiac imaging and regional anaesthesia are the areas in which ultrasound is becoming increasingly established. In addition to ultrasound for neuraxial blocks, these other clinical applications may be of value in obstetric anaesthesia practice.

  1. Some applications of mathematics in theoretical physics - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bora, Kalpana [Physics Department, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam (India)

    2016-06-21

    Mathematics is a very beautiful subject−very much an indispensible tool for Physics, more so for Theoretical Physics (by which we mean here mainly Field Theory and High Energy Physics). These branches of Physics are based on Quantum Mechanics and Special Theory of Relativity, and many mathematical concepts are used in them. In this work, we shall elucidate upon only some of them, like−differential geometry, infinite series, Mellin transforms, Fourier and integral transforms, special functions, calculus, complex algebra, topology, group theory, Riemannian geometry, functional analysis, linear algebra, operator algebra, etc. We shall also present, some physics issues, where these mathematical tools are used. It is not wrong to say that Mathematics is such a powerful tool, without which, there can not be any Physics theory!! A brief review on our research work is also presented.

  2. Applications of Natural Coagulants to Treat Wastewater − A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vicky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural water falls from the mountain is merging into the oceans. This water is preserved by humans that are consumed for agriculture, industrial, and municipal use. This water become wastewater after different usage, and finally, completes the hydrological cycle. The water becomes wastewater due to population growth, urbanization, industrialization, sewage from household, institutions, hospitals, industries and etc. Wastewater can be destructive for the public because it contains a variety of organic and inorganic substances, biological substances, toxic inorganic compounds and the presence of toxic materials. The coagulant chemicals and its associated products are resourceful but these may change the characteristics of water in terms of physical and chemical characteristics, this make matters worse in the disposal of sludge. An option of natural polymer can be used in water and wastewater in this review. The natural polymers are most efficient that provide several benefits such as; prolific, exempt from physical and chemical changes from the treated water.

  3. Some applications of mathematics in theoretical physics - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Kalpana

    2016-06-01

    Mathematics is a very beautiful subject-very much an indispensible tool for Physics, more so for Theoretical Physics (by which we mean here mainly Field Theory and High Energy Physics). These branches of Physics are based on Quantum Mechanics and Special Theory of Relativity, and many mathematical concepts are used in them. In this work, we shall elucidate upon only some of them, like-differential geometry, infinite series, Mellin transforms, Fourier and integral transforms, special functions, calculus, complex algebra, topology, group theory, Riemannian geometry, functional analysis, linear algebra, operator algebra, etc. We shall also present, some physics issues, where these mathematical tools are used. It is not wrong to say that Mathematics is such a powerful tool, without which, there can not be any Physics theory!! A brief review on our research work is also presented.

  4. Reviews of large superconducting machines: Metallurgy, fabrication, and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogner, G.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews large superconducting machines presently in place or in experiment. The ''Cello'' particle detector magnet for the positron-electron colliding beam facility PETRA at DESY in Hamburg is shown, and the Fermi Lab, and the Brookhaven ISABELLE also described. Electrodynamic levitation systems are specified, as researched and developed in Germany and Japan. Of superconducting coils for magnetic separation, a high gradient magnetic separator with superconducting magnet and steel wool, and a Jones type high gradient magnetic separator are schematicized. Turbogenerators with superconductor field winding are studied. Superconducting high power cables include the flexible coaxial cable core consisting of a perforated polyethylene tube and test cables at Siemens and at Brookhaven. Magnet systems for fusion reactors include tokamaks and tandem mirrors, and the toroidal coil experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is described, among others. Superconducting magnets for MHD plants, and superconducting magnet energy storage (SME storage) are also discussed

  5. Some applications of mathematics in theoretical physics - A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bora, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics is a very beautiful subject−very much an indispensible tool for Physics, more so for Theoretical Physics (by which we mean here mainly Field Theory and High Energy Physics). These branches of Physics are based on Quantum Mechanics and Special Theory of Relativity, and many mathematical concepts are used in them. In this work, we shall elucidate upon only some of them, like−differential geometry, infinite series, Mellin transforms, Fourier and integral transforms, special functions, calculus, complex algebra, topology, group theory, Riemannian geometry, functional analysis, linear algebra, operator algebra, etc. We shall also present, some physics issues, where these mathematical tools are used. It is not wrong to say that Mathematics is such a powerful tool, without which, there can not be any Physics theory!! A brief review on our research work is also presented.

  6. Properties, performance, and applications of biofuel blends: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husam Al-Mashhadani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel derived from living plants or animal matter can be used directly in their neat forms or as blends with their fossil counterparts in internal combustion engines. Although the properties and performance of neat biofuels have been extensively reported, this is not the case for many blends. The purpose of this review is to analyze different forms of biofuel blends that are under research and development comparing their utility and performance in the two primary classes of engines, i.e., spark ignition and compression ignition engines. The fuel properties, performance and emission characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of various fuel blends are compared and discussed. The analysis reveals certain blends possess better overall fuel properties and yield better overall performance than the neat or fossil forms.

  7. A review of feed efficiency in swine: biology and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patience, John F; Rossoni-Serão, Mariana C; Gutiérrez, Néstor A

    2015-01-01

    Feed efficiency represents the cumulative efficiency with which the pig utilizes dietary nutrients for maintenance, lean gain and lipid accretion. It is closely linked with energy metabolism, as the oxidation of carbon-containing components in the feed drive all metabolic processes. While much is known about nutrient utilization and tissue metabolism, blending these subjects into a discussion on feed efficiency has proven to be difficult. For example, while increasing dietary energy concentration will almost certainly increase feed efficiency, the correlation between dietary energy concentration and feed efficiency is surprisingly low. This is likely due to the plethora of non-dietary factors that impact feed efficiency, such as the environment and health as well as individual variation in maintenance requirements, body composition and body weight. Nonetheless, a deeper understanding of feed efficiency is critical at many levels. To individual farms, it impacts profitability. To the pork industry, it represents its competitive position against other protein sources. To food economists, it means less demand on global feed resources. There are environmental and other societal implications as well. Interestingly, feed efficiency is not always reported simply as a ratio of body weight gain to feed consumed. This review will explain why this arithmetic calculation, as simple as it initially seems, and as universally applied as it is in science and commerce, can often be misleading due to errors inherent in recording of both weight gain and feed intake. This review discusses the importance of feed efficiency, the manner in which it can be measured and reported, its basis in biology and approaches to its improvement. It concludes with a summary of findings and recommendations for future efforts.

  8. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages in cervical applications: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Roel Frederik Mark Raymond; van Gaalen, Steven M; de Gast, Arthur; Öner, F Cumhur

    2015-06-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages have been widely used during the past decade in patients with degenerative disorders of the cervical spine. Their radiolucency and low elastic modulus make them attractive attributes for spinal fusion compared with titanium and bone graft. Still, limitations are seen such as pseudoarthrosis, subsidence, and migration of the cages. Limited evidence on the clinical outcome of PEEK cages is found in the literature other than noncomparative cohort studies with only a few randomized controlled trials. To assess the clinical and radiographic outcome of PEEK cages in the treatment of degenerative disc disorders and/or spondylolisthesis in the cervical spine. Systematic review of all randomized controlled trials and prospective and retrospective nonrandomized comparative studies with a minimum follow-up of 6 months and all noncomparative cohort studies with a long-term follow-up of more than 5 years. The primary outcome variable was clinical performance. Secondary outcome variables consisted of radiographic scores. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched according to the Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses statement and Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines. No conflict of interest reported. No funding received. A total of 223 studies were identified, of which 10 studies were included. These comprised two randomized controlled trials, five prospective comparative trials, and three retrospective comparative trials. Minimal evidence for better clinical and radiographic outcome is found for PEEK cages compared with bone grafts in the cervical spine. No differences were found between PEEK, titanium, and carbon fiber cages. Future studies are needed to improve methodology to minimize bias. Publication of lumbar interbody fusion studies needs to be promoted because differences in clinical and/or radiographic scores are more likely to be demonstrated in this part

  9. Systematic review: the applications of nanotechnology in gastroenterology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakmane, G; Winslet, M; Seifalian, A M

    2012-08-01

    Over the past 30 years, nanotechnology has evolved dramatically. It has captured the interest of variety of fields from computing and electronics to biology and medicine. Recent discoveries have made invaluable changes to future prospects in nanomedicine; and introduced the concept of theranostics. This term offers a patient specific 'two in one' modality that comprises of diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Not only nanotechnology has shown great impact on improvements in drug delivery and imaging techniques, but also there have been several ground-breaking discoveries in regenerative medicine. Gastroenterology invites multidisciplinary approach owing to high complexity of gastrointestinal (GI) system; it includes physicians, surgeons, radiologists, pharmacologists and many more. In this article, we concentrate on current developments in nano-gastroenterology. Literature search was performed using Web of Science and Pubmed search engines with terms--nanotechnology, nanomedicine and gastroenterology. Article search was concentrated on developments since 2005. We have described original and innovative approaches in gastrointestinal drug delivery, inflammatory disease and cancer-target treatments. Here, we have reviewed advances in GI imaging using nanoparticles as fluorescent contrast, and their potential for site-specific targeting. This review has also depicted various approaches and novel discoveries in GI regenerative medicine using nanomaterials for scaffold designs and induced pluripotent stem cells as cell source. Developments in nanotechnology have opened new range of possibilities to help our patients. This includes novel drug delivery vehicles, diagnostic tools for early and targeted disease detection and nanocomposite materials for tissue constructs to overcome cosmetic or physical disabilities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA applications: Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Machorrinho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the available evidence on different applications of MAIA. Methods: This research followed three sequenced moments, done by two independent re- searchers. Included only published adult population studies (18-65 years old, which used complete MAIA survey, not only for translation and validation purposes. Data were extracted to predefined tables, showed as a flowchart from PRISMA Statement. Levels of evidence and methodological quality was also assessed. Results: From 66 original studies obtained only 7 were included for analysis. 5 was observational studies, while 2 were experimental and from all, 4 have a strong methodological quality. MAIA was used in both health and clinical samples, at 7 countries from 2 continents. Mostly it was used for interoceptive awareness assessment, as a global concept but also for is subdimensions analysis. Conclusion: We suggest more studies with larger and more heterogeneous samples. Weconcluded that MAIA, when compared with previous questionnaires for interoception assessment, allowed for a more complete and specialized evaluation, but some authors still suggest it can be more complex than it is now. We explore some recommendations for future clinical and scientific applications of MAIA.

  11. Electron beam application in industrial polymer processing - Review and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gielenz, G.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The various established industrial electron beam (EB) applications as related to polymers, their corresponding material and process fundamentals are discussed in this paper. The basics of nowadays most common irradiation processes, which are for continuous stranded products: Single Beam, Rotary Technique; Single Beam, Multiple Pass Technique; Dual Beam, Multiple Pass Technique; and Single Beam, Single (Multiple) Pass Technique by means of a conveyor belt or cart system for discontinuous goods are briefly addressed together with some typical examples for illustration. Some comments on the (dis)advantages and the future economic optimization potential which EB processing technologies could provide to the respective polymer processing industries are presented with respect to material, accelerator equipment and related product handling hardware. The future competitiveness of irradiation crosslinking technologies, which offer numerous advantages in comparison to conventional CV curing and silane crosslinking technologies, only can be maintained by increasing their economic attractiveness, which is: high processing speeds, high material throughput at low production costs and comparatively low capital investment of the hardware involved. Other, more sophisticated irradiation process proposals found in the literature and respective patent publications will be briefly presented, although all of which lack more or less practical evidence for industrial economic and reliable application. Finally, the authors vision of a more efficient, economical EB-process design, by combining quasi state of the art EB-equipment components with a novel beam deflection system to practically achieve a 'Dual Beam, Four Side Crossfiring Process' for continuous strand-products, will be presented. (author)

  12. Artificial intelligence techniques for photovoltaic applications: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellit, Adel [Department of Electronics, Faculty of Sciences Engineering, LAMEL Laboratory, Jijel University, Oulad-aissa, P.O. Box 98, Jijel 18000 (Algeria); Kalogirou, Soteris A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, Cyprus University of Technology, P.O. Box 50329, Limassol 3603 (Cyprus)

    2008-10-15

    Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques are becoming useful as alternate approaches to conventional techniques or as components of integrated systems. They have been used to solve complicated practical problems in various areas and are becoming more popular nowadays. They can learn from examples, are fault tolerant in the sense that they are able to handle noisy and incomplete data, are able to deal with nonlinear problems and once trained can perform prediction and generalization at high speed. AI-based systems are being developed and deployed worldwide in a wide variety of applications, mainly because of their symbolic reasoning, flexibility and explanation capabilities. AI has been used in different sectors, such as engineering, economics, medicine, military, marine, etc. They have also been applied for modeling, identification, optimization, prediction, forecasting and control of complex systems. The paper outlines an understanding of how AI systems operate by way of presenting a number of problems in photovoltaic systems application. Problems presented include three areas: forecasting and modeling of meteorological data, sizing of photovoltaic systems and modeling, simulation and control of photovoltaic systems. Published literature presented in this paper show the potential of AI as design tool in photovoltaic systems. (author)

  13. A review of mobile applications to help adolescent and young adult cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley KM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kimberly M Wesley,1 Philip J Fizur2 1Department of Psychology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, 2Department of Psychology, La Salle University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Objective: To review research articles utilizing mobile applications with adolescent and young adult (AYA cancer patients. Materials and methods: We identified articles via online searches and reference lists (eg, PsycInfo, PubMed. Articles were reviewed by two study team members for target population, stated purpose, technological utilization, sample size, demographic characteristics, and outcome data. Strengths and weaknesses of each study were described. Results: Of 19 identified manuscripts, six met full inclusion criteria for this review (four smartphone applications and two tablet applications. One additional article that included an application not specific to oncology but included AYA patients with cancer within the target sample was also reviewed. Uses of these applications included symptom tracking, pain management, monitoring of eating habits following bone marrow transplant, monitoring of mucositis, and improving medication management. Utility results from pilot studies are presented. Conclusion: Mobile applications are growing in number and increasingly available to AYAs with and without chronic illness. These applications may prove useful in helping to support AYAs throughout their cancer treatment and beyond. However, few applications provide empirical data supporting their utility. Numerous strengths and benefits of these applications include increased accessibility to educational resources and self-management strategies, more frequent physical and emotional symptom tracking, and increased access to peer support. Despite these strengths, numerous limitations are identified, highlighting the need for future research in this area. Keywords: adolescent, young adult, cancer, smartphone, mobile, applications

  14. A review on the application of medical infrared thermal imaging in hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Elsa; Vardasca, Ricardo; Teixeira, Sérgio; Seixas, Adérito; Mendes, Joaquim; Costa-Ferreira, António

    2017-09-01

    Infrared Thermal (IRT) imaging is a medical imaging modality to study skin temperature in real time, providing physiological information about the underlining structures. One of the most accessible body sites to be investigated using such imaging method is the hands, which can reflect valuable information about conditions affecting the upper limbs. The aim of this review is to acquaint the successful applications of IRT in the hands with a medical scope, opening horizons for future applications based in the achieved results. A systematic literature review was performed in order to assess in which applications medical IRT imaging was applied to the hands. The literature search was conducted in the reference databases: PubMed, Scopus and ISI Web of Science, making use of keywords (hand, thermography, infrared imaging, thermal imaging) combination that were present at the title and abstract. No temporal restriction was made. As a result, 4260 articles were identified, after removal of duplicates, 3224 articles remained and from first title and abstract filtering, a total of 388 articles were considered. After application of exclusion criteria (non-availability, non-clinical applications, reviews, case studies, written in other languages than English and using liquid crystal thermography), 146 articles were considered for this review. It can be verified that thermography provides useful diagnostic and monitoring information of conditions that directly or indirectly related to hands, as well as aiding in the treatment assessment. Trends and future challenges for IRT applications on hands are provided to stimulate researchers and clinicians to explore and address them.

  15. Application of airborne ultrasound in the convective drying of fruits and vegetables: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kai; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S

    2017-11-01

    The application of airborne ultrasound is a promising technology in the drying of foods, particularly to fruits and vegetables. In this paper, designs of dryers using ultrasound to combine the convective drying process are described. The main factors affecting the drying kinetics with the ultrasound application are discussed. The results show that the ultrasound application accelerated the drying kinetics. Ultrasound application during the convective drying of fruits and vegetables shorten the drying time. Ultrasound application can produce an increase of the effective moisture diffusivity and the mass transfer coefficient. The influence of ultrasound on physical and chemical parameters evaluating the product quality is reviewed. Ultrasound application can decrease the total color change, reveal a low water activity and reduce the loss of some nutrient elements. Meanwhile, ultrasound application can also better preserve the microstructure of fruits and vegetables in comparison to convective drying. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Wikis and Collaborative Writing Applications in Health Care: A Scoping Review Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Belt, Tom H; Grajales III, Francisco J; Eysenbach, Gunther; Aubin, Karine; Gold, Irving; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Kuziemsky, Craig E; Turgeon, Alexis F; Poitras, Julien; Faber, Marjan J; Kremer, Jan A.M; Heldoorn, Marcel; Bilodeau, Andrea; Légaré, France

    2012-01-01

    The rapid rise in the use of collaborative writing applications (eg, wikis, Google Documents, and Google Knol) has created the need for a systematic synthesis of the evidence of their impact as knowledge translation (KT) tools in the health care sector and for an inventory of the factors that affect their use. While researchers have conducted systematic reviews on a range of software-based information and communication technologies as well as other social media (eg, virtual communities of practice, virtual peer-to-peer communities, and electronic support groups), none have reviewed collaborative writing applications in the medical sector. The overarching goal of this project is to explore the depth and breadth of evidence for the use of collaborative writing applications in health care. Thus, the purposes of this scoping review will be to (1) map the literature on collaborative writing applications; (2) compare the applications’ features; (3) describe the evidence of each application’s positive and negative effects as a KT intervention in health care; (4) inventory and describe the barriers and facilitators that affect the applications’ use; and (5) produce an action plan and a research agenda. A six-stage framework for scoping reviews will be used: (1) identifying the research question; (2) identifying relevant studies within the selected databases (using the EPPI-Reviewer software to classify the studies); (3) selecting studies (an iterative process in which two reviewers search the literature, refine the search strategy, and review articles for inclusion); (4) charting the data (using EPPI-Reviewer’s data-charting form); (5) collating, summarizing, and reporting the results (performing a descriptive, numerical, and interpretive synthesis); and (6) consulting knowledge users during three planned meetings. Since this scoping review concerns the use of collaborative writing applications as KT interventions in health care, we will use the Knowledge to Action

  17. Review of Development Survey of Phase Change Material Models in Building Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein J. Akeiber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of phase change materials (PCMs in green buildings has been increasing rapidly. PCM applications in green buildings include several development models. This paper briefly surveys the recent research and development activities of PCM technology in building applications. Firstly, a basic description of phase change and their principles is provided; the classification and applications of PCMs are also included. Secondly, PCM models in buildings are reviewed and discussed according to the wall, roof, floor, and cooling systems. Finally, conclusions are presented based on the collected data.

  18. Whole genome amplification - Review of applications and advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, Trevor L.; Detter, J.C.; Richardson, Paul

    2001-11-15

    The concept of Whole Genome Amplification is something that has arisen in the past few years as modifications to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been adapted to replicate regions of genomes which are of biological interest. The applications here are many--forensics, embryonic disease diagnosis, bio terrorism genome detection, ''imoralization'' of clinical samples, microbial diversity, and genotyping. The key question is if DNA can be replicated a genome at a time without bias or non random distribution of the target. Several papers published in the last year and currently in preparation may lead to the conclusion that whole genome amplification may indeed be possible and therefore open up a new avenue to molecular biology.

  19. Review on developments in fiber optical sensors and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamdas, Kiran Kishore Kumar; Annamdas, Venu Gopal Madhav

    2010-04-01

    The last couple of decades had witnessed a rise in the research of optoelectronic and fiber optical communication fields, which resulted in applications focused initially in military and aerospace equipments, and later in health monitoring for medicine, heritage culture and various engineering fields. The monitoring of existing or /and new engineering, biomedical structures has become a regular feature throughout the world. Monitoring is fast emerging as a pioneering field with high precision and quality equipments. This field is very vast, consisting of both traditional as well as smart materials based methods. The fiber optics belong to the finest class of smart materials, there are many types and classifications based on the necessity, manufacturer and the end user. In this paper, a complete over view of fiber sensing systems and their usefulness is briefly presented.

  20. Thermochemical heat storage for high temperature applications. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felderhoff, Michael [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Urbanczyk, Robert; Peil, Stefan [Institut fuer Energie- und Umwelttechnik e.V. (IUTA), Duisburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Heat storage for high temperature applications can be performed by several heat storage techniques. Very promising heat storage methods are based on thermochemical gas solid reactions. Most known systems are metal oxide/steam (metal hydroxides), carbon dioxide (metal carbonates), and metal/hydrogen (metal hydrides) systems. These heat storage materials posses high gravimetric and volumetric heat storage densities and because of separation of the reaction products and their storage in different locations heat losses can be avoided. The reported volumetric heat storage densities are 615, 1340 and 1513 [ kWh m{sup -3}] for calcium hydroxide Ca(OH){sub 2}, calcium carbonate CaCO{sub 3} and magnesium iron hydride Mg{sub 2}FeH{sub 6} respectively. Additional demands for gas storage decrease the heat storage density, but metal hydride systems can use available hydrogen storage possibilities for example caverns, pipelines and chemical plants. (orig.)

  1. Polymerase chain reaction: Theory, practice and application: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S E Atawodi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR is a rapid procedure for in vitro enzymatic amplification of specific DNA sequences using two oligonucleotide primers that hybridize to opposite strands and flank the region of interest in the target DNA. Repetitive cycles involving template denaturation, primer annealing and the extension of the annealed primers by DNA polymerase, result in the exponential accumulation of a specific fragment whose termini are defined by 5′ end of the primers. The primer extension products synthesized in one cycle can serve as a template in the next. Hence the number of target DNA copies approximately doubles at every cycle. Since its inception, PCR has had an enormous impact in both basic and diagnostic aspects of molecular biology. Like the PCR itself, the number of applications has been accumulating exponentially. It is therefore recommended that relevant scientists and laboratories in developing countries like Nigeria should acquire this simple and relatively inexpensive, but rather robust technology.

  2. A review of remote sensing applications for oil palm studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khai Loong Chong; Kasturi Devi Kanniah; Christine Pohl; Kian Pang Tan

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm becomes an increasingly important source of vegetable oil for its production exceeds soybean,sunflower,and rapeseed.The growth of the oil palm industry causes degradation to the environment,especially when the expansion of plantations goes uncontrolled.Remote sensing is a useful tool to monitor the development of oil palm plantations.In order to promote the use of remote sensing in the oil palm industry to support their drive for sustainability,this paper provides an understanding toward the use of remote sensing and its applications to oil palm plantation monitoring.In addition,the existing knowledge gaps are identified and recommendations for further research are given.

  3. Review of mixer design for low voltage - low power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurulain, D.; Musa, F. A. S.; Isa, M. Mohamad; Ahmad, N.; Kasjoo, S. R.

    2017-09-01

    A mixer is used in almost all radio frequency (RF) or microwave systems for frequency translation. Nowadays, the increase market demand encouraged the industry to deliver circuit designs to create proficient and convenient equipment with very low power (LP) consumption and low voltage (LV) supply in both digital and analogue circuits. This paper focused on different Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) design topologies for LV and LP mixer design. Floating Gate Metal Oxide Semiconductor (FGMOS) is an alternative technology to replace CMOS due to their high ability for LV and LP applications. FGMOS only required a few transistors per gate and can have a shift in threshold voltage (VTH) to increase the LP and LV performances as compared to CMOS, which makes an attractive option to replace CMOS.

  4. A Review on Functionally Gradient Materials (FGMs) and Their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavar, Valmik; Kattire, Prakash; Thakare, Sandeep; patil, Sachin; Singh, RKP, Dr.

    2017-09-01

    Functionally gradient materials (FGM) are innovative materials in which final properties varies gradually with dimensions. It is the recent development in traditional composite materials which retains their strengths and eliminates their weaknesses. It can be formed by varying chemical composition, microstructure or design attributes from one end to other as per requirement. This feature allows FGM to have best material properties in required quantities only where it is needed. Though there are several methods available for manufacturing FGMs, additive based metal deposition (by laser, electron beam, plasma etc.) technologies are reaping particular interest owing to their recent developments. This paper presents evolution, current status and challenges of functionally gradient materials (FGMs). Various manufacturing processes of different types of FGMs are also presented. In addition, applications of FGMs in various fields including aerospace, defence, mining, power and tools manufacturing sectors are discussed in detail.

  5. Review on applications of electric ehicles in the countryside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romilton Oliveira Magalhães

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This paper presents the main applications of electric vehicles in rural areas, pointing out the trends and challenges for the future. Technological conditions and difficulties faced by the industry for a wide dissemination of this technology are discussed. The paper described the main researches with proposals to overcome the problems of implementing electric tractors, as supply and electricity storage. Technical and economic comparisons between conventional internal combustion tractors and electric tractors are also presented and discussed. The paper showed the existence of barriers to the implementation of electric vehicles in rural areas, as well as the need for batteries technological evolution, which have high costs and for that reason they are very heavy for these purposes, but there are already systems that can be applied to minimize dependence of fossil fuels in this sector and increase the use of sustainable energy.

  6. Review on phase change materials for building applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia SOCACIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In nowadays, the Phase Change Material (PCM is a viable alternative for reducing the energy consumption and for increase the thermal comfort in buildings. The use of PCM in building applications provides the potential to increase the indoor thermal comfort for occupants due to the reduced indoor temperature fluctuations and lower global energy consumption. The possibility to incorporate the PCM into the material of construction for cooling and heating the buildings gained the interest of researchers from all the world because the PCM have a high heat of fusion, meaning it is capable to storing and release large amounts of energy in the form of heat during its melting and solidifying process at a specific temperature.

  7. Application of Indocyanine Green in Flap Surgery: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Zheng; Nicoli, Fabio; D'Ambrosia, Christopher; Xi, Wenjing; Lazzeri, Davide; Feng, Shaoqing; Su, Weijie; Li, Hua; Ciudad, Pedro; Tremp, Mathias; Zhang, Yi Xin

    2018-02-01

     The vascularization of the distal portions of transferred tissue represents the most critical factor in the success of reconstructive surgery. In recent years, indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging techniques have been applied during surgery to evaluate flap perfusion. However, this investigation has found that there is little consensus regarding the standard dose of ICG as well as the pre-operative requirements of ICG allergy testing. The aim of this study is to summarize the applications of ICG to tissue transfers and safe dosing practices and to provide insight to the possible adverse effects of ICG on flap surgery with the goal of helping clinicians apply ICG safely and efficiently to tissue transfer procedures.  A literature search was performed using, Wiley InterScience, and Springer with the key words, 'Flap,' 'indocyanine green,' 'surgery,' and related mesh words for all publications between 2005 and 2015. Title and abstract screening was performed using predefined in- and exclusion criteria.  Seventy-three articles were included. These were classified as "application of ICG in flap surgery" and "the security of applying ICG in flap surgery".  ICG fluorescence imaging preoperatively facilitates the detection of perforators in tissue flaps with thickness <20 mm, aids in the evaluation of flap microcirculation and perfusion, and allows surgeons to select dominant cutaneous nerves while evaluating the quality of vascular anastomoses and locating thromboses. The literature also concluded that potential allergic reactions to ICG should be taken into consideration. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Applications of capillary electrophoresis with chemiluminescence detection in clinical, environmental and food analysis. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, Francisco J.; Airado-Rodríguez, Diego; Moreno-González, David; Huertas-Pérez, José F.; García-Campaña, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the latest developments and analytical applications of chemiluminescence detection coupled to capillary electrophoresis (CE-CL). Different sections considering the most common CL systems have been included, such as the tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) system, the luminol and acridinium derivative reactions, the peroxyoxalate CL or direct oxidations. Improvements in instrumental designs, new strategies for improving both resolution and sensitivity, and applications in different fields such as clinical, pharmaceutical, environmental and food analysis have been included. This review covers the literature from 2010 to 2015. - Highlights: • An up-to-date critical review about the evolution of CE-CL is presented. • Tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) and luminol as the most used CL systems. • Instrumental designs and strategies for improving resolution and sensitivity. • Applications in clinical, pharmaceutical, environmental and food analysis.

  9. A review of the probabilistic safety assessment application to the TR-2 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goektepe, G.; Adalioglu, U.; Anac, H.; Sevdik, B.; Menteseoglu, S.

    2001-01-01

    A review of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) to the TR-2 Research Reactor is presented. The level 1 PSA application involved: selection of accident initiators, mitigating functions and system definitions, event tree constructions and quantification, fault tree constructions and quantification, human reliability, component failure data base development, dependent failure analysis. Each of the steps of the analysis given above is reviewed briefly with highlights from the selected results. PSA application is found to be a practical tool for research reactor safety due to intense involvement of human interactions in an experimental facility. Insights gained from the application of PSA methodology to the TR-2 research reactor led to a significant safety review of the system

  10. A review of emerging technologies for food refrigeration applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassou, S.A.; Lewis, J.S.; Ge, Y.T.; Hadawey, A.; Chaer, I.

    2010-01-01

    Refrigeration has become an essential part of the food chain. It is used in all stages of the chain, from food processing, to distribution, retail and final consumption in the home. The food industry employs both chilling and freezing processes where the food is cooled from ambient to temperatures above 0 deg. C in the former and between -18 deg. C and -35 deg. C in the latter to slow the physical, microbiological and chemical activities that cause deterioration in foods. In these processes mechanical refrigeration technologies are invariably employed that contribute significantly to the environmental impacts of the food sector both through direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions. To reduce these emissions, research and development worldwide is aimed at both improving the performance of conventional systems and the development of new refrigeration technologies of potentially much lower environmental impacts. This paper provides a brief review of both current state of the art technologies and emerging refrigeration technologies that have the potential to reduce the environmental impacts of refrigeration in the food industry. The paper also highlights research and development needs to accelerate the development and adoption of these technologies by the food sector.

  11. A REVIEW OF THE ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED LITERATURE AND APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Sabol

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present a cornucopia of approaches and ways of defining, measuring and using the concept of Economic Value Added (EVA. EVA is a financial performance measure that emphasizes the maximization of shareholder value, as opposed to mere maximization of net profit. The authors familiarize the readers with important ideas and research that have contributed to the development of the concept of EVA. The nature of this paper is exclusive to the review of secondary sources, such as theoretical insights as well as the results of numerous empirical research of EVA. Furthermore, the paper will show various adjustments to financial statements before accounting profits can be used to calculate EVA. The results of the aforementioned research will unequivocally present EVA as one of the most widely used and accepted measures of overall firm performance, gaining more popularity when coupled with the notions of strategic (financial management. The paper concludes by determining the role and place of the concept of EVA in the process of value and performance management, as well as strategic management.

  12. Application for review, Section 61, Environmental Bill of Rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinspun, D.; Forman, G.; Hutton, A.; Muter, M.; Stewart, K.; Wilkins, H.

    2006-01-01

    Health and environmental groups have filed a request with the Ontario Ministry of Environment and Ministry of Energy to review its government policies on transboundary smog, mercury emissions and climate change in light of the abandonment of plans to close all of the province's highly polluting coal-fired power plants by 2009. The groups have requested that the Ministries identify the measures that will be taken to eliminate the health, social and environmental impacts caused by this decision. The representatives of Ontario's registered nurses, physicians, community groups and environment groups want to know how the decision will affect Ontario's compliance with the terms of the Ozone Annex to the 1991 United States-Canada Air Quality Agreement, Ontario's compliance with the proposed Canada Wide Standard on Mercury, and efforts to combat climate change. Concerns that the government has weakened its position in dealing with the United States over transboundary smog were expressed. Smog, climate change and mercury pollution pose significant risks to the health of Ontarians. The original plan to replace coal-fired generation was the single largest greenhouse gas reduction initiative in Canada. It was argued that the abandonment of that plan represents a major challenge in meeting Kyoto targets. refs

  13. Coprecipitation of radionuclides: basic concepts, literature review and first applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curti, E.

    1997-11-01

    Coprecipitation of radionuclides with solid products is currently not analysed quantitatively in safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories, although this process is thought to be an important mechanism for limiting nuclide concentrations in solution. This is due to the fact that neither the solid phases controlling coprecipitation nor the parameter values necessary to describe this process are known sufficiently. This introductory report provides basic knowledge on this subject and a review of experimental data from the literature. Emphasis is placed on experiments of trace metal coprecipitation with calcite, because this mineral is a dominating alteration product of cement in the Swiss L/ILW repository. This resulted in a database of partition coefficients, which allow to describe empirically the distribution of trace elements between calcite and solution and thus to quantify coprecipitation processes. Since laboratory data on coprecipitation with calcite are lacking for many safety-relevant radioelements, their partition coefficients were inferred with the help of estimation techniques. Such techniques rely on empirical correlations, which relate the uptake of trace metals in calcite (measured in laboratory tests) with selected chemical properties of the coprecipitated metals (e.g. ionic radius, sorption properties, solubility products of the pure trace metal carbonates). The combination of these correlations with independent geochemical evidence allows the extrapolation of radioelement-specific partition coefficients, which are then used for the quantitative modelling. In a first step the potential role of radionuclide coprecipitation during cement degradation in the L/ILW repository planned at Wellenberg is assessed. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  14. Review of Sorghum Production Practices: Applications for Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL

    2010-06-01

    Sorghum has great potential as an annual energy crop. While primarily grown for its grain, sorghum can also be grown for animal feed and sugar. Sorghum is morphologically diverse, with grain sorghum being of relatively short stature and grown for grain, while forage and sweet sorghums are tall and grown primarily for their biomass. Under water-limited conditions sorghum is reliably more productive than corn. While a relatively minor crop in the United States (about 2% of planted cropland), sorghum is important in Africa and parts of Asia. While sorghum is a relatively efficient user of water, it biomass potential is limited by available moisture. The following exhaustive literature review of sorghum production practices was developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to document the current state of knowledge regarding sorghum production and, based on this, suggest areas of research needed to develop sorghum as a commercial bioenergy feedstock. This work began as part of the China Biofuels Project sponsored by the DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program to communicate technical information regarding bioenergy feedstocks to government and industry partners in China, but will be utilized in a variety of programs in which evaluation of sorghum for bioenergy is needed. This report can also be used as a basis for data (yield, water use, etc.) for US and international bioenergy feedstock supply modeling efforts.

  15. Applications of lipid nanocarriers for solid tumors therapy: literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Lidiane Correia de; Souza, Leonardo Gomes; Marreto, Ricardo Neves; Lima, Eliana Martins; Taveira, Stephania Fleury; Taveira, Eliseu Jose Fleury

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Lipid nanocarriers are systems used to target drugs to its site of action and have attracted attention of the scientific community because they are biocompatible and biodegradable. These systems can target drugs to solid tumors, providing sustained drug release in the site of action, thus increasing the utility of the antineoplastic chemotherapy. Objective: To review the available literature on in vivo experiments with lipid nanocarriers containing cytotoxic drugs for solid tumors treatment. Method: A search study was carried out in Pubmed R database from 2007 to 2011, with subject descriptors: liposomes, lipid nanoparticles, cancer and in vivo, with the boolean operator 'and' among them, in English. Results: 1,595 papers related to the use of liposomes and 77 related to lipid nanoparticles were found. Few studies reported in vivo experiments with lipid nanoparticles (28 papers) compared to liposomes (472 papers), since liposomes were developed two decades before lipid nanoparticles. Four liposomal medicines have already been approved and are used in the clinic while only one medicine containing lipid nanoparticles is in phase I of clinical studies. Conclusion: The number of papers related to the use of nanotechnology for cancer treatment is increasing rapidly, making important to know the different kinds of nanocarriers and, especially, those which are already used in the clinic. There are only few clinical studies on lipid nanocarriers; however, these systems present an enormous potential to improve the clinical practice in oncology. (author)

  16. PEMFC for aeronautic applications: A review on the durability aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyantyi, Noluntu; Parsons, Adrian; Sita, Cordellia; Pasupathi, Sivakumar

    2017-11-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) not only offer more efficient electrical energy conversion, relative to on-ground/backup turbines but generate by-products useful in aircraft such as heat for ice prevention, deoxygenated air for fire retardation and drinkable water for use on-board. Consequently, several projects (e.g. DLR-H2 Antares and RAPID2000) have successfully tested PEMFC-powered auxiliary unit (APU) for manned/unmanned aircraft. Despite the progress from flying PEMFC-powered small aircraft with 20 kW power output as high as 1 000 m at 100 km/h to 33 kW at 2 558 m, 176 km/h [1, 2, 3], durability and reliability remain key challenges. This review reports on the inadequate understanding of behaviour of PEMFC under aeronautic conditions and the lack of predictive methods conducive for aircraft that provide real-time information on the State of Health of PEMFCs. -To minimize performance loss due to high altitude and inclination by adjusting cathode stoichiometric ratio. -To improve quality of oxygen-depleted air by controlling operating temperature and stoichiometric ratio. -Need to devise real time prediction methods conducive for determining PEMFC SoH in aircraft.

  17. Indentation techniques in nuclear applications: a review paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spino, J.; Goll, W.; Toscano, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Indentation testing, in particular micro-indentation tests, is a straightforward method to determine several properties of irradiated materials. In fact, with this type of tests, material constants and fracture properties can be deduced from measurements performed on a relatively small surface, which constitutes an important advantage when dealing with highly radioactive specimens. On the other hand, since the material response to indentation is complex, with the occurring elastic and plastic deformations being affected by radiation damage, impurities and temperature variations, careful analysis of the data is required. In the nuclear field, materials of direct interest range from carbide-, nitride- and oxide-fuels, to diverse ceramic and glasses utilized for the immobilization of high level nuclear waste, as well as simulated fuels and fuel-rod cladding materials, the later which are tested to analyze the loss of ductility after irradiation and its recovery after high temperature annealing. This paper describes the most common indentation techniques and the essential properties that can be determined by these techniques. A review of the main results obtained by indentation testing in fuels, waste glasses and cladding materials is also provided. (Author)

  18. Organic Rankine cycle - review and research directions in engine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panesar, Angad

    2017-11-01

    Waste heat to power conversion using Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) is expected to play an important role in CO2 reductions from diesel engines. Firstly, a review of automotive ORCs is presented focusing on the pure working fluids, thermal architectures and expanders. The discussion includes, but is not limited to: R245fa, ethanol and water as fluids; series, parallel and cascade as architectures; dry saturated, superheated and supercritical as expansion conditions; and scroll, radial turbine and piston as expansion machines. Secondly, research direction in versatile expander and holistic architecture (NOx + CO2) are proposed. Benefits of using the proposed unconventional approaches are quantified using Ricardo Wave and Aspen HYSYS for diesel engine and ORC modelling. Results indicate that, the implementation of versatile piston expander tolerant to two-phase and using cyclopentane can potentially increase the highway drive cycle power by 8%. Furthermore, holistic architecture offering complete utilisation of charge air and exhaust recirculation heat increased the performance noticeably to 5% of engine power at the design point condition.

  19. Applications of bauxite residue: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ajay S; Suri, Narendra M; Kant, Suman

    2017-10-01

    Bauxite residue is the waste generated during alumina production by Bayer's process. The amount of bauxite residue (40-50 wt%) generated depends on the quality of bauxite ore used for the processing. High alkalinity and high caustic content in bauxite residue causes environmental risk for fertile soil and ground water contamination. The caustic (NaOH) content in bauxite residue leads to human health risks, like dermal problems and irritation to eyes. Moreover, disposal of bauxite residue requires a large area; such problems can only be minimised by utilising bauxite residue effectively. For two decades, bauxite residue has been used as a binder in cement industries and filler/reinforcement for composite materials in the automobile industry. Valuable metals and oxides, like alumina (Al 2 O 3 ), titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) and iron oxide Fe 2 O 3 , were extracted from bauxite residue to reduce waste. Bauxite residue was utilised in construction and structure industries to make geopolymers. It was also used in the making of glass-ceramics and a coating material. Recently bauxite residue has been utilised to extract rare earth elements like scandium (Sc), yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), neodymium (Nd) and dysprosium (Dy). In this review article, the mineralogical characteristics of bauxite residue are summarised and current progresses on utilisation of bauxite residue in different fields of science and engineering are presented in detail.

  20. Review and application of group theory to molecular systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietman, Edward A; Karp, Robert L; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2011-06-22

    In this paper we provide a review of selected mathematical ideas that can help us better understand the boundary between living and non-living systems. We focus on group theory and abstract algebra applied to molecular systems biology. Throughout this paper we briefly describe possible open problems. In connection with the genetic code we propose that it may be possible to use perturbation theory to explore the adjacent possibilities in the 64-dimensional space-time manifold of the evolving genome. With regards to algebraic graph theory, there are several minor open problems we discuss. In relation to network dynamics and groupoid formalism we suggest that the network graph might not be the main focus for understanding the phenotype but rather the phase space of the network dynamics. We show a simple case of a C6 network and its phase space network. We envision that the molecular network of a cell is actually a complex network of hypercycles and feedback circuits that could be better represented in a higher-dimensional space. We conjecture that targeting nodes in the molecular network that have key roles in the phase space, as revealed by analysis of the automorphism decomposition, might be a better way to drug discovery and treatment of cancer.

  1. Coprecipitation of radionuclides: basic concepts, literature review and first applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curti, E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    Coprecipitation of radionuclides with solid products is currently not analysed quantitatively in safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories, although this process is thought to be an important mechanism for limiting nuclide concentrations in solution. This is due to the fact that neither the solid phases controlling coprecipitation nor the parameter values necessary to describe this process are known sufficiently. This introductory report provides basic knowledge on this subject and a review of experimental data from the literature. Emphasis is placed on experiments of trace metal coprecipitation with calcite, because this mineral is a dominating alteration product of cement in the Swiss L/ILW repository. This resulted in a database of partition coefficients, which allow to describe empirically the distribution of trace elements between calcite and solution and thus to quantify coprecipitation processes. Since laboratory data on coprecipitation with calcite are lacking for many safety-relevant radioelements, their partition coefficients were inferred with the help of estimation techniques. Such techniques rely on empirical correlations, which relate the uptake of trace metals in calcite (measured in laboratory tests) with selected chemical properties of the coprecipitated metals (e.g. ionic radius, sorption properties, solubility products of the pure trace metal carbonates). The combination of these correlations with independent geochemical evidence allows the extrapolation of radioelement-specific partition coefficients, which are then used for the quantitative modelling. In a first step the potential role of radionuclide coprecipitation during cement degradation in the L/ILW repository planned at Wellenberg is assessed. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  2. "Smart" Materials Based on Cellulose: A Review of the Preparations, Properties, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaoyun; Hu, Shuwen

    2013-02-28

    Cellulose is the most abundant biomass material in nature, and possesses some promising properties, such as mechanical robustness, hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Thus, cellulose has been widely applied in many fields. "Smart" materials based on cellulose have great advantages-especially their intelligent behaviors in reaction to environmental stimuli-and they can be applied to many circumstances, especially as biomaterials. This review aims to present the developments of "smart" materials based on cellulose in the last decade, including the preparations, properties, and applications of these materials. The preparations of "smart" materials based on cellulose by chemical modifications and physical incorporating/blending were reviewed. The responsiveness to pH, temperature, light, electricity, magnetic fields, and mechanical forces, etc. of these "smart" materials in their different forms such as copolymers, nanoparticles, gels, and membranes were also reviewed, and the applications as drug delivery systems, hydrogels, electronic active papers, sensors, shape memory materials and smart membranes, etc. were also described in this review.

  3. Application of proximal surrogate indicators for safety evaluation: A review of recent developments and research needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Sohel Mahmud

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been a number of recent reviews on the use of traffic conflict techniques (TCTs, none have focused on the use of proximal surrogate indicators. This paper comprehensively reviews the development and application of proximal surrogate safety indicators to address this gap. There is a particular focus on more recent advancements in the application of such indicators. For each of the main indicators reviewed, the paper provides a synthesis of the main guiding principles, as well as the most prominent features, including critical or threshold values used in the past. In addition, the main advantages and disadvantages of the reviewed indicators are highlighted. Finally, a number of research gaps are identified together with recommendations for potentially useful avenues of future research. Keywords: Safety evaluation, Traffic conflict, Surrogate, Proximal, Indicators

  4. Review of Wearable Device Technology and Its Applications to the Mining Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhinabonu Mardonova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews current trends in wearable device technology, and provides an overview of its prevalent and potential deployments in the mining industry. This review includes the classification of wearable devices with some examples of their utilization in various industrial fields as well as the features of sensors used in wearable devices. Existing applications of wearable device technology to the mining industry are reviewed. In addition, a wearable safety management system for miners and other possible applications are proposed. The findings of this review show that by introducing wearable device technology to mining sites, the safety of mining operations can be enhanced. Therefore, wearable devices should be further used in the mining industry.

  5. Waste-based materials; capability, application and impact on indoor environment – literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejcirikova, Barbora; Rode, Carsten; Kolarik, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses various sustainable materials utilizing waste products with the focus on their properties having an impact on the indoor environmental conditions and indoor air quality (IAQ). Materials included in the review are selected considering the following aspects......: sustainability, cradle to cradle perspective, application, their impact on indoor environment and human well-being. The attempt of the paper is to cover a wide spectrum of information so to provide better understanding of waste utilization in construction industry....

  6. Review of the Space Debris Protection Application on ``TIANGONG-1''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Ming; Han, Zengyao

    Meteoroid and orbital debris (M/OD) is the key factor related to the astronaut safety. The long-term manned spacelab generally adopts protection measures to reduce its hypervelocity impact (HVI) risk. This paper presents the engineering application on“Tiangong-1”,the first long-term spacelab in orbit for China.The application includes the M/OD shielding, active avoidance and mitigation. Firstly, the shielding concepts on“Tiangong-1”manned module and radiator are summarized. Two typical Whipple shields respectively with the 70mm and 50mm standoff are separately utilized for the front cone and cylinder pressurized walls. The ballistic limit Equations (BLE) of these two shieldings are achieved through the HVI tests and numerical simulation. The shields provide the resistance capability of space debris particle.Meanwhile, the M/OD risk is assessed by utilizing the MODAOST to predict the probability of penetration (PP) and probability of critical failure (PCF). The assessment shows that the shielding design meets the safety requirement with the PP of 2.09X10 (-3) and the critical cracking PCF of 3.35X10 (-4) . The radiator,the large-scaled component of manned Spacelab, adopts the Ω-shaped tube to improve the HVI resistance capability with the cost of less mass. Secondly, the orbit transfer strategy is designed not only to meet the requirement of the orbit phase of “Shenzhou” spacecraft but also actively avoid the rendezvous with the cataloged debris in orbit. This strategy is validated through the rendezvous and docking missions of “Shenzhou-8” and “Tiangong-1”,“Shenzhou-9”,“Shenzhou-10”. Thirdly, the mitigation and deactivation concepts are introduced by means of reentry simulation of “Tiangong-1” to protect the space environment and reduce the ground casualty. The space debris protection techniques applied on “Tiangong-1” have been broken through with the successful mission of “Tiangong-1”, and these applied techniques provide

  7. Review and applicative perspectives of thin layer activation in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racolta, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Thin Layer Activation (TLA) is an ion beam based technique. It consists in an accelerated ion bombardment of the surface of interest of a machine part subjected to wear. Wear and some types of corrosion phenomena characterized by a loss of material can be studied by monitoring the resulted changes in radioactivity. In this paper some general considerations on the physical phenomena involved, a short description of the two developed measuring methods, a zoom on the specific steps of the experiments (irradiation, calibration, experimental setups and instrumentation), and some applications will be presented. Although the level of activity used in TLA lies under the limit of the range considered to be safe from the point of view of radiation protection, industry hesitates to use this technique mainly due to psychological reasons with respect to the handling of radioactive material. Recognizing this problem we have decided to offer to industry wear/corrosion measurements using TLA in the form of a 'complete package'. The conception of this procedure will be presented also. (author)

  8. The application of silicon and silicates in dentistry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lührs, A-K; Geurtsen, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Silicates and silicate-based compounds are frequently used materials in dentistry. One of their major applications is their use as fillers in different dental filling materials such as glass-ionomer cements, compomers, composites, and adhesive systems. In these materials, the fillers react with acids during the setting process or they improve the mechanical properties by increasing physical resistance, thermal expansion coefficient and radiopacity in acrylic filling materials. They also reduce polymerization shrinkage, and increase esthetics as well as handling properties. Furthermore, silicates are used for the tribochemical silication of different surfaces such as ceramics or alloys. The silicate layer formed in this process is the chemical basis for silanes that form a bond between this layer and the organic composite matrix. It also provides a micromechanical bond between the surface of the material and the composite matrix. Silicates are also a component of dental ceramics, which are frequently used in dentistry, for instance for veneers, inlays, and onlays, for denture teeth, and for full-ceramic crowns or as crown veneering materials.

  9. Fungal Ribotoxins: A Review of Potential Biotechnological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Olombrada

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungi establish a complex network of biological interactions with other organisms in nature. In many cases, these involve the production of toxins for survival or colonization purposes. Among these toxins, ribotoxins stand out as promising candidates for their use in biotechnological applications. They constitute a group of highly specific extracellular ribonucleases that target a universally conserved sequence of RNA in the ribosome, the sarcin-ricin loop. The detailed molecular study of this family of toxic proteins over the past decades has highlighted their potential in applied research. Remarkable examples would be the recent studies in the field of cancer research with promising results involving ribotoxin-based immunotoxins. On the other hand, some ribotoxin-producer fungi have already been studied in the control of insect pests. The recent role of ribotoxins as insecticides could allow their employment in formulas and even as baculovirus-based biopesticides. Moreover, considering the important role of their target in the ribosome, they can be used as tools to study how ribosome biogenesis is regulated and, eventually, may contribute to a better understanding of some ribosomopathies.

  10. Photodynamic therapy: a review of applications in neurooncology and neuropathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzdensky, Anatoly B.; Berezhnaya, Elena; Kovaleva, Vera; Neginskaya, Marya; Rudkovskii, Mikhail; Sharifulina, Svetlana

    2015-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) effect is a promising adjuvant modality for diagnosis and treatment of brain cancer. It is of importance that the bright fluorescence of most photosensitizers provides visualization of brain tumors. This is successfully used for fluorescence-guided tumor resection according to the principle "to see and to treat." Non-oncologic application of PDT effect for induction of photothrombotic infarct of the brain tissue is a well-controlled and reproducible stroke model, in which a local brain lesion is produced in the predetermined brain area. Since normal neurons and glial cells may also be damaged by PDT and this can lead to unwanted neurological consequences, PDT effects on normal neurons and glial cells should be comprehensively studied. We overviewed the current literature data on the PDT effect on a range of signaling and epigenetic proteins that control various cell functions, survival, necrosis, and apoptosis. We hypothesize that using cell-specific inhibitors or activators of some signaling proteins, one can selectively protect normal neurons and glia, and simultaneously exacerbate photodynamic damage of malignant gliomas.

  11. Radiation in industrial processes;Applications reviewed at Warsaw Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-10-15

    The uses of ionizing radiation can be divided into two broad categories. First, it can be used as a tool of investigation, measurement and testing, and secondly, it can be a direct agent in inducing chemical processes. For example, radiation can help in the detecting and locating of malignant tumours, and it can be employed also for the destruction of those tumours. Again, it can reveal intricate processes of plant growth and, at the same time, can initiate certain processes which result in the growth of new varieties of plants. Similarly in industry, radiation is both a tool of detection, testing and measurement and an active agent for the initiation of useful chemical reactions. The initiation of chemical reactions usually requires larger and more powerful sources of radiation. Such radiation can be provided by substances like cobalt 60 and caesium 137 or by machines which accelerate nuclear particles to very high energies. Of the particle-accelerating machines, the most useful in this field are those which accelerate electrons to energies considerably higher than those possessed by the electrons (beta particles) emitted by radioactive substances. These high-energy radiations produce interesting reactions both in organic life and in materials for industry. Several of the papers presented at the Warsaw conference were devoted to the application of ionizing radiation to polymerization and other useful reactions in the manufacture and treatment of plastics. The polymerization of the ethylene series of hydro-carbons was discussed from various angles and the technical characteristics and requirements were described. It was pointed out by some experts that the cross-linking effect of radiation resulted in a superior product, opening the way to new applications of polyethylene. Irradiated polyethylene film has been sold for several years, and electrical wire has been made with irradiated polyethylene as the insulating jacket. Other reactions discussed included the cross

  12. Review of the study and application on nuclear forensic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Cheng'an; Song Jiashu; Wu Jun

    2009-01-01

    For the interests of national security, many scientists who work in the field of nuclear forensic analysis have carried out extensive work in the past on the detection of radioactive material and attributions study, developed a series of scientific and technical means to trace and detect illicit circulation of nuclear materials used to weapons and other radioactive materials which impair public security. All these questions relate to physical, chemical, biological attribution of materials. The nuclear forensic analysis has already become a special, up-to-date sphere of learning. The goal of the study of nuclear forensics is to prevent terrorists from acquiring not only nuclear weapons but also mate- rials that can be used to make such weapons, including radioactive materials for nuclear power plants, and medical radioisotope to and provide us as many clues of environmental links as possible that could help us trace the smuggling path, to answer the following questions: What is the material? Where did it come from? How did it pass from legitimate to illicit use? How did it get to where it was interdicted? Who did it? This paper outlines the contents, analysis means and application of nuclear forensics. (authors)

  13. Therapeutic and cosmetic applications of mangiferin: a patent review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telang, Manasi; Dhulap, Sivakami; Mandhare, Anita; Hirwani, Rajkumar

    2013-12-01

    Mangiferin, a natural C-glucoside xanthone [2-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl-1, 3, 6, 7-tetrahydroxyxanthone], is abundantly present in young leaves and stem bark of the mango tree. The xanthonoid structure of mangiferin with C-glycosyl linkage and polyhydroxy components contributes to its free radical-scavenging ability, leading to a potent antioxidant effect as well as multiple biological activities. An extensive search was carried out to collect patent information on mangiferin and its derivatives using various patent databases spanning all priority years to date. The patents claiming therapeutic and cosmetic applications of mangiferin and its derivatives were analyzed in detail. The technology areas covered in this article include metabolic disorders, cosmeceuticals, multiple uses of the same compound, miscellaneous uses, infectious diseases, inflammation, cancer and autoimmune disorders, and neurological disorders. Mangiferin has the potential to modulate multiple molecular targets including nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression. Mangiferin exhibits antioxidant, antidiabetic, antihyperuricemic, antiviral, anticancer and antiinflammatory activities. The molecular structure of mangiferin fulfils the four Lipinski's requisites reported to favor high bioavailability by oral administration. There is no evidence of adverse side effects of mangiferin so far. Mangiferin could thus be a promising candidate for development of a multipotent drug.

  14. IMPLEMENTING NDN USING SDN: A REVIEW ON METHODS AND APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Rowshanrad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years many claims about the limitations of todays’ network architecture, its lack of flexibility and ability to response to ongoing changes and increasing users demands. In this regard, new network architectures are proposed. Software Defined Networking (SDN is one of these new architectures which centralizes the control of network by separating control plane from data plane. This separation leads to intelligence, flexibility and easier control in computer networks. One of the advantages of this framework is the ability to implement and test new protocols and architectures in actual networks without any concern of interruption.Named Data Networking (NDN is another paradigm for future network architecture. With NDN the network becomes aware of the content that is providing, rather than just transferring it among end-points. NDN attracts researchers’ attention and known as the potential future of networking and internet. Providing NDN functionalities over SDN is an important requirement to enable the innovation and optimization of network resources. In this paper first we describe about SDN and NDN, and then we introduce methods for implementing NDN using SDN. We also point out the advantages and applications of implementing NDN over SDN.

  15. A Review of Smartphone Applications for Promoting Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Whitehead, Mary; Sheats, Joyce Q; Mastromonico, Jeff; Smith, Selina

    Rapid developments in technology have encouraged the use of smartphones in health promotion research and practice. Although many applications (apps) relating to physical activity are available from major smartphone platforms, relatively few have been tested in research studies to determine their effectiveness in promoting health. In this article, we summarize data on use of smartphone apps for promoting physical activity based upon bibliographic searches with relevant search terms in PubMed and CINAHL. After screening the abstracts or full texts of articles, 15 eligible studies of the acceptability or efficacy of smartphone apps for increasing physical activity were identified. Of the 15 included studies, 6 were qualitative research studies, 8 were randomized control trials, and one was a nonrandomized study with a pre-post design. The results indicate that smartphone apps can be efficacious in promoting physical activity although the magnitude of the intervention effect is modest. Participants of various ages and genders respond favorably to apps that automatically track physical activity (e.g., steps taken), track progress toward physical activity goals, and are user-friendly and flexible enough for use with several types of physical activity. Future studies should utilize randomized controlled trial research designs, larger sample sizes, and longer study periods to establish the physical activity measurement and intervention capabilities of smartphones. There is a need for culturally appropriate, tailored health messages to increase knowledge and awareness of health behaviors such as physical activity.

  16. Lantibiotics produced by Actinobacteria and their potential applications (a review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Karen Machado; Duarte, Rafael Silva; de Freire Bastos, Maria do Carmo

    2017-02-01

    The phylum Actinobacteria, which comprises a great variety of Gram-positive bacteria with a high G+C content in their genomes, is known for its large production of bioactive compounds, including those with antimicrobial activity. Among the antimicrobials, bacteriocins, ribosomally synthesized peptides, represent an important arsenal of potential new drugs to face the increasing prevalence of resistance to antibiotics among microbial pathogens. The actinobacterial bacteriocins form a heterogeneous group of substances that is difficult to adapt to most proposed classification schemes. However, recent updates have accommodated efficiently the diversity of bacteriocins produced by this phylum. Among the bacteriocins, the lantibiotics represent a source of new antimicrobials to control infections caused mainly by Gram-positive bacteria and with a low propensity for resistance development. Moreover, some of these compounds have additional biological properties, exhibiting activity against viruses and tumour cells and having also potential to be used in blood pressure or inflammation control and in pain relief. Thus, lantibiotics already described in Actinobacteria exhibit potential practical applications in medical settings, food industry and agriculture, with examples at different stages of pre-clinical and clinical trials.

  17. A Review of Smartphone Applications for Promoting Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Whitehead, Mary; Sheats, Joyce Q.; Mastromonico, Jeff; Smith, Selina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rapid developments in technology have encouraged the use of smartphones in health promotion research and practice. Although many applications (apps) relating to physical activity are available from major smartphone platforms, relatively few have been tested in research studies to determine their effectiveness in promoting health. Methods In this article, we summarize data on use of smartphone apps for promoting physical activity based upon bibliographic searches with relevant search terms in PubMed and CINAHL. Results After screening the abstracts or full texts of articles, 15 eligible studies of the acceptability or efficacy of smartphone apps for increasing physical activity were identified. Of the 15 included studies, 6 were qualitative research studies, 8 were randomized control trials, and one was a nonrandomized study with a pre-post design. The results indicate that smartphone apps can be efficacious in promoting physical activity although the magnitude of the intervention effect is modest. Participants of various ages and genders respond favorably to apps that automatically track physical activity (e.g., steps taken), track progress toward physical activity goals, and are user-friendly and flexible enough for use with several types of physical activity. Discussion Future studies should utilize randomized controlled trial research designs, larger sample sizes, and longer study periods to establish the physical activity measurement and intervention capabilities of smartphones. There is a need for culturally appropriate, tailored health messages to increase knowledge and awareness of health behaviors such as physical activity. PMID:27034992

  18. Proposed Guidance for Preparing and Reviewing Molten Salt Nonpower Reactor Licence Applications (NUREG-1537)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy [ORNL; Flanagan, George F. [ORNL; Voth, Marcus [Boston Government Services, LLC

    2018-05-01

    Development of non-power molten salt reactor (MSR) test facilities is under consideration to support the analyses needed for development of a full-scale MSR. These non-power MSR test facilities will require review by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. This report proposes chapter adaptations for NUREG-1537 in the form of interim staff guidance to address preparation and review of molten salt non-power reactor license applications. The proposed adaptations are based on a previous regulatory gap analysis of select chapters from NUREG-1537 for their applicability to non-power MSRs operating with a homogeneous fuel salt mixture.

  19. Systematic Review: Concept and Tool Development with Application in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Assessment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Systematic Review: Concept and tool development with application to the National Toxicology Program (NTP) and the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Assessment Processes. There is growing interest within the environmental health community to incorporate systematic review m...

  20. NEA/CNRA Report of the Survey on the Review of New Reactor Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This presentation treats of the NEA/CNRA report of the survey on the review of new reactor application. It indicates that licensing is state specific and that timelines vary from 6 months to 4 years. In addition, review effort and documentation is significant and most states have explicit guidance for the reviews. All states include some form of public participation and regulatory oversight. Next steps include two reports, one on design reviews and another on the construction phase. The author also presented on licensing experience in the United Kingdom. He highlighted the importance of several practices for ensuring a successful project, including: early engagement and communication between applicant and regulatory, sharing of plans between applicant and regulator, establishing and monitoring good metrics on progress and quality for both the applicant and the regulator, identifying 'work streams' and monitoring those streams closely, identifying and addressing risks, ensuring high quality interactions between applicant and regulator, and using dashboards as a way to maintain openness, transparency and trust. He also emphasized the need for engagement at different levels within the organization, including management as necessary

  1. Plasma in dentistry: a review of basic concepts and applications in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Mi-Ae; Han, Geum-Jun; Cho, Byeong-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Plasma-related technologies are essential in modern industries. Recently, plasma has attracted increased attention in the biomedical field. This paper provides a basic knowledge of plasma and a narrative review of plasma applications in dentistry. To review plasma applications in dentistry, an electronic search in PubMed, SCOPUS and Google scholar up to December 2012 was done. This was followed by extensive hand searching using reference lists from relevant articles. There have been attempts to apply plasma technology in various fields of dentistry including surface modifications of dental implants, adhesion, caries treatment, endodontic treatment and tooth bleaching. Although many studies were in early stages, the potential value of plasma for dental applications has been demonstrated. To enlarge the scope of plasma applications and put relevant research to practical use, interdisciplinary research with participation of dental professionals is required.

  2. Application of carbon nanotubes in perovskite solar cells: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, Thet Tin; Debnath, Sujan

    2017-11-01

    Solar power, as alternative renewable energy source, has gained momentum in global energy generation in recent time. Solar photovoltaics (PV) systems now fulfill a significant portion of electricity demand and the capacity of solar PV capacity is growing every year. PV cells efficiency has improved significantly following decades of research, evolving into third generations of PV cells. These third generation PV cells are set out to provide low-cost and efficient PV systems, further improving the commercial competitiveness of solar energy generation. Among these latest generations of PV cells, perovskite solar cells have gained attraction due to the simple manufacturing process and the immense growth in PV efficiency in a short period of research and development. Despite these advantages, perovskite solar cells are known for the weak stability and decomposition in exposure to humidity and high temperature, hindering the possibility of commercialization. This paper will discuss the role of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in improving the efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells, in various components such as perovskite layer and hole transport layer, as well as the application of CNTs in unique aspects. These includes the use of CNTs fiber in making the perovskite solar cells flexible, as well as simplification of perovskite PV production by using CNT flash evaporation printing process. Despite these advances, challenges remain in incorporation CNTs into perovskite such as lower conversion efficiency compared to rare earth metals and improvements need to be made. Thus, the paper will be also highlighting the CNTs materials suggested for further research and improvement of perovskite solar cells.

  3. Deep learning guided stroke management: a review of clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Rui; Badgeley, Marcus; Mocco, J; Oermann, Eric K

    2018-04-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability, and outcome is directly related to timely intervention. Not all patients benefit from rapid intervention, however. Thus a significant amount of attention has been paid to using neuroimaging to assess potential benefit by identifying areas of ischemia that have not yet experienced cellular death. The perfusion-diffusion mismatch, is used as a simple metric for potential benefit with timely intervention, yet penumbral patterns provide an inaccurate predictor of clinical outcome. Machine learning research in the form of deep learning (artificial intelligence) techniques using deep neural networks (DNNs) excel at working with complex inputs. The key areas where deep learning may be imminently applied to stroke management are image segmentation, automated featurization (radiomics), and multimodal prognostication. The application of convolutional neural networks, the family of DNN architectures designed to work with images, to stroke imaging data is a perfect match between a mature deep learning technique and a data type that is naturally suited to benefit from deep learning's strengths. These powerful tools have opened up exciting opportunities for data-driven stroke management for acute intervention and for guiding prognosis. Deep learning techniques are useful for the speed and power of results they can deliver and will become an increasingly standard tool in the modern stroke specialist's arsenal for delivering personalized medicine to patients with ischemic stroke. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. A REVIEW ON BIOMASS DENSIFICATION TECHNOLOGIE FOR ENERGY APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JAYA SHANKAR TUMULURU; CHRISTOPHER T. WRIGHT

    2010-08-01

    The world is currently facing challenges to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and to achieve a sustainable renewable supply. Renewable energies represent a diversity of energy sources that can help to maintain the equilibrium of different ecosystems. Among the various sources of renewable energy, biomass is finding more uses as it is considered carbon neutral since the carbondioxide released during its use is already part of the carbon cycle (Arias et al., 2008). Increasing the utilization of biomass for energy can help to reduce the negative CO2 impact on the environment and help to meet the targets established in the Kyoto Protocol (UN, 1998). Energy from biomass can be produced from different processes like thermochemical (combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis), biological (anaerobic digestion, fermentation) or chemical (esterification) where direct combustion can provide a direct near-term energy solution (Arias et al., 2008). Some of the inherent problems with raw biomass materials, like low bulk density, high moisture content, hydrophilic nature and low calorific value, limit the ease of use of biomass for energy purposes (Arias et al., 2008). In fact, due to its low energy density compared to fossil fuels, high volumes of biomass will be needed; adding to problems associated with storage, transportation and feed handling at a cogeneration plant. Furthermore, grinding biomass pulverizes, can be very costly and in some cases impractical. All of these drawbacks have given rise to the development of new technologies in order to increase the quality of biomass fuels. The purpose of the work is mainly in four areas 1) Overview of the torrefaction process and to do a literature review on i) Physical properties of torrefied raw material and torrefaction gas composition. 2) Basic principles in design of packed bed i) Equations governing the flow of material in packed bed ii) Equations governing the flow of the gases in packed bed iii) Effect of physical

  5. A practical approach in porous medium combustion for domestic application: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, A. K.; Ibrahim, N. H.; Shamsuddin, K. A.; Abdullah, M. Z.; Zubair, M.

    2018-05-01

    Combustion in porous media has been widely studied. Many application involving the combustion of porous media has been reported in various way with most consider on numerical works and industrial application. Besides, recent application of porous medium combustion for domestic is the topic of interest among researchers. In this paper, a review was conducted on the combustion of porous media in term of practical application for domestic consumers. Details on the type of fuel used including bio fuel and their system have been search thoroughly. Most of the system have utilized compressed air system to provide lean combustion in domestic application. Some self-aspirating system of porous medium burner was also reported. The application of new technology such as cogeneration by using thermoelectric cells in tandem with porous medium combustion is also revised according to recent work which have already been published. Besides, the recent advances which include coating of porous material is also considered at the end of this paper.

  6. Preparing to review the license application of the French geological disposal facility - Issues, challenges and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dandrieux, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the French context for GDR authorization, the French dedicated legislative framework (28 June 2006 Act on sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste), the challenges (regulatory issues, long-term project supervision, technical issues, procedural issues), and the preparing for the review of the DGR license application. A planning schedule is propose with Andra to submit license application for DGR in 2015

  7. The Applications of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography in Endodontics: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiarudi, Amir Hosein; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Safi, Yaser; Aghdasi, Mohammad Mehdi; Fazlyab, Mahta

    2015-01-01

    By producing undistorted three-dimensional images of the area under examination, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) systems have met many of the limitations of conventional radiography. These systems produce images with small field of view at low radiation doses with adequate spatial resolution that are suitable for many applications in endodontics from diagnosis to treatment and follow-up. This review article comprehensively assembles all the data from literature regarding the potential applications of CBCT in endodontics. PMID:25598804

  8. Analytical Review of Data Visualization Methods in Application to Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gorodov, Evgeniy Yur’evich; Gubarev, Vasiliy Vasil’evich

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the term Big Data in aspects of data representation and visualization. There are some specific problems in Big Data visualization, so there are definitions for these problems and a set of approaches to avoid them. Also, we make a review of existing methods for data visualization in application to Big Data and taking into account the described problems. Summarizing the result, we have provided a classification of visualization methods in application to Big Data.

  9. Drug Delivery and Cosmeceutical Applications of Poly- Lactic Acid Based Novel Constructs - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Federico; Mancera-Andrade, Elena Ivonne; Parra-Saldivar, Roberto; Keshavarz, Tajalli; Iqbal, Hafiz M N

    2017-01-01

    Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) based novel constructs have been engineered for targeted applications in various biomedical sectors of the modern world. In this context, a special focus has been given to pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries. In this review, we extensively reviewed, analyzed and compiled salient information from the authentic bibliographic sources including PubMed, Scopus, Elsevier, Springer, Bentham Science and other scientific databases. A focused review question and inclusion/exclusion criterion were adopted to appraise the quality of retrieved peer-reviewed research literature. Recently, bio-based constructs are being engineered for target applications in different bio- and non-bio sectors of the modern world to address the growing human health-related serious concerns. The utilization of properly designed and structured materials thus allows the creation of a well-defined environment that induces a series of directed measures, and so on. Over the last few years, PLA-based novel constructs have received exceptional attention as potential candidates for various biotechnological and biomedical applications at large and drug delivery in particular. Owing to their unique characteristics including biocompatibility, together with the adjustable thermomechanical and tunable control drug release, PLA has raised interesting applications in many sectors of the medical world. So far, many of such PLA-based bio-constructs have been exploited in drug delivery systems, cosmeceutical products, and therapeutic uses. In recent years, many new applications have been reported for PLA-based materials at the micro- and nano- level, resulting in novel requests for specific drug delivery and cosmeceutical sectors. In summary, this review summarizes recent research on different aspects of PLA and PLA-based novel constructs and their potential biomedical applications. Moreover, with the aid of nanotechnology, PLA has made a positive impact in emerging sectors such as

  10. Validity and reliability of an application review process using dedicated reviewers in one stage of a multi-stage admissions model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeman, Jacqueline M; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Cox, Wendy C

    2017-11-01

    With increased emphasis placed on non-academic skills in the workplace, a need exists to identify an admissions process that evaluates these skills. This study assessed the validity and reliability of an application review process involving three dedicated application reviewers in a multi-stage admissions model. A multi-stage admissions model was utilized during the 2014-2015 admissions cycle. After advancing through the academic review, each application was independently reviewed by two dedicated application reviewers utilizing a six-construct rubric (written communication, extracurricular and community service activities, leadership experience, pharmacy career appreciation, research experience, and resiliency). Rubric scores were extrapolated to a three-tier ranking to select candidates for on-site interviews. Kappa statistics were used to assess interrater reliability. A three-facet Many-Facet Rasch Model (MFRM) determined reviewer severity, candidate suitability, and rubric construct difficulty. The kappa statistic for candidates' tier rank score (n = 388 candidates) was 0.692 with a perfect agreement frequency of 84.3%. There was substantial interrater reliability between reviewers for the tier ranking (kappa: 0.654-0.710). Highest construct agreement occurred in written communication (kappa: 0.924-0.984). A three-facet MFRM analysis explained 36.9% of variance in the ratings, with 0.06% reflecting application reviewer scoring patterns (i.e., severity or leniency), 22.8% reflecting candidate suitability, and 14.1% reflecting construct difficulty. Utilization of dedicated application reviewers and a defined tiered rubric provided a valid and reliable method to effectively evaluate candidates during the application review process. These analyses provide insight into opportunities for improving the application review process among schools and colleges of pharmacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Standard Review Plan for the review of a license application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) (NUREG-1200) provides guidance to staff reviewers in the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards who perform safety reviews of applications to construct and operate low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The SRP ensures the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews and presents a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of the staff reviews. The SRP makes information about the regulatory licensing process widely available and serves to improve the understanding of the staff`s review process by interested members of the public and the industry. Each individual SRP addresses the responsibilities of persons performing the review, the matters that are reviewed, the Commission`s regulations and acceptance criteria necessary for the review, how the review is accomplished, the conclusions that are appropriate, and the implementation requirements.

  12. Standard Review Plan for the review of a license application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility: Safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) (NUREG-1200) provides guidance to staff reviewers in the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards who perform safety reviews of applications to construct and operate low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The SRP ensures the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews and presents a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of the staff reviews. The SRP makes information about the regulatory licensing process widely available and serves to improve the understanding of the staff's review process by interested members of the public and the industry. Each individual SRP addresses the responsibilities of persons performing the review, the matters that are reviewed, the Commission's regulations and acceptance criteria necessary for the review, how the review is accomplished, the conclusions that are appropriate, and the implementation requirements

  13. Standard review plan for the review of a license application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility: Safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) (NUREG-1200) provides guidance to staff reviewers in the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards who perform safety reviews of applications to construct and operate low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The SRP ensures the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews and presents a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of the staff reviews. The SRP makes information about the regulatory licensing process widely available and serves to improve the understanding of the staff's review process by interested members of the public and the nuclear power industry. Each individual SRP addresses the responsibilities of persons performing the review, the matters that are reviewed, the Commission's regulations and acceptance criteria necessary for the review, how the review is accomplished, the conclusions that are appropriate, and the implementation requirements

  14. 78 FR 40142 - Office of Managing Director Creates Docket for Petitions Seeking Review of Application Fee Refund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ..., Federal Communications Commission, Financial Management Specialist, Office of the Managing Director, 445... Financial Officer, acting on delegated authority, denied requests for refund of application fees previously... refunds previously made in error. Petitions for Reconsideration and Applications for Review that have...

  15. Application of Higuchi's fractal dimension from basic to clinical neurophysiology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesić, Srdjan; Spasić, Sladjana Z

    2016-09-01

    For more than 20 years, Higuchi's fractal dimension (HFD), as a nonlinear method, has occupied an important place in the analysis of biological signals. The use of HFD has evolved from EEG and single neuron activity analysis to the most recent application in automated assessments of different clinical conditions. Our objective is to provide an updated review of the HFD method applied in basic and clinical neurophysiological research. This article summarizes and critically reviews a broad literature and major findings concerning the applications of HFD for measuring the complexity of neuronal activity during different neurophysiological conditions. The source of information used in this review comes from the PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and IEEE Xplore Digital Library databases. The review process substantiated the significance, advantages and shortcomings of HFD application within all key areas of basic and clinical neurophysiology. Therefore, the paper discusses HFD application alone, combined with other linear or nonlinear measures, or as a part of automated methods for analyzing neurophysiological signals. The speed, accuracy and cost of applying the HFD method for research and medical diagnosis make it stand out from the widely used linear methods. However, only a combination of HFD with other nonlinear methods ensures reliable and accurate analysis of a wide range of neurophysiological signals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 77 FR 21592 - Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Licensing Applications for the Production of Radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... Licensing of Non-Power Reactors: Format and Content,'' for the production of radioisotopes and NUREG-1537, Part 2, ``Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Applications for the Licensing of Non-Power Reactors... by searching on http://www.regulations.gov under Docket ID NRC-2011-0135. You may submit comments by...

  17. Virtual reality for mobility devices: training applications and clinical research: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erren-Wolters, Cathelijne V.; van Dijk, Henk; de Kort, Alexander C.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Jannink, M.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Virtual reality technology is an emerging technology that possibly can address the problems encountered in training (elderly) people to handle a mobility device. The objective of this review was to study different virtual reality training applications as well as their clinical implication for

  18. 44 CFR 63.16 - Review of State application by the Federal Insurance Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for eligibility and indicate in what respects the State program and/or data base fails to comply with... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of State application... FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION...

  19. 75 FR 80539 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Application for Approval of a Representative's Fee in Black Lung... in Black Lung Claim Proceedings Conducted by the U.S. Department of Labor,'' to the Office of... Division of Coal Mine Workers' Compensation (DCMWC) for benefits under the Black Lung Benefits Act may...

  20. [Review of traditional Chinese medicine external applications to treat chemistry phlebitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Sha; Liu, Weiqun; Cheng, Lushan; Ge, Jinjin

    2011-09-01

    This article reviewed the literatures in this area over the past 5 years according to three parts: simple traditional Chinese medicine external application, combination of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine, combination of traditional Chinese medicine and physical therapy, and came to several effective prescriptions.

  1. 76 FR 13553 - Application, Review, and Reporting Process for Waivers for State Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... State Innovation AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS; Department of the Treasury... review of initial applications for a Waiver for State Innovation described in section 1332 of the Patient... State Innovation, Room 3050, Department of the Treasury, 1500 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC...

  2. Apps4CPR: A review study of mobile applications for cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Kalz, M. (2013, 23 September). Apps4CPR: A review study of mobile applications for cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and support. Presentation given during the 6th World Congress on Social Media, Mobile Apps and Internet/Web 2.0 in Medicine, Health, and Biomedical Research, London, UK.

  3. 76 FR 63668 - Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Licensing Applications for the Production of Radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ..., Research and Test Reactors Projects Branch, Division of Policy and Rulemaking, Office of Nuclear Reactor... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0135] Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Licensing Applications for the Production of Radioisotopes AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft interim...

  4. Review of thin film solar cell technology and applications for ultra-light spacecraft solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Developments in thin-film amorphous and polycrystalline photovoltaic cells are reviewed and discussed with a view to potential applications in space. Two important figures of merit are discussed: efficiency (i.e., what fraction of the incident solar energy is converted to electricity), and specific power (power to weight ratio).

  5. A Systematic Review of Agent-Based Modelling and Simulation Applications in the Higher Education Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X.; Blackmore, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of agent-based modelling and simulation (ABMS) applications in the higher education (HE) domain. Agent-based modelling is a "bottom-up" modelling paradigm in which system-level behaviour (macro) is modelled through the behaviour of individual local-level agent interactions (micro).…

  6. Ethical Decision Making in Academic Dishonesty with Application of Modified Theory of Planned Behavior: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chan Ling; Othman, Jamilah; D'Silva, Jeffrey Lawrence; Omar, Zoharah

    2014-01-01

    This conceptual paper studies the application of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TBP) in academic dishonesty with the mediating variable of ethical ideologies. The study reviews literature on the Theory of Planned Behavior and past studies pertaining to academic dishonesty. The paper analyses the relationship of the variables of TPB on academic…

  7. Applications of magnetohydrodynamics in biological systems-a review on the numerical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Saman; Esfahani, Javad Abolfazli; Maskaniyan, Mahla

    2017-10-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluid flow in different geometries relevant to human body parts is an interesting and important scientific area due to its applications in medical sciences. This article performs a comprehensive review on the applications of MHD and their numerical modelling in biological systems. Applications of MHD in medical sciences are classified into four categories in this paper. Applications of MHD in simple flow, peristaltic flow, pulsatile flow, and drag delivery are these categories. The numerical researches performed for these categories are reviewed and summarized separately. Finally, some conclusions and suggestions for future works based on the literature review are presented. The results indicated that during a surgery when it is necessary to drop blood flow or reduce tissue temperature, it may be achieved by using a magnetic field. Moreover, the review showed that the trapping is an important phenomenon in peristaltic flows that causes the formation of thrombus in blood and the movement of food bolus in gastrointestinal tract. This phenomenon may be disappeared by using a proper magnetic field. Finally, the concentration of particles that are delivered to the target region increases with an increase in the magnetic field intensity.

  8. Application of Resource Description Framework to Personalise Learning: Systematic Review and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevsikova, Tatjana; Berniukevicius, Andrius; Kurilovas, Eugenijus

    2017-01-01

    The paper is aimed to present a methodology of learning personalisation based on applying Resource Description Framework (RDF) standard model. Research results are two-fold: first, the results of systematic literature review on Linked Data, RDF "subject-predicate-object" triples, and Web Ontology Language (OWL) application in education…

  9. The State of the Otolaryngology Match: A Review of Applicant Trends, "Impossible" Qualifications, and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Sarah N; Schmalbach, Cecelia E; Laury, Adrienne M

    2017-06-01

    Objective This State of the Art Review aims (1) to define recent qualifications of otolaryngology resident applicants by focusing on United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores, Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) status, and research/publications and (2) to summarize the current literature regarding the relationship between these measures and performance in residency. Data Sources Electronic Residency Application Service, National Residency Matching Program, PubMed, Ovid, and GoogleScholar. Review Methods Electronic Residency Application Service and National Residency Matching Program data were analyzed to evaluate trends in applicant numbers and qualifications. Additionally, a literature search was performed with the aforementioned databases to identify relevant articles published in the past 5 years that examined USMLE Step 1 scores, AOA status, and research/publications. Conclusions Compared with other highly competitive fields over the past 3 years, the only specialty with decreasing applicant numbers is otolaryngology, with the rest remaining relatively stable or slightly increased. Additionally, USMLE Step 1 scores, AOA status, and research/publications do not reliably correlate with performance in residency. Implications for Practice The consistent decline in applications for otolaryngology residency is concerning and reflects a need for change in the current stereotype of the "ideal" otolaryngology applicant. This includes consideration of additional selection measures focusing on noncognitive and holistic qualities. Furthermore, otolaryngology faculty should counsel medical students that applying in otolaryngology is not "impossible" but rather a feasible and worthwhile endeavor.

  10. Review of thermal energy storage technologies based on PCM application in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Zhang, Yinping

    2013-01-01

    Thermal energy storage systems (TES), using phase change material (PCM) in buildings, are widely investigated technologies and a fast developing research area. Therefore, there is a need for regular and consistent reviews of the published studies. This review is focused on PCM technologies...... is paid to discussion and identification of proper methods to correctly determine the thermal properties of PCM materials and their composites and as well procedures to determine their energy storage and saving potential. The purpose of the paper is to highlight promising technologies for PCM application...... developed to serve the building industry. Various PCM technologies tailored for building applications are studied with respect to technological potential to improve indoor environment, increase thermal inertia and decrease energy use for building operation. What is more, in this review special attention...

  11. Application of neural network in market segmentation: A review on recent trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojit Chattopadhyay

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the significance of Artificial Neural Network (ANN algorithm to market segmentation, there is a need of a comprehensive literature review and a classification system for it towards identification of future trend of market segmentation research. The present work is the first identifiable academic literature review of the application of neural network based techniques to segmentation. Our study has provided an academic database of literature between the periods of 2000–2010 and proposed a classification scheme for the articles. One thousands (1000 articles have been identified, and around 100 relevant selected articles have been subsequently reviewed and classified based on the major focus of each paper. Findings of this study indicated that the research area of ANN based applications are receiving most research attention and self organizing map based applications are second in position to be used in segmentation. The commonly used models for market segmentation are data mining, intelligent system etc. Our analysis furnishes a roadmap to guide future research and aid knowledge accretion and establishment pertaining to the application of ANN based techniques in market segmentation. Thus the present work will significantly contribute to both the industry and academic research in business and marketing as a sustainable valuable knowledge source of market segmentation with the future trend of ANN application in segmentation.

  12. A review on nanomechanical resonators and their applications in sensors and molecular transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arash, Behrouz; Rabczuk, Timon; Jiang, Jin-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has opened a new area in science and engineering, leading to the development of novel nano-electromechanical systems such as nanoresonators with ultra-high resonant frequencies. The ultra-high-frequency resonators facilitate wide-ranging applications such as ultra-high sensitive sensing, molecular transportation, molecular separation, high-frequency signal processing, and biological imaging. This paper reviews recent studies on dynamic characteristics of nanoresonators. A variety of theoretical approaches, i.e., continuum modeling, molecular simulations, and multiscale methods, in modeling of nanoresonators are reviewed. The potential application of nanoresonators in design of sensor devices and molecular transportation systems is introduced. The essence of nanoresonator sensors for detection of atoms and molecules with vibration and wave propagation analyses is outlined. The sensitivity of the resonator sensors and their feasibility in detecting different atoms and molecules are particularly discussed. Furthermore, the applicability of molecular transportation using the propagation of mechanical waves in nanoresonators is presented. An extended application of the transportation methods for building nanofiltering systems with ultra-high selectivity is surveyed. The article aims to provide an up-to-date review on the mechanical properties and applications of nanoresonators, and inspire additional potential of the resonators

  13. A review on nanomechanical resonators and their applications in sensors and molecular transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arash, Behrouz; Rabczuk, Timon, E-mail: timon.rabczuk@uni-weimar.de [Institute of Structural Mechanics, Bauhaus Universität Weimar, Marienstr 15, D-99423 Weimar (Germany); Jiang, Jin-Wu [Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Mechanics in Energy Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Nanotechnology has opened a new area in science and engineering, leading to the development of novel nano-electromechanical systems such as nanoresonators with ultra-high resonant frequencies. The ultra-high-frequency resonators facilitate wide-ranging applications such as ultra-high sensitive sensing, molecular transportation, molecular separation, high-frequency signal processing, and biological imaging. This paper reviews recent studies on dynamic characteristics of nanoresonators. A variety of theoretical approaches, i.e., continuum modeling, molecular simulations, and multiscale methods, in modeling of nanoresonators are reviewed. The potential application of nanoresonators in design of sensor devices and molecular transportation systems is introduced. The essence of nanoresonator sensors for detection of atoms and molecules with vibration and wave propagation analyses is outlined. The sensitivity of the resonator sensors and their feasibility in detecting different atoms and molecules are particularly discussed. Furthermore, the applicability of molecular transportation using the propagation of mechanical waves in nanoresonators is presented. An extended application of the transportation methods for building nanofiltering systems with ultra-high selectivity is surveyed. The article aims to provide an up-to-date review on the mechanical properties and applications of nanoresonators, and inspire additional potential of the resonators.

  14. The application of expert system : a review of research and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.F.; Wahidin, L.S.; Khalil, S.N.; Tamaldin, N.; Hu, J.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    The development of Artificial Intelligent (AI) technology system can be a wide scope; for an instant, there are rule-based expert system, frame-based expert system, fuzzy logic, neural network, genetic algorithm, etc. The remarkable achievement applications of AI has been reported in different

  15. Recent progress in the growth and applications of graphene as a smart material: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim eAissa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Innovative breakthroughs in fundamental research and industrial applications of graphene material have made its mass and low-cost production a necessary step toward its real world applications. This one-atom thick crystal of carbon, gathers a set of unique physico-chemical properties, ranging from its extreme mechanical behavior to its exceptional electrical and thermal conductivities, which are making graphene as a serious alternative to replace many conventional materials for various applications. In this review paper, we highlight the most important experimental results on the synthesis of graphene material, its emerging properties with reference to its smart applications. We discuss the possibility to successfully integrating graphene directly into device, enabling thereby the realization of a wide range of applications, including actuation, photovoltaic, thermoelectricity, shape memory, self-healing, electrorheology and space missions. The future outlook of graphene is also considered and discussed.

  16. Mobile clinical decision support systems and applications: a literature and commercial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pérez, Borja; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel; Sainz-de-Abajo, Beatriz; Robles, Montserrat; García-Gómez, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The latest advances in eHealth and mHealth have propitiated the rapidly creation and expansion of mobile applications for health care. One of these types of applications are the clinical decision support systems, which nowadays are being implemented in mobile apps to facilitate the access to health care professionals in their daily clinical decisions. The aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly, to make a review of the current systems available in the literature and in commercial stores. Secondly, to analyze a sample of applications in order to obtain some conclusions and recommendations. Two reviews have been done: a literature review on Scopus, IEEE Xplore, Web of Knowledge and PubMed and a commercial review on Google play and the App Store. Five applications from each review have been selected to develop an in-depth analysis and to obtain more information about the mobile clinical decision support systems. Ninety-two relevant papers and 192 commercial apps were found. Forty-four papers were focused only on mobile clinical decision support systems. One hundred seventy-one apps were available on Google play and 21 on the App Store. The apps are designed for general medicine and 37 different specialties, with some features common in all of them despite of the different medical fields objective. The number of mobile clinical decision support applications and their inclusion in clinical practices has risen in the last years. However, developers must be careful with their interface or the easiness of use, which can impoverish the experience of the users.

  17. Review of multi-layered magnetoelectric composite materials and devices applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhaoqiang; PourhosseiniAsl, MohammadJavad; Dong, Shuxiang

    2018-06-01

    Multiferroic materials with the coexistence of at least two ferroic orders, such as ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, or ferroelasticity, have recently attracted ever-increasing attention due to their potential for multifunctional device applications, including magnetic and current sensors, energy harvesters, magnetoelectric (ME) random access memory and logic devices, tunable microwave devices, and ME antenna. In this article, we provide a review of the recent and ongoing research efforts in the field of multi-layered ME composites. After a brief introduction to ME composites and ME coupling mechanisms, we review recent advances in multi-layered ME composites as well as their device applications based on the direct ME effect, magnetic sensors in particular. Finally, some remaining challenges and future perspective of ME composites and their engineering applications will be discussed.

  18. Applications of Augmented Reality in Informal Science Learning Sites: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Eric E.; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Irvin, Matthew J.; Hartstone-Rose, Adam

    2018-05-01

    The importance of increasing interest in the STEM disciplines has been noted in a number of recent national reports. While many previous studies have focused on such efforts inside of the formal classroom, comparatively few have looked closely at informal learning environments. We investigate the innovative use of technology in informal learning by reviewing research on the incorporation of augmented reality (AR) at exhibit-based informal science education (ISE) settings in the literature. We report on the common STEM-focused topics that are covered by current AR applications for ISE learning, as well as the different devices used to support these applications. Additionally, we report on the prevalence of positive learning outcomes and engagement factors commonly associated with the use AR applications in informal environments. This review aims to foster continued development and implementation of AR technology in exhibit-based ISE settings by informing the community of recent findings and promoting additional rigorous research for the future.

  19. Calcium polysulphide, its applications and emerging risk of environmental pollution-a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlawi, Saad Mohammed; Siddiqui, Samreen

    2017-01-01

    Easy availability, preparation technique, and economic value make calcium polysulphide (CaS x ) a very useful inorganic chemical for various field and industrial applications. In this article, disparate applications of CaS x solution have been reviewed to suggest potential and future consolidation. This article also encompasses the physiochemical properties and production of CaS x solution, with critical appraisal on research focusing on CaS x application in agriculture industries and removal of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) from the environment. The kinetics of CaS x , technical issues associated with optimization of its dosage and environmental fate is also discussed in detail. This study covers almost all of the peer-reviewed research that has been performed since 1914. Some of the critiques in this article include the lack of integration between the exposure effect and the efficiency of treatment method, effects of oxidizing environments on the long-term performance of CaS x solution, and kinetics of CaS x solution with the PTEs. The working model of CaS x with PTEs is still system dependent, and therefore cannot be used with other applications. The kinetics of CaS x is described in detail with various phase stoichiometric reactions. Environmental fate is discussed based on applications, government reports, peer-reviewed articles and kinetics of CaS x , which provides a clear picture of emerging contaminants in the environment in relation to the insect resistance and ecotoxicology. Real time, lab based research articles are needed to identify toxicity limits of CaS x in environment in order to describe its effective permissible limit in environmental system. This review article provides a risk assessment of environmental pollution by CaS x based on its physicochemical characteristic, stoichiometry, kinetics, field, and industrial applications.

  20. Environmental Standard Review Plan for the review of a license application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility: Environmental report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The Environmental Standard Review Plan (ESRP) (NUREG-1300) provides guidance to staff reviewers in the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards who perform environmental reviews of environmental reports prepared by applicants in support of license applications to construct and operate new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The individual ESRPs that constitute this document identify the information considered necessary to conduct the review, the purpose and scope of the review, the analysis procedure and evaluation, the formal input to the environmental statement, and the references considered appropriate for each review. The ESRP is intended to ensure quality and uniformity of approach in individual reviews as well as compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. In addition, the ESRP will make information about the environmental component of the licensing process more readily available and thereby will serve to improve the understanding of this process among the public, States and regional compacts, and the regulated community

  1. Application and development of peer review in China's nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ping

    2014-01-01

    Peer review is one of the scientific methods and tools in management, which plays an active role in promoting and improving the performance of safe operation and management level of nuclear power plants. Peer review of nuclear power is not only comprehensively popularized and applied in China, but it is also innovated and developed in industry at all levels in recent years. In this paper, with the CNNC's relevant practice as main line, a variety of accepted peer review methods both at home and abroad were compared and analyzed, and the current application and development of peer review in China's nuclear power industry were described, as well as some suggestions for improvement were put forward to share with our craft brothers. (author)

  2. A Review of Data Mining with Big Data towards Its Applications in the Electronics Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengping Lv

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Data mining (DM with Big Data has been widely used in the lifecycle of electronic products that range from the design and production stages to the service stage. A comprehensive analysis of DM with Big Data and a review of its application in the stages of its lifecycle will not only benefit researchers to develop strong research themes and identify gaps in the field but also help practitioners for DM application system development. In this paper, a brief clarification of DM-related topics is presented first. A flowchart of DM and the main content of the flowchart steps are given in which commonly used data preparation and preprocessing approaches, DM functions and techniques, and performances indicators are summarized. Then, a comprehensive review covering 105 articles from 2007 to 2017 on DM or Big Data applications in the electronics industry is provided according to the flowchart from various points of view such as data handling, applications of DM, or Big Data at different lifecycle stages, and the software used in the applications. On this basis, a diagram of data content for different knowledge areas and a framework for DM and Big Data applications in the electronics industry are established. Finally, conclusions and future research directions are given.

  3. 12 CFR 19.135 - Applications for stay or review of disciplinary actions imposed by registered clearing agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Involving the Federal Securities Laws § 19.135 Applications for stay or review of disciplinary actions... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications for stay or review of disciplinary actions imposed by registered clearing agencies. 19.135 Section 19.135 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF...

  4. Application of gold nanoparticles for gastrointestinal cancer theranostics: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mohan; Harris-Birtill, David C C; Markar, Sheraz R; Hanna, George B; Elson, Daniel S

    2015-11-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are readily synthesised structures that absorb light strongly to generate thermal energy which induces photothermal destruction of malignant tissue. This review examines the efficacy, potential challenges and toxicity from in vitro and in vivo applications of GNPs in oesophageal, gastric and colon cancers. A systematic literature search of Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane databases was performed using PRISMA guidelines. Two hundred and eighty-four papers were reviewed with sixteen studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The application of GNPs in eleven in vivo rodent studies with GI adenocarcinoma demonstrated excellent therapeutic outcomes but poor corroboration in terms of the cancer cells used, photothermal irradiation regimes, fluorophores and types of nanoparticles. There is compelling evidence of the translational potential of GNPs to be complimentary to surgery and feasible in the photothermal therapy of GI cancer but reproducibility and standardisation require development prior to GI cancer clinical trials. Gold nanoparticles are one of the most potentially useful nanoparticles. This is especially true in cancer therapeutics because of their photothermal properties. In this comprehensive article, the authors reviewed the application and efficacy of gold nanoparticles in both the diagnosis and treatment of GI cancers. This review should provide a stimulus for researchers to further develop and translate these nanoparticles into future clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. BOOK REVIEW: Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd

    2011-09-01

    Ten years ago, a book with a title like this would be interesting only to a narrow circle of specialists. Thanks to rapid advances in technology, the price of thermal imaging devices has dropped sharply, so they have, almost overnight, become accessible to a wide range of users. As the authors point out in the preface, the growth of this area has led to a paradoxical situation: now there are probably more infrared (IR) cameras sold worldwide than there are people who understand the basic physics behind them and know how to correctly interpret the colourful images that are obtained with these devices. My experience confirms this. When I started using the IR camera during lectures on the didactics of physics, I soon realized that I needed more knowledge, which I later found in this book. A wide range of potential readers and topical areas provides a good motive for writing a book such as this one, but it also represents a major challenge for authors, as compromises in the style of writing and choice of topics are required. The authors of this book have successfully achieved this, and indeed done an excellent job. This book addresses a wide range of readers, from engineers, technicians, and physics and science teachers in schools and universities, to researchers and specialists who are professionally active in the field. As technology in this area has made great progress in recent times, this book is also a valuable guide for those who opt to purchase an infrared camera. Chapters in this book could be divided into three areas: the fundamentals of IR thermal imaging and related physics (two chapters); IR imaging systems and methods (two chapters) and applications, including six chapters on pedagogical applications; IR imaging of buildings and infrastructure, industrial applications, microsystems, selected topics in research and industry, and selected applications from other fields. All chapters contain numerous colour pictures and diagrams, and a rich list of relevant

  6. Review of data mining applications for quality assessment in manufacturing industry: support vector machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostami Hamidey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In many modern manufacturing industries, data that characterize the manufacturing process are electronically collected and stored in databases. Due to advances in data collection systems and analysis tools, data mining (DM has widely been applied for quality assessment (QA in manufacturing industries. In DM, the choice of technique to be used in analyzing a dataset and assessing the quality depend on the understanding of the analyst. On the other hand, with the advent of improved and efficient prediction techniques, there is a need for an analyst to know which tool performs better for a particular type of dataset. Although a few review papers have recently been published to discuss DM applications in manufacturing for QA, this paper provides an extensive review to investigate the application of a special DM technique, namely support vector machine (SVM to deal with QA problems. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the literature from various points of view as DM concepts, data preprocessing, DM applications for each quality task, SVM preliminaries, and application results. Summary tables and figures are also provided besides to the analyses. Finally, conclusions and future research directions are provided.

  7. A review of wearable sensors and systems with application in rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Shyamal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this review paper is to summarize recent developments in the field of wearable sensors and systems that are relevant to the field of rehabilitation. The growing body of work focused on the application of wearable technology to monitor older adults and subjects with chronic conditions in the home and community settings justifies the emphasis of this review paper on summarizing clinical applications of wearable technology currently undergoing assessment rather than describing the development of new wearable sensors and systems. A short description of key enabling technologies (i.e. sensor technology, communication technology, and data analysis techniques that have allowed researchers to implement wearable systems is followed by a detailed description of major areas of application of wearable technology. Applications described in this review paper include those that focus on health and wellness, safety, home rehabilitation, assessment of treatment efficacy, and early detection of disorders. The integration of wearable and ambient sensors is discussed in the context of achieving home monitoring of older adults and subjects with chronic conditions. Future work required to advance the field toward clinical deployment of wearable sensors and systems is discussed.

  8. A Critical Review of Personal Statements Submitted by Dermatology Residency Applicants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Olazagasti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A strong personal statement is deemed favorable in the overall application review process. However, research on the role of personal statements in the application process is lacking. Objective. To determine if personal statements from matched applicants differ from unmatched applicants. Methods. All dermatology residency applications (n=332 submitted to UC Davis Dermatology in the year of 2012 were evaluated. Two investigators identified the characteristics and recurring themes of content present in the personal statements. Then, both investigators individually evaluated the content of these personal statements in order to determine if any of the defined themes was present. Chi-square, Fisher’s exact, and reliability tests were used. Results. The following themes were emphasized more often by the matched applicants than the unmatched applicants as their reasons for going into dermatology are to study the cutaneous manifestations of systemic disease (33.8% versus 22.8%, to contribute to the literature gap (8.3% versus 1.1%, and to study the pathophysiology of skin diseases (8.3% versus 2.2%; P≤0.05 for all. Conclusion. The prevalence of certain themes in personal statements of dermatology applicants differs according to match status; nevertheless, whether certain themes impact match outcome needs to be further elucidated.

  9. Application of nonliner reduction techniques in chemical process modeling: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhaimin, Z; Aziz, N.; Abd Shukor, S.R.

    2006-01-01

    Model reduction techniques have been used widely in engineering fields for electrical, mechanical as well as chemical engineering. The basic idea of reduction technique is to replace the original system by an approximating system with much smaller state-space dimension. A reduced order model is more beneficial to process and industrial field in terms of control purposes. This paper is to provide a review on application of nonlinear reduction techniques in chemical processes. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique reviewed are also highlighted

  10. The Application of Biomedical Engineering Techniques to the Diagnosis and Management of Tropical Diseases: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Ibrahim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews a number of biomedical engineering approaches to help aid in the detection and treatment of tropical diseases such as dengue, malaria, cholera, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, ebola, leprosy, leishmaniasis, and American trypanosomiasis (Chagas. Many different forms of non-invasive approaches such as ultrasound, echocardiography and electrocardiography, bioelectrical impedance, optical detection, simplified and rapid serological tests such as lab-on-chip and micro-/nano-fluidic platforms and medical support systems such as artificial intelligence clinical support systems are discussed. The paper also reviewed the novel clinical diagnosis and management systems using artificial intelligence and bioelectrical impedance techniques for dengue clinical applications.

  11. A review on polymeric hydrogel membranes for wound dressing applications: PVA-based hydrogel dressings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbadawy A. Kamoun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This review presents the past and current efforts with a brief description on the featured properties of hydrogel membranes fabricated from biopolymers and synthetic ones for wound dressing applications. Many endeavors have been exerted during past ten years for developing new artificial polymeric membranes, which fulfill the demanded conditions for the treatment of skin wounds. This review mainly focuses on representing specifications of ideal polymeric wound dressing membranes, such as crosslinked hydrogels compatible with wound dressing purposes. But as the hydrogels with single component have low mechanical strength, recent trends have offered composite or hybrid hydrogel membranes to achieve the typical wound dressing requirements.

  12. On Finsler Geometry and Applications in Mechanics: Review and New Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Clayton

    2015-01-01

    direction as well as position, and a number of connections emerge associated with various covariant derivatives involving affine and nonlinear coefficients. Finsler geometry encompasses Riemannian, Euclidean, and Minkowskian geometries as special cases, and thus it affords great generality for describing a number of phenomena in physics. Here, descriptions of finite deformation of continuous media are of primary focus. After a review of necessary mathematical definitions and derivations, prior work involving application of Finsler geometry in continuum mechanics of solids is reviewed. A new theoretical description of continua with microstructure is then outlined, merging concepts from Finsler geometry and phase field theories of materials science.

  13. The application of biomedical engineering techniques to the diagnosis and management of tropical diseases: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Fatimah; Thio, Tzer Hwai Gilbert; Faisal, Tarig; Neuman, Michael

    2015-03-23

    This paper reviews a number of biomedical engineering approaches to help aid in the detection and treatment of tropical diseases such as dengue, malaria, cholera, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, ebola, leprosy, leishmaniasis, and American trypanosomiasis (Chagas). Many different forms of non-invasive approaches such as ultrasound, echocardiography and electrocardiography, bioelectrical impedance, optical detection, simplified and rapid serological tests such as lab-on-chip and micro-/nano-fluidic platforms and medical support systems such as artificial intelligence clinical support systems are discussed. The paper also reviewed the novel clinical diagnosis and management systems using artificial intelligence and bioelectrical impedance techniques for dengue clinical applications.

  14. Review of Network Topologies and Protection Principles in Marine and Offshore Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciontea, Catalin-Iosif; Bak, Claus Leth; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    An electric fault that is not cleared is harmful in land applications, but in marine and offshore sector it can have catastrophic consequences. If the protection system fails to operate properly, the following situation may occur: blackouts, fire, loss of propulsion, delays in transportation......, collision with the cliff, reef or other ships and electrical shocks to humans. In order to cope with the unwanted effects of a fault, several protection strategies are applied, but complexity of the marine and offshore applications is continuously increasing, so protection needs to overcome more and more...... challenges. As result, development of new protection techniques that can offer improved functionalities compared to the actual solutions for marine and offshore applications is needed. This paper reviews the network topologies in such applications and presents the requirements of a system able to protect...

  15. Preparation of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Industrial and Biomedical Applications: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Haider

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs have diverted the attention of the scientific community and industrialist itself due to their wide range of applications in industry for the preparation of consumer products and highly accepted application in biomedical fields (especially their efficacy against microbes, anti-inflammatory effects, and wound healing ability. The governing factor for their potent efficacy against microbes is considered to be the various mechanisms enabling it to prevent microbial proliferation and their infections. Furthermore a number of new techniques have been developed to synthesize Ag-NPs with controlled size and geometry. In this review, various synthetic routes adapted for the preparation of the Ag-NPs, the mechanisms involved in its antimicrobial activity, its importance/application in commercial as well as biomedical fields, and possible application in future have been discussed in detail.

  16. Application of multi-criteria decision making to sustainable energy planning - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohekar, S.D.; Ramachandram, M. [Birla Inst. of Technology and Science, Pilani (India)

    2004-08-01

    Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) techniques are gaining popularity in sustainable energy management. The techniques provide solutions to the problems involving conflicting and multiple objectives. Several methods based on weighted averages, priority setting, outranking, fuzzy principles and their combinations are employed for energy planning decisions. A review of more than 90 published papers is presented here to analyze the applicability of various methods discussed. A classification on application areas and the year of application is presented to highlight the trends. It is observed that Analytical Hierarchy Process is the most popular technique followed by outranking techniques PROMETHEE and ELECTRE. Validation of results with multiple methods, development of interactive decision support systems and application of fuzzy methods to tackle uncertainties in the data is observed in the published literature. (author)

  17. A Review of Deep Learning Methods and Applications for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Carrio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep learning is recently showing outstanding results for solving a wide variety of robotic tasks in the areas of perception, planning, localization, and control. Its excellent capabilities for learning representations from the complex data acquired in real environments make it extremely suitable for many kinds of autonomous robotic applications. In parallel, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs are currently being extensively applied for several types of civilian tasks in applications going from security, surveillance, and disaster rescue to parcel delivery or warehouse management. In this paper, a thorough review has been performed on recent reported uses and applications of deep learning for UAVs, including the most relevant developments as well as their performances and limitations. In addition, a detailed explanation of the main deep learning techniques is provided. We conclude with a description of the main challenges for the application of deep learning for UAV-based solutions.

  18. New materials graphyne, graphdiyne, graphone, and graphane: review of properties, synthesis, and application in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qing; Dearden, Albert K; Crean, Jared; Han, Liang; Liu, Sheng; Wen, Xiaodong; De, Suvranu

    2014-01-01

    Plenty of new two-dimensional materials including graphyne, graphdiyne, graphone, and graphane have been proposed and unveiled after the discovery of the “wonder material” graphene. Graphyne and graphdiyne are two-dimensional carbon allotropes of graphene with honeycomb structures. Graphone and graphane are hydrogenated derivatives of graphene. The advanced and unique properties of these new materials make them highly promising for applications in next generation nanoelectronics. Here, we briefly review their properties, including structural, mechanical, physical, and chemical properties, as well as their synthesis and applications in nanotechnology. Graphyne is better than graphene in directional electronic properties and charge carriers. With a band gap and magnetism, graphone and graphane show important applications in nanoelectronics and spintronics. Because these materials are close to graphene and will play important roles in carbon-based electronic devices, they deserve further, careful, and thorough studies for nanotechnology applications. PMID:24808721

  19. Review of the performance assessment in the WIPP draft compliance application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.W.L.

    1996-01-01

    On March 31, 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) filed a draft compliance certification application (DCCA) with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to show the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's compliance with the USEPA's environmental standards for disposal of high-level and transuranic waste. Demonstration of compliance is by a performance assessment. This paper is an early review of the performance assessment in the draft application, by the Environmental Evaluation Group, an oversight group. The performance assessment in the draft application is incomplete. Not all relevant scenarios have been analyzed. The calculation of potential consequences often does not use experimental data but rather estimates by workers developing additional data. The final compliance application, scheduled for October 1996, needs to consider additional scenarios, and be fully based on experimental data

  20. Short-Range Noncontact Sensors for Healthcare and Other Emerging Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changzhan Gu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Short-range noncontact sensors are capable of remotely detecting the precise movements of the subjects or wirelessly estimating the distance from the sensor to the subject. They find wide applications in our day lives such as noncontact vital sign detection of heart beat and respiration, sleep monitoring, occupancy sensing, and gesture sensing. In recent years, short-range noncontact sensors are attracting more and more efforts from both academia and industry due to their vast applications. Compared to other radar architectures such as pulse radar and frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW radar, Doppler radar is gaining more popularity in terms of system integration and low-power operation. This paper reviews the recent technical advances in Doppler radars for healthcare applications, including system hardware improvement, digital signal processing, and chip integration. This paper also discusses the hybrid FMCW-interferometry radars and the emerging applications and the future trends.

  1. Monitoring healthy and disturbed sleep through smartphone applications: a review of experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fino, Edita; Mazzetti, Michela

    2018-04-23

    Smartphone applications are considered as the prime candidate for the purposes of large-scale, low-cost and long-term sleep monitoring. How reliable and scientifically grounded is smartphone-based assessment of healthy and disturbed sleep remains a key issue in this direction. Here we offer a review of validation studies of sleep applications to the aim of providing some guidance in terms of their reliability to assess sleep in healthy and clinical populations, and stimulating further examination of their potential for clinical use and improved sleep hygiene. Electronic literature review was conducted on Pubmed. Eleven validation studies published since 2012 were identified, evaluating smartphone applications' performance compared to standard methods of sleep assessment in healthy and clinical samples. Studies with healthy populations show that most sleep applications meet or exceed accuracy levels of wrist-based actigraphy in sleep-wake cycle discrimination, whereas performance levels drop in individuals with low sleep efficiency (SE) and in clinical populations, mirroring actigraphy results. Poor correlation with polysomnography (PSG) sleep sub-stages is reported by most accelerometer-based apps. However, multiple parameter-based applications (i.e., EarlySense, SleepAp) showed good capability in detection of sleep-wake stages and sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD) like obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) respectively with values similar to PSG. While the reviewed evidence suggests a potential role of smartphone sleep applications in pre-screening of SRBD, more experimental studies are warranted to assess their reliability in sleep-wake detection particularly. Apps' utility in post treatment follow-up at home or as an adjunct to the sleep diary in clinical setting is also stressed.

  2. Persuasive Technology in Mobile Applications Promoting Physical Activity: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, John; Win, Khin Than; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Freeman, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Persuasive technology in mobile applications can be used to influence the behaviour of users. A framework known as the Persuasive Systems Design model has been developed for designing and evaluating systems that influence the attitudes or behaviours of users. This paper reviews the current state of mobile applications for health behavioural change with an emphasis on applications that promote physical activity. The inbuilt persuasive features of mobile applications were evaluated using the Persuasive Systems Design model. A database search was conducted to identify relevant articles. Articles were then reviewed using the Persuasive Systems Design model as a framework for analysis. Primary task support, dialogue support, and social support were found to be moderately represented in the selected articles. However, system credibility support was found to have only low levels of representation as a persuasive systems design feature in mobile applications for supporting physical activity. To ensure that available mobile technology resources are best used to improve the wellbeing of people, it is important that the design principles that influence the effectiveness of persuasive technology be understood.

  3. A review of digital microfluidics as portable platforms for lab-on a-chip applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiei, Ehsan; Tabrizian, Maryam; Hoorfar, Mina

    2016-07-07

    Following the development of microfluidic systems, there has been a high tendency towards developing lab-on-a-chip devices for biochemical applications. A great deal of effort has been devoted to improve and advance these devices with the goal of performing complete sets of biochemical assays on the device and possibly developing portable platforms for point of care applications. Among the different microfluidic systems used for such a purpose, digital microfluidics (DMF) shows high flexibility and capability of performing multiplex and parallel biochemical operations, and hence, has been considered as a suitable candidate for lab-on-a-chip applications. In this review, we discuss the most recent advances in the DMF platforms, and evaluate the feasibility of developing multifunctional packages for performing complete sets of processes of biochemical assays, particularly for point-of-care applications. The progress in the development of DMF systems is reviewed from eight different aspects, including device fabrication, basic fluidic operations, automation, manipulation of biological samples, advanced operations, detection, biological applications, and finally, packaging and portability of the DMF devices. Success in developing the lab-on-a-chip DMF devices will be concluded based on the advances achieved in each of these aspects.

  4. A Review of Alloy 800H for Applications in the Gen IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Weiju; Swindeman, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Alloy 800H is currently under consideration for applications in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant at operational temperatures above 750 C. To provide supporting information in this paper at the attempt to facilitate the consideration, service requirements of the nuclear system for structural materials is first described; and then an extensive review of Alloy 800H is given on its codification with respect to development and research history, mechanical behavior and design allowables, metallurgical aging resistance, environmental effect considerations, data requirements and availability, weldments, as well as many other aspects relevant to the intended nuclear application; an finally further research and development activities to support the materials qualification are suggested.

  5. Review on the progress in synthesis and application of magnetic carbon nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Maiyong; Diao, Guowang

    2011-07-01

    This review focuses on the synthesis and application of nanostructured composites containing magnetic nanostructures and carbon-based materials. Great progress in fabrication of magnetic carbon nanocomposites has been made by developing methods including filling process, template-based synthesis, chemical vapor deposition, hydrothermal/solvothermal method, pyrolysis procedure, sol-gel process, detonation induced reaction, self-assembly method, etc. The applications of magnetic carbon nanocomposites expanded to a wide range of fields such as environmental treatment, microwave absorption, magnetic recording media, electrochemical sensor, catalysis, separation/recognization of biomolecules and drug delivery are discussed. Finally, some future trends and perspectives in this research area are outlined.

  6. Fourier fringe analysis and its application to metrology of extreme physical phenomena: a review [Invited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    The paper reviews a technique for fringe analysis referred to as Fourier fringe analysis (FFA) or the Fourier transform method, with a particular focus on its application to metrology of extreme physical phenomena. Examples include the measurement of extremely small magnetic fields with subfluxon sensitivity by electron wave interferometry, subnanometer wavefront evaluation of projection optics for extreme UV lithography, the detection of sub-Ångstrom distortion of a crystal lattice, and the measurement of ultrashort optical pulses in the femotsecond to attosecond range, which show how the advantages of FFA are exploited in these cutting edge applications.

  7. A Review of Multimode Interference in Tapered Optical Fibers and Related Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengfei; Zhao, Haiyan; Wang, Xianfan; Brambilla, Gilberto

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, tapered optical fibers (TOFs) have attracted increasing interest and developed into a range of devices used in many practical applications ranging from optical communication, sensing to optical manipulation and high-Q resonators. Compared with conventional optical fibers, TOFs possess a range of unique features, such as large evanescent field, strong optical confinement, mechanical flexibility and compactness. In this review, we critically summarize the multimode interference in TOFs and some of its applications with a focus on our research project undertaken at the Optoelectronics Research Centre of the University of Southampton in the United Kingdom. PMID:29538333

  8. Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of 1-D Cerium Oxide Nanomaterials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuen-Song Lin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work provides a comprehensive overview of the recent progress of research work toward developing new one dimensional (1-D ceria (CeO2 nanomaterials. The review has been classified into three parts: the preparation procedures with identification of the existing different dimensional ceria nanomaterials, the formation mechanisms, and an analysis of their applications. From literature survey, it is inaugurated that the fundamental structures of the ceria nanomaterials constructively dominate their properties and applications. In addition, this work will also provide a perspective on the future technical trends for the development of different dimensional CeO2 nanomaterials.

  9. Preparation and highlighted applications of magnetic microparticles and nanoparticles: a review on recent advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Deli; Lu, Ting; Zeng, Rong; Bi, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    This review (with 144 refs.) focuses on the recent advances in the preparation and application of magnetic micro/nanoparticles. Specifically, it covers (a) methods for preparation (such as by coprecipitation, pyrolysis, hydrothermal, solvothermal, sol-gel, micro-emulsion, sonochemical, medium dispersing or emulsion polymerization methods), and (b) applications such as magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic separation of biomolecules (nucleic acids; proteins; cells), separation of metal ions and organic analytes, immobilization of enzymes, biological detection, magnetic catalysis and water treatment. Finally, the existing challenges and possible trends in the field are addressed. (author)

  10. A Review of Multimode Interference in Tapered Optical Fibers and Related Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, tapered optical fibers (TOFs have attracted increasing interest and developed into a range of devices used in many practical applications ranging from optical communication, sensing to optical manipulation and high-Q resonators. Compared with conventional optical fibers, TOFs possess a range of unique features, such as large evanescent field, strong optical confinement, mechanical flexibility and compactness. In this review, we critically summarize the multimode interference in TOFs and some of its applications with a focus on our research project undertaken at the Optoelectronics Research Centre of the University of Southampton in the United Kingdom.

  11. A Review of Multimode Interference in Tapered Optical Fibers and Related Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengfei; Zhao, Haiyan; Wang, Xianfan; Farrell, Gerald; Brambilla, Gilberto

    2018-03-14

    In recent years, tapered optical fibers (TOFs) have attracted increasing interest and developed into a range of devices used in many practical applications ranging from optical communication, sensing to optical manipulation and high-Q resonators. Compared with conventional optical fibers, TOFs possess a range of unique features, such as large evanescent field, strong optical confinement, mechanical flexibility and compactness. In this review, we critically summarize the multimode interference in TOFs and some of its applications with a focus on our research project undertaken at the Optoelectronics Research Centre of the University of Southampton in the United Kingdom.

  12. Guidelines for preparing and reviewing applications for the licensing of non-power reactors: Standard review plan and acceptance criteria. NUREG - 1537, Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    NUREG - 1537, Part 2 gives guidance on the conduct of licensing action reviews to NRC staff who review non-power reactor licensing applications. These licensing actions include construction permits and initial operating licenses, license renewals, amendments, conversions from highly enriched uranium to low-enriched uranium, decommissioning, and license termination

  13. Guidelines for preparing and reviewing applications for the licensing of non-power reactors: Standard review plan and acceptance criteria. NUREG - 1537, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    NUREG - 1537, Part 2 gives guidance on the conduct of licensing action reviews to NRC staff who review non-power reactor licensing applications. These licensing actions include construction permits and initial operating licenses, license renewals, amendments, conversions from highly enriched uranium to low-enriched uranium, decommissioning, and license termination.

  14. A review on application of finite element modelling in bone biomechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar Parashar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades the finite element modelling has been developed as an effective tool for modelling and simulation of the biomedical engineering system. Finite element modelling (FEM is a computational technique which can be used to solve the biomedical engineering problems based on the theories of continuum mechanics. This paper presents the state of art review on finite element modelling application in the four areas of bone biomechanics, i.e., analysis of stress and strain, determination of mechanical properties, fracture fixation design (implants, and fracture load prediction. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive detail about the development in the area of application of FEM in bone biomechanics during the last decades. It will help the researchers and the clinicians alike for the better treatment of patients and future development of new fixation designs.

  15. Analysis Tools for Sizing and Placement of Energy Storage for Grid Applications - A Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Michael G.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Sadovsky, Artyom; DeSteese, John G.

    2010-09-24

    The purpose of this report was to review pertinent literature and studies that might reveal models capable of optimizing the siting, sizing and economic value of energy storage in the future smart grid infrastructure. Energy storage technology and utility system deployment have been subjects of intense research and development for over three decades. During this time, many models have been developed that consider energy storage implementation in the electric power industry and other applications. Nevertheless, this review of literature discovered no actual models and only a few software tools that relate specifically to the application environment and expected requirements of the evolving smart grid infrastructure. This report indicates the existing need for such a model and describes a pathway for developing it.

  16. Energy shocks, crises and the policy process: A review of theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, Peter Z.

    2015-01-01

    What motivates changes in energy policy? Typically, the process begins with a notable exogenous event, a shock. Often, the shock leads to what is perceived to be a crisis. This review essay surveys theories of crisis policymaking from the social science literature and considers their application to changes in energy policy. Two cases — one from the U.S., the other from Germany — are examined in more detail from the standpoint of the theories discussed. Suggestions are made for improving energy policy analysis in the future. - Highlights: • An analysis of the idea of “crisis” and its application to energy. • A review of theories and models of the policy process and of policy change. • Theory applied to two energy cases. • Suggestion as to how the analysis of energy policymaking might be approached in the future

  17. A Review on Direct Power Control for Applications to Grid Connected PWM Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Trivedi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Direct Power Control strategy has become popular as an alternative to the conventional vector oriented control strategy for grid connected PWM converters. In this paper, Direct Power Control as applied to various applications of grid connected converters is reviewed. The Direct Power Control for PWM rectifiers, Grid Connected DC/AC inverters applications such as renewable energy sources interface, Active Power Filters, Doubly Fed Induction Generators and AC-DC-AC converters are discussed. Control strategies such as Look-Up table based control, predictive control, Virtual Flux DPC, Model based DPC and DPC-Space Vector Modulation are critically reviewed. The effects of various key parameters such as selection of switching vector, sampling time, hysteresis band and grid interfacing on performance of direct power controlled converters are presented.

  18. Crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol hydrogels for wound dressing applications: A review of remarkably blended polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbadawy A. Kamoun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of excellent poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA/polymers blend hydrogel were reviewed using different crosslinking types to obtain proper polymeric dressing materials, which have satisfied biocompatibility and sufficient mechanical properties. The importance of biodegradable–biocompatible synthetic polymers such as PVA, natural polymers such as alginate, starch, and chitosan or their derivatives has grown significantly over the last two decades due to their renewable and desirable biological properties. The properties of these polymers for pharmaceutical and biomedical application needs have attracted much attention. Thus, a considered proportion of the population need those polymeric medical applications for drug delivery, wound dressing, artificial cartilage materials, and other medical purposes, where the pressure on alternative polymeric devices in all countries became substantial. The review explores different polymers which have been blended previously in the literature with PVA as wound dressing blended with other polymeric materials, showing the feasibility, property change, and purpose which are behind the blending process with PVA.

  19. A review of stimuli-responsive polymers for smart textile applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jinlian; Meng, Harper; Li, Guoqiang; Ibekwe, Samuel I

    2012-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive polymers (SRPs) are smart materials which can show noticeable changes in their properties with environmental stimulus variations. Novel functionalities can be delivered to textiles by integrating smart SRPs into them. SRPs inclusive of thermal-responsive polymers, moisture-responsive polymers, thermal-responsive hydrogels, pH-responsive hydrogels, and light-responsive polymers have been applied in textiles to improve or achieve textile smart functionalities. The functionalities include aesthetic appeal, comfort, textile soft display, smart controlled drug release, fantasy design with color changing, wound monitoring, smart wetting properties and protection against extreme variations in environmental conditions. In this review, the applications of SRPs in the textile and clothing sector are elucidated; the associated constraints in fabrication processes for textiles and their potential applications in the near future are discussed. (topical review)

  20. Application of traditional Chinese medicine injection in treatment of primary liver cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mouduo; Qiao, Cuixia; Qin, Liping; Zhang, Junyong; Ling, Changquan

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the application of Traditional Chinese Medicine Injections (TCMIs) for treatment of primary liver cancer (PLC). A literature review was conducted using PubMed/Medline, Cochrane Library Controlled Clinical Trials Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Scientific Journal Database (CSJD) and China Biology Medicine (CBM). Online websites including journal websites and databases of ongoing trials, as well as some Traditional Chinese Medicine journals that are not indexed in the electronic databases were also searched. as adjunctive medication for the treatment of PLC could regulate patient immunity, reduce bone marrow suppression, relieve clinical symptoms, and improve quality of life, as well as control disease progression and prolong survival time. Within the limitations of this review, we conclude that application of TCMIs as adjunctive medication may provide benefits for patients with PLC. Further large, high-quality trials are warranted.

  1. A Review on the Fabrication of Hierarchical ZnO Nanostructures for Photocatalysis Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor photocatalysis provides potential solutions for many energy and environmental-related issues. Recently, various semiconductors with hierarchical nanostructures have been fabricated to achieve efficient photocatalysts owing to their multiple advantages, such as high surface area, porous structures, as well as enhanced light harvesting. ZnO has been widely investigated and considered as the most promising alternative photocatalyst to TiO2. Herein, we present a review on the fabrication methods, growth mechanisms and photocatalytic applications of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures. Various synthetic strategies and growth mechanisms, including multistep sequential growth routes, template-based synthesis, template-free self-organization and precursor or self-templating strategies, are highlighted. In addition, the fabrication of multicomponent ZnO-based nanocomposites with hierarchical structures is also included. Finally, the application of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures and nanocomposites in typical photocatalytic reactions, such as pollutant degradation and H2 evolution, is reviewed.

  2. Fabrication and Water Treatment Application of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs)-Based Composite Membranes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lining; Dong, Xinfa; Chen, Mingliang; Zhu, Li; Wang, Chaoxian; Yang, Fenglin; Dong, Yingchao

    2017-03-18

    Membrane separation technology is widely explored for various applications, such as water desalination and wastewater treatment, which can alleviate the global issue of fresh water scarcity. Specifically, carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-based composite membranes are increasingly of interest due to the combined merits of CNTs and membrane separation, offering enhanced membrane properties. This article first briefly discusses fabrication and growth mechanisms, characterization and functionalization techniques of CNTs, and then reviews the fabrication methods for CNTs-based composite membranes in detail. The applications of CNTs-based composite membranes in water treatment are comprehensively reviewed, including seawater or brine desalination, oil-water separation, removal of heavy metal ions and emerging pollutants as well as membrane separation coupled with assistant techniques. Furthermore, the future direction and perspective for CNTs-based composite membranes are also briefly outlined.

  3. Application of snowmelt runoff model (SRM in mountainous watersheds: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalamu Abudu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The snowmelt runoff model (SRM has been widely used in simulation and forecast of streamflow in snow-dominated mountainous basins around the world. This paper presents an overall review of worldwide applications of SRM in mountainous watersheds, particularly in data-sparse watersheds of northwestern China. Issues related to proper selection of input climate variables and parameters, and determination of the snow cover area (SCA using remote sensing data in snowmelt runoff modeling are discussed through extensive review of literature. Preliminary applications of SRM in northwestern China have shown that the model accuracies are relatively acceptable although most of the watersheds lack measured hydro-meteorological data. Future research could explore the feasibility of modeling snowmelt runoff in data-sparse mountainous watersheds in northwestern China by utilizing snow and glacier cover remote sensing data, geographic information system (GIS tools, field measurements, and innovative ways of model parameterization.

  4. Advances of electronic nose and its application in fresh foods: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hao; Zhang, Min; Adhikari, Benu

    2017-06-30

    The science and technology aspects of electronic nose (E-nose) has been developed rapidly in last decade (2006-2016). This paper reviews of the publications that that cover the developments in science and technological aspects of electronic nose together with its application in fresh foods. The first part of this review covers the sensing and pattern recognition system (PR) of E-nose. The second part covers the application of E-nose in classification, flavor detection, and evaluation of spoilage in fresh foods area. With more new sensor materials to be found and more combination between E-nose and other analysis technologies, the usages of E-nose in fresh foods will have wider prospects.

  5. Fabrication and Water Treatment Application of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs-Based Composite Membranes: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lining Ma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Membrane separation technology is widely explored for various applications, such as water desalination and wastewater treatment, which can alleviate the global issue of fresh water scarcity. Specifically, carbon nanotubes (CNTs-based composite membranes are increasingly of interest due to the combined merits of CNTs and membrane separation, offering enhanced membrane properties. This article first briefly discusses fabrication and growth mechanisms, characterization and functionalization techniques of CNTs, and then reviews the fabrication methods for CNTs-based composite membranes in detail. The applications of CNTs-based composite membranes in water treatment are comprehensively reviewed, including seawater or brine desalination, oil-water separation, removal of heavy metal ions and emerging pollutants as well as membrane separation coupled with assistant techniques. Furthermore, the future direction and perspective for CNTs-based composite membranes are also briefly outlined.

  6. The application of mindfulness to eating disorders treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanden-Berghe, Rocío Guardiola; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2011-01-01

    The present study is an exploratory examination of the efficacy of the application of mindfulness-based interventions to the treatment of eating disorders. It employs a systematic review technique in which terms from the Psychological Index Terms of the American Psychological Association (APA) were chosen and analyzed in conjunction with Boolean operators. Using data obtained by the online consultation of references from 12 different bibliographical databases, 8 studies were included in the systematic review. Each study reported satisfactory results, although trial qualities were variable and sample sizes were small. Nonetheless, the current study found initial evidence supporting the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions to the treatment of eating disorders. The application of mindfulness-based interventions to the treatment of eating disorders remains a promising approach worthy of further research.

  7. Prehospital Ultrasound in Trauma: A Review of Current and Potential Future Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharwat El Zahran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound (US is an essential tool for evaluating trauma patients in the hospital setting. Many previous in-hospital studies have been extrapolated to out of hospital setting to improve diagnostic accuracy in prehospital and austere environments. This review article presents the role of prehospital US in blunt and penetrating trauma management with emphasis on its current clinical applications, challenges, and future implications of such use.

  8. A quality review of smartphone applications for the management of pain

    OpenAIRE

    Portelli, Pamela; Eldred, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Smartphone applications (apps) are recent innovations that have not been studied extensively. The lack of regulatory body assessing the content of existing apps means that their quality is often unknown. This review aims to assess the quality of smartphone apps that claim to provide information and treatment for pain conditions. It assesses the degree to which apps adhere to evidence-based practices in psychological research for pain management and which stand the best chance of being effecti...

  9. Intracoronary Optical Coherence Tomography: A Comprehensive Review: Clinical and Research Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bezerra, Hiram G.; Costa, Marco A.; Guagliumi, Giulio; Rollins, Andrew M.; Simon, Daniel I.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a catheter-based invasive imaging system. Using light rather than ultrasound, OCT produces high-resolution in vivo images of coronary arteries and deployed stents. This comprehensive review will assist practicing interventional cardiologists in understanding the technical aspects of OCT based upon the physics of light and will also highlight the emerging research and clinical applications of OCT. Semi-automated imaging analyses of OCT syste...

  10. Review of advanced reactor transient analysis capabilities and applications for Savannah River Plant reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckner, M.R.; Hostetler, D.E.; Anderson, M.M.; Dodds, H.L.

    1977-01-01

    GRASS is a three-dimensional, coupled neutronic and engineering code for analysis of the radioisotope production reactors at the Savannah River Plant. The capabilities of GRASS are reviewed with emphasis on recent additions to model accident conditions involving the transport of molten fuel material and to accurately characterize neutronic and engineering feedback. The general application of GRASS to the Savannah River reactors is discussed, and results are presented for the analyses of severla reactor transient calculations

  11. Ohmic Heating Technology and Its Application in Meaty Food: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rishi Richa; N. C. Shahi; Anupama Singh; U. C. Lohani; P. K. Omre; Anil Kumar; T. K. Bhattacharya

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current review paper is to investigate and analyze about the effects of ohmic heating (OH) different application in the field of fish, meat and its product and compare it with other conventional thermal methods of food processing such as thawing, heating, cooking etc. Food quality, food safety, convenience, freshness, healthy food, natural flavor and taste with extended shelf-life are the main criteria for the demand made by today’s consumers. Ohmic heating is a substitute ...

  12. RFID Tag as a Sensor - A Review on the Innovative Designs and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Zhaozong; Li, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    The Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has gained interests in both academia and industry since its invention. In addition to the applications in access control and supply chain, RFID is also a cost-efficient solution for Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) and pervasive monitoring. The battery free RFID tags are used as independent electromagnetic sensors or energy harvesting and data transmission interface of sensor modules for different measurement purposes. This review paper aims ...

  13. A brief review on synthesis & applications of β-enamino carbonyl compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yellajyosula L N Murthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the wide range applications of β-enamino esters (enamines of β–dicarbonyl compounds in pharmaceuticals and as building blocks for the synthesis of a variety of heterocyclic compounds, β-amino esters, β-amino acids, γ-amino alcohols, peptides and alkaloids a number of methods have been developed so far for the synthesis of these compounds. Due to the importance of these compounds as intermediates in organic synthesis, a concised review is presented.

  14. Towards ICF implementation in menopause healthcare: a systematic review of ICF application in Switzerland.

    OpenAIRE

    Zangger, Martina; Poethig, Dagmar; Meissner, Florian; von Wolff, Michael; Stute, Petra

    2017-01-01

    AIMS OF THE STUDY To present a systematic literature review on the application and degree of implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) across different health conditions and regions in Switzerland in order to develop an ICF classification of the climacteric syndrome in the medium term. METHODS A systematic literature search was conducted through Embase and Medline covering the period between 2011 and August 2016. Inclusion crite...

  15. Theory of Belief Functions for Data Analysis and Machine Learning Applications: Review and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoeux, Thierry

    The Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions provides a unified framework for handling both aleatory uncertainty, arising from statistical variability in populations, and epistemic uncertainty, arising from incompleteness of knowledge. An overview of both the fundamentals and some recent developments in this theory will first be presented. Several applications in data analysis and machine learning will then be reviewed, including learning under partial supervision, multi-label classification, ensemble clustering and the treatment of pairwise comparisons in sensory or preference analysis.

  16. A REVIEW OF OIL PALM BIOCOMPOSITES FOR FURNITURE DESIGN AND APPLICATIONS: POTENTIAL AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Suhaily,; Mohammad Jawaid,; H. P. S. Abdul Khalil,; A. Rahman Mohamed; , F. Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    This review considers the potential and challenges of using agro-based oil palm biomasses, including the trunk, frond, empty fruit bunch, and palm press fiber biocomposites, for furniture applications. Currently, design and quality rather than price are becoming the primary concern for consumers when buying new furniture. Within this context, this paper focuses on the design of innovative, sustainable furniture from agro-based biocomposites to meet the needs of future population growth and te...

  17. Review of possible peaceful applications of nuclear explosions in the national economy of the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon, Paul A.

    1970-01-01

    The following review will give some of the current thinking of Soviet scientists and engineers on the possibilities of using nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes in the Soviet Union. This review is taken from a more detailed report that was presented under the same title by Soviet participants at an information-exchange meeting that was held in Vienna between the Soviet Union and the United States in April, 1969. Aside from a very brief review of one explosion in salt, the report does not give details on nuclear explosion effects (mechanical, seismic, radiation, or thermal). Rather, the report summarizes the results of design calculations and indicates the direction of Soviet planning for a variety of industrial applications. A complete translation of this report will be published by the Division of Technical Information and Education of AEC at Oakridge. (author)

  18. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part II. Image reconstruction, processing and analysis, and advanced applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Many important post-acquisition aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging can impact its clinical performance. Chief among them is the reconstruction algorithm that generates the representation of the three-dimensional breast volume from the acquired projections. But even after reconstruction, additional processes, such as artifact reduction algorithms, computer aided detection and diagnosis, among others, can also impact the performance of breast tomosynthesis in the clinical realm. In this two part paper, a review of breast tomosynthesis research is performed, with an emphasis on its medical physics aspects. In the companion paper, the first part of this review, the research performed relevant to the image acquisition process is examined. This second part will review the research on the post-acquisition aspects, including reconstruction, image processing, and analysis, as well as the advanced applications being investigated for breast tomosynthesis. PMID:23298127

  19. Review of possible peaceful applications of nuclear explosions in the national economy of the Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, Paul A [University of California, Berkeley (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The following review will give some of the current thinking of Soviet scientists and engineers on the possibilities of using nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes in the Soviet Union. This review is taken from a more detailed report that was presented under the same title by Soviet participants at an information-exchange meeting that was held in Vienna between the Soviet Union and the United States in April, 1969. Aside from a very brief review of one explosion in salt, the report does not give details on nuclear explosion effects (mechanical, seismic, radiation, or thermal). Rather, the report summarizes the results of design calculations and indicates the direction of Soviet planning for a variety of industrial applications. A complete translation of this report will be published by the Division of Technical Information and Education of AEC at Oakridge. (author)

  20. A Review of Flywheel Energy Storage System Technologies and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa E. Amiryar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage systems (ESS provide a means for improving the efficiency of electrical systems when there are imbalances between supply and demand. Additionally, they are a key element for improving the stability and quality of electrical networks. They add flexibility into the electrical system by mitigating the supply intermittency, recently made worse by an increased penetration of renewable generation. One energy storage technology now arousing great interest is the flywheel energy storage systems (FESS, since this technology can offer many advantages as an energy storage solution over the alternatives. Flywheels have attributes of a high cycle life, long operational life, high round-trip efficiency, high power density, low environmental impact, and can store megajoule (MJ levels of energy with no upper limit when configured in banks. This paper presents a critical review of FESS in regards to its main components and applications, an approach not captured in earlier reviews. Additionally, earlier reviews do not include the most recent literature in this fast-moving field. A description of the flywheel structure and its main components is provided, and different types of electric machines, power electronics converter topologies, and bearing systems for use in flywheel storage systems are discussed. The main applications of FESS are explained and commercially available flywheel prototypes for each application are described. The paper concludes with recommendations for future research.

  1. The Advanced Aluminum Nitride Synthesis Methods and Its Applications: Patent Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkin, Roman A; Elagin, Andrey A; Mayorova, Ekaterina S; Beketov, Askold R

    2016-01-01

    High purity nanosized aluminum nitride synthesis is a current issue for both industry and science. However, there is no up-to-date review considering the major issues and the technical solutions for different methods. This review aims to investigate the advanced methods of aluminum nitride synthesis and its development tendencies. Also the aluminum nitride application patents and prospects for development of the branch have been considered. The patent search on "aluminum nitride synthesis" has been carried out. The research activity has been analyzed. Special attention has been paid to the patenting geography and the leading researchers in aluminum nitride synthesis. Aluminum nitride synthesis methods have been divided into 6 main groups, the most studied approaches are carbothermal reduction (88 patents) and direct nitridation (107 patents). The current issues for each group have been analyzed; the main trends are purification of the final product and nanopowder synthesis. The leading researchers in aluminum nitride synthesis have represented 5 countries, namely: Japan, China, Russia, South Korea and USA. The main aluminum nitride application spheres are electronics (59,1 percent of applications) and new materials manufacturing (30,9 percent). The review deals with the state of the art data in nanosized aluminum nitride synthesis, the major issues and the technical solutions for different synthesis methods. It gives a full understanding of the development tendencies and of the current leaders in the sphere.

  2. Prognostics and Health Management in Nuclear Power Plants: A Review of Technologies and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coble, Jamie B.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.; Hines, Wes; Upadhyaya, Belle

    2012-07-17

    This report reviews the current state of the art of prognostics and health management (PHM) for nuclear power systems and related technology currently applied in field or under development in other technological application areas, as well as key research needs and technical gaps for increased use of PHM in nuclear power systems. The historical approach to monitoring and maintenance in nuclear power plants (NPPs), including the Maintenance Rule for active components and Aging Management Plans for passive components, are reviewed. An outline is given for the technical and economic challenges that make PHM attractive for both legacy plants through Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) and new plant designs. There is a general introduction to PHM systems for monitoring, fault detection and diagnostics, and prognostics in other, non-nuclear fields. The state of the art for health monitoring in nuclear power systems is reviewed. A discussion of related technologies that support the application of PHM systems in NPPs, including digital instrumentation and control systems, wired and wireless sensor technology, and PHM software architectures is provided. Appropriate codes and standards for PHM are discussed, along with a description of the ongoing work in developing additional necessary standards. Finally, an outline of key research needs and opportunities that must be addressed in order to support the application of PHM in legacy and new NPPs is presented.

  3. Change detection using landsat time series: A review of frequencies, preprocessing, algorithms, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhe

    2017-08-01

    The free and open access to all archived Landsat images in 2008 has completely changed the way of using Landsat data. Many novel change detection algorithms based on Landsat time series have been developed We present a comprehensive review of four important aspects of change detection studies based on Landsat time series, including frequencies, preprocessing, algorithms, and applications. We observed the trend that the more recent the study, the higher the frequency of Landsat time series used. We reviewed a series of image preprocessing steps, including atmospheric correction, cloud and cloud shadow detection, and composite/fusion/metrics techniques. We divided all change detection algorithms into six categories, including thresholding, differencing, segmentation, trajectory classification, statistical boundary, and regression. Within each category, six major characteristics of different algorithms, such as frequency, change index, univariate/multivariate, online/offline, abrupt/gradual change, and sub-pixel/pixel/spatial were analyzed. Moreover, some of the widely-used change detection algorithms were also discussed. Finally, we reviewed different change detection applications by dividing these applications into two categories, change target and change agent detection.

  4. A comprehensive review on graphene nanofluids: Recent research, development and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghinezhad, Emad; Mehrali, Mohammad; Saidur, R.; Mehrali, Mehdi; Tahan Latibari, Sara; Akhiani, Amir Reza; Metselaar, Hendrik Simon Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Recent advances in graphene nanofluids are reviewed. • Reviews heat transfer and critical heat flux of graphene nanofluid. • Identifies important results, inconsistence and contradictions of the topics. • Needs in future research in this subject are discussed. - Abstract: An overview of experimental results about the heat transfer capabilities of graphene nanofluids is reviewed. It shows that a number of publications are available on this issue and only few studies provide quantitative estimates on a complete set of experimental conditions so far. This research work includes experimental results about the capabilities of graphene nanofluids and summarizes the recent progress on preparation and evaluation methods, the ways to enhance the stability of graphene nanofluids and future applications in various fields of energy. Thermo-physical and optical properties of graphene nanofluids along with the heat transfer performance have also been reported in this review paper. Various challenges associated with the use of graphene nanofluids in actual applications has also been reported. It is expected that it could be a quick reference guide to have an overview of the different heat transfer phenomena in graphene nanofluids and the most essential parameters that influence the expected thermal performance of graphene nanofluids.

  5. “Smart” Materials Based on Cellulose: A Review of the Preparations, Properties, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaoyun; Hu, Shuwen

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biomass material in nature, and possesses some promising properties, such as mechanical robustness, hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Thus, cellulose has been widely applied in many fields. “Smart” materials based on cellulose have great advantages—especially their intelligent behaviors in reaction to environmental stimuli—and they can be applied to many circumstances, especially as biomaterials. This review aims to present the developments of “smart” materials based on cellulose in the last decade, including the preparations, properties, and applications of these materials. The preparations of “smart” materials based on cellulose by chemical modifications and physical incorporating/blending were reviewed. The responsiveness to pH, temperature, light, electricity, magnetic fields, and mechanical forces, etc. of these “smart” materials in their different forms such as copolymers, nanoparticles, gels, and membranes were also reviewed, and the applications as drug delivery systems, hydrogels, electronic active papers, sensors, shape memory materials and smart membranes, etc. were also described in this review. PMID:28809338

  6. A review on shape memory alloys with applications to morphing aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbarino, S; Saavedra Flores, E I; Ajaj, R M; Dayyani, I; Friswell, M I

    2014-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a unique class of metallic materials with the ability to recover their original shape at certain characteristic temperatures (shape memory effect), even under high applied loads and large inelastic deformations, or to undergo large strains without plastic deformation or failure (super-elasticity). In this review, we describe the main features of SMAs, their constitutive models and their properties. We also review the fatigue behavior of SMAs and some methods adopted to remove or reduce its undesirable effects. SMAs have been used in a wide variety of applications in different fields. In this review, we focus on the use of shape memory alloys in the context of morphing aircraft, with particular emphasis on variable twist and camber, and also on actuation bandwidth and reduction of power consumption. These applications prove particularly challenging because novel configurations are adopted to maximize integration and effectiveness of SMAs, which play the role of an actuator (using the shape memory effect), often combined with structural, load-carrying capabilities. Iterative and multi-disciplinary modeling is therefore necessary due to the fluid–structure interaction combined with the nonlinear behavior of SMAs. (topical review)

  7. “Smart” Materials Based on Cellulose: A Review of the Preparations, Properties, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuwen Hu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose is the most abundant biomass material in nature, and possesses some promising properties, such as mechanical robustness, hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Thus, cellulose has been widely applied in many fields. “Smart” materials based on cellulose have great advantages—especially their intelligent behaviors in reaction to environmental stimuli—and they can be applied to many circumstances, especially as biomaterials. This review aims to present the developments of “smart” materials based on cellulose in the last decade, including the preparations, properties, and applications of these materials. The preparations of “smart” materials based on cellulose by chemical modifications and physical incorporating/blending were reviewed. The responsiveness to pH, temperature, light, electricity, magnetic fields, and mechanical forces, etc. of these “smart” materials in their different forms such as copolymers, nanoparticles, gels, and membranes were also reviewed, and the applications as drug delivery systems, hydrogels, electronic active papers, sensors, shape memory materials and smart membranes, etc. were also described in this review.

  8. 77 FR 59925 - Public Buildings Service; Submission for OMB Review; Application/Permit for Use of Space in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Buildings Service; Submission for OMB Review; Application/ Permit for Use of Space in Public Buildings and... regarding GSA Form 3453, Application/Permit for Use of Space in Public Buildings and Grounds. A notice was... Information Collection 3090- 0044, GSA Form 3453, Application/Permit for Use of Space in Public Buildings and...

  9. Application of Electrokinetic Stabilisation (EKS) Method for Soft Soil: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, ATS; Azim, MAM; Syakeera, NN; Jefferson, IF; Rogers, CDF

    2017-08-01

    Soil properties such as low shear strength, excessive compression, collapsing behavior, high swell potential are some of the undesirable properties of soils in geotechnical engineering and those properties would cause severe distress to the structures. To solve these, an innovative stabilization of Electrokinetic (EKS) has been introduced. Electrokinetic is an applicable technique to transport charged particles and fluid in an electric potential. The EKS demonstrates changes in soil pH due to electrolysis reactions, water flow between the electrodes and migration of ions towards the cathode. This treatment has proven its efficiency in consolidating organic, peat and clayey silt as well as less expensive than other methods. Otherwise, this method also gives advantage by not disturbing site. The primary objective of this review is to discuss the application of electrokinetic and to investigate the current knowledge of electrokinetic in geotechnical application through a literature search and review, including consideration of certain aspects related to the soft soil application that may be relevant to the future study and at the same time addressing some key issues and their implications on soil behaviors.

  10. Metabolomics, peptidomics and proteomics applications of capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry in Foodomics: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibáñez, Clara; Simó, Carolina; García-Cañas, Virginia; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Castro-Puyana, María

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Foodomics allows studying food and nutrition through the application of advanced omics approaches. •CE-MS plays a crucial role as analytical platform to carry out omics studies. •CE-MS applications for food metabolomics, proteomics and peptidomics are presented. -- Abstract: In the current post-genomic era, Foodomics has been defined as a discipline that studies food and nutrition through the application of advanced omics approaches. Foodomics involves the use of genomics, transcriptomics, epigenetics, proteomics, peptidomics, and/or metabolomics to investigate food quality, safety, traceability and bioactivity. In this context, capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) has been applied mainly in food proteomics, peptidomics and metabolomics. The aim of this review work is to present an overview of the most recent developments and applications of CE-MS as analytical platform for Foodomics, covering the relevant works published from 2008 to 2012. The review provides also information about the integration of several omics approaches in the new Foodomics field

  11. Application of quantum dots as analytical tools in automated chemical analysis: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigerio, Christian; Ribeiro, David S.M.; Rodrigues, S. Sofia M.; Abreu, Vera L.R.G.; Barbosa, João A.C.; Prior, João A.V.; Marques, Karine L.; Santos, João L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Review on quantum dots application in automated chemical analysis. ► Automation by using flow-based techniques. ► Quantum dots in liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. ► Detection by fluorescence and chemiluminescence. ► Electrochemiluminescence and radical generation. - Abstract: Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) are one of the most relevant developments in the fast-growing world of nanotechnology. Initially proposed as luminescent biological labels, they are finding new important fields of application in analytical chemistry, where their photoluminescent properties have been exploited in environmental monitoring, pharmaceutical and clinical analysis and food quality control. Despite the enormous variety of applications that have been developed, the automation of QDs-based analytical methodologies by resorting to automation tools such as continuous flow analysis and related techniques, which would allow to take advantage of particular features of the nanocrystals such as the versatile surface chemistry and ligand binding ability, the aptitude to generate reactive species, the possibility of encapsulation in different materials while retaining native luminescence providing the means for the implementation of renewable chemosensors or even the utilisation of more drastic and even stability impairing reaction conditions, is hitherto very limited. In this review, we provide insights into the analytical potential of quantum dots focusing on prospects of their utilisation in automated flow-based and flow-related approaches and the future outlook of QDs applications in chemical analysis.

  12. Functionalization of carbon nanotubes and its application in nanomedicine: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Sadegh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the latest developments in applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs in medicine. A brief history of CNTs and a general introduction to the field are presented. Then, surface modification of CNTs that makes them ideal for use in medical applications is highlighted. Examples of common applications, including cell penetration, drug delivery, gene delivery and imaging, are given. At the same time, there are concerns about their possible adverse effects on human health, since there is evidence that exposure to CNTs induces toxic effects in experimental models. However, CNTs are not a single substance but a growing family of different materials possibly eliciting different biological responses. As a consequence, the hazards associated with the exposure of humans to the different forms of CNTs may be different. Understanding the structure–toxicity relationships would help towards the assessment of the risk related to these materials. Finally, toxicity of CNTs, are discussed. This review article overviews the most recent applications of CNTs in Nanomedicine, covering the period from 1991 to early 2015.

  13. A Review on Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layth Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers are getting attention from researchers and academician to utilize in polymer composites due to their ecofriendly nature and sustainability. The aim of this review article is to provide a comprehensive review of the foremost appropriate as well as widely used natural fiber reinforced polymer composites (NFPCs and their applications. In addition, it presents summary of various surface treatments applied to natural fibers and their effect on NFPCs properties. The properties of NFPCs vary with fiber type and fiber source as well as fiber structure. The effects of various chemical treatments on the mechanical and thermal properties of natural fibers reinforcements thermosetting and thermoplastics composites were studied. A number of drawbacks of NFPCs like higher water absorption, inferior fire resistance, and lower mechanical properties limited its applications. Impacts of chemical treatment on the water absorption, tribology, viscoelastic behavior, relaxation behavior, energy absorption flames retardancy, and biodegradability properties of NFPCs were also highlighted. The applications of NFPCs in automobile and construction industry and other applications are demonstrated. It concluded that chemical treatment of the natural fiber improved adhesion between the fiber surface and the polymer matrix which ultimately enhanced physicomechanical and thermochemical properties of the NFPCs.

  14. Metabolomics, peptidomics and proteomics applications of capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry in Foodomics: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibáñez, Clara; Simó, Carolina; García-Cañas, Virginia; Cifuentes, Alejandro, E-mail: a.cifuentes@csic.es; Castro-Puyana, María

    2013-11-13

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Foodomics allows studying food and nutrition through the application of advanced omics approaches. •CE-MS plays a crucial role as analytical platform to carry out omics studies. •CE-MS applications for food metabolomics, proteomics and peptidomics are presented. -- Abstract: In the current post-genomic era, Foodomics has been defined as a discipline that studies food and nutrition through the application of advanced omics approaches. Foodomics involves the use of genomics, transcriptomics, epigenetics, proteomics, peptidomics, and/or metabolomics to investigate food quality, safety, traceability and bioactivity. In this context, capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) has been applied mainly in food proteomics, peptidomics and metabolomics. The aim of this review work is to present an overview of the most recent developments and applications of CE-MS as analytical platform for Foodomics, covering the relevant works published from 2008 to 2012. The review provides also information about the integration of several omics approaches in the new Foodomics field.

  15. Systematic review on the effectiveness of augmented reality applications in medical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsom, E Z; Graafland, M; Schijven, M P

    2016-10-01

    Computer-based applications are increasingly used to support the training of medical professionals. Augmented reality applications (ARAs) render an interactive virtual layer on top of reality. The use of ARAs is of real interest to medical education because they blend digital elements with the physical learning environment. This will result in new educational opportunities. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate to which extent augmented reality applications are currently used to validly support medical professionals training. PubMed, Embase, INSPEC and PsychInfo were searched using predefined inclusion criteria for relevant articles up to August 2015. All study types were considered eligible. Articles concerning AR applications used to train or educate medical professionals were evaluated. Twenty-seven studies were found relevant, describing a total of seven augmented reality applications. Applications were assigned to three different categories. The first category is directed toward laparoscopic surgical training, the second category toward mixed reality training of neurosurgical procedures and the third category toward training echocardiography. Statistical pooling of data could not be performed due to heterogeneity of study designs. Face-, construct- and concurrent validity was proven for two applications directed at laparoscopic training, face- and construct validity for neurosurgical procedures and face-, content- and construct validity in echocardiography training. In the literature, none of the ARAs completed a full validation process for the purpose of use. Augmented reality applications that support blended learning in medical training have gained public and scientific interest. In order to be of value, applications must be able to transfer information to the user. Although promising, the literature to date is lacking to support such evidence.

  16. Invited review current progress and limitations of spider silk for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widhe, Mona; Johansson, Jan; Hedhammar, My; Rising, Anna

    2012-06-01

    Spider silk is a fascinating material combining remarkable mechanical properties with low density and biodegradability. Because of these properties and historical descriptions of medical applications, spider silk has been proposed to be the ideal biomaterial. However, overcoming the obstacles to produce spider silk in sufficient quantities and in a manner that meets regulatory demands has proven to be a difficult task. Also, there are relatively few studies of spider silk in biomedical applications available, and the methods and materials used vary a lot. Herein we summarize cell culture- and in vivo implantation studies of natural and synthetic spider silk, and also review the current status and future challenges in the quest for a large scale production of spider silk for medical applications. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Quantitative carbon-14 autoradiography at the cellular level: principles and application for cell kinetic studies. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doermer, P [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung m.b.H., Muenchen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Haematologie

    1981-03-01

    Amounts of radio-labelled substances as low as 10/sup -18/ moles incorporated into individual cells can be measured by utilizing techniques of quantitative autoradiography. The principles and application of quantitative carbon-14 autoradiography are reviewed. Silver grain densities can be counted by automated microphotometry allowing on-line data processing by an interfaced computer. Rate measurements of /sup 14/C-thymidine incorporation into individual cells yield values of the DNA synthesis rate and the DNA synthesis time of a cell compartment can be derived. This is an essential time parameter for the evaluation of kinetic events in proliferating cell populations. This method is applicable to human cells without radiation hazard to man and provides an optimal source of detailed information on the kinetics of normal and diseased human haematopoiesis. Examples of application consist of thalassaemia, malaria infection, iron deficiency anaemia and acute myelogenous leukaemia.

  18. Alveolar distraction osteogenesis applications in cleft lip and palate patients: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öznur Mülayim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis technique has been successfully applied in the craniofacial area for long time, and it is being applied increasingly more in cleft lip and palate patients also. Especially in large cleft palate cases, bone grafting or surgical procedures such as distraction osteogenesis can be applied in order to ensure a smooth alveolar arc. In this literature review, alveolar (segmental distraction osteogenesis applications in patients with cleft lip and palate, indications of the technique, advantages and disadvantages, application methods and types of appliances used for this purpose have been evaluated. As conclusion, especially with the application of alveolar (segmental distraction osteogenesis, successful outcome can be achieved in cleft lip and palate patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency, maxillary hypoplasia and maxillary crowding, and this technique may be an alternative to conventional osteotomies and extraoral distractions.

  19. A Mini Review: Can Graphene Be a Novel Material for Perovskite Solar Cell Applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eng Liang; Yap, Chi Chin; Jumali, Mohammad Hafizuddin Hj; Teridi, Mohd Asri Mat; Teh, Chin Hoong

    2018-06-01

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have raised research interest in scientific community because their power conversion efficiency is comparable to that of traditional commercial solar cells (i.e., amorphous Si, GaAs, and CdTe). Apart from that, PSCs are lightweight, are flexible, and have low production costs. Recently, graphene has been used as a novel material for PSC applications due to its excellent optical, electrical, and mechanical properties. The hydrophobic nature of graphene surface can provide protection against air moisture from the surrounding medium, which can improve the lifetime of devices. Herein, we review recent developments in the use of graphene for PSC applications as a conductive electrode, carrier transporting material, and stabilizer material. By exploring the application of graphene in PSCs, a new class of strategies can be developed to improve the device performance and stability before it can be commercialized in the photovoltaic market in the near future.

  20. A Review of Current Clinical Applications of Three-Dimensional Printing in Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Woojin; Job, Alan Varkey; Chen, Jing; Baek, Jung Hwan

    2018-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a transformative technology with a potentially wide range of applications in the field of orthopaedic spine surgery. This article aims to review the current applications, limitations, and future developments of 3D printing technology in orthopaedic spine surgery. Current preoperative applications of 3D printing include construction of complex 3D anatomic models for improved visual understanding, preoperative surgical planning, and surgical simulations for resident education. Intraoperatively, 3D printers have been successfully used in surgical guidance systems and in the creation of patient specific implantable devices. Furthermore, 3D printing is revolutionizing the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, allowing construction of biocompatible scaffolds suitable for cell growth and vasculature. Advances in printing technology and evidence of positive clinical outcomes are needed before there is an expansion of 3D printing applied to the clinical setting.