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Sample records for review mitochondrial injury

  1. Mitochondrial Approaches to Protect Against Cardiac Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Amadou K. S.; Bienengraeber, Martin; Stowe, David F.

    2011-01-01

    The mitochondrion is a vital component in cellular energy metabolism and intracellular signaling processes. Mitochondria are involved in a myriad of complex signaling cascades regulating cell death vs. survival. Importantly, mitochondrial dysfunction and the resulting oxidative and nitrosative stress are central in the pathogenesis of numerous human maladies including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and retinal diseases, many of which are related. This review will examine the emerging understanding of the role of mitochondria in the etiology and progression of cardiovascular diseases and will explore potential therapeutic benefits of targeting the organelle in attenuating the disease process. Indeed, recent advances in mitochondrial biology have led to selective targeting of drugs designed to modulate or manipulate mitochondrial function, to the use of light therapy directed to the mitochondrial function, and to modification of the mitochondrial genome for potential therapeutic benefit. The approach to rationally treat mitochondrial dysfunction could lead to more effective interventions in cardiovascular diseases that to date have remained elusive. The central premise of this review is that if mitochondrial abnormalities contribute to the etiology of cardiovascular diseases (e.g., ischemic heart disease), alleviating the mitochondrial dysfunction will contribute to mitigating the severity or progression of the disease. To this end, this review will provide an overview of our current understanding of mitochondria function in cardiovascular diseases as well as the potential role for targeting mitochondria with potential drugs or other interventions that lead to protection against cell injury. PMID:21559063

  2. Mitochondrial approaches to protect against cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadou K.S. Camara

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrion is a vital component in cellular energy metabolism and intracellular signaling processes. Mitochondria are involved in a myriad of complex signaling cascades regulating cell death vs. survival. Importantly, mitochondrial dysfunction and the resulting oxidative and nitrosative stress are central in the pathogenesis of numerous human maladies including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and retinal diseases, many of which are related. This review will examine the emerging understanding of the role of mitochondria in the etiology and progression of cardiovascular diseases and will explore potential therapeutic benefits of targeting the organelle in attenuating the disease process. Indeed, recent advances in mitochondrial biology have led to selective targeting of drugs designed to modulate or manipulate mitochondrial function, to the use of light therapy directed to the mitochondrial function, and to modification of the mitochondrial genome for potential therapeutic benefit. The approach to rationally treat mitochondrial dysfunction could lead to more effective interventions in cardiovascular diseases that to date have remained elusive. The central premise of this review is that if mitochondrial abnormalities contribute to the etiology of cardiovascular diseases (e.g. ischemic heart disease, alleviating the mitochondrial dysfunction will contribute to mitigating the severity or progression of the disease. To this end, this review will provide an overview of our current understanding of mitochondria function in cardiovascular diseases as well as the potential role for targeting mitochondria with potential drugs or other interventions that lead to protection against cell injury.

  3. Mitochondrial Mechanisms of Neuronal Injury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reynolds, Ian

    1999-01-01

    .... In the acute form, this injury accounts for neural injury following stroke and head trauma, while in the chronic phenotype, it may account for degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease...

  4. Understanding mitochondrial myopathies: a review

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    Abhimanyu S. Ahuja

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are small, energy-producing structures vital to the energy needs of the body. Genetic mutations cause mitochondria to fail to produce the energy needed by cells and organs which can cause severe disease and death. These genetic mutations are likely to be in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, or possibly in the nuclear DNA (nDNA. The goal of this review is to assess the current understanding of mitochondrial diseases. This review focuses on the pathology, causes, risk factors, symptoms, prevalence data, symptomatic treatments, and new research aimed at possible preventions and/or treatments of mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondrial myopathies are mitochondrial diseases that cause prominent muscular symptoms such as muscle weakness and usually present with a multitude of symptoms and can affect virtually all organ systems. There is no cure for these diseases as of today. Treatment is generally supportive and emphasizes symptom management. Mitochondrial diseases occur infrequently and hence research funding levels tend to be low in comparison with more common diseases. On the positive side, quite a few genetic defects responsible for mitochondrial diseases have been identified, which are in turn being used to investigate potential treatments. Speech therapy, physical therapy, and respiratory therapy have been used in mitochondrial diseases with variable results. These therapies are not curative and at best help with maintaining a patient’s current abilities to move and function.

  5. Melatonin and mitochondrial function during ischemia/reperfusion injury.

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    Ma, Zhiqiang; Xin, Zhenlong; Di, Wencheng; Yan, Xiaolong; Li, Xiaofei; Reiter, Russel J; Yang, Yang

    2017-11-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury occurs in many organs and tissues, and contributes to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Melatonin, an endogenously produced indolamine, provides a strong defense against IR injury. Mitochondrion, an organelle for ATP production and a decider for cell fate, has been validated to be a crucial target for melatonin to exert its protection against IR injury. In this review, we first clarify the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial dysfunction during IR and melatonin's protection of mitochondria under this condition. Thereafter, special focus is placed on the protective actions of melatonin against IR injury in brain, heart, liver, and others. Finally, we explore several potential future directions of research in this area. Collectively, the information compiled here will serve as a comprehensive reference for the actions of melatonin in IR injury identified to date and will hopefully aid in the design of future research and increase the potential of melatonin as a therapeutic agent.

  6. The effect of mitochondrial calcium uniporter on mitochondrial fission in hippocampus cells ischemia/reperfusion injury

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    Zhao, Lantao; Li, Shuhong; Wang, Shilei, E-mail: wshlei@aliyun.com; Yu, Ning; Liu, Jia

    2015-06-05

    The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) transports free Ca{sup 2+} into the mitochondrial matrix, maintaining Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis, thus regulates the mitochondrial morphology. Previous studies have indicated that there was closely crosstalk between MCU and mitochondrial fission during the process of ischemia/reperfusion injury. This study constructed a hypoxia reoxygenation model using primary hippocampus neurons to mimic the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and aims to explore the exactly effect of MCU on the mitochondrial fission during the process of ischemia/reperfusion injury and so as the mechanisms. Our results found that the inhibitor of the MCU, Ru360, decreased mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} concentration, suppressed the expression of mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, MIEF1 and Fis1, and thus improved mitochondrial morphology significantly. Whereas spermine, the agonist of the MCU, had no significant impact compared to the I/R group. This study demonstrated that the MCU regulates the process of mitochondrial fission by controlling the Ca{sup 2+} transport, directly upregulating mitochondrial fission proteins Drp1, Fis1 and indirectly reversing the MIEF1-induced mitochondrial fusion. It also provides new targets for brain protection during ischemia/reperfusion injury. - Highlights: • We study MCU with primary neuron culture. • MCU induces mitochondrial fission. • MCU reverses MIEF1 effect.

  7. Lightning injury: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritenour, Amber E; Morton, Melinda J; McManus, John G; Barillo, David J; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2008-08-01

    Lightning is an uncommon but potentially devastating cause of injury in patients presenting to burn centers. These injuries feature unusual symptoms, high mortality, and significant long-term morbidity. This paper will review the epidemiology, physics, clinical presentation, management principles, and prevention of lightning injuries.

  8. Characterization of Mitochondrial Injury after Cardiac Arrest (COMICA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnino, Michael W.; Liu, Xiaowen; Andersen, Lars W.; Rittenberger, Jon C.; Abella, Benjamin S.; Gaieski, David F.; Ornato, Joseph P.; Gazmuri, Raúl J.; Grossestreur, Anne V.; Cocchi, Michaen N.; Abbate, Antonio; Uber, Amy; Clore, John; Peberdy, Mary Anne; Callaway, Clifton

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mitochondrial injury post-cardiac arrest has been described in pre-clinical settings but the extent to which this injury occurs in humans remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that increased levels of mitochondrial biomarkers would be associated with mortality and neurological morbidity in post-cardiac arrest subjects. Methods We performed a prospective multicenter study of post-cardiac arrest subjects. Inclusion criteria were comatose adults who suffered an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Mitochondrial biomarkers were measured at 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours after return of spontaneous circulation as well as in healthy controls. Results Out of 111 subjects enrolled, 102 had evaluable samples at 0 hours. Cardiac arrest subjects had higher baseline cytochrome c levels compared to controls (2.18 ng/mL [0.74, 7.74] vs. 0.16 ng/mL [0.03, 0.91], p<0.001), and subjects who died had higher 0 hours cytochrome c levels compared to survivors (3.66 ng/mL [1.40, 14.9] vs. 1.27 ng/mL [0.16, 2.37], p<0.001). There were significantly higher RNAase P (3.3 [1.2, 5.7] vs. 1.2 [0.8, 1.2], p<0.001) and B2M (12.0 [1.0, 22.9], vs. 0.6 [0.6, 1.3], p<0.001) levels in cardiac arrest subjects at baseline compared to the control subjects. There were no differences between survivors and non-survivors for mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, or cell free DNA. Conclusions Cytochrome C was increased in post-cardiac arrest subjects compared to controls, and in post-cardiac arrest non-survivors compared to survivors. Nuclear DNA and cell free DNA was increased in plasma of post-cardiac arrest subjects. There were no differences in mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, or cell free DNA between survivors and non-survivors. Mitochondrial injury markers showed mixed results in post-arrest period. Future research needs to investigate these differences. PMID:28126408

  9. Characterization of mitochondrial injury after cardiac arrest (COMICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnino, Michael W; Liu, Xiaowen; Andersen, Lars W; Rittenberger, Jon C; Abella, Benjamin S; Gaieski, David F; Ornato, Joseph P; Gazmuri, Raúl J; Grossestreuer, Anne V; Cocchi, Michael N; Abbate, Antonio; Uber, Amy; Clore, John; Peberdy, Mary Anne; Callaway, Clifton W

    2017-04-01

    Mitochondrial injury post-cardiac arrest has been described in pre-clinical settings but the extent to which this injury occurs in humans remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that increased levels of mitochondrial biomarkers would be associated with mortality and neurological morbidity in post-cardiac arrest subjects. We performed a prospective multicenter study of post-cardiac arrest subjects. Inclusion criteria were comatose adults who suffered an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Mitochondrial biomarkers were measured at 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48h after return of spontaneous circulation as well as in healthy controls. Out of 111 subjects enrolled, 102 had evaluable samples at 0h. Cardiac arrest subjects had higher baseline cytochrome c levels compared to controls (2.18ng/mL [0.74, 7.74] vs. 0.16ng/mL [0.03, 0.91], p<0.001), and subjects who died had higher 0h cytochrome c levels compared to survivors (3.66ng/mL [1.40, 14.9] vs. 1.27ng/mL [0.16, 2.37], p<0.001). There were significantly higher Ribonuclease P (RNaseP) (3.3 [1.2, 5.7] vs. 1.2 [0.8, 1.2], p<0.001) and Beta-2microglobulin (B2M) (12.0 [1.0, 22.9], vs. 0.6 [0.6, 1.3], p<0.001) levels in cardiac arrest subjects at baseline compared to the control subjects. There were no differences between survivors and non-survivors for mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, or cell free DNA. Cytochrome c was increased in post- cardiac arrest subjects compared to controls, and in post-cardiac arrest non-survivors compared to survivors. Nuclear DNA and cell free DNA was increased in plasma of post-cardiac arrest subjects. There were no differences in mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, or cell free DNA between survivors and non-survivors. Mitochondrial injury markers showed mixed results in the post-cardiac arrest period. Future research needs to investigate these differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ebselen protects mitochondrial function and oxidative stress while inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway after acute spinal cord injury.

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    Jia, Zhi-Qiang; Li, San-Qiang; Qiao, Wei-Qiang; Xu, Wen-Zhong; Xing, Jian-Wu; Liu, Jian-Tao; Song, Hui; Gao, Zhong-Yang; Xing, Bing-Wen; He, Xi-Jing

    2018-05-04

    Ebselen is a fat-soluble small molecule and organic selenium compound that regulates the activity of glutathione peroxidase to alleviate mitochondrial oxidative stress and improve mitochondrial function. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of ebselen on mitochondrial oxidative stress response, mitochondrial apotosis, and motor behaviors after spinal cord injury (SCI). We found that ebselen significantly increased the BBB score in motor behavior, thus suggesting a rescue effect of ebselen on motor function after SCI in rats. Meanwhile, we revealed that ebselen can increase glutathione (GSH) content as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities after SCI-this suggests ebselen has an antioxidant effect. Furthermore, the ATP content and Na + -K + -ATPase activity in mitochondria were increased by ebselen after SCI, while the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was decreased by ebselen. The Cytochrome C and Smac release from mitochondria were reduced by ebselen after SCI, thus indicating improved membrane permeability by ebselen. Moreover, the alterations in caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 protein expression, as well as the proportion of cell apoptosis were improved by ebselen treatment, which together suggested that ebselen has an inhibitory effect on mitochondrial apotosis pathways after SCI. Taken together, our results suggest that ebselen can inhibit secondary damage caused by spinal cord injury. Indeed it plays a neuroprotective role in spinal cord injury perhaps by improving mitochondrial function and inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mitochondrial biogenesis in the pulmonary vasculature during inhalation lung injury and fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cell survival and injury repair is facilitated by mitochondrial biogenesis; however, the role of this process in lung repair is unknown. We evaluated mitochondrial biogenesis in the mouse lung in two injuries that cause acute inflammation and in two that cause chronic inflammatio...

  12. Reducing mitochondrial bound hexokinase II mediates transition from non-injurious into injurious ischemia/reperfusion of the intact heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Nederlof (Rianne); Gürel-Gurevin, E. (Ebru); O. Eerbeek (Otto); C. Xie (Chaoqin); Deijs, G.S.; Konkel, M. (Moritz); Hu, J. (Jun); N.C. Weber (Nina); C. Schumacher (Cees); A. Baartscheer (Antonius); E.G. Mik (Egbert); M.W. Hollmann (Markus); F.G. Akar (Fadi); C.J. Zuurbier (Coert J.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIschemia/reperfusion (I/R) of the heart becomes injurious when duration of the ischemic insult exceeds a certain threshold (approximately ≥20 min). Mitochondrial bound hexokinase II (mtHKII) protects against I/R injury, with the amount of mtHKII correlating with injury. Here, we examine

  13. Creatine Enhances Mitochondrial-Mediated Oligodendrocyte Survival After Demyelinating Injury.

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    Chamberlain, Kelly A; Chapey, Kristen S; Nanescu, Sonia E; Huang, Jeffrey K

    2017-02-08

    Chronic oligodendrocyte loss, which occurs in the demyelinating disorder multiple sclerosis (MS), contributes to axonal dysfunction and neurodegeneration. Current therapies are able to reduce MS severity, but do not prevent transition into the progressive phase of the disease, which is characterized by chronic neurodegeneration. Therefore, pharmacological compounds that promote oligodendrocyte survival could be beneficial for neuroprotection in MS. Here, we investigated the role of creatine, an organic acid involved in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) buffering, in oligodendrocyte function. We found that creatine increased mitochondrial ATP production directly in oligodendrocyte lineage cell cultures and exerted robust protection on oligodendrocytes by preventing cell death in both naive and lipopolysaccharide-treated mixed glia. Moreover, lysolecithin-mediated demyelination in mice deficient in the creatine-synthesizing enzyme guanidinoacetate-methyltransferase ( Gamt ) did not affect oligodendrocyte precursor cell recruitment, but resulted in exacerbated apoptosis of regenerated oligodendrocytes in central nervous system (CNS) lesions. Remarkably, creatine administration into Gamt -deficient and wild-type mice with demyelinating injury reduced oligodendrocyte apoptosis, thereby increasing oligodendrocyte density and myelin basic protein staining in CNS lesions. We found that creatine did not affect the recruitment of macrophages/microglia into lesions, suggesting that creatine affects oligodendrocyte survival independently of inflammation. Together, our results demonstrate a novel function for creatine in promoting oligodendrocyte viability during CNS remyelination. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We report that creatine enhances oligodendrocyte mitochondrial function and protects against caspase-dependent oligodendrocyte apoptosis during CNS remyelination. This work has important implications for the development of therapeutic targets for diseases characterized by

  14. Recurrent episodic acute kidney injury as presenting manifestation of mitochondrial myopathy

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    T P Matthai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial cytopathies (MC are a rare heterogenous group of disorders with frequent multisystem involvement including uncommon renal manifestations. Acute kidney injury (AKI as the primary manifestation of MC is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of recurrent episodic AKI in an adult male who was subsequently diagnosed to have mitochondrial disease.

  15. Football injury: a literature review *

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    Kos, John J.

    1979-01-01

    A great deal of concern is recently being expressed relative to the playing of tackle football by adolescent Canadians. The purpose of this literature review is to try to summarize the important data from the available world literature. Very few Canadian statistics are available. Most of the data comes from United States experience. Tackle football injury is examined from various perspectives: 1. Equipment 2. Mechanisms of injury 3. Types of injury, with some emphasis on epiphyseal injury 4. Prevention 5. Comparison with other sports Although no “hard and fast” conclusion is drawn, the paper tends to show that: 1. Football is dangerous 2. Football is damaging to many body systems 3. Prevention of injury is difficult under present conditions 4. Alternate games, such as soccer and rugby seem to provide the same benefits with less catastrophic injuries

  16. Mountain biking injuries: a review.

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    Carmont, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    Mountain biking is a fast, exciting adventure sport with increasing numbers of participants and competitions. A search of PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, DH data, and Embase databases was performed using the following keywords: mountain, biking and injuries. This revealed 2 review articles, 17 case controlled studies, 4 case series and 5 case reports. This review summarises the published literature on mountain biking injuries, discusses injury frequency and common injury mechanisms. Riders are quick to adopt safety measures. Helmet usage is now increasingly common and handlebar adaptations have been discontinued. Although the sport has a reputation for speed and risk with research and awareness, injury prevention measures are being adopted making the sport as safe as possible.

  17. Is cell aging caused by respiration-dependent injury to the mitochondrial genome

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    Fleming, J. E.; Yengoyan, L. S.; Miquel, J.; Cottrell, S. F.; Economos, A. C.

    1982-01-01

    Though intrinsic mitochondrial aging has been considered before as a possible cause of cellular senescence, the mechanisms of such mitochondrial aging have remained obscure. In this article, the hypothesis of free-radical-induced inhibition of mitochondrial replenishment in fixed postmitotic cells is expanded. It is maintained that the respiration-dependent production of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals may not be fully counteracted, leading to a continuous production of lipoperoxides and malonaldehyde in actively respiring mitochondria. These compounds, in turn, can easily react with the mitochondrial DNA which is in close spatial relationship with the inner mitochondrial membrane, producing an injury that the mitochondria may be unable to counteract because of their apparent lack of adequate repair mechanisms. Mitochondrial division may thus be inhibited leading to age-related reduction of mitochondrial numbers, a deficit in energy production with a concomitant decrease in protein synthesis, deterioration of physiological performance, and, therefore, of organismic performance.

  18. Idh2 Deficiency Exacerbates Acrolein-Induced Lung Injury through Mitochondrial Redox Environment Deterioration

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung Hyun; Ku, Hyeong Jun; Lee, Jin Hyup; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2017-01-01

    Acrolein is known to be involved in acute lung injury and other pulmonary diseases. A number of studies have suggested that acrolein-induced toxic effects are associated with depletion of antioxidants, such as reduced glutathione and protein thiols, and production of reactive oxygen species. Mitochondrial NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (idh2) regulates mitochondrial redox balance and reduces oxidative stress-induced cell injury via generation of NADPH. Therefore, we evaluated the ro...

  19. Skateboarding injuries: An updated review.

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    Shuman, Kristin M; Meyers, Michael C

    2015-07-01

    This in-depth literature review shows that skateboarding has experienced intermittent periods of popularity, with an estimated 6-15 million skateboarders in the US currently involved at all levels of recreational play and competition. Head trauma accounts for ∼ 3.5-13.1% of all skateboarding injuries. Injury occurs most often to the upper extremity (55-63%), whereas thoracoabdominal and spine injuries account for 1.5-2.9% of all trauma and lower extremity injuries occur 17-26% of the time. Few fatal injuries (1.1%) have been reported, oftentimes resulting from traumatic head injuries incurred from collisions with motor vehicles. Although skateparks may be perceived as a safer alternative to street skateboarding, injuries still occur when the skateboarder collides with an object or falls from the board. Factors leading to trauma include fatigue and overuse, age and skill level, inadequate medical care, environmental conditions, equipment concerns, lack of fitness and training, and the detrimental behavior of the competitor. Although not all skateboarding injuries are avoidable, numerous opportunities exist to instill safety involving education, instruction, and supervision and the proper use of protective gear to reduce predisposition to trauma. Future research recommendations include a more standardized data collection system, as well as an increased focus on kinetic analysis of the sport. Legislation involving helmet laws and the increased investment in a safer environment for the skateboarder may also assist in reducing injury in this sport.

  20. Injuries in karate: systematic review.

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    Thomas, Roger E; Ornstein, Jodie

    2018-05-22

    to identify all studies of Karate injuries and assess injury rates, types, location, and causes. Six electronic and four grey literature databases were searched. Two reviewers independently assessed titles/abstracts, abstracted data and assessed risk-of-bias with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Average injury rates/1000AE (AE = athletic-encounter) and/1000minutesAE, injury location and type weighted by study size were calculated. In competitions rates of injury/1000AE and/1000 minutesAE were similar for males (111.4/1000AE, 75.4/1000 minAE) and females (105.8/1000AE, 72.8/1000 minAE). Location of injury rates/1000AE for males were 44.0 for head/neck, 11.9 lower extremities, 8.1 torso and 5.4 upper extremities and were similar for females: 41.2 head/neck, 12.4 lower extremities, 9.1 torso and 6.3 upper extremities. Injury rates varied widely by study. Rates/1000AE for type of injury were contusions/abrasions/lacerations/bruises/tooth avulsion for males (68.1) and females (30.4); hematomas/bleeding/epistaxis males (11.4) and females (12.1); strains/sprains males (3.5) and females (0.1); dislocations males (2.9) and females (0.9); concussions males (2.5) and females (3.9); and fractures males (2.9) and females (1.4). Punches were a more common mechanism of injury for males (59.8) than females (40.8) and kicks similar (males 19.7, females 21.7). Weighted averages were not calculated for weight class or belt colour because there were too few studies. Nineteen injury surveys reported annual injury rates from 30% to rates ten times higher but used different reporting methods. Studies provided no data to explain wide rate ranges. Studies need to adopt one injury definition, one data-collection form, and collect comprehensive data for each study for both training and competitions. More data are needed to measure the effect of weight, age and experience on injuries, rates and types of injury during training, and for competitors with high injury rates. RCTs are needed of

  1. Idh2 Deficiency Exacerbates Acrolein-Induced Lung Injury through Mitochondrial Redox Environment Deterioration

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    Jung Hyun Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrolein is known to be involved in acute lung injury and other pulmonary diseases. A number of studies have suggested that acrolein-induced toxic effects are associated with depletion of antioxidants, such as reduced glutathione and protein thiols, and production of reactive oxygen species. Mitochondrial NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (idh2 regulates mitochondrial redox balance and reduces oxidative stress-induced cell injury via generation of NADPH. Therefore, we evaluated the role of idh2 in acrolein-induced lung injury using idh2 short hairpin RNA- (shRNA- transfected Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC cells and idh2-deficient (idh2−/− mice. Downregulation of idh2 expression increased susceptibility to acrolein via induction of apoptotic cell death due to elevated mitochondrial oxidative stress. Idh2 deficiency also promoted acrolein-induced lung injury in idh2 knockout mice through the disruption of mitochondrial redox status. In addition, acrolein-induced toxicity in idh2 shRNA-transfected LLC cells and in idh2 knockout mice was ameliorated by the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine, through attenuation of oxidative stress resulting from idh2 deficiency. In conclusion, idh2 deficiency leads to mitochondrial redox environment deterioration, which causes acrolein-mediated apoptosis of LLC cells and acrolein-induced lung injury in idh2−/− mice. The present study supports the central role of idh2 deficiency in inducing oxidative stress resulting from acrolein-induced disruption of mitochondrial redox status in the lung.

  2. Idh2 Deficiency Exacerbates Acrolein-Induced Lung Injury through Mitochondrial Redox Environment Deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Hyun; Ku, Hyeong Jun; Lee, Jin Hyup; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2017-01-01

    Acrolein is known to be involved in acute lung injury and other pulmonary diseases. A number of studies have suggested that acrolein-induced toxic effects are associated with depletion of antioxidants, such as reduced glutathione and protein thiols, and production of reactive oxygen species. Mitochondrial NADP + -dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase ( idh2 ) regulates mitochondrial redox balance and reduces oxidative stress-induced cell injury via generation of NADPH. Therefore, we evaluated the role of idh2 in acrolein-induced lung injury using idh2 short hairpin RNA- (shRNA-) transfected Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells and idh2 -deficient ( idh2 -/- ) mice. Downregulation of idh2 expression increased susceptibility to acrolein via induction of apoptotic cell death due to elevated mitochondrial oxidative stress. Idh2 deficiency also promoted acrolein-induced lung injury in idh2 knockout mice through the disruption of mitochondrial redox status. In addition, acrolein-induced toxicity in idh2 shRNA-transfected LLC cells and in idh2 knockout mice was ameliorated by the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine, through attenuation of oxidative stress resulting from idh2 deficiency. In conclusion, idh2 deficiency leads to mitochondrial redox environment deterioration, which causes acrolein-mediated apoptosis of LLC cells and acrolein-induced lung injury in idh2 -/- mice. The present study supports the central role of idh2 deficiency in inducing oxidative stress resulting from acrolein-induced disruption of mitochondrial redox status in the lung.

  3. Mitochondrial events responsible for morphine's cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Haiyan; Huh, Jin; Wang, Huihua; Kang, Yi; Lou, Jianshi; Xu, Zhelong

    2016-01-01

    Morphine may induce cardioprotection by targeting mitochondria, but little is known about the exact mitochondrial events that mediate morphine's protection. We aimed to address the role of the mitochondrial Src tyrosine kinase in morphine's protection. Isolated rat hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia and 2 h of reperfusion. Morphine was given before the onset of ischemia. Infarct size and troponin I release were measured to evaluate cardiac injury. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring mitochondrial protein carbonylation and mitochondrial ROS generation. HL-1 cells were subjected to simulated ischemia/reperfusion and LDH release and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were measured. Morphine reduced infarct size as well as cardiac troponin I release which were aborted by the selective Src tyrosine kinase inhibitors PP2 and Src-I1. Morphine also attenuated LDH release and prevented a loss of ΔΨm at reperfusion in a Src tyrosine kinase dependent manner in HL-1 cells. However, morphine failed to reduce LDH release in HL-1 cells transfected with Src siRNA. Morphine increased mitochondrial Src phosphorylation at reperfusion and this was abrogated by PP2. Morphine attenuated mitochondrial protein carbonylation and mitochondrial superoxide generation at reperfusion through Src tyrosine kinase. The inhibitory effect of morphine on the mitochondrial complex I activity was reversed by PP2. These data suggest that morphine induces cardioprotection by preventing mitochondrial oxidative stress through mitochondrial Src tyrosine kinase. Inhibition of mitochondrial complex I at reperfusion by Src tyrosine kinase may account for the prevention of mitochondrial oxidative stress by morphine. - Highlights: • Morphine induced mito-Src phosphorylation and reduced infarct size in rat hearts. • Morphine failed to reduce I/R-induced LDH release in Src-silencing HL-1 cells. • Morphine prevented mitochondria damage caused by I/R through Src. • Morphine reduced

  4. Mitochondrial events responsible for morphine's cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury

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    He, Haiyan [Department of Physiology & Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Department of Pharmacology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Huh, Jin [Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Medical College, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon City (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Huihua [Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Kang, Yi; Lou, Jianshi [Department of Pharmacology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Xu, Zhelong, E-mail: zxu@tmu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology & Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China)

    2016-01-01

    Morphine may induce cardioprotection by targeting mitochondria, but little is known about the exact mitochondrial events that mediate morphine's protection. We aimed to address the role of the mitochondrial Src tyrosine kinase in morphine's protection. Isolated rat hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia and 2 h of reperfusion. Morphine was given before the onset of ischemia. Infarct size and troponin I release were measured to evaluate cardiac injury. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring mitochondrial protein carbonylation and mitochondrial ROS generation. HL-1 cells were subjected to simulated ischemia/reperfusion and LDH release and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were measured. Morphine reduced infarct size as well as cardiac troponin I release which were aborted by the selective Src tyrosine kinase inhibitors PP2 and Src-I1. Morphine also attenuated LDH release and prevented a loss of ΔΨm at reperfusion in a Src tyrosine kinase dependent manner in HL-1 cells. However, morphine failed to reduce LDH release in HL-1 cells transfected with Src siRNA. Morphine increased mitochondrial Src phosphorylation at reperfusion and this was abrogated by PP2. Morphine attenuated mitochondrial protein carbonylation and mitochondrial superoxide generation at reperfusion through Src tyrosine kinase. The inhibitory effect of morphine on the mitochondrial complex I activity was reversed by PP2. These data suggest that morphine induces cardioprotection by preventing mitochondrial oxidative stress through mitochondrial Src tyrosine kinase. Inhibition of mitochondrial complex I at reperfusion by Src tyrosine kinase may account for the prevention of mitochondrial oxidative stress by morphine. - Highlights: • Morphine induced mito-Src phosphorylation and reduced infarct size in rat hearts. • Morphine failed to reduce I/R-induced LDH release in Src-silencing HL-1 cells. • Morphine prevented mitochondria damage caused by I/R through Src. • Morphine

  5. AMPK Activation Prevents and Reverses Drug-Induced Mitochondrial and Hepatocyte Injury by Promoting Mitochondrial Fusion and Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Woo Sophie Kang

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial damage is the major factor underlying drug-induced liver disease but whether conditions that thwart mitochondrial injury can prevent or reverse drug-induced liver damage is unclear. A key molecule regulating mitochondria quality control is AMP activated kinase (AMPK. When activated, AMPK causes mitochondria to elongate/fuse and proliferate, with mitochondria now producing more ATP and less reactive oxygen species. Autophagy is also triggered, a process capable of removing damaged/defective mitochondria. To explore whether AMPK activation could potentially prevent or reverse the effects of drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage, we added an AMPK activator to collagen sandwich cultures of rat and human hepatocytes exposed to the hepatotoxic drugs, acetaminophen or diclofenac. In the absence of AMPK activation, the drugs caused hepatocytes to lose polarized morphology and have significantly decreased ATP levels and viability. At the subcellular level, mitochondria underwent fragmentation and had decreased membrane potential due to decreased expression of the mitochondrial fusion proteins Mfn1, 2 and/or Opa1. Adding AICAR, a specific AMPK activator, at the time of drug exposure prevented and reversed these effects. The mitochondria became highly fused and ATP production increased, and hepatocytes maintained polarized morphology. In exploring the mechanism responsible for this preventive and reversal effect, we found that AMPK activation prevented drug-mediated decreases in Mfn1, 2 and Opa1. AMPK activation also stimulated autophagy/mitophagy, most significantly in acetaminophen-treated cells. These results suggest that activation of AMPK prevents/reverses drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through regulation of mitochondrial fusion and autophagy, making it a potentially valuable approach for treatment of drug-induced liver injury.

  6. AMPK Activation Prevents and Reverses Drug-Induced Mitochondrial and Hepatocyte Injury by Promoting Mitochondrial Fusion and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniane, Caitlin; Farrell, Geoffrey; Arias, Irwin M.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Fu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial damage is the major factor underlying drug-induced liver disease but whether conditions that thwart mitochondrial injury can prevent or reverse drug-induced liver damage is unclear. A key molecule regulating mitochondria quality control is AMP activated kinase (AMPK). When activated, AMPK causes mitochondria to elongate/fuse and proliferate, with mitochondria now producing more ATP and less reactive oxygen species. Autophagy is also triggered, a process capable of removing damaged/defective mitochondria. To explore whether AMPK activation could potentially prevent or reverse the effects of drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage, we added an AMPK activator to collagen sandwich cultures of rat and human hepatocytes exposed to the hepatotoxic drugs, acetaminophen or diclofenac. In the absence of AMPK activation, the drugs caused hepatocytes to lose polarized morphology and have significantly decreased ATP levels and viability. At the subcellular level, mitochondria underwent fragmentation and had decreased membrane potential due to decreased expression of the mitochondrial fusion proteins Mfn1, 2 and/or Opa1. Adding AICAR, a specific AMPK activator, at the time of drug exposure prevented and reversed these effects. The mitochondria became highly fused and ATP production increased, and hepatocytes maintained polarized morphology. In exploring the mechanism responsible for this preventive and reversal effect, we found that AMPK activation prevented drug-mediated decreases in Mfn1, 2 and Opa1. AMPK activation also stimulated autophagy/mitophagy, most significantly in acetaminophen-treated cells. These results suggest that activation of AMPK prevents/reverses drug-induced mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through regulation of mitochondrial fusion and autophagy, making it a potentially valuable approach for treatment of drug-induced liver injury. PMID:27792760

  7. Mitochondrial Targeted Endonuclease III DNA Repair Enzyme Protects against Ventilator Induced Lung Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Hashizume

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial targeted DNA repair enzyme, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1, was previously reported to protect against mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA damage and ventilator induced lung injury (VILI. In the present study we determined whether mitochondrial targeted endonuclease III (EndoIII which cleaves oxidized pyrimidines rather than purines from damaged DNA would also protect the lung. Minimal injury from 1 h ventilation at 40 cmH2O peak inflation pressure (PIP was reversed by EndoIII pretreatment. Moderate lung injury due to ventilation for 2 h at 40 cmH2O PIP produced a 25-fold increase in total extravascular albumin space, a 60% increase in W/D weight ratio, and marked increases in MIP-2 and IL-6. Oxidative mtDNA damage and decreases in the total tissue glutathione (GSH and the GSH/GSSH ratio also occurred. All of these indices of injury were attenuated by mitochondrial targeted EndoIII. Massive lung injury caused by 2 h ventilation at 50 cmH2O PIP was not attenuated by EndoIII pretreatment, but all untreated mice died prior to completing the two hour ventilation protocol, whereas all EndoIII-treated mice lived for the duration of ventilation. Thus, mitochondrial targeted DNA repair enzymes were protective against mild and moderate lung damage and they enhanced survival in the most severely injured group.

  8. Chlorogenic acid ameliorates endotoxin-induced liver injury by promoting mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yan; Ruan, Zheng; Zhou, Lili; Shu, Xugang; Sun, Xiaohong; Mi, Shumei; Yang, Yuhui; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Acute or chronic hepatic injury is a common pathology worldwide. Mitochondrial dysfunction and the depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) play important roles in liver injury. Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are some of the most abundant phenolic acids in human diet. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that CGA may protect against chronic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury by modulating mitochondrial energy generation. CGA decreased the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. The contents of ATP and adenosine monophosphate (AMP), as well as the ratio of AMP/ATP, were increased after CGA supplementation. The activities of enzymes that are involved in glycolysis were reduced, while those of enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation were increased. Moreover, phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and mRNA levels of AMPK-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1, and mitochondrial DNA transcription factor A were increased after CGA supplementation. Collectively, these findings suggest that the hepatoprotective effect of CGA might be associated with enhanced ATP production, the stimulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and the inhibition of glycolysis. - Highlights: • Dietary supplementation with chlorogenic acid (CGA) improved endotoxin-induced liver injury. • Chlorogenic acid enhances ATP increase and shifts energy metabolism, which is correlated with up-regulation AMPK and PGC-1α. • The possible mechanism of CGA on mitochondrial biogenesis was correlated with up-regulation AMPK and PGC-1α.

  9. Chlorogenic acid ameliorates endotoxin-induced liver injury by promoting mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yan [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology and School of Food Science, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); College of Food Safety, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Ruan, Zheng, E-mail: ruanzheng@ncu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology and School of Food Science, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Zhou, Lili; Shu, Xugang [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology and School of Food Science, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Sun, Xiaohong [College of Food Safety, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Mi, Shumei; Yang, Yuhui [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology and School of Food Science, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Yin, Yulong, E-mail: yinyulong@isa.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology and School of Food Science, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China)

    2016-01-22

    Acute or chronic hepatic injury is a common pathology worldwide. Mitochondrial dysfunction and the depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) play important roles in liver injury. Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are some of the most abundant phenolic acids in human diet. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that CGA may protect against chronic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury by modulating mitochondrial energy generation. CGA decreased the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. The contents of ATP and adenosine monophosphate (AMP), as well as the ratio of AMP/ATP, were increased after CGA supplementation. The activities of enzymes that are involved in glycolysis were reduced, while those of enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation were increased. Moreover, phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and mRNA levels of AMPK-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1, and mitochondrial DNA transcription factor A were increased after CGA supplementation. Collectively, these findings suggest that the hepatoprotective effect of CGA might be associated with enhanced ATP production, the stimulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and the inhibition of glycolysis. - Highlights: • Dietary supplementation with chlorogenic acid (CGA) improved endotoxin-induced liver injury. • Chlorogenic acid enhances ATP increase and shifts energy metabolism, which is correlated with up-regulation AMPK and PGC-1α. • The possible mechanism of CGA on mitochondrial biogenesis was correlated with up-regulation AMPK and PGC-1α.

  10. Epidemiological Review of Injuries in Rugby Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Kaux

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rugby is a sport that is growing in popularity. A contact sport par excellence, it causes a significant number of injuries. In Rugby Union, there are 30 to 91 injuries per 1000 match hours. This epidemiological review of injuries incurred by rugby players mentions the position and type of injuries, the causes, time during the match and season in which they occur and the players’ positions as well as the length of players’ absences following the injury.

  11. Mitochondrial Roles and Cytoprotection in Chronic Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Degli Esposti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The liver is one of the richest organs in terms of number and density of mitochondria. Most chronic liver diseases are associated with the accumulation of damaged mitochondria. Hepatic mitochondria have unique features compared to other organs' mitochondria, since they are the hub that integrates hepatic metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Mitochondria are also essential in hepatocyte survival as mediator of apoptosis and necrosis. Hepatocytes have developed different mechanisms to keep mitochondrial integrity or to prevent the effects of mitochondrial lesions, in particular regulating organelle biogenesis and degradation. In this paper, we will focus on the role of mitochondria in liver physiology, such as hepatic metabolism, reactive oxygen species homeostasis and cell survival. We will also focus on chronic liver pathologies, especially those linked to alcohol, virus, drugs or metabolic syndrome and we will discuss how mitochondria could provide a promising therapeutic target in these contexts.

  12. Mitochondrial targeted neuron focused genes in hippocampus of rats with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pushpa; Su, Yan A; Barry, Erin S; Grunberg, Neil E; Lei, Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) represents a major health problem in civilian populations as well as among the military service members due to (1) lack of effective treatments, and (2) our incomplete understanding about the progression of secondary cell injury cascades resulting in neuronal cell death due to deficient cellular energy metabolism and damaged mitochondria. The aim of this study was to identify and delineate the mitochondrial targeted genes responsible for altered brain energy metabolism in the injured brain. Rats were either grouped into naïve controls or received lateral fluid percussion brain injury (2-2.5 atm) and followed up for 7 days. Rats were either grouped into naïve controls or received lateral fluid percussion brain injury (2-2.5 atm) and followed for 7 days. The severity of brain injury was evaluated by the neurological severity scale-revised (NSS-R) at 3 and 5 days post TBI and immunohistochemical analyses at 7 days post TBI. The expression profiles of mitochondrial-targeted genes across the hippocampus from TBI and naïe rats were also examined by oligo-DNA microarrays. NSS-R scores of TBI rats (5.4 ± 0.5) in comparison to naïe rats (3.9 ± 0.5) and H and E staining of brain sections suggested a mild brain injury. Bioinformatics and systems biology analyses showed 31 dysregulated genes, 10 affected canonical molecular pathways including a number of genes involved in mitochondrial enzymes for oxidative phosphorylation, mitogen-activated protein Kinase (MAP), peroxisome proliferator-activated protein (PPAP), apoptosis signaling, and genes responsible for long-term potentiation of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Our results suggest that dysregulated mitochondrial-focused genes in injured brains may have a clinical utility for the development of future therapeutic strategies aimed at the treatment of TBI.

  13. Fisetin Confers Cardioprotection against Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury by Suppressing Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Inhibiting Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthi Shanmugam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Timely reperfusion is considered an optimal treatment for AMI. Paradoxically, the procedure of reperfusion can itself cause myocardial tissue injury. Therefore, a strategy to minimize the reperfusion-induced myocardial tissue injury is vital for salvaging the healthy myocardium. Herein, we investigated the cardioprotective effects of fisetin, a natural flavonoid, against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury (IRI using a Langendorff isolated heart perfusion system. I/R produced significant myocardial tissue injury, which was characterized by elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase in the perfusate and decreased indices of hemodynamic parameters. Furthermore, I/R resulted in elevated oxidative stress, uncoupling of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, increased mitochondrial swelling, a decrease of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and induction of apoptosis. Moreover, IRI was associated with a loss of the mitochondrial structure and decreased mitochondrial biogenesis. However, when the animals were pretreated with fisetin, it significantly attenuated the I/R-induced myocardial tissue injury, blunted the oxidative stress, and restored the structure and function of mitochondria. Mechanistically, the fisetin effects were found to be mediated via inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β, which was confirmed by a biochemical assay and molecular docking studies.

  14. Fisetin Confers Cardioprotection against Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury by Suppressing Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Inhibiting Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Karthi; Ravindran, Sriram; Kurian, Gino A; Rajesh, Mohanraj

    2018-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Timely reperfusion is considered an optimal treatment for AMI. Paradoxically, the procedure of reperfusion can itself cause myocardial tissue injury. Therefore, a strategy to minimize the reperfusion-induced myocardial tissue injury is vital for salvaging the healthy myocardium. Herein, we investigated the cardioprotective effects of fisetin, a natural flavonoid, against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury (IRI) using a Langendorff isolated heart perfusion system. I/R produced significant myocardial tissue injury, which was characterized by elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase in the perfusate and decreased indices of hemodynamic parameters. Furthermore, I/R resulted in elevated oxidative stress, uncoupling of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, increased mitochondrial swelling, a decrease of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and induction of apoptosis. Moreover, IRI was associated with a loss of the mitochondrial structure and decreased mitochondrial biogenesis. However, when the animals were pretreated with fisetin, it significantly attenuated the I/R-induced myocardial tissue injury, blunted the oxidative stress, and restored the structure and function of mitochondria. Mechanistically, the fisetin effects were found to be mediated via inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK3 β ), which was confirmed by a biochemical assay and molecular docking studies.

  15. PFOS prenatal exposure induce mitochondrial injury and gene expression change in hearts of weaned SD rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Wei; Wan, Yanjian; Li, Yuan-yuan; Zeng, Huaicai; Lv, Ziquan; Li, Gengqi; Wei, Zhengzheng; Xu, Shun-qing

    2011-01-01

    Xenobiotics exposure in early life may have adverse effects on animals' development through mitochondrial injury or dysfunction. The current study demonstrated the possibility of cardiac mitochondrial injury in prenatal PFOS-exposed weaned rat heart. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) at doses of 0.1, 0.6 and 2.0 mg/kg/d and 0.05% Tween 80 as control by gavage from gestation days 2-21. The dams were allowed to give nature delivery and then heart tissues from weaned (postnatal day 21) offspring rats were analyzed for mitochondrial injury through ultrastructure observation by electron microscope, global gene expression profile by microarray, as well as related mRNA and proteins expression levels by quantitative PCR and western blot. Ultrastructural analysis revealed significant vacuolization and inner membrane injury occurred at the mitochondria of heart tissues from 2.0 mg/kg/d dosage group. Meanwhile, the global gene expression profile showed significant difference in level of some mRNA expression associated with mitochondrial function at 2.0 mg/kg/d dosage group, compared to the control. Furthermore, dose-response trends for the expression of selected genes were analyzed by quantitative PCR and western blot analysis. The selected genes were mainly focused on those encoding for proteins involved in energy production, control of ion levels, and maintenance of heart function. The down-regulation of mitochondrial ATP synthetase (ATP5E, ATP5I and ATP5O) implicated a decrease in energy supply. This was accompanied by down-regulation of gene transcripts involved in energy consumption such as ion transporting ATPase (ATP1A3 and ATP2B2) and inner membrane protein synthesis (SLC25A3, SLC25A4, SLC25A10, SLC25A29). The up-regulation of gene transcripts encoding for uncoupling proteins (UCP1 and UCP3), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), was probably a protective process to maintain

  16. Review of sport-induced groin injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghati, Parisa; Alizadeh, Mohammad-Hossein; Shirzad, Elham; Ardjmand, Abolfazl

    2013-12-01

    Groin injuries are among the most common injuries co-existing with sports. The aim of this review was to outline the epidemiology and identify risk factors, as well as examine preventative and interventional measures for reducing the occurrence of this form of injury among athletes. An electronic, systematic search for relevant keywords, either separately or in combination was sought in the academic scientific databases. Groin injuries, acute or chronic, consist of a high percentage of injuries that manifest with pain. Despite the specific tendency for injury among some sports, such injuries make up 2-5% of sport-induced injuries. There are few available reports on lower limb injuries, especially groin injuries, in Iran. Numerous factors predispose to groin injuries. A lengthy list of preventive/ treatment measures, from preliminary to sophisticated, have been proposed. Although using a programmed strategy designed to decrease the risk of groin injuries by taking a strategic approach to exercise may alleviate complications, in some cases the chronic nature of the injury may threaten the professional life of the athlete. More research is required to plan suitable programs for reducing the risk of this type of injury in athletes.

  17. Ring Avulsion Injuries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Ravinder; Malhotra, Gautam; Bueno, Reuben A; Thayer, Wesley P; Shack, R Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Ring avulsion injuries can range from soft tissue injury to complete amputation. Grading systems have been developed to guide treatment, but there is controversy with high-grade injuries. Traditionally, advanced ring injuries have been treated with completion amputation, but there is evidence that severe ring injuries can be salvaged. The purpose of this systematic review was to pool the current published data on ring injuries. A systematic review of the English literature published from 1980 to 2015 in PubMed and MEDLINE databases was conducted to identify patients who underwent treatment for ring avulsion injuries. Twenty studies of ring avulsion injuries met the inclusion criteria. There were a total of 572 patients reported with ring avulsion injuries. The Urbaniak class breakdown was class I (54 patients), class II (204 patients), and class III (314 patients). The average total arc of motion (TAM) for patients with a class I injury was 201.25 (n = 40). The average 2-point discrimination was 5.6 (n = 10). The average TAM for patients with a class II injury undergoing microsurgical revascularization was 187.0 (n = 114), and the average 2-point discrimination was 8.3 (n = 40). The average TAM for patients with a class III injury undergoing microsurgical revascularization was 168.2 (n = 170), and the average 2-point discrimination was 10.5 (n = 97). Ring avulsion injuries are commonly classified with the Urbaniak class system. Outcomes are superior for class I and II injuries, and there are select class III injuries that can be treated with replantation. Shared decision making with patients is imperative to determine whether replantation is appropriate.

  18. Evolving colon injury management: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Lauren T; Gillern, Suzanne M; Vertrees, Amy E

    2013-02-01

    The colon is the second most commonly injured intra-abdominal organ in penetrating trauma. Management of traumatic colon injuries has evolved significantly over the past 200 years. Traumatic colon injuries can have a wide spectrum of severity, presentation, and management options. There is strong evidence that most non-destructive colon injuries can be successfully managed with primary repair or primary anastomosis. The management of destructive colon injuries remains controversial with most favoring resection with primary anastomosis and others favor colonic diversion in specific circumstances. The historical management of traumatic colon injuries, common mechanisms of injury, demographics, presentation, assessment, diagnosis, management, and complications of traumatic colon injuries both in civilian and military practice are reviewed. The damage control revolution has added another layer of complexity to management with continued controversy.

  19. Ubiquinol treatment for TBI in male rats: Effects on mitochondrial integrity, injury severity, and neurometabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Janet D; Gupte, Raeesa; Thimmesch, Amanda; Shen, Qiuhua; Hiebert, John B; Brooks, William M; Clancy, Richard L; Diaz, Francisco J; Harris, Janna L

    2018-06-01

    Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), there is significant secondary damage to cerebral tissue from increased free radicals and impaired mitochondrial function. This imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the effectiveness of cellular antioxidant defenses is termed oxidative stress. Often there are insufficient antioxidants to scavenge ROS, leading to alterations in cerebral structure and function. Attenuating oxidative stress following a TBI by administering an antioxidant may decrease secondary brain injury, and currently many drugs and supplements are being investigated. We explored an over-the-counter supplement called ubiquinol (reduced form of coenzyme Q10), a potent antioxidant naturally produced in brain mitochondria. We administered intra-arterial ubiquinol to rats to determine if it would reduce mitochondrial damage, apoptosis, and severity of a contusive TBI. Adult male F344 rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) Saline-TBI, (2) ubiquinol 30 minutes before TBI (UB-PreTBI), or (3) ubiquinol 30 minutes after TBI (UB-PostTBI). We found when ubiquinol was administered before or after TBI, rats had an acute reduction in brain mitochondrial damage, apoptosis, and two serum biomarkers of TBI severity, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1). However, in vivo neurometabolic assessment with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy did not show attenuated injury-induced changes. These findings are the first to show that ubiquinol preserves mitochondria and reduces cellular injury severity after TBI, and support further study of ubiquinol as a promising adjunct therapy for TBI. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Creatine protects against mitochondrial dysfunction associated with HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Patrick R.; Gawryluk, Jeremy W.; Hui, Liang; Chen, Xuesong; Geiger, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 infected individuals are living longer but experiencing a prevalence rate of over 50% for HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) for which no effective treatment is available. Viral and cellular factors secreted by HIV-1 infected cells leads to neuronal injury and HIV-1 Tat continues to be implicated in the pathogenesis of HAND. Here we tested the hypothesis that creatine protected against HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal injury by preventing mitochondrial bioenergetic crisis and/or redox catastrophe. Creatine blocked HIV-1 Tat1-72-induced increases in neuron cell death and synaptic area loss. Creatine protected against HIV-1 Tat-induced decreases in ATP. Creatine and creatine plus HIV-1 Tat increased cellular levels of creatine, and creatine plus HIV-1 Tat further decreased ratios of phosphocreatine to creatine observed with creatine or HIV-1 Tat treatments alone. Additionally, creatine protected against HIV-1 Tat-induced mitochondrial hypopolarization and HIV-1 Tat-induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. Thus, creatine may be a useful adjunctive therapy against HAND. PMID:25613139

  1. Selective scavenging of intra-mitochondrial superoxide corrects diclofenac-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and gastric injury: A novel gastroprotective mechanism independent of gastric acid suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Somnath; De, Rudranil; Sarkar, Souvik; Siddiqui, Asim Azhar; Saha, Shubhra Jyoti; Banerjee, Chinmoy; Iqbal, Mohd Shameel; Nag, Shiladitya; Debsharma, Subhashis; Bandyopadhyay, Uday

    2016-12-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used to treat multiple inflammatory diseases and pain but severe gastric mucosal damage is the worst outcome of NSAID-therapy. Here we report that mitoTEMPO, a mitochondrially targeted superoxide (O 2 - ) scavenger protected as well as healed gastric injury induced by diclofenac (DCF), the most commonly used NSAID. Common existing therapy against gastric injury involves suppression of gastric acid secretion by proton pump inhibitors and histamine H 2 receptor antagonists; however, dyspepsia, vitamin B12 deficiency and gastric microfloral dysbalance are the major drawbacks of acid suppression. Interestingly, mitoTEMPO did not inhibit gastric acid secretion but offered gastroprotection by preventing DCF-induced generation of O 2 - due to mitochondrial respiratory chain failure and by preventing mitochondrial oxidative stress (MOS)-mediated mitopathology. MitoTEMPO even restored DCF-stimulated reduced fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial depolarization and bioenergetic crisis in gastric mucosa. MitoTEMPO also prevented the activation of mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis and MOS-mediated proinflammatory signaling through NF-κB by DCF. Furthermore, mitoTEMPO when administered in rats with preformed gastric lesions expedited the healing of gastric injury and the healed stomach exhibited its normal physiology as evident from gastric acid and pepsin secretions under basal or stimulated conditions. Thus, in contrast to the existing antiulcer drugs, mitochondrially targeted O 2 - scavengers like mitoTEMPO may represent a novel class of gastroprotective molecules that does not affect gastric acid secretion and may be used in combination with DCF, keeping its anti-inflammatory action intact, while reducing its gastrodamaging effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mitochondrial Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bulent Kurt; Turgut Topal

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are the major energy source of cells. Mitochondrial disease occurs due to a defect in mitochondrial energy production. A valuable energy production in mitochondria depend a healthy interconnection between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. A mutation in nuclear or mitochondrial DNA may cause abnormalities in ATP production and single or multiple organ dysfunctions, secondarily. In this review, we summarize mitochondrial physiology, mitochondrial genetics, and clinical expression and ...

  3. Sexuality following trauma injury: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Kylie Marie Connell; Rosemary Coates; Fiona Melanie Wood

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of the quality of life (QoL) of trauma injury survivors is the aim of trauma rehabilitation. It is generally acknowledged that sexuality is an important component of QoL; however, rehabilitation services frequently fall short of including sexuality as a matter of routine. The literature was reviewed to examine the experiences of trauma survivors from three groups: spinal cord injury (SCI), traumatic brain injury (TBI) and burns. The focus was on the impact of trauma on the QoL to ...

  4. Mitochondrial autophagy involving renal injury and aging is modulated by caloric intake in aged rat kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing; Shi, Suozhu; Sun, Xuefeng; Cai, Guangyan; Cui, Shaoyuan; Hong, Quan; Chen, Xiangmei; Bai, Xue-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    A high-calorie (HC) diet induces renal injury and promotes aging, and calorie restriction (CR) may ameliorate these responses. However, the effects of long-term HC and CR on renal damage and aging have been not fully determined. Autophagy plays a crucial role in removing protein aggregates and damaged organelles to maintain intracellular homeostasis and function. The role of autophagy in HC-induced renal damage is unknown. We evaluated the expression of LC3/Atg8 as a marker of the autophagosome; p62/SQSTM1; polyubiquitin aggregates as markers of autophagy flux; Ambra1, PINK1, Parkin and Bnip3 as markers of mitophagy; 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a marker of DNA oxidative damage; and p16 as a marker of organ aging by western blot and immunohistochemical staining in the kidneys of 24-month-old Fischer 344 rats. We also observed mitochondrial structure and autolysosomes by transmission electron microscopy. Expression of the autophagosome formation marker LC3/Atg8 and markers of mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy) were markedly decreased in the kidneys of the HC group, and markedly increased in CR kidneys. p62/SQSTM1 and polyubiquitin aggregates increased in HC kidneys, and decreased in CR kidneys. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that HC kidneys showed severe abnormal mitochondrial morphology with fewer autolysosomes, while CR kidneys exhibited normal mitochondrial morphology with numerous autolysosomes. The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was increased in HC kidneys and decreased in CR kidneys. Markers of aging, such as p16 and senescence-associated-galactosidase, were increased significantly in the HC group and decreased significantly in the CR group. The study firstly suggests that HC diet inhibits renal autophagy and aggravates renal oxidative damage and aging, while CR enhances renal autophagy and ameliorates oxidative damage and aging in the kidneys.

  5. Mitochondrial damage: An important mechanism of ambient PM2.5 exposure-induced acute heart injury in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ruijin; Kou, Xiaojing; Geng, Hong; Xie, Jingfang; Tian, Jingjing; Cai, Zongwei; Dong, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PM 2.5 induces heart mitochondrial morphological damage of rats. • Mitochondrial fission/fusion gene expression is important regulation mechanism. • Proinflammatoy cytokine level changes are accompanied with mitochondrial damage. • Alterations in oxidative stress and calcium homeostasis are focused on. - Abstract: Epidemiological studies suggested that ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) exposure was associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanism, especially the mitochondrial damage mechanism, of PM 2.5 -induced heart acute injury is still unclear. In this study, the alterations of mitochondrial morphology and mitochondrial fission/fusion gene expression, oxidative stress, calcium homeostasis and inflammation in hearts of rats exposed to PM 2.5 with different dosages (0.375, 1.5, 6.0 and 24.0 mg/kg body weight) were investigated. The results indicated that the PM 2.5 exposure induced pathological changes and ultra-structural damage in hearts such as mitochondrial swell and cristae disorder. Furthermore, PM 2.5 exposure significantly increased specific mitochondrial fission/fusion gene (Fis1, Mfn1, Mfn2, Drp1 and OPA1) expression in rat hearts. These changes were accompanied by decreases of activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), Na + K + -ATPase and Ca 2+ -ATPase and increases of levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) as well as levels of pro-inflammatory mediators including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in rat hearts. The results implicate that mitochondrial damage, oxidative stress, cellular homeostasis imbalance and inflammation are potentially important mechanisms for the PM 2.5 -induced heart injury, and may have relations with cardiovascular disease

  6. Injury epidemiology in Iran: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Azami-Aghdash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Injuries are the second greatest cause of mortality in Iran. Information about the epidemiological pattern of injuries is effective in decision-making. In this regard, the aim of the current study is to elaborate on the epidemiology of injuries in Iran through a systematic review. Methods: Required data were collected searching the following key words and their Persian equivalents; trauma, injury, accident, epidemiology, prevalence, Pattern, etiology, risk factors and Iran. The following databases were searched: Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, MagIran, Iranian scientific information database (SID and Iran Medex. Some of the relevant journals and web sites were searched manually. The lists of references from the selected articles were also investigated. We have also searched the gray literature and consulted some experts. Results: Out of 2747 retrieved articles, 25 articles were finally included in the review. A total of 3234481 cases have been investigated. Mean (SD age among these cases was 30 (17.4 years. Males comprised 75.7% of all the patients. Only 31.1% of patients were transferred to hospital by ambulance. The most common mechanism of injuries was road traffic accidents (50.1%, followed by falls (22.3%. In road traffic accidents, motorcyclists have accounted for the majority of victims (45%. Roads were the most common accident scene for the injuries (57.5%. The most common injuries were to the head and neck. (47.3%. The mean (SD Injury Severity Score (ISS was 8.1(8.6%. The overall case-fatality proportion was 3.8% and 75% of all the mortalities related to road traffic accidents. Conclusions: The main priorities in reducing the burden of injuries include: the young, male target group, improving pre-hospital and ambulance services, preventing road traffic accidents, improving road safety and the safety of motorcyclists (compulsory helmet use, safer vehicles, dedicated motorcycle lanes.

  7. Nintendo related injuries and other problems: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalink, Maarten B; Heineman, Erik; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E N; ten Cate Hoedemaker, Henk O

    2014-12-16

    To identify all reported cases of injury and other problems caused by using a Nintendo video gaming system. Review. Search of PubMed and Embase in June 2014 for reports on injuries and other problems caused by using a Nintendo gaming system. Most of the 38 articles identified were case reports or case series. Injuries and problems ranged from neurological and psychological to surgical. Traditional controllers with buttons were associated with tendinitis of the extensor of the thumb. The joystick on the Nintendo 64 controller was linked to palmar ulceration. The motion sensitive Wii remote was associated with musculoskeletal problems and various traumas. Most problems are mild and prevalence is low. The described injuries were related to the way the games are controlled, which varies according to the video game console. © Jalink et al 2014.

  8. Accelerated recovery of renal mitochondrial and tubule homeostasis with SIRT1/PGC-1α activation following ischemia–reperfusion injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, Jason A., E-mail: funkj@musc.edu [Center for Cell Death, Injury, and Regeneration, Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Schnellmann, Rick G., E-mail: schnell@musc.edu [Center for Cell Death, Injury, and Regeneration, Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Charleston, SC 29401 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Kidney ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury elicits cellular injury in the proximal tubule, and mitochondrial dysfunction is a pathological consequence of I/R. Promoting mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) as a repair mechanism after injury may offer a unique strategy to restore both mitochondrial and organ function. Rats subjected to bilateral renal pedicle ligation for 22 min were treated once daily with the SIRT1 activator SRT1720 (5 mg/kg) starting 24 h after reperfusion until 72 h–144 h. SIRT1 expression was elevated in the renal cortex of rats after I/R + vehicle treatment (IRV), but was associated with less nuclear localization. SIRT1 expression was even further augmented and nuclear localization was restored in the kidneys of rats after I/R + SRT1720 treatment (IRS). PGC-1α was elevated at 72 h–144 h in IRV and IRS kidneys; however, SRT1720 treatment induced deacetylation of PGC-1α, a marker of activation. Mitochondrial proteins ATP synthase β, COX I, and NDUFB8, as well as mitochondrial respiration, were diminished 24 h–144 h in IRV rats, but were partially or fully restored in IRS rats. Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) was persistently elevated in both IRV and IRS rats; however, KIM-1 tissue expression was attenuated in IRS rats. Additionally, sustained loss of Na{sup +},K{sup +}–ATPase expression and basolateral localization and elevated vimentin in IRV rats was normalized in IRS rats, suggesting restoration of a differentiated, polarized tubule epithelium. The results suggest that SRT1720 treatment expedited recovery of mitochondrial protein expression and function by enhancing MB, which was associated with faster proximal tubule repair. Targeting MB may offer unique therapeutic strategy following ischemic injury. - Highlights: • We examined recovery of mitochondrial and renal function after ischemia–reperfusion. • SRT1720 treatment after I/R induced mitochondrial biogenesis via SIRT1/PGC-1α. • Recovery of mitochondrial function was

  9. Oxidative Damage and Mitochondrial Injuries Are Induced by Various Irrigation Pressures in Rabbit Models of Mild and Severe Hydronephrosis

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    Cao, Zhixiu; Yu, Weimin; Li, Wei; Cheng, Fan; Rao, Ting; Yao, Xiaobing; Zhang, Xiaobin; Larré, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to study whether tolerance to irrigation pressure could be modified by evaluating the oxidative damage of obstructed kidneys based on rabbit models experiencing different degrees of hydronephrosis. Methods A total of 66 rabbits were randomly divided into two experimental groups and a control group. In the experimental groups, the rabbits underwent a surgical procedure inducing mild (group M, n=24) or severe (group S, n=24) hydronephrosis. In each experimental group, the rabbits were then randomly divided into 4 subgroups (M0-M3 and S0-S3) consisting of 6 rabbits each. Group 0 received no perfusion. Groups 1 through 3 were perfused with 20, 60 and 100 mmHg fluid, respectively. For the control group, after a sham operation was performed, the rabbits were divided into 4 subgroups and were perfused with fluid at 0, 20, 60 or 100 mmHg of pressure. Kidney injuries was evaluated by neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL). Oxidative damage was assessed by analyzing superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT) and peroxide (H2O2) levels, mitochondrial injuries was assessed by mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), the mitochondrial ultrastructure and tubular cell apoptosis. Results In the experimental groups, all results were similar for groups 0 and 1. In group 2, abnormalities were observed in the S group only, and the kidneys of rabbits in group 3 suffered oxidative damage and mitochondrial injuries with increased NGAL, decreased Mn-SOD, GR and CAT,increased MDA and H2O2, lower levels of MMP, mitochondrial vacuolization and an increased apoptotic index. Conclusion In rabbits, severely obstructed kidneys were more susceptible to oxidative damage and mitochondrial injury than mildly obstructed kidneys when subjected to higher degrees of kidney perfusion pressure. PMID:26090815

  10. Oxidative Damage and Mitochondrial Injuries Are Induced by Various Irrigation Pressures in Rabbit Models of Mild and Severe Hydronephrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiu Cao

    Full Text Available We aimed to study whether tolerance to irrigation pressure could be modified by evaluating the oxidative damage of obstructed kidneys based on rabbit models experiencing different degrees of hydronephrosis.A total of 66 rabbits were randomly divided into two experimental groups and a control group. In the experimental groups, the rabbits underwent a surgical procedure inducing mild (group M, n=24 or severe (group S, n=24 hydronephrosis. In each experimental group, the rabbits were then randomly divided into 4 subgroups (M0-M3 and S0-S3 consisting of 6 rabbits each. Group 0 received no perfusion. Groups 1 through 3 were perfused with 20, 60 and 100 mmHg fluid, respectively. For the control group, after a sham operation was performed, the rabbits were divided into 4 subgroups and were perfused with fluid at 0, 20, 60 or 100 mmHg of pressure. Kidney injuries was evaluated by neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL. Oxidative damage was assessed by analyzing superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD activity, malondialdehyde (MDA levels, glutathione reductase (GR, catalase (CAT and peroxide (H2O2 levels, mitochondrial injuries was assessed by mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, the mitochondrial ultrastructure and tubular cell apoptosis.In the experimental groups, all results were similar for groups 0 and 1. In group 2, abnormalities were observed in the S group only, and the kidneys of rabbits in group 3 suffered oxidative damage and mitochondrial injuries with increased NGAL, decreased Mn-SOD, GR and CAT,increased MDA and H2O2, lower levels of MMP, mitochondrial vacuolization and an increased apoptotic index.In rabbits, severely obstructed kidneys were more susceptible to oxidative damage and mitochondrial injury than mildly obstructed kidneys when subjected to higher degrees of kidney perfusion pressure.

  11. Estrogen-related receptor α is essential for maintaining mitochondrial integrity in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushida, Keigo; Tanabe, Katsuyuki; Masuda, Kana; Tanimura, Satoshi; Miyake, Hiromasa; Arata, Yuka; Sugiyama, Hitoshi; Wada, Jun

    2018-04-15

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been associated with not only higher in-hospital mortality but also the subsequent development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent evidence has suggested the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired dynamics in the pathogenesis of AKI. Estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) is an orphan nuclear receptor that acts as a transcription factor to regulate the transcription of genes required for mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation. In the present study, we examined the effects of ERRα deficiency on the progression of AKI induced by cisplatin. Male C57BL/6 J wild-type and ERRα -/- mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg cisplatin. Seventy-two hours after the injection, kidney function and morphology were evaluated. ERRα expression was observed in renal tubules, and cisplatin inhibited its translocation into nuclei. ERRα deficiency exacerbated cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction and tubular injury, as well as oxidative stress and apoptosis. ERRα -/- mice kidneys revealed lower mitochondrial DNA content and swollen mitochondria with reduced cristae. In addition, these mice had lower expression of the mitochondrial fusion protein mitofusin-2. The cisplatin-induced decrease in mitochondrial DNA and altered mitochondrial structure were more severe in ERRα -/- mice. In cultured mouse proximal tubular epithelial cells, the ERRα inverse agonist XCT-790 significantly inhibited mitofusin-2 expression and induced mitochondrial fragmentation. Taken together, our findings suggest the involvement of ERRα in the progression of cisplatin-induced AKI probably through impaired mitochondrial dynamics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sevoflurane postconditioning improves myocardial mitochondrial respiratory function and reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by up-regulating HIF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Xie, Peng; Wu, Jianjiang; Yu, Jin; Yu, Tian; Wang, Haiying; Wang, Jiang; Xia, Zhengyuan; Zheng, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Sevoflurane postconditioning (SPostC) can exert myocardial protective effects similar to ischemic preconditioning. However, the exact myocardial protection mechanism by SPostC is unclear. Studies indicate that hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) maintains cellular respiration homeostasis by regulating mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme activity under hypoxic conditions. This study investigated whether SPostC could regulate the expression of myocardial HIF-1α and to improve mitochondrial respiratory function, thereby relieving myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. The myocardial ischemia-reperfusion rat model was established using the Langendorff isolated heart perfusion apparatus. Additionally, postconditioning was performed using sevoflurane alone or in combination with the HIF-1α inhibitor 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2). The changes in hemodynamic parameters, HIF-1α protein expression levels, mitochondrial respiratory function and enzyme activity, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production rates, and mitochondrial ultrastructure were measured or observed. Compared to the ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) group, HIF-1α expression in the SPostC group was significantly up-regulated. Additionally, cardiac function indicators, mitochondrial state 3 respiratory rate, respiratory control ratio (RCR), cytochrome C oxidase (C c O), NADH oxidase (NADHO), and succinate oxidase (SUCO) activities, mitochondrial ROS production rate, and mitochondrial ultrastructure were significantly better than those in the I/R group. However, these advantages were completely reversed by the HIF-1α specific inhibitor 2ME2 ( P <0.05). The myocardial protective function of SPostC might be associated with the improvement of mitochondrial respiratory function after up-regulation of HIF-1α expression.

  13. Dissociation of DNA damage and mitochondrial injury caused by hydrogen peroxide in SV-40 transformed lung epithelial cells

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    Adcock Ian M

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since lung epithelial cells are constantly being exposed to reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs, the alveolar surface is a major site of oxidative stress, and each cell type may respond differently to oxidative stress. We compared the extent of oxidative DNA damage with that of mitochondrial injury in lung epithelial cells at the single cell level. Result DNA damage and mitochondrial injury were measured after oxidative stress in the SV-40 transformed lung epithelial cell line challenged with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Single cell analysis of DNA damage was determined by assessing the number of 8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG positive cells, a marker of DNA modification, and the length of a comet tail. Mitochondrial membrane potential, ΔΨm, was determined using JC-1. A 1 h pulse of H2O2 induced small amounts of apoptosis (3%. 8-oxo-dG-positive cells and the length of the comet tail increased within 1 h of exposure to H2O2. The number of cells with reduced ΔΨm increased after the addition of H2O2 in a concentration-dependent manner. In spite of a continual loss of ΔΨm, DNA fragmentation was reduced 2 h after exposure to H2O2. Conclusion The data suggest that SV-40 transformed lung epithelial cells are resistant to oxidative stress, showing that DNA damage can be dissociated from mitochondrial injury.

  14. Mechanism of Mitochondrial Connexin43′s Protection of the Neurovascular Unit under Acute Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

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    Shuai Hou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We observed mitochondrial connexin43 (mtCx43 expression under cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury, analyzed its regulation, and explored its protective mechanisms. Wistar rats were divided into groups based on injections received before middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO. Cerebral infarction volume was detected by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolim chloride staining, and cell apoptosis was observed by transferase dUTP nick end labeling. We used transmission electron microscopy to observe mitochondrial morphology and determined superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and malondialdehyde (MDA content. MtCx43, p-mtCx43, protein kinase C (PKC, and p-PKC expression were detected by Western blot. Compared with those in the IR group, cerebral infarction volumes in the carbenoxolone (CBX and diazoxide (DZX groups were obviously smaller, and the apoptosis indices were down-regulated. Mitochondrial morphology was damaged after I/R, especially in the IR and 5-hydroxydecanoic acid (5-HD groups. Similarly, decreased SOD activity and increased MDA were observed after MCAO; CBX, DZX, and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA reduced mitochondrial functional injury. Expression of mtCx43 and p-mtCx43 and the p-Cx43/Cx43 ratio were significantly lower in the IR group than in the sham group. These abnormalities were ameliorated by CBX, DZX, and PMA. MtCx43 may protect the neurovascular unit from acute cerebral IR injury via PKC activation induced by mitoKATP channel agonists.

  15. TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY CHILDREN: A LITERATURE REVIEW

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    Denismar Borges de Miranda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to know the scientific literature on head injury in children. Method: this study is an integrative review of published articles in the database SciELO the period 2000-2010. Results: 10 articles were analyzed, from which emerged four categories: causes of traumatic brain child infant prognosis of traumatic brain child, treating children victims of child head injury and complications of therapy used for child victims of traumatic brain injury in children. Conclusions: there is consensus among the authors investigated the factors associated with better prognosis of traumatic brain child, remain vague and uncertain. They add that the success of this customer service related to the control of complications arising from cerebral trauma and mostly are treatable and / or preventable.

  16. The axon-protective WLD(S) protein partially rescues mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis after axonal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godzik, Katharina; Coleman, Michael P

    2015-04-01

    The axon-protective Wallerian degeneration slow (WLD(S)) protein can ameliorate the decline in axonal ATP levels after neurite transection. Here, we tested the hypothesis that this effect is associated with maintenance of mitochondrial respiration and/or glycolysis. We used isolated neurites of superior cervical ganglion (SCG) cultures in the Seahorse XF-24 Metabolic Flux Analyser to determine mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis under different conditions. We observed that both mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis declined significantly during the latent phase of Wallerian degeneration. WLD(S) partially reduced the decline both in glycolysis and in mitochondrial respiration. In addition, we found that depleting NAD levels in uncut cultures led to changes in mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis similar to those rescued by WLD(S) after cut, suggesting that the maintenance of NAD levels in Wld(S) neurites after axonal injury at least partially underlies the maintenance of ATP levels. However, by using another axon-protective mutation (Sarm1(-/-)), we could demonstrate that rescue of basal ECAR (and hence probably glycolysis) rather than basal OCR (mitochondrial respiration) may be part of the protective phenotype to delay Wallerian degeneration. These findings open new routes to study glycolysis and the connection between NAD and ATP levels in axon degeneration, which may help to eventually develop therapeutic strategies to treat neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Ripk3 induces mitochondrial apoptosis via inhibition of FUNDC1 mitophagy in cardiac IR injury

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    Hao Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ripk3-required necroptosis and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis are the predominant types of cell death that largely account for the development of cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI. Here, we explored the effect of Ripk3 on mitochondrial apoptosis. Compared with wild-type mice, the infarcted area in Ripk3-deficient (Ripk3-/- mice had a relatively low abundance of apoptotic cells. Moreover, the loss of Ripk3 protected the mitochondria against IRI and inhibited caspase9 apoptotic pathways. These protective effects of Ripk3 deficiency were relied on mitophagy activation. However, inhibition of mitophagy under Ripk3 deficiency enhanced cardiomyocyte and endothelia apoptosis, augmented infarcted area and induced microvascular dysfunction. Furthermore, ischemia activated mitophagy by modifying FUNDC1 dephosphorylation, which substantively engulfed mitochondria debris and cytochrome-c, thus blocking apoptosis signal. However, reperfusion injury elevated the expression of Ripk3 which disrupted FUNDC1 activation and abated mitophagy, increasing the likelihood of apoptosis. In summary, this study confirms the promotive effect of Ripk3 on mitochondria-mediated apoptosis via inhibition of FUNDC1-dependent mitophagy in cardiac IRI. These findings provide new insight into the roles of Ripk3-related necroptosis, mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and FUNDC1-required mitophagy in cardiac IRI.

  18. Respiratory mechanics in brain injury: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoukou, Antonia; Katsiari, Maria; Orfanos, Stylianos E; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Daganou, Maria; Kyriakopoulou, Magdalini; Koulouris, Nikolaos G; Rovina, Nikoletta

    2016-02-04

    Several clinical and experimental studies have shown that lung injury occurs shortly after brain damage. The responsible mechanisms involve neurogenic pulmonary edema, inflammation, the harmful action of neurotransmitters, or autonomic system dysfunction. Mechanical ventilation, an essential component of life support in brain-damaged patients (BD), may be an additional traumatic factor to the already injured or susceptible to injury lungs of these patients thus worsening lung injury, in case that non lung protective ventilator settings are applied. Measurement of respiratory mechanics in BD patients, as well as assessment of their evolution during mechanical ventilation, may lead to preclinical lung injury detection early enough, allowing thus the selection of the appropriate ventilator settings to avoid ventilator-induced lung injury. The aim of this review is to explore the mechanical properties of the respiratory system in BD patients along with the underlying mechanisms, and to translate the evidence of animal and clinical studies into therapeutic implications regarding the mechanical ventilation of these critically ill patients.

  19. Chymase mediates injury and mitochondrial damage in cardiomyocytes during acute ischemia/reperfusion in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Junying; Wei, Chih-Chang; Hase, Naoki; Shi, Ke; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Litovsky, Silvio H; Powell, Pamela C; Kobayashi, Tsunefumi; Ferrario, Carlos M; Rab, Andras; Aban, Inmaculada; Collawn, James F; Dell'Italia, Louis J

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury occurs because the acute increase in oxidative/inflammatory stress during reperfusion culminates in the death of cardiomyocytes. Currently, there is no drug utilized clinically that attenuates I/R injury in patients. Previous studies have demonstrated degranulation of mast cell contents into the interstitium after I/R. Using a dog model of I/R, we tested the role of chymase, a mast cell protease, in cardiomyocyte injury using a specific oral chymase inhibitor (CI). 15 adult mongrel dogs had left anterior descending artery occlusion for 60 min and reperfusion for 100 minutes. 9 dogs received vehicle and 6 were pretreated with a specific CI. In vivo cardiac microdialysis demonstrated a 3-fold increase in interstitial fluid chymase activity in I/R region that was significantly decreased by CI. CI pretreatment significantly attenuated loss of laminin, focal adhesion complex disruption, and release of troponin I into the circulation. Microarray analysis identified an I/R induced 17-fold increase in nuclear receptor subfamily 4A1 (NR4A1) and significantly decreased by CI. NR4A1 normally resides in the nucleus but can induce cell death on migration to the cytoplasm. I/R caused significant increase in NR4A1 protein expression and cytoplasmic translocation, and mitochondrial degradation, which were decreased by CI. Immunohistochemistry also revealed a high concentration of chymase within cardiomyocytes after I/R. In vitro, chymase added to culture HL-1 cardiomyocytes entered the cytoplasm and nucleus in a dynamin-dependent fashion, and promoted cytoplasmic translocation of NR4A1 protein. shRNA knockdown of NR4A1 on pre-treatment of HL-1 cells with CI significantly decreased chymase-induced cell death and mitochondrial damage. These results suggest that the beneficial effects of an orally active CI during I/R are mediated in the cardiac interstitium as well as within the cardiomyocyte due to a heretofore-unrecognized chymase

  20. Chymase mediates injury and mitochondrial damage in cardiomyocytes during acute ischemia/reperfusion in the dog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junying Zheng

    Full Text Available Cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (I/R injury occurs because the acute increase in oxidative/inflammatory stress during reperfusion culminates in the death of cardiomyocytes. Currently, there is no drug utilized clinically that attenuates I/R injury in patients. Previous studies have demonstrated degranulation of mast cell contents into the interstitium after I/R. Using a dog model of I/R, we tested the role of chymase, a mast cell protease, in cardiomyocyte injury using a specific oral chymase inhibitor (CI. 15 adult mongrel dogs had left anterior descending artery occlusion for 60 min and reperfusion for 100 minutes. 9 dogs received vehicle and 6 were pretreated with a specific CI. In vivo cardiac microdialysis demonstrated a 3-fold increase in interstitial fluid chymase activity in I/R region that was significantly decreased by CI. CI pretreatment significantly attenuated loss of laminin, focal adhesion complex disruption, and release of troponin I into the circulation. Microarray analysis identified an I/R induced 17-fold increase in nuclear receptor subfamily 4A1 (NR4A1 and significantly decreased by CI. NR4A1 normally resides in the nucleus but can induce cell death on migration to the cytoplasm. I/R caused significant increase in NR4A1 protein expression and cytoplasmic translocation, and mitochondrial degradation, which were decreased by CI. Immunohistochemistry also revealed a high concentration of chymase within cardiomyocytes after I/R. In vitro, chymase added to culture HL-1 cardiomyocytes entered the cytoplasm and nucleus in a dynamin-dependent fashion, and promoted cytoplasmic translocation of NR4A1 protein. shRNA knockdown of NR4A1 on pre-treatment of HL-1 cells with CI significantly decreased chymase-induced cell death and mitochondrial damage. These results suggest that the beneficial effects of an orally active CI during I/R are mediated in the cardiac interstitium as well as within the cardiomyocyte due to a heretofore

  1. Altering CO2 during reperfusion of ischemic cardiomyocytes modifies mitochondrial oxidant injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavani, Romeen; Chang, Wei-Tien; Anderson, Travis; Shao, Zuo-Hui; Wojcik, Kimberly R; Li, Chang-Qing; Pietrowski, Robert; Beiser, David G; Idris, Ahamed H; Hamann, Kimm J; Becker, Lance B; Vanden Hoek, Terry L

    2007-07-01

    Acute changes in tissue CO2 and pH during reperfusion of the ischemic heart may affect ischemia/reperfusion injury. We tested whether gradual vs. acute decreases in CO2 after cardiomyocyte ischemia affect reperfusion oxidants and injury. Comparative laboratory investigation. Institutional laboratory. Embryonic chick cardiomyocytes. Microscope fields of approximately 500 chick cardiomyocytes were monitored throughout 1 hr of simulated ischemia (PO2 of 3-5 torr, PCO2 of 144 torr, pH 6.8), followed by 3 hrs of reperfusion (PO2 of 149 torr, PCO2 of 36 torr, pH 7.4), and compared with cells reperfused with relative hypercarbia (PCO2 of 71 torr, pH 6.8) or hypocarbia (PCO2 of 7 torr, pH 7.9). The measured outcomes included cell viability (via propidium iodide) and oxidant generation (reactive oxygen species via 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin oxidation and nitric oxide [NO] via 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate oxidation). Compared with normocarbic reperfusion, hypercarbia significantly reduced cell death from 54.8% +/- 4.0% to 26.3% +/- 2.8% (p < .001), significantly decreased reperfusion reactive oxygen species (p < .05), and increased NO at a later phase of reperfusion (p < .01). The NO synthase inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (200 microM) reversed this oxidant attenuation (p < .05), NO increase (p < .05), and the cardioprotection conferred by hypercarbic reperfusion (increasing death to 54.3% +/- 6.0% [p < .05]). Conversely, hypocarbic reperfusion increased cell death to 80.4% +/- 4.5% (p < .01). It also increased reactive oxygen species by almost two-fold (p = .052), without affecting the NO level thereafter. Increased reactive oxygen species was attenuated by the mitochondrial complex III inhibitor stigmatellin (20 nM) when given at reperfusion (p < .05). Cell death also decreased from 85.9% +/- 4.5% to 52.2% +/- 6.5% (p < .01). The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase inhibitor apocynin (300 microM) had no effect on reperfusion reactive oxygen

  2. High-throughput respirometric assay identifies predictive toxicophore of mitochondrial injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wills, Lauren P. [MitoHealth Inc., Charleston, SC 29403 (United States); Beeson, Gyda C.; Trager, Richard E.; Lindsey, Christopher C. [Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Beeson, Craig C. [MitoHealth Inc., Charleston, SC 29403 (United States); Peterson, Yuri K. [Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Schnellmann, Rick G., E-mail: schnell@musc.edu [Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Charleston, SC 29401 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Many environmental chemicals and drugs negatively affect human health through deleterious effects on mitochondrial function. Currently there is no chemical library of mitochondrial toxicants, and no reliable methods for predicting mitochondrial toxicity. We hypothesized that discrete toxicophores defined by distinct chemical entities can identify previously unidentified mitochondrial toxicants. We used a respirometric assay to screen 1760 compounds (5 μM) from the LOPAC and ChemBridge DIVERSet libraries. Thirty-one of the assayed compounds decreased uncoupled respiration, a stress test for mitochondrial dysfunction, prior to a decrease in cell viability and reduced the oxygen consumption rate in isolated mitochondria. The mitochondrial toxicants were grouped by chemical similarity and two clusters containing four compounds each were identified. Cheminformatic analysis of one of the clusters identified previously uncharacterized mitochondrial toxicants from the ChemBridge DIVERSet. This approach will enable the identification of mitochondrial toxicants and advance the prediction of mitochondrial toxicity for both drug discovery and risk assessment. - Highlights: • Respirometric assay conducted in RPTC to create mitochondrial toxicant database. • Chemically similar mitochondrial toxicants aligned as mitochondrial toxicophores • Mitochondrial toxicophore identifies five novel mitochondrial toxicants.

  3. High-throughput respirometric assay identifies predictive toxicophore of mitochondrial injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, Lauren P.; Beeson, Gyda C.; Trager, Richard E.; Lindsey, Christopher C.; Beeson, Craig C.; Peterson, Yuri K.; Schnellmann, Rick G.

    2013-01-01

    Many environmental chemicals and drugs negatively affect human health through deleterious effects on mitochondrial function. Currently there is no chemical library of mitochondrial toxicants, and no reliable methods for predicting mitochondrial toxicity. We hypothesized that discrete toxicophores defined by distinct chemical entities can identify previously unidentified mitochondrial toxicants. We used a respirometric assay to screen 1760 compounds (5 μM) from the LOPAC and ChemBridge DIVERSet libraries. Thirty-one of the assayed compounds decreased uncoupled respiration, a stress test for mitochondrial dysfunction, prior to a decrease in cell viability and reduced the oxygen consumption rate in isolated mitochondria. The mitochondrial toxicants were grouped by chemical similarity and two clusters containing four compounds each were identified. Cheminformatic analysis of one of the clusters identified previously uncharacterized mitochondrial toxicants from the ChemBridge DIVERSet. This approach will enable the identification of mitochondrial toxicants and advance the prediction of mitochondrial toxicity for both drug discovery and risk assessment. - Highlights: • Respirometric assay conducted in RPTC to create mitochondrial toxicant database. • Chemically similar mitochondrial toxicants aligned as mitochondrial toxicophores • Mitochondrial toxicophore identifies five novel mitochondrial toxicants

  4. Non-accidental injury: a review of the radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carty, H.

    1997-01-01

    There have been many descriptions of the radiological features of non-accidental injury since John Caffey introduced the concept of inflicted injury and initially described some of the patterns of injury. Since then, our understanding of the radiologically detectable injuries has increased. This article provides a review of our current understanding of the lesions. (orig.)

  5. Sexuality following trauma injury: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie Marie Connell

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of the quality of life (QoL of trauma injury survivors is the aim of trauma rehabilitation. It is generally acknowledged that sexuality is an important component of QoL; however, rehabilitation services frequently fall short of including sexuality as a matter of routine. The literature was reviewed to examine the experiences of trauma survivors from three groups: spinal cord injury (SCI, traumatic brain injury (TBI and burns. The focus was on the impact of trauma on the QoL to identify future research directions and to advocate for the inclusion of sexuality as an integral part of rehabilitation. Databases searched were Proquest, Ovid, Cinahl, Medline, PsycInfo and Cochrane Central Register of controlled trials. A total of 36 eligible studies were included: SCI (n = 25, TBI (n = 6, burns (n = 5. Four themes were identified across the three trauma groups that were labeled as physiological impact of trauma on sexuality, cognitive-genital dissociation (CGD, sexual disenfranchisement (SD and sexual rediscovery (SR. Trauma injury has a significant impact on sexuality, which is not routinely addressed within rehabilitation services. Further sexuality research is required among all trauma groups to improve rehabilitation services and in turn QoL outcomes for all trauma survivors.

  6. Mitochondrial Optic Atrophy (OPA) 1 Processing Is Altered in Response to Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburamani, Ana A.; Hurling, Chloe; Stolp, Helen; Sobotka, Kristina; Gressens, Pierre; Hagberg, Henrik; Thornton, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Perturbation of mitochondrial function and subsequent induction of cell death pathways are key hallmarks in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury, both in animal models and in term infants. Mitoprotective therapies therefore offer a new avenue for intervention for the babies who suffer life-long disabilities as a result of birth asphyxia. Here we show that after oxygen-glucose deprivation in primary neurons or in a mouse model of HI, mitochondrial protein homeostasis is altered, manifesting as a change in mitochondrial morphology and functional impairment. Furthermore we find that the mitochondrial fusion and cristae regulatory protein, OPA1, is aberrantly cleaved to shorter forms. OPA1 cleavage is normally regulated by a balanced action of the proteases Yme1L and Oma1. However, in primary neurons or after HI in vivo, protein expression of YmelL is also reduced, whereas no change is observed in Oma1 expression. Our data strongly suggest that alterations in mitochondria-shaping proteins are an early event in the pathogenesis of neonatal HI injury. PMID:26393574

  7. Self-injury and externalizing pathology: a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Meszaros, Gergely; Horvath, Lili Olga; Balazs, Judit

    2017-01-01

    Background During the last decade there is a growing scientific interest in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). The aim of the current paper was to review systematically the literature with a special focus on the associations between self-injurious behaviours and externalizing psychopathology. An additional aim was to review terminology and measurements of self-injurious behaviour and the connection between self-injurious behaviours and suicide in the included publications. Methods A systematic l...

  8. The Role of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species in Cardiovascular Injury and Protective Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danina M. Muntean

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R injury of the heart represents a major health burden mainly associated with acute coronary syndromes. While timely coronary reperfusion has become the established routine therapy in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, the restoration of blood flow into the previously ischaemic area is always accompanied by myocardial injury. The central mechanism involved in this phenomenon is represented by the excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Besides their harmful role when highly generated during early reperfusion, minimal ROS formation during ischaemia and/or at reperfusion is critical for the redox signaling of cardioprotection. In the past decades, mitochondria have emerged as the major source of ROS as well as a critical target for cardioprotective strategies at reperfusion. Mitochondria dysfunction associated with I/R myocardial injury is further described and ultimately analyzed with respect to its role as source of both deleterious and beneficial ROS. Furthermore, the contribution of ROS in the highly investigated field of conditioning strategies is analyzed. In the end, the vascular sources of mitochondria-derived ROS are briefly reviewed.

  9. Effects of compression injury on brain mitochondrial and tissue viability evaluated by a multiparametric monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiro-Michaely, Efrat; Bachbut, Galit; Mayevsky, Avraham

    2008-02-01

    Neurosurgical procedures involve brain compression created by retractors. Although it is clear that retractors are causing damage to the brain tissue, the pathophysiology of the retraction was not investigated in details. In the present study we used the multiparametric monitoring approach for real time evaluation of mitochondrial function, hemodynamic, ionic and electrical activities monitored contralaterally to the retractor placement on the brain. The aims of the study were to test the effects of retractor size and severity of the compression on the degree of damage to the cerebral tissue. A special probe was lowered towards the cerebral cortex, (2mm and 4mm in depth) using a micromanipulator. Compression lasted for 30 minutes, than the retractor was elevated back to its initial position and monitoring continued for two hours. Additionally, two sizes of retractors were used 6mm and 3mm in diameter, the 3mm retractor included an intracranial pressure (ICP) probe. The results show that the combination of a large retractor with the depth of 4mm yielded high mortality rate (62%) of the rats while the use of a smaller retractor decreased significantly the percentage of mortality. Also, compression to the depth of 4mm increased tissue injury as compared to 2mm depth. In conclusion, the present study raises the importance and significance of multiparametric monitoring, and not only ICP and cerebral blood flow of the areas nearby the retractor position and not only the retraction site, as well as the effect of the retractor size on the damage induced to the cerebral tissue.

  10. Epidemiology of Figure Skating Injuries: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Julie S; Geminiani, Ellen T; Micheli, Lyle J

    2018-05-01

    As the popularity and technical demands of figure skating increase, so will the number of athletes presenting with sport-related problems. Searches were performed across PubMed from 1980 to 2017. The keywords searched were skating, skaters, incidence, and injuries. The search was limited to English-language articles and human participants. Relevant articles were cross-referenced. Clinical review. Level 5. Previous studies suggest an increase in incidence of figure skating injuries from 1982 to 2003. When combining all disciplines of figure skating, there is a similar proportion of acute and overuse injuries. Within disciplines, overuse injuries appear to be more common in singles skating, while acute injuries are more common in pairs skating, ice dancing, and synchronized skating. Lower extremity injuries are more common than upper extremity injuries in all disciplines, and pairs skating accounts for the majority of upper extremity injuries. Ankle sprains are the most common skating injury, and patellar tendinitis is the most common overuse injury across all disciplines. Stress fractures are the most common overuse injury in female singles skaters. The predominance of overuse injuries in singles disciplines reflects their increasing technical difficulty, with more difficult jumps and longer training hours. Partner disciplines are more likely to involve acute injuries and upper extremity injuries due to high-risk throws and lifts. Emphasis should be placed on properly fitting skating boots, intrinsic foot and ankle strengthening, and lower extremity flexibility, which may prevent many of the common lower extremity and back injuries in figure skating.

  11. Sport Injuries Sustained by Athletes with Disability: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Weiler, Richard; Van Mechelen, Willem; Fuller, Colin; Verhagen, Evert

    2016-01-01

    Background Fifteen percent of the world?s population live with disability, and many of these individuals choose to play sport. There are barriers to sport participation for athletes with disability and sports injury can greatly impact on daily life, which makes sports injury prevention additionally important. Objective The purpose of this review is to systematically review the definitions, methodologies and injury rates in disability sport, which should assist future identification of risk fa...

  12. Injuries among weightlifters and powerlifters: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasa, Ulrika; Svartholm, Ivar; Andersson, Fredrik; Berglund, Lars

    2017-02-01

    Olympic weightlifting and powerlifting are two sports that expose the body to great forces. Injury characteristics have not been systematically reviewed for these two growing sports. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature regarding various definitions of injuries used, injury localisation, the prevalence and incidence of injuries and the associated risk factors for injuries in weightlifting and powerlifting. Systematic review. Five databases, PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Scopus and Web of Science, were searched between 9 March and 6 April 2015. Studies assessing injury incidence and prevalence in Olympic weightlifting and powerlifting were included. The Quality assessment tool for observational cohort and cross-sectional studies was used to assess methodological quality. 9 studies were included in the review. Injury was defined fairly consistently across studies. Most studies were of low methodological quality. The spine, shoulder and the knee were the most common injury localisations in both sports. The injury incidence in weightlifting was 2.4-3.3 injuries/1000 hours of training and 1.0-4.4 injuries/1000 hours of training in powerlifting. Only one retrospective study had analysed possible risk factors. The risk of injury in both sports were similar to other non-contact sports also requiring strength/power, but low compared to contact sports. The severity of injuries differed in the included studies. Since little has been studied regarding possible risk factors to injuries, further research is therefore warranted to explain why athletes get injured and how to prevent injuries. PROSPERO CRD42015014805. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Moderate ethanol administration accentuates cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction and mitochondrial injury in high fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; Lei, Yonghong; Wang, Qiurong; Esberg, Lucy B; Huang, Zaixing; Scott, Glenda I; Li, Xue; Ren, Jun

    2015-03-18

    Light to moderate drinking confers cardioprotection although it remains unclear with regards to the role of moderate drinking on cardiac function in obesity. This study was designed to examine the impact of moderate ethanol intake on myocardial function in high fat diet intake-induced obesity and the mechanism(s) involved with a focus on mitochondrial integrity. C57BL/6 mice were fed low or high fat diet for 16 weeks prior to ethanol challenge (1g/kg/d for 3 days). Cardiac contractile function, intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, myocardial histology, and mitochondrial integrity [aconitase activity and the mitochondrial proteins SOD1, UCP-2 and PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α)] were assessed 24h after the final ethanol challenge. Fat diet intake compromised cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties (depressed peak shortening and maximal velocities of shortening/relengthening, prolonged duration of relengthening, dampened intracellular Ca(2+) rise and clearance without affecting duration of shortening). Although moderate ethanol challenge failed to alter cardiomyocyte mechanical property under low fat diet intake, it accentuated high fat diet intake-induced changes in cardiomyocyte contractile function and intracellular Ca(2+) handling. Moderate ethanol challenge failed to affect fat diet intake-induced cardiac hypertrophy as evidenced by H&E staining. High fat diet intake reduced myocardial aconitase activity, downregulated levels of mitochondrial protein UCP-2, PGC-1α, SOD1 and interrupted intracellular Ca(2+) regulatory proteins, the effect of which was augmented by moderate ethanol challenge. Neither high fat diet intake nor moderate ethanol challenge affected protein or mRNA levels as well as phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β in mouse hearts. Taken together, our data revealed that moderate ethanol challenge accentuated high fat diet-induced cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) anomalies as well as mitochondrial injury. Copyright

  14. C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase 2 Promotes Liver Injury via the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition after Hemorrhage and Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Czerny

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic shock leads to hepatic hypoperfusion and activation of mitogen-activated stress kinases (MAPK like c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK 1 and 2. Our aim was to determine whether mitochondrial dysfunction leading to hepatic necrosis and apoptosis after hemorrhage/resuscitation (H/R was dependent on JNK2. Under pentobarbital anesthesia, wildtype (WT and JNK2 deficient (KO mice were hemorrhaged to 30 mm Hg for 3 h and then resuscitated with shed blood plus half the volume of lactated Ringer’s solution. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, necrosis, apoptosis and oxidative stress were assessed 6 h after resuscitation. Mitochondrial polarization was assessed by intravital microscopy. After H/R, ALT in WT-mice increased from 130 U/L to 4800 U/L. In KO-mice, ALT after H/R was blunted to 1800 U/l (P<0.05. Necrosis, caspase-3 activity and ROS were all substantially decreased in KO compared to WT mice after H/R. After sham operation, intravital microscopy revealed punctate mitochondrial staining by rhodamine 123 (Rh123, indicating normal mitochondrial polarization. At 4 h after H/R, Rh123 staining became dim and diffuse in 58% of hepatocytes, indicating depolarization and onset of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT. By contrast, KO mice displayed less depolarization after H/R (23%, P<0.05. In conclusion, JNK2 contributes to MPT-mediated liver injury after H/R.

  15. INJURIES IN PROFESSIONAL DANCERS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allana Alexandre Cardoso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Movement is a fundamental element of dance, and the dancer’s body is the raw material through which the art of dance is expressed; for this, it demands the utmost discipline in the pursuit of technical and artistic excellence. To meet the professional demands, dancers are subjected to strenuous training routines, which can lead to the development of injuries in this environment. The objective was to examine the etiology, main affected segments, prevalence, and instruments used to evaluate the lesions in studies with professional dancers and/or in comparison with similar populations. We selected articles published in the last decade in the databases BIREME, LILACS, MEDLINE EBSCO, WEB OF SCIENCE, SCOPUS (Elsevier, and PubMed, with cross-sectional, observational cohort and case control design published in Portuguese, English, or Spanish. Systematic reviews, case studies, dissertations, theses, book chapters, cross-referenced articles, and studies published outside of the last decade were not included. The search used combinations of the terms “dancing* and athletic injuries* and musculoskeletal* and pain*”. A principal investigator and two reviewers conducted the survey and analyzed all the potentially relevant articles, initially by the abstract and title. Twelve articles were included, with 1,149 participants (965 professional dancers of classical ballet, modern dance, contemporary dance, and breakdance, 104 amateur dancers, and 80 elite athletes. Nine studies found simultaneous lesions with emphasis on the foot and ankle (n=4, upper and lower limbs lesions (n=4 and lower and upper limb joints (n=1. Other studies have found lesions in the anterior cruciate ligament (n=3. There was no agreement regarding the instruments for detecting lesions in professional, pre-professional, and amateur dancers. There was a prevalence of studies aimed at classical ballet modality, evidencing a higher frequency of lower limb involvement in

  16. Digital Imaging Analysis for the Study of Endotoxin-Induced Mitochondrial Ultrastructure Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandar S. Joshi

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary defects in mitochondrial function have been implicated in over 100 diverse diseases. In situ, mitochondria possess unique and well-defined morphology in normal healthy cells, but diseases linked to defective mitochondrial function are characterized by the presence of morphologically abnormal and swollen mitochondria with distorted cristae. In situ study of mitochondrial morphology is established as an indicator of mitochondrial health but thus far assessments have been via subjective evaluations by trained observers using discontinuous scoring systems. Here we investigated the value of digital imaging analysis to provide for unbiased, reproducible, and convenient evaluations of mitochondrial ultrastructure. Electron photomicrographs of ileal mucosal mitochondria were investigated using a scoring system previously described by us, and also analyzed digitally by using six digital parameters which define size, shape, and electron density characteristics of over 700 individual mitochondria. Statistically significant changes in mitochondrial morphology were detected in LPS treated animals relative to vehicle control using both the subjective scoring system and digital imaging parameters (p < 0:05. However, the imaging approach provided convenient and high throughput capabilities and was easily automated to remove investigator influences. These results illustrate significant changes in ileal mucosal mitochondrial ultrastructure during sepsis and demonstrate the value of digital imaging technology for routine assessments in this setting.

  17. Splenic injuries in athletes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Elizabeth H; Howard, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Splenic injuries can be challenging to the sports medicine physician. While these injuries are not common among athletes, they can have serious, potentially fatal consequences if not properly diagnosed and managed in a prompt and timely fashion. Currently, there are no evidence-based guidelines on returning athletes to previous levels of activity after sustaining a splenic injury. In addition, there is no consensus on follow-up imaging after injury. This article discusses the evaluation of athletes with blunt abdominal trauma for splenic injury, including the imaging, management, and current return-to-play guidelines.

  18. S-52, a novel nootropic compound, protects against β-amyloid induced neuronal injury by attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Zheng, Chun Yan; Qin, Guo Wei; Tang, Xi Can; Zhang, Hai Yan

    2012-10-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced oxidative DNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction may initiate and contribute to the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study evaluated the neuroprotective effects of S-52, a novel nootropic compound, on Aβ-induced mitochondrial failure. In an established paradigm of moderate cellular injury induced by Aβ, S-52 was observed to attenuate the toxicity of Aβ to energy metabolism, mitochondrial membrane structure, and key enzymes in the electron transport chain and tricarboxylic acid cycle. In addition, S-52 also effectively inhibited reactive oxygen species accumulation dose dependently not only in Aβ-harmed cells but also in unharmed, normal cells. The role of S-52 as a scavenger of free radicals is involved in the antioxidative effect of this compound. The beneficial effects on mitochondria and oxidative stress extend the neuroprotective effects of S-52. The present study provides crucial information for better understanding the beneficial profiles of this compound and discovering novel potential drug candidates for AD therapy. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Self-injury and externalizing pathology: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, Gergely; Horvath, Lili Olga; Balazs, Judit

    2017-05-03

    During the last decade there is a growing scientific interest in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). The aim of the current paper was to review systematically the literature with a special focus on the associations between self-injurious behaviours and externalizing psychopathology. An additional aim was to review terminology and measurements of self-injurious behaviour and the connection between self-injurious behaviours and suicide in the included publications. A systematic literature search was conducted on 31st December 2016 in five databases (PubMed, OVID Medline, OVID PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science) with two categories of search terms (1. nonsuicidal self-injury, non-suicidal self-injury, NSSI, self-injurious behaviour, SIB, deliberate self-harm, DSH, self-injury; 2. externalizing disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, conduct disorder, CD, oppositional defiant disorder, OD, ODD). Finally 35 papers were included. Eleven different terms were found for describing self-injurious behaviours and 20 methods for measuring it. NSSI has the clearest definition. All the examined externalizing psychopathologies had strong associations with self-injurious behaviours according to: higher prevalence rates in externalizing groups than in control groups, higher externalizing scores on the externalizing scales of questionnaires, higher symptom severity in self-injurious groups. Eight studies investigated the relationship between suicide and self-injurious behaviours and found high overlap between the two phenomena and similar risk factors. Based on the current findings the association between externalizing psychopathology and self-injurious behaviours has been proven by the scientific literature. Similarly to other reviews on self-injurious behaviours the confusion in terminology and methodology was noticed. NSSI is suggested for use as a distinct term. Further studies should investigate the role of comorbid conditions in NSSI, especially when internalizing

  20. Bax-mediated mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), distinct from the mitochondrial permeability transition, is a key mechanism in diclofenac-induced hepatocyte injury: Multiple protective roles of cyclosporin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Woen Ping; Pun, Pamela Boon Li; Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Boelsterli, Urs A

    2008-03-15

    Diclofenac, a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, has been associated with rare but severe cases of clinical hepatotoxicity. Diclofenac causes concentration-dependent cell death in human hepatocytes (after 24-48 h) by mitochondrial permeabilization via poorly defined mechanisms. To explore whether the cyclophilin D (CyD)-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) and/or the mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) was primarily involved in mediating cell death, we exposed immortalized human hepatocytes (HC-04) to apoptogenic concentrations of diclofenac (>500 microM) in the presence or absence of inhibitors of upstream mediators. The CyD inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA, 2 microM) fully inhibited diclofenac-induced cell injury, suggesting that mPT was involved. However, CyD gene silencing using siRNA left the cells susceptible to diclofenac toxicity, and CsA still protected the CyD-negative cells from lethal injury. Diclofenac induced early (9 h) activation of Bax and Bak and caused mitochondrial translocation of Bax, indicating that MOMP was involved in cell death. Inhibition of Bax protein expression by using siRNA significantly protected HC-04 from diclofenac-induced cell injury. Diclofenac also induced early Bid activation (tBid formation, 6 h), which is an upstream mechanism that initiates Bax activation and mitochondrial translocation. Bid activation was sensitive to the Ca2+ chelator, BAPTA. In conclusion, we found that Bax/Bak-mediated MOMP is a key mechanism of diclofenac-induced lethal cell injury in human hepatocytes, and that CsA can prevent MOMP through inhibition of Bax activation. These data support our concept that the Ca2+-Bid-Bax-MOMP axis is a critical pathway in diclofenac (metabolite)-induced hepatocyte injury.

  1. Bax-mediated mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), distinct from the mitochondrial permeability transition, is a key mechanism in diclofenac-induced hepatocyte injury: Multiple protective roles of cyclosporin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siu, W.P.; Pun, Pamela Boon Li; Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Boelsterli, Urs A.

    2008-01-01

    Diclofenac, a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, has been associated with rare but severe cases of clinical hepatotoxicity. Diclofenac causes concentration-dependent cell death in human hepatocytes (after 24-48 h) by mitochondrial permeabilization via poorly defined mechanisms. To explore whether the cyclophilin D (CyD)-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) and/or the mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) was primarily involved in mediating cell death, we exposed immortalized human hepatocytes (HC-04) to apoptogenic concentrations of diclofenac (> 500 μM) in the presence or absence of inhibitors of upstream mediators. The CyD inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA, 2 μM) fully inhibited diclofenac-induced cell injury, suggesting that mPT was involved. However, CyD gene silencing using siRNA left the cells susceptible to diclofenac toxicity, and CsA still protected the CyD-negative cells from lethal injury. Diclofenac induced early (9 h) activation of Bax and Bak and caused mitochondrial translocation of Bax, indicating that MOMP was involved in cell death. Inhibition of Bax protein expression by using siRNA significantly protected HC-04 from diclofenac-induced cell injury. Diclofenac also induced early Bid activation (tBid formation, 6 h), which is an upstream mechanism that initiates Bax activation and mitochondrial translocation. Bid activation was sensitive to the Ca 2+ chelator, BAPTA. In conclusion, we found that Bax/Bak-mediated MOMP is a key mechanism of diclofenac-induced lethal cell injury in human hepatocytes, and that CsA can prevent MOMP through inhibition of Bax activation. These data support our concept that the Ca 2+ -Bid-Bax-MOMP axis is a critical pathway in diclofenac (metabolite)-induced hepatocyte injury

  2. The impact of partial manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2)-deficiency on mitochondrial oxidant stress, DNA fragmentation and liver injury during acetaminophen hepatotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, Anup; Lebofsky, Margitta; Weinman, Steven A.; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2011-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is the most frequent cause of acute liver failure in many countries. The mechanism of cell death is initiated by formation of a reactive metabolite that binds to mitochondrial proteins and promotes mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidant stress. Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) is a critical defense enzyme located in the mitochondrial matrix. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the functional consequences of partial SOD2-deficiency (SOD2+/-) on intracellular signaling mechanisms of necrotic cell death after APAP overdose. Treatment of C57Bl/6J wild type animals with 200 mg/kg APAP resulted in liver injury as indicated by elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase activities (2870 ± 180 U/L) and centrilobular necrosis at 6 h. In addition, increased tissue glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels and GSSG-to-GSH ratios, delayed mitochondrial GSH recovery, and increased mitochondrial protein carbonyls and nitrotyrosine protein adducts indicated mitochondrial oxidant stress. In addition, nuclear DNA fragmentation (TUNEL assay) correlated with translocation of Bax to the mitochondria and release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Furthermore, activation of c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) was documented by the mitochondrial translocation of phospho-JNK. SOD2+/- mice showed 4-fold higher ALT activities and necrosis, an enhancement of all parameters of the mitochondrial oxidant stress, more AIF release and more extensive DNA fragmentation and more prolonged JNK activation. Conclusions: the impaired defense against mitochondrial superoxide formation in SOD2+/- mice prolongs JNK activation after APAP overdose and consequently further enhances the mitochondrial oxidant stress leading to exaggerated mitochondrial dysfunction, release of intermembrane proteins with nuclear DNA fragmentation and more necrosis.

  3. Respiratory mechanics in brain injury: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Koutsoukou, Antonia; Katsiari, Maria; Orfanos, Stylianos E; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Daganou, Maria; Kyriakopoulou, Magdalini; Koulouris, Nikolaos G; Rovina, Nikoletta

    2016-01-01

    Several clinical and experimental studies have shown that lung injury occurs shortly after brain damage. The responsible mechanisms involve neurogenic pulmonary edema, inflammation, the harmful action of neurotransmitters, or autonomic system dysfunction. Mechanical ventilation, an essential component of life support in brain-damaged patients (BD), may be an additional traumatic factor to the already injured or susceptible to injury lungs of these patients thus worsening lung injury, in case ...

  4. Mitochondrial damage: An important mechanism of ambient PM{sub 2.5} exposure-induced acute heart injury in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ruijin; Kou, Xiaojing; Geng, Hong; Xie, Jingfang; Tian, Jingjing [Institute of Environmental Science, College of Environmental & Resource Sciences, Shanxi University, Taiyuan (China); Cai, Zongwei, E-mail: zwcai@hkbu.edu.hk [State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Dong, Chuan, E-mail: dc@sxu.edu.cn [Institute of Environmental Science, College of Environmental & Resource Sciences, Shanxi University, Taiyuan (China)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • PM{sub 2.5} induces heart mitochondrial morphological damage of rats. • Mitochondrial fission/fusion gene expression is important regulation mechanism. • Proinflammatoy cytokine level changes are accompanied with mitochondrial damage. • Alterations in oxidative stress and calcium homeostasis are focused on. - Abstract: Epidemiological studies suggested that ambient fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) exposure was associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanism, especially the mitochondrial damage mechanism, of PM{sub 2.5}-induced heart acute injury is still unclear. In this study, the alterations of mitochondrial morphology and mitochondrial fission/fusion gene expression, oxidative stress, calcium homeostasis and inflammation in hearts of rats exposed to PM{sub 2.5} with different dosages (0.375, 1.5, 6.0 and 24.0 mg/kg body weight) were investigated. The results indicated that the PM{sub 2.5} exposure induced pathological changes and ultra-structural damage in hearts such as mitochondrial swell and cristae disorder. Furthermore, PM{sub 2.5} exposure significantly increased specific mitochondrial fission/fusion gene (Fis1, Mfn1, Mfn2, Drp1 and OPA1) expression in rat hearts. These changes were accompanied by decreases of activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), Na{sup +}K{sup +}-ATPase and Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase and increases of levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) as well as levels of pro-inflammatory mediators including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in rat hearts. The results implicate that mitochondrial damage, oxidative stress, cellular homeostasis imbalance and inflammation are potentially important mechanisms for the PM{sub 2.5}-induced heart injury, and may have relations with cardiovascular disease.

  5. Risk factors of recurrent hamstring injuries: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M. de Visser (H.); M. Reijman (Max); M.P. Heijboer (Rien); P.K. Bos (Koen)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground Although recurrent hamstring injury is a frequent problem with a significant impact on athletes, data on factors determining the risk for a recurrent hamstring injury are scarce. Objective To systematically review the literature and provide an overview of risk factors for

  6. Acute electrical injury: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor-Ahmad Latifi

    2017-01-01

    >Conclusions: High-voltage injury leads to greater morbidity and mortality than low-voltage one. Lightening has mortality of about 32%, higher rates of complications and specialty long-term complications. Strict multi-specialty treatment and rehabilitations are required for proper treatment of electrical injuries.

  7. Literature review on vehicle travel speeds and pedestrian injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    The relationship between vehicle travel speeds and resulting pedestrian injury was reviewed in the literature and in existing data sets. Results indicated that higher vehicle speeds are strongly associated with both a greater likelihood of pedestrian...

  8. Equestrian sport-related injuries: a review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlik, Heather S

    2010-01-01

    Equestrian sports continue to grow in popularity in the Unites States and abroad, with an estimated 30 million people riding horses annually in the United States alone. Approximately one in five of these riders will suffer a serious injury during their riding career, requiring medical care and potentially hospitalization. Riding carries with it an implicit risk of injury associated with the unpredictability of the animals, the rider's head being positioned approximately 9 feet off the ground, and traveling unrestrained at speeds up to 40 mph. This article reviews common equestrian injuries, epidemiology, mechanism of injury, risk factors, and prevention strategies, with an emphasis on the more dangerous aspects of the sport.

  9. Epidemiological Review of Injury in Pre-Professional Ballet Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Dennis; Goodwin, Brett J; Caine, Caroline G; Bergeron, Glen

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to provide an epidemiological review of the literature concerning ballet injuries affecting pre-professional ballet dancers. The literature search was limited to published peer-reviewed reports and involved an extensive examination of Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL. The following search terms were used in various combinations: ballet, injury, epidemiology, risk factor, pre-professional, and intervention. Additional citations were located using the ancestry approach. Unlike some other athletic activities that have been the focus of recent intervention research, there is a paucity of intervention and translational research in pre-professional ballet, and sample sizes have often been small and have not accounted for the multivariate nature of ballet injury. Exposure-based injury rates in this population appear similar to those reported for professional ballet dancers and female gymnasts. A preponderance of injuries affect the lower extremity of these dancers, with sprains and strains being the most frequent type of injury reported. The majority of injuries appear to be overuse in nature. Injury risk factors have been tested in multiple studies and indicate a variety of potential injury predictors that may provide useful guidance for future research.

  10. Urinary tract injuries in laparoscopic hysterectomy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Marisa R; Bardsley, Tyler R; Sharp, Howard T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review was to estimate the incidence of urinary tract injuries associated with laparoscopic hysterectomy and describe the long-term sequelae of these injuries and the impact of early recognition. Studies were identified by searching the PubMed database, spanning the last 10 years. The key words "ureter" or "ureteral" or "urethra" or "urethral" or "bladder" or "urinary tract" and "injury" and "laparoscopy" or "robotic" and "gynecology" were used. Additionally, a separate search was done for "routine cystoscopy" and "gynecology." The inclusion criteria were published articles of original research referring to urologic injuries occurring during either laparoscopic or robotic surgery for gynecologic indications. Only English language articles from the past 10 years were included. Studies with less than 100 patients and no injuries reported were excluded. No robotic series met these criteria. A primary search of the database yielded 104 articles, and secondary cross-reference yielded 6 articles. After reviewing the abstracts, 40 articles met inclusion criteria and were reviewed in their entirety. Of those 40 articles, 3 were excluded because of an inability to extract urinary tract injuries from total injuries. Statistical analysis was performed using a generalized linear mixed effects model. The overall urinary tract injury rate for laparoscopic hysterectomy was 0.73%. The bladder injury rate ranged from 0.05% to 0.66% across procedure types, and the ureteral injury rate ranged from 0.02% to 0.4% across procedure type. In contrast to earlier publications, which cited unacceptably high urinary tract injury rates, laparoscopic hysterectomy appears to be safe regarding the bladder and ureter. Copyright © 2014 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Horse-related injuries in children - unmounted injuries are more severe: A retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolyncewicz, Grace E L; Palmer, Cameron S; Jowett, Helen E; Hutson, John M; King, Sebastian K; Teague, Warwick J

    2018-05-01

    Horse-related injuries account for one quarter of all paediatric sports fatalities. It is not known whether the pattern of injury spectrum and severity differ between children injured whilst mounted, compared with those injured unmounted around horses. We aimed to identify any distinctions between the demographic features, spectrum and severity of injuries for mounted versus unmounted patients. Trauma registry data were reviewed for 505 consecutive paediatric patients (agedinjuries over a 16-year period. Patients were classified into mounted and unmounted groups, and demographics, injury spectrum, injury severity, and helmet usage compared using odds ratios and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. More patients (56%) were injured in a private setting than in a sporting or supervised context (23%). Overall, head injuries were the most common horse-related injury. Mounted patients comprised 77% of the cohort. Mounted patients were more likely to sustain upper limb fractures or spinal injuries, and more likely to wear helmets. Unmounted were more likely to be younger males, and more likely to sustain facial or abdominal injuries. Strikingly, unmounted children had significantly more severe and critical Injury Severity Scores (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.5, 4.6) and longer hospital stay (2.0days vs 1.1days; pinjury. Horse-related injuries in children are serious. Unmounted patients are distinct from mounted patients in terms of gender, age, likelihood of personal protective equipment use, severity of injuries, and requirement for intensive or invasive care. This study highlights the importance of vigilance and other safety behaviours when unmounted and around horses, and proposes specific targets for future injury prevention campaigns, both in setting of organised and private equestrian activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Common Ice Hockey Injuries and Treatment: A Current Concepts Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosenthal, William; Kim, Michael; Holzshu, Robert; Hanypsiak, Bryan; Athiviraham, Aravind

    Injuries are common in ice hockey, a contact sport where players skate at high speeds on a sheet of ice and shoot a vulcanized rubber puck in excess of one hundred miles per hour. This article reviews the diagnoses and treatment of concussions, injuries to the cervical spine, and lower and upper extremities as they pertain to hockey players. Soft tissue injury of the shoulder, acromioclavicular joint separation, glenohumeral joint dislocation, clavicle fractures, metacarpal fractures, and olecranon bursitis are discussed in the upper-extremity section of the article. Lower-extremity injuries reviewed in this article include adductor strain, athletic pubalgia, femoroacetabular impingement, sports hernia, medial collateral and anterior cruciate ligament tears, skate bite, and ankle sprains. This review is intended to aid the sports medicine physician in providing optimal sports-specific care to allow their athlete to return to their preinjury level of performance.

  13. Injuries in epilepsy: a review of its prevalence, risk factors, type of injuries and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Tellez-Zenteno

    2009-12-01

    hospitalizations could be related with the severity of the injury. This article reviews the best available epidemiological information about injuries, including incidence and risk factors. Also this article reviews information about specific types of injuries such as fractures, burns, concussions, dislocations, etc. Information about accidents in people with epilepsy is also discussed.

  14. Mitochondrial myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMauro, Salvatore

    2006-11-01

    Our understanding of mitochondrial diseases (defined restrictively as defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain) is expanding rapidly. In this review, I will give the latest information on disorders affecting predominantly or exclusively skeletal muscle. The most recently described mitochondrial myopathies are due to defects in nuclear DNA, including coenzyme Q10 deficiency and mutations in genes controlling mitochondrial DNA abundance and structure, such as POLG, TK2, and MPV17. Barth syndrome, an X-linked recessive mitochondrial myopathy/cardiopathy, is associated with decreased amount and altered structure of cardiolipin, the main phospholipid of the inner mitochondrial membrane, but a secondary impairment of respiratory chain function is plausible. The role of mutations in protein-coding genes of mitochondrial DNA in causing isolated myopathies has been confirmed. Mutations in tRNA genes of mitochondrial DNA can also cause predominantly myopathic syndromes and--contrary to conventional wisdom--these mutations can be homoplasmic. Defects in the mitochondrial respiratory chain impair energy production and almost invariably involve skeletal muscle, causing exercise intolerance, cramps, recurrent myoglobinuria, or fixed weakness, which often affects extraocular muscles and results in droopy eyelids (ptosis) and progressive external ophthalmoplegia.

  15. Cisplatin upregulates mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase and peroxynitrite formation to promote renal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Michaela; Hotter, Georgina; Vinas, Jose Luis; Sola, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The mitochondria are a critical target for cisplatin-associated nephrotoxicity. Though nitric oxide formation has been implicated in the toxicity of cisplatin, this formation has not so far been related to a possible activation of mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mNOS). We show here that the upregulation of oxide mNOS and peroxynitrite formation in cisplatin treatment are key events that influence the development of the harmful parameters described in cisplatin-associated kidney failure. We confirm this by isolating the mitochondrial fraction of the kidney and across different access routes such as the use of a specific inhibitor of neuronal NOS, L-NPA, a peroxynitrite scavenger, FeTMPyP, and a peroxynitrite donor, SIN-1. The in vitro studies corroborated the information obtained in the in vivo experiments. The administration of cisplatin reveals a clear upregulation in the transcription of neuronal NOS and an increase in the levels of nitrites in the mitochondrial fractions of the kidneys. The upregulated transcription directly affects the cytoskeleton structure and the apoptosis. The inhibition of neuronal NOS reduces the levels of nitrites, cell death, and cytoskeleton derangement. Peroxynitrite is involved in the mechanism promoting the NOS transcription. In addition, in controls SIN-1 imitates the effects of cisplatin. In summary, we demonstrate that upregulation of mNOS in cisplatin treatment is a key component in both the initiation and the spread of cisplatin-associated damage in the kidney. Furthermore, peroxynitrite formation is directly involved in this process

  16. Occupational injury among migrant workers in China: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Simon; Chen, Xin; Qu, Hui; Sheff, Mira Grice

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This review considers the state of occupational injury surveillance and prevention among migrant workers in China and suggests areas of focus for future research on the topic. Methods Bibliographic databases were searched for qualitative and quantitative studies on surveillance of and interventions to prevent occupational injury among migrant workers in mainland China. Additional abstracts were identified from the citations of relevant articles from the database search. Studies fitting the inclusion criteria were evaluated, and findings were extracted and summarised. Results The search uncovered 726 studies in the English-language databases searched, and 3109 in the Chinese database. This article analyses a total of 19 research articles that fit the inclusion criteria with qualitative or quantitative data on occupational injury surveillance and prevention of migrant workers in China. Despite evidence of the vulnerability of migrant workers in the workplace, there is little systematic surveillance of occupational injury and few evaluated interventions. Conclusions Migrant workers account for a disproportionate burden of occupational injury morbidity and mortality in China. However, data are inconsistent and inadequate to detail injury incidence or to evaluate interventions. The following are suggestions to decrease injury incidence among migrants: strengthen the national system of occupational injury surveillance; focus surveillance and interventions on high-risk occupations employing migrants such as construction, manufacturing and small mining operations; improve occupational safety training and access to appropriate safety equipment; evaluate recent changes in occupational health and safety and evaluate outcome of multi-party interventions to reduce occupational injury among migrant workers. PMID:23710065

  17. Musculoskeletal injuries and pain in dancers: a systematic review update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Craig L; Hincapié, Cesar A; Cassidy, J David

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assemble and synthesize the best available literature from 2004 to 2008 on musculoskeletal injury and pain in dancers. MEDLINE and CINAHL were the primary sources of data. Indexed terms such as dance, dancer, dancing, athletic injuries, occupational injuries, sprains and strains, musculoskeletal diseases, bone density, menstruation disturbances, and eating disorders were used to search the databases. Citations were screened for relevance using a priori criteria, and relevant studies were critically reviewed for scientific merit by the best-evidence synthesis method. After screening, 19 articles were found to be scientifically admissible. Data from accepted studies were abstracted into evidence tables relating to: prevalence and associated factors; incidence and risk factors; intervention; and injury characteristics and prognosis of musculoskeletal injury and pain in dancers. Principal findings included: a high prevalence and incidence of lower extremity, hip and back injuries; preliminary evidence that psychosocial and psychological issues such as stress and coping strategies affect injury frequency and duration; history of a previous lateral ankle sprain is associated with an increased risk of ankle sprain in the contralateral ankle in dance students; fatigue may play a role in ACL injury in dancers; acute hamstring strains in dancers affect tendon more than muscle tissue, often resulting in prolonged absence from dance. It is concluded that, while there are positive developments in the literature on the epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of MSK injuries and pain in dancers, much room for improvement remains. Suggestions for future research are offered.

  18. Myotoxicity of injections for acute muscle injuries: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Reurink (Gustaaf); G.J. Goudswaard (Gert Jan); M.H. Moen (Maaike); A. Weir (Adam); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); J.L. Tol (Johannes)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Injection therapies are widely used for muscle injuries. As there is only limited evidence of their efficacy, physicians should be aware of the potential harmful effects of these injected preparations. Objectives: The purpose of this review was to systematically review the

  19. Myotoxicity of injections for acute muscle injuries: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reurink, Gustaaf; Goudswaard, Gert Jan; Moen, Maarten H.; Weir, Adam; Verhaar, Jan A. N.; Tol, Johannes L.

    2014-01-01

    Injection therapies are widely used for muscle injuries. As there is only limited evidence of their efficacy, physicians should be aware of the potential harmful effects of these injected preparations. The purpose of this review was to systematically review the literature on the myotoxic effects of

  20. Minocycline and doxycycline, but not other tetracycline-derived compounds, protect liver cells from chemical hypoxia and ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibition of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, Justin; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson; Zhang, Xun; Lovelace, Gregory L.; Smith, Charles D.; Lemasters, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Minocycline, a tetracycline-derived compound, mitigates damage caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here, 19 tetracycline-derived compounds were screened in comparison to minocycline for their ability to protect hepatocytes against damage from chemical hypoxia and I/R injury. Cultured rat hepatocytes were incubated with 50 μM of each tetracycline-derived compound 20 min prior to exposure to 500 μM iodoacetic acid plus 1 mM KCN (chemical hypoxia). In other experiments, hepatocytes were incubated in anoxic Krebs–Ringer–HEPES buffer at pH 6.2 for 4 h prior to reoxygenation at pH 7.4 (simulated I/R). Tetracycline-derived compounds were added 20 min prior to reperfusion. Ca 2+ uptake was measured in isolated rat liver mitochondria incubated with Fluo-5N. Cell killing after 120 min of chemical hypoxia measured by propidium iodide (PI) fluorometry was 87%, which decreased to 28% and 42% with minocycline and doxycycline, respectively. After I/R, cell killing at 120 min decreased from 79% with vehicle to 43% and 49% with minocycline and doxycycline. No other tested compound decreased killing. Minocycline and doxycycline also inhibited mitochondrial Ca 2+ uptake and suppressed the Ca 2+ -induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), the penultimate cause of cell death in reperfusion injury. Ru360, a specific inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), also decreased cell killing after hypoxia and I/R and blocked mitochondrial Ca 2+ uptake and the MPT. Other proposed mechanisms, including mitochondrial depolarization and matrix metalloprotease inhibition, could not account for cytoprotection. Taken together, these results indicate that minocycline and doxycycline are cytoprotective by way of inhibition of MCU. - Highlights: • Minocycline and doxycycline are the only cytoprotective tetracyclines of those tested • Cytoprotective tetracyclines inhibit the MPT and mitochondrial calcium and iron uptake. • Cytoprotective tetracyclines protect

  1. Minocycline and doxycycline, but not other tetracycline-derived compounds, protect liver cells from chemical hypoxia and ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibition of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Justin; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson; Zhang, Xun; Lovelace, Gregory L.; Smith, Charles D. [Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Lemasters, John J., E-mail: JJLemasters@musc.edu [Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Minocycline, a tetracycline-derived compound, mitigates damage caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here, 19 tetracycline-derived compounds were screened in comparison to minocycline for their ability to protect hepatocytes against damage from chemical hypoxia and I/R injury. Cultured rat hepatocytes were incubated with 50 μM of each tetracycline-derived compound 20 min prior to exposure to 500 μM iodoacetic acid plus 1 mM KCN (chemical hypoxia). In other experiments, hepatocytes were incubated in anoxic Krebs–Ringer–HEPES buffer at pH 6.2 for 4 h prior to reoxygenation at pH 7.4 (simulated I/R). Tetracycline-derived compounds were added 20 min prior to reperfusion. Ca{sup 2+} uptake was measured in isolated rat liver mitochondria incubated with Fluo-5N. Cell killing after 120 min of chemical hypoxia measured by propidium iodide (PI) fluorometry was 87%, which decreased to 28% and 42% with minocycline and doxycycline, respectively. After I/R, cell killing at 120 min decreased from 79% with vehicle to 43% and 49% with minocycline and doxycycline. No other tested compound decreased killing. Minocycline and doxycycline also inhibited mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uptake and suppressed the Ca{sup 2+}-induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), the penultimate cause of cell death in reperfusion injury. Ru360, a specific inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), also decreased cell killing after hypoxia and I/R and blocked mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uptake and the MPT. Other proposed mechanisms, including mitochondrial depolarization and matrix metalloprotease inhibition, could not account for cytoprotection. Taken together, these results indicate that minocycline and doxycycline are cytoprotective by way of inhibition of MCU. - Highlights: • Minocycline and doxycycline are the only cytoprotective tetracyclines of those tested • Cytoprotective tetracyclines inhibit the MPT and mitochondrial calcium and iron uptake. • Cytoprotective

  2. Over-expression of mitochondrial creatine kinase in the murine heart improves functional recovery and protects against injury following ischaemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Hannah J; Ostrowski, Philip J; McAndrew, Debra J; Cao, Fang; Shaw, Andrew; Eykyn, Thomas R; Lake, Hannah; Tyler, Jack; Schneider, Jurgen E; Neubauer, Stefan; Zervou, Sevasti; Lygate, Craig A

    2018-03-02

    Mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK) couples ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation to phosphocreatine in the cytosol, which acts as a mobile energy store available for regeneration of ATP at times of high demand. We hypothesised that elevating MtCK would be beneficial in ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Mice were created overexpressing the sarcomeric MtCK gene with αMHC promoter at the Rosa26 locus (MtCK-OE) and compared with wild-type (WT) littermates. MtCK activity was 27% higher than WT, with no change in other CK isoenzymes or creatine levels. Electron microscopy confirmed normal mitochondrial cell density and mitochondrial localisation of transgenic protein. Respiration in isolated mitochondria was unaltered and metabolomic analysis by 1H-NMR suggests that cellular metabolism was not grossly affected by transgene expression. There were no significant differences in cardiac structure or function under baseline conditions by cine-MRI or LV haemodynamics. In Langendorff-perfused hearts subjected to 20min ischaemia and 30 min reperfusion, MtCK-OE exhibited less ischaemic contracture and improved functional recovery (Rate pressure product 58% above WT; P < 0.001). These hearts had reduced myocardial infarct size, which was confirmed in vivo: 55±4% in WT vs 29±4% in MtCK-OE; P < 0.0001). Isolated cardiomyocytes from MtCK-OE hearts exhibited delayed opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) compared to WT, which was confirmed by reduced mitochondrial swelling in response to calcium. There was no detectable change in the structural integrity of the mitochondrial membrane. Modest elevation of MtCK activity in the heart does not adversely affect cellular metabolism, mitochondrial or in vivo cardiac function, but modifies mPTP opening to protect against I/R injury and improve functional recovery. Our findings support MtCK as a prime therapeutic target in myocardial ischaemia.

  3. Leflunomide or A77 1726 protect from acetaminophen-induced cell injury through inhibition of JNK-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition in immortalized human hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Seah, Quee Ming; Tan, Rachel C.H.; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Beerheide, Walter; Boelsterli, Urs A.

    2006-01-01

    Leflunomide, a disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug, protects against T-cell-mediated liver injury by poorly understood mechanisms. The active metabolite of leflunomide, A77 1726 (teriflunomide) has been shown to inhibit stress-activated protein kinases (JNK pathway), which are key regulators of mitochondria-mediated cell death. Therefore, we hypothesized that leflunomide may protect from drugs that induce the mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) by blocking the JNK signaling pathway. To this end, we exposed cultured immortalized human hepatocytes (HC-04) to the standard protoxicant drug acetaminophen (APAP), which induces CsA-sensitive mPT-mediated cell death. We determined the effects of leflunomide on the extent of APAP-induced hepatocyte injury and the upstream JNK-mediated mitochondrial signaling pathways. We found that leflunomide or A77 1726 concentration-dependently protected hepatocytes from APAP (1 mM)-induced mitochondrial permeabilization and lethal cell injury. This was not due to proximal inhibition of CYP-catalyzed APAP bioactivation to its thiol-reactive metabolite. Instead, we demonstrate that leflunomide (20 μM) inhibited the APAP-induced early (3 h) activation (phosphorylation) of JNK1/2, thus inhibiting phosphorylation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and preventing P-Bcl-2-mediated induction of the mPT. This greatly attenuated mitochondrial cytochrome c release, which we used as a marker for mitochondrial permeabilization. The specific JNK2 inhibitor SP600125 similarly protected from APAP-induced cell death. In conclusion, these findings are consistent with our hypothesis that leflunomide protects from protoxicant-induced hepatocyte injury by inhibiting JNK signaling and preventing mPT induction

  4. Mitochondrial NUDIX hydrolases: A metabolic link between NAD catabolism, GTP and mitochondrial dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Aaron; Klimova, Nina; Kristian, Tibor

    2017-10-01

    NAD + catabolism and mitochondrial dynamics are important parts of normal mitochondrial function and are both reported to be disrupted in aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and acute brain injury. While both processes have been extensively studied there has been little reported on how the mechanisms of these two processes are linked. This review focuses on how downstream NAD + catabolism via NUDIX hydrolases affects mitochondrial dynamics under pathologic conditions. Additionally, several potential targets in mitochondrial dysfunction and fragmentation are discussed, including the roles of mitochondrial poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1(mtPARP1), AMPK, AMP, and intra-mitochondrial GTP metabolism. Mitochondrial and cytosolic NUDIX hydrolases (NUDT9α and NUDT9β) can affect mitochondrial and cellular AMP levels by hydrolyzing ADP- ribose (ADPr) and subsequently altering the levels of GTP and ATP. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is activated after DNA damage, which depletes NAD + pools and results in the PARylation of nuclear and mitochondrial proteins. In the mitochondria, ADP-ribosyl hydrolase-3 (ARH3) hydrolyzes PAR to ADPr, while NUDT9α metabolizes ADPr to AMP. Elevated AMP levels have been reported to reduce mitochondrial ATP production by inhibiting the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), allosterically activating AMPK by altering the cellular AMP: ATP ratio, and by depleting mitochondrial GTP pools by being phosphorylated by adenylate kinase 3 (AK3), which uses GTP as a phosphate donor. Recently, activated AMPK was reported to phosphorylate mitochondria fission factor (MFF), which increases Drp1 localization to the mitochondria and promotes mitochondrial fission. Moreover, the increased AK3 activity could deplete mitochondrial GTP pools and possibly inhibit normal activity of GTP-dependent fusion enzymes, thus altering mitochondrial dynamics. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Shoulder injuries attributed to resistance training: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolber, Morey J; Beekhuizen, Kristina S; Cheng, Ming-Shun S; Hellman, Madeleine A

    2010-06-01

    The popularity of resistance training (RT) is evident by the more than 45 million Americans who engage in strength training regularly. Although the health and fitness benefits ascribed to RT are generally agreed upon, participation is not without risk. Acute and chronic injuries attributed to RT have been cited in the epidemiological literature among both competitive and recreational participants. The shoulder complex in particular has been alluded to as one of the most prevalent regions of injury. The purpose of this manuscript is to present an overview of documented shoulder injuries among the RT population and where possible discern mechanisms of injury and risk factors. A literature search was conducted in the PUBMED, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and OVID databases to identify relevant articles for inclusion using combinations of key words: resistance training, shoulder, bodybuilding, weightlifting, shoulder injury, and shoulder disorder. The results of the review indicated that up to 36% of documented RT-related injuries and disorders occur at the shoulder complex. Trends that increased the likelihood of injury were identified and inclusive of intrinsic risk factors such as joint and muscle imbalances and extrinsic risk factors, namely, that of improper attention to exercise technique. A majority of the available research was retrospective in nature, consisting of surveys and descriptive epidemiological reports. A paucity of research was available to identify predictive variables leading to injury, suggesting the need for future prospective-based investigations.

  6. Doxorubicin induced myocardial injury is exacerbated following ischaemic stress via opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharanei, M.; Hussain, A. [Department of Biomolecular and Sport Sciences, Coventry University, Cox Street, Coventry, CV1 5FB (United Kingdom); Janneh, O. [Department of Biomolecular and Sport Sciences, Coventry University, Cox Street, Coventry, CV1 5FB (United Kingdom); Pharmacology Research Laboratories, 70, Pembroke Place, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool. L69 3GF (United Kingdom); Maddock, H.L., E-mail: h.maddock@coventry.ac.uk [Department of Biomolecular and Sport Sciences, Coventry University, Cox Street, Coventry, CV1 5FB (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-15

    Chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin are known to cause or exacerbate cardiovascular cell death when an underlying heart condition is present. However, the mechanism of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity is unclear. Here we assess the cardiotoxic effects of doxorubicin in conditions of myocardial ischaemia reperfusion and the mechanistic basis of protection, in particular the role of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) in such protection. The effects of doxorubicin (1 μM) ± cyclosporine A (CsA, 0.2 μM; inhibits mPTP) were investigated in isolated male Sprague–Dawley rats using Langendorff heart and papillary muscle contraction models subjected to simulated ischaemia and reperfusion injury. Isolated rat cardiac myocytes were used in an oxidative stress model to study the effects of drug treatment on mPTP by confocal microscopy. Western blot analysis evaluated the effects of drug treatment on p-Akt and p-Erk 1/2 levels. Langendorff and the isometric contraction models showed a detrimental effect of doxorubicin throughout reperfusion/reoxygenation as well as increased p-Akt and p-Erk levels. Interestingly, CsA not only reversed the detrimental effects of doxorubicin, but also reduced p-Akt and p-Erk levels. In the sustained oxidative stress assay to study mPTP opening, doxorubicin decreased the time taken to depolarization and hypercontracture, but these effects were delayed in the presence of CsA. Collectively, our data suggest for the first that doxorubicin exacerbates myocardial injury in an ischaemia reperfusion model. If the inhibition of mPTP ameliorates the cardiotoxic effects of doxorubicin, then more selective inhibitors of mPTP should be further investigated for their utility in patients receiving doxorubicin. - Highlights: ► Doxorubicin exacerbates myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury. ► Co-treatment with CsA protects against doxorubicin induced myocardial injury. ► CsA delays doxorubicin induced mPTP opening in laser

  7. Doxorubicin induced myocardial injury is exacerbated following ischaemic stress via opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharanei, M.; Hussain, A.; Janneh, O.; Maddock, H.L.

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin are known to cause or exacerbate cardiovascular cell death when an underlying heart condition is present. However, the mechanism of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity is unclear. Here we assess the cardiotoxic effects of doxorubicin in conditions of myocardial ischaemia reperfusion and the mechanistic basis of protection, in particular the role of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) in such protection. The effects of doxorubicin (1 μM) ± cyclosporine A (CsA, 0.2 μM; inhibits mPTP) were investigated in isolated male Sprague–Dawley rats using Langendorff heart and papillary muscle contraction models subjected to simulated ischaemia and reperfusion injury. Isolated rat cardiac myocytes were used in an oxidative stress model to study the effects of drug treatment on mPTP by confocal microscopy. Western blot analysis evaluated the effects of drug treatment on p-Akt and p-Erk 1/2 levels. Langendorff and the isometric contraction models showed a detrimental effect of doxorubicin throughout reperfusion/reoxygenation as well as increased p-Akt and p-Erk levels. Interestingly, CsA not only reversed the detrimental effects of doxorubicin, but also reduced p-Akt and p-Erk levels. In the sustained oxidative stress assay to study mPTP opening, doxorubicin decreased the time taken to depolarization and hypercontracture, but these effects were delayed in the presence of CsA. Collectively, our data suggest for the first that doxorubicin exacerbates myocardial injury in an ischaemia reperfusion model. If the inhibition of mPTP ameliorates the cardiotoxic effects of doxorubicin, then more selective inhibitors of mPTP should be further investigated for their utility in patients receiving doxorubicin. - Highlights: ► Doxorubicin exacerbates myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury. ► Co-treatment with CsA protects against doxorubicin induced myocardial injury. ► CsA delays doxorubicin induced mPTP opening in laser

  8. Review of liver injury associated with dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Felix; Kessebohm, Kerstin; Weimann, Rosemarie; Seitz, Helmut K

    2011-05-01

    Dietary supplements (DS) are easily available and increasingly used, and adverse hepatic reactions have been reported following their intake. To critically review the literature on liver injury because of DSs, delineating patterns and mechanisms of injury and to increase the awareness towards this cause of acute and chronic liver damage. Studies and case reports on liver injury specifically because of DSs published between 1990 and 2010 were searched in the PubMed and EMBASE data bases using the terms 'dietary/nutritional supplements', 'adverse hepatic reactions', 'liver injury'; 'hepatitis', 'liver failure', 'vitamin A' and 'retinoids', and reviewed for yet unidentified publications. Significant liver injury was reported after intake of Herbalife and Hydroxycut products, tea extracts from Camellia sinensis, products containing usnic acid and high contents of vitamin A, anabolic steroids and others. No uniform pattern of hepatotoxicity has been identified and severity may range from asymptomatic elevations of serum liver enzymes to hepatic failure and death. Exact estimates on how frequent adverse hepatic reactions occur as a result of DSs cannot be provided. Liver injury from DSs mimicking other liver diseases is increasingly recognized. Measures to reduce risk include tighter regulation of their production and distribution and increased awareness of users and professionals of the potential risks. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. A Review of Occupational Injury Research In Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, C S; Krishnan, R

    2016-06-01

    A literature review of 16 papers on occupational injury research in Malaysia published during a 13-year period from 2000-2013 was carried out. The objective of this review and article selection was based on relevance to the research theme and mention of areas for future research. Most of the publications have focused on descriptive epidemiology, management practices, worker's knowledge, attitude, training, and rehabilitation services. The transportation, agriculture and construction sectors were found to be the most hazardous sectors and would benefit the most from Occupational Safety & Health (OSH) research and interventions. There is a strong need to develop a national injury surveillance system and also a mechanism to ensure adherence to the Occupational Safety & Health Act(OSHA) 1994. Detailed description and identification of risk factors for occupational injury in the environment, including machinery and equipment used was generally lacking. Future research on occupational injury should focus on surveillance to determine the magnitude of occupational injuries, determination of risk factors, identifying costeffective interventions (such as enforcement of OSHA regulations), and assessment of rehabilitation services. Relevant government agencies, universities, corporate sector and occupational safety organizations need to play a proactive role in identifying priority areas and research capacity building. Funding for occupational injury should be commensurate with the magnitude of the problem.

  10. Serum uric acid and acute kidney injury: A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Hahn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury causes great morbidity and mortality in both the community and hospital settings. Understanding the etiological factors and the pathophysiological principles resulting in acute kidney injury is essential in prompting appropriate therapies. Recently hyperuricemia has been recognized as a potentially modifiable risk factor for acute kidney injury, including that associated with cardiovascular surgery, radiocontrast administration, rhabdomyolysis, and associated with heat stress. This review discussed the evidence that repeated episodes of acute kidney injury from heat stress and dehydration may also underlie the pathogenesis of the chronic kidney disease epidemic that is occurring in Central America (Mesoamerican nephropathy. Potential mechanisms for how uric acid might contribute to acute kidney injury are also discussed, including systemic effects on renal microvasculature and hemodynamics, and local crystalline and noncrystalline effects on the renal tubules. Pilot clinical trials also show potential benefits of lowering uric acid on acute kidney injury associated with a variety of insults. In summary, there is mounting evidence that hyperuricemia may have a significant role in the development of acute kidney injury. Prospective, placebo controlled, randomized trials are needed to determine the potential benefit of uric acid lowering therapy on kidney and cardio-metabolic diseases.

  11. Trampolines revisited: a review of 114 pediatric recreational trampoline injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, G A; Furnival, R; Schunk, J E

    1992-05-01

    A search of the medical literature failed to reveal any articles that discuss pediatric injuries acquired on privately owned recreational trampolines. This study was undertaken to quantify and qualify pediatric injuries from recreational trampoline use. A group of 114 patients who presented to the Emergency Department at Primary Children's Medical Center in Salt Lake City, Utah, with injuries directly related to use of a trampoline are discussed. There was a 1.2:1 male-female ratio. The average age was 8.0 years. Forty-eight percent of the patients were injured on their family's trampoline, with the remainder injured on a friend's, neighbor's, relative's, or gymnasium's equipment. The majority of injuries involved group use of the trampoline and the youngest person in a group was most often the injured participant. Extremity injuries were seen in 55% of the patient and head or neck injuries in 37%. Seventy-five percent of the patients required radiographs, 23% hospitalization, and 17% operative intervention. The history of the trampoline and medical literature discussions concerning injuries and safety are reviewed.

  12. Acetaminophen-induced liver injury in rats and mice: Comparison of protein adducts, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress in the mechanism of toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGill, Mitchell R.; Williams, C. David; Xie, Yuchao; Ramachandran, Anup; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2012-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most common cause of acute liver failure in the West. In mice, APAP hepatotoxicity can be rapidly induced with a single dose. Because it is both clinically relevant and experimentally convenient, APAP intoxication has become a popular model of liver injury. Early data demonstrated that rats are resistant to APAP toxicity. As a result, mice are the preferred species for mechanistic studies. Furthermore, recent work has shown that the mechanisms of APAP toxicity in humans are similar to mice. Nevertheless, some investigators still use rats. New mechanistic information from the last forty years invites a reevaluation of the differences between these species. Comparison may provide interesting insights and confirm or exclude the rat as an option for APAP studies. To this end, we treated rats and mice with APAP and measured parameters of liver injury, APAP metabolism, oxidative stress, and activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Consistent with earlier data, we found that rats were highly resistant to APAP toxicity. Although overall APAP metabolism was similar in both species, mitochondrial protein adducts were significantly lower in rats. Accordingly, rats also had less oxidative stress. Finally, while mice showed extensive activation and mitochondrial translocation of JNK, this could not be detected in rat livers. These data support the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction is critical for the development of necrosis after APAP treatment. Because mitochondrial damage also occurs in humans, rats are not a clinically relevant species for studies of APAP hepatotoxicity. Highlights: ► Acetaminophen overdose causes severe liver injury only in mice but not in rats. ► APAP causes hepatic GSH depletion and protein adduct formation in rats and mice. ► Less protein adducts were measured in rat liver mitochondria compared to mouse. ► No oxidant stress, peroxynitrite formation or JNK activation was present in rats. ► The

  13. Reporting Multiple Individual Injuries in Studies of Team Ball Sports: A Systematic Review of Current Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Fortington, Lauren V; van der Worp, Henk; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-01-01

    Background To identify and prioritise targets for injury prevention efforts, injury incidence studies are widely reported. The accuracy and consistency in calculation and reporting of injury incidence is crucial. Many individuals experience more than one injury but multiple injuries are not consistently reported in sport injury incidence studies. Objective The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate current practice of how multiple injuries within individuals have been defined and repor...

  14. Tennis injuries: prevention and treatment. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulund, D N; McCue, F C; Rockwell, D A; Gieck, J H

    1979-01-01

    When players are engaged in the sport of tennis, injuries may occur to the eyes, in the neck, to the shoulder and back, arm and elbow, wrist and hand, and feet. The key to prevention and treatment of these injuries is good coaching and a formal stretching and strengthening program. The drooped "tennis shoulder" of professionals and senior tennis players is a natural response to heavy use. Shoulder elevating exercises are useful when soreness is associated. The treatment of tennis elbow includes wrist extensor stretching, isometrics, and light weightlifting. When a player follows this program, injections or counterforce braces are rarely needed. It is important for the player to bring his racket to the examination so that his stroke mechanics and grip can be checked. Wrist soreness in a tennis player may denote a hamate hook fracture. Special radiographic views are needed to discern the fracture and it is treated with a short arm cast and little finger extension splint. Nonunion of a hamate hook requires excision. The calf pain prodrome of "tennis leg" requires rest and then a stretching program. Tennis shoes should have rolled heels and large toe boxes with reinforced toe bumpers. The physician may have to fashion soft inserts for the tennis shoes; arch supports may be insufficient.

  15. Cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury by QiShenYiQi Pill® via ameliorate of multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen JR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Jing Rui Chen,1–3 Jing Wei,1–3 Ling Yan Wang,1–3 Yan Zhu,1–3 Lan Li,1–3 Mary Akinyi Olunga,1–3 Xiu Mei Gao,1–3 Guan Wei Fan1–31Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 2Key Laboratory of Pharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medicine Formulae, Ministry of Education, 3Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, People’s Republic of ChinaAim: To investigate the potential cardioprotective effects of QiShenYiQi Pill® (QSYQ on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury through antioxidative stress and mitochondrial protection.Methods and results: Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated with QSYQ or saline for 7 days and subjected to ischemia (30 minutes occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery and reperfusion (120 minutes. Cardiac functions were evaluated by echocardiogram and hemodynamics. Myocardial mitochondria were obtained to evaluate changes in mitochondrial structure and function, immediately after 120 minutes reperfusion. Pretreatment with QSYQ protected against I/R-induced myocardial structural injury and improved cardiac hemodynamics, as demonstrated by normalized serum creatine kinase and suppressed oxidative stress. Moreover, the impaired myocardial mitochondrial structure and function decreased level of ATP (accompanied by reduction of ATP5D and increase in the expression of cytochrome C. Myocardial fiber rupture, interstitial edema, and infiltrated leukocytes were all significantly ameliorated by pretreatment with QSYQ.Conclusion: Pretreatment of QSYQ in Sprague Dawley rats improves ventricular function and energy metabolism and reduces oxidative stress via ameliorating multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions during I/R injury.Keywords: QSYQ, ischemia/reperfusion injury, energy metabolism, mitochondria

  16. Exercise and ankle sprain injuries: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Borreani, Sebastien; Colado, Juan Carlos; Flandez, Jorge; Page, Phil; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-02-01

    Ankle sprains are common in team sports and sports played on courts, and often result in structural and functional alterations that lead to a greater reinjury risk. Specific exercises are often used to promote neuromuscular improvements in the prevention and rehabilitation of ankle injuries. This literature review summarizes the neuromuscular characteristics of common ankle sprains and the effectiveness of exercise as an intervention for improving neuromuscular function and preventing reinjury. Our review found that appropriate exercise prescription can increase static and dynamic balance and decrease injury recurrence. In particular, the addition of dynamic activities in the exercise program can be beneficial because of the anticipatory postural adjustments identified as a key factor in the injury mechanism.

  17. Therapeutic interventions for acute hamstring injuries: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reurink, Gustaaf; Goudswaard, Gert Jan; Tol, Johannes L.; Verhaar, Jan A. N.; Weir, Adam; Moen, Maarten H.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the high rate of hamstring injuries, there is no consensus on their management, with a large number of different interventions being used. Recently several new injection therapies have been introduced. To systematically review the literature on the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions

  18. Therapeutic interventions for acute hamstring injuries: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Reurink (Gustaaf); G.J. Goudswaard (Gert Jan); J.L. Tol (Johannes); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); A. Weir (Adam); M.H. Moen (Maaike)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground Despite the high rate of hamstring injuries, there is no consensus on their management, with a large number of different interventions being used. Recently several new injection therapies have been introduced. Objective To systematically review the literature on the

  19. Mitochondrial bioenergetics during the initiation of mercuric chloride-induced renal injury. I. Direct effects of in vitro mercuric chloride on renal cortical mitochondrial function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, J.M. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI); Harding, P.G.; Humes, H.D.

    1982-01-01

    Increasing data suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction may be an important early component of nephrotoxin-induced changes in renal cell function and viability. This study was designed to obtain more detailed information about the effects on several basic bioenergetic parameters of the direct interaction of Hg/sup 2 +/ with renal cortical mitochondria in vitro as a necessary prelude to studies of mitochondrial functional changes after treatment with mercuric chloride in vivo. Beginning at a threshhold level of 2 nmol of Hg/sup 2 +//mg of mitochondrial protein Hg/sup 2 +/ induced marked stimulation of State 4 respiration, mild inhibition of State 3 respiration, and 2,4-dinitrophenol uncoupled respiration, a striking increase in atractyloside-insensitive ADP uptake and stimulation of both basal- and Mg/sup 2 +/-activated oligomycin-sensitive mitochondrial ATPase activity. These effects of Hg/sup 2 +/ could be prevented and reversed by the sulfhydryl reagent dithioerythritol and by albumin but were not affected by Mg/sup 2 +/. Detailed studies on the addition of HgCl/sub 2/ to the preparation at different stages of the mitochondrial isolation procedure demonstrated that the presence of other proteins decreased mitochondrial Hg/sup 2 +/ binding, that the Hg/sup 2 +/ was not readily washed off the mitochondria by nonprotein-containing solutions, and that prolonged exposure of mitochondria to Hg/sup 2 +/ during the isolation procedure did not markedly alter its functional effects on their reversibility as assessed on the final mitochondrial preparation. These data provide an important basis for critically assessing the changes in function of mitochondria isolated after in vivo treatment with mercuric chloride.

  20. Radiation-induced brain injury: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eRobbins

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 100,000 primary and metastatic brain tumor patients/year in the US survive long enough (> 6 months to experience radiation-induced brain injury. Prior to 1970, the human brain was thought to be highly radioresistant; the acute CNS syndrome occurs after single doses > 30 Gy; white matter necrosis occurs at fractionated doses > 60 Gy. Although white matter necrosis is uncommon with modern techniques, functional deficits, including progressive impairments in memory, attention, and executive function have become important, because they have profound effects on quality of life. Preclinical studies have provided valuable insights into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Given its central role in memory and neurogenesis, the majority of these studies have focused on the hippocampus. Irradiating pediatric and young adult rodent brains leads to several hippocampal changes including neuroinflammation and a marked reduction in neurogenesis. These data have been interpreted to suggest that shielding the hippocampus will prevent clinical radiation-induced cognitive impairment. However, this interpretation may be overly simplistic. Studies using older rodents, that more closely match the adult human brain tumor population, indicate that, unlike pediatric and young adult rats, older rats fail to show a radiation-induced decrease in neurogenesis or a loss of mature neurons. Nevertheless, older rats still exhibit cognitive impairment. This occurs in the absence of demyelination and/or white matter necrosis similar to what is observed clinically, suggesting that more subtle molecular, cellular and/or microanatomic modifications are involved in this radiation-induced brain injury. Given that radiation-induced cognitive impairment likely reflects damage to both hippocampal- and non-hippocampal-dependent domains, there is a critical need to investigate the microanatomic and functional effects of radiation in various brain

  1. Fatty acid nitroalkenes induce resistance to ischemic cardiac injury by modulating mitochondrial respiration at complex II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Koenitzer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitro-fatty acids (NO2-FA are metabolic and inflammatory-derived electrophiles that mediate pleiotropic signaling actions. It was hypothesized that NO2-FA would impact mitochondrial redox reactions to induce tissue-protective metabolic shifts in cells. Nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO2 reversibly inhibited complex II-linked respiration in isolated rat heart mitochondria in a pH-dependent manner and suppressed superoxide formation. Nitroalkylation of Fp subunit was determined by BME capture and the site of modification by OA-NO2 defined by mass spectrometric analysis. These effects translated into reduced basal and maximal respiration and favored glycolytic metabolism in H9C2 cardiomyoblasts as assessed by extracellular H+ and O2 flux analysis. The perfusion of NO2-FA induced acute cardioprotection in an isolated perfused heart ischemia/reperfusion (IR model as evidenced by significantly higher rate-pressure products. Together these findings indicate that NO2-FA can promote cardioprotection by inducing a shift from respiration to glycolysis and suppressing reactive species formation in the post-ischemic interval.

  2. Lateral ankle injury. Literature review and report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Henry; Sim, Patrick; McHardy, Andrew

    2002-07-01

    Injury to the ankle joint is the most common peripheral joint injury. The sports that most commonly produce high ankle injury rates in their participating athletes include: basketball, netball, and the various codes of football. To provide an up to date understanding of manual therapy relevant to lateral ligament injury of the ankle. A discussion of the types of ligament injury and common complicating factors that present with lateral ankle pain is presented along with a review of relevant anatomy, assessment and treatment. Also included is a discussion of the efficacy of manual therapy in the treatment of ankle sprain. A detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the ankle as well as the early recognition of factors that may delay the rate of healing are important considerations when developing a management plan for inversion sprains of the ankle. This area appears to be under-researched however it was found that movement therapy and its various forms appear to be the most efficient and most effective method of treating uncomplicated ankle injury. Future investigations should involve a study to determine the effect chiropractic treatment (manipulation) may have on the injured ankle.

  3. Radiation-induced brain injury: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene-Schloesser, Dana; Robbins, Mike E.; Peiffer, Ann M.; Shaw, Edward G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest School of Medicine,, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Wake Forest School of Medicine,, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Wheeler, Kenneth T. [Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Wake Forest School of Medicine,, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Department of Radiology, Wake Forest School of Medicine,, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Chan, Michael D., E-mail: mrobbins@wakehealth.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest School of Medicine,, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Brain Tumor Center of Excellence, Wake Forest School of Medicine,, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2012-07-19

    Approximately 100,000 primary and metastatic brain tumor patients/year in the US survive long enough (>6 months) to experience radiation-induced brain injury. Prior to 1970, the human brain was thought to be highly radioresistant; the acute CNS syndrome occurs after single doses >30 Gy; white matter necrosis occurs at fractionated doses >60 Gy. Although white matter necrosis is uncommon with modern techniques, functional deficits, including progressive impairments in memory, attention, and executive function have become important, because they have profound effects on quality of life. Preclinical studies have provided valuable insights into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Given its central role in memory and neurogenesis, the majority of these studies have focused on the hippocampus. Irradiating pediatric and young adult rodent brains leads to several hippocampal changes including neuroinflammation and a marked reduction in neurogenesis. These data have been interpreted to suggest that shielding the hippocampus will prevent clinical radiation-induced cognitive impairment. However, this interpretation may be overly simplistic. Studies using older rodents, that more closely match the adult human brain tumor population, indicate that, unlike pediatric and young adult rats, older rats fail to show a radiation-induced decrease in neurogenesis or a loss of mature neurons. Nevertheless, older rats still exhibit cognitive impairment. This occurs in the absence of demyelination and/or white matter necrosis similar to what is observed clinically, suggesting that more subtle molecular, cellular and/or microanatomic modifications are involved in this radiation-induced brain injury. Given that radiation-induced cognitive impairment likely reflects damage to both hippocampal- and non-hippocampal-dependent domains, there is a critical need to investigate the microanatomic and functional effects of radiation in various brain regions as well as their

  4. Radiation-induced brain injury: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene-Schloesser, Dana; Robbins, Mike E.; Peiffer, Ann M.; Shaw, Edward G.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Chan, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 100,000 primary and metastatic brain tumor patients/year in the US survive long enough (>6 months) to experience radiation-induced brain injury. Prior to 1970, the human brain was thought to be highly radioresistant; the acute CNS syndrome occurs after single doses >30 Gy; white matter necrosis occurs at fractionated doses >60 Gy. Although white matter necrosis is uncommon with modern techniques, functional deficits, including progressive impairments in memory, attention, and executive function have become important, because they have profound effects on quality of life. Preclinical studies have provided valuable insights into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Given its central role in memory and neurogenesis, the majority of these studies have focused on the hippocampus. Irradiating pediatric and young adult rodent brains leads to several hippocampal changes including neuroinflammation and a marked reduction in neurogenesis. These data have been interpreted to suggest that shielding the hippocampus will prevent clinical radiation-induced cognitive impairment. However, this interpretation may be overly simplistic. Studies using older rodents, that more closely match the adult human brain tumor population, indicate that, unlike pediatric and young adult rats, older rats fail to show a radiation-induced decrease in neurogenesis or a loss of mature neurons. Nevertheless, older rats still exhibit cognitive impairment. This occurs in the absence of demyelination and/or white matter necrosis similar to what is observed clinically, suggesting that more subtle molecular, cellular and/or microanatomic modifications are involved in this radiation-induced brain injury. Given that radiation-induced cognitive impairment likely reflects damage to both hippocampal- and non-hippocampal-dependent domains, there is a critical need to investigate the microanatomic and functional effects of radiation in various brain regions as well as their

  5. Hydrogen sulfide preconditioning protects rat liver against ischemia/reperfusion injury by activating Akt-GSK-3β signaling and inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Zhang

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is the third most common endogenously produced gaseous signaling molecule, but its impact on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury, especially on mitochondrial function, remains unclear. In this study, rats were randomized into Sham, I/R, ischemia preconditioning (IPC or sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H2S donor preconditioning groups. To establish a model of segmental (70% warm hepatic ischemia, the hepatic artery, left portal vein and median liver lobes were occluded for 60 min and then unclamped to allow reperfusion. Preconditioning with 12.5, 25 or 50 μmol/kg NaHS prior to the I/R insult significantly increased serum H2S levels, and, similar to IPC, NaHS preconditioning decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels in the plasma and prevented hepatocytes from undergoing I/R-induced necrosis. Moreover, a sub-toxic dose of NaHS (25 μmol/kg did not disrupt the systemic hemodynamics but dramatically inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP opening and thus prevented mitochondrial-related cell death and apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that NaHS preconditioning markedly increased the expression of phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt, phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (p-GSK-3β and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2 and decreased the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3/9 levels. Therefore, NaHS administration prior to hepatic I/R ameliorates mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through the inhibition of MPTP opening and the activation of Akt-GSK-3β signaling. Furthermore, this study provides experimental evidence for the clinical use of H2S to reduce liver damage after perioperative I/R injury.

  6. Mitochondrial Modulation by Epigallocatechin 3-Gallate Ameliorates Cisplatin Induced Renal Injury through Decreasing Oxidative/Nitrative Stress, Inflammation and NF-kB in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueping; Wang, Ping; Fu, Guanghou; Meng, Hongzhou; Wang, Yimin; Jin, Baiye

    2015-01-01

    Cancer chemotherapy drug cisplatin is known for its nephrotoxicity. The aim of this study is to investigate whether Epigallocatechin 3-Gallate (EGCG) can reduce cisplatin mediated side effect in kidney and to understand its mechanism of protection against tissue injury. We used a well-established 3-day cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity mice model where EGCG were administered. EGCG is a major active compound in Green Tea and have strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. EGCG protected against cisplatin induced renal dysfunction as measured by serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). EGCG improved cisplatin induced kidney structural damages such as tubular dilatation, cast formation, granulovaculoar degeneration and tubular cell necrosis as evident by PAS staining. Cisplatin induced kidney specific mitochondrial oxidative stress, impaired activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme complexes, impaired anti-oxidant defense enzyme activities such as glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in mitochondria, inflammation (tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β), increased accumulation of NF-κB in nuclear fraction, p53 induction, and apoptotic cell death (caspase 3 activity and DNA fragmentation). Treatment of mice with EGCG markedly attenuated cisplatin induced mitochondrial oxidative/nitrative stress, mitochondrial damages to electron transport chain activities and antioxidant defense enzyme activities in mitochondria. These mitochondrial modulations by EGCG led to protection mechanism against cisplatin induced inflammation and apoptotic cell death in mice kidney. As a result, EGCG improved renal function in cisplatin mediated kidney damage. In addition to that, EGCG attenuated cisplatin induced apoptotic cell death and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in human kidney tubular cell line HK-2. Thus, our data suggest that EGCG may represent new promising adjunct candidate for

  7. Retrospective review of lumbosacral dissociations in blast injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Melvin D; Lehman, Ronald A; Cooper, Patrick; Frisch, Michael; Andersen, Romney C; Bellabarba, Carlo

    2011-04-01

    Retrospective review of medical records and radiographs. We assessed the clinical outcomes of lumbosacral dissociation (LSD) after traumatic, combat-related injuries, and to review our management of these distinct injuries and report our preliminary follow-up. LSD injuries are an anatomic separation of the pelvis from the spinal column, and are the result of high-energy trauma. A relative increase in these injuries has been seen in young healthy combat casualties subjected to high-energy blast trauma. We performed a retrospective review of inpatient/outpatient medical records and radiographs for all patients treated at our institution with combat-related lumbosacral dissociations. Twenty-three patients met inclusion criteria of combat-related lumbosacral dissociations with one-year follow-up. Patients were treated as follows: no fixation (9), sacroiliac screw fixation (8), posterior spinal fusion (5) and sacral plate (1). All patients with radiographic evidence of a zone III sacral fracture, in addition to associated lumbar fractures indicating loss of the iliolumbar ligamentous complex integrity were included. In 15 patients, the sacral fracture were an H or U type zone III fracture, whereas in the remaining nine, the sacral fracture was severely comminuted and unable to classify (six open fractures). There was no difference in visual analog scale (VAS) between treatment modalities. Two open injuries had residual infections. One patient treated with an L4-ilium posterior spinal fusion with instrumentation required instrumentation removal for infection. At a mean follow-up of 1.71 years (range, 1-4.5), 11 patients (48%) still reported residual pain and the mean VAS at latest follow-up was 1.7 (range, 0-7). Operative stabilization promoted healing and earlier mobilization, but carries a high-postoperative risk of infection. Nonoperative management should be considered in patients whose comorbidities prevent safe stabilization.

  8. Review of musculoskeletal injuries and prevention in the endoscopy practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvin, Glenn

    2014-08-01

    Practitioners of endoscopy often experience musculoskeletal pain and injury (most often in the back, neck, shoulders, hands, wrists, and thumbs) that are associated with the minute and repetitive strain that is placed on these areas during endoscopic procedures. This review of the current documentation of endoscopy-related pain and injuries among practitioners finds that such problems are widespread and specific in kind as well as strongly correlated with high procedure volume and procedure duration. Research on the nature and impact of cumulative trauma and overuse syndromes in other professions such as dentistry, pianists, production labor, and athletics is brought to bear on the work of the endoscopist. A more thorough understanding of the nature and prevalence of work-related pain and injury sustained by endoscopists should inform further development of ergonomic practices and equipment design. This article reviews current recommendations for ergonomic design in the endoscopy procedure space and finds that reported compliance with those recommendations is quite low. Strategies for the management of the risk of musculoskeletal injuries related to the practice of endoscopy include compliance with currently recommended ergonomic practices, education of trainees in ergonomic technique when practicing endoscopy, and research toward the modification and development of more ergonomic endoscopes and procedure spaces.

  9. TSA protects H9c2 cells against thapsigargin-induced apoptosis related to endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated mitochondrial injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiping; Liu, Yan; Dai, Xinlun; Zhou, Qiangqiang; Liu, Xueli; Li, Zeyu; Chen, Xia

    2017-05-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) activates an adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) that facilitates cellular repair, however, under prolonged ER stress, the UPR can ultimately trigger apoptosis thereby terminating damaged cells. Recently, TSA has shown protective effects on ERS and its mechanisms related to ER pathway has been previously characterized. However, whether TSA exerts its protective role via metabolic events remain largely undefined. Objectives : To explore the possible involvement of the metabolic changes during ERS and to better understand how TSA influence mitochondrial function to facilitate cellular adaptation. Results : TSA is an inhibitor of histone deacetylase which could significantly inhibit H9c2 cell apoptosis induced by Thapsigargin (TG). It also intervene the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential. By immunofluorescence staining, we have shown that GRP78 was concentrated in the perinuclear region and co-localized with ER. However, treatments with TG and TSA could let it overlap with the mitochondrial marker MitoTracker. Cellular fractionation also confirmed the location of GRP78 in mitochondrion. TSA decreases ERS-induced cell apoptosis and mitochondrial injury may related to enhance the location of GRP78 in mitochondrion.

  10. Sevoflurane postconditioning against cerebral ischemic neuronal injury is abolished in diet-induced obesity: role of brain mitochondrial KATP channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zecheng; Chen, Yunbo; Zhang, Yan; Jiang, Yi; Fang, Xuedong; Xu, Jingwei

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is associated with increased infarct volumes and adverse outcomes following ischemic stroke. However, its effect on anesthetic postconditioning‑induced neuroprotection has not been investigated. The present study examined the effect of sevoflurane postconditioning on focal ischemic brain injury in diet‑induced obesity. Sprague‑Dawley rats were fed a high‑fat diet (HF; 45% kcal as fat) for 12 weeks to develop obesity syndrome. Rats fed a low‑fat diet (LF; 10% kcal as fat) served as controls. The HF or LF‑fed rats were subjected to focal cerebral ischemia for 60 min, followed by 24 h of reperfusion. Postconditioning was performed by exposure to sevoflurane for 15 min immediately at the onset of reperfusion. The involvement of the mitochondrial KATP (mitoKATP) channel was analyzed by the administration of a selective inhibitor of 5‑hydroxydecanoate (5‑HD) prior to sevoflurane postconditioning or by administration of diazoxide (DZX), a mitoKATP channel opener, instead of sevoflurane. The cerebral infarct volume, neurological score and motor coordination were evaluated 24 h after reperfusion. The HF‑fed rats had larger infarct volumes, and lower neurological scores than the LF‑fed rats and also failed to respond to neuroprotection by sevoflurane or DZX. By contrast, sevoflurane and DZX reduced the infarct volumes and improved the neurological scores and motor coordination in the LF‑fed rats. Pretreatment with 5‑HD inhibited sevoflurane‑induced neuroprotection in the LF‑fed rats, whereas it had no effect in the HF‑fed rats. Molecular studies demonstrated that the expression of Kir6.2, a significant mitoKATP channel component, was reduced in the brains of the HF‑fed rats compared with the LF‑fed rats. The results of this study indicate that diet‑induced obesity eliminates the ability of anesthetic sevoflurane postconditioning to protect the brain against cerebral ischemic neuronal injury, most likely due to an impaired brain

  11. Risk factors for hamstring injuries in male soccer players: a systematic review of prospective studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijsterveldt, A.M.C. van; Port, L.G.L. van de; Vereijken, A.J.; Backx, F.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Hamstring injuries are common injuries in soccer players. In view of the high incidence and the serious consequences, identifying risk factors related to hamstring injuries is essential. The aim of this systematic review was therefore to identify risk factors for hamstring injuries in male adult

  12. Systematic review of injuries in mixed martial arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger E; Thomas, Bennett C

    2018-01-25

    To assess injury rates in all mixed martial arts (MMA) studies. Six online databases were searched until November 2017 including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, PubMed, Google/Google Scholar and conference proceedings. All included studies were entered in Pub Med Single Citation Matcher and all citation chains followed. Abstracts and titles were assessed for relevance, data independently abstracted and risk of bias for all competition studies evaluated independently by two reviewers. There are data for 5,374 male and 108 female MMA fighters. For 2407 males the weighted average injury rate/1000Athletic Encounters (AE) was 246.4 and for one study of 108 females 101.9. One study provided data by professional status: professionals 135.5/1000AE and amateurs 71.0/1000AE. Reasons for stopping matches were knockout/technical knockout 173.9/1000AE for males and 175.9/1000AE for females, submission 228.6/1000AE, and referee's decision 98.2/1000AE. Losers can experience large amounts of trauma especially head trauma as matches terminate. Two studies of competitions provided personally conducted ringside assessments and both pre- and post-match examination results. The other studies reported retrospective assessments of fight records or videos or videos and scorecards. There are no studies of training injuries of professionals or injuries of amateurs or long-term follow-up of musculoskeletal injuries or neurological damage. Studies are limited to the US and Canada. There are no systematic reviews of newspaper or media accounts of fights to assess rates and numbers of injuries or mortality. The few published surveys and case reports markedly understate the worldwide situation. There are high rates of trauma in MMA. The authorities who regulate MMA and referees and physicians who monitor MMA fighters have an inadequate database to guide their work. Researchers need to adopt the same set of complete definitions of all possible injuries and measure the high and early rate

  13. Systematic review of military motor vehicle crash-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahl, Pamela L; Jankosky, Christopher J; Thomas, Richard J; Hooper, Tomoko I

    2010-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes account for nearly one third of U.S. military fatalities annually. The objective of this review is to summarize the published evidence on injuries due specifically to military motor vehicle (MMV) crashes. A search of 18 electronic databases identified English language publications addressing MMV crash-related injuries between 1970 and 2006 that were available to the general public. Documents limited in distribution to military or government personnel were not evaluated. Relevant articles were categorized by study design. The search identified only 13 studies related specifically to MMV crashes. Most were case reports or case series (n=8); only one could be classified as an intervention study. Nine of the studies were based solely on data from service-specific military safety centers. Few studies exist on injuries resulting from crashes of military motor vehicles. Epidemiologic studies that assess injury rates, type, severity, and risk factors are needed, followed by studies to evaluate targeted interventions and prevention strategies. Interventions currently underway should be evaluated for effectiveness, and those proven effective in the civilian community, such as graduated driver licensing, should be considered for implementation and evaluation in military populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Systematic reviews of workplace injury interventions: what are we missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Hester J; Pompeii, Lisa A; Myers, D J; Schoenfisch, Ashley L; Dement, J M

    2009-01-01

    There are pitfalls associated with applying a biomedical model with its emphasis on experimental designs to the evaluation of workplace injury interventions. Evaluation over enough time is essential in occupational safety when interventions are expected to have a latent effect as well as to assess sustained effects. Controlled trials are not well-suited to this task and are not even possible in circumstances where a policy change, such as legislative action, affects a population of workers simultaneously. Social context influences occupational injury interventions, their evaluation and the wider generalization of findings but is lost in the pooling of data for meta-analyses. Some of these issues can be addressed through recognition of the contribution of diverse observational methodologies in intervention evaluation, improvement and maintenance of robust surveillance systems, and inclusion of qualitative methodologies not typically embraced by epidemiologists or medical researchers. Through consideration of an evaluation of a legislative effort to prevent falls from height in construction, we demonstrate lack of flexibility in current methods used for evaluating time series analyses in systematic reviews of occupational injury intervention effectiveness. These include the manner in which downward change in slope is assessed and the call to demonstrate a significant initial downward change in level. We illustrate essential contextual detail regarding this intervention that is lost in the pooling of data from multiple studies into a combined measure of effect. This reduction of occupational injury intervention evaluation to one of pure statistical significance is ill-conceived, irresponsible, and should be stopped.

  15. Melatonin protects cardiac microvasculature against ischemia/reperfusion injury via suppression of mitochondrial fission-VDAC1-HK2-mPTP-mitophagy axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Zhang, Ying; Hu, Shunying; Shi, Chen; Zhu, Pingjun; Ma, Qiang; Jin, Qinhua; Cao, Feng; Tian, Feng; Chen, Yundai

    2017-08-01

    The cardiac microvascular system, which is primarily composed of monolayer endothelial cells, is the site of blood supply and nutrient exchange to cardiomyocytes. However, microvascular ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) following percutaneous coronary intervention is a woefully neglected topic, and few strategies are available to reverse such pathologies. Here, we studied the effects of melatonin on microcirculation IRI and elucidated the underlying mechanism. Melatonin markedly reduced infarcted area, improved cardiac function, restored blood flow, and lower microcirculation perfusion defects. Histological analysis showed that cardiac microcirculation endothelial cells (CMEC) in melatonin-treated mice had an unbroken endothelial barrier, increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression, unobstructed lumen, reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, and less endothelial damage. In contrast, AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) deficiency abolished the beneficial effects of melatonin on microvasculature. In vitro, IRI activated dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-dependent mitochondrial fission, which subsequently induced voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) oligomerization, hexokinase 2 (HK2) liberation, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, PINK1/Parkin upregulation, and ultimately mitophagy-mediated CMEC death. However, melatonin strengthened CMEC survival via activation of AMPKα, followed by p-Drp1 S616 downregulation and p-Drp1 S37 upregulation, which blunted Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission. Suppression of mitochondrial fission by melatonin recovered VDAC1-HK2 interaction that prevented mPTP opening and PINK1/Parkin activation, eventually blocking mitophagy-mediated cellular death. In summary, this study confirmed that melatonin protects cardiac microvasculature against IRI. The underlying mechanism may be attributed to the inhibitory effects of melatonin on mitochondrial fission-VDAC1-HK2-mPTP-mitophagy axis via activation

  16. Epidemiology of worldwide spinal cord injury: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Y

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Yi Kang,1,2,* Han Ding,1,2,* Hengxing Zhou,1,2 Zhijian Wei,1,2 Lu Liu,1,2 Dayu Pan,1,2 Shiqing Feng1,2 1Department of Orthopaedics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, 2Tianjin Neurological Institute, Key Laboratory of Post-Neuroinjury Neuro-repair and Regeneration in Central Nervous System, Ministry of Education and Tianjin City, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Study design: A literature review of worldwide epidemiology of spinal cord injury (SCI. Objectives: To review the epidemiological indicators of SCI, such as incidence, prevalence, demographic characteristics, etiology, level and severity of injury, complications and mortality. Setting: The Department of Orthopaedics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, ­Heping District, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China. Methods: We searched articles published in PubMed, Medline, EMBASE and the Web of ­Science between January 1993 and June 2017 using the key words “spinal cord injury”, “­traumatic spinal cord injury”, “non-traumatic spinal cord injury” and “epidemiology”. The incidence, etiology, prevalence, patient demographics, level and severity of injury, complications and mortality were reviewed from the articles. Results: The epidemiology of SCI has changed. Motor vehicle accidents and falls have become the most common reasons of injury gradually. Incidence of SCI varies by regions or countries, and it has gradually increased with the expansion of human activities. The number of male patients were significantly more than female, the average age of patients with SCI had a tendency to increase gradually. The cervical level of spine was the most common part of injury; there were more number of patients with tetraplegia than patients with paraplegia. Electrolyte disturbances, pulmonary infections, urinary tract infections and bedsores were the four most common complications. Conclusion: We must have a greater

  17. Reporting Multiple Individual Injuries in Studies of Team Ball Sports: A Systematic Review of Current Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortington, Lauren V; van der Worp, Henk; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-06-01

    To identify and prioritise targets for injury prevention efforts, injury incidence studies are widely reported. The accuracy and consistency in calculation and reporting of injury incidence is crucial. Many individuals experience more than one injury but multiple injuries are not consistently reported in sport injury incidence studies. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate current practice of how multiple injuries within individuals have been defined and reported in prospective, long-term, injury studies in team ball sports. A systematic search of three online databases for articles published before 2016. Publications were included if (1) they collected prospective data on musculoskeletal injuries in individual participants; (2) the study duration was >1 consecutive calendar year/season; and (3) individuals were the unit of analysis. Key study features were summarised, including definitions of injury, how multiple individual injuries were reported and results relating to multiple injuries. Of the 71 publications included, half did not specifically indicate multiple individual injuries; those that did were largely limited to reporting recurrent injuries. Eight studies reported the number/proportion of athletes with more than one injury, and 11 studies presented the mean/number of injuries per athlete. Despite it being relatively common to collect data on individuals across more than one season, the reporting of multiple injuries within individuals is much more limited. Ultimately, better addressing of multiple injuries will improve the accuracy of injury incidence studies and enable more precise targeting and monitoring of the effectiveness of preventive interventions.

  18. Incidence, aetiology and prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in volleyball: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, O; Maas, M; Verhagen, E; Zwerver, J; Gouttebarge, V

    2017-07-01

    Currently, there is no overview of the incidence and (volleyball-specific) risk factors of musculoskeletal injuries among volleyball players, nor any insight into the effect of preventive measures on the incidence of injuries in volleyball. This study aimed to review systematically the scientific evidence on the incidence, prevalence, aetiology and preventive measures of volleyball injuries. To this end, a highly sensitive search strategy was built based on two groups of keywords (and their synonyms). Two electronic databases were searched, namely Medline (biomedical literature) via Pubmed, and SPORTDiscus (sports and sports medicine literature) via EBSCOhost. The results showed that ankle, knee and shoulder injuries are the most common injuries sustained while playing volleyball. Results are presented separately for acute and overuse injuries, as well as for contact and non-contact injuries. Measures to prevent musculoskeletal injuries, anterior knee injuries and ankle injuries were identified in the scientific literature. These preventive measures were found to have a significant effect on decreasing the occurrence of volleyball injuries (for instance on ankle injuries with a reduction from 0.9 to 0.5 injuries per 1000 player hours). Our systematic review showed that musculoskeletal injuries are common among volleyball players, while effective preventive measures remain scarce. Further epidemiological studies should focus on other specific injuries besides knee and ankle injuries, and should also report their prevalence and not only the incidence. Additionally, high-quality studies on the aetiology and prevention of shoulder injuries are lacking and should be a focus of future studies.

  19. 76 FR 29756 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Centers for Agricultural Disease and Injury Research, Education, and Prevention...

  20. Mitigating the risk of musculoskeletal injury: A systematic review of the most effective injury prevention strategies for military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Sophie L; Greeves, Julie P

    2017-11-01

    To update the current injury prevention strategy evidence base for making recommendations to prevent physical training-related musculoskeletal injury. We conducted a systematic review to update the evidence base on injury prevention strategies for military personnel. Literature was systematically searched and extracted from five databases, and reported according to PRISMA guidelines. Sixty one articles meeting the inclusion criteria and published during the period 2008-2015 were selected for systematic review. The retrieved articles were broadly categorised into six injury prevention strategies; (1) conditioning, (2) footwear modifications, (3) bracing, (4) physical activity volume, (5) physical fitness, and (6) leadership/supervision/awareness. The majority of retrieved articles (n=37 (of 61) evaluated or systematically reviewed a conditioning intervention of some nature. However, the most well-supported strategies were related to reducing physical activity volume and improving leadership/supervision/awareness of injuries and injury prevention efforts. Several injury prevention strategies effectively reduce musculoskeletal injury rates in both sexes, and many show promise for utility with military personnel. However, further evaluation, ideally with prospective randomised trials, is required to establish the most effective injury prevention strategies, and to understand any sex-specific differences in the response to these strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Primary repair of penetrating colon injuries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Marc A; Nelson, Richard L

    2002-12-01

    Primary repair of penetrating colon injuries is an appealing management option; however, uncertainty about its safety persists. This study was conducted to compare the morbidity and mortality of primary repair with fecal diversion in the management of penetrating colon injuries by use of a meta-analysis of randomized, prospective trials. We searched for prospective, randomized trials in MEDLINE (1966 to November 2001), the Cochrane Library, and EMBase using the terms colon, penetrating, injury, colostomy, prospective, and randomized. Studies were included if they were randomized, controlled trials that compared the outcomes of primary repair with fecal diversion in the management of penetrating colon injuries. Five studies were included. Reviewers performed data extraction independently. Outcomes evaluated from each trial included mortality, total complications, infectious complications, intra-abdominal infections, wound complications, penetrating abdominal trauma index, and length of stay. Peto odds ratios for combined effect were calculated with a 95 percent confidence interval for each outcome. Heterogeneity was also assessed for each outcome. The penetrating abdominal trauma index of included subjects did not differ significantly between studies. Mortality was not significantly different between groups (odds ratio, 1.70; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.51-5.66). However, total complications (odds ratio, 0.28; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.18-0.42), total infectious complications (odds ratio, 0.41; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.27-0.63), abdominal infections including dehiscence (odds ratio, 0.59; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.38-0.94), abdominal infections excluding dehiscence (odds ratio, 0.52; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.31-0.86), wound complications including dehiscence (odds ratio, 0.55; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.34-0.89), and wound complications excluding dehiscence (odds ratio, 0.43; 95 percent confidence interval, 0

  2. Review article: Methodology for the 'rapid review' series on musculoskeletal injuries in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strudwick, Kirsten; McPhee, Megan; Bell, Anthony; Martin-Khan, Melinda; Russell, Trevor

    2018-02-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries are a common presentation to the ED, with significant costs involved in the management of these injuries, variances in care within the ED and associated morbidity. A series of rapid review papers were completed to guide best practice for the assessment and management of common musculoskeletal injuries presenting to the ED. This paper presents the methodology used across the rapid reviews. PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, TRIP and the grey literature, including relevant organisational websites, were searched in 2015. The search was repeated consistently for each topic area (injuries of the foot and ankle, knee, hand and wrist, elbow, shoulder, lumbar spine and cervical spine). English-language primary studies, systematic reviews and guidelines that were published in the last 10 years and addressed acute musculoskeletal injury management were considered for inclusion. Data extraction of each included article was conducted, followed by a quality appraisal. The extracted data from each article was synthesised to group similar evidence together. For each rapid review, the evidence has been organised in a way that a clinician can direct their attention to a specific component of the clinical cycle of care in the ED, such as the assessment, diagnostic tests, management and follow-up considerations from ED. The series of rapid reviews are designed to foster evidence-based practice within the ED, targeting the injuries most commonly presenting. The reviews provide clinicians in EDs with rapid access to the best current evidence, which has been synthesised and organised to assist decision-making. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  3. Guarding the Precious Smile: Incidence and Prevention of Injury in Sports: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dhillon, Bikramjit Singh; Sood, Nikhil; Sood, Niti; Sah, Nupur; Arora, Dhruv; Mahendra, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    The paper provides a review about the orofacial injuries sustained during sports and the options available to the athletes for their prevention. It was done with a purpose to determine three different aspects incidence of dental injury during sporting activities, role of mouthguards in preventing sports injury, types of mouthguards and their properties. From this review, it is clear that sports carry a considerable risk of injury, this is not only true for the contact sports such as rugby or ...

  4. Incidence and Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Injury in Ballet: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Preston J; Gerrie, Brayden J; Varner, Kevin E; McCulloch, Patrick C; Lintner, David M; Harris, Joshua D

    2015-07-01

    Most published studies on injuries in the ballet dancer focus on the lower extremity. The rigors of this activity require special training and care. By understanding prevalence and injury pattern to the musculoskeletal system, targeted prevention and treatment for this population can be developed. To determine the incidence and prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries in ballet. Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. A systematic review registered with PROSPERO was performed using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Level 1 through 4 evidence studies reporting incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in male and female ballet dancers were included, with the numbers and types of injuries extracted from each. Injury rates were recorded and calculated based on professional status, sex, and nature of injury. Incidence was defined as number of injuries sustained over a specific time. Prevalence was defined as proportion of subjects with an injury at a given point in time. The studies analyzed reported injury incidence or prevalence in more than 1365 amateur and 900 professional dancers. The mean age was 16.2 years among amateur and 27.0 years among professional dancers. The incidence of injury among amateur dancers was 0.99 and 1.09 injuries per 1000 dance hours in males and females, respectively; 75% of injuries were overuse, with similar rates among males and females. In professional dancers, the incidence of injury was 1.06 and 1.46 injuries per 1000 dance hours in males and females, respectively, and 64% of female injuries were overuse, compared with 50% in males (P ballet dancers is 0.97 and 1.24 injuries per 1000 dance hours, respectively. The majority are overuse in both amateur and professional dancers, with amateur ballet dancers showing a higher proportion of overuse injuries than professionals (P < .001). Male professional dancers show a higher proportion of traumatic injuries, accounting for half of their

  5. Flurbiprofen, a Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor, Protects Mice from Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Inhibiting GSK-3β Signaling and Mitochondrial Permeability Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hailong; Chen, Huan; Wang, Chengcai; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Fang; Guo, Meng; Wang, Quanxing; Shi, Xueyin

    2012-01-01

    Flurbiprofen acts as a nonselective inhibitor for cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2), but its impact on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains unclear. Mice were randomized into sham, I/R and flurbiprofen (Flurb) groups. The hepatic artery and portal vein to the left and median liver lobes were occluded for 90 min and unclamped for reperfusion to establish a model of segmental (70%) warm hepatic ischemia. Pretreatment of animals with flurbiprofen prior to I/R insult significantly decreased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and prevented hepatocytes from I/R-induced apoptosis/necrosis. Moreover, flurbiprofen dramatically inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore opening, and thus prevented mitochondrial-related cell death and apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that flurbiprofen markedly inhibited glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β activity and increased phosphorylation of GSK-3β at Ser9, which, consequently, could modulate the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT)–cyclophilin D (CyP-D) complex and the susceptibility to MPT induction. Therefore, administration of flurbiprofen prior to hepatic I/R ameliorates mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through inhibition of MPT and inactivation of GSK-3β, and provides experimental evidence for clinical use of flurbiprofen to protect liver function in surgical settings in addition to its conventional use for pain relief. PMID:22714712

  6. [External progressive ophthalmoplegia secondary to mitochondrial myopathy. Report of a case and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, A L; Pérez-Loria, O; Alberto-Sagástegui, J; Farías-García, R

    2000-01-01

    Progressive limitation of occular motility, accompanied by ptosis but usually without diplopia, occurs in many pathologic states, including mitochondrial diseases. A case with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia with onset during childhood, associated with proximal myopathy and dysphasia is presented. The muscle biopsy showed a myopathic pattern and abnormal subsarcolemmal mitochondrial deposits. Muscle biopsy for important in the correct diagnosis of this entity.

  7. Spinal Cord Injury Research in Mice: 2008 Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Steuer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI is an irreversible condition causing damage to myelinated fiber tracts that carry sensation and motor signals to and from the brain. SCI is also associated with gray matter damage and often life-threatening secondary complications. This mini-review aims to provide the nonspecialist reader with a comprehensive description of recent advances made in 2008 using murine models of SCI. A variety of approaches, including advanced genetics and molecular techniques, have allowed a number of key findings in the field of secondary degeneration, repair, regeneration (including insights from peripheral nerve lesion models, metabolic dysfunctions, and pharmacological neuromodulation.

  8. Literature review of cranial nerve injuries during carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, M S; Vijaynagar, B; Singh, P; Hamilton, G

    2007-01-01

    In the recent prospective randomised trials on carotid endarterectomy (CEA), the incidence of cranial nerve injuries (CNI) are reported to be higher than in previously published studies. The objective of this study is to review the incidence of post CEA cranial nerve injury and to discover whether it has changed in the last 25 years after many innovations in vascular surgery. Generic terms including carotid endarterectomy, cranial nerve injuries, post CEA complications and cranial nerve deficit after neck surgery were used to search a variety of electronic databases. Based on selection criteria, decisions regarding inclusion and exclusion of primary studies were made. The incidence of CNI before and after 1995 was compared. We found 31 eligible studies from the literature. Patients who underwent CEA through any approach were included in the study. All patients had cranial nerves examined both before and after surgery. The total number of patients who had CEA before 1995 was 3521 with 10.6% CNI (352 patients) and after 1995, 7324 patients underwent CEA with 8.3% CNI (614 patients). Cranial nerves XII, X and VII were most commonly involved (rarely IX and XI). Statistical analysis showed that the incidence of CNI has decreased (X(2) = 5.89 + 0.74 = 6.63 => p-value = 0.0100). CNI is still a significant postoperative complication of carotid endarterectomy. Despite increasing use of CEA, the incidence of CNI has decreased probably because of increased awareness of the possibility of cranial nerve damage.

  9. Lebetin 2, a Snake Venom-Derived Natriuretic Peptide, Attenuates Acute Myocardial Ischemic Injury through the Modulation of Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore at the Time of Reperfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bochra Tourki

    Full Text Available Cardiac ischemia is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. It is now well established that natriuretic peptides can attenuate the development of irreversible ischemic injury during myocardial infarction. Lebetin 2 (L2 is a new discovered peptide isolated from Macrovipera lebetina venom with structural similarity to B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP. Our objectives were to define the acute cardioprotective actions of L2 in isolated Langendorff-perfused rat hearts after regional or global ischemia-reperfusion (IR. We studied infarct size, left ventricular contractile recovery, survival protein kinases and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP opening in injured myocardium. L2 dosage was determined by preliminary experiments at its ability to induce cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP release without changing hemodynamic effects in normoxic hearts. L2 was found to be as effective as BNP in reducing infarct size after the induction of either regional or global IR. Both peptides equally improved contractile recovery after regional IR, but only L2 increased coronary flow and reduced severe contractile dysfunction after global ischemia. Cardioprotection afforded by L2 was abolished after isatin or 5-hydroxydecanote pretreatment suggesting the involvement of natriuretic peptide receptors and mitochondrial KATP (mitoKATP channels in the L2-induced effects. L2 also increased survival protein expression in the reperfused myocardium as evidenced by phosphorylation of signaling pathways PKCε/ERK/GSK3β and PI3K/Akt/eNOS. IR induced mitochondrial pore opening, but this effect was markedly prevented by L2 treatment. These data show that L2 has strong cardioprotective effect in acute ischemia through stimulation of natriuretic peptide receptors. These beneficial effects are mediated, at least in part, by mitoKATP channel opening and downstream activated survival kinases, thus delaying mPTP opening and improving IR-induced mitochondrial

  10. EVALUATION OF MUSCLE STRENGTH IN MEDULLAR INJURY: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Valdameri Capelari

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the tools used to evaluate muscle strength in subjects with spinal cord injury in both clinical practice and scientific research. Methods: Initially, the literature review was carried out to identify the tools used in scientific research. The search was conducted in the following databases: Virtual Health Library (VHL, Pedro, and PubMed. Studies published between 1990 and 2016 were considered and selected, depicting an evaluation of muscle strength as an endpoint or for characterization of the sample. Next, a survey was carried out with physiotherapists to identify the instruments used for evaluation in clinical practice, and the degree of satisfaction of professionals with respect to them. Results: 495 studies were found; 93 were included for qualitative evaluation. In the studies, we verified the use of manual muscle test with different graduation systems, isokinetic dynamometer, hand-held dynamometer, and manual dynamometer. In clinical practice, the manual muscle test using the motor score recommended by the American Spinal Cord Injury Association was the most used method, despite the limitations highlighted by the physiotherapists interviewed. Conclusion: In scientific research, there is great variation in the methods and tools used to evaluate muscle strength in individuals with spinal cord injury, differently from clinical practice. The tools available and currently used have important limitations, which were highlighted by the professionals interviewed. No instrument depicts direct relationship of muscle strength and functionality of the subject. There is no consensus as to the best method for assessing muscle strength in spinal cord injury, and new instruments are needed that are specific for use in this population.

  11. MPV17-related mitochondrial DNA maintenance defect: New cases and review of clinical, biochemical, and molecular aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hattab, Ayman W; Wang, Julia; Dai, Hongzheng; Almannai, Mohammed; Staufner, Christian; Alfadhel, Majid; Gambello, Michael J; Prasun, Pankaj; Raza, Saleem; Lyons, Hernando J; Afqi, Manal; Saleh, Mohammed A M; Faqeih, Eissa A; Alzaidan, Hamad I; Alshenqiti, Abduljabbar; Flore, Leigh Anne; Hertecant, Jozef; Sacharow, Stephanie; Barbouth, Deborah S; Murayama, Kei; Shah, Amit A; Lin, Henry C; Wong, Lee-Jun C

    2018-04-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance defects are a group of diseases caused by deficiency of proteins involved in mtDNA synthesis, mitochondrial nucleotide supply, or mitochondrial dynamics. One of the mtDNA maintenance proteins is MPV17, which is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein involved in importing deoxynucleotides into the mitochondria. In 2006, pathogenic variants in MPV17 were first reported to cause infantile-onset hepatocerebral mtDNA depletion syndrome and Navajo neurohepatopathy. To date, 75 individuals with MPV17-related mtDNA maintenance defect have been reported with 39 different MPV17 pathogenic variants. In this report, we present an additional 25 affected individuals with nine novel MPV17 pathogenic variants. We summarize the clinical features of all 100 affected individuals and review the total 48 MPV17 pathogenic variants. The vast majority of affected individuals presented with an early-onset encephalohepatopathic disease characterized by hepatic and neurological manifestations, failure to thrive, lactic acidemia, and mtDNA depletion detected mainly in liver tissue. Rarely, MPV17 deficiency can cause a late-onset neuromyopathic disease characterized by myopathy and peripheral neuropathy with no or minimal liver involvement. Approximately half of the MPV17 pathogenic variants are missense. A genotype with biallelic missense variants, in particular homozygous p.R50Q, p.P98L, and p.R41Q, can carry a relatively better prognosis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A Review of a Decade of Rugby Union Injury Epidemiology: 2007-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviers, Pierre L; Viljoen, Jeandré T; Derman, Wayne

    Rugby union is the most widely played team collision sport globally. As with other contact sports, there is substantial risk of injury. To date, the majority of studies on injury epidemiology have focused on elite male cohorts, which inherently prevents extrapolation of research findings to other groups within the player continuum. This review aims to describe emerging injury trends across the spectrum of various rugby union subpopulations and to highlight gaps that may influence future injury prevention tactics. Relevant articles published from 2007 to 2017 were obtained by searching MEDLINE, PubMed, and SPORT Discus. Studies on 15-a-side rugby union, implemented according to the 2007 consensus statement on injury definitions and data collection procedures for injuries in rugby union, were used. Clinical review. Level 3. Match injuries occur more frequently than training injuries. Injury rates increase consistently according to age and level of play. Severity of injury often is greater among lower levels of the game, and sex-specific differences relating to injury patterns and incidence rates exist. To date, a paucity of injury surveillance data exists for women and players of both sexes at all levels of community rugby union. Furthermore, the incidence of injuries and illnesses are poorly reported in epidemiological studies. Despite methodological differences, injury trends remain consistent throughout all levels of play.

  13. Family function and its relationship to injury severity and psychiatric outcome in children with acquired brain injury: a systematized review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lax Pericall, Maria Teresa; Taylor, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The psychological and psychiatric outcome of children with acquired brain injury is influenced by many variables. A review was undertaken to clarify the contribution of family function, how it relates to injury severity, and what particular aspects of family function influence psychological outcome in this group. A systematized review of the literature of studies published between 1970 and 2012 from OvidMedline, PsychoInfo, PsycARTICLES, and Cochrane was undertaken focusing on family function, injury severity, and psychiatric outcome. Thirty-six papers met the inclusion criteria. Injury severity was linked to the development of organic personality change. Family function before injury, measured by the Family Assessment Device or the Clinical Rating Scale, had a statistically significant effect on general psychological functioning in six out of eight studies. Family function had a significant effect for oppositional defiant disorder and secondary attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. The effects of family function may differ depending on the age of the child and the severity of the injury. Some styles of parenting moderated recovery. After injury, family function was related to the child's contemporaneous psychiatric symptoms. The level of evidence for these papers was 3 or 4 (Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine criteria). Screening for some aspects of family functioning before injury and family function during the rehabilitation phase may identify children at risk of psychiatric disorders. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  14. Sharps injuries in UK health care: a review of injury rates, viral transmission and potential efficacy of safety devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Alexander; Paterson, Caron

    2006-12-01

    To review the literature on sharps injuries and occupational bloodborne virus transmission in health care in the UK and the worldwide evidence for injury prevention of sharps safety devices. Literature review by online database and Internet resource search. Twenty-four relevant publications were identified regarding UK reported sharps injury rates. UK studies showed as much as a 10-fold difference between injuries reported through standard reporting systems (0.78-5.15 per 100 person-years) and rates estimated from retrospective questionnaires of clinical populations (30-284 per 100 person-years). National surveillance data from England, Wales and Northern Ireland gives a rate of 1.43 known hepatitis C virus or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmissions to health care workers per annum. When extrapolated, this suggests an approximate rate of 0.009 such viral transmissions per 1000 hospital beds per annum. Risk of infection from sources with no risk factors is extremely small (less than one in one million for HIV transmission based on Scottish data). Thirty-one studies on the efficacy of sharps safety devices showed evidence of a reduction in injuries, with the greatest reductions achieved by blunt suture needles and safety cannulae. Although injuries remain common, confirmed viral transmission in the UK has been relatively rare. The degree of under-reporting of sharps injuries may be as much as 10-fold. Safety-engineered devices are likely to be effective at injury reduction.

  15. Factors predicting outcome in whiplash injury: a systematic meta-review of prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrami, Pooria; Armstrong, Elizabeth; Naylor, Justine M; Harris, Ian A

    2017-03-01

    Whiplash injuries are among the leading injuries related to car crashes and it is important to determine the prognostic factors that predict the outcome of patients with these injuries. This meta-review aims to identify factors that are associated with outcome after acute whiplash injury. A systematic search for all systematic reviews on outcome prediction of acute whiplash injury was conducted across several electronic databases. The search was limited to publications in English, and there were no geographical or time of publication restrictions. Quality appraisal was conducted with A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews. The initial search yielded 207 abstracts; of these, 195 were subsequently excluded by topic or method. Twelve systematic reviews with moderate quality were subsequently included in the analysis. Post-injury pain and disability, whiplash grades, cold hyperalgesia, post-injury anxiety, catastrophizing, compensation and legal factors, and early healthcare use were associated with continuation of pain and disability in patients with whiplash injury. Post-injury magnetic resonance imaging or radiographic findings, motor dysfunctions, or factors related to the collision were not associated with continuation of pain and disability in patients with whiplash injury. Evidence on demographic and three psychological factors and prior pain was conflicting, and there is a shortage of evidence related to the significance of genetic factors. This meta-review suggests an association between initial pain and anxiety and the outcome of acute whiplash injury, and less evidence for an association with physical factors. Level 1.

  16. Mechanisms of sports injuries among professional footballers:  a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ibikundle, P.O.; Ani, U.K.; Useh, U.; Akosile, C.O.

    2014-01-01

    Football is an impact collision sport, with injuries occurring in both contact and non-contact situations. Injuries may be caused by complex interactions between internal and external risk factors. The internal factors such as age, sex, and body compositions may influence the risk of sustaining injuries, predisposing the player to injury, and are therefore by definitions risk factors. The main purpose of this study was to review articles and draw attention to the prevalence, severity and mech...

  17. Regenerative abilities of mesenchymal stem cells through mitochondrial transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwal, Swati; Chaudhuri, Rituparna; Agrawal, Anurag; Mohanty, Sujata

    2018-03-30

    The past decade has witnessed an upsurge in studies demonstrating mitochondrial transfer as one of the emerging mechanisms through which mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can regenerate and repair damaged cells or tissues. It has been found to play a critical role in healing several diseases related to brain injury, cardiac myopathies, muscle sepsis, lung disorders and acute respiratory disorders. Several studies have shown that various mechanisms are involved in mitochondrial transfer that includes tunnel tube formation, micro vesicle formation, gap junctions, cell fusion and others modes of transfer. Few studies have investigated the mechanisms that contribute to mitochondrial transfer, primarily comprising of signaling pathways involved in tunnel tube formation that facilitates tunnel tube formation for movement of mitochondria from one cell to another. Various stress signals such as release of damaged mitochondria, mtDNA and mitochondrial products along with elevated reactive oxygen species levels trigger the transfer of mitochondria from MSCs to recipient cells. However, extensive cell signaling pathways that lead to mitochondrial transfer from healthy cells are still under investigation and the changes that contribute to restoration of mitochondrial bioenergetics in recipient cells remain largely elusive. In this review, we have discussed the phenomenon of mitochondrial transfer from MSCs to neighboring stressed cells, and how this aids in cellular repair and regeneration of different organs such as lung, heart, eye, brain and kidney. The potential scope of mitochondrial transfer in providing novel therapeutic strategies for treatment of various pathophysiological conditions has also been discussed.

  18. Preserved cardiac mitochondrial function and reduced ischaemia/reperfusion injury afforded by chronic continuous hypoxia: Role of opioid receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maslov, L. N.; Naryzhnaya, N. V.; Prokudina, E. S.; Kolář, František; Gorbunov, A. S.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, H.; Tsibulnikov, S.Yu.; Portnichenko, A. G.; Lasukova, T. V.; Lishmanov, Yu. B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 5 (2015), s. 496-501 ISSN 1440-1681 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1162 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : cardioprotection * chronic hypoxia * ischaemia/reperfusion * mitochondrial function * opioid receptors Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.004, year: 2015

  19. Imaging of acute cervical spine injuries: review and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tins, B.J.; Cassar-Pullicino, V.N.

    2004-01-01

    Advances in imaging technology have been successfully applied in the emergency trauma setting with great benefit providing early, accurate and efficient diagnoses. Gaps in the knowledge of imaging acute spinal injury remain, despite a vast wealth of useful research and publications on the role of CT and MRI. This article reviews in a balanced manner the main questions that still face the attending radiologist by embracing the current and evolving concepts to help define and provide answers to the following; Imaging techniques - strengths and weaknesses; what are the implications of a missed cervical spine injury?; who should be imaged?; how should they be imaged?; spinal immobilisation - help or hazard?; residual open questions; what does all this mean?; and what are the implications for the radiologist? Although there are many helpful guidelines, the residual gaps in the knowledge base result in incomplete answers to the questions posed. The identification of these gaps in knowledge however should act as the initiating stimulus for further research. All too often there is a danger that the performance and productivity of the imaging modalities is the main research focus and not enough attention is given to the two fundamental prerequisites to the assessment of any imaging technology - the clinical selection criteria for imaging and the level of expertise of the appropriate clinician interpreting the images

  20. Acute kidney injury complicating bee stings – a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Geraldo Bezerra; Vasconcelos, Adolfo Gomes; Rocha, Amanda Maria Timbó; de Vasconcelos, Vanessa Ribeiro; de Barros, João; Fujishima, Julye Sampaio; Ferreira, Nathália Barros; Barros, Elvino José Guardão; Daher, Elizabeth De Francesco

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bee stings can cause severe reactions and have caused many victims in the last years. Allergic reactions can be triggered by a single sting and the greater the number of stings, the worse the prognosis. The poisoning effects can be systemic and can eventually cause death. The poison components are melitin, apamin, peptide 401, phospholipase A2, hyaluronidase, histamine, dopamine, and norepinephrine, with melitin being the main lethal component. Acute kidney injury (AKI) can be observed in patients suffering from bee stings and this is due to multiple factors, such as intravascular hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis, hypotension and direct toxicity of the venom components to the renal tubules. Arterial hypotension plays an important role in this type of AKI, leading to ischemic renal lesion. The most commonly identified biopsy finding in these cases is acute tubular necrosis, which can occur due to both, ischemic injury and the nephrotoxicity of venom components. Hemolysis and rhabdomyolysis reported in many cases in the literature, were demonstrated by elevated serum levels of indirect bilirubin and creatine kinase. The severity of AKI seems to be associated with the number of stings, since creatinine levels were higher, in most cases, when there were more than 1,000 stings. The aim of this study is to present an updated review of AKI associated with bee stings, including the currently advised clinical approach. PMID:28591253

  1. Acute kidney injury complicating bee stings - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Geraldo Bezerra da; Vasconcelos, Adolfo Gomes; Rocha, Amanda Maria Timbó; Vasconcelos, Vanessa Ribeiro de; Barros, João de; Fujishima, Julye Sampaio; Ferreira, Nathália Barros; Barros, Elvino José Guardão; Daher, Elizabeth De Francesco

    2017-06-01

    Bee stings can cause severe reactions and have caused many victims in the last years. Allergic reactions can be triggered by a single sting and the greater the number of stings, the worse the prognosis. The poisoning effects can be systemic and can eventually cause death. The poison components are melitin, apamin, peptide 401, phospholipase A2, hyaluronidase, histamine, dopamine, and norepinephrine, with melitin being the main lethal component. Acute kidney injury (AKI) can be observed in patients suffering from bee stings and this is due to multiple factors, such as intravascular hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis, hypotension and direct toxicity of the venom components to the renal tubules. Arterial hypotension plays an important role in this type of AKI, leading to ischemic renal lesion. The most commonly identified biopsy finding in these cases is acute tubular necrosis, which can occur due to both, ischemic injury and the nephrotoxicity of venom components. Hemolysis and rhabdomyolysis reported in many cases in the literature, were demonstrated by elevated serum levels of indirect bilirubin and creatine kinase. The severity of AKI seems to be associated with the number of stings, since creatinine levels were higher, in most cases, when there were more than 1,000 stings. The aim of this study is to present an updated review of AKI associated with bee stings, including the currently advised clinical approach.

  2. Summer camps for children with burn injuries: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Gary R; Lobato, Debra

    2010-01-01

    The first summer camps for children with burn injuries started over 25 years ago, and as of 2008, there were 60 camps worldwide. This review examines the literature on summer pediatric burn camps. The authors describe common characteristics of burn camp structure, activities, and staffing and then examine the scientific evidence regarding the effect of burn camp programs on campers and camp staff volunteers. A search of Pubmed and Psychinfo databases from 1970 to 2008 for articles related to pediatric burn summer camps identified 17 articles, of which 13 fit the inclusion criteria. Existing literature consists primarily of qualitative studies, suggesting that burn camp can decrease camper isolation, improve self-esteem, and promote coping and social skills. Studies examining volunteer staff at burn camp have consistently found that there are both personal and professional benefits. Quantitative studies of self-esteem have yielded equivocal results. No studies have examined safety or the effect of burn camp on medical or rehabilitation outcomes. For the past 25 years, pediatric summer camps for children with burn injuries have played an important rehabilitation role and provided a strong community that benefits both campers and staff. Future research using more rigorous research methods and examining a broader range of outcomes (eg, safety and medical/rehabilitation outcomes) is recommended.

  3. Imaging of acute cervical spine injuries: review and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tins, B.J. [Department of Radiology, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry (United Kingdom); Cassar-Pullicino, V.N. [Department of Radiology, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: Victor.Pullicino@rjah.nhs.uk

    2004-10-01

    Advances in imaging technology have been successfully applied in the emergency trauma setting with great benefit providing early, accurate and efficient diagnoses. Gaps in the knowledge of imaging acute spinal injury remain, despite a vast wealth of useful research and publications on the role of CT and MRI. This article reviews in a balanced manner the main questions that still face the attending radiologist by embracing the current and evolving concepts to help define and provide answers to the following; Imaging techniques - strengths and weaknesses; what are the implications of a missed cervical spine injury?; who should be imaged?; how should they be imaged?; spinal immobilisation - help or hazard?; residual open questions; what does all this mean?; and what are the implications for the radiologist? Although there are many helpful guidelines, the residual gaps in the knowledge base result in incomplete answers to the questions posed. The identification of these gaps in knowledge however should act as the initiating stimulus for further research. All too often there is a danger that the performance and productivity of the imaging modalities is the main research focus and not enough attention is given to the two fundamental prerequisites to the assessment of any imaging technology - the clinical selection criteria for imaging and the level of expertise of the appropriate clinician interpreting the images.

  4. Systematic review of severe acute liver injury caused by terbinafine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Wang, Xiaolin; Chen, Shengli

    2014-08-01

    Terbinafine is an effective antimicrobial agent against dermatophytes, cryptococcus and other fungi. It is the preferred drug to treat onychomycosis. However, severe acute hepatitis from oral terbinafine administration has been recently reported. To describe a representative case, and review the literature regarding the best evidence on treatment and prognosis of severe acute hepatitis caused by oral terbinafine. The literature was searched for publications on severe hepatitis caused by terbinafine using MEDLINE, China Biology Medicine Disc, and the VIP Medical Information Resource System. Related references were searched manually. Seventeen English and three Chinese references of case reports were included after eliminating duplicate publications. No randomized control studies were found. Liver enzyme levels were found to have been increased significantly. Abdominal ultrasound demonstrated cholestasis. Severe acute liver injury is a known, but unusual complication of terbinafine exposure. The prognosis is often good with appropriate treatment. Liver function assessment before treatment and periodic monitoring 4-6 weeks after initiation of treatment is recommended.

  5. 77 FR 28392 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Alcohol-related Motor Vehicle Injury Research, FOA CE12-006, initial review. In...

  6. CHRISTMAS 2014 : GOING TO EXTREMES Nintendo related injuries and other problems: review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalink, Maarten B.; Heineman, Erik; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E. N.; Hoedemaker, Henk O. ten Cate

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify all reported cases of injury and other problems caused by using a Nintendo video gaming system. Design Review. Data sources and review methods Search of PubMed and Embase in June 2014 for reports on injuries and other problems caused by using a Nintendo gaming system. Results

  7. DNaseI Protects against Paraquat-Induced Acute Lung Injury and Pulmonary Fibrosis Mediated by Mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Paraquat (PQ poisoning is a lethal toxicological challenge that served as a disease model of acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis, but the mechanism is undetermined and no effective treatment has been discovered. Methods and Findings. We demonstrated that PQ injures mitochondria and leads to mtDNA release. The mtDNA mediated PBMC recruitment and stimulated the alveolar epithelial cell production of TGF-β1 in vitro. The levels of mtDNA in circulation and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF were elevated in a mouse of PQ-induced lung injury. DNaseI could protect PQ-induced lung injury and significantly improved survival. Acute lung injury markers, such as TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6, and marker of fibrosis, collagen I, were downregulated in parallel with the elimination of mtDNA by DNaseI. These data indicate a possible mechanism for PQ-induced, mtDNA-mediated lung injury, which may be shared by other causes of lung injury, as suggested by the same protective effect of DNaseI in bleomycin-induced lung injury model. Interestingly, increased mtDNA in the BALF of patients with amyopathic dermatomyositis-interstitial lung disease can be appreciated. Conclusions. DNaseI targeting mtDNA may be a promising approach for the treatment of PQ-induced acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis that merits fast tracking through clinical trials.

  8. Bioprotective carnitinoids: lipoic acid, butyrate, and mitochondria-targeting to treat radiation injury: mitochondrial drugs come of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steliou, Kosta; Faller, Douglas V; Pinkert, Carl A; Irwin, Michael H; Moos, Walter H

    2015-06-01

    Preclinical Research Given nuclear-power-plant incidents such as the 2011 Japanese Fukushima-Daiichi disaster, an urgent need for effective medicines to protect against and treat the harmful biological effects of radiation is evident. To address such a challenge, we describe potential strategies herein including mitochondrial and epigenetic-driven methods using lipoic and butyric acid ester conjugates of carnitine. The antioxidant and other therapeutically beneficial properties of this class of agents may protect against ionizing radiation and resultant mitochondrial dysfunction. Recent studies of the compounds described herein reveal the potential-although further research and development is required to prove the effectiveness of this approach-to provide field-ready radiation-protective drugs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Injuries in the Martial Arts Judo, Taekwondo and Wrestling - A Systematic Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäggi, U; Joray, C P; Brülhart, Y; Luijckx, E; Rogan, S

    2015-12-01

    Martial arts such as judo, taekwondo and wrestling are regulated, usually athletic duels. The aim is to score better than your opponent or to win. As with any type of sport, athletes in martial arts sustain minor and major injuries, which may have many negative consequences. In addition, sports injuries and their rehabilitation generate high costs to the healthcare system. In contrast to the FIFA 11+ warm-up program, no preventive programs have been postulated for injury prevention in these martial arts. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to summarise the latest research findings and to evaluate whether initial recommendations can be given for the reduction of injuries in the martial arts judo, wrestling and taekwondo. To gain an overview of the latest research findings, we searched for systematic reviews in PEDro, PubMed, Cochrane and the internet search engine Google Scholar. The methodological quality of these reviews was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Tool for a Systematic Review (CASP), and data was extracted on the risk of injury, injury location and injury type. It was found that all three review articles are of low to moderate methodological quality. Regarding injury location, it became evident that the extremities are particularly vulnerable to injury in all three martial arts. Effusion was observed to be the most common type of injury. Due to the moderate methodological quality and the injury type of effusion, it is not possible to formulate recommendations for injury prevention. Moreover, uniform definitions should be developed to describe sports injuries. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. The impact of sharps injuries on student nurses: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambridge, Kevin; Nichols, Andrew; Endacott, Ruth

    2016-10-27

    The purpose of this review was to discover the impact of sharps injuries in the student nurse population. Much is known and reported about sharps injuries in registered nurses, but there has been a lack of published evidence regarding sharps injuries within the student nurse population. A systematic review of nursing, health and psychology databases was conducted. The limits set were publications between 1980 and 2014 in the English language. Studies were identified then, following a rigorous critical and quality appraisal with validated tools, were selected for the systematic review. A total of 40 articles met the inclusion criteria, reporting studies conducted in 18 countries. Psychological and physical impacts of sharps injuries in student nurses were reported, such as fear, anxiety and depression, although these impacts were not quantified using a validated instrument. The impact of sharps injuries can be severe, both psychological and physical. This systematic review shows that further research is needed into this, especially in under-researched areas such as the UK, to establish the impact of sharps injuries within this population. Further research would also aid the education and prevention of this harmful problem. The review also emphasises the psychological issues relating to sharps injuries, the impact these can have on individuals and the support and counselling that student nurses require after injury. These findings highlight the potential psychological issues that can result from sharps injuries in this population.

  11. QiShenYiQi Pills, a Compound Chinese Medicine, Prevented Cisplatin Induced Acute Kidney Injury via Regulating Mitochondrial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nephrotoxicity is a serious adverse effect of cisplatin chemotherapy that limits its clinical application, to deal with which no effective management is available so far. The present study was to investigate the potential protective effect of QiShenYiQi Pills (QSYQ, a compound Chinese medicine, against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Pretreatment with QSYQ significantly attenuated the cisplatin induced increase in plasma urea and creatinine, along with the histological damage, such as tubular necrosis, protein cast, and desquamation of epithelial cells, improved the renal microcirculation disturbance as indicated by renal blood flow, microvascular flow velocity, and the number of adherent leukocytes. Additionally, QSYQ prevented mitochondrial dysfunction by preventing the cisplatin induced downregulation of mitochondrial complex activity and the expression of NDUFA10, ATP5D, and Sirt3. Meanwhile, the cisplatin-increased renal thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, caspase9, cleaved-caspase9, and cleaved-caspase3 were all diminished by QSYQ pretreatment. In summary, the pretreatment with QSYQ remarkably ameliorated the cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in mice, possibly via the regulation of mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and apoptosis.

  12. Management of obesity after spinal cord injury: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, Mir Hatef; Alavinia, Seyed Mohammad; Craven, B Catharine

    2017-11-01

    Individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) are susceptible to central and visceral obesity and it's metabolic consequences; consensus based guidelines for obesity management after SCI have not yet been stablished. To identify and compare effective means of obesity management among SCI individuals. This systematic review included English and non-English articles, published prior to April 2017 found in the PubMed/Medline, Embase, CINAHL Psychinfo and Cochrane databases. Studies evaluating any obesity management strategy, alone or in combination, including: diet therapy, voluntary and involuntary exercise such as neuro-muscular electric stimulation (NMES), pharmacotherapy, and surgery, among individuals with chronic SCI were included. Outcomes of interest were reductions in waist circumference, body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI) and total fat mass (TFM) and increases in total lean body mass (TLBM) from baseline. From 3,553 retrieved titles and abstracts, 34 articles underwent full text review and 23 articles were selected for data abstraction. Articles describing weight loss due to inflammation, cancer or B12 deficiency were excluded. The Downs and Black reported poor to moderate quality of the studies. Bariatric surgery produced the greatest permanent weight reduction and BMI correction followed by combinations of physical exercise and diet therapy. Generally, NMES and pharmacotherapy improved TLBM and reduced TFM but not weight. The greatest weight reduction and BMI correction was produced by bariatric surgery, followed by a combination of physical exercise and diet therapy. NMES and pharmacologic treatment did not reduce weight or TFM but increased in TLBM.

  13. Kickboxing review: anthropometric, psychophysiological and activity profiles and injury epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Slimani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Kickboxing is one of the modern combat sports. The psychophysiological demands of a kickboxing competition require athletes to achieve high thresholds of several aspects of physical fitness. The aim of the current review is to critically analyse and appraise the kickboxer’s anthropometric, physiological, physical and psychological attributes with the activity profile and injury epidemiology in order to provide practical recommendations for training as well as new areas of scientific research. The available information shows that both amateur and elite-level male kickboxers are characterized by a higher proportion of mesomorphy with a well-developed muscle mass and low body fat percentage. While there is some variation in the maximum oxygen uptake of kickboxers, moderate to high cardio-respiratory levels are reported for these athletes. Regardless of kickboxers’ level, a high peak and mean anaerobic power output were reported. High-level kickboxing performance also requires well-developed muscle power in both the upper and lower limbs. Psychological factors contribute to success that requires high levels of self-confidence, motivation, dispositional hope and optimism, mental toughness/resiliency, and adaptive perfectionism. Psychological attributes also distinguished successful from less successful kickboxers. The activity-to-rest ratio was higher in elite (1:1 than both amateur and national-level (from 1:2 to 1:5 kickboxers, with no significant differences between rounds (round 1=1:4, and rounds 2 and 3=1:5 as well as between winners and losers in amateur and national-level simulated combats. These particular psychophysiological characteristics and performance aspects of kickboxers influence performance and could serve as guidance for training. Finally, kickboxing is characterized by chronic repetitive head trauma, which causes hypopituitarism due to traumatic brain injury (TBI. Future investigations into the physical, physiological and

  14. Kickboxing review: anthropometric, psychophysiological and activity profiles and injury epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabene, H; Miarka, B; Franchini, E; Chamari, K; Cheour, F

    2017-01-01

    Kickboxing is one of the modern combat sports. The psychophysiological demands of a kickboxing competition require athletes to achieve high thresholds of several aspects of physical fitness. The aim of the current review is to critically analyse and appraise the kickboxer’s anthropometric, physiological, physical and psychological attributes with the activity profile and injury epidemiology in order to provide practical recommendations for training as well as new areas of scientific research. The available information shows that both amateur and elite-level male kickboxers are characterized by a higher proportion of mesomorphy with a well-developed muscle mass and low body fat percentage. While there is some variation in the maximum oxygen uptake of kickboxers, moderate to high cardio-respiratory levels are reported for these athletes. Regardless of kickboxers’ level, a high peak and mean anaerobic power output were reported. High-level kickboxing performance also requires well-developed muscle power in both the upper and lower limbs. Psychological factors contribute to success that requires high levels of self-confidence, motivation, dispositional hope and optimism, mental toughness/resiliency, and adaptive perfectionism. Psychological attributes also distinguished successful from less successful kickboxers. The activity-to-rest ratio was higher in elite (1:1) than both amateur and national-level (from 1:2 to 1:5) kickboxers, with no significant differences between rounds (round 1=1:4, and rounds 2 and 3=1:5) as well as between winners and losers in amateur and national-level simulated combats. These particular psychophysiological characteristics and performance aspects of kickboxers influence performance and could serve as guidance for training. Finally, kickboxing is characterized by chronic repetitive head trauma, which causes hypopituitarism due to traumatic brain injury (TBI). Future investigations into the physical, physiological and psychological

  15. [Literature review of whiplash injuries of the cervical spine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavić, Roman

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the latest information in world literature on whiplash injury of the cervical spine. This injury has been noted through history, mentioned as early as Ancient Egypt, and prevalent in the 19 century, the time before using the car, until today. The mechanism of injury is described, as well as treatment, and news in view of the frequency of injuries in different parts of the world and the impact of socio-cultural, economic, ethnic and geographic factors. Impacts of traffic laws, automobile production and automobile seats that would indicate the possibility of prevention as a result of a whiplash injury of the cervical spine are also presented.

  16. Spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) mitochondrial COI phylogeny reviewed: host plant relationships, phylogeography, reproductive parasites and barcoding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, V.I.D.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    The past 15 years have witnessed a number of molecular studies that aimed to resolve issues of species delineation and phylogeny of mites in the family Tetranychidae. The central part of the mitochondrial COI region has frequently been used for investigating intra- and interspecific variation. All

  17. Universal Motorcycle Helmet Laws to Reduce Injuries: A Community Guide Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yinan; Vaidya, Namita; Finnie, Ramona; Reynolds, Jeffrey; Dumitru, Cristian; Njie, Gibril; Elder, Randy; Ivers, Rebecca; Sakashita, Chika; Shults, Ruth A; Sleet, David A; Compton, Richard P

    2017-06-01

    Motorcycle crashes account for a disproportionate number of motor vehicle deaths and injuries in the U.S. Motorcycle helmet use can lead to an estimated 42% reduction in risk for fatal injuries and a 69% reduction in risk for head injuries. However, helmet use in the U.S. has been declining and was at 60% in 2013. The current review examines the effectiveness of motorcycle helmet laws in increasing helmet use and reducing motorcycle-related deaths and injuries. Databases relevant to health or transportation were searched from database inception to August 2012. Reference lists of reviews, reports, and gray literature were also searched. Analysis of the data was completed in 2014. A total of 60 U.S. studies qualified for inclusion in the review. Implementing universal helmet laws increased helmet use (median, 47 percentage points); reduced total deaths (median, -32%) and deaths per registered motorcycle (median, -29%); and reduced total injuries (median, -32%) and injuries per registered motorcycle (median, -24%). Repealing universal helmet laws decreased helmet use (median, -39 percentage points); increased total deaths (median, 42%) and deaths per registered motorcycle (median, 24%); and increased total injuries (median, 41%) and injuries per registered motorcycle (median, 8%). Universal helmet laws are effective in increasing motorcycle helmet use and reducing deaths and injuries. These laws are effective for motorcyclists of all ages, including younger operators and passengers who would have already been covered by partial helmet laws. Repealing universal helmet laws decreased helmet use and increased deaths and injuries. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. The association between adverse childhood experiences and adult traumatic brain injury/concussion: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zechen; Bayley, Mark T; Perrier, Laure; Dhir, Priya; Dépatie, Lana; Comper, Paul; Ruttan, Lesley; Lay, Christine; Munce, Sarah E P

    2018-01-12

    Adverse childhood experiences are significant risk factors for physical and mental illnesses in adulthood. Traumatic brain injury/concussion is a challenging condition where pre-injury factors may affect recovery. The association between childhood adversity and traumatic brain injury/concussion has not been previously reviewed. The research question addressed is: What is known from the existing literature about the association between adverse childhood experiences and traumatic brain injury/concussion in adults? All original studies of any type published in English since 2007 on adverse childhood experiences and traumatic brain injury/concussion outcomes were included. The literature search was conducted in multiple electronic databases. Arksey and O'Malley and Levac et al.'s scoping review frameworks were used. Two reviewers independently completed screening and data abstraction. The review yielded six observational studies. Included studies were limited to incarcerated or homeless samples, and individuals at high-risk of or with mental illnesses. Across studies, methods for childhood adversity and traumatic brain injury/concussion assessment were heterogeneous. A positive association between adverse childhood experiences and traumatic brain injury occurrence was identified. The review highlights the importance of screening and treatment of adverse childhood experiences. Future research should extend to the general population and implications on injury recovery. Implications for rehabilitation Exposure to adverse childhood experiences is associated with increased risk of traumatic brain injury. Specific types of adverse childhood experiences associated with risk of traumatic brain injury include childhood physical abuse, psychological abuse, household member incarceration, and household member drug abuse. Clinicians and researchers should inquire about adverse childhood experiences in all people with traumatic brain injury as pre-injury health conditions can

  19. Cow-related trauma: a 10-year review of injuries admitted to a single institution.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Colin G

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Bovine-related injuries to farmers are common in rural communities. Many injuries are significant requiring hospital admission and surgery. We reviewed all cattle-related injuries admitted to a regional trauma centre over 10 years and detail the nature of the injuries. METHOD: A retrospective review was undertaken, using hospital inpatient coding system (HIPE) to identify patients admitted following cow-related trauma for the last 10 years. From retrieved charts mechanism of injury was identified, demographics recorded and Injury Severity Score (ISS) and Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS) calculated based on the injuries sustained. RESULTS: 47 patients were identified, with a median age of 53 years. 4 injuries occurred in children, and 12 in patients over 65 years old. Three-quarters of those injured were male. Kicking was the most common mechanism of injury (n=21), but charge\\/head-butt injuries and trampling injuries were associated with more serious injury scores. 72% of patients were admitted under Orthopaedics as their primary care team, 25% under General Surgeons, with one patient admitted medically. Mean ISS score was 6.9 (range 1-50). 41 operative interventions were performed on 30 patients during their admission. 6.3% of patients required admission to Intensive Care with a mean length of stay of 12.3 days (range 2-21 days). There was no mortality. CONCLUSION: Cow-related trauma is a common among farming communities and is a potentially serious mechanism of injury that appears to be under-reported in a hospital context. Bovine-related head-butt and trampling injuries should be considered akin to high-velocity trauma.

  20. Supplemental surveillance: a review of 2015 and 2016 agricultural injury data from news reports on AgInjuryNews.org.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichelt, Bryan; Gorucu, Serap

    2018-01-31

    Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting industry is the most hazardous occupational sector in the USA. Even with this level of occupational risk, several national and state-level occupational injury surveillance programmes have been eliminated, leaving regional efforts to analyse multiple sources and compile data on agricultural injuries and fatalities. No up-to-date centralised national database for agricultural injuries/fatalities in the USA currently exists. Using the public data on AgInjuryNews.org, this study considered a wide range of variables to examine fatalities and injuries of the industry in 2015 and 2016. The results reported in this paper sought to explore and understand common data elements of US news reports. As of 5 April 2017, more than 3000 articles across 36 years were contained in the dataset. We selected 2 years to review, 2015 and 2016, which represented the most complete years to date; 2015 was the first year in which systematic collection was initiated by the AgInjuryNews.org team. Data were coded based on the Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System source and event/exposure types. A total of 1345 victims were involved in 1044 incidents. Leading sources of injuries were vehicles and machinery, and the most common event/exposure type was transportation. This study demonstrated that data from AgInjuryNew.org is consistent with previous literature, and it can supply up-to-date data as an open-source surveillance supplement, disseminated for health and safety stakeholders. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Blast injury face: An exemplified review of management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Singh, Arun Kumar; Kumar, Parmod; Shenoy, Yogesh Ramdas; Verma, Anoop K.; Borole, Ateesh Jayram; Prasad, Veerendra

    2013-01-01

    Facial injuries are extremely common due to increased incidence of vehicular and industrial trauma and warfare injuries. But isolated injury to the face due to low voltage cells exploding is rare. In blast injury, the force can cause massive soft tissue injury, along with injury to facial fractures and damage to adnexa. Facial injury is not life threatening unless associated with other injuries of the skull and airway. The major risks to airway in facial trauma are due to anatomic alteration of patient's airway through bony and soft tissue disruption and increased chances of aspiration. The past several decades have seen a rapid growth in the range of procedures available for reconstructive purposes. However, the essential preliminary management is a must and needs to be structured. The patient, a 10-year-old boy, was joining three pencil batteries in series and twisting the wire with his teeth when one battery exploded causing severe injuries to midface and mandibular region. After stabilization, the patient was taken up for surgery. A cap splint with zygomatic suspension was done for the maxilla, and wiring of residual mandibular segments with lining and skin cover provided by a deltopectoral flap was done. Reconstructive surgeries for reconstruction of the upper lip and maintenance of oral continence were planned for the future. The present case stresses the importance of educating the masses about unsafe handling of low voltage devices, management of airway, massive soft tissue injury, along with facial fractures and damage to adnexa. PMID:24163550

  2. Unintentional injury prevention and the role of occupational therapy in the Solomon Islands: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daufanamae, Barbara U; Franklin, Richard C; Eagers, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Unintentional injuries (injuries for which there is no evidence of a predetermined intent) are one of the leading causes of death worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although evidence demonstrates unintentional injuries are preventable it is a public health challenge for many LMICs such as the Solomon Islands. Occupational therapists are well placed to contribute to injury prevention, as they have specialised skills to analyse the accessibility and safety of the environments within which people conduct their daily occupations. While the role of occupational therapy in unintentional injury prevention is well known in high-income countries, it is unfamiliar in LMICs, especially in the Solomon Islands. This integrative review aimed to explore the incidence of common unintentional injuries, and the burden in the Solomon Islands; and explore the potential role of occupational therapy in unintentional injury prevention in the Solomon Islands, based on current activities in LMICs. Articles were reviewed from six databases (Medline, CINAHL, OTDBase, OT Seeker, Scopus and PsychInfo). Five articles met the inclusion criteria for the first objective and 15 articles met the inclusion criteria for the second objective. These articles were thematically analysed where themes and codes associated with the research objectives were extracted and analysed. Unintentional injuries in the Solomon Islands reported in the literature included ocular trauma, falls from fruit trees and coconut palms, and road traffic crashes. Burden of injury reported was mostly associated with loss of productivity. Occupational therapists undertook rehabilitative, biomechanical, neurodevelopmental and educational roles in LMIC, focusing on tertiary and secondary injury prevention. This integrative review suggests that there is limited information regarding injury in the Solomon Islands. However, evidence is available in LMICs to suggest that occupational therapy services can

  3. Injury and biomechanical perspectives on the rugby scrum:a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Trewartha, Grant; Preatoni, Ezio; England, Michael E.; Stokes, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    As a collision sport, rugby union has a relatively high overall injury incidence, with most injuries being associated with contact events. Historically, the set scrum has been a focus of the sports medicine community due to the perceived risk of catastrophic spinal injury during scrummaging. The contemporary rugby union scrum is a highly dynamic activity but to this point has not been well characterised mechanically. In this review, we synthesise the available research literature relating to ...

  4. Methods of analysis of physical activity among persons with spinal cord injury: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Jarmila Štěpánová; Martin Kudláček; Mirka Bednaříková

    2016-01-01

    Background: A spinal cord injury is one of the most devastating acquired physical disabilities. People with spinal cord injury are usually in a productive age, often interested in sports and physical activity. Therefore it is essential to support the development of monitoring of the quality and quantity of physical activity of people with spinal cord injury. Objective: The aim of this study was to perform systematic review of international studies from the period 2004-2014 with the aim to fin...

  5. Antioxidant therapies in traumatic brain injury: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero-Rivera Hector Rolando

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress constitute one of the commonest mechanism of the secondary injury contributing to neuronal death in traumatic brain injury cases. The oxidative stress induced secondary injury blockade may be considered as to be a good alternative to improve the outcome of traumatic brain injury (TBI treatment. Due to absence of definitive therapy of traumatic brain injury has forced researcher to utilize unconventional therapies and its roles investigated in the improvement of management and outcome in recent year. Antioxidant therapies are proven effective in many preclinical studies and encouraging results and the role of antioxidant mediaction may act as further advancement in the traumatic brain injury management it may represent aonr of newer moadlaity in neurosurgical aramamentorium, this kind of therapy could be a good alternative or adjuct to the previously established neuroprotection agents in TBI.

  6. Anterior cruciate ligament injury/reinjury in alpine ski racing: a narrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Matthew J; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, Walter

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present review was to: 1) provide an overview of the current understanding on the epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and prevention methods for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in alpine ski racing; and 2) provide an overview of what is known pertaining to ACL reinjury and return to sport after ACL injury in alpine ski racing. Given that most of the scientific studies on ACL injuries in alpine ski racing have been descriptive, and that very few studies contributed higher level scientific evidence, a nonsystematic narrative review was employed. Three scholarly databases were searched for articles on ACL injury or knee injury in alpine ski racing. Studies were classified according to their relevance in relation to epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and return to sport/reinjury prevention. Alpine ski racers (skiers) were found to be at high risk for knee injuries, and ACL tears were the most frequent diagnosis. Three primary ACL injury mechanism were identified that involved tibial internal rotation and anteriorly directed shear forces from ski equipment and the environment. While trunk muscle strength imbalance and genetics were found to be predictive of ACL injuries in development-level skiers, there was limited scientific data on ACL injury risk factors among elite skiers. Based on expert opinion, research on injury risk factors should focus on equipment design, course settings/speed, and athlete factors (eg, fitness). While skiers seem to make a successful recovery following ACL injury, there may be persistent neuromuscular deficits. Future research efforts should be directed toward prospective studies on ACL injury/reinjury prevention in both male and female skiers and toward the effects of knee injury on long-term health outcomes, such as the early development of osteoarthritis. International collaborations may be necessary to generate sufficient statistical power for ACL injury/reinjury prevention research in alpine ski racing

  7. The prognostic value of MRI in determining reinjury risk following acute hamstring injury: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heumen, Moniek; Tol, Johannes L; de Vos, Robert-Jan; Moen, Maarten H; Weir, Adam; Orchard, John; Reurink, Gustaaf

    2017-09-01

    A challenge for sports physicians is to estimate the risk of a hamstring re-injury, but the current evidence for MRI variables as a risk factor is unknown. To systematically review the literature on the prognostic value of MRI findings at index injury and/or return to play for acute hamstring re-injuries. Databases of PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE, Scopus, CINAHL, Google Scholar, Web of Science, LILACS, SciELO, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, SPORTDiscus and Cochrane Library were searched until 20 June 2016. Studies evaluating MRI as a prognostic tool for determining the risk of re-injury for athletes with acute hamstring injuries were eligible for inclusion. Two authors independently screened the search results and assessed risk of bias using standardised criteria from a consensus statement. A best-evidence synthesis was used to identify the level of evidence. Post hoc analysis included correction for insufficient sample size. Of the 11 studies included, 7 had a low and 4 had a high risk of bias. No strong evidence for any MRI finding as a risk factor for hamstring re-injury was found. There was moderate evidence that intratendinous injuries were associated with increased re-injury risk. Post hoc analysis showed moderate evidence that injury to the biceps femoris was a moderate to strong risk factor for re-injury. There is currently no strong evidence for any MRI finding in predicting hamstring re-injury risk. Intratendinous injuries and biceps femoris injuries showed moderate evidence for association with a higher re-injury risk. Registration in the PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews was performed prior to study initiation (registration number CRD42015024620). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Systematic review of prognostic models in traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Ian

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a leading cause of death and disability world-wide. The ability to accurately predict patient outcome after TBI has an important role in clinical practice and research. Prognostic models are statistical models that combine two or more items of patient data to predict clinical outcome. They may improve predictions in TBI patients. Multiple prognostic models for TBI have accumulated for decades but none of them is widely used in clinical practice. The objective of this systematic review is to critically assess existing prognostic models for TBI Methods Studies that combine at least two variables to predict any outcome in patients with TBI were searched in PUBMED and EMBASE. Two reviewers independently examined titles, abstracts and assessed whether each met the pre-defined inclusion criteria. Results A total of 53 reports including 102 models were identified. Almost half (47% were derived from adult patients. Three quarters of the models included less than 500 patients. Most of the models (93% were from high income countries populations. Logistic regression was the most common analytical strategy to derived models (47%. In relation to the quality of the derivation models (n:66, only 15% reported less than 10% pf loss to follow-up, 68% did not justify the rationale to include the predictors, 11% conducted an external validation and only 19% of the logistic models presented the results in a clinically user-friendly way Conclusion Prognostic models are frequently published but they are developed from small samples of patients, their methodological quality is poor and they are rarely validated on external populations. Furthermore, they are not clinically practical as they are not presented to physicians in a user-friendly way. Finally because only a few are developed using populations from low and middle income countries, where most of trauma occurs, the generalizability to these setting is limited.

  9. Sleep disordered breathing in spinal cord injury: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, Anthony E; Sitrin, Robert G; Bauman, Kristy A

    2016-07-01

    Spinal cord injury commonly results in neuromuscular weakness that impacts respiratory function. This would be expected to be associated with an increased likelihood of sleep-disordered breathing. (1) Understand the incidence and prevalence of sleep disordered breathing in spinal cord injury. (2) Understand the relationship between injury and patient characteristics and the incidence of sleep disordered breathing in spinal cord injury. (3) Distinguish between obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea incidence in spinal cord injury. (4) Clarify the relationship between sleep disordered breathing and stroke, myocardial infarction, metabolic dysfunction, injuries, autonomic dysreflexia and spasticity incidence in persons with spinal cord injury. (5) Understand treatment tolerance and outcome in persons with spinal cord injury and sleep disordered breathing. Extensive database search including PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and Web of Science. Given the current literature limitations, sleep disordered breathing as currently defined is high in patients with spinal cord injury, approaching 60% in motor complete persons with tetraplegia. Central apnea is more common in patients with tetraplegia than in patients with paraplegia. Early formal sleep study in patients with acute complete tetraplegia is recommended. In patients with incomplete tetraplegia and with paraplegia, the incidence of sleep-disordered breathing is significantly higher than the general population. With the lack of correlation between symptoms and SDB, formal study would be reasonable. There is insufficient evidence in the literature on the impact of treatment on morbidity, mortality and quality of life outcomes.

  10. 77 FR 30015 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Characterizing the Short and Long Term Consequences of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI...

  11. Dog bite injuries in children – a review of data from a South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objective. Dog bites are a major cause of preventable traumatic injury in the paediatric population. We aimed to determine the epidemiology of dog bite injuries in a group of South African children with a view to developing potential preventive strategies. Design, setting, subjects. A retrospective review was ...

  12. Incidence, aetiology and prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in volleyball : A systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, O.; Maas, M.; Verhagen, E.; Zwerver, J.; Gouttebarge, V.

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there is no overview of the incidence and (volleyball-specific) risk factors of musculoskeletal injuries among volleyball players, nor any insight into the effect of preventive measures on the incidence of injuries in volleyball. This study aimed to review systematically the scientific

  13. Incidence, aetiology and prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in volleyball: A systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, O.; Maas, M.; Verhagen, E.; Zwerver, J.; Gouttebarge, V.

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there is no overview of the incidence and (volleyball-specific) risk factors of musculoskeletal injuries among volleyball players, nor any insight into the effect of preventive measures on the incidence of injuries in volleyball. This study aimed to review systematically the scientific

  14. The prognostic value of MRI in determining reinjury risk following acute hamstring injury: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heumen, Moniek; Tol, Johannes L.; de Vos, Robert-Jan; Moen, Maarten H.; Weir, Adam; Orchard, John; Reurink, Gustaaf

    2017-01-01

    A challenge for sports physicians is to estimate the risk of a hamstring re-injury, but the current evidence for MRI variables as a risk factor is unknown. To systematically review the literature on the prognostic value of MRI findings at index injury and/or return to play for acute hamstring

  15. Epidemiology of ankle and foot overuse injuries in sports : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobhani, S.; Dekker, R.; Postema, K.; Dijkstra, P. U.

    2013-01-01

    Studies regarding ankle and foot overuse injuries are quite diverse in research methodology, data reporting, and outcomes. The aims of this systematic review were to analyze the methodology of published studies regarding ankle and foot overuse injuries in different sports disciplines and to

  16. A Review of Family Intervention Guidelines for Pediatric Acquired Brain Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Wesley R.; Paulos, Stephanie K.; Cole, Carolyn A. S.; Tankard, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Pediatric acquired brain injury (BI) not only affects the child with the injury, but also greatly impacts their family. Studies suggest there are higher rates of caregiver and sibling psychological distress after a child in the family has sustained a BI. Also, family functioning after BI impacts the child's recovery. In reviewing the literature,…

  17. Injuries in runners; a systematic review on risk factors and sex differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worp, M.P. van der; Haaf, D.S. Ten; Cingel, R. van; Wijer, A. de; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Staal, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The popularity of running continues to increase, which means that the incidence of running-related injuries will probably also continue to increase. Little is known about risk factors for running injuries and whether they are sex-specific. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review

  18. 75 FR 56975 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Review of Information Concerning a Petition To List All Live...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ..., amphibians, and reptiles are the only organisms that can be added to the injurious wildlife list. The lists... Petition To List All Live Amphibians in Trade as Injurious Unless Free of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis... Wildlife Service (Service), are reviewing a petition to list, under the Lacey Act, all live amphibians or...

  19. A Retrospective Review from 2006 to 2011 of Lower Extremity Injuries in Badminton in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Reeves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To describe lower extremity injuries for badminton in New Zealand. Methods: Lower limb badminton injuries that resulted in claims accepted by the national insurance company Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC in New Zealand between 2006 and 2011 were reviewed. Results: The estimated national injury incidence for badminton injuries in New Zealand from 2006 to 2011 was 0.66%. There were 1909 lower limb badminton injury claims which cost NZ$2,014,337 (NZ$ value over 2006 to 2011. The age-bands frequently injured were 10–19 (22%, 40–49 (22%, 30–39 (14% and 50–59 (13% years. Sixty five percent of lower limb injuries were knee ligament sprains/tears. Males sustained more cruciate ligament sprains than females (75 vs. 39. Movements involving turning, changing direction, shifting weight, pivoting or twisting were responsible for 34% of lower extremity injuries. Conclusion: The knee was most frequently injured which could be due to multi-planar loading. Turning or cutting movements typically involve motion in the frontal and transverse planes that may place the knee at greater risk of injury than movement in the sagittal plane alone. Further research on badminton specific movements is warranted to better understand the mechanisms of lower extremity injuries in the sport. Sports medicine and support personnel should take into account the susceptibility of the knee to injury when designing training and injury prevention programmes given the large number of change of direction movements during badminton.

  20. A Review of Traumatic Axonal Injury following Whiplash Injury As Demonstrated by Diffusion Tensor Tractography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Ho Jang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Whiplash is a bony or soft tissue injury resulting from an acceleration–deceleration energy transfer in the neck. Although patients with whiplash injury often complain of cerebral symptoms, and previous studies have reported evidence indicating brain injury, such an association has not been clearly elucidated. Traumatic axonal injury (TAI is tearing of axons due to indirect shearing forces during acceleration, deceleration, and rotation of the brain or to direct head trauma. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI has a unique advantage to detect TAI in patients whose conventional brain CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI results were negative following head trauma. Since the introduction of DTI, six studies using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT based on DTI data have reported TAI in patients with whiplash injury, even though conventional brain CT or MRI results were negative. A precise TAI diagnosis in whiplash patients is clinically important for proper management and prognosis. Among the methods employed to diagnose TAI in the six previous studies, the common diagnostic approach for neural tract TAI in individual patients with whiplash injury were (1 whiplash injury history due to car accident; (2 development of new clinical symptoms and signs after whiplash injury; (3 evidence of neural tract TAI in DTT results, mainly via configurational analysis; and (4 coincidence of newly developed clinical manifestations and the function of injured neural tracts. All six studies were individual patient case studies; therefore, further prospective studies involving larger number of subjects should be encouraged.

  1. [SUCLA2-related encephalomyopathic mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome: a case report and review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhimei; Fang, Fang; Ding, Changhong; Wu, Husheng; Lyu, Junlan; Wu, Yun

    2014-11-01

    To analyze the clinical characteristics of SUCLA2-related encephalomyopathic mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome (MDS) in one patient, and review the latest clinical research reports. Clinical, laboratory and genetic data of one case of SUCLA2-related encephalomyopathic MDS diagnosed by department of Neurology, Beijing Children's Hospital in November, 2013 were reported, and through taking "SUCLA2" as key words to search at CNKI, Wanfang, PubMed and the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) professional to date, the clinical characteristics of 24 reported cases of SUCLA2-related encephalomyopathic MDS in international literature in combination with our case were analyzed. (1) The patient was 5 years and 9 months old, born as a term small for gestational age infant whose birth weight was 2 400 g, and presented since birth with severe muscular hypotonia, feeding difficulties, failure to thrive, psychomotor retardation and hearing impairment. Until now, he still showed severe developmental retardation, together with muscular atrophy, thoracocyllosis and scoliosis, and facial features. The patient is the first born from consanguineous healthy parents, whose relationship is cousins. Laboratory tests showed urinary excretion of mild methylmalonic acid (MMA), elevated plasma lactate concentration, and increased C3-carnitine and C4-dicarboxylic-carnitine in plasma carnitine ester profiling. MRI showed brain atrophy-like and bilateral T2 hyperintensities in bilateral caudate nuclei and putamen. By Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), we identified a novel homozygous missense mutation (c.970G > A) in the SUCLA2 in a highly conserved amino acid residue. (2) The total number was only 25 with a male to female ratio of 14: 11, and age of onset of 23 was 0-4 months. The most common clinical features in patients with SUCLA2 mutation were permanent hypotonia, muscle atrophy, psychomotor retardation and scoliosis or kyphosis. Frequent signs included hearing impairment, hyperkinesia

  2. [Effective interventions to prevent child injuries: a review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Thanh, Viêt; Clément, Juliette; Thélot, Bertrand; Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Lamboy, Béatrice; Arwidson, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Child injuries represent an important public health problem. The aim of this paper is to review the current scientific knowledge on interventions designed to prevent child injuries. The current state of knowledge in this area was assessed by means of a specific method involving a review of literature reviews and a classification of health promotion interventions identified in these reviews (rapid reviews). We found a large number of effective or promising programmes devoted to the prevention of the most common child injuries: drowning, burns, falls, poisoning, electrocution, sports and leisure injuries. Some interventions are based on environmental measures, while others are educational or use law and regulatory processes. Some are primary prevention measures, others are secondary prevention measures, while others are multidimensional and can effectively reduce several types of injuries. For example, home safety education and provision of safety equipment, or home-based parenting interventions, can have an impact on injury rates. These findings present a number of limitations due to the marked diversity of the quality of the documents reviewed. It should also be stressed that interventions that are not listed in this article are not necessarily ineffective: they may simply lack a rigorous evaluation enabling them to be identified in our review.

  3. A review of epidemiology of paediatric elbow injuries in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magra, Merzesh; Caine, Dennis; Maffulli, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    The elbow is a common site of orthopaedic injury in the paediatric population. The number of these injuries continues to rise following increased levels of participation in paediatric recreational and competitive sport. Injuries to the paediatric elbow can be classified as either overuse or acute. Delineating injury patterns to the elbow in children can be challenging, given the cartilaginous composition of the distal humerus and the multiple secondary ossification centres that appear and unite with the epiphysis at defined ages. Pitching in baseball, serving in tennis, spiking in volleyball, passing in American football and launching in javelin-throwing can all produce elbow pathology by forceful valgus stress, with medial stretching, lateral compression and posterior impingement. In children and adolescents, the epiphyseal plate is weaker than the surrounding ligaments, predisposing them to epiphyseal plate injuries. On the other hand, post-pubescent or skeletally mature athletes are more prone to tendinous or ligamentous injury. Injuries may cause significant impact on the athlete, parents and healthcare system. With the exception of baseball, there are few prospective cohort studies on the epidemiological trends of childhood elbow injuries in other sports. This paper aims to describe the epidemiological trends in paediatric elbow injuries related to sports, suggests prevention strategies and discusses the scope for further research. A web-based search of existing articles pertaining to paediatric elbow injuries in sports was performed. The implications of acute and overuse injuries and the possibility of permanent damage should be understood by parents, coaches and the athletes. Proper understanding of the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors that could lead to elbow injuries is thus required. Measures to prevent elbow injuries should include proper coaching, warm-up, officiation, legislation, medical expertise and protective gear. There are still many

  4. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Monitoring Cause-Specific School Absenteeism for Estimating Community Wide...

  5. 77 FR 25180 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Conducting Research on Moderate Acute Malnutrition in Humanitarian Emergencies...

  6. 76 FR 18766 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiologic Research and Surveillance in Epilepsy, Funding Opportunity...

  7. 77 FR 20822 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Detecting Emerging Vector- Borne Zoonotic Pathogens in Indonesia, Funding...

  8. 77 FR 19018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Conducting Public Health Research in South Africa, Funding Opportunity Announcement...

  9. 77 FR 39497 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and...

  10. 78 FR 15015 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment of Influenza and other Respiratory...

  11. 77 FR 14806 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment of Influenza and Other Respiratory...

  12. 78 FR 78966 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiology, Prevention, and Treatment of Influenza and Other Respiratory...

  13. 77 FR 4048 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Evaluation of Dengue Epidemiology, Outcomes, and Prevention in Sentinel...

  14. 77 FR 4047 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment of Influenza and Other Respiratory...

  15. 78 FR 62636 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Cooperative Agreement on Occupational Health with the World Health Organization...

  16. 78 FR 13677 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Monitoring Cause-Specific School Absenteeism for Estimating Community Wide...

  17. 78 FR 60878 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Research Centers, Funding Opportunity...

  18. 77 FR 12844 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Detecting Emerging Vector- Borne Zoonotic Pathogens in Indonesia, Funding...

  19. A Five-Year Review of Tag Rugby Hand Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, C W; Woods, J F C; Murphy, S; Bollard, S; Kelly, J L; Carroll, S M; O'Shaughnessy, M

    2016-10-01

    Tag rugby is one of the fastest growing sports in Ireland. It is a soft-contact team game that is loosely based on the rugby league format except players try to remove Velcro tags from their opponents' shorts rather than engage in a typical rugby tackle. The purpose of this study was to examine all tag rugby associated hand injuries over a five-year period in three large tertiary referral hospitals in Ireland. Using the patient corresponding system, 228 patients with hand injury related tag rugby injuries were observed from 2010 to 2015. There were 138 males and 90 females in the study and over 40% of patients required surgery. Most of the patients were young professionals with an average age of 30. Twenty-five patients worked in the financial services whilst there were 23 teachers. Fractures accounted for 124 of the 228 injuries and mallet injuries accounted for 53. Eighty percent of all injuries occurred during the tackle. The mean number of days missed from work was 9.1±13.8 days. These injuries resulted in an average of seven hospital appointments per patient. Considering it is a soft-contact sport, it is surprising the number of hand injuries that we have observed. Although safety measures have been introduced to decrease the number of hand injuries in recent years, there is a need for further improvements. Better player education about seeking prompt medical attention once an injury occurs, coupled with longer shorts worn by players may improve measures for the sport. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. 76 FR 52330 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict Review, Program Announcement (PA) 07-318, initial review. In...

  1. 78 FR 25743 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict Review, Program Announcement (PA) 07-318, initial review. In...

  2. 77 FR 7164 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict Review, Program Announcement (PA) 07-318, initial review. In...

  3. 76 FR 28790 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict Review, Program Announcement (PA) 07-318, initial review. In...

  4. 77 FR 48986 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict Review, Program Announcement (PA) 07-318, initial review. In...

  5. 78 FR 56236 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns NIOSH Member Conflict Review, PA 07-318, initial review. In accordance with Section...

  6. A review of football injuries on third and fourth generation artificial turfs compared with natural turf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sean; Hume, Patria A; Kara, Stephen

    2011-11-01

    Football codes (rugby union, soccer, American football) train and play matches on natural and artificial turfs. A review of injuries on different turfs was needed to inform practitioners and sporting bodies on turf-related injury mechanisms and risk factors. Therefore, the aim of this review was to compare the incidence, nature and mechanisms of injuries sustained on newer generation artificial turfs and natural turfs. Electronic databases were searched using the keywords 'artificial turf', 'natural turf', 'grass' and 'inj*'. Delimitation of 120 articles sourced to those addressing injuries in football codes and those using third and fourth generation artificial turfs or natural turfs resulted in 11 experimental papers. These 11 papers provided 20 cohorts that could be assessed using magnitude-based inferences for injury incidence rate ratio calculations pertaining to differences between surfaces. Analysis showed that 16 of the 20 cohorts showed trivial effects for overall incidence rate ratios between surfaces. There was increased risk of ankle injury playing on artificial turf in eight cohorts, with incidence rate ratios from 0.7 to 5.2. Evidence concerning risk of knee injuries on the two surfaces was inconsistent, with incidence rate ratios from 0.4 to 2.8. Two cohorts showed beneficial inferences over the 90% likelihood value for effects of artificial surface on muscle injuries for soccer players; however, there were also two harmful, four unclear and five trivial inferences across the three football codes. Inferences relating to injury severity were inconsistent, with the exception that artificial turf was very likely to have harmful effects for minor injuries in rugby union training and severe injuries in young female soccer players. No clear differences between surfaces were evident in relation to training versus match injuries. Potential mechanisms for differing injury patterns on artificial turf compared with natural turf include increased peak torque and

  7. Head injury predictors in sports trauma--a state-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Fábio A O; de Sousa, Ricardo J Alves

    2015-08-01

    Head injuries occur in a great variety of sports. Many of these have been associated with neurological injuries, affecting the central nervous system. Some examples are motorsports, cycling, skiing, horse riding, mountaineering and most contact sports such as football, ice and field hockey, soccer, lacrosse, etc. The outcome of head impacts in these sports can be very severe. The worst-case scenarios of permanent disability or even death are possibilities. Over recent decades, many In recent decades, a great number of head injury criteria and respective thresholds have been proposed. However, the available information is much dispersed and a consensus has still not been achieved regarding the best injury criteria or even their thresholds. This review paper gives a thorough overview of the work carried out by the scientific community in the field of impact biomechanics about head injuries sustained during sports activity. The main goal is to review the head injury criteria, as well as their thresholds. Several are reviewed, from the predictors based on kinematics to the ones based on human tissue thresholds. In this work, we start to briefly introduce the head injuries and their mechanisms commonly seen as a result of head trauma in sports. Then, we present and summarize the head injury criteria and their respective thresholds. © IMechE 2015.

  8. Pediatric open globe injury: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xintong Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Open globe injury (OGI is a severe form of eye trauma estimated at 2-3.8/100,000 in the United States. Most pediatric cases occur at home and are the result of sharp object penetration. The aim of this article is to review the epidemiology, diagnosis, management, and prognosis of this condition by conducting a systematic literature search with inclusion of all case series on pediatric OGI published between 1996 and 2015. Diagnosis of OGI is based on patient history and clinical examination supplemented with imaging, especially computed tomography when indicated. Few prospective studies exist for the management of OGI in pediatric patients, but adult recommendations are often followed with success. The main goals of surgical management are to repair the open globe and remove intraocular foreign bodies. Systemic antibiotics are recommended as medical prophylaxis against globe infection, or endophthalmitis. Other complications are similar to those seen in adults, with the added focus of amblyopia therapy in children. Severe vision decline is most likely due to traumatic cataracts. The ocular trauma score, a system devised to predict final visual acuity (VA in adults, has proven to be of prognostic value in pediatric OGI as well. Factors indicating poor visual prognosis are young age, poor initial VA, posterior eye involvement, long wound length, globe rupture, lens involvement, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, and endophthalmitis. A thorough understanding of OGI and the key differences in epidemiology, diagnosis, management, and prognosis between adults and children is critical to timely prevention of posttraumatic vision loss early in life.

  9. Review of Injuries from Terrorist Bombings and Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    8.50% Compartment Syndrome 28 5.18% Hemopneumothorax 17 3.14% Abdominal Injury 17 3.14% Head Injury 14 2.59% Acute Renal Failure 22 4.07...typically involved the head and neck, extremities, and soft tissues. Glass shattering was a common source of injury. Eight earthquake case studies...car bomb equivalent to 80 kg of TNT exploded at 2:50 pm at The Old Bailey in London, resulting in 160 casualties (Frykberg and Tepas 1988; Caro and

  10. Interventions to prevent softball related injuries: a review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, K; Canham-Chervak, M; Gazal-Carvalho, C; Jones, B; Baker, S

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the published evidence on interventions to prevent softball related injuries among adults, and to encourage more epidemiologic research as a foundation for future softball injury prevention efforts. Methods: The authors reviewed literature identified from six electronic databases for studies on softball related injuries. The search was limited to studies written in the English language, published between 1970 and 2002, and involving adult populations. Research was excluded that evaluated baseball ("hard ball") related injuries or was aimed at injury treatment. Identified studies were categorized by study design. Intervention/prevention papers were evaluated further and described in detail. Results: The search strategy identified 39 studies specifically related to softball. Most studies were case reports/case series (n = 13) or descriptive studies (n = 11); only four were analytic or intervention/prevention studies. Studies collected data in a variety of ways, often without denominator data to permit calculation of injury rates. Studies also did not differentiate between slow or fast pitch softball activities and most did not mention the type of softball that was used. Conclusions: Surprisingly few studies exist on interventions to reduce injuries during softball, one of the most popular recreational sports in the US. Of the existing literature, much attention has been on sliding related injuries, which comprise only a segment of softball injuries. Basic epidemiologic studies describing the nature, severity, and risk factors for softball injuries in a variety of populations are needed, followed by additional intervention evaluation studies aimed at modifiable risk factors. PMID:16203835

  11. Golf and upper limb injuries: a summary and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollard Henry P

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Golf is a popular past time that provides exercise with social interaction. However, as with all sports and activities, injury may occur. Many golf-related injuries occur in the upper limb, yet little research on the potential mechanisms of these injuries has been conducted. Objective To review the current literature on golf-related upper limb injuries and report on potential causes of injury as it relates to the golf swing. Discussion An overview of the golf swing is described in terms of its potential to cause the frequently noted injuries. Most injuries occur at impact when the golf club hits the ball. This paper concludes that more research into golf-related upper limb injuries is required to develop a thorough understanding of how injuries occur. Types of research include epidemiology studies, kinematic swing analysis and electromyographic studies of the upper limb during golf. By conducting such research, preventative measures maybe developed to reduce golf related injury.

  12. Caregiver outcomes and interventions: a systematic scoping review of the traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Anne; Barker, Samantha; Sampson, Amanda; Martin, Clarissa

    2017-01-01

    To identify factors reported with negative and positive outcomes for caregivers of the traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury cohorts, to investigate what interventions have been studied to support carers and to report what effectiveness has been found. Scoping systematic review. Electronic databases and websites were searched from 1990 to December 2015. Studies were agreed for inclusion using pre-defined criteria. Relevant information from included studies was extracted and quality assessment was completed. Data were synthesised using qualitative methods. A total of 62 studies reported caregiver outcomes for the traumatic brain injury cohort; 51 reported negative outcomes and 11 reported positive outcomes. For the spinal cord injury cohort, 18 studies reported caregiver outcomes; 15 reported negative outcomes and three reported positive outcomes. Burden of care was over-represented in the literature for both cohorts, with few studies looking at factors associated with positive outcomes. Good family functioning, coping skills and social support were reported to mediate caregiver burden and promote positive outcomes. A total of 21 studies further described interventions to support traumatic brain injury caregivers and four described interventions to support spinal cord injury caregivers, with emerging evidence for the effectiveness of problem-solving training. Further research is required to explore the effects of injury severity of the care recipient, as well as caregiver age, on the outcome of the interventions. Most studies reported negative outcomes, suggesting that barriers to caregiving have been established, but not facilitators. The interventions described to support carers are limited and require further testing to confirm their effectiveness.

  13. A systematic review on the influence of pre-existing disability on sustaining injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, A; Haagsma, J A; Polinder, S

    2014-01-01

    To systematically review studies measuring the influence of pre-existing disability on the risk of sustaining an injury. Systematic review. Electronic databases searched included Medline (Pubmed), ProQuest, Ovid and EMBASE. Studies (1990-2010) in international peer-reviewed journals were identified with main inclusion criteria being that the study assessed involvement of injury sustained by persons with and without pre-existing disability. Studies were collated by design and methods, and evaluation of results. Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria of our review. All studies found that persons with disabilities were at a significantly higher risk of sustaining injuries than those without. Persons with disability had a 30-450% increased odds (odds ratio 1.3-5.5) of sustaining injury compared to persons without disability. Among persons with pre-existing disability, the high risk groups of sustaining an injury are children and elderly. People with disabilities experience a higher risk to sustain an injury in comparison to the healthy population. There is a high need for large epidemiological studies of injury among persons with disability, to better address these unique risk profiles in order to prevent additional disability or secondary conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mitochondrial shaping cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Henriques, Mafalda; Langer, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A broad range of cellular processes are regulated by proteolytic events. Proteolysis has now also been established to control mitochondrial morphology which results from the balanced action of fusion and fission. Two out of three known core components of the mitochondrial fusion machinery are under proteolytic control. The GTPase Fzo1 in the outer membrane of mitochondria is degraded along two independent proteolytic pathways. One controls mitochondrial fusion in vegetatively growing cells, the other one acts upon mating factor-induced cell cycle arrest. Fusion also depends on proteolytic processing of the GTPase Mgm1 by the rhomboid protease Pcp1 in the inner membrane of mitochondria. Functional links of AAA proteases or other proteolytic components to mitochondrial dynamics are just emerging. This review summarises the current understanding of regulatory roles of proteolytic processes for mitochondrial plasticity.

  15. What types of unintentional injuries kill our children? Do infants die of the same types of injuries? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Honda Imamura

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to review mortality from external causes (accidental injury in children and adolescents in systematically selected journals. This was a systematic review of the literature on mortality from accidental injury in children and adolescents. We searched the Pubrvled, Latin-American and Caribbean Health Sciences and Excerpta Medica databases for articles published between July of 2001 and June of 2011. National data from official agencies, retrieved by manual searches, were also reviewed. We reviewed 15 journal articles, the 2011 edition of a National Safety Council publication and 2010 statistical data from the Brazilian National Ministry of Health Mortality Database. Most published data were related to high-income countries. Mortality from accidental injury was highest among children less than 1 year of age. Accidental threats to breathing (non-drowning threats constituted the leading cause of death among this age group in the published articles. Across the pediatric age group in the surveyed studies, traffic accidents were the leading cause of death, followed by accidental drowning and submersion. Traffic accidents constitute the leading external cause of accidental death among children in the countries understudy. However, infants were vulnerable to external causes, particularly to accidental non-drowning threats to breathing, and this age group had the highest mortality rates for external causes. Actions to reduce such events are suggested. Further studies investigating the occurrence of accidental deaths in low-income countries are needed to improve the understanding of these preventable events.

  16. Injury and biomechanical perspectives on the rugby scrum: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewartha, Grant; Preatoni, Ezio; England, Michael E; Stokes, Keith A

    2015-04-01

    As a collision sport, rugby union has a relatively high overall injury incidence, with most injuries being associated with contact events. Historically, the set scrum has been a focus of the sports medicine community due to the perceived risk of catastrophic spinal injury during scrummaging. The contemporary rugby union scrum is a highly dynamic activity but to this point has not been well characterised mechanically. In this review, we synthesise the available research literature relating to the medical and biomechanical aspects of the rugby union scrum, in order to (1) review the injury epidemiology of rugby scrummaging; (2) consider the evidence for specific injury mechanisms existing to cause serious scrum injuries and (3) synthesise the information available on the biomechanics of scrummaging, primarily with respect to force production. The review highlights that the incidence of acute injury associated with scrummaging is moderate but the risk per event is high. The review also suggests an emerging acknowledgement of the potential for scrummaging to lead to premature chronic degeneration injuries of the cervical spine and summarises the mechanisms by which these chronic injuries are thought to occur. More recent biomechanical studies of rugby scrummaging confirm that scrum engagement forces are high and multiplanar, but can be altered through modifications to the scrum engagement process which control the engagement velocity. As the set scrum is a relatively 'controlled' contact situation within rugby union, it remains an important area for intervention with a long-term goal of injury reduction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Rehabilitation of hamstring muscle injuries: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Amorim Ramos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Hamstring injuries are among the most frequent in sports. The high relapse rate is a challenge for sports medicine and has a great impact on athletes and sport teams. The treatment goal is to provide the athlete the same functional level as before the injury. Thus, functional rehabilitation is very important to the success of the treatment. Currently, several physical therapy modalities are used, according to the stage of the lesion, such as cryotherapy, laser therapy, therapeutic ultrasound, therapeutic exercise, and manual therapy. However, the evidence of the effectiveness of these modalities in muscle injuries is not fully established due to the little scientific research on the topic. This article presents an overview of the physiotherapy approach in the rehabilitation of hamstring muscle injuries.

  18. Missed injury – decreasing morbidity and mortality: A literature review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advanced Trauma Life Support®), although they may also be inju- ries identified after a defined .... highly recommended for practice quality assurance. ... when injuries are missed, continuous audit is essential in prevent- ing repeated errors!

  19. Mitochondrial toxicity of diclofenac and its metabolites via inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation (ATP synthesis) in rat liver mitochondria: Possible role in drug induced liver injury (DILI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Muzeeb; Skonberg, Christian; Hansen, Steen Honoré

    2016-03-01

    Diclofenac is a widely prescribed NSAID, which by itself and its reactive metabolites (Phase-I and Phase-II) may be involved in serious idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity. Mitochondrial injury is one of the mechanisms of drug induced liver injury (DILI). In the present work, an investigation of the inhibitory effects of diclofenac (Dic) and its phase I [4-hydroxy diclofenac (4'-OH-Dic) and 5-hydroxy diclofenac (5-OH-dic)] and Phase-II [diclofenac acyl glucuronide (DicGluA) and diclofenac glutathione thioester (DicSG)] metabolites, on ATP synthesis in rat liver mitochondria was carried out. A mechanism based inhibition of ATP synthesis is exerted by diclofenac and its metabolites. Phase-I metabolite (4'-OH-Dic) and Phase-II metabolites (DicGluA and DicSG) showed potent inhibition (2-5 fold) of ATP synthesis, where as 5-OH-Dic, one of the Phase-I metabolite, was a less potent inhibitor as compared to Dic. The calculated kinetic constants of mechanism based inhibition of ATP synthesis by Dic showed maximal rate of inactivation (Kinact) of 2.64 ± 0.15 min(-1) and half maximal rate of inactivation (KI) of 7.69 ± 2.48 μM with Kinact/KI ratio of 0.343 min(-1) μM(-1). Co-incubation of mitochondria with Dic and reduced GSH exhibited a protective effect on Dic mediated inhibition of ATP synthesis. Our data from this study strongly indicate that Dic as well as its metabolites could be involved in the hepato-toxic action through inhibition of ATP synthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Blood transfusion products contain mitochondrial DNA damage-associated molecular patterns: a potential effector of transfusion-related acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yann-Leei; King, Madelyn B; Gonzalez, Richard P; Brevard, Sidney B; Frotan, M Amin; Gillespie, Mark N; Simmons, Jon D

    2014-10-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the most frequent and severe complication in patients receiving multiple blood transfusions. Current pathogenic concepts hold that proinflammatory mediators present in transfused blood products are responsible for the initiation of TRALI, but the identity of the critical effector molecules is yet to be determined. We hypothesize that mtDNA damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are present in blood transfusion products, which may be important in the initiation of TRALI. DNA was extracted from consecutive samples of packed red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma (FFP), and platelets procured from the local blood bank. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify ≈200 bp sequences from the COX1, ND1, ND6, and D-loop regions of the mitochondrial genome. A range of mtDNA DAMPs were detected in all blood components measured, with FFP displaying the largest variation. We conclude that mtDNA DAMPs are present in packed red blood cells, FFP, and platelets. These observations provide proof of the concept that mtDNA DAMPs may be mediators of TRALI. Further studies are needed to test this hypothesis and to determine the origin of mtDNA DAMPs in transfused blood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Epidemiology of Injuries in Mixed Martial Arts: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lystad, Reidar P; Gregory, Kobi; Wilson, Juno

    2014-01-01

    Mixed martial arts (MMA) has experienced a surge in popularity since emerging in the 1990s, but the sport has also faced concomitant criticism from public, political, and medical holds. Notwithstanding the polarized discourse concerning the sport, no systematic review of the injury problems in MMA has been published to date. To systematically review the epidemiologic data on injuries in MMA and to quantitatively estimate injury incidence and risk factor effect sizes. Systematic review and meta-analysis; Level of evidence, 4. Electronic searching of PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, EMBASE, AMED, and SPORTDiscus databases to identify studies reporting on the epidemiology of injuries in MMA. Random-effects models were used to obtain pooled summary estimates of the injury incidence rate per 1000 athlete-exposures (IIRAE) and rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was evaluated with the I (2) statistic. A total of 6 studies were eligible for inclusion in this review. The IIRAE summary estimate was found to be 228.7 (95% CI, 110.4-473.5). No studies reported injury severity. The most commonly injured anatomic region was the head (range, 66.8%-78.0%) followed by the wrist/hand (range, 6.0%-12.0%), while the most frequent injury types were laceration (range, 36.7%-59.4%), fracture (range, 7.4%-43.3%), and concussion (range, 3.8%-20.4%). The most notable risk factors pertained to the outcome of bouts. Losers incurred 3 times as many injuries as winners, and fighters in bouts ending with knockout or technical knockout incurred more than 2 times as many injuries as fighters in bouts ending with submission. Notwithstanding the paucity of data, the injury incidence in MMA appears to be greater than in most, if not all, other popular and commonly practiced combat sports. In general, the injury pattern in MMA is very similar to that in professional boxing but unlike that found in other combat sports such as judo and taekwondo. More epidemiologic research is

  2. Urinary Tract Injury in Gynecologic Laparoscopy for Benign Indication: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jacqueline M K; Bortoletto, Pietro; Tolentino, Jocelyn; Jung, Michael J; Milad, Magdy P

    2018-01-01

    To perform a comprehensive literature review of the incidence, location, etiology, timing, management, and long-term sequelae of urinary tract injury in gynecologic laparoscopy for benign indication. A systematic review of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov was conducted. Four hundred thirty-three studies were screened for inclusion with 136 full-text articles reviewed. Ninety studies published between 1975 and 2015 met inclusion criteria, representing 140,444 surgeries. Articles reporting the incidence of urinary tract injury in gynecologic laparoscopy for benign indication were included. Exclusion criteria comprised malignancy, surgery by urogynecologists, research not in English, and insufficient data. A total of 458 lower urinary tract injuries were reported with an incidence of 0.33% (95% CI 0.30-0.36). Bladder injury (0.24%, 95% CI 0.22-0.27) was overall three times more frequent than ureteral injury (0.08%, 95% CI 0.07-0.10). Laparoscopic hysterectomy not otherwise specified (1.8%, 95% CI 1.2-2.6) and laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (1.0%, 95% CI 0.9-1.2) had the highest rates of injury. Most ureteral injuries resulted from electrosurgery (33.3%, 95% CI 24.3-45.8), whereas most bladder injuries resulted from lysis of adhesions (23.3%, 95% CI 18.7-29.0). Ureteral injuries were most often recognized postoperatively (60%, 95% CI 47-76) and were repaired by open ureteral anastomosis (47.4%, 95% CI 36.3-61.9). In contrast, bladder injuries were most often recognized intraoperatively (85%, 95% CI 75-95) and were repaired by laparoscopic suturing (34.9%, 95% CI 29.2-41.7). The incidence of lower urinary tract injury in gynecologic laparoscopy for benign indication remains low at 0.33%. Bladder injury was three times more common than ureteral injury, although ureteral injuries were more often unrecognized intraoperatively and underwent open surgical repair. These risk estimates can assist gynecologic surgeons in effectively

  3. Training Load and Fatigue Marker Associations with Injury and Illness: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher M; Griffiths, Peter C; Mellalieu, Stephen D

    2017-05-01

    Coaches, sport scientists, clinicians and medical personnel face a constant challenge to prescribe sufficient training load to produce training adaption while minimising fatigue, performance inhibition and risk of injury/illness. The aim of this review was to investigate the relationship between injury and illness and longitudinal training load and fatigue markers in sporting populations. Systematic searches of the Web of Science and PubMed online databases to August 2015 were conducted for articles reporting relationships between training load/fatigue measures and injury/illness in athlete populations. From the initial 5943 articles identified, 2863 duplicates were removed, followed by a further 2833 articles from title and abstract selection. Manual searching of the reference lists of the remaining 247 articles, together with use of the Google Scholar 'cited by' tool, yielded 205 extra articles deemed worthy of assessment. Sixty-eight studies were subsequently selected for inclusion in this study, of which 45 investigated injury only, 17 investigated illness only, and 6 investigated both injury and illness. This systematic review highlighted a number of key findings, including disparity within the literature regarding the use of various terminologies such as training load, fatigue, injury and illness. Athletes are at an increased risk of injury/illness at key stages in their training and competition, including periods of training load intensification and periods of accumulated training loads. Further investigation of individual athlete characteristics is required due to their impact on internal training load and, therefore, susceptibility to injury/illness.

  4. Perioperative Care for Pediatric Patients With Penetrating Brain Injury: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhael, Marco; Frost, Elizabeth; Cristancho, Maria

    2017-05-19

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) continues to be the leading cause of death and acquired disability in young children and adolescents, due to blunt or penetrating trauma, the latter being less common but more lethal. Penetrating brain injury (PBI) has not been studied extensively, mainly reported as case reports or case series, due to the assumption that both types of brain injury have common pathophysiology and consequently common management. However, recommendations and guidelines for the management of PBI differ from those of blunt TBI in regards to neuroimaging, intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring, and surgical management including those pertaining to vascular injury. PBI was one of the exclusion criteria in the second edition of guidelines for the acute medical management of severe TBI in infants, children, and adolescents that was published in 2012 (it is referred to as "pediatric guidelines" in this review). Many reviews of TBI do not differentiate between the mechanisms of injury. We present an overview of PBI, its presenting features, epidemiology, and causes as well as an analysis of case series and the conclusions that may be drawn from those and other studies. More clinical trials specific to penetrating head injuries in children, focusing mainly on pathophysiology and management, are needed. The term PBI is specific to penetrating injury only, whereas TBI, a more inclusive term, describes mainly, but not only, blunt injury.

  5. Anterior cruciate ligament injury/reinjury in alpine ski racing: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan MJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Matthew J Jordan,1 Per Aagaard,2 Walter Herzog1 1Human Performance Laboratory, The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, SDU Muscle Research Cluster (SMRC, University of Southern Denmark, Odense M, Denmark Abstract: The purpose of the present review was to: 1 provide an overview of the current understanding on the epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and prevention methods for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury in alpine ski racing; and 2 provide an overview of what is known pertaining to ACL reinjury and return to sport after ACL injury in alpine ski racing. Given that most of the scientific studies on ACL injuries in alpine ski racing have been descriptive, and that very few studies contributed higher level scientific evidence, a nonsystematic narrative review was employed. Three scholarly databases were searched for articles on ACL injury or knee injury in alpine ski racing. Studies were classified according to their relevance in relation to epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and return to sport/reinjury prevention. Alpine ski racers (skiers were found to be at high risk for knee injuries, and ACL tears were the most frequent diagnosis. Three primary ACL injury mechanism were identified that involved tibial internal rotation and anteriorly directed shear forces from ski equipment and the environment. While trunk muscle strength imbalance and genetics were found to be predictive of ACL injuries in development-level skiers, there was limited scientific data on ACL injury risk factors among elite skiers. Based on expert opinion, research on injury risk factors should focus on equipment design, course settings/speed, and athlete factors (eg, fitness. While skiers seem to make a successful recovery following ACL injury, there may be persistent neuromuscular deficits. Future research efforts should be directed toward prospective studies on ACL injury/reinjury prevention in both

  6. Return to Play After Hamstring Injuries: A Qualitative Systematic Review of Definitions and Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Nick; van de Hoef, Sander; Reurink, Gustaaf; Huisstede, Bionka; Backx, Frank

    2016-06-01

    More than half of the recurrent hamstring injuries occur within the first month after return-to-play (RTP). Although there are numerous studies on RTP, comparisons are hampered by the numerous definitions of RTP used. Moreover, there is no consensus on the criteria used to determine when a person can start playing again. These criteria need to be critically evaluated, in an attempt to reduce recurrence rates and optimize RTP. To carry out a systematic review of the literature on (1) definitions of RTP used in hamstring research and (2) criteria for RTP after hamstring injuries. Systematic review. Seven databases (PubMed, EMBASE/MEDLINE, CINAHL, PEDro, Cochrane, SPORTDiscus, Scopus) were searched for articles that provided a definition of, or criteria for, RTP after hamstring injury. There were no limitations on the methodological design or quality of articles. Content analysis was used to record and analyze definitions and criteria for RTP after hamstring injury. Twenty-five papers fulfilled inclusion criteria, of which 13 provided a definition of RTP and 23 described criteria to support the RTP decision. "Reaching the athlete's pre-injury level" and "being able to perform full sport activities" were the primary content categories used to define RTP. "Absence of pain", "similar strength", "similar flexibility", "medical staff clearance", and "functional performance" were core themes to describe criteria to support the RTP decision after hamstring injury. Only half of the included studies provided some definition of RTP after hamstring injury, of which reaching the athlete's pre-injury level and being able to perform full sport activities were the most important. A wide variety of criteria are used to support the RTP decision, none of which have been validated. More research is needed to reach a consensus on the definition of RTP and to provide validated RTP criteria to facilitate hamstring injury management and reduce hamstring injury recurrence. PROSPERO

  7. Epidemiology of injuries in senior male rugby union sevens: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ferreira, Antonio; Cruz-Ferreira, Eduardo; Santiago, Luiz; Taborda Barata, Luis

    2017-02-01

    In 2016 the Rugby Union variant of sevens will enter the official Olympic Programme. Until now, most of injury surveillance studies in Rugby Union focus on elite 15-a-side cohorts, with reported injury incidence rates reaching 96 per 1000 player-match-hours, and mean severity set at 20 days. Sparse data is available regarding rugby sevens. The aim of this study was to systematically review available data regarding the epidemiology of injuries in senior male rugby sevens. Electronic databases (Pubmed, Google Scholar, SCOPUS, Scielo and IndexRMP) were searched in September 2015, complemented by manual searches of bibliographies and relevant "grey literature". Seven prospective cohort original articles addressing injuries in senior male rugby sevens players were included in this review. Overall injury incidence rates in elite rugby sevens tournaments ranged 101.5 to 119.8 per 1000 player-match-hours. Mean severity was greater than 34.1 days. Lower limb and joint/ligament injuries were the most frequent in elite players. The only study on amateur players revealed a lower injury incidence rate (74.7 per 1000 player-match-hours), and a higher proportion of muscle/tendon (37.5 %) injuries. Injury incidence rates in rugby sevens are higher than those reported for the 15-a-side variant, at the same level of competition. Injuries are also more severe, resulting in longer absence periods. This might result from the fact that rugby sevens is played with greater speed, leading to an increase in energy transfers during tackles, more running and turning manoeuvers, that can possibly cause more severe injuries.

  8. Descriptors used to define running-related musculoskeletal injury: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, Tiê Parma; Saragiotto, Bruno Tirotti; Hespanhol Junior, Luiz Carlos; Yeung, Simon S; Lopes, Alexandre Dias

    2015-05-01

    Systematic review. To systematically review the descriptors used to define running-related musculoskeletal injury and to analyze the implications of different definitions on the results of studies. Studies have developed their own definitions of running-related musculoskeletal injuries based on different criteria. This may affect the rates of injury, which can be overestimated or underestimated due to the lack of a standard definition. Searches were conducted in the Embase, PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, LILACS, and SciELO databases, without limits on date of publication and language. Only articles that reported a definition of running-related injury were included. The definitions were classified according to 3 domains and subcategories: (1) presence of physical complaint (symptom, body system involved, region), (2) interruption of training or competition (primary sports involved, extent of injury, extent of limitation, interruption, period of injury), and (3) need for medical assistance. Spearman rank correlation was performed to evaluate the correlation between the completeness of definitions and the rates of injury reported in the studies. A total of 48 articles were included. Most studies described more than half of the subcategories, but with no standardization between the terms used within each category, showing that there is no consensus for a definition. The injury rates ranged between 3% and 85%, and tended to increase with less specific definitions. The descriptors commonly used by researchers to define a running-related injury vary between studies and may affect the rates of injuries. The lack of a standardized definition hinders comparison between studies and rates of injuries.

  9. Work injury management model and implication in Hong Kong: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Cecilia Suk-Mei; Cheng, Andy Shu-Kei

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this review is to explore the work injury management models in literatures and the essential components in different models. The resulting information could be used to develop an integrated holistic model that could be applied in the work injury management system in Hong Kong. A keyword search of MEDLINE and CINAHL databases was conducted. A total of 68 studies related to the management of an injury were found within the above mentioned electronic database. Together with the citation tracking, there were 13 studies left for selection after the exclusion screening. Only 7 out of those 13 studies met the inclusion criteria for review. It is noticeable that the most important component in the injury management model in the reviewed literatures is early intervention. Because of limitations in Employees' Compensation Ordinance in Hong Kong, there is an impetus to have a model and practice guideline for work injury management in Hong Kong to ensure the quality of injury management services. At the end of this paper, the authors propose a work injury management model based on the employees' compensation system in Hong Kong. This model can be used as a reference for those countries adopting similar legislation as in Hong Kong.

  10. Complex shoulder girdle injuries following mountain bike accidents and a review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Matthew Alexander; Makaram, Navnit; Srinivasan, Makaram S

    2016-01-01

    Background Mountain and road bike accidents are particularly common with the increased popularity of the sport. We reviewed the attendances in our emergency department over a 4-year period looking at cycling injuries to detect the level and grade of these injuries and their outcomes. Method Royal Blackburn Hospital caters for a population of 550 000. A search through the Hospital information system revealed 104 patients with fractures following mountain bike injuries. These were looked at in more detail. We present a series of 5 severe shoulder girdle injuries following mountain bike accidents in this cohort, to highlight the serious level of injury sustained in this sport. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases over the past 10 years using the keywords, mountain, biking and fracture. This yielded 7 papers. We compared our series with the literature. Results 104 fractures following mountain bike accidents between 2008 and 2011. Fractures of the upper limb were the most common (88.5%) with the clavicle being the most commonly fractured bone (28.8%). Conclusions Major scapular injuries with destruction or disruption of the four bar linkage of the shoulder girdle are very common following mountain accidents. Clavicular fractures are the commonest upper limb injury. It is easy to miss a disruption to the four-bar linkage associated with a clavicular injury. This paper highlights the severity of the injuries sustained in mountain bike accidents of the upper limb and requirement of adequate protection in this exhilarating sport. PMID:27900147

  11. Extrahepatic duct injury in blunt trauma: two case reports and a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Thiago Messias; Pereira, Bruno Monteiro Tavares; Calderan, Thiago Rodrigues Araujo; Hirano, Elcio Shiyoiti; Fraga, Gustavo Pereira

    2014-08-01

    Traumatic injuries of the extrahepatic biliary tract are rare. Associated injuries are usually responsible for immediate indication for surgical treatment, the time when an injury to the extrahepatic biliary ducts may be diagnosed. However, missed injuries are often common. The primary aim of this paper is to describe the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of two patients with left hepatic duct injury after blunt abdominal trauma. As a secondary objective, a literature review is presented. The two cases presented in this study are as follows: (1) A young male, involved in a motor vehicle crash, was admitted with blunt hepatic trauma in a general hospital. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography was conducted 3 weeks later and revealed a large leakage at the left hepatic duct. Exploratory laparotomy was performed 26 days after the initial traumatic event and identified a complete section of the left hepatic duct, treated with anastomosis. (2) A male fell from a height. On exploratory laparotomy, a 30 % partial injury of the left hepatic duct was found in addition to hemoperitoneum, liver injury, gallbladder detachment together with cystic duct rupture, retroperitoneal hematoma to the right, and cecum hematoma. A high level of suspicion is necessary to identify injuries to the hepatic ducts. Early diagnosis that occurs during laparotomy due to associated injuries is important to reduce complications.

  12. Taking the long view: a systematic review reporting long-term perspectives on child unintentional injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytton, Julie A; Towner, Elizabeth M L; Powell, Jane; Pilkington, Paul A; Gray, Selena

    2012-10-01

    The relative significance of child injury as a cause of preventable death has increased as mortality from infectious diseases has declined. Unintentional child injuries are now a major cause of death and disability across the world with the greatest burden falling on those who are most disadvantaged. A review of long-term data on child injury mortality was conducted to explore trends and inequalities and consider how data were used to inform policy, practice and research. The authors systematically collated and quality appraised data from publications and documents reporting unintentional child injury mortality over periods of 20 years or more. A critical narrative synthesis explored trends by country income group, injury type, age, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic group. 31 studies meeting the inclusion criteria were identified of which 30 were included in the synthesis. Only six were from middle income countries and none were from low income countries. An overall trend in falling child injury mortality masked rising road traffic injury deaths, evidence of increasing vulnerability of adolescents and widening disparities within countries when analysed by ethnic group and socioeconomic status. Child injury mortality trend data from high and middle income countries has illustrated inequalities within generally falling trends. There is scope for greater use of existing trend data to inform policy and practice. Similar evidence from low income countries where the burden of injury is greatest is needed.

  13. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta ameliorates triptolide-induced acute cardiac injury by desensitizing mitochondrial permeability transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenwen; Yang, Yanqin; Xiong, Zhewen; Kong, Jiamin; Fu, Xinlu; Shen, Feihai; Huang, Zhiying

    2016-01-01

    Triptolide (TP), a diterpene triepoxide, is a major active component of Tripterygium wilfordii extracts, which are prepared as tablets and has been used clinically for the treatment of inflammation and autoimmune disorders. However, TP's therapeutic potential is limited by severe adverse effects. In a previous study, we reported that TP induced mitochondria dependent apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase that plays important roles in the necrosis and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes. Our study aimed to investigate the role of GSK-3β in TP-induced cardiotoxicity. Inhibition of GSK-3β activity by SB 216763, a potent and selective GSK-3 inhibitor, prominently ameliorated the detrimental effects in C57BL/6J mice with TP administration, which was associated with a correction of GSK-3β overactivity. Consistently, in TP-treated H9c2 cells, SB 216763 treatment counteracted GSK-3β overactivity, improved cell viability, and prevented apoptosis by modulating the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins. Mechanistically, GSK-3β interacted with and phosphorylated cyclophilin F (Cyp-F), a key regulator of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). GSK-3β inhibition prevented the phosphorylation and activation of Cyp-F, and desensitized mPTP. Our findings suggest that pharmacological targeting of GSK-3β could represent a promising therapeutic strategy for protecting against cardiotoxicity induced by TP. - Highlights: • GSK-3β inhibition ameliorates TP-induced cardiotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. • GSK-3β controls Cyp-F activation, and regulates mPTP and apoptosis in H9c2 cells. • The protective effect is attributed to GSK-3β activity rather than to protein level. • GSK-3β may be a promising target against TP-induced cardiotoxicity.

  14. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta ameliorates triptolide-induced acute cardiac injury by desensitizing mitochondrial permeability transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenwen; Yang, Yanqin; Xiong, Zhewen; Kong, Jiamin [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Fu, Xinlu [Laboratory Animals Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Shen, Feihai, E-mail: shenfh3@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Huang, Zhiying, E-mail: hzhiying@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Triptolide (TP), a diterpene triepoxide, is a major active component of Tripterygium wilfordii extracts, which are prepared as tablets and has been used clinically for the treatment of inflammation and autoimmune disorders. However, TP's therapeutic potential is limited by severe adverse effects. In a previous study, we reported that TP induced mitochondria dependent apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase that plays important roles in the necrosis and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes. Our study aimed to investigate the role of GSK-3β in TP-induced cardiotoxicity. Inhibition of GSK-3β activity by SB 216763, a potent and selective GSK-3 inhibitor, prominently ameliorated the detrimental effects in C57BL/6J mice with TP administration, which was associated with a correction of GSK-3β overactivity. Consistently, in TP-treated H9c2 cells, SB 216763 treatment counteracted GSK-3β overactivity, improved cell viability, and prevented apoptosis by modulating the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins. Mechanistically, GSK-3β interacted with and phosphorylated cyclophilin F (Cyp-F), a key regulator of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). GSK-3β inhibition prevented the phosphorylation and activation of Cyp-F, and desensitized mPTP. Our findings suggest that pharmacological targeting of GSK-3β could represent a promising therapeutic strategy for protecting against cardiotoxicity induced by TP. - Highlights: • GSK-3β inhibition ameliorates TP-induced cardiotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. • GSK-3β controls Cyp-F activation, and regulates mPTP and apoptosis in H9c2 cells. • The protective effect is attributed to GSK-3β activity rather than to protein level. • GSK-3β may be a promising target against TP-induced cardiotoxicity.

  15. Relationship between protein and mitochondrial DNA oxidative injury and telomere length and muscle loss in healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunout, Daniel; Backhouse, Claudia; Leiva, Laura; Barrera, Gladys; Sierralta, Walter; de la Maza, María Pía; Hirsch, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    A blood sample and muscle biopsies were obtained from 54 elderly subjects. Twenty-seven subjects aged 77+/-3 years, had experienced a change in fat free mass (FFM) of +194+/-282g/year (lean body mass maintainers) and 27 subjects aged 78+/-3 years, had a change in FFM of -487+/-209g/year (lean body mass losers). Muscle biopsies were also obtained from 10 healthy subjects aged 34+/-4 years. In muscle, the ratio of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to nuclear DNA (nDNA) and telomere length were assessed and deposition of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal adducts (4HNE) was visualized by electron microscopy. In FFM maintainers, losers and young controls, the ratio of mtDNA to nDNA was 2.1 (95% confidence intervals (CI), 0.1-31.7), 1.5 (95% CI, 0.2-15.7) and 18.6 (95% CI, 2.8-46.2), respectively. 4HNE deposition was 5.9 (95% CI, 1.5-28), 4.9 (95% CI, 0.9-13) and 3.4 (95% CI, 1.1-4.6) gold particles/microm(2), respectively. Telomere length, expressed as T/S ratio, was 0.06 (95% CI, 0.01-0.16), 0.06 (95% CI, 0.03-0.27) and 0.34 (95% CI, 0.1-1.34), respectively (p<0.02 or less for all comparisons between elderly and young subjects).

  16. Child injuries in Ethiopia: A review of the current situation with projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingfeng; Alonge, Olakunle; Lawhorn, Collene; Ambaw, Yirga; Kumar, Smita; Jacobs, Troy; Hyder, Adnan A

    2018-01-01

    Heavy burden of child injuries and lack of policy response in Ethiopia call for an improved understanding of the situation and development of action plans from multiple governmental agencies and stakeholders. A consortium of international and Ethiopian researchers and stakeholders used extensive literature review and mixed analytical methods to estimate and project the burden of fatal and non-fatal child unintentional injuries in Ethiopia from 2015 to 2030. Estimates were derived for children aged 0-14 years. Data sources include a longitudinal study conducted by the Central Statistics Agency of Ethiopia and the World Bank as well as model-based estimates from World Health Organization 2017 and Global Burden of Disease 2016 project. Injuries caused about 25 thousand deaths among 0-14-year olds in Ethiopia in 2015. The leading cause of fatal child unintentional injuries in Ethiopia was road-traffic injuries, followed by fire, heat and hot substances and drowning. The death rate due to injuries among 0-14 years olds was about 50 percent higher in males than females. Rural children were exposed to a greater risk of injury than their urban peers. The longitudinal survey suggests that the incidence rate of child injuries increased during the period 2011-2014. The annual mortality caused by injuries is projected to increase from 10,697 in 2015 to 11,279 in 2020 and 11,989 in 2030 among children under 5 years, an increase of 12 percentage points in 15 years. The number of deaths among 0-14-year olds will be 26,463, 27,807, and 30,364 respectively in 2015, 2020, and 2030. As the first multisectoral collaboration on child injuries in Ethiopia, this study identified gaps in understanding of the burden of child injuries in Ethiopia. In consultation with Ethiopian government and other stakeholders, we propose starting an injury surveillance system at health clinics and hospitals and building an intervention package based on existing platforms.

  17. Analysis of Injury Incidences in Male Professional Adult and Elite Youth Soccer Players: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirrmann, Daniel; Herbst, Mark; Ingelfinger, Patrick; Simon, Perikles; Tug, Suzan

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of injury for elite youth and professional adult soccer players is an important concern, but the risk factors for these groups are different. To summarize and compare the injury incidences and injury characteristics of male professional adult and elite youth soccer players. We searched MEDLINE and Web of Science using the search terms elite, international, European, soccer, football, injury, injuries, epidemiology, incidence, prevalence, not female, not American football, and not rugby. We also used the search terms professional for studies on professional adult soccer players and high-level, soccer academy, youth, adolescent, and young for studies on elite youth soccer players. Eligible studies were published in English, had a prospective cohort design, and had a minimum study period of 6 months. To ensure that injury data were assessed in relationship to the athlete's individual exposure, we included only studies that reported on injuries and documented exposure volume. Two independent reviewers applied the selection criteria and assessed the quality of the studies. A total of 676 studies were retrieved from the literature search. Eighteen articles met the inclusion criteria: 6 for elite youth and 12 for professional adult soccer players. Injury rates were higher for matches than for training for both youth and adult players. Youth players had a higher incidence of training injuries than professionals. Efforts must be made to reduce the overall injury rate in matches. Therefore, preventive interventions, such as adequately enforcing rules and focusing on fair play, must be analyzed and developed to reduce match-related injury incidences. Reducing training injuries should be a particular focus for youth soccer players.

  18. Mitochondrial Dynamics: Coupling Mitochondrial Fitness with Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián, David; Palacín, Manuel; Zorzano, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in mitochondrial function and the accumulation of abnormal mitochondria. However, the precise mechanisms by which aging promotes these mitochondrial alterations and the role of the latter in aging are still not fully understood. Mitochondrial dynamics is a key process regulating mitochondrial function and quality. Altered expression of some mitochondrial dynamics proteins has been recently associated with aging and with age-related alterations in yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans, mice, and humans. Here, we review the link between alterations in mitochondrial dynamics, aging, and age-related impairment. We propose that the dysregulation of mitochondrial dynamics leads to age-induced accumulation of unhealthy mitochondria and contributes to alterations linked to aging, such as diabetes and neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. VASCULAR INJURIES IN TEHRAN: A REVIEW OF 123 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karbakhsh M. R. Zarei

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract- Studies of the epidemiology of civilian vascular trauma in developing countries are rather few. This is a prospective study of our experience with vascular trauma in a referral university hospital in Tehran, Iran. The aim was to study the etiology, pattern of injuries and the mortality and morbidity rates due to vascular trauma in our population. In this cross-sectional study, all trauma patients suspicious of having vascular injuries who were admitted to Sina Hospital between March 2002 and May 2003 were included. Among 123 studied cases, there were 109 males and 14 females.Blunt injuries were more common than penetrating ones (56.1% vs. 43.9%. The most common anatomical site of vascular injuries had been knee and lower leg. In fact, cases with lower extremities vascular trauma were twice as common as those with vascular trauma in upper limbs (59.1% vs. 27.3%. The commonest injured vessels were popliteal artery followed by femoral artery. Arterial repair with graft interposition was done in 23 cases and bypass graft in 13 cases. Procedures on veins were performed in 24 cases. Five patients (4.06% died and in 3 cases the patients died because of non-vascular reasons. The present study allows an understanding of the epidemiology of vascular trauma in the one of the major trauma centers in the metropolitan city of Tehran. The majority of our cases were young males sustaining vascular injuries due to road traffic accidents or being stabbed with knives. It also has important implications for vascular injury prevention in our community.

  20. 77 FR 31018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict Review, Program Announcement (PA) 07-318, and Centers of Excellence...

  1. 77 FR 28393 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Research to Prevent Prescription Drug Overdoses, FOA CE12-007, initial review. In...

  2. 77 FR 61756 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational Safety and Health Training Project Grant, PAR 10-288, initial review...

  3. Descriptors Used to Define Running-Related Musculoskeletal Injury: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamato, T.P.; Saragiotto, B.T.; Hespanhol, L.C.; Yeung, S.S.; Lopes, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the used to define running-related musculoskeletal injury and to analyze the implications of different definitions on the results of studies. BACKGROUND: Studies have developed their own definitions of running-related

  4. Management of foot and ankle injuries in pediatric and adolescent athletes: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill LE

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Laura E Gill,1,2 Kevin E Klingele,1,2 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Department of Orthopaedics, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA Abstract: In this review, we focus on the treatment of injuries to the foot and ankle in the adolescent athlete. While many injuries in the adolescent foot and ankle are similar to or overlap with their counterparts in the adult population, the anatomy of the adolescent ankle, especially the presence of growth plates, results in different injury patterns in many cases and calls for specific management approaches. We discuss the unique anatomy of the pediatric patient as well as the diagnostic evaluation and treatment of common injuries in the young athlete. Keywords: foot, ankle, lower extremity, pediatric athlete, growth plate, Lisfranc injury 

  5. Shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers: review and development of a FIFA 11+ shoulder injury prevention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejnisman B

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Benno Ejnisman,1 Gisele Barbosa,1 Carlos V Andreoli,1 A de Castro Pochini,1 Thiago Lobo,2 Rodrigo Zogaib,2 Moises Cohen,1 Mario Bizzini,3 Jiri Dvorak3 1Department of Orthopaedics, Federal University of São Paulo, 2Sports Medicine Department, Santos FC, São Paulo, Brazil; 3FIFA-Medical Assessment and Research Centre, Schulthess Clinic, Zurich, Switzerland Abstract: In the last years, shoulder injuries have represented an increasing health problem in soccer players. The goalkeepers are more exposed to shoulder disorders than other field players. Injury prevention exercises for upper limbs were cited in few studies involving throwing athletes, but we know that goalkeepers need a specific program. The purpose of this study is to describe the development of an adapted Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA 11+ program, namely the FIFA 11+ shoulder, which targets the prevention of shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers. The FIFA 11+ shoulder program is structured into three parts: general warming-up exercises, exercises to improve strength and balance of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger muscles, and advanced exercises for core stability and muscle control. The exercises were selected based on recommendations from studies demonstrating high electromyographic activity. Keywords: goalkeeper, shoulder, injury prevention, prevention program

  6. Guarding the precious smile: incidence and prevention of injury in sports: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Bikramjit Singh; Sood, Nikhil; Sood, Niti; Sah, Nupur; Arora, Dhruv; Mahendra, Ashish

    2014-07-01

    The paper provides a review about the orofacial injuries sustained during sports and the options available to the athletes for their prevention. It was done with a purpose to determine three different aspects incidence of dental injury during sporting activities, role of mouthguards in preventing sports injury, types of mouthguards and their properties. From this review, it is clear that sports carry a considerable risk of injury, this is not only true for the contact sports such as rugby or kickboxing, but also for seemingly less dangerous sports such as football. Amongst the different types of mouthguards, the most acceptable and safe ones are the custom-fabricated mouthguards, in particular the pressure-laminated ones. In general, mouthguard usage is less than the dental profession would recommend. As much of progress has been made in this area, need for the use of mouthguard needs to be emphasized and promoted by the dental profession.

  7. Lawn mower injuries to the lower extremity: a 10-year retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhagen, Robert M; Raspovic, Katherine M; Crim, Brandon E; Ryan, Michael T; Gruen, Gary G

    2013-04-01

    Lawn mower injuries occur frequently in the United States and oftentimes result in extensive trauma to the lower extremities. These injuries can be quite devastating and cause there to be loss of function and amputation. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are specific factors that would help determine the best treatment protocol, patient outcomes, and prognosis after lawn mower injury to the foot and ankle. A retrospective review of medical records was performed on all patients treated at a university level 1 trauma center from 2000 to 2010. Only subjects 18 years or older who sustained an injury below the level of the knee were included for review. Seventy-three patients were included in this review. The results revealed that patients who developed a complication were significantly older than the group of patients without complications (P = .03). Digits were found to be injured most often but the odds of developing a complication were much higher if these injuries involved the plantar foot, dorsal foot, or ankle. Interestingly, patients on prolonged antibiotic therapy had a significantly higher risk of developing complications. The presence of comorbidities significantly increased the risk of complication (P = .008); the greatest risk factors were cardiovascular disease (P = .001) and diabetes (P = .06). The authors present the largest cohort of lawn mower injuries in the medical literature, which demonstrates that factors such as age, location of injury, and the presence of comorbidities influence the outcome and increase the risk of injury to the foot and ankle. These results may be useful in determining the best treatment plan possible for patients with these severe injuries. Therapeutic, Level IV, Retrospective case series.

  8. Machine learning approaches to analysing textual injury surveillance data: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallmuur, Kirsten

    2015-06-01

    To synthesise recent research on the use of machine learning approaches to mining textual injury surveillance data. Systematic review. The electronic databases which were searched included PubMed, Cinahl, Medline, Google Scholar, and Proquest. The bibliography of all relevant articles was examined and associated articles were identified using a snowballing technique. For inclusion, articles were required to meet the following criteria: (a) used a health-related database, (b) focused on injury-related cases, AND used machine learning approaches to analyse textual data. The papers identified through the search were screened resulting in 16 papers selected for review. Articles were reviewed to describe the databases and methodology used, the strength and limitations of different techniques, and quality assurance approaches used. Due to heterogeneity between studies meta-analysis was not performed. Occupational injuries were the focus of half of the machine learning studies and the most common methods described were Bayesian probability or Bayesian network based methods to either predict injury categories or extract common injury scenarios. Models were evaluated through either comparison with gold standard data or content expert evaluation or statistical measures of quality. Machine learning was found to provide high precision and accuracy when predicting a small number of categories, was valuable for visualisation of injury patterns and prediction of future outcomes. However, difficulties related to generalizability, source data quality, complexity of models and integration of content and technical knowledge were discussed. The use of narrative text for injury surveillance has grown in popularity, complexity and quality over recent years. With advances in data mining techniques, increased capacity for analysis of large databases, and involvement of computer scientists in the injury prevention field, along with more comprehensive use and description of quality

  9. Exercise-Based Interventions for Injury Prevention in Tackle Collision Ball Sports: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewry, Nicola; Verhagen, Evert; Lambert, Mike; van Mechelen, Willem; Viljoen, Wayne; Readhead, Clint; Brown, James

    2017-09-01

    The injury burden in collision sports is relatively high compared to other team sports. Therefore, participants in these sports would benefit by having effective injury prevention programs. Exercise-based interventions have successfully reduced injuries in soccer, but evidence on exercise-based interventions in tackle collision sports is limited. The objective of this review is to systematically examine the evidence of exercise-based intervention programs reducing injuries in tackle collision sports. PubMed, EBSCOHost, and Web of Science were searched for articles published between January 1995 and December 2015. The methodological quality was assessed using an adapted Cochrane Bone Joint and Muscle Trauma Group quality assessment tool. The inclusion criteria were (1) (randomized) control trials and observational studies; (2) sporting codes: American, Australian and Gaelic Football, rugby union, and rugby league; (3) participants of any age or sex; (4) exercise-based, prehabilitative intervention; and (5) primary outcome was injury rate or incidence (injury risk). The exclusion criteria were (1) unavailability of full-text; and (2) article unavailable in English. Nine studies with a total of 3517 participants were included in this review. Seven of these studies showed a significant decrease in injury risk. These studies included three sporting codes and various age groups, making it difficult to make inferences. The two highest methodological quality studies found no effect of an exercise-based intervention on injury risk. There is evidence that exercise-based injury preventions can be beneficial in reducing injury risk in collision sports, but more studies of high methodological quality are required.

  10. Experiences of giving and receiving care in traumatic brain injury: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivunja, Stephen; River, Jo; Gullick, Janice

    2018-04-01

    To synthesise the literature on the experiences of giving or receiving care for traumatic brain injury for people with traumatic brain injury, their family members and nurses in hospital and rehabilitation settings. Traumatic brain injury represents a major source of physical, social and economic burden. In the hospital setting, people with traumatic brain injury feel excluded from decision-making processes and perceive impatient care. Families describe inadequate information and support for psychological distress. Nurses find the care of people with traumatic brain injury challenging particularly when experiencing heavy workloads. To date, a contemporary synthesis of the literature on people with traumatic brain injury, family and nurse experiences of traumatic brain injury care has not been conducted. Integrative literature review. A systematic search strategy guided by the PRISMA statement was conducted in CINAHL, PubMed, Proquest, EMBASE and Google Scholar. Whittemore and Knafl's (Journal of Advanced Nursing, 52, 2005, 546) integrative review framework guided data reduction, data display, data comparison and conclusion verification. Across the three participant categories (people with traumatic brain injury/family members/nurses) and sixteen subcategories, six cross-cutting themes emerged: seeking personhood, navigating challenging behaviour, valuing skills and competence, struggling with changed family responsibilities, maintaining productive partnerships and reflecting on workplace culture. Traumatic brain injury creates changes in physical, cognitive and emotional function that challenge known ways of being in the world for people. This alters relationship dynamics within families and requires a specific skill set among nurses. Recommendations include the following: (i) formal inclusion of people with traumatic brain injury and families in care planning, (ii) routine risk screening for falls and challenging behaviour to ensure that controls are based on

  11. Pelvic fracture urethral injuries revisited: A systematic review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In children, the urethra and bladder neck may be directly torn by the sharp edge of bone fragments. Retrograde urethrography remains the cornerstone for the diagnostic appraisal of posterior urethral injury. Of the three conventional treatment methods primary suturing has the greatest complication rates of incontinence and ...

  12. Which screening tools can predict injury to the lower extremities in team sports?: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallinga, Joan M; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A P M

    2012-09-01

    Injuries to lower extremities are common in team sports such as soccer, basketball, volleyball, football and field hockey. Considering personal grief, disabling consequences and high costs caused by injuries to lower extremities, the importance for the prevention of these injuries is evident. From this point of view it is important to know which screening tools can identify athletes who are at risk of injury to their lower extremities. The aim of this article is to determine the predictive values of anthropometric and/or physical screening tests for injuries to the leg, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), knee, hamstring, groin and ankle in team sports. A systematic review was conducted in MEDLINE (1966 to September 2011), EMBASE (1989 to September 2011) and CINAHL (1982 to September 2011). Based on inclusion criteria defined a priori, titles, abstracts and full texts were analysed to find relevant studies. The analysis showed that different screening tools can be predictive for injuries to the knee, ACL, hamstring, groin and ankle. For injuries in general there is some support in the literature to suggest that general joint laxity is a predictive measure for leg injuries. The anterior right/left reach distance >4 cm and the composite reach distance injuries. Furthermore, an increasing age, a lower hamstring/quadriceps (H : Q) ratio and a decreased range of motion (ROM) of hip abduction may predict the occurrence of leg injuries. Hyperextension of the knee, side-to-side differences in anterior-posterior knee laxity and differences in knee abduction moment between both legs are suggested to be predictive tests for sustaining an ACL injury and height was a predictive screening tool for knee ligament injuries. There is some evidence that when age increases, the probability of sustaining a hamstring injury increases. Debate exists in the analysed literature regarding measurement of the flexibility of the hamstring as a predictive screening tool, as well as using the H

  13. The effect of tertiary surveys on missed injuries in trauma: a systematic review

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    Keijzers Gerben B

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma tertiary surveys (TTS are advocated to reduce the rate of missed injuries in hospitalized trauma patients. Moreover, the missed injury rate can be a quality indicator of trauma care performance. Current variation of the definition of missed injury restricts interpretation of the effect of the TTS and limits the use of missed injury for benchmarking. Only a few studies have specifically assessed the effect of the TTS on missed injury. We aimed to systematically appraise these studies using outcomes of two common definitions of missed injury rates and long-term health outcomes. Methods A systematic review was performed. An electronic search (without language or publication restrictions of the Cochrane Library, Medline and Ovid was used to identify studies assessing TTS with short-term measures of missed injuries and long-term health outcomes. ‘Missed injury’ was defined as either: Type I any injury missed at primary and secondary survey and detected by the TTS; or Type II any injury missed at primary and secondary survey and missed by the TTS, detected during hospital stay. Two authors independently selected studies. Risk of bias for observational studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Results Ten observational studies met our inclusion criteria. None was randomized and none reported long-term health outcomes. Their risk of bias varied considerably. Nine studies assessed Type I missed injury and found an overall rate of 4.3%. A single study reported Type II missed injury with a rate of 1.5%. Three studies reported outcome data on missed injuries for both control and intervention cohorts, with two reporting an increase in Type I missed injuries (3% vs. 7%, PP=0.01. Conclusions Overall Type I and Type II missed injury rates were 4.3% and 1.5%. Routine TTS performance increased Type I and reduced Type II missed injuries. However, evidence is sub-optimal: few observational studies, non-uniform outcome

  14. Biomechanical aspects of lumbar spine injuries in athletes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, M J

    1985-03-01

    One of the areas of the body which is very often injured by athletes is the lower lack, or the lumbar area of the spine. This problem is of some concern to physical educators, athletic therapists, coaches, athletes, and physicians. The type of injury which occurs in the lumbar spine is dependent on the direction, magnitude, and the point of application of the forces to the spine. This part of the body is susceptible to injury due to the large forces which must be supported, which include the body weight and any external weights, as well as the forces due to very high accelerations of the body parts. Since the lumbar spine is the only connecting column between the upper and lower parts of the body, all the forces must be transmitted via these structures. There are two general techniques of calculating the forces on the lumbar spinal structures, a static approach and a dynamic approach. The static approach may be useful to calculate compression and shear forces on the spine in stationary positions as may be seen in weightlifting. However, the dynamics approach should be used to calculate the effects of the various weights and inertial forces on spinal structures. The most common types of lower back injuries found in athletes were: muscle strains, ligament sprains, lumbar vertebral fractures, disc injuries, and neural arch fractures. The most common serious athletic injury to the lower back was found to be neural arch fractures at the pars interarticularis, or the isthmus between the superior and inferior articular processes. These fractures are known as spondylolysis, or defect in the pars interarticularis of one side of the vertebrae; and spondylolisthesis, a bilateral defect in the pars interarticularis, often accompanied by forward displacement of the vertebral body. The sports in which lower back injuries commonly occurred were also examined, and it was determined that gymnastics, weightlifting and football were the sports in which the lower back is at greatest

  15. The current status of suicide and self-injury in eating disorders: a narrative review

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    Kostro, Katrina; Lerman, Jessica B; Attia, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review recent literature on suicide and self-injury in eating disorders (ED) including anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Among psychiatric diagnoses, EDs are associated with increased mortality rates, even when specialized treatment is available. Of the mortalities that are reported in individuals with EDs, suicide is among the most commonly reported causes of death. Additionally, suicidal and non-suicidal self-injurious ...

  16. The impact of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) on family functioning: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Marghalara; Goez, Helly R; Mabood, Neelam; Damanhoury, Samah; Yager, Jerome Y; Joyce, Anthony S; Newton, Amanda S

    2014-01-01

    To explore the impact moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in a child has on family functioning. The search was conducted using 9 bibliographic databases for articles published between 1980 and 2013. Two reviewers independently screened for inclusion and assessed study quality. Two reviewers extracted study data and a third checked for completeness and accuracy. Findings are presented by three domains: injury-related burden and stress, family adaptability, and family cohesion. Nine observational studies were included. Across the studies, differences between study groups for family functioning varied, but there was a trend for more dysfunction in families whose child had a severe TBI as compared to families whose child had a moderate TBI or orthopedic injury. In three studies, injury-associated burden was persistent post-injury and was highest in families whose child had a severe TBI followed by families with a child who had a moderate TBI. One study found fathers reported more family dysfunction caused by their child's injury compared to mothers. Two studies found that mothers' adaptability depended on social support and stress levels while fathers' adaptability was independent of these factors and injury severity. Moderate to severe TBI has a significant, long-standing impact on family functioning. Factors associated with family adaptability vary by parental role.

  17. Inferior Alveolar Nerve Injury after Mandibular Third Molar Extraction: a Literature Review

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    Rafael Sarikov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to systematically review the comprehensive overview of literature data about injury to the inferior alveolar nerve after lower third molar extraction to discover the prevalence of injury, the risk factors, recovery rates, and alternative methods of treatment. Material and Methods: Literature was selected through a search of PubMed electronic databases. Articles from January 2009 to June 2014 were searched. English language articles with a minimum of 6 months patient follow-up and injury analysis by patient’s reporting, radiographic, and neurosensory testing were selected. Results: In total, 84 literature sources were reviewed, and 14 of the most relevant articles that are suitable to the criteria were selected. Articles were analyzed on men and women. The influence of lower third molar extraction (especially impacted on the inferior alveolar nerve was clearly seen. Conclusions: The incidence of injury to the inferior alveolar nerve after lower third molar extraction was about 0.35 - 8.4%. The injury of the inferior alveolar nerve can be predicted by various radiological signs. There are few risk factors that may increase the risk of injury to the nerve such as patients over the age of 24 years old, with horizontal impactions, and extraction by trainee surgeons. Recovery is preferable and permanent injury is very rare.

  18. Injury of the Inferior Alveolar Nerve during Implant Placement: a Literature Review

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    Gintaras Juodzbalys

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of present article was to review aetiological factors, mechanism, clinical symptoms, and diagnostic methods as well as to create treatment guidelines for the management of inferior alveolar nerve injury during dental implant placement.Material and Methods: Literature was selected through a search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane electronic databases. The keywords used for search were inferior alveolar nerve injury, inferior alveolar nerve injuries, inferior alveolar nerve injury implant, inferior alveolar nerve damage, inferior alveolar nerve paresthesia and inferior alveolar nerve repair. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1972 to November 2010. Additionally, a manual search in the major anatomy, dental implant, periodontal and oral surgery journals and books were performed. The publications there selected by including clinical, human anatomy and physiology studies.Results: In total 136 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. Aetiological factors of inferior alveolar nerve injury, risk factors, mechanism, clinical sensory nerve examination methods, clinical symptoms and treatment were discussed. Guidelines were created to illustrate the methods used to prevent and manage inferior alveolar nerve injury before or after dental implant placement.Conclusions: The damage of inferior alveolar nerve during the dental implant placement can be a serious complication. Clinician should recognise and exclude aetiological factors leading to nerve injury. Proper presurgery planning, timely diagnosis and treatment are the key to avoid nerve sensory disturbances management.

  19. Neuromuscular training injury prevention strategies in youth sport: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Carolyn A; Roy, Thierry-Olivier; Whittaker, Jackie L; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; van Mechelen, Willem

    2015-07-01

    Youth have very high participation and injury rates in sport. Sport is the leading cause of injury in youth. Sport injury reduces future participation in physical activity which adversely affects future health. Sport injury may lead to overweight/obesity and post-traumatic osteoarthritis. The objective of the systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of injury prevention neuromuscular training strategies in youth sport. Three electronic databases were systematically searched up to September 2014. Studies selected met the following criteria: original data; analytic prospective design; investigated a neuromuscular training prevention strategy intervention(s) and included outcomes for injury sustained during sport participation. Two authors assessed the quality of evidence using Downs and Black (DB) criteria. Meta-analyses including randomised controlled trials only (RCTs) to ensure study design homogeneity were completed for lower extremity and knee injury outcomes. Of 2504 potentially relevant studies, 25 were included. Meta-analysis revealed a combined preventative effect of neuromuscular training in reducing the risk of lower extremity injury (incidence rate ratio: IRR=0.64 (95% CI 0.49 to 0.84)). Though not statistically significant, the point estimate suggests a protective effect of such programmes in reducing the risk of knee injury (IRR=0.74 (95% CI 0.51 to 1.07)). There is evidence for the effectiveness of neuromuscular training strategies in the reduction of injury in numerous team sports. Lack of uptake and ongoing maintenance of such programmes is an ongoing concern. A focus on implementation is critical to influence knowledge, behaviour change and sustainability of evidence informed injury prevention practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Increased risk of unintentional injuries in adults with disabilities: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiuquan; Wheeler, Krista K; Shi, Junxin; Stallones, Lorann; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Shakespeare, Tom; Xiang, Huiyun

    2015-04-01

    An increased risk of unintentional injuries among individuals with disability has been reported in many studies, yet quantitative syntheses of findings from previous studies have not been done. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to characterize the relationship between pre-existing disability and unintentional injuries. We searched 14 electronic databases to identify original research published between Jan 1, 1990 and Feb 28, 2013. Included studies reported the odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR) of unintentional injuries in adults 18+ years of age with pre-existing disabilities compared with adults without disabilities. Twenty six eligible studies were included covering 54,586 individuals with disabilities. We conducted quality assessments and then analyzed the pooled effects using random-effect models. The pooled OR of unintentional injuries was 1.77 (95% CI 1.51-2.07) for all studies in individuals with disabilities compared with individuals without disabilities. The pooled ORs were 1.87 (95% CI 1.52-2.30) for overall unintentional injuries, 1.64 (95% CI 1.39-1.94) for falls-related injuries, 1.62 (95% CI 1.24-2.13) for occupational injuries, and 1.91 (95% CI 1.59-2.30) for non-occupational injuries. Compared with adults without disabilities, individuals with disabilities are at a significantly higher risk of unintentional injuries. Evidence about the association between cognitive disabilities and unintentional injuries is weak. Future researchers are encouraged to use International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to classify disability and use rigorous evaluation methods to assess and implement the most appropriate injury prevention efforts to mitigate the risks identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA and Cancer Epidemiology Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    A workshop to review the state-of-the science in the mitochondrial DNA field and its use in cancer epidemiology, and to develop a concept for a research initiative on mitochondrial DNA and cancer epidemiology.

  2. Iatrogenic splenic injury: review of the literature and medico-legal issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feola Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Iatrogenic splenic injury is a recognized complication in abdominal surgery. The aim of this paper is to understand the medico-legal issues of iatrogenic splenic injuries. We performed a literature review on PubMed and Scopus using iatrogenic splenic or spleen injury and iatrogenic splenic rupture as keywords. Iatrogenic splenic injury cases were identified. Most cases were related to colonoscopy, but we also identified cases related to upper gastrointestinal procedures, colonic surgery, ERCP, left nephrectomy and/or adrenalectomy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, vascular operations involving the abdominal aorta, gynecological operation, left lung biopsy, chest drain, very rarely spinal surgery and even cardiopulmonary resuscitation. There are several surgical procedures that can lead to a splenic injury. However, from a medico-legal point of view, it is important to assess whether the cause can be attributed to a technical error of the operator rather than being an unpredictable and unpreventable complication. It is important for the medico-legal expert to have great knowledge on iatrogenic splenic injuries because it is important to evaluate every step of the first procedure performed, how a splenic injury is produced, and whether the correct treatment for the splenic injury was administered in a judgment.

  3. A Review of Brachial Plexus Birth Palsy: Injury and Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raducha, Jeremy E; Cohen, Brian; Blood, Travis; Katarincic, Julia

    2017-11-01

    Brachial plexus injuries during the birthing process can leave infants with upper extremity deficits corresponding to the location of the lesion within the complex plexus anatomy. Manifestations can range from mild injuries with complete resolution to severe and permanent disability. Overall, patients have a high rate of spontaneous recovery (66-92%).1,2 Initially, all lesions are managed with passive range motion and observation. Prevention and/or correction of contractures with occupational therapy and serial splinting/casting along with encouraging normal development are the main goals of non-operative treatment. Surgical intervention may be war- ranted, depending on functional recovery. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2017-11.asp].

  4. Reactive oxygen species promote tubular injury in diabetic nephropathy: The role of the mitochondrial ros-txnip-nlrp3 biological axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yachun Han

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available NLRP3/IL-1β activation via thioredoxin (TRX/thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP following mitochondria ROS (mtROS overproduction plays a key role in inflammation. However, the involvement of this process in tubular damage in the kidneys of patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that mtROS overproduction is accompanied by decreases in TRX expression and TXNIP up-regulation. In addition, we discovered that mtROS overproduction is also associated with increases in NLRP3/IL-1β and TGF-β expression in the kidneys of patients with DN and db/db mice. We reversed these changes in db/db mice by administering a peritoneal injection of MitoQ, an antioxidant targeting mtROS. Similar results were observed in human tubular HK-2 cells subjected to high-glucose (HG conditions and treated with MitoQ. Treating HK-2 cells with MitoQ suppressed the dissociation of TRX from TXNIP and subsequently blocked the interaction between TXNIP and NLRP3, leading to the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β maturation. The effects of MitoQ were enhanced by pretreatment with TXNIP siRNA and abolished by pretreatment with monosodium urate (MSU and TRX siRNA in vitro. These results suggest that mitochondrial ROS-TXNIP/NLRP3/IL-1β axis activation is responsible for tubular oxidative injury, which can be ameliorated by MitoQ via the inhibition of mtROS overproduction. Keywords: Diabetic nephropathy, Mitochondria, Reactive oxygen species (ROS, TRX/TXNIP, NLRP3 inflammasome, MitoQ

  5. Pressure injuries in people with darker skin tones: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oozageer Gunowa, Neesha; Hutchinson, Marie; Brooke, Joanne; Jackson, Debra

    2017-09-08

    In this article, we aimed to explore the literature to ascertain what research evidence exists in relation to the identification of pressure injuries in people with dark skin tones. Pressure injuries development has been widely researched and documented; however, much of this work does not address ethnicity or race and assumes Caucasian-ness. Thus, the perceptions of people with dark skin tones and the influence of skin pigmentation on identification and management of pressure injuries is under examined. Literature review. A comprehensive electronic database search was undertaken of PubMed, Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane and British Nursing Index (BNI) between 1990-July 2016. Alongside the electronic data, journals, books, papers from conferences, relevant national and international organisations and reference lists were also used to help source key studies. A search of the literature revealed 11 relevant articles. The foci of studies included the following: risk of sustaining a pressure injuries based on skin tones, identification of pressure injuries amongst people with dark skin tones, pressure injuries and place of care and socio-economic impact on pressure injuries development. Overall, findings indicate that people with darker skin tones are more likely to develop higher stage pressure injuries. Reasons for this are not fully elucidated; however, it may be associated with current skin assessment protocols being less effective for people who have darker skin tones resulting in early damage arising from pressure not being recognised. From the literature reviewed, it can be seen that there is a lack of guidance and evidence, and people with darker skin tones are more likely in comparison with people presenting as Caucasian to develop higher stage pressure injuries. The current literature suggests a need for researchers and clinicians to consider skin tone variances rather than ethnicity when exploring comprehensive skin

  6. Quality of life following road traffic injury: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, Ritva; Berg, Hans-Yngve; Hasselberg, Marie

    2017-11-01

    To assess and provide a systematic overview of current knowledge about the relationship between quality of life (QoL) and road traffic injury, and to appraise how QoL is affected by road traffic injury. A systematic review of the literature published since 1990 on QoL after a road traffic injury, including adult and paediatric populations, from three databases (Pubmed, PsychInfo and SafetyLit) was undertaken. The methodological quality was assessed according to the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Thirty articles were included and assessed for quality. The QoL scores of those injured were similar to population norms at the first assessment, followed by a drop at the second assessment. An increase of QoL from the second to third assessment was reported, but participants never reached the population norms at the last follow-up (range six weeks to two years), with an exception of those claiming compensation and those with lower extremity fractures. Age, gender, socioeconomic status, injury severity, injury type and post-traumatic stress disorder were associated with reduced QoL. Available literature regarding QoL among injured in road traffic crashes is heterogeneous with regard to aims and tools used for assessment. Our review confirmed that independent of measure, the overall QoL was significantly reduced after a road traffic injury compared to the general population norms. Persons who are older, of female gender, lower socioeconomic status, diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder, with more severe injuries or injuries to the lower limbs are more vulnerable to loss of QoL following road traffic injury compared to other patient groups injured in road traffic crashes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Multicenter Review of Superior Laryngeal Nerve Injury Following Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, Zachary J; Smith, Justin S; Shaffrey, Christopher; Arnold, Paul M; Fehlings, Michael G; Mroz, Thomas E; Riew, K Daniel; Kanter, Adam S

    2017-04-01

    A retrospective multicenter case-series study; case report and review of the literature. The anatomy and function of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) are well described; however, the consequences of SLN injury remain variable and poorly defined. The prevalence of SLN injury as a consequence of cervical spine surgery is difficult to discern as its clinical manifestations are often inconstant and frequently of a subclinical degree. A multicenter study was performed to better delineate the risk factors, prevalence, and outcomes of SLN injury. A retrospective multicenter case-series study involving 21 high-volume surgical centers from the AO Spine North America Clinical Research Network. Medical records for 17 625 patients who received subaxial cervical spine surgery from 2005 to 2011 were reviewed to identify occurrence of 21 predefined treatment complications. Descriptive statistics were provided for baseline patient characteristics. A retrospective review of the neurosurgical literature on SLN injury was also performed. A total of 8887 patients who underwent anterior cervical spine surgery at the participating institutions were screened, and 1 case of SLN palsy was identified. The prevalence ranged from 0% to 1.25% across all centers. The patient identified underwent a C4 corpectomy. The SLN injury was identified after the patient demonstrated difficulty swallowing postoperatively. He underwent placement of a percutaneous gastrostomy tube and his SLN palsy resolved by 6 weeks. This multicenter study demonstrates that identification of SLN injury occurs very infrequently. Symptomatic SLN injury is an exceedingly rare complication of anterior cervical spine surgery. The SLN is particularly vulnerable when exposing the more rostral levels of the cervical spine. Careful dissection and retraction of the longus coli may decrease the risk of SLN injury during anterior cervical surgery.

  8. Neuromuscular Control Deficits and the Risk of Subsequent Injury after a Concussion: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, David R; Lynall, Robert C; Buckley, Thomas A; Herman, Daniel C

    2018-05-01

    An emerging area of research has identified that an increased risk of musculoskeletal injury may exist upon returning to sports after a sport-related concussion. The mechanisms underlying this recently discovered phenomenon, however, remain unknown. One theorized reason for this increased injury risk includes residual neuromuscular control deficits that remain impaired despite clinical recovery. Thus, the objectives of this review were: (1) to summarize the literature examining the relationship between concussion and risk of subsequent injury and (2) to summarize the literature for one mechanism with a theorized association with this increased injury risk, i.e., neuromuscular control deficits observed during gait after concussion under dual-task conditions. Two separate reviews were conducted consistent with both specified objectives. Studies published before 9 December, 2016 were identified using PubMed, Web of Science, and Academic Search Premier (EBSCOhost). Inclusion for the objective 1 search included dependent variables of quantitative measurements of musculoskeletal injury after concussion. Inclusion criteria for the objective 2 search included dependent variables pertaining to gait, dynamic balance control, and dual-task function. A total of 32 studies were included in the two reviews (objective 1 n = 10, objective 2 n = 22). According to a variety of study designs, athletes appear to have an increased risk of sustaining a musculoskeletal injury following a concussion. Furthermore, dual-task neuromuscular control deficits may continue to exist after patients report resolution of concussion symptoms, or perform normally on other clinical concussion tests. Therefore, musculoskeletal injury risk appears to increase following a concussion and persistent motor system and attentional deficits also seem to exist after a concussion. While not yet experimentally tested, these motor system and attentional deficits may contribute to the risk of sustaining a

  9. Risk factors for musculoskeletal injury in preprofessional dancers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Sarah J; Whittaker, Jackie L; Emery, Carolyn A

    2016-08-01

    Preprofessional dancers partake in rigorous training and have high injury prevalence. Attempts to identify risk factors for dance injuries have focused on a diversity of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. To identify and evaluate the evidence examining risk factors for musculoskeletal injury in preprofessional ballet and modern dancers. Fifteen electronic databases were systematically searched to October 2015. Studies selected met a priori inclusion criteria and investigated musculoskeletal injury risk factors in preprofessional (elite adolescent, student, young adult) ballet and modern dancers. Two reviewers independently assessed the quality and level of evidence using the Downs and Black (DB) criteria and a modified Oxford Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine 2009 model, respectively. Of 1364 potentially relevant studies, 47 were included and scored. Inconsistent injury definition and methodology precluded meta-analysis. The most common modifiable risk factors investigated were anthropometrics (ie, body mass index, adiposity), joint range of motion (ie, lower extremity), dance exposure (ie, years training, exposure hours) and age. The median DB score across studies was 8/33 (range 2-16). The majority of studies were classified as level 3 evidence and few considered risk factor inter-relationships. There is some level 2 evidence that previous injury and poor psychological coping skills are associated with increased injury risk. Because of the lack of high-quality studies, consensus regarding risk factors for musculoskeletal injury in preprofessional dancers remains difficult. There is a need for injury definition consensus and high-quality prospective studies examining the multifactorial relationship between risk factors and injury in preprofessional dance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Road Traffic Injuries Among Iranian Children and Adolescents: An Epidemiological Review

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    Salar Behzadnia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Road traffic injuries (RTIs are the leading cause of death and globally kill 1.2 million people every year and leave 20 - 50 million people injured and disabled. In Iran, traffic related fatalities are the leading cause of death among all inadvertent fatal injuries imposed on children under five. Herein, authors review the epidemiological studies performed on vehicle accidents among Iranian children and adolescents to improve the knowledge about these preventable events. Evidence Acquisition: International databases including PubMed, Google scholar, science direct Cochrane library, and national data bases such as scientific information database (SID were searched for terms; children, motor vehicle accident, road traffic injuries, Iran 2000 - 2015. Publication in Persian or English language related to the subject including Iranian children and adolescent's age groups were included. Among the 312 articles, 11 (two abstracts and nine full texts were selected. Nine full texts were reviewed. Results: From 22865 victims, about 3578 children and adolescents under 19 years old were identified. Males were more affected than females. Pedestrian injury with 43.66% was the most common case of road traffic injuries. Head trauma was the most common cause of injuries reported by eight of the reviewed articles. Most of the accidents occurred between 1:00 - 6:00 PM. Most of RTIs occurred in summer. Care by emergency medical services (EMS (29.14% was reported by five out of the nine reviewed article. Conclusions: Most of the road traffic injuries among Iranian children and adolescents are preventable using appropriate preventive strategies such as safety facilities, safe vehicles, and safe traffic behavior, and establishing comprehensive public education programs for older children and their parents.

  11. Vision rehabilitation interventions following mild traumatic brain injury: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson-Jones, Mary E; Hunt, Anne W

    2018-04-10

    To broadly examine the literature to identify vision interventions following mild traumatic brain injury. Objectives are to identify: (1) evidence-informed interventions for individuals with visual dysfunction after mild traumatic brain injury; (2) professions providing these interventions; (3) gaps in the literature and areas for further research. A scoping review was conducted of four electronic databases of peer-reviewed literature from the databases earliest records to June 2017. Articles were included if the study population was mild traumatic brain injury/concussion and a vision rehabilitation intervention was tested. Two independent reviewers screened articles for inclusion, extracted data, and identified themes. The initial search identified 3111 records. Following exclusions, 22 articles were included in the final review. Nine studies evaluated optical devices, such as corrective spectacles, contact lenses, prisms, or binasal occlusion. Two studies assessed vision therapy. Ten studies examined vision therapy using optical devices. One study investigated hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Optometrists performed these interventions in most of the studies. Future research should address quality appraisal of this literature, interventions that include older adult and pediatric populations, and interdisciplinary interventions. There are promising interventions for vision deficits following mild traumatic brain injury. However, there are multiple gaps in the literature that should be addressed by future research. Implications for Rehabilitation Mild traumatic brain injury may result in visual deficits that can contribute to poor concentration, headaches, fatigue, problems reading, difficulties engaging in meaningful daily activities, and overall reduced quality of life. Promising interventions for vision rehabilitation following mild traumatic brain injury include the use of optical devices (e.g., prism glasses), vision or oculomotor therapy (e.g., targeted exercises to

  12. Acute kidney injury in symptomatic primary Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis: Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Milena; Lava, Sebastiano A G; Zgraggen, Lorenzo; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Kottanattu, Lisa; Bianchetti, Mario G; Milani, Gregorio P

    2017-06-01

    Textbooks and reviews do not mention the association of symptomatic primary Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis with acute kidney injury in subjects without immunodeficiency or autoimmunity. Stimulated by our experience with two cases, we performed a review of the literature. The literature documents 38 cases (26 male and 12 female individuals ranging in age from 0.3 to 51, median 18 years) of symptomatic primary Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis complicated by acute kidney injury: 27 acute interstitial nephritides, 1 jaundice-associated nephropathy, 7 myositides and 3 hemolytic uremic syndromes. Acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy was observed in 18 (47%) cases. Acute kidney injury did not resolve in one patient with acute interstitial nephritis. Two patients died because of systemic complications. The remaining 35 cases fully recovered. In individuals with acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis, a relevant kidney injury is rare but the outcome potentially fatal. It results from interstitial nephritis, myositis-associated acute kidney injury, hemolytic uremic syndrome or jaundice-associated nephropathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychological interventions used to reduce sports injuries: a systematic review of real-world effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, Adam; Forsdyke, Dale; Murray, Eliot

    2018-02-20

    To systematically review studies examining the role of psychological interventions in injury prevention. The primary research question was: What is the real-world effectiveness of psychological intervention in preventing sports injuries? Mixed methods systematic review with best evidence synthesis. CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, Science Direct and PubMed. Randomised controlled trials (RCT), non-RCTs that included a comparison group, before and after study designs and qualitative methods. Studies were required to outline specific unimodal or multimodal psychological interventions used in relation to injury prevention in the real-world setting. Studies were independently appraised with the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Thirteen papers (incorporating 14 studies) met the eligibility criteria, of which 93% (13/14) reported a decrease in injury rates (effect size range=0.2-1.21). There was an overall moderate risk of bias in reporting (52%). There is a dominance of stress management-based interventions in literature due to the prominence of the model of stress and athletic injury within the area. Psychological interventions demonstrate small (0.2) to large (1.21) effects on sports injury rates. The research area demonstrates a cumulative moderate risk in reporting bias (52%). CRD42016035879. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP for acute muscle injury: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Shariff A Hamid

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute muscle injury is one of the commonest injuries that often result in loss of training and competition time. The best management for muscle injury has not been identified. Sports medicine practitioners used several approaches in attempt to accelerate time to recovery from muscle injury. More recently growing interest focussed on autologous blood product injection. METHODS: A literature search was conducted systematically using OvidMEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus and CINAHL databases to retrieve articles published until December 2012. Controlled trials and controlled laboratory studies comparing different strategies to promote early recovery of muscle injury were included. The methodological quality of studies was assessed. RESULTS: There are limited studies on the effects of PRP therapy for muscle injury. Three in vivo laboratory studies and one pilot human study were reviewed. The laboratory studies reported histological evidence on significant acceleration of muscle healing in animals treated with autologous conditioned serum (ACS, platelet-rich plasma (PRP and platelet rich fibrin matrix (PRFM. A pilot human study found athletes treated with repeated ACS injection recovers significantly faster than retrospective controls. CONCLUSION: Several in vivo laboratory studies suggest beneficial effects of ACS, PRP and PRFM in accelerating muscle recovery. Evidence to suggest similar effects on humans is however limited, as valuable information from robust human controlled trials is still not available at this moment. Hence, more studies of satisfactory methodological quality with platelet-rich plasma interventions on muscle injury are justified.

  15. Walking and child pedestrian injury: a systematic review of built environment correlates of safe walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Linda; Buliung, Ron; Macarthur, Colin; To, Teresa; Howard, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    The child active transportation literature has focused on walking, with little attention to risk associated with increased traffic exposure. This paper reviews the literature related to built environment correlates of walking and pedestrian injury in children together, to broaden the current conceptualization of walkability to include injury prevention. Two independent searches were conducted focused on walking in children and child pedestrian injury within nine electronic databases until March, 2012. Studies were included which: 1) were quantitative 2) set in motorized countries 3) were either urban or suburban 4) investigated specific built environment risk factors 5) had outcomes of either walking in children and/or child pedestrian roadway collisions (ages 0-12). Built environment features were categorized according to those related to density, land use diversity or roadway design. Results were cross-tabulated to identify how built environment features associate with walking and injury. Fifty walking and 35 child pedestrian injury studies were identified. Only traffic calming and presence of playgrounds/recreation areas were consistently associated with more walking and less pedestrian injury. Several built environment features were associated with more walking, but with increased injury. Many features had inconsistent results or had not been investigated for either outcome. The findings emphasise the importance of incorporating safety into the conversation about creating more walkable cities.

  16. Floating knee injury associated with patellar tendon rupture: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Singaravadivelu; Panchanathan Ganesan, Jagannath; Moongilpatti Sengodan, Mugundhan

    2012-01-01

    Floating knee injuries are frequently associated with other concomitant injuries to the ipsilateral limb or other parts of body of which injury to the ipsilateral knee ligaments carries significance for various reasons. A middle-aged man sustained a floating knee injury following RTA. DCS fixation by bridge plating technique for the distal femur and lateral buttress plating by MIPO technique for proximal tibia were planned and executed under spinal anesthesia with image intensifier. In addition, there were patellar tendon rupture along with avulsion of VMO from the medial border of patella and torn MPFL, which we have missed initially. To the best of our knowledge no similar case has been reported in English literature so far. We have reviewed the literature and proposed a different interpretation of Blake and McBride classification.

  17. Floating Knee Injury Associated with Patellar Tendon Rupture: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singaravadivelu Vaidyanathan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Floating knee injuries are frequently associated with other concomitant injuries to the ipsilateral limb or other parts of body of which injury to the ipsilateral knee ligaments carries significance for various reasons. A middle-aged man sustained a floating knee injury following RTA. DCS fixation by bridge plating technique for the distal femur and lateral buttress plating by MIPO technique for proximal tibia were planned and executed under spinal anesthesia with image intensifier. In addition, there were patellar tendon rupture along with avulsion of VMO from the medial border of patella and torn MPFL, which we have missed initially. To the best of our knowledge no similar case has been reported in English literature so far. We have reviewed the literature and proposed a different interpretation of Blake and McBride classification.

  18. Bupivacaine drug-induced liver injury: a case series and brief review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintamaneni, Preethi; Stevenson, Heather L; Malik, Shahid M

    2016-08-01

    Bupivacaine is an established and efficacious anesthetic that has become increasingly popular in postoperative pain management. However, there is limited literature regarding the potential for bupivacaine-induced delayed liver toxicity. Describe cholestasis as a potential adverse reaction of bupivacaine infusion into a surgical wound. Retrospective review of patients' medical records. We report the cases of 3 patients with new onset of cholestatic injury after receiving bupivacaine infusion for postoperative herniorrhaphy pain management. All patients had negative serologic workups for other causes of liver injury. All patients achieved eventual resolution of their liver injury. Bupivacaine-induced liver injury should be on the differential of individuals presenting with jaundice and cholestasis within a month of infusion via a surgically placed catheter of this commonly used anesthetic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Laryngeal Trauma Following an Inhalation Injury: A Review and Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Gemma; Goswamy, Jay; Khwaja, Sadie; Khwaja, Nadeem

    2017-05-01

    The primary concern when managing a patient with inhalation injury is security of the airway. Airflow may be impeded by both edema of the upper airway and reduction of oxygen delivery to the lower respiratory tract. Although there has been much discussion regarding management of the latter, the focus of this article is the management of the former. This review aimed to determine the optimum management in burn victims with upper airway inhalation injury as an attempt to prevent laryngeal trauma leading to long-term voice disorders and upper airway dyspnea. We describe the case of a 57-year-old woman with significant inhalation injury and discuss the natural progression of her injuries and the laryngeal controversies surrounding her care. We conclude with advice on the optimal management of this condition based on our experience, combined with current best evidence. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Liver Injury from Herbal, Dietary, and Weight Loss Supplements: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Elizabeth X.; Navarro, Victor J.

    2015-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplement usage has increased steadily over the past several years in the United States. Among the non-bodybuilding herbal and dietary supplements, weight loss supplements were among the most common type of HDS implicated in liver injury. While drug induced liver injury is rare, its consequences are significant and on the rise. The purpose of this review is to highlight case reports of weight loss products such as Hydroxycut and OxyElite Pro as one form of HDS that have hepatotoxic potential and to characterize its clinical effects as well as pattern of liver injury. We also propose future strategies in the identification and study of potentially hepatotoxic compounds in an effort to outline a diagnostic approach for identifying any drug induced liver injury. PMID:26357638

  1. Rethinking Heat Injury in the SOF Multipurpose Canine: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Janice L; Hollier, Paul J; Miller, Laura; Lacy, Ward A

    2012-01-01

    Heat injury is a significant concern of the Special Operations Forces Multipurpose Canine (SOF MPC). The unique athletic abilities and working environment of the SOF MPC differ from that of companion dogs or even conventional military working dogs. This should be considered in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of heat injury of the SOF MPC. A critical review of the literature on canine heat injury as it pertains to working dogs demonstrates limited scientific evidence on best practices for immediate clinical management of heat injury in SOF MPCs. A majority of management guidelines for heat injury in veterinary reference books and journals are based on review articles or professional opinion of the author vs. evidence from original research. In addition, guidelines are written primarily for companion animal populations vs. SOF MPCs and focus on measures to be undertaken in a clinical setting vs. point of injury. The phenomenon of ?circular referencing? is also prevalent in the heat injury literature. Current guidelines supported by review articles and textbooks often provide no citation or cite other review articles for clinical standards such as normal temperature ranges, treatment methods, and recurrence of heat injury. This ?circular referencing? phenomenon misrepresents anecdotal evidence and professional opinion as scientifically validated, reinforcing concepts and recommendations that are not truly supported by the evidence. Further study is needed to fully understand heat injury in SOF MPCs and how this applies to prevention, diagnosis and treatment guidelines. In order to provide SOF canine programs with best clinical advice and care, SOF Veterinarians must make clinical judgments based on evaluation of the most accurate and valid information possible. Clinical guidelines are fluid and should be reviewed regularly for relevance to the defined population in question. Clinical Guidelines should also be utilized as guiding principles in conjunction with

  2. Injuries in Runners; A Systematic Review on Risk Factors and Sex Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Worp, Maarten P.; ten Haaf, Dominique S. M.; van Cingel, Robert; de Wijer, Anton; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Staal, J. Bart

    2015-01-01

    Background The popularity of running continues to increase, which means that the incidence of running-related injuries will probably also continue to increase. Little is known about risk factors for running injuries and whether they are sex-specific. Objectives The aim of this study was to review information about risk factors and sex-specific differences for running-induced injuries in adults. Search Strategy The databases PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and Psych-INFO were searched for relevant articles. Selection Criteria Longitudinal cohort studies with a minimal follow-up of 1 month that investigated the association between risk factors (personal factors, running/training factors and/or health and lifestyle factors) and the occurrence of lower limb injuries in runners were included. Data Collection and Analysis Two reviewers’ independently selected relevant articles from those identified by the systematic search and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. The strength of the evidence was determined using a best-evidence rating system. Sex differences in risk were determined by calculating the sex ratio for risk factors (the risk factor for women divided by the risk factor for men). Main Results Of 400 articles retrieved, 15 longitudinal studies were included, of which 11 were considered high-quality studies and 4 moderate-quality studies. Overall, women were at lower risk than men for sustaining running-related injuries. Strong and moderate evidence was found that a history of previous injury and of having used orthotics/inserts was associated with an increased risk of running injuries. Age, previous sports activity, running on a concrete surface, participating in a marathon, weekly running distance (30–39 miles) and wearing running shoes for 4 to 6 months were associated with a greater risk of injury in women than in men. A history of previous injuries, having a running experience of 0–2 years, restarting running, weekly running distance (20–29

  3. Narrative literature review: Health, activity and participation issues for women following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Kate; Wilson, Nathan; Peters, Kath

    2017-06-06

    This narrative review will draw attention to the current limitations within the literature related to women following traumatic brain injury in order to stimulate discussion and inform future directions for research. There is a wide-ranging body of research about traumatic brain injury with the higher incidence of brain injury among males reflected in this body of work. As a result, the specific gendered issues facing women with traumatic brain injury are not as well understood. A search of electronic databases was conducted using the terms "traumatic brain injury", "brain injury", "women", "participation", "concussion" and "outcomes". The 36 papers revealed the following five themes (1) Relationships and life satisfaction; (2) Perception of self and body image; (3) Meaningful occupation; (4) Sexuality and sexual health; and (5) Physical function. Without research, which focuses specifically on the experience of women and girls with traumatic brain injury there is a risk that clinical care, policy development and advocacy services will not effectively accommodate them. Implications for rehabilitation Exploring the gendered issues women may experience following traumatic brain injury will enhance clinicians understanding of the unique challenges they face. Such information has the potential to guide future directions for research, policy, and practice. Screening women for hormonal imbalances such as hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury is recommended as this may assist clinicians in addressing the far reaching implications in regard to disability, quality of life and mood. The growing literature regarding the cumulative effect of repeat concussions following domestic violence and women's increased risk of sport-related concussion may assist clinicians in advocating for appropriate rehabilitation and community support services.

  4. Effectiveness of interventions to reduce aggression and injuries among ice hockey players: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusimano, Michael D.; Nastis, Sofia; Zuccaro, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Background: The increasing incidence of injuries related to playing ice hockey is an important public health issue. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce injuries related to aggressive acts in ice hockey. Methods: We identified relevant articles by searching electronic databases from their inception through July 2012, by using Internet search engines, and by manually searching sports medicine journals, the book series Safety in Ice Hockey and reference lists of included articles. We included studies that evaluated interventions to reduce aggression-related injuries and reported ratings of aggressive behaviour or rates of penalties or injuries. Results: We identified 18 eligible studies. Most involved players in minor hockey leagues. Of 13 studies that evaluated changes in mandatory rules intended to lessen aggression (most commonly the restriction of body-checking), 11 observed a reduction in penalty or injury rates associated with rule changes, and 9 of these showed a statistically significant decrease. The mean number of penalties decreased by 1.2–5.9 per game, and injury rates decreased 3- to 12-fold. All 3 studies of educational interventions showed a reduction in penalty rates, but they were not powered or designed to show a change in injury rates. In 2 studies of cognitive behavioural interventions, reductions in aggressive behaviours were observed. Interpretation: Changes to mandatory rules were associated with reductions in penalties for aggressive acts and in injuries related to aggression among ice hockey players. Effects of educational and cognitive behavioural interventions on injury rates are less clear. Well-designed studies of multifaceted strategies that combine such approaches are required. PMID:23209118

  5. Predicting sport and occupational lower extremity injury risk through movement quality screening: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Jackie L; Booysen, Nadine; de la Motte, Sarah; Dennett, Liz; Lewis, Cara L; Wilson, Dave; McKay, Carly; Warner, Martin; Padua, Darin; Emery, Carolyn A; Stokes, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Identification of risk factors for lower extremity (LE) injury in sport and military/first-responder occupations is required to inform injury prevention strategies. To determine if poor movement quality is associated with LE injury in sport and military/first-responder occupations. 5 electronic databases were systematically searched. Studies selected included original data; analytic design; movement quality outcome (qualitative rating of functional compensation, asymmetry, impairment or efficiency of movement control); LE injury sustained with sport or military/first-responder occupation. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. 2 independent authors assessed the quality (Downs and Black (DB) criteria) and level of evidence (Oxford Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine model). Of 4361 potential studies, 17 were included. The majority were low-quality cohort studies (level 4 evidence). Median DB score was 11/33 (range 3-15). Heterogeneity in methodology and injury definition precluded meta-analyses. The Functional Movement Screen was the most common outcome investigated (15/17 studies). 4 studies considered inter-relationships between risk factors, 7 reported diagnostic accuracy and none tested an intervention programme targeting individuals identified as high risk. There is inconsistent evidence that poor movement quality is associated with increased risk of LE injury in sport and military/first-responder occupations. Future research should focus on high-quality cohort studies to identify the most relevant movement quality outcomes for predicting injury risk followed by developing and evaluating preparticipation screening and LE injury prevention programmes through high-quality randomised controlled trials targeting individuals at greater risk of injury based on screening tests with validated test properties. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  6. Systematic review of self-reported prognosis in adults after mild traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassidy, John David; Cancelliere, Carol; Carroll, Linda J

    2014-01-01

    accepted and form our evidence base of prognostic studies. Of these, 23 addressed self-reported outcomes in adults, including 2 of the 3 original ICoMP research studies. These studies show that common postconcussion symptoms are not specific to MTBI/concussion and occur after other injuries as well. Poor...... recovery after MTBI is associated with poorer premorbid mental and physical health status and with more injury-related stress. Most recover over 1 year, but persistent symptoms are more likely in those with more acute symptoms and more emotional stress. CONCLUSIONS: Common subjective symptoms after MTBI......OBJECTIVE: To update the mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) prognosis review published by the World Health Organization Task Force in 2004. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus were searched from 2001 to 2012. We included published, peer-reviewed studies with more than...

  7. Lower Urinary Tract Injuries Following Blunt Trauma: A Review of Contemporary Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jennifer P. L; Bultitude, Matthew F; Royce, Peter; Gruen, Russell L; Cato, Alex; Corcoran, Niall M

    2011-01-01

    Lower urinary tract trauma, although relatively uncommon in blunt trauma, can lead to significant morbidity when diagnosed late or left untreated; urologists may only encounter a handful of these injuries in their career. This article reviews the literature and reports on the management of these injuries, highlighting the issues facing clinicians in this subspecialty. Also presented is a structured review detailing the mechanisms, classification, diagnosis, management, and complications of blunt trauma to the bladder and urethra. The prognosis for bladder rupture is excellent when treated. Significant intraperitoneal rupture or involvement of the bladder neck mandates surgical repair, whereas smaller extraperitoneal lacerations may be managed with catheterization alone. With the push for management of trauma patients in larger centers, urologists in these hospitals are seeing increasing numbers of lower urinary tract injuries. Prospective analysis may be achieved in these centers to address the current lack of Level 1 evidence. PMID:22114545

  8. Distal triceps injuries (including snapping triceps): A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttlewood, Kimberley; Beazley, James; Smith, Christopher D

    2017-06-18

    To review current literature on types of distal triceps injury and determine diagnosis and appropriate management. We performed a systematic review in PubMed, Cochrane and EMBASE using the terms distal triceps tears and snapping triceps on the 10 th January 2017. We excluded all animal, review, foreign language and repeat papers. We reviewed all papers for relevance and of the papers left we were able to establish the types of distal triceps injury, how these injuries are diagnosed and investigated and the types of management of these injuries including surgical. The results are then presented in a review paper format. Three hundred and seventy-nine papers were identified of which 65 were relevant to distal triceps injuries. After exclusion we had 47 appropriate papers. The papers highlighted 2 main distal triceps injuries: Distal triceps tears and snapping triceps. Triceps tear are more common in males than females occurring in the 4 th -5 th decade of life and often due to a direct trauma but are also strongly associated with weightlifting and American football. The tears are diagnosed by history and clinically with a palpable gap. Diagnosis can be confirmed with the use of ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment depends on type of tear. Partial tears can be treated conservatively with bracing and physio whereas acute tears need repair either open or arthroscopic using suture anchor or bone tunnel techniques with similar success. Chronic tears often need augmenting with tendon allograft or autograft. Snapping triceps are also seen more in men than women but at a mean age of 32 years. They are characterized by a snapping sensation mostly medially and can be associated with ulna nerve subluxation and ulna nerve symptoms. US is the diagnostic modality of choice due to its dynamic nature and to differentiate between snapping triceps tendon or ulna nerve. Treatment is conservative initially with activity avoidance and if that fails surgical

  9. Does generalized joint hypermobility predict joint injury in sport? A review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donaldson, Peter R

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether persons with generalized joint hypermobility have an increased risk of lower limb joint injury during sport. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and SportDiscus were searched through February 2009, without language restrictions, using terms related to risk; hip, ankle, and knee injuries; and joint instability. Reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews were searched by hand. STUDY SELECTION: Selection criteria were peer-reviewed studies with a prospective design that used an objective scale to measure generalized joint hypermobility; the participants were engaged in sport activity, and the injury data were quantitative and based on diagnosis by a health professional, were self-reported, or resulted in time lost to athletic participation. The studies were screened by 1 researcher and checked by a second. Study methods were independently assessed by 2 investigators using the 6-point scale for prognostic studies developed by Pengel. Disagreements were resolved through discussion. Of 4841 studies identified, 18 met inclusion criteria. Of these, 8 were included in random-effects meta-analyses. DATA EXTRACTION: The data extracted by 2 reviewers included participant and sport characteristics and details of joint hypermobility and injury measurements. More detailed data for 4 investigations were obtained from the study authors. Where possible, hypermobility was defined as >\\/=4 of 9 points on the British Society of Rheumatology Scale (BSRS). MAIN RESULTS: Lower limb joint injuries (3 studies, 1047 participants) occurred in 14% of participants. Using the BSRS of joint hypermobility, any lower limb injury was not associated with hypermobility [odds ratio (OR), 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.56-3.67]. Using the original authors\\' definitions, hypermobility was associated with risk of knee joint injuries (OR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.04-6.58) in 5 studies. In 4 studies in which the BSRS could be used (1167 participants; incidence

  10. Muscle Activation During ACL Injury Risk Movements in Young Female Athletes: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Bencke

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Young, adolescent female athletes are at particular high risk of sustaining a non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury during sport. Through the last decades much attention has been directed toward various anatomical and biomechanical risk factors for non-contact ACL injury, and important information have been retrieved about the influence of external loading factors on ACL injury risk during given sports-specific movements. However, much less attention has been given to the aspect of neuromuscular control during such movements and only sparse knowledge exists on the specific muscle activation patterns involved during specific risk conditions. Therefore, the aim of this narrative review was (1 to describe anatomical aspects, strength aspects and biomechanical aspects relevant for the understanding of ACL non-contact injury mechanisms in young female athletes, and (2 to review the existing literature on lower limb muscle activation in relation to risk of non-contact ACL-injury and prevention of ACL injury in young female athletes. Studies investigating muscle activity patterns associated with sports-specific risk situations were identified, comprising cohort studies, intervention studies and prospective studies. Based on the retrieved studies, clear gender-specific differences in muscle activation and coordination were identified demonstrating elevated quadriceps activity and reduced hamstring activity in young female athletes compared to their male counterparts, and suggesting young female athletes to be at elevated risk of non-contact ACL injury. Only few studies (n = 6 examined the effect of preventive exercise-based intervention protocols on lower limb muscle activation during sports-specific movements. A general trend toward enhanced hamstring activation was observed during selected injury risk situations (e.g., sidecutting and drop landings. Only a single study examined the association between muscle activation deficits and ACL

  11. Muscle Activation During ACL Injury Risk Movements in Young Female Athletes: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencke, Jesper; Aagaard, Per; Zebis, Mette K

    2018-01-01

    Young, adolescent female athletes are at particular high risk of sustaining a non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury during sport. Through the last decades much attention has been directed toward various anatomical and biomechanical risk factors for non-contact ACL injury, and important information have been retrieved about the influence of external loading factors on ACL injury risk during given sports-specific movements. However, much less attention has been given to the aspect of neuromuscular control during such movements and only sparse knowledge exists on the specific muscle activation patterns involved during specific risk conditions. Therefore, the aim of this narrative review was (1) to describe anatomical aspects, strength aspects and biomechanical aspects relevant for the understanding of ACL non-contact injury mechanisms in young female athletes, and (2) to review the existing literature on lower limb muscle activation in relation to risk of non-contact ACL-injury and prevention of ACL injury in young female athletes. Studies investigating muscle activity patterns associated with sports-specific risk situations were identified, comprising cohort studies, intervention studies and prospective studies. Based on the retrieved studies, clear gender-specific differences in muscle activation and coordination were identified demonstrating elevated quadriceps activity and reduced hamstring activity in young female athletes compared to their male counterparts, and suggesting young female athletes to be at elevated risk of non-contact ACL injury. Only few studies ( n = 6) examined the effect of preventive exercise-based intervention protocols on lower limb muscle activation during sports-specific movements. A general trend toward enhanced hamstring activation was observed during selected injury risk situations (e.g., sidecutting and drop landings). Only a single study examined the association between muscle activation deficits and ACL injury risk

  12. Systematic review of the clinical course, natural history, and prognosis for pediatric mild traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hung, Ryan; Carroll, Linda J; Cancelliere, Carol

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the best available evidence on prognosis after pediatric mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus (2001-2012), as well as reference lists of eligible articles, and relevant systematic reviews and meta...

  13. A systematic review of fatigue in patients with traumatic brain injury: The course, predictors and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollayeva, T.; Kendzerska, T.; Mollayeva, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fatigue is common after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Its risk factors, natural history and consequences are uncertain. Best-evidence synthesis was used to address the gaps. Methods: Five databases were searched for relevant peer-reviewed studies. Of the 33 articles appraised, 22 long...

  14. Prognostic factors for failure of nonoperative management in adults with blunt splenic injury: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, Dominique C.; Joosse, Pieter; van der Vlies, Cornelis H.; de Haan, Rob J.; Goslings, J. Carel

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contradictory findings are reported in the literature concerning prognostic factors for failure of nonoperative management (NOM) in the treatment of adults with blunt splenic injury. The objective of this systematic review was to identify prognostic factors for failure of NOM, with or

  15. 76 FR 32213 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP); Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP); Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention Projects for Young Men of Color...

  16. 78 FR 19269 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of Cancellation: This document corrects a notice that was published in the Federal Register on March 21, 2013 (78...

  17. 78 FR 20319 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review. The meeting... aforementioned SEP: Time and Date: 9:00 a.m.-6:00 p.m., May 15-16, 2013 (Closed). Place: Georgian Terrace, 659...

  18. 78 FR 60879 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns National Center for Construction Safety and Health Research and Translation (U60...

  19. 76 FR 78263 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational Safety and Health Training Project Grants, Program Announcement PAR 10...

  20. 77 FR 291 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns National HIV Behavioral Surveillance For Young Men Who Have Sex With Men, Funding...

  1. 78 FR 78964 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns The Cooperative Re-Engagement Controlled Trial (CoRECT), Funding Opportunity...

  2. 77 FR 39498 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Special Interest Project (SIP): Assessing the Pregnancy Prevention Needs of HIV...

  3. 78 FR 66938 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of..., Number 181, Page 57391). This SEP, scheduled to convene on November 12-15, 2013, is canceled. Notice will...

  4. 78 FR 60877 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational Safety and Health Training Project Grants (T03), PAR-10-288, initial...

  5. 78 FR 24751 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting... Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned SEP: Time and Date: 12:00 p.m.-3:30 p.m., June...

  6. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of Cancellation: A notice was published in the Federal Register on February 12, 2013, Volume 78, Number 29, page...

  7. 76 FR 18555 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Virologic Evaluation of the Modes of Influenza Virus Transmission among Humans...

  8. 76 FR 33304 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Strategies to Improve Vaccination Coverage of Children in Child Care Centers (CCCs...

  9. 78 FR 35035 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review The meeting announced below concerns Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Public Health Preparedness and Response...

  10. 78 FR 66937 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of... Volume 78, Number 191, Page 60877). This SEP, scheduled to convene on November 6, 2013, is canceled...

  11. 77 FR 22326 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Extension of the World Trade Center Health Registry (U50) Request for Applications...

  12. 78 FR 17412 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Strengthening the Monitoring and Evaluation of Programs for the Elimination and...

  13. 78 FR 36785 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Public Health Preparedness and Response...

  14. 77 FR 25181 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Research Technical Assistance To The Ministry Of Public Health Of Haiti To Support...

  15. 78 FR 1212 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Natural History and Prevention of Viral Hepatitis Among Alaska Natives, Funding...

  16. 78 FR 60875 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational Safety and Health Training Project Grants (T03), PAR-10-288, initial...

  17. 76 FR 24031 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Strategies to Improve Vaccination Coverage of Children in Child Care Centers (CCCs...

  18. 76 FR 39879 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention Projects for Young Men of Color Who...

  19. 78 FR 23768 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned SEP: Time and Date: 1:00 p.m...

  20. 77 FR 27460 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Conducting Public Health Research in China RFA GH-12-005, and Conducting Public...

  1. 76 FR 59133 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention Projects for Young Men of Color Who...

  2. 76 FR 67458 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Emerging Infections Programs, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) CK12-1202...

  3. 78 FR 9926 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Medicaid Expansion and Reproductive Health Care for Women, FOA DP 13-002, initial...

  4. 78 FR 17410 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial review The meeting announced below concerns Epi-Centers for the Prevention of Healthcare-Associated Infections, Antimicrobial...

  5. 78 FR 17411 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Monitoring and Evaluation of Malaria Control and Elimination Activities, FOA GH13...

  6. 78 FR 37542 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns NIOSH Cooperative Agreement Research to Aid Recovery from Hurricane Sandy, Request...

  7. 76 FR 45575 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention Projects for Young Men of Color Who...

  8. 78 FR 28221 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting... aforementioned SEP: Time and Date: 12:30 p.m.-5:00 p.m. EDT, July 24, 2013 (Closed). Place: Teleconference...

  9. 77 FR 36544 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Coordinating Center for Research and Training to Promote the Health of People with...

  10. 77 FR 5026 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting... SEP: Occupational Safety and Health Education and Research Centers, PAR 10-217. Contact Person For...

  11. 78 FR 732 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Identification, Surveillance, and Control of Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Infectious...

  12. 76 FR 33305 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Program to Support New Implementation of State or Territorial Public Health...

  13. 78 FR 57391 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting... aforementioned SEP: Times and Dates: 8:00 a.m.-8:00 p.m., November 12-15, 2013 (Closed). Place: Teleconference...

  14. Orthopedic Injuries and Their Treatment in Children During Earthquakes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Ilaria; Sabbadini, Maria Grazia; Bortolin, Michelangelo

    2015-10-01

    Orthopedic injuries commonly affect children during earthquakes, but reports about them are rare. This setting may lead to different standards of care, but guidelines are still missing in this field. A systematic review was performed to: (1) assess type and body distribution of pediatric earthquake-related injuries, treatment performed, length of stay, and complications; and (2) identify starting points to define standards of care. PubMed database was researched for papers (1999-2014 period) in agreement with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement. Inclusion criteria were: English, French, Spanish, or Italian language and data reported about orthopedic lesions in children (≤18 years old). Reviews, letters, commentaries, editorials, and single case reports were excluded. Two independent reviewers selected articles after abstract and full-text reading. Traumatic injuries caused child hospital admissions ranging from 46.9% to 100.0%; 16% to 53% suffered fractures. Lower limbs mostly were involved. Soft-tissue injuries affected 55% of patients. Debridement and external fixation (EF) were the most frequent surgical treatments. Amputation rates varied from 5% to 11%. This study revealed that field hospitals should be prepared to: (1) treat mainly lower extremities fractures in children; and (2) use especially EF techniques. The presence of orthopedic surgeons familiar with pediatric traumatology should be considered.

  15. A systematic review of peer mentoring interventions for people with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard Pg; Fletcher-Smith, Joanna C; Radford, Kathryn A

    2017-08-01

    This systematic review sought evidence concerning the effectiveness of peer mentoring for people with traumatic brain injury. Fourteen electronic databases were searched, including PsycINFO, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library, from inception to September 21 2016. Ten grey literature databases, PROSPERO, two trials registers, reference lists and author citations were also searched. Studies which employed a model of one-to-one peer mentoring between traumatic brain injury survivors were included. Two reviewers independently screened all titles and abstracts before screening full texts of shortlisted studies. A third reviewer resolved disagreements. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed studies for quality and risk of bias. The search returned 753 records, including one identified through hand searching. 495 records remained after removal of duplicates and 459 were excluded after screening. Full texts were assessed for the remaining 36 studies and six met the inclusion criteria. All were conducted in the United States between 1996 and 2012 and employed a variety of designs including two randomised controlled trials. A total of 288 people with traumatic brain injury participated in the studies. No significant improvements in social activity level or social network size were found, but significant improvements were shown in areas including behavioural control, mood, coping and quality of life. There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of peer mentoring after traumatic brain injury. The available evidence comes from small-scale studies, of variable quality, without detailed information on the content of sessions or the 'active ingredient' of the interventions.

  16. HUMAN BITE INJURIES IN THE ERA OF AIDS: A REVIEW | Malami ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of the literature concerning human bite injuries and HIV was performed to examine current opinion regarding the transmission of HIV via this route. It is concluded that human bite contaminated with infected blood carry a small, but definite, risk of transmitting this important life-threatening disease. Key Words: HIV ...

  17. Timing of Decompression in Patients With Acute Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Jefferson R.; Tetreault, Lindsay A.; Kwon, Brian K.; Arnold, Paul M.; Mroz, Thomas E.; Shaffrey, Christopher; Harrop, James S.; Chapman, Jens R.; Casha, Steve; Skelly, Andrea C.; Holmer, Haley K.; Brodt, Erika D.; Fehlings, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    Study Design: Systematic review. Objective: To conduct a systematic review and synthesis of the literature to assess the comparative effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of early (≤24 hours) versus late decompression (>24 hours) in adults with acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: A systematic search was conducted of Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Collaboration Library, and Google Scholar to identify studies published through November 6, 2014. Studies published in any language, in ...

  18. Videogame-Related Illness and Injury: A Review of the Literature and Predictions for Pokémon GO!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmand, Ali; Lombardi, Kevin; Kuhl, Evan; O'Connell, Francis

    2017-02-01

    Reports of videogame-related illness and injury soon emerged in the literature with the inception of videogame systems and subsequent development of novel gaming platforms and technologies. In an effort to better detail the impacts of these phenomena and provide recommendations for injury prevention as it relates to Pokémon Go and the larger world of augmented reality games, we conducted an extensive systems-based review of past trends in videogame-related illness and injury from the literature. A literature review using PubMed, Medline, and PsycInfo databases with search terms "Pokémon GO," "videogame injuries," "augmented reality injuries," and "Nintendo Injury" was performed. The search was limited to the English language, and the Boolean were used to combine the search terms. The literature search yielded 359 peer-reviewed articles, 44 of which met the study criteria and included in the review. Seventeen additional popular press reports detailing injuries related to Pokémon Go were also incorporated. Videogame-related injuries and illness include both physical trauma as well as psychological and behavioral disorder with unique patterns of injury and illness linked to specific gaming platforms. As videogames become increasingly advanced and immersive, they expose players to unique and often more serious injury and illness. Augmented reality games, such as Pokémon GO, are the next step in the evolution of this trend and likely portend a future in which many pathologic processes may become increasingly common.

  19. A Systematic Review of Non-Invasive Pharmacologic Neuroprotective Treatments for Acute Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okon, Elena; Hillyer, Jessica; Mann, Cody; Baptiste, Darryl; Weaver, Lynne C.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

    2011-01-01

    Abstract An increasing number of therapies for spinal cord injury (SCI) are emerging from the laboratory and seeking translation into human clinical trials. Many of these are administered as soon as possible after injury with the hope of attenuating secondary damage and maximizing the extent of spared neurologic tissue. In this article, we systematically review the available pre-clinical research on such neuroprotective therapies that are administered in a non-invasive manner for acute SCI. Specifically, we review treatments that have a relatively high potential for translation due to the fact that they are already used in human clinical applications, or are available in a form that could be administered to humans. These include: erythropoietin, NSAIDs, anti-CD11d antibodies, minocycline, progesterone, estrogen, magnesium, riluzole, polyethylene glycol, atorvastatin, inosine, and pioglitazone. The literature was systematically reviewed to examine studies in which an in-vivo animal model was utilized to assess the efficacy of the therapy in a traumatic SCI paradigm. Using these criteria, 122 studies were identified and reviewed in detail. Wide variations exist in the animal species, injury models, and experimental designs reported in the pre-clinical literature on the therapies reviewed. The review highlights the extent of investigation that has occurred in these specific therapies, and points out gaps in our knowledge that would be potentially valuable prior to human translation. PMID:20146558

  20. Mitochondrial cardiomyopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman W. El-Hattab

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are found in all nucleated human cells and perform a variety of essential functions, including the generation of cellular energy. Mitochondria are under dual genome control. Only a small fraction of their proteins are encoded by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA while more than 99% of them are encoded by nuclear DNA (nDNA. Mutations in mtDNA or mitochondria-related nDNA genes result in mitochondrial dysfunction leading to insufficient energy production required to meet the needs of various organs, particularly those with high energy requirements, including the central nervous system, skeletal and cardiac muscles, kidneys, liver, and endocrine system. Because cardiac muscles are one of the high energy demanding tissues, cardiac involvement occurs in mitochondrial diseases with cardiomyopathies being one of the most frequent cardiac manifestations found in these disorders. Cardiomyopathy is estimated to occur in 20-40% of children with mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondrial cardiomyopathies can vary in severity from asymptomatic status to severe manifestations including heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common type; however, mitochondrial cardiomyopathies might also present as dilated, restrictive, left ventricular noncompaction, and histiocytoid cardiomyopathies. Cardiomyopathies are frequent manifestations of mitochondrial diseases associated with defects in electron transport chain (ETC complexes subunits and their assembly factors, mitochondrial tRNAs, rRNAs, ribosomal proteins, and translation factors, mtDNA maintenance, and coenzyme Q10 synthesis. Other mitochondrial diseases with cardiomyopathies include Barth syndrome, Sengers syndrome, TMEM70-related mitochondrial complex V deficiency, and Friedreich ataxia.

  1. Resilience and the rehabilitation of adult spinal cord injury survivors: A qualitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhaber, Rachel; Mclean, Loyola; Betihavas, Vasiliki; Cleary, Michelle

    2018-01-01

    To synthesize the qualitative research evidence that explored how survivors of adult spinal cord injury experience and make sense of resilience. Spinal cord injury is often a sudden and unexpected life-changing event requiring complex and long-term rehabilitation. The development of resilience is essential in determining how spinal cord injury survivors negotiate this injury and rehabilitation. A qualitative systematic review and thematic synthesis of the research evidence. CINAHL, PubMed, Embase, Scopus and PsycINFO were searched, no restriction dates were used. Methodological quality was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist. Thematic synthesis focused on how survivors of adult spinal cord injury experience and make sense of resilience. Six qualitative research articles reported the experiences of 84 spinal cord injury survivors. Themes identified were: uncertainty and regaining independence; prior experiences of resilience; adopting resilient thinking; and strengthening resilience through supports. Recovery and rehabilitation following spinal cord survivors is influenced by the individual's capacity for resilience. Resilience may be influenced by previous life experiences and enhanced by supportive nursing staff encouraging self-efficacy. Survivors identified the need for active involvement in decision-making about their care to enable a sense of regaining control of their lives. This has the potential to have a significant impact on their self-efficacy and in turn health outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A systematic review of studies identifying predictors of poor return to work outcomes following workplace injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Tamara D; Lacey, Sarah J

    2015-06-05

    Injuries occurring in the workplace can have serious implications for the health of the individual, the productivity of the employer and the overall economic community. The objective of this paper is to increase the current state of understanding of individual demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with extended absenteeism from the workforce due to a workplace injury. Studies included in this systematic literature review tracked participants' return to work status over a minimum of three months, identified either demographic, psychosocial or general injury predictors of poor return to work outcomes and included a heterogeneous sample of workplace injuries. Identified predictors of poor return to work outcomes included older age, female gender, divorced marital status, two or more dependent family members, lower education levels, employment variables associated with reduced labour market desirability, severity or sensitive injury locations, negative attitudes and outcome perceptions of the participant. There is a need for clear and consistent definition and measurement of return to work outcomes and a holistic theoretical model integrating injury, psychosocial and demographic predictors of return to work. Through greater understanding of the nature of factors affecting return to work, improved outcomes could be achieved.

  3. Immersive virtual reality in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Jared; Chau, Brian; Dunn, Justin

    2018-04-07

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States with its sequelae often affecting individuals long after the initial injury. Innovations in virtual reality (VR) technology may offer potential therapy options in the recovery from such injuries. However, there is currently no consensus regarding the efficacy of VR in the setting of TBI rehabilitation. The aim of this review is to evaluate and summarize the current literature regarding immersive VR in the rehabilitation of those with TBI. A comprehensive literature search was conducted utilizing PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Review using the search terms "virtual reality," "traumatic brain injury," "brain injury," and "immersive." A total of 11 studies were evaluated. These were primarily of low-level evidence, with the exception of two randomized, controlled trials. 10 of 11 studies demonstrated improvement with VR therapy. VR was most frequently used to address gait or cognitive deficits. While the current literature generally offers support for the use of VR in TBI recovery, there is a paucity of strong evidence to support its widespread use. The increasing availability of immersive VR technology offers the potential for engaging therapy in TBI rehabilitation, but its utility remains uncertain given the limited studies available at this time.

  4. [Robotic systems for gait re-education in cases of spinal cord injury: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara-Sambade, T; Fernandez-Pereira, M; Rodriguez-Sotillo, A

    2017-03-01

    The evidence underlying robotic body weight supported treadmill training in patients with spinal cord injury remains poorly characterized. To perform a qualitative systematic review on the efficacy of this therapy. A search on PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and PEDro was performed from January 2005 to April 2016. The references in these articles were also reviewed to find papers not identified with the initial search strategy. The methodological level of the articles was evaluated with PEDro and Downs and Black scales. A total of 129 potentially interesting articles were found, of which 10 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Those studies included 286 patients, who were predominantly young and male. Most of them had an incomplete spinal cord injury and were classified as C or D in ASIA scale. Robotic devices employed in these studies were Lokomat, Gait Trainer and LOPES. Improvement in walking parameters evaluated was more evident in young patients, those with subacute spinal cord injury, and those with high ASIA or LEMS scores. Conversely, factors such as etiology, level of injury or sex were less predictive of improvement. The methodological level of these studies was fair according to PEDro and Downs and Black scales. The evidence of gait training with robotic devices in patients with spinal cord injury is positive, although limited and with fair methodological quality.

  5. A Review of Dysphagia Presentation and Intervention Following Traumatic Spinal Injury: An Understudied Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzano, Teresa J; Waito, Ashley A; Steele, Catriona M

    2016-10-01

    Dysphagia is reported to be a common secondary complication for individuals with traumatic spinal injuries. Different etiologies of traumatic spinal injuries may lead to different profiles of swallowing impairment. We conducted a systematic review to determine the characteristics of dysphagia after traumatic spinal injury and to describe interventions currently used to improve swallowing function in this population. A comprehensive multiengine literature search identified 137 articles of which five were judged to be relevant. These underwent review for study quality, rating for level of evidence, and data extraction. The literature describing dysphagia after traumatic spinal injury was comprised predominantly of low-level evidence and single case reports. Aspiration, pharyngeal residue, and decreased/absent hyolaryngeal elevation were found to be common characteristics of dysphagia in this population. The most commonly used swallowing interventions included tube feeding, compensatory swallowing strategies, and steroids/antibiotics. Improvement in swallowing function following swallowing intervention was reported in all studies; however, there was no control for spontaneous recovery. The results demonstrate a need for high-quality research to profile the pathophysiology of dysphagia after traumatic spinal injury and controlled studies to demonstrate the efficacy of swallowing interventions in this population.

  6. Identification of the effects of peripheral nerves injury on the muscle control - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaj, Anna; Zmyslowski, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    Impairment of motor function following peripheral nerve injury is a serious clinical problem. Generally nerve injury leads to erroneous control of muscle activity that results in gait and voluntary movement abnormalities followed by muscle atrophy. This article presents a review of studies on the effects of peripheral nerve injury on the motor system performed on animal models. We focused our attention on the results that are fundamental for better understanding of the degenerative and regenerative processes induced by nerve injury as well as of the mechanisms of structural changes in neuronal networks controlling movement. Quoted results are also important for clinical applications because they allow to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques that can be used after nerve injury inducing motor deficits. However, till now no efficient therapy inducing satisfactory recovery was found. There is still a need to continue an advanced basic research directed to develop effective therapies. Thus the aim of this review is to compare the results of recent studies performed on various animal models in order to propose new methods for identification of mechanisms responsible for muscle deficits and propose targets for new pharmacological therapies.

  7. Compliant flooring to prevent fall-related injuries: a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Chantelle C; Jurkowski, Michal P; Dymarz, Ania C; Mackey, Dawn C

    2016-08-16

    Fall-related injuries can have serious consequences for older adults, including increased risk of dependence in daily activities and mortality. Compliant flooring is a passive intervention that may reduce the incidence and severity of fall-related injuries in healthcare settings, including acute and long-term care, but few sites have implemented compliant flooring, in part because synthesised evidence about key performance aspects has not been available. We will conduct a scoping review to address the question: what is presented about the biomechanical efficacy, clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and workplace safety associated with compliant flooring systems that aim to prevent fall-related injuries? We will conduct a comprehensive and systematic literature search of academic databases (AgeLine, CINAHL, EBM Reviews, MEDLINE (Ovid), SportDiscus and Web of Science) and grey literature (clinical trial registries, theses/dissertations, abstracts/conference proceedings and relevant websites). 2 team members will independently screen records (first titles and abstracts, then full text) and extract data from included records. Numerical and narrative analyses will be presented by theme (biomechanical efficacy, clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, workplace safety). This scoping review responds to the information needs of healthcare decision-makers tasked with preventing fall-related injuries. This review will summarise evidence about compliant flooring as a potential intervention for preventing fall-related injuries in older adults and identify gaps in evidence and new avenues for research. Results will be especially useful in long-term care, but also applicable in acute care, assisted living and home care. We will disseminate the review's findings via open-access publications, conference presentations, a webinar, a Stakeholder Symposium and a Knowledge-to-Action Report. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  8. Mitochondrial abnormalities-A link to idiosyncratic drug hepatotoxicity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boelsterli, Urs A.; Lim, Priscilla L.K.

    2007-01-01

    Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major clinical problem and poses a considerable challenge for drug development as an increasing number of successfully launched drugs or new potential drugs have been implicated in causing DILI in susceptible patient subsets. Although the incidence for a particular drug is very low (yet grossly underestimated), the outcome of DILI can be serious. Unfortunately, prediction has remained poor (both for patients at risk and for new chemical entities). The underlying mechanisms and the determinants of susceptibility have largely remained ill-defined. The aim of this review is to provide both clinical and experimental evidence for a major role of mitochondria both as a target of drugs causing idiosyncratic DILI and as mediators of delayed liver injury. We develop a unifying hypothesis that involves underlying genetic or acquired mitochondrial abnormalities as a major determinant of susceptibility for a number of drugs that target mitochondria and cause DILI. The mitochondrial hypothesis, implying gradually accumulating and initially silent mitochondrial injury in heteroplasmic cells which reaches a critical threshold and abruptly triggers liver injury, is consistent with the findings that typically idiosyncratic DILI is delayed (by weeks or months), that increasing age and female gender are risk factors and that these drugs are targeted to the liver and clearly exhibit a mitochondrial hazard in vitro and in vivo. New animal models (e.g., the Sod2 +/- mouse) provide supporting evidence for this concept. However, genetic analyses of DILI patient samples are needed to ultimately provide the proof-of-concept

  9. How is the injury severity scored? a brief review of scoring systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ebrahimi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The management of injured patients is a critical issue in pre-hospital and emergency departments. Trauma victims are usually young and the injuries may lead to mortality or severe morbidities. The severity of injury can be estimated by observing the anatomic and physiologic evidences. Scoring systems are used to present a scale of describing the severity of the injuries in the victims.We reviewed the evidences of famous scoring systems, the history of their development, applications and their evolutions. We searched electronic database PubMed and Google scholar with keywords: (trauma OR injury AND (severity OR intensity AND (score OR scale.In this paper, we are going to present a definition of scoring systems and discuss the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS and Injury Severity Score (ISS, the most acceptable systems, their applications and their advantages and limitations.Several injury-scoring methods have been introduced. Each method has specific features, advantages and disadvantages. The AIS is an anatomical-based scoring system, which provides a standard numerical scale of ranking and comparing injuries. The ISS was established as a platform for trauma data registry. ISS is also an anatomically-based ordinal scale, with a range of 1-75. Several databases and studies are formed based on ISS and are available for trauma management research.Although the ISS is not perfect, it is established as the basic platform of health services and public health researches. The ISS registering system can provide many opportunities for the development of efficient data recording and statistical analyzing models.

  10. Unintentional injuries in children with disabilities: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiuquan; Shi, Junxin; Wheeler, Krista K; Stallones, Lorann; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Shakespeare, Tom; Smith, Gary A; Xiang, Huiyun

    2015-12-01

    Children with disabilities are thought to have an increased risk of unintentional injuries, but quantitative syntheses of findings from previous studies have not been done. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether pre-existing disability can increase the risk of unintentional injuries among children when they are compared to children without disability. We searched 13 electronic databases to identify original research published between 1 January 1990 and 28 February 2013. We included those studies that reported on unintentional injuries among children with pre-existing disabilities compared with children without disabilities. We conducted quality assessments and then calculated pooled odds ratios of injury using random-effects models. Fifteen eligible studies were included from 24,898 references initially identified, and there was a total sample of 83,286 children with disabilities drawn from the eligible studies. When compared with children without disabilities, the pooled OR of injury was 1.86 (95 % CI 1.65-2.10) in children with disabilities. The pooled ORs of injury were 1.28, 1.75, and 1.86 in the 0-4 years, 5-9 years, and ≥10 years of age subgroups, respectively. Compared with children without disabilities, the pooled OR was 1.75 (95 % CI 1.26-2.43) among those with International Classification of Functioning (ICF) limitations. When disability was defined as physical disabilities, the pooled OR was 2.39 (95 % CI 1.43-4.00), and among those with cognitive disabilities, the pooled OR was 1.77 (95 % CI 1.49-2.11). There was significant heterogeneity in the included studies. Compared with peers without disabilities, children with disabilities are at a significantly higher risk of injury. Teens with disabilities may be an important subgroup for future injury prevention efforts. More data are needed from low- and middle-income countries.

  11. Elastic Bandaging for Orthopedic- and Sports-Injury Prevention and Rehabilitation: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fousekis, Konstantinos; Billis, Evdokia; Matzaroglou, Charalampos; Mylonas, Konstantinos; Koutsojannis, Constantinos; Tsepis, Elias

    2017-05-01

    Elastic bandages are commonly used in sports to treat and prevent sport injuries. To conduct a systematic review assessing the effectiveness of elastic bandaging in orthopedic- and sports-injury prevention and rehabilitation. The researchers searched the electronic databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) with keywords elastic bandaging in combination, respectively, with first aid, sports injuries, orthopedic injuries, and sports injuries prevention and rehabilitation. Research studies were selected based on the use of the term elastic bandaging in the abstract. Final selection was made by applying inclusion and exclusion criteria to the full text. Studies were included if they were peer-reviewed clinical trials written in English on the effects of elastic bandaging for orthopedic-injury prevention and rehabilitation. Twelve studies met the criteria and were included in the final analysis. Data collected included number of participants, condition being treated, treatment used, control group, outcome measures, and results. Studies were critically analyzed using the PEDro scale. The studies in this review fell into 2 categories: studies in athletes (n = 2) and nonathletes (n = 10). All included trials had moderate to high quality, scoring ≥5 on the PEDro scale. The PEDro scores for the studies in athletes and nonathletes ranged from 5 to 6 out of 10 and from 5 to 8 out of 10, respectively. The quality of studies was mixed, ranging from higher- to moderate-quality methodological clinical trials. Overall, elastic bandaging can assist proprioceptive function of knee and ankle joint. Because of the moderate methodological quality and insufficient number of clinical trials, further effects of elastic bandaging could not be confirmed.

  12. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Metabolic Syndrome and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Ghosh, Balaram

    2013-01-01

    Though severe or refractory asthma merely affects less than 10% of asthma population, it consumes significant health resources and contributes significant morbidity and mortality. Severe asthma does not fell in the routine definition of asthma and requires alternative treatment strategies. It has been observed that asthma severity increases with higher body mass index. The obese-asthmatics, in general, have the features of metabolic syndrome and are progressively causing a significant burden for both developed and developing countries thanks to the westernization of the world. As most of the features of metabolic syndrome seem to be originated from central obesity, the underlying mechanisms for metabolic syndrome could help us to understand the pathobiology of obese-asthma condition. While mitochondrial dysfunction is the common factor for most of the risk factors of metabolic syndrome, such as central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, the involvement of mitochondria in obese-asthma pathogenesis seems to be important as mitochondrial dysfunction has recently been shown to be involved in airway epithelial injury and asthma pathogenesis. This review discusses current understanding of the overlapping features between metabolic syndrome and asthma in relation to mitochondrial structural and functional alterations with an aim to uncover mechanisms for obese-asthma. PMID:23840225

  13. Mitochondrial quality control in cardiac diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Campos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis is a hallmark of cardiac diseases. Therefore, maintenance of mitochondrial integrity through different surveillance mechanisms is critical for cardiomyocyte survival. In this review, we discuss the most recent findings on the central role of mitochondrial quality control processes including regulation of mitochondrial redox balance, aldehyde metabolism, proteostasis, dynamics and clearance in cardiac diseases, highlighting their potential as therapeutic targets.

  14. A review of accidents and injuries to road transport drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Copsey, N.; Drupsteen, L.; Kampen, J. van; Kuijt-Evers, L.; Schmitz-Felten, E.; Verjans, M.

    2010-01-01

    This review presents reports of work-related road transport accidents, near misses, and other effects relating to ill health that give details concerning the causes and effects of the accidents. The main focus of the report is on road transport activities that take place on the public highway;

  15. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and β-Cell Failure in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongmin Alex Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is the most common human endocrine disease and is characterized by peripheral insulin resistance and pancreatic islet β-cell failure. Accumulating evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction is a central contributor to β-cell failure in the evolution of T2DM. As reviewed elsewhere, reactive oxygen species (ROS produced by β-cell mitochondria as a result of metabolic stress activate several stress-response pathways. This paper focuses on mechanisms whereby ROS affect mitochondrial structure and function and lead to β-cell failure. ROS activate UCP2, which results in proton leak across the mitochondrial inner membrane, and this leads to reduced β-cell ATP synthesis and content, which is a critical parameter in regulating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In addition, ROS oxidize polyunsaturated fatty acids in mitochondrial cardiolipin and other phospholipids, and this impairs membrane integrity and leads to cytochrome c release into cytosol and apoptosis. Group VIA phospholipase A2 (iPLA2β appears to be a component of a mechanism for repairing mitochondrial phospholipids that contain oxidized fatty acid substituents, and genetic or acquired iPLA2β-deficiency increases β-cell mitochondrial susceptibility to injury from ROS and predisposes to developing T2DM. Interventions that attenuate ROS effects on β-cell mitochondrial phospholipids might prevent or retard development of T2DM.

  16. Non-pharmacological treatment and prevention of bone loss after spinal cord injury: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Hansen, B; Lee, B S B

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Review the literature on non-pharmacological prevention and treatment of osteoporosis after spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched. All identified papers were read by title, abstract and full-length article when...... bone mineral, and the longer the period of athletic career, the higher the (leg) bone mineral. Early after SCI, there may be some effects of electrical stimulation (ES) (five studies). Chronic-phase ES studies vary (14 studies, including mixed periods after injury), but improvement is seen with longer...

  17. Mental Health in Women With Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review on Depression and Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    OYESANYA, TOLU O.; WARD, EARLISE C.

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in women has recently increased from 25% to 40%. Current literature inadequately captures challenges women face after injury, including depression. The limited focus on depression is problematic as rates of depression are increasing simultaneously with rates of TBI. A disabling symptom of depression is lack of hope; thus, depression, comorbid with TBI, leads to disability among women. Unfortunately, depression and hope among women with TBI has yet to be systematically examined. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine and synthesize current literature focusing on women with TBI, comorbid with depression, and hope. PMID:25635844

  18. Vocal Fold Epithelial Barrier in Health and Injury A Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levendoski, Elizabeth Erickson; Leydon, Ciara; Thibeault, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Vocal fold epithelium is composed of layers of individual epithelial cells joined by junctional complexes constituting a unique interface with the external environment. This barrier provides structural stability to the vocal folds and protects underlying connective tissue from injury while being nearly continuously exposed to potentially hazardous insults including environmental or systemic-based irritants such as pollutants and reflux, surgical procedures, and vibratory trauma. Small disruptions in the epithelial barrier may have a large impact on susceptibility to injury and overall vocal health. The purpose of this article is to provide a broad-based review of our current knowledge of the vocal fold epithelial barrier. Methods A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted. Details of the structure of the vocal fold epithelial barrier are presented and evaluated in the context of function in injury and pathology. The importance of the epithelial-associated vocal fold mucus barrier is also introduced. Results/Conclusions Information presented in this review is valuable for clinicians and researchers as it highlights the importance of this understudied portion of the vocal folds to overall vocal health and disease. Prevention and treatment of injury to the epithelial barrier is a significant area awaiting further investigation. PMID:24686981

  19. Amateur boxing and risk of chronic traumatic brain injury: systematic review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosemore, Mike; Knowles, Charles H; Whyte, Greg P

    2007-10-20

    To evaluate the risk of chronic traumatic brain injury from amateur boxing. Secondary research performed by combination of sport physicians and clinical academics. DESIGN, DATA SOURCES, AND METHODS: Systematic review of observational studies in which chronic traumatic brain injury was defined as any abnormality on clinical neurological examination, psychometric testing, neuroimaging studies, and electroencephalography. Studies were identified through database (1950 to date) and bibliographic searches without language restrictions. Two reviewers extracted study characteristics, quality, and data, with adherence to a protocol developed from a widely recommended method for systematic review of observational studies (MOOSE). 36 papers had relevant extractable data (from a detailed evaluation of 93 studies of 943 identified from the initial search). Quality of evidence was generally poor. The best quality studies were those with a cohort design and those that used psychometric tests. These yielded the most negative results: only four of 17 (24%) better quality studies found any indication of chronic traumatic brain injury in a minority of boxers studied. There is no strong evidence to associate chronic traumatic brain injury with amateur boxing.

  20. Open globe injury in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia - A 10-year review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhan A/L Paramananda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To identify the aetiology of open globe injuries at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia over a period of 10y and the prognostic factors for visual outcome.METHODS:Retrospective review of medical records of open globe injury cases that presented from January 2000 to December 2009. Classification of open globe injury was based on the Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology (BETT. Records were obtained with hospital permission via the in-house electronic patient management system, and the case notes of all patients with a diagnosis of open globe injury were scrutinised. Patients with prior ocular trauma, pre-existing ocular conditions affecting the visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, central vision or corneal thickness, as well as those with a history of previous intraocular or refractive surgery were excluded. Analysis of data was with SPSS version 20.0. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between prognostic factors and visual outcome.RESULTS: This study involved 220 patients (n=222 eyes. The most common place of injury was the home (51.8%, followed by the workplace (23.4%. Among children aged less than 16y of age, domestic-related injury was the predominant cause (54.6%, while in those aged 16y and above, occupational injuries were the most common cause (40.0%. Most eyes (76.5% had an initial visual acuity worse than 3/60, and in half of these, the visual acuity improved. The visual outcome was found to be significantly associated with the initial visual acuity (P<0.005, posterior extent of wound (P<0.001, length of wound (P<0.001, presence of hyphaema (P<0.001 and presence of vitreous prolapse ((P<0.005.CONCLUSION:The most common causes of open globe injury are domestic accidents and occupational injuries. Significant prognostic factors for final visual outcome in patients with open globe injury are initial visual acuity, posterior extent and length of wound, presence of hyphaema and presence of vitreous

  1. Do runners who suffer injuries have higher vertical ground reaction forces than those who remain injury-free? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Worp, Henk; Vrielink, Jelte W.; Bredeweg, Steef W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) parameters have been implicated as a cause of several running-related injuries. However, no systematic review has examined this relationship. Aim We systematically reviewed evidence for a relation between VGRF parameters and specific running-related

  2. The Relationship Between Range of Motion and Injuries in Adolescent Dancers and Sportspersons: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce M. Storm

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The frequent and intensive training and performance of pre-professional ballet dancers and sportspersons is offered at a time when young ballet dancers and young athletes may be vulnerable to injury due to the progress through adolescence and growth spurts.Hypothesis: There are changes in range of motion during the progress through adolescence and growth periods in dancers and sportspersons. These changes in ROM can be linked to the increase of injury.Objectives: The primary aim of this systematic review is to determine whether there are changes in ROM during the progress through adolescence and growth spurts in dancers and sportspersons. The secondary aim is to determine whether these changes can predict the risk of injuries for adolescent dancers and sportspersons.Search strategy: Pubmed, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trails (CENTRAL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR, EBSCO Host databases: CINAHL Plus, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Embase were searched using MeSH terms. Manual search in the Journal of Dance Medicine and Science and screening of the reference lists of identified studies and reviews was conducted.Selection criteria: Studies included adolescent dancers and sportspersons, aged 8–18, both sexes, growth spurt related to changes in ROM and injury incidence.Data collection and analysis: Search strategy was performed in the flow diagram of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA. Two reviewers independently appraised each included study using Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE for methodological quality of the included studies. For data extraction, the following information was systematically extracted: first author and year of publication, study design, participants (sample size of mean age, age, maturation (if assessed, intervention, outcome(s, and some notes of each study. For evaluation of the risk of bias and precision the

  3. Neuropathic pain prevalence following spinal cord injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, D; Fullen, B M; Stokes, D; Lennon, O

    2017-01-01

    Following spinal cord injury (SCI), chronic pain is a common secondary complication with neuropathic pain (NP) cited as one of the most distressing and debilitating conditions leading to poor quality of life, depression and sleep disturbances. Neuropathic pain presenting at or below the level of injury is largely refractory to current pharmacological and physical treatments. No consensus on the prevalence of NP post SCI currently exists, hence this systematic review was undertaken. The review comprised three phases: a methodological assessment of databases [PubMed, Embase, Web of Knowledge, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Library and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro)] identifying potential papers and screening for inclusion criteria by two independent reviewers; data extraction; and finally rating of internal validity and strength of the evidence, using a published valid and reliable scale. Meta-analysis estimated pooled point prevalence rates using a random effects model. In total, 17 studies involving 2529 patients were included in the review. Overall point prevalence rates for NP were established at 53% (38.58-67.47); 19% (13.26-26.39) for at-level NP and 27% (19.89-34.61) for below-level NP, with high heterogeneity noted (I 2  = 84-93%). Prevalence rates for NP following SCI are high. Future studies should include established definitions, classification systems and assessment tools for NP at defined time points post SCI to follow the trajectory of this problem across the lifespan and include indices of sleep, mood and interference to allow for appropriate, optimal and timely NP management for each patient. WHAT DOES THIS REVIEW ADD?: This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis to record pooled point prevalence of neuropathic pain post spinal cord injury at 53%. Additional pooled analysis shows that neuropathic pain is more common below the level of lesion, in patients with tetraplegia, older patients

  4. Imaging in syndesmotic injury: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krähenbühl, Nicola; Weinberg, Maxwell W; Davidson, Nathan P; Mills, Megan K; Hintermann, Beat; Saltzman, Charles L; Barg, Alexej

    2018-05-01

    To give a systematic overview of current diagnostic imaging options for assessment of the distal tibio-fibular syndesmosis. A systematic literature search across the following sources was performed: PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and SpringerLink. Forty-two articles were included and subdivided into three groups: group one consists of studies using conventional radiographs (22 articles), group two includes studies using computed tomography (CT) scans (15 articles), and group three comprises studies using magnet resonance imaging (MRI, 9 articles).The following data were extracted: imaging modality, measurement method, number of participants and ankles included, average age of participants, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the measurement technique. The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2) tool was used to assess the methodological quality. The three most common techniques used for assessment of the syndesmosis in conventional radiographs are the tibio-fibular clear space (TFCS), the tibio-fibular overlap (TFO), and the medial clear space (MCS). Regarding CT scans, the tibio-fibular width (axial images) was most commonly used. Most of the MRI studies used direct assessment of syndesmotic integrity. Overall, the included studies show low probability of bias and are applicable in daily practice. Conventional radiographs cannot predict syndesmotic injuries reliably. CT scans outperform plain radiographs in detecting syndesmotic mal-reduction. Additionally, the syndesmotic interval can be assessed in greater detail by CT. MRI measurements achieve a sensitivity and specificity of nearly 100%; however, correlating MRI findings with patients' complaints is difficult, and utility with subtle syndesmotic instability needs further investigation. Overall, the methodological quality of these studies was satisfactory.

  5. Systematic search and review procedures: results of the International Collaboration on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancelliere, C.; Cassidy, J. D.; Li, A.

    2014-01-01

    of interventions for mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), identify knowledge gaps in the literature, and make recommendations for future research. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, and SPORTDiscus were searched between 2001 and 2012. Inclusion criteria included...... into 10 articles in this supplement. These reviews present the best available evidence on MTBI prognosis, but more research is needed....... published peer-reviewed articles in English and 5 other languages. References were also identified from relevant reviews and meta-analyses and the bibliographies of eligible articles. STUDY SELECTION: Controlled trials and cohort and case-control studies were selected according to predefined inclusion...

  6. Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in sports. Part I: systematic review of risk factors in male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Mendiguchía, Jurdan; Samuelsson, Kristian; Musahl, Volker; Karlsson, Jon; Cugat, Ramon; Myer, Gregory D

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report a comprehensive literature review on the risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in male athletes. All abstracts were read and articles of potential interest were reviewed in detail to determine on inclusion status for systematic review. Information regarding risk factors for ACL injuries in male athletes was extracted from all included studies in systematic fashion and classified as environmental, anatomical, hormonal, neuromuscular, or biomechanical. Data extraction involved general characteristics of the included studies (type of study, characteristics of the sample, type of sport), methodological aspects (for quality assessment), and the principal results for each type of risk factor. The principal findings of this systematic review related to the risk factors for ACL injury in male athletes are: (1) most of the evidence is related to environmental and anatomical risk factors; (2) dry weather conditions may increase the risk of non-contact ACL injuries in male athletes; (3) artificial turf may increase the risk of non-contact ACL injuries in male athletes; (4) higher posterior tibial slope of the lateral tibial plateau may increase the risk of non-contact ACL injuries in male athletes. Anterior cruciate ligament injury in male athletes likely has a multi-factorial aetiology. There is a lack of evidence regarding neuromuscular and biomechanical risk factors for ACL injury in male athletes. Future research in male populations is warranted to provide adequate prevention strategies aimed to decrease the risk of this serious injury in these populations.

  7. Athletic injuries of the lateral abdominal wall: review of anatomy and MR imaging appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stensby, J.D.; Baker, Jonathan C.; Fox, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    The lateral abdominal wall is comprised of three muscles, each with a different function and orientation. The transversus abdominus, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles span the abdominal cavity between the iliocostalis lumborum and quadratus lumborum posteriorly and the rectus abdominis anteriorly. The lateral abdominal wall is bound superiorly by the lower ribs and costal cartilages and inferiorly by the iliac crest and inguinal ligament. The lateral abdominal wall may be acutely or chronically injured in a variety of athletic endeavors, with occasional acute injuries in the setting of high-energy trauma such as motor vehicle collisions. Injuries to the lateral abdominal wall may result in lumbar hernia formation, unique for its high incarceration rate, and also Spigelian hernias. This article will review the anatomy, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging approach, and the features and complications of lateral abdominal wall injuries. (orig.)

  8. Athletic injuries of the lateral abdominal wall: review of anatomy and MR imaging appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensby, J.D. [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, 1218 Lee Street, Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, 510 S. Kingshighway, Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States); Baker, Jonathan C. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, 510 S. Kingshighway, Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States); Fox, Michael G. [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, 1218 Lee Street, Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The lateral abdominal wall is comprised of three muscles, each with a different function and orientation. The transversus abdominus, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles span the abdominal cavity between the iliocostalis lumborum and quadratus lumborum posteriorly and the rectus abdominis anteriorly. The lateral abdominal wall is bound superiorly by the lower ribs and costal cartilages and inferiorly by the iliac crest and inguinal ligament. The lateral abdominal wall may be acutely or chronically injured in a variety of athletic endeavors, with occasional acute injuries in the setting of high-energy trauma such as motor vehicle collisions. Injuries to the lateral abdominal wall may result in lumbar hernia formation, unique for its high incarceration rate, and also Spigelian hernias. This article will review the anatomy, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging approach, and the features and complications of lateral abdominal wall injuries. (orig.)

  9. Mitochondrial role in cell aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, J.; Fleming, J.; Economos, A. C.; Johnson, J. E., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The experimental studies on the mitochondria of insect and mammalian cells are examined with a view to an analysis of intrinsic mitochondrial senescence, and its relation to the age-related changes in other cell organelles. The fine structural and biochemical data support the concept that the mitochondria of fixed postmitotic cells may be the site of intrinsic aging because of the attack by free radicals and lipid peroxides originating in the organelles as a by-product of oxygen reduction during respiration. Although the cells have numerous mechanisms for counteracting lipid peroxidation injury, there is a slippage in the antioxidant protection. Intrinsic mitochondrial aging could thus be considered as a specific manifestation of oxygen toxicity. It is proposed that free radical injury renders an increasing number of the mitochondria unable to divide, probably because of damage to the lipids of the inner membrane and to mitochondrial DNA.

  10. Obesity as a Possible Risk Factor for Lost-time Injury in Registered Nurses: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Jordan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Time-loss injuries are still a major occurrence in Canada, injuring thousands of Canadian workers each year. With obesity rates on the rise across the country, as well as around the world, it is important that the possible effects of obesity in the workplace be fully understood, especially those effects linked to lost-time injuries. The aim of this paper was to evaluate predictors of workplace lost-time injuries and how they may be related to obesity or high body mass index by examining factors associated with lost-time injuries in the health care sector, a well-studied industry with the highest number of reported time loss injuries in Canada. A literature review focusing on lost-time injuries in Registered Nurses (RNs was conducted using the keywords and terms: lost time injury, workers' compensation, occupational injury, workplace injury, injury, injuries, work, workplace, occupational, nurse, registered nurse, RN, health care, predictors, risk factors, risk, risks, cause, causes, obese, obesity, and body mass index. Data on predictors or factors associated with lost-time injuries in RNs were gathered and organized using Loisel's Work Disability Prevention Management Model and extrapolated upon using existing literature surrounding obesity in the Canadian workplace.

  11. Penetrating injury to the chest by an attenuated energy projectile: a case report and literature review of thoracic injuries caused by "less-lethal" munitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porto Leonardo BO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present the case of a patient who sustained a penetrating injury to the chest caused by an attenuated energy rubber bullet and review the literature on thoracic injuries caused by plastic and rubber "less-lethal" munitions. The patient of this report underwent a right thoracotomy to extract the projectile as well as a wedge resection of the injured lung parenchyma. This case demonstrates that even supposedly safe riot control munition fired at close range, at the torso, can provoke serious injury. Therefore a thorough investigation and close clinical supervision are justified.

  12. Penetrating injury to the chest by an attenuated energy projectile: a case report and literature review of thoracic injuries caused by "less-lethal" munitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende-Neto, Joao; Silva, Fabriccio Df; Porto, Leonardo Bo; Teixeira, Luiz C; Tien, Homer; Rizoli, Sandro B

    2009-06-26

    We present the case of a patient who sustained a penetrating injury to the chest caused by an attenuated energy rubber bullet and review the literature on thoracic injuries caused by plastic and rubber "less-lethal" munitions. The patient of this report underwent a right thoracotomy to extract the projectile as well as a wedge resection of the injured lung parenchyma. This case demonstrates that even supposedly safe riot control munition fired at close range, at the torso, can provoke serious injury. Therefore a thorough investigation and close clinical supervision are justified.

  13. Defining pediatric traumatic brain injury using International Classification of Diseases Version 10 Codes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Vincy; Thurairajah, Pravheen; Colantonio, Angela

    2015-02-04

    Although healthcare administrative data are commonly used for traumatic brain injury (TBI) research, there is currently no consensus or consistency on the International Classification of Diseases Version 10 (ICD-10) codes used to define TBI among children and youth internationally. This study systematically reviewed the literature to explore the range of ICD-10 codes that are used to define TBI in this population. The identification of the range of ICD-10 codes to define this population in administrative data is crucial, as it has implications for policy, resource allocation, planning of healthcare services, and prevention strategies. The databases MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were systematically searched. Grey literature was searched using Grey Matters and Google. Reference lists of included articles were also searched for relevant studies. Two reviewers independently screened all titles and abstracts using pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. A full text screen was conducted on articles that met the first screen inclusion criteria. All full text articles that met the pre-defined inclusion criteria were included for analysis in this systematic review. A total of 1,326 publications were identified through the predetermined search strategy and 32 articles/reports met all eligibility criteria for inclusion in this review. Five articles specifically examined children and youth aged 19 years or under with TBI. ICD-10 case definitions ranged from the broad injuries to the head codes (ICD-10 S00 to S09) to concussion only (S06.0). There was overwhelming consensus on the inclusion of ICD-10 code S06, intracranial injury, while codes S00 (superficial injury of the head), S03 (dislocation, sprain, and strain of joints and ligaments of head), and S05 (injury of eye and orbit) were only used by articles that examined head injury, none of which specifically examined children and

  14. Methods of analysis of physical activity among persons with spinal cord injury: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Štěpánová

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A spinal cord injury is one of the most devastating acquired physical disabilities. People with spinal cord injury are usually in a productive age, often interested in sports and physical activity. Therefore it is essential to support the development of monitoring of the quality and quantity of physical activity of people with spinal cord injury. Objective: The aim of this study was to perform systematic review of international studies from the period 2004-2014 with the aim to find appropriate questionnaires focused on the subjective perception of the amount of physical activity of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI to be used in The Czech Republic. Methods: A systematic literature review incorporated the databases of Medline, SPORTDiscus, Ebsco and PSYCInfo. Results: This type of questionnaire has not been used previously in the Czech Republic yet the following international surveys have been used: 1. Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD, 2. The Physical Activity Recall Assessment for People with Spinal Cord Injury (PARA-SCI, 3. Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire for People with Spinal Cord Injury (LTPAQ-SCI. In the database search we found studies also focusing on the objective measurements of physical activity of wheelchair users with SCI. The physical switches used by intact populations are adapted for measurements (pedometers, accelerometers, speedometers. Most recent studies utilize Accelerometer based Activity Monitors which are attached to wheel of wheelchair or body of wheelchair users (wrist, leg or chest. Conclusions: This study is essential to critically approach issues of health and active lifestyle of persons with SCI and its use for teaching of students of adapted physical activity and physiotherapy.

  15. The role of the mouthguard in the prevention of sports-related dental injuries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, P R; Tran, D C; Cooke, M S

    2001-11-01

    This paper examines the literature dealing with oral-facial injuries received during participation in sport and the possibilities open to athletes for their prevention. In particular, the paper examines five different aspects of this topic: the risk of dental injury while playing sports, the role of the mouthguard in preventing injury, types of athletic mouthguard, implications for patients undergoing orthodontic treatment and behavioural aspects of mouthguard wear. It is clear from this review that participation in a number of sports does carry a considerable risk of sustaining dental injury, not only in the so-called contact sports such as rugby and hockey, but also in less obviously dangerous sports such as basketball. Although some evidence exists to the contrary, the majority of studies have found the mouthguard to be the most effective way of preventing such injuries. It is also clear that the custom-fabricated mouthguard, in particular the pressure-laminated variety, is seen to afford most protection. Athletes undergoing orthodontic treatment present a particular problem as they are potentially at greater risk of injury because of increased tooth mobility and the presence of orthodontic appliances. The fabrication of mouthguards for these patients is also problematic and the literature covering this is reviewed. As with other preventive measures, mouthguard usage is often less than the dental profession would like; the reasons for this are explored in a small number of studies. While much progress has been made in this area, the profession could do much more to promote the greater use of mouthguards.

  16. Mitochondrial Myopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... noting “soft signs” in unaffected relatives. These include deaf- ness, short stature, migraine headaches and PEO. Muscle ... mitochondrial defects and provide valuable information for family planning. Perhaps most important, knowing the genetic defects that ...

  17. A narrative literature review of depression following traumatic brain injury: prevalence, impact, and management challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juengst SB

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Shannon B Juengst,1,2 Raj G Kumar,3 Amy K Wagner3–5 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2Department of Rehabilitation Counseling, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 4Department of Neuroscience, 5Safar Center for Resuscitation Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: Depression is one of the most common conditions to emerge after traumatic brain injury (TBI, and despite its potentially serious consequences it remains undertreated. Treatment for post-traumatic depression (PTD is complicated due to the multifactorial etiology of PTD, ranging from biological pathways to psychosocial adjustment. Identifying the unique, personalized factors contributing to the development of PTD could improve long-term treatment and management for individuals with TBI. The purpose of this narrative literature review was to summarize the prevalence and impact of PTD among those with moderate to severe TBI and to discuss current challenges in its management. Overall, PTD has an estimated point prevalence of 30%, with 50% of individuals with moderate to severe TBI experiencing an episode of PTD in the first year after injury alone. PTD has significant implications for health, leading to more hospitalizations and greater caregiver burden, for participation, reducing rates of return to work and affecting social relationships, and for quality of life. PTD may develop directly or indirectly as a result of biological changes after injury, most notably post-injury inflammation, or through psychological and psychosocial factors, including pre injury personal characteristics and post-injury adjustment to disability. Current evidence for effective treatments is limited, although the strongest evidence supports antidepressants and cognitive behavioral interventions. More personalized approaches to treatment and further research into unique therapy combinations

  18. Quality improvement program reduces perioperative dental injuries - A review of 64,718 anesthetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yi-Wei; Lu, I-Cheng; Yang, Hui-Ying; Chiu, Shun-Li; Hsu, Hung-Te; Cheng, Kuang-I

    2016-12-01

    Perioperative dental injury (PDI) is a common adverse event associated with anesthesia that can easily lead to medicolegal litigation. A quality improvement program was conducted with the electronic, standardized dental chart to document dentition before anesthesia and dentist consultation when necessary. This study aimed to reduce PDIs through execution of a quality improvement program. We reviewed the 42-month interval anesthetic records of 64,718 patients who underwent anesthesia. A standardized electronic dental chart was designed to identify any dental prosthetics, fixed and removable dentures, and degree of loose teeth. The incidence of dental injuries associated with anesthesia was separated into three time periods: baseline, initiative (Phase I), and execution (Phase II). Primary outcome measurement was the incidence of PDIs related to anesthesia. The overall incidence of dental injury related to anesthesia was 0.059% (38/64,718 patients). During the baseline period, the dental injury rate was 0.108% (26/24,137 patients), and it decreased from 0.051% in the initiative period (10/19,711 patients) to 0.009% in the execution period (2/20,870 patients) during implementation of the quality improvement program. Most dental injuries were associated with laryngeal mask airway (42.1%) and laryngoscopy (28.9%). The most commonly involved teeth were the upper incisors. Dental injury incidence was significantly reduced and remained at low levels after implementation of the quality improvement program. We suggest the implementation of a standardized dental examination into the preoperative evaluation system adding pathologic teeth fixed or protected devices to minimize dental injury associated with anesthesia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  19. Noise and neurotoxic chemical exposure relationship to workplace traumatic injuries: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estill, Cheryl Fairfield; Rice, Carol H; Morata, Thais; Bhattacharya, Amit

    2017-02-01

    More than 5,000 fatalities and eight million injuries occurred in the workplace in 2007 at a cost of $6 billion and $186 billion, respectively. Neurotoxic chemicals are known to affect central nervous system functions among workers, which include balance and hearing disorders. However, it is not known if there is an association between exposure to noise and solvents and acute injuries. A thorough review was conducted of the literature on the relationship between noise or solvent exposures and hearing loss with various health outcomes. The search resulted in 41 studies. Health outcomes included: hearing loss, workplace injuries, absence from work due to sickness, fatalities, hospital admissions due to workplace accidents, traffic accidents, hypertension, balance, slip, trips, or falls, cognitive measures, or disability retirement. Important covariates in these studies were age of employee, type of industry or occupation, or length of employment. Most authors that evaluated noise exposure concluded that higher exposure to noise resulted in more of the chosen health effect but the relationship is not well understood. Studies that evaluated hearing loss found that hearing loss was related to occupational injury, disability retirement, or traffic accidents. Studies that assessed both noise exposure and hearing loss as risk factors for occupational injuries reported that hearing loss was related to occupational injuries as much or more than noise exposure. Evidence suggests that solvent exposure is likely to be related to accidents or other health consequences such balance disorders. Many authors reported that noise exposures and hearing loss, respectively, are likely to be related to occupational accidents. Practical applications: The potential significance of the study is that findings could be used by managers to reduce injuries and the costs associated with those injures. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. The protective effect of lipid emulsion in preventing bupivacaine-induced mitochondrial injury and apoptosis of H9C2 cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Jin, Zhousheng; Xia, Yun; Zhao, Shishi; Xu, Xuzhong; Papadimos, Thomas J; Wang, Quanguang

    2017-11-01

    Lipid emulsion (LE) has been shown to be effective in the resuscitation of bupivacaine-induced cardiac arrest, but the precise mechanism of this action has not been fully elucidated. Pursuant to this lack of information on the mechanism in which LE protects the myocardium during bupivacaine-induced toxicity, we explored mitochondrial function and cell apoptosis. H9C2 cardiomyocytes were used in study. Cells were randomly divided in different groups and were cultivated 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h. The mitochondria were extracted and mitochondrial ATP content was measured, as was mitochondrial membrane potential, the concentration of calcium ion (Ca2+), and the activity of Ca2+-ATP enzyme (Ca2+-ATPase). Cells from groups Bup1000, LE group, and Bup1000LE were collected to determine cell viability, cell apoptosis, and electron microscopy scanning of mitochondrial ultrastructure (after 24 h). We found that LE can reverse the inhibition of the mitochondrial function induced by bupivacaine, regulate the concentration of calcium ion in mitochondria, resulting in the protection of myocardial cells from toxicity induced by bupivacaine.

  1. Injuries and allegations of oral rape: A retrospective review of patients presenting to a London sexual assault referral centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew-Graves, Emmeline; Morgan, Louise

    2015-08-01

    A retrospective review was carried out of patients seen at the Haven sexual assault referral centre in South East London between January 2009 and September 2010 to determine the frequency and nature of oral injuries found in people reporting oral rape. Ninety five eligible patients were identified and relevant information was extracted from standardised Haven forms completed during forensic medical examination. The main outcome measures were prevalence, type and location of oral injury. Eighteen (19%) were found to have sustained an oral injury. The most common injury was abrasions, followed by bruising and petechiae. The lips were the most common site of injury followed by the soft palate and the inside of the cheeks. It was concluded that injuries in the mouth were not common after an allegation of oral rape. Injuries were minor and did not require treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. Posttraumatic growth following acquired brain injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Louise Kinsella

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The idea that acquired brain injury (ABI caused by stroke, haemorrhage, infection or traumatic insult to the brain can result in posttraumatic growth (PTG for individuals is increasingly attracting psychological attention. However PTG also attracts controversy as a result of ambiguous empirical findings. The extent that demographic variables, injury factors, subjective beliefs, and psychological health are associated with PTG following ABI is not clear. Consequently, this systematic review and meta-analysis explores the correlates of variables within these four broad areas and PTG. From a total of 744 published studies addressing PTG in people with ABI, eight studies met inclusion criteria for detailed examination. Meta-analysis of these studies indicated that growth was related to employment, longer education, subjective beliefs about change post-injury, relationship status, older age, longer time since injury, and lower levels of depression. Results from homogeneity analyses indicated significant inter-study heterogeneity across variables. There is general support for the idea that people with ABI can experience growth, and that various demographics, injury-related variables, subjective beliefs and psychological health are related to growth. The contribution of social integration and the forming of new identities post-ABI to the experience of PTG is explored. These meta-analytic findings are however constrained by methodological limitations prevalent in the literature. Clinical and research implications are discussed with specific reference to community and collective factors that enable PTG.

  3. Minimal Evidence for a Secondary Loss of Strength After an Acute Muscle Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Gordon L.; Call, Jarrod A.; Farthing, Amy K.; Baadom-Piaro, Bemene

    2016-01-01

    Background An immediate loss of strength follows virtually all types of muscle injury but there is debate whether the initial strength loss is maximal or if a secondary loss of strength occurs during the first 3?days post-injury. Objective The objective of this analysis was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the research literature to determine if a secondary loss of strength occurs after an injurious initiating event. Methods Literature searches were performed using eight el...

  4. A Review of Back Injury Cases Notified to the Ministry of Manpower from 2011 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shiu Hong; Choy, Kenneth Ky

    2015-07-01

    In Singapore, the notification of workplace accidents and occupational diseases is a legal requirement under the Workplace Safety and Health (Incident Reporting) Regulations. This review is to identify back injury cases with physical work stresses and propose recommendations for preventive measures. Cases involving back injuries notified to the Ministry of Manpower (MOM) from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2012 were reviewed. Using predefined criteria, cases with physical work stresses were identified and the associated variables analysed. A total of 1124 notifications involving back injuries were received from 2011 to 2012; 579 cases (52%) were identified to have physical work stresses, of which 447 cases (77%) were males and 375 (64%) of them were between the ages of 21 to 40 years. The commonest physical work stresses were carrying (35%), awkward postures (22%) and lifting (20%). Majority of the cases came from the following sectors: construction (14%), accommodation and food services (12%), transport and storage (12%), manufacturing (10%) and wholesale and retail trade (10%). We identified the main physical work stresses in the back injury cases as carrying, awkward postures and lifting. The common industries involved were construction, accommodation and food services, and transport and storage sectors. This is useful for programmes aimed at reducing physical work stresses which can lead to improved work and health outcomes for our workers.

  5. Unexplained Absences and Risk of Death and Injury Among Nursing Home Residents: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolford, Marta H; Weller, Carolina; Ibrahim, Joseph E

    2017-04-01

    Unexplained absence of nursing home (NH) residents is one of the most challenging issues related to the care of older people. The aim of this review was to examine the death and injury outcomes of unexplained absence of NH residents. We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, AgeLine, and Cochrane Library to identify qualitative and quantitative studies published in the English language. Data on death and injury were collated, and aggregate proportions were calculated where possible. Nine studies were identified; most (n = 6) were conducted in the United States. Persons with dementia formed the study population in all studies. There were 1440 individual unexplained absences reported across the 9 studies. We calculated a rate of 82 deaths and 61 injuries per 1000 incidents of unexplained absence. Extreme temperatures were the most common cause of death. Most individuals left by foot, and were found within a 1-mile radius of place last seen in green vegetation and waterways. This review provides valuable insight into death and injury outcomes. Further studies are recommended to improve understanding and prevent adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk Factors Associated with Injury and Mortality from Paediatric Low Speed Vehicle Incidents: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Paul Anthikkat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study reviews modifiable risk factors associated with fatal and nonfatal injury from low-speed vehicle runover (LSVRO incidents involving children aged 0–15 years. Data Sources. Electronic searches for child pedestrian and driveway injuries from the peer-reviewed literature and transport-related websites from 1955 to 2012. Study Selection. 41 studies met the study inclusion criteria. Data Extraction. A systematic narrative summary was conducted that included study design, methodology, risk factors, and other study variables. Results. The most commonly reported risk factors for LSVRO incidents included age under 5 years, male gender, and reversing vehicles. The majority of reported incidents involved residential driveways, but several studies identified other traffic and nontraffic locations. Low socioeconomic status and rental accommodation were also associated with LSVRO injury. Vehicles were most commonly driven by a family member, predominantly a parent. Conclusion. There are a number of modifiable vehicular, environmental, and behavioural factors associated with LSVRO injuries in young children that have been identified in the literature to date. Strategies relating to vehicle design (devices for increased rearward visibility and crash avoidance systems, housing design (physical separation of driveway and play areas, and behaviour (driver behaviour, supervision of young children are discussed.

  7. Effective interventions for unintentional injuries: a systematic review and mortality impact assessment among the poorest billion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecino-Ortiz, Andres I; Jafri, Aisha; Hyder, Adnan A

    2018-05-01

    Between 1990 and 2015, the global injury mortality declined, but in countries where the poorest billion live, injuries are becoming an increasingly prevalent cause of death. The vulnerability of this population requires immediate attention from policy makers to implement effective interventions that lessen the burden of injuries in these countries. Our aim was two-fold; first, to review all the evidence on effective interventions for the five main types of unintentional injury; and second, to estimate the potential number of lives saved by effective injury interventions among the poorest billion. For our systematic review we used references in the Disability Control Priorities third edition, and searched PubMed and the Cochrane database for papers published until Sept 10, 2016, using a comprehensive search strategy to find interventions for the five major causes of unintentional injuries: road traffic crashes, falls, drowning, burns, and poisoning. Studies were included if they presented evidence with significant effects sizes for any outcome; no inclusions or exclusions made on the basis of where the study was carried out (ie, low-income, middle-income, or high-income country). Then we used data from the Global Burden of Disease 2015 study and a Monte Carlo simulation technique to estimate the potential annual attributable number of lives saved among the poorest billion by these evidence-based injury interventions. We estimated results for 84 countries where the poorest billion live. From the 513 papers identified, 47 were eligible for inclusion. We identified 11 interventions that had an effect on injury mortality. For road traffic deaths, the most successful interventions in preventing deaths are speed enforcement (>80 000 lives saved per year) and drink-driving enforcement (>60 000 lives saved per year). Interventions potentially most effective in preventing deaths from drowning are formal swimming lessons for children younger than 14 years (>25 000 lives

  8. Effective interventions for unintentional injuries: a systematic review and mortality impact assessment among the poorest billion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres I Vecino-Ortiz, PhD

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Between 1990 and 2015, the global injury mortality declined, but in countries where the poorest billion live, injuries are becoming an increasingly prevalent cause of death. The vulnerability of this population requires immediate attention from policy makers to implement effective interventions that lessen the burden of injuries in these countries. Our aim was two-fold; first, to review all the evidence on effective interventions for the five main types of unintentional injury; and second, to estimate the potential number of lives saved by effective injury interventions among the poorest billion. Methods: For our systematic review we used references in the Disability Control Priorities third edition, and searched PubMed and the Cochrane database for papers published until Sept 10, 2016, using a comprehensive search strategy to find interventions for the five major causes of unintentional injuries: road traffic crashes, falls, drowning, burns, and poisoning. Studies were included if they presented evidence with significant effects sizes for any outcome; no inclusions or exclusions made on the basis of where the study was carried out (ie, low-income, middle-income, or high-income country. Then we used data from the Global Burden of Disease 2015 study and a Monte Carlo simulation technique to estimate the potential annual attributable number of lives saved among the poorest billion by these evidence-based injury interventions. We estimated results for 84 countries where the poorest billion live. Findings: From the 513 papers identified, 47 were eligible for inclusion. We identified 11 interventions that had an effect on injury mortality. For road traffic deaths, the most successful interventions in preventing deaths are speed enforcement (>80 000 lives saved per year and drink-driving enforcement (>60 000 lives saved per year. Interventions potentially most effective in preventing deaths from drowning are formal swimming

  9. Genetics of mitochondrial dysfunction and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demain, L A M; Conway, G S; Newman, W G

    2017-02-01

    Increasingly, mitochondria are being recognized as having an important role in fertility. Indeed in assisted reproductive technologies mitochondrial function is a key indicator of sperm and oocyte quality. Here, we review the literature regarding mitochondrial genetics and infertility. In many multisystem disorders caused by mitochondrial dysfunction death occurs prior to sexual maturity, or the clinical features are so severe that infertility may be underreported. Interestingly, many of the genes linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and infertility have roles in the maintenance of mitochondrial DNA or in mitochondrial translation. Studies on populations with genetically uncharacterized infertility have highlighted an association with mitochondrial DNA deletions, whether this is causative or indicative of poor functioning mitochondria requires further examination. Studies on the impact of mitochondrial DNA variants present conflicting data but highlight POLG as a particularly interesting candidate gene for both male and female infertility. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Mitochondrial dysfunction in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Aline Haas; Costa, Ana Beatriz; Engel, Jéssica Della Giustina; Rezin, Gislaine Tezza

    2018-01-01

    Obesity leads to various changes in the body. Among them, the existing inflammatory process may lead to an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause oxidative stress. Oxidative stress, in turn, can trigger mitochondrial changes, which is called mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, excess nutrients supply (as it commonly is the case with obesity) can overwhelm the Krebs cycle and the mitochondrial respiratory chain, causing a mitochondrial dysfunction, and lead to a higher ROS formation. This increase in ROS production by the respiratory chain may also cause oxidative stress, which may exacerbate the inflammatory process in obesity. All these intracellular changes can lead to cellular apoptosis. These processes have been described in obesity as occurring mainly in peripheral tissues. However, some studies have already shown that obesity is also associated with changes in the central nervous system (CNS), with alterations in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and in cerebral structures such as hypothalamus and hippocampus. In this sense, this review presents a general view about mitochondrial dysfunction in obesity, including related alterations, such as inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis, and focusing on the whole organism, covering alterations in peripheral tissues, BBB, and CNS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Multifunctional Mitochondrial AAA Proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Steven E

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria perform numerous functions necessary for the survival of eukaryotic cells. These activities are coordinated by a diverse complement of proteins encoded in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes that must be properly organized and maintained. Misregulation of mitochondrial proteostasis impairs organellar function and can result in the development of severe human diseases. ATP-driven AAA+ proteins play crucial roles in preserving mitochondrial activity by removing and remodeling protein molecules in accordance with the needs of the cell. Two mitochondrial AAA proteases, i-AAA and m-AAA, are anchored to either face of the mitochondrial inner membrane, where they engage and process an array of substrates to impact protein biogenesis, quality control, and the regulation of key metabolic pathways. The functionality of these proteases is extended through multiple substrate-dependent modes of action, including complete degradation, partial processing, or dislocation from the membrane without proteolysis. This review discusses recent advances made toward elucidating the mechanisms of substrate recognition, handling, and degradation that allow these versatile proteases to control diverse activities in this multifunctional organelle.

  12. Interactive HIV-1 Tat and morphine-induced synaptodendritic injury is triggered through focal disruptions in Na⁺ influx, mitochondrial instability, and Ca²⁺ overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitting, Sylvia; Knapp, Pamela E; Zou, Shiping; Marks, William D; Bowers, M Scott; Akbarali, Hamid I; Hauser, Kurt F

    2014-09-17

    Synaptodendritic injury is thought to underlie HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders and contributes to exaggerated inflammation and cognitive impairment seen in opioid abusers with HIV-1. To examine events triggering combined transactivator of transcription (Tat)- and morphine-induced synaptodendritic injury systematically, striatal neuron imaging studies were conducted in vitro. These studies demonstrated nearly identical pathologic increases in dendritic varicosities as seen in Tat transgenic mice in vivo. Tat caused significant focal increases in intracellular sodium ([Na(+)]i) and calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) in dendrites that were accompanied by the emergence of dendritic varicosities. These effects were largely, but not entirely, attenuated by the NMDA and AMPA receptor antagonists MK-801 and CNQX, respectively. Concurrent morphine treatment accelerated Tat-induced focal varicosities, which were accompanied by localized increases in [Ca(2+)]i and exaggerated instability in mitochondrial inner membrane potential. Importantly, morphine's effects were prevented by the μ-opioid receptor antagonist CTAP and were not observed in neurons cultured from μ-opioid receptor knock-out mice. Combined Tat- and morphine-induced initial losses in ion homeostasis and increases in [Ca(2+)]i were attenuated by the ryanodine receptor inhibitor ryanodine, as well as pyruvate. In summary, Tat induced increases in [Na(+)]i, mitochondrial instability, excessive Ca(2+) influx through glutamatergic receptors, and swelling along dendrites. Morphine, acting via μ-opioid receptors, exacerbates these excitotoxic Tat effects at the same subcellular locations by mobilizing additional [Ca(2+)]i and by further disrupting [Ca(2+)]i homeostasis. We hypothesize that the spatiotemporal relationship of μ-opioid and aberrant AMPA/NMDA glutamate receptor signaling is critical in defining the location and degree to which opiates exacerbate the synaptodendritic injury commonly observed in neuro

  13. How Do People Stop Non-Suicidal Self-Injury? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummé, Tess Alexandra; Mildred, Helen; Knight, Tess

    2017-07-03

    The current paper reviews extant quantitative and qualitative literature into how Non-Suicidal Self-Injury cessation occurs, and individuals' experiences of stopping. Specific search criteria utilizing a PRISMA format were used across 5 databases, which resulted in 454 papers being identified. After utilizing exclusion criteria and then review, nine of the 454 papers identified were retained for extensive synthesis and critique. Results from 8 of the identified papers indicated that both intra and inter personal factors can influence self-injury cessation. These include: family support, self-esteem, emotional regulation, and professional help. Only 1 paper articulated a cessation process, describing it as a procedural event of developing interpersonal strength, then implementing alternative coping strategies. Limitations and implications of the studies are reported, concluding that further research is warranted to inform effective prevention and treatment strategies to ameliorate this growing public health concern.

  14. Vertebral Artery Dissection in a Bouncy Castle Injury: Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripa, Valeria; Urakov, Timur M; Jernigan, Sarah C

    2017-01-01

    There is an increased rate of injuries associated with activities on bouncy castles. The purpose of this article was to describe the case of a 6-year-old boy who sustained a brain infarct as a consequence of a left posterior inferior cerebellar artery dissection due to improper landing in a bouncy castle and who required a suboccipital craniotomy. The second goal was to outline the literature review regarding cervical trauma related to trampoline or bouncy castle accidents in pediatric populations. Based on the described case and reviewed studies, bouncy castle or any other activity resulting in hyperflexion or hyperextension of the neck should be carefully evaluated for cervical spine fractures and vascular injuries. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. The "sequence of prevention" for musculoskeletal injuries among adult recreational footballers: A systematic review of the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Ozgur; Kemler, Ellen; Gouttebarge, Vincent

    2018-02-02

    To gather epidemiological information related to all steps of Van Mechelen's "sequence of prevention" for musculoskeletal injuries among adult recreational football players. A systematic review of the scientific literature was conducted in Medline via Pubmed. Therefore, two highly sensitive search strategies based on three groups of keywords (and related search terms) were used. In total, 33 relevant original studies were included in our systematic review. The results of our systematic review showed that the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries among recreational adult football players ranged from 9.6 to 15.8 injuries per 1000 exposure hours. These injuries are especially located in the ankle, knee, groin and hamstring, being associated with previous injury and match exposure. The FIFA11 + injury prevention programme and the Nordic Hamstring Exercise (NHE) were found to be effective for the reduction or prevention of musculoskeletal injuries among adult recreational football players. Our systematic review showed that musculoskeletal injuries are common among recreational adult football players, while effective preventive programmes are available. Further studies should focus on the identification and understanding of the key factors responsible for the optimal adoption, implementation and maintenance of these measures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Anxiety and Depressive Disorders after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Annemieke C.; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Cnossen, Maryse C.; Olff, Miranda; van Beeck, Ed F.; Polinder, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    This review examined pre- and post-injury prevalence of, and risk factors for, anxiety disorders and depressive disorders after traumatic brain injury (TBI), based on evidence from structured diagnostic interviews. A systematic literature search was conducted in EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Central,

  17. The effects of upper body exercise on the physical capacity of people with a spinal cord injury: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valent, L.; Dallmeijer, A.J.; Houdijk, J.H.P.; Talsma, E.; van der Woude, L.H.V.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe the effects of upper body training on the physical capacity of people with a spinal cord injury. Data sources: The databases of PubMed, CINAHL, Sport Discus and Cochrane were searched from 1970 to May 2006. Review methods: The keywords 'spinal cord injury', 'paraplegia',

  18. Carotid Artery Injury in Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery: Multicenter Cohort Study and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    H?rtl, Roger; Alimi, Marjan; Abdelatif Boukebir, Mohamed; Berlin, Connor D.; Navarro-Ramirez, Rodrigo; Arnold, Paul M.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Mroz, Thomas E.; Riew, K. Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Study Design: Retrospective study and literature review. Objective: To provide more comprehensive data about carotid artery injury (CAI) or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) related to anterior cervical spine surgery. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, multicenter, case series study involving 21 high-volume surgical centers from the AOSpine North America Clinical Research Network. Medical records of 17?625 patients who went through cervical spine surgery (levels from C2 to C7) between Januar...

  19. Anterior cruciate ligament injury/reinjury in alpine ski racing: a narrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Matthew J; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Matthew J Jordan,1 Per Aagaard,2 Walter Herzog1 1Human Performance Laboratory, The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, SDU Muscle Research Cluster (SMRC), University of Southern Denmark, Odense M, Denmark Abstract: The purpose of the present review was to: 1) provide an overview of the current understanding on the epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and prevention methods for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in alpine ...

  20. Quality improvement program reduces perioperative dental injuries – A review of 64,718 anesthetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Yi-Wei; Lu, I-Cheng; Yang, Hui-Ying; Chiu, Shun-Li; Hsu, Hung-Te; Cheng, Kuang-I

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perioperative dental injury (PDI) is a common adverse event associated with anesthesia that can easily lead to medicolegal litigation. A quality improvement program was conducted with the electronic, standardized dental chart to document dentition before anesthesia and dentist consultation when necessary. This study aimed to reduce PDIs through execution of a quality improvement program. Methods: We reviewed the 42-month interval anesthetic records of 64,718 patients who underw...

  1. Factors associated with self-esteem following acquired brain injury in adults : a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Curvis, Will; Simpson, Jane; Hampson, Natalie

    2018-01-01

    Self-esteem is potentially a key factor in psychological and psychosocial well-being following acquired brain injury (ABI). The current review aimed to identify, synthesise and appraise all existing quantitative empirical studies on predictors or correlates of self-esteem following ABI in adulthood. In total, 27 papers met the inclusion criteria. A range of clinical factors were related to self-esteem after ABI, including the degree of physical and functional impairment. It is unclear if cogn...

  2. Prevention of Venous Thrombotic Events in Brain Injury: Review of Current Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Glassner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolic event after traumatic brain injury represents a unique clinical challenge. Physicians must balance appropriate timing of chemoprophylaxis with risk of increased cerebral hemorrhage. Despite an increase in the literature since the 1990s, there are clear disparities in treatment strategies. This review discusses the prominent studies and subsequent findings regarding the topic with an attempt to establish recommendations using the existing evidence-based literature.

  3. Participation in recreation and sports for persons with spinal cord injury: review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Daniel; Meade, Michelle A

    2004-01-01

    Recreation and sports following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) are beneficial, but under-studied, aspects of community integration. Previous studies have shown that sports and recreation can offer numerous physiological and psychological benefits to those who participate. This manuscript critically reviews available literature focused upon participation in recreation and sports among persons with SCI. Issues of participation, technology and safety are discussed and recommendations are provided.

  4. Direct, indirect and intangible costs of acute hand and wrist injuries: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Luke Steven; Sarkies, Mitchell; Brown, Ted; O'Brien, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    Injuries sustained to the hand and wrist are common, accounting for 20% of all emergency presentations. The economic burden of these injuries, comprised of direct (medical expenses incurred), indirect (value of lost productivity) and intangible costs, can be extensive and rise sharply with the increase of severity. This paper systematically reviews cost-of-illness studies and health economic evaluations of acute hand and wrist injuries with a particular focus on direct, indirect and intangible costs. It aims to provide economic cost estimates of burden and discuss the cost components used in international literature. A search of cost-of-illness studies and health economic evaluations of acute hand and wrist injuries in various databases was conducted. Data extracted for each included study were: design, population, intervention, and estimates and measurement methodologies of direct, indirect and intangible costs. Reported costs were converted into US-dollars using historical exchange rates and then adjusted into 2015 US-dollars using an inflation calculator RESULTS: The search yielded 764 studies, of which 21 met the inclusion criteria. Twelve studies were cost-of-illness studies, and seven were health economic evaluations. The methodology used to derive direct, indirect and intangible costs differed markedly across all studies. Indirect costs represented a large portion of total cost in both cost-of-illness studies [64.5% (IQR 50.75-88.25)] and health economic evaluations [68% (IQR 49.25-73.5)]. The median total cost per case of all injury types was US$6951 (IQR $3357-$22,274) for cost-of-illness studies and US$8297 (IQR $3858-$33,939) for health economic evaluations. Few studies reported intangible cost data associated with acute hand and wrist injuries. Several studies have attempted to estimate the direct, indirect and intangible costs associated with acute hand and wrist injuries in various countries using heterogeneous methodologies. Estimates of the economic

  5. Association between sports type and overuse injuries of extremities in children and adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chéron, Charlène; Le Scanff, Christine; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Sporting activities can cause injuries and overuse injuries of the extremities (OIE) in children have been shown to be more common than injuries caused by trauma. The lower extremity is more frequently affected than the upper extremity in OIE, but it is not known whether injury site and diagnosis vary in different sporting activities. To identify any differences between sports in relation to diagnoses and anatomical areas most likely to be injured. A search was made in November 2014 and again in June 2016 in PubMed, SportDiscus, PsycInfo and Web of Sciences. Search terms were: « overuse injuries OR cumulative trauma disorders OR musculoskeletal injuries » AND « extremity OR limb » AND « physical activity OR sport OR risk factor OR predictors OR exercises » AND « child OR adolescent OR young adults ». Inclusion criteria were: 1) prospective, retrospective, or cross-sectional study design; 2) age ≤19 years; 3) the articles must clearly state if reported cases were classified as traumatic or overuse injuries; 4) reporting on OIE in relation to a particular sports type, and 5) sample size >50. A blinded systematic review was conducted. In all, nine of the 736 identified articles were included, studying soccer, handball, orienteering, running, dance, and gymnastics. The incidence of OIE was given only in a few articles but at least the site and diagnosis of OIE were identifiable. The lower limb is more often affected than the upper in all sports covered, and, in general, the lower leg and knee are the two most often affected areas. However, in handball, the elbow was the second most often reported area, and in gymnastics injuries of the foot appeared to be more frequent than in the other sports. No differences in diagnoses were observed between sports types. Our work contributes new information, namely that the site of OIE in children and adolescents appears to vary only somewhat between different types of sports. Further well-designed surveillance studies

  6. How effective are exercise-based injury prevention programmes for soccer players? : A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beijsterveldt, A M C; van der Horst, Nick; van de Port, Ingrid G L; Backx, Frank J G

    2013-04-01

    The incidence of soccer (football) injuries is among the highest in sports. Despite this high rate, insufficient evidence is available on the efficacy of preventive training programmes on injury incidence. To systematically study the evidence on preventive exercise-based training programmes to reduce the incidence of injuries in soccer. The databases EMBASE/MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of controlled trials, PEDro and SPORTDiscus™ were searched for relevant articles, from inception until 20 December 2011. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the PEDro scale. The inclusion criteria for this review were (1) randomized controlled trials or controlled clinical trials; (2) primary outcome of the study is the number of soccer injuries and/or injury incidence; (3) intervention focusing on a preventive training programme, including a set of exercises aimed at improving strength, coordination, flexibility or agility; and (4) study sample of soccer players (no restrictions as to level of play, age or sex). The exclusion criteria were: (1) the article was not available as full text; (2) the article was not published in English, German or Dutch; and (3) the trial and/or training programme relates only to specific injuries and/or specific joints. To compare the effects of the different interventions, we calculated the incidence risk ratio (IRR) for each study. Six studies involving a total of 6,099 participants met the inclusion criteria. The results of the included studies were contradictory. Two of the six studies (one of high and one of moderate quality) reported a statistical significant reduction in terms of their primary outcome, i.e. injuries overall. Four of the six studies described an overall preventive effect (IRRbased programmes to prevent soccer injuries. Some reasons for the contradictory findings could be different study samples (in terms of sex and soccer type) in the included studies, differences between

  7. Acute diagnostic biomarkers for spinal cord injury: review of the literature and preliminary research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokobori, Shoji; Zhang, Zhiqun; Moghieb, Ahmed; Mondello, Stefania; Gajavelli, Shyam; Dietrich, W Dalton; Bramlett, Helen; Hayes, Ronald L; Wang, Michael; Wang, Kevin K W; Bullock, M Ross

    2015-05-01

    Many efforts have been made to create new diagnostic technologies for use in the diagnosis of central nervous system injury. However, there is still no consensus for the use of biomarkers in clinical acute spinal cord injury (SCI). The aims of this review are (1) to evaluate the current status of neurochemical biomarkers and (2) to discuss their potential acute diagnostic role in SCI by reviewing the literature. PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed) was searched up to 2012 to identify publications concerning diagnostic biomarkers in SCI. To support more knowledge, we also checked secondary references in the primarily retrieved literature. Neurofilaments, cleaved-Tau, microtubule-associated protein 2, myelin basic protein, neuron-specific enolase, S100β, and glial fibrillary acidic protein were identified as structural protein biomarkers in SCI by this review process. We could not find reports relating ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 and α-II spectrin breakdown products, which are widely researched in other central nervous system injuries. Therefore, we present our preliminary data relating to these two biomarkers. Some of biomarkers showed promising results for SCI diagnosis and outcome prediction; however, there were unresolved issues relating to accuracy and their accessibility. Currently, there still are not many reports focused on diagnostic biomarkers in SCI. This fact warranted the need for greater efforts to innovate sensitive and reliable biomarkers for SCI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Medical-attention injuries in community Australian football: a review of 30 years of surveillance data from treatment sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekegren, Christina L; Gabbe, Belinda J; Finch, Caroline F

    2015-03-01

    In recent reports, Australian football has outranked other team sports in the frequency of hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) presentations. Understanding the profile of these and other "medical-attention" injuries is vital for developing preventive strategies that can reduce health costs. The objective of this review was to describe the frequency and profile of Australian football injuries presenting for medical attention. A systematic search was carried out to identify peer-reviewed articles and reports presenting original data about Australian football injuries from treatment sources (hospitals, EDs, and health-care clinics). Data extracted included injury frequency and rate, body region, and nature and mechanism of injury. Following literature search and review, 12 publications were included. In most studies, Australian football contributed the greatest number of injuries out of any sport or recreation activity. Hospitals and EDs reported a higher proportion of upper limb than lower limb injuries, whereas the opposite was true for sports medicine clinics. In hospitals, fractures and dislocations were most prevalent out of all injuries. In EDs and clinics, sprains/strains were most common in adults and superficial injuries were predominant in children. Most injuries resulted from contact with other players or falling. The upper limb was the most commonly injured body region for Australian football presentations to hospitals and EDs. Strategies to prevent upper limb injuries could reduce associated public health costs. However, to understand the full extent of the injury problem in football, treatment source surveillance systems should be supplemented with other datasets, including community club-based collections.

  9. The Relationship Between Muscular Strength and Dance Injuries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moita, João P; Nunes, Alexandre; Esteves, José; Oliveira, Raul; Xarez, Luis

    2017-03-01

    The physical demands placed on dancers put them at significant risk for injury, with rates similar to ones sustained by athletes in sports at the same level of performance. Muscle strength has been suggested to play a preventative role against injury in dancers. To systematically search and examine the available evidence on the protective role of muscle strength in dance injuries. Five electronic databases and two dance-specific science publications were screened up to September 2015. Study selection was based on a priori inclusion criteria on the relation between muscle strength components and injuries. Methodologic quality and level of evidence were assessed using the Downs and Black (DB) checklist and the Oxford Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine (OCEBM) 2011 model. From 186 titles found, only 8 studies met the inclusion criteria and were considered for review. Because of the significant heterogeneity of the included studies, meta-analysis was deemed inappropriate. The DB quality assessment results ranged from 18.7% to 75% (mean 42.3±16.9) and the OCEBM between 2b and 4. Some level 2b evidence from 2 studies suggested that pre-professional ballet dancers who get injured exhibit lower overall muscle strength scores on the lower extremity, and that lower extremity power gains may be associated with decreased bodily pain but not injury rate. Although there might be an association trend toward low muscle strength and dance injuries, the nature of that relation remains unclear, and presently the state of knowledge does not provide a solid basis for designing interventions for prevention.

  10. Early versus Late Decompression for Traumatic Spinal Cord Injuries; a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Yousefifard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the vast number of surveys, no consensus has been reached on the optimum timing of spinal decompression surgery. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare the effects of early and late spinal decompression surgery on neurologic improvement and post-surgical complications in patients with traumatic spinal cord injuries.Methods: Two independent reviewers carried out an extended search in electronic databases. Data of neurological outcome and post-surgery complication were extracted. Finally, pooled relative risk (RR with a 95% confidence interval (CI was reported for comparing of efficacy of early and late surgical decompression.Results: Eventually 22 studies were included. The pooled RR was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.68-0.89 for at least one grade neurological improvement, and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.77-0.92 for at least two grade improvement. Pooled RR for surgical decompression performed within 12 hours after the injury was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.13-0.52; p<0.001, while it was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.63-0.90; p=0.002 when the procedure was performed within 24 hours, and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.76-1.14; p=0.48 when it was carried out in the first 72 hours after the injury. Surgical decompression performed within 24 hours after injury was found to be associated with significantly lower rates of post-surgical complications (RR=0.77; 95% CI: 0.68-0.86; p<0.001.Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that early spinal decompression surgery can improve neurologic recovery and is associated with less post-surgical complications. The optimum efficacy is observed when the procedure is performed within 12 hours of the injury.

  11. Using Virtual Reality and Videogames for Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation: A Structured Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Eva; Pullman, Stephen; McGuire, Annabel

    2014-08-01

    This article reviews the available literature about the use of novel methods of rehabilitation using virtual reality interventions for people living with posttraumatic brain injuries. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and Cochrane Library databases were searched using the terms "virtual reality" OR "video games" AND "traumatic brain injury." Included studies investigated therapeutic use of virtual reality in adults with a brain trauma resulting from acquired closed head injury, reported outcomes that included measures of motor or cognitive functionality, and were published in a peer-reviewed journal written in English. Eighteen articles fulfilled inclusion criteria. Eight were case studies, five studies had a quasi-experimental design with a pre-post comparison, and five were pilot randomized control trials or comparative studies. The virtual reality systems used were commercial or custom designed for the study and ranged from expensive, fully immersive systems to cheap online games or videogames. In before-after comparisons, improvements in balance were seen in four case studies and two small randomized control trials. Between-group comparisons in these randomized control trials showed no difference between virtual reality and traditional therapy. Post-training improvements were also seen for upper extremity functions (five small studies) and for various cognitive function measures (four case studies and one pilot randomized control trial). Attitudes of participants toward virtual reality interventions was more positive than for traditional therapy (three studies). The evidence that the use of virtual reality in rehabilitation of traumatic brain injury improves motor and cognitive functionality is currently very limited. However, this approach has the potential to provide alternative, possibly more affordable and available rehabilitation therapy for traumatic brain injury in settings where access to therapy is limited by geographical or financial constraints.

  12. Social differences in traffic injury risks in childhood and youth--a literature review and a research agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laflamme, L; Diderichsen, Finn

    2000-01-01

    The paper reviews the scientific literature concerning social differences in traffic injuries in childhood in order to highlight the current state of knowledge and to draw the main lines of a research agenda....

  13. Hospital- and community-based interventions enhancing (re) employment for people with spinal cord injury : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roels, E. H.; Aertgeerts, B.; Ramaekers, D.; Peers, K.

    Study design: Systematic Review. Objectives: To investigate the effect of interventions enhancing (re) employment following spinal cord injury (SCI). Setting: Studies from multiple countries were included. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), CINAHL,

  14. What should an ideal spinal injury classification system consist of? A methodological review and conceptual proposal for future classifications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, J.J. van; Audige, L.; Hanson, B.; Chapman, J.R.; Hosman, A.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Since Bohler published the first categorization of spinal injuries based on plain radiographic examinations in 1929, numerous classifications have been proposed. Despite all these efforts, however, only a few have been tested for reliability and validity. This methodological, conceptual review

  15. A Review of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Findings in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenton, ME; Hamoda, HM; Schneiderman, JS; Bouix, S; Pasternak, O; Rathi, Y; M-A, Vu; Purohit, MP; Helmer, K; Koerte, I; Lin, AP; C-F, Westin; Kikinis, R; Kubicki, M; Stern, RA; Zafonte, R

    2013-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), also referred to as concussion, remains a controversial diagnosis because the brain often appears quite normal on conventional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Such conventional tools, however, do not adequately depict brain injury in mTBI because they are not sensitive to detecting diffuse axonal injuries (DAI), also described as traumatic axonal injuries (TAI), the major brain injuries in mTBI. Furthermore, for the 15 to 30% of those diagnosed with mTBI on the basis of cognitive and clinical symptoms, i.e., the “miserable minority,” the cognitive and physical symptoms do not resolve following the first three months post-injury. Instead, they persist, and in some cases lead to long-term disability. The explanation given for these chronic symptoms, i.e., postconcussive syndrome, particularly in cases where there is no discernible radiological evidence for brain injury, has led some to posit a psychogenic origin. Such attributions are made all the easier since both post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression are frequently co-morbid with mTBI. The challenge is thus to use neuroimaging tools that are sensitive to DAI/TAI, such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), in order to detect brain injuries in mTBI. Of note here, recent advances in neuroimaging techniques, such as DTI, make it possible to characterize better extant brain abnormalities in mTBI. These advances may lead to the development of biomarkers of injury, as well as to staging of reorganization and reversal of white matter changes following injury, and to the ability to track and to characterize changes in brain injury over time. Such tools will likely be used in future research to evaluate treatment efficacy, given their enhanced sensitivity to alterations in the brain. In this article we review the incidence of mTBI and the importance of characterizing this patient population using objective radiological measures. Evidence

  16. Technical Packages in Injury and Violence Prevention to Move Evidence into Practice: Systematic Reviews and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegerich, Tamara M.; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Noonan, Rita K.; Manns, Brian J.; Billie, Holly C.

    2016-01-01

    Injury and violence prevention strategies have greater potential for impact when they are based on scientific evidence. Systematic reviews of the scientific evidence can contribute key information about which policies and programs might have the greatest impact when implemented. However, systematic reviews have limitations, such as lack of implementation guidance and contextual information, that can limit the application of knowledge. “Technical packages,” developed by knowledge brokers such as the federal government, nonprofit agencies, and academic institutions, have the potential to be an efficient mechanism for making information from systematic reviews actionable. Technical packages provide information about specific evidence-based prevention strategies, along with the estimated costs and impacts, and include accompanying implementation and evaluation guidance to facilitate adoption, implementation, and performance measurement. We describe how systematic reviews can inform the development of technical packages for practitioners, provide examples of technical packages in injury and violence prevention, and explain how enhancing review methods and reporting could facilitate the use and applicability of scientific evidence. PMID:27604301

  17. Sport-related structural brain injury associated with arachnoid cysts: a systematic review and quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Scott L; Prather, Colin T; Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Solomon, Gary S; Sills, Allen K; Bonfield, Christopher M

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Arachnoid cysts (ACs) are congenital lesions bordered by an arachnoid membrane. Researchers have postulated that individuals with an AC demonstrate a higher rate of structural brain injury after trauma. Given the potential neurological consequences of a structural brain injury requiring neurosurgical intervention, the authors sought to perform a systematic review of sport-related structural-brain injury associated with ACs with a corresponding quantitative analysis. METHODS Titles and abstracts were searched systematically across the following databases: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. The review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Peer-reviewed case reports, case series, or observational studies that reported a structural brain injury due to a sport or recreational activity (hereafter referred to as sport-related) with an associated AC were included. Patients were excluded if they did not have an AC, suffered a concussion without structural brain injury, or sustained the injury during a non-sport-related activity (e.g., fall, motor vehicle collision). Descriptive statistical analysis and time to presentation data were summarized. Univariate logistic regression models to assess predictors of neurological deficit, open craniotomy, and cystoperitoneal shunt were completed. RESULTS After an initial search of 994 original articles, 52 studies were found that reported 65 cases of sport-related structural brain injury associated with an AC. The median age at presentation was 16 years (range 4-75 years). Headache was the most common presenting symptom (98%), followed by nausea and vomiting in 49%. Thirteen patients (21%) presented with a neurological deficit, most commonly hemiparesis. Open craniotomy was the most common form of treatment (49%). Bur holes and cyst fenestration were performed in 29 (45%) and 31 (48%) patients, respectively. Seven patients (11%) received

  18. Definitions and methods of measuring and reporting on injurious falls in randomised controlled fall prevention trials: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwenk Michael

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The standardisation of the assessment methodology and case definition represents a major precondition for the comparison of study results and the conduction of meta-analyses. International guidelines provide recommendations for the standardisation of falls methodology; however, injurious falls have not been targeted. The aim of the present article was to review systematically the range of case definitions and methods used to measure and report on injurious falls in randomised controlled trials (RCTs on fall prevention. Methods An electronic literature search of selected comprehensive databases was performed to identify injurious falls definitions in published trials. Inclusion criteria were: RCTs on falls prevention published in English, study population ≥ 65 years, definition of injurious falls as a study endpoint by using the terms "injuries" and "falls". Results The search yielded 2089 articles, 2048 were excluded according to defined inclusion criteria. Forty-one articles were included. The systematic analysis of the methodology applied in RCTs disclosed substantial variations in the definition and methods used to measure and document injurious falls. The limited standardisation hampered comparability of study results. Our results also highlight that studies which used a similar, standardised definition of injurious falls showed comparable outcomes. Conclusions No standard for defining, measuring, and documenting injurious falls could be identified among published RCTs. A standardised injurious falls definition enhances the comparability of study results as demonstrated by a subgroup of RCTs used a similar definition. Recommendations for standardising the methodology are given in the present review.

  19. Prevention of groin injuries in sports: a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, E; Rathleff, M S; Bagur-Calafat, C; Urrútia, G; Thorborg, K

    2015-06-01

    Groin injuries are common in football and ice hockey, and previous groin injury is a strong risk factor for future groin injuries, which calls for primary prevention. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of specific groin-injury prevention programmes in sports. A comprehensive search was performed in May 2014 yielding 1747 potentially relevant references. Two independent assessors evaluated randomised controlled trials for inclusion, extracted data and performed quality assessments using Cochrane's risk of bias tool. Quantitative analyses were performed in Review Manager 5.3. Seven trials were included: six on football players (four male and two female populations) and one on male handball players. In total there were 4191 participants with a total of 157 injuries. The primary analysis, including all participants, did not show a significant reduction in the number of groin injuries after completing a groin injury prevention programme (relative risk (RR) 0.81; 95% CI 0.60 to 1.09). Subgroup analysis based on type of sports, gender and type of prevention programme showed similar non-significant estimates with RR ranging from 0.48 to 0.81. Meta-analysis revealed a potential clinically meaningful groin injury reduction of 19%, even though no statistical significant reduction in sport-related groin injuries could be documented. PROSPERO registration ID CRD42014009614. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Association between sports type and overuse injuries of extremities in adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chéron, Charlène; Le Scanff, Christine; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Sports injuries are often described as overuse or traumatic. Little is known about the frequency of overuse injuries and, in particular, if they vary between different types of sporting activities. To identify any differences between sports in relation to diagnoses of overuse injuries of the extremities (OIE) and anatomical areas most likely to be injured in adults and to compare these findings with those reported in youngsters, as identified in a previous review. A search was made in May 2015 and again in April 2016 in PubMed, SportDiscus, PsycInfo, and Web of Sciences. Search terms were « overuse injuries OR cumulative trauma disorders OR musculoskeletal injuries » AND « extremity OR limb » AND « physical activity OR sport OR risk factor OR exercises ». Inclusion criteria were: 1) prospective, or cross-sectional study design; 2) at least 1/3 of the population should be ≥ 19 years; 3) articles must clearly state if reported cases were classified as traumatic or overuse injuries in relation to a particular sports type, 4) sample size >50, and 5) articles must not deal with specific occupational subpopulations nor with clinical populations. A blinded systematic review was conducted and results reported per anatomical site of injury and diagnosis for the different sports. In all, 10 of 1435 identified articles were included, studying soccer, beach-volleyball and triathlon. In general, the incidence estimates were low, never above 2.0/1000 h of practice, similar to results seen in children/adolescents. The incidence estimates and the diagnoses of OIE were given only in 4 articles on soccer, making comparisons between sports impossible. As in children/adolescents, the lower limb is more often affected than the upper but contrary to young people the injured site in adults is more often the knee and above, and there were also differences in the diagnoses for the two age groups. The literature does not permit to identify clearly the difference in the

  1. Endometrial injury to overcome recurrent embryo implantation failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potdar, Neelam; Gelbaya, Tarek; Nardo, Luciano G

    2012-12-01

    Mechanical endometrial injury (biopsy/scratch or hysteroscopy) in the cycle preceding ovarian stimulation for IVF has been proposed to improve implantation in women with unexplained recurrent implantation failure (RIF). This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing the efficacy of endometrial injury versus no intervention in women with RIF undergoing IVF. All controlled studies of endometrial biopsy/scratch or hysteroscopy performed in the cycle preceding ovarian stimulation were included and the primary outcome measure was clinical pregnancy rate. Pooling of seven controlled studies (four randomized and three non-randomized), with 2062 participants, showed that local endometrial injury induced in the cycle preceding ovarian stimulation is 70% more likely to result in a clinical pregnancy as opposed to no intervention. There was no statistically significant heterogeneity in the methods used, clinical pregnancy rates being twice as high with biopsy/scratch (RR 2.32, 95% CI 1.72-3.13) as opposed to hysteroscopy (RR 1.51, 95% CI 1.30-1.75). The evidence is strongly in favour of inducing local endometrial injury in the preceding cycle of ovarian stimulation to improve pregnancy outcomes in women with unexplained RIF. However, large randomized studies are required before iatrogenic induction of local endometrial injury can be warranted in routine clinical practice. Some women undergoing IVF treatment fail to conceive despite several attempts with good-quality embryos and no identifiable reason. We call this 'recurrent implantation failure' (RIF) where the embryo fails to embed or implant within the lining of the womb. Studies have shown that inducing injury to the lining of the womb in the cycle before starting ovarian stimulation for IVF can help improve the chances of achieving pregnancy. Injury can be induced by either scratching the lining of the womb using a biopsy tube or by telescopic investigation of the womb using a camera. We performed a

  2. Extreme weather events in developing countries and related injuries and mental health disorders - a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Rataj

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to climate change, extreme weather events have an incremental impact on human health. Injuries and mental health disorders are a particular burden of disease, which is broadly investigated in high income countries. Most distressed populations are, however, those in developing countries. Therefore, this study investigates mental and physical health impacts arising from extreme weather events in these populations. Method Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, injury [primary outcomes], anxiety and depressive disorders [secondary outcomes], caused by weather extremes were systematically analyzed in people of developing countries. A systematic review of observational studies was conducted searching six databases, complemented by hand search, and utilizing two search engines. Review processing was done independently by two reviewers. Prevalence rates were analyzed in a pre/post design; an additional semi-structured search was conducted, to provide reference data for studies not incorporating reference values. Results All 17 identified studies (70,842 individuals indicate a disease increase, compared to the reference data. Increase ranges from 0.7–52.6 % for PTSD, and from 0.3–37.3 % for injury. No studies on droughts and heatwaves were identified. All studies were conducted in South America and Asia. Conclusion There is an increased burden of psychological diseases and injury. This finding needs to be incorporated into activities of prevention, preparedness and general health care of those developing countries increasingly experiencing extreme weather events. There is also a gap in research in Africa (in quantity and quality of studies in this field and a predominant heterogeneity of health assessment tools. PROSPERO registration no.: CRD42014009109

  3. Revisited: A Systematic Review of Therapeutic Hypothermia for Adult Patients Following Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Hannah I; Shepherd, Andrew A; Rhodes, Jonathan K J; Andrews, Peter J D

    2018-06-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia has been of topical interest for many years and with the publication of two international, multicenter randomized controlled trials, the evidence base now needs updating. The aim of this systematic review of randomized controlled trials is to assess the efficacy of therapeutic hypothermia in adult traumatic brain injury focusing on mortality, poor outcomes, and new pneumonia. The following databases were searched from January 1, 2011, to January 26, 2018: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial, MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE. Only foreign articles published in the English language were included. Only articles that were randomized controlled trials investigating adult traumatic brain injury sustained following an acute, closed head injury were included. Two authors independently assessed at each stage. Quality was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias. All extracted data were combined using the Mantel-Haenszel estimator for pooled risk ratio with 95% CIs. p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. All statistical analyses were conducted using RevMan 5 (Cochrane Collaboration, Version 5.3, Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2014). Twenty-two studies with 2,346 patients are included. Randomized controlled trials with a low risk of bias show significantly more mortality in the therapeutic hypothermia group (risk ratio, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.04-1.79; p = 0.02), whereas randomized controlled trials with a high risk of bias show the opposite with a higher mortality in the control group (risk ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.60-0.82; p < 0.00001). Overall, this review is in-keeping with the conclusions published by the most recent randomized controlled trials. High-quality studies show no significant difference in mortality, poor outcomes, or new pneumonia. In addition, this review shows a place for fever control in the management of traumatic brain injury.

  4. Mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns and vascular function†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenceslau, Camilla Ferreira; McCarthy, Cameron G.; Szasz, Theodora; Spitler, Kathryn; Goulopoulou, Styliani; Webb, R. Clinton

    2014-01-01

    Immune system activation occurs not only due to foreign stimuli, but also due to endogenous molecules. As such, endogenous molecules that are released into the circulation due to cell death and/or injury alarm the immune system that something has disturbed homeostasis and a response is needed. Collectively, these molecules are known as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Mitochondrial DAMPs (mtDAMPs) are potent immunological activators due to the bacterial ancestry of mitochondria. Mitochondrial DAMPs are recognized by specific pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system, some of which are expressed in the cardiovascular system. Cell death leads to release of mtDAMPs that may induce vascular changes by mechanisms that are currently not well understood. This review will focus on recently published evidence linking mtDAMPs and immune system activation to vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24569027

  5. Imaging and transcatheter arterial embolization for traumatic splenic injuries: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikhlin, Antony; Baerlocher, Mark Otto; Asch, Murray R; Myers, Andy

    2008-12-01

    The spleen is the most commonly injured visceral organ in blunt abdominal trauma in both adults and children. Nonoperative management is the current standard of practice for patients who are hemodynamically stable. However, simple observation alone has been reported to have a failure rate as high as 34%; the rate is even higher among patients with high-grade splenic injuries (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma [AAST] grade III-V). Over the past decade, angiography with transcatheter splenic artery embolization, an alternative nonoperative treatment for splenic injuries, has increased splenic salvage rates to as high as 97%. With the help of splenic artery embolization, success rates of more than 80% have also been described for high-grade splenic injuries. We discuss the role of computed tomography and transcatheter splenic artery embolization in the diagnosis and treatment of blunt splenic trauma. We review technical considerations, indications, efficacy and complication rates. We also propose an algorithm to guide the use of angiography and splenic embolization in patients with traumatic splenic injury.

  6. Computational modeling of blast induced whole-body injury: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Arnab; Callaway, Christian

    2018-02-01

    Blast injuries affect millions of lives across the globe due to its traumatic after effects on the brain and the whole body. To date, military grade armour materials are designed to mitigate ballistic and shrapnel attacks but are less effective in resisting blast impacts. In order to improve blast absorption characteristics of armours, the first key step is thoroughly understands the effects of blasts on the human body itself. In the last decade, a plethora of experimental and computational work has been carried out to investigate the mechanics and pathophysiology of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). However, very few attempts have been made so far to study the effect of blasts on the various other parts of the body such as the sensory organs (eyes and ears), nervous system, thorax, extremities, internal organs (such as the lungs) and the skeletal system. While an experimental evaluation of blast effects on such physiological systems is difficult, developing finite element (FE) models could allow the recreation of realistic blast scenarios on full scale human models and simulate the effects. The current article reviews the state-of-the-art in computational research in blast induced whole-body injury modelling, which would not only help in identifying the areas in which further research is required, but would also be indispensable for understanding body location specific armour design criteria for improved blast injury mitigation.

  7. Prevalence and profile of musculoskeletal injuries in ballet dancers: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Toby O; Davies, Leigh; de Medici, Akbar; Hakim, Allan; Haddad, Fares; Macgregor, Alex

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and anatomical regions which are most frequently injured in ballet dancers. Published (AMED, CiNAHL, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, psycINFO, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library) and grey literature databases (OpenGrey, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Current Controlled Trials and the UK National Research Register Archive) were searched from their inception to 25th May 2015 for papers presenting data on injury prevalence in ballet dancers. Two reviewers independently identified all eligible papers, data extracted and critically appraised studies. Study appraisal was conducted using the CASP appraisal tool. Pooled prevalence data with 95% confidence intervals were estimated to determine period prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and anatomical regions affected. Nineteen studies were eligible, reporting 7332 injuries in 2617 ballet dancers. The evidence was moderate in quality. Period prevalence of musculoskeletal injury was 280% (95% CI: 217-343%). The most prevalent musculoskeletal disorders included: hamstring strain (51%), ankle tendinopathy (19%) and generalized low back pain (14%). No papers explored musculoskeletal disorders in retired ballet dancers. Whilst we have identified which regions and what musculoskeletal disorders are commonly seen ballet dancers. The long-term injury impact of musculoskeletal disorders in retired ballet dancers remains unknown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Camel-related pancreatico-duodenal injuries: a report of three cases and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Zidan, F M; Hefny, A F; Mousa, H; Torab, F C; Hassan, I

    2013-09-01

    Human pancreatico-duodenal injuries caused by camels are extremely rare. We report three patients who sustained camel-related pancreatico-duodenal injuries and review the literature on this topic. A 32-year camel caregiver was kicked by a camel which then stepped on his abdomen trying to kill him. The patient's abdomen was soft and lax. CT scan of the abdomen showed free retroperitoneal air. Laparotomy revealed a complete tear of the anterior wall of the second part of duodenum which was primarily repaired. A 40-year camel caregiver was directly kicked into his abdomen by a camel. He developed traumatic pancreatitis which was treated conservatively. A 31-year-old male fell down on his abdomen while riding a camel. Abdominal examination revealed tenderness and guarding. Abdominal CT Scan showed complete transection of the neck of the pancreas which was confirmed by laparotomy. The patient had distal pancreatectomy with preservation of the spleen. All patients were discharged home in good condition. These cases demonstrate the misleading presentation of the camel-related pancreatico-duodenal injuries and their unique mechanism of injury.

  9. Evidence-based outcomes following inferior alveolar and lingual nerve injury and repair: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnerev, E; Yates, J M

    2015-10-01

    The inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) and lingual (LN) are susceptible to iatrogenic surgical damage. Systematically review recent clinical evidence regarding IAN/LN repair methods and to develop updated guidelines for managing injury. Recent publications on IAN/LN microsurgical repair from Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were screened by title/abstract. Main texts were appraised for exclusion criteria: no treatment performed or results provided, poor/lacking procedural description, cohort nerve recovery occurred after direct apposition and suturing if nerve ending gaps were nerve grafting (sural/greater auricular nerve). Timing of microneurosurgical repair after injury remains debated. Most authors recommend surgery when neurosensory deficit shows no improvement 90 days post-diagnosis. Nerve transection diagnosed intra-operatively should be repaired in situ; minor nerve injury repair can be delayed. No consensus exists regarding optimal methods and timing for IAN/LN repair. We suggest a schematic guideline for treating IAN/LN injury, based on the most current evidence. We acknowledge that additional RCTs are required to provide definitive confirmation of optimal treatment approaches. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Relations between Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behavior in Adolescence: A Systematic Review.

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    Salome Grandclerc

    Full Text Available Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI and suicidal behaviors, both important issues in adolescent health care, are frequently associated and possibly clinically related. Our objective was to explore the views of relations between nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood (11-25 years expressed in the scientific (medical and psychological literature. We adopted a textual approach to the process of synthesis to tell the story of the findings from the included studies. Our narrative systematic review of 64 articles found that they share the same risk factors. Integrated models envision nonsuicidal self-injury as a gateway enabling teens to acquire the capability for suicide. Because suicidal behavior short-circuits thought, it is difficult to conceive an intention to die during adolescents' acts of self-injury. Intention is constructed by the narrative of the act, influenced by numerous elements from the psychopathologic, cultural, religious, and philosophic context. Techniques of mentalizing-based treatments and work on the meaning that adolescents attribute to their behaviors might improve care.

  11. Epidemiology of sport-related spinal cord injuries: A systematic review.

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    Chan, Christie Wl; Eng, Janice J; Tator, Charles H; Krassioukov, Andrei

    2016-05-01

    Despite the recognition of sports as a significant contributor in the etiology of spinal cord injury (SCI), no studies have systematically explored the epidemiology of SCI caused by sports. This paper aims to give a systematic overview of the epidemiology of sport-related spinal cord injury around the world. A systematic review was conducted to identify published literature reporting the epidemiology of SCI caused by sports. The literature search was conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Sportdiscus with date limits 1980 through to July 2015. Data from 54 studies covering 25 countries was extracted and collated. Important findings include identification of 6 countries in which sports accounts for over 13% of SCI (highest to lowest: Russia, Fiji, New Zealand, Iceland, France and Canada); individual sports with high risk for SCI (diving, skiing, rugby, and horseback riding); and the most common level of injury for various sports (almost entirely cervical for hockey, skiing, diving and American football, while over half of horseback riding and snowboarding injuries are thoracic or lumbosacral). This paper identifies countries and sports with higher rates of sport-related SCIs where implementation of prevention programs and reporting systems to track SCI epidemiology may be helpful, and highlights gaps in our current knowledge for further investigation. The comparison of SCI occurrence for each sport across countries, as well as examination of the specific characteristics of SCI incurred for individual sports will assist in directing efforts for prevention.

  12. A systematic review and meta-analysis of sleep architecture and chronic traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantua, Janna; Grillakis, Antigone; Mahfouz, Sanaa H; Taylor, Maura R; Brager, Allison J; Yarnell, Angela M; Balkin, Thomas J; Capaldi, Vincent F; Simonelli, Guido

    2018-02-02

    Sleep quality appears to be altered by traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, whether persistent post-injury changes in sleep architecture are present is unknown and relatively unexplored. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the extent to which chronic TBI (>6 months since injury) is characterized by changes to sleep architecture. We also explored the relationship between sleep architecture and TBI severity. In the fourteen included studies, sleep was assessed with at least one night of polysomnography in both chronic TBI participants and controls. Statistical analyses, performed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software, revealed that chronic TBI is characterized by relatively increased slow wave sleep (SWS). A meta-regression showed moderate-severe TBI is associated with elevated SWS, reduced stage 2, and reduced sleep efficiency. In contrast, mild TBI was not associated with any significant alteration of sleep architecture. The present findings are consistent with the hypothesis that increased SWS after moderate-severe TBI reflects post-injury cortical reorganization and restructuring. Suggestions for future research are discussed, including adoption of common data elements in future studies to facilitate cross-study comparability, reliability, and replicability, thereby increasing the likelihood that meaningful sleep (and other) biomarkers of TBI will be identified. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical evidence of inflammation driving secondary brain injury: A systematic review

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    Hinson, Holly E.; Rowell, Susan; Schreiber, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite advances in both prevention and treatment, traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains one of the most burdensome diseases; 2% of the US population currently lives with disabilities resulting from TBI. Recent advances in the understanding of inflammation and its impact on the pathophysiology of trauma have increased the interest in inflammation as a possible mediator in TBI outcome. Objectives The goal of this systematic review is to address the question: “What is the evidence in humans that inflammation is linked to secondary brain injury?” As the experimental evidence has been well described elsewhere, this review will focus on the clinical evidence for inflammation as a mechanism of secondary brain injury. Data Sources Medline database (1996-Week 1 June 2014), Pubmed and Google Scholar databases were queried for relevant studies. Study Eligibility Criteria Studies were eligible if participants were adults and/or children who sustained moderate or severe TBI in the acute phase of injury, published in English. Studies published in the last decade (since 2004) were preferentially included. Trials could be observational or interventional in nature. Appraisal and Synthesis Methods To address the quality of the studies retrieved, we applied the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria to assess the limitations of the included studies. Results Trauma initiates local central nervous system as well as systemic immune activation. Numerous observational studies describe elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines that are associated with important clinical variables including neurologic outcome and mortality. A small number of clinical trials have included immunomodulating strategies, but no intervention to date has proven effective in improving outcomes after TBI. Limitations Inclusion of studies not initially retrieved by the search terms may have biased our results. Additionally, some reports may have been

  14. Mitochondrial Energy and Redox Signaling in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzländer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: For a plant to grow and develop, energy and appropriate building blocks are a fundamental requirement. Mitochondrial respiration is a vital source for both. The delicate redox processes that make up respiration are affected by the plant's changing environment. Therefore, mitochondrial regulation is critically important to maintain cellular homeostasis. This involves sensing signals from changes in mitochondrial physiology, transducing this information, and mounting tailored responses, by either adjusting mitochondrial and cellular functions directly or reprogramming gene expression. Recent Advances: Retrograde (RTG) signaling, by which mitochondrial signals control nuclear gene expression, has been a field of very active research in recent years. Nevertheless, no mitochondrial RTG-signaling pathway is yet understood in plants. This review summarizes recent advances toward elucidating redox processes and other bioenergetic factors as a part of RTG signaling of plant mitochondria. Critical Issues: Novel insights into mitochondrial physiology and redox-regulation provide a framework of upstream signaling. On the other end, downstream responses to modified mitochondrial function have become available, including transcriptomic data and mitochondrial phenotypes, revealing processes in the plant that are under mitochondrial control. Future Directions: Drawing parallels to chloroplast signaling and mitochondrial signaling in animal systems allows to bridge gaps in the current understanding and to deduce promising directions for future research. It is proposed that targeted usage of new technical approaches, such as quantitative in vivo imaging, will provide novel leverage to the dissection of plant mitochondrial signaling. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 2122–2144. PMID:23234467

  15. Mitochondrial Metabolism in Aging Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnefsky, Edward J.; Chen, Qun; Hoppel, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    Altered mitochondrial metabolism is the underlying basis for the increased sensitivity in the aged heart to stress. The aged heart exhibits impaired metabolic flexibility, with a decreased capacity to oxidize fatty acids and enhanced dependence on glucose metabolism. Aging impairs mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, with a greater role played by the mitochondria located between the myofibrils, the interfibrillar mitochondria. With aging, there is a decrease in activity of complexes III and IV, which account for the decrease in respiration. Furthermore, aging decreases mitochondrial content among the myofibrils. The end result is that in the interfibrillar area there is an approximate 50% decrease in mitochondrial function, affecting all substrates. The defective mitochondria persist in the aged heart, leading to enhanced oxidant production and oxidative injury and the activation of oxidant signaling for cell death. Aging defects in mitochondria represent new therapeutic targets, whether by manipulation of the mitochondrial proteome, modulation of electron transport, activation of biogenesis or mitophagy, or the regulation of mitochondrial fission and fusion. These mechanisms provide new ways to attenuate cardiac disease in elders by preemptive treatment of age-related defects, in contrast to the treatment of disease-induced dysfunction. PMID:27174952

  16. Physiotherapy after traumatic brain injury: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, Stephanie; Johannes, Sönke

    2008-05-01

    At present there are no standardized recommendations concerning physiotherapy of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) resulting in a high variability of methods and intensity. The aim of this literature review is to develop recommendations concerning physiotherapy in the post-acute phase after TBI on the basis of scientific evidence. literature review: data bases: PubMed, PEDro, OT-Seeker, Cochrane and Cinahl. brain injury (in PEDro, OT-Seeker, Cochrane), brain injury AND physical therapy (in PubMed and Cinahl). Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were grouped into sub-groups: sensory stimulation, therapy intensity, casting/splinting, exercise or aerobic training and functional skill training. While for sensory stimulation evidence could not be proven, a strong evidence exists that more intensive rehabilitation programmes lead to earlier functional abilities. The recommendation due to casting for the improvement of passive range of motion is a grade B, while only a C recommendation is appropriate concerning tonus reduction. Strong evidence exists that intensive task-orientated rehabilitation programmes lead to earlier and better functional abilities. Although some recommendations for the effectiveness of physical therapy interventions could be expressed, there are many questions concerning the treatment of humans with TBI which have not been investigated so far. Especially on the level of activity and participation only a few studies exist.

  17. Roles of Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis, PGC-1α and Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Cerebral Ischemia

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    Ding-I Yang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary physiological function of mitochondria is to generate adenosine triphosphate through oxidative phosphorylation via the electron transport chain. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS as byproducts generated from mitochondria have been implicated in acute brain injuries such as stroke from cerebral ischemia. It was well-documented that mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway involves pro- and anti-apoptotic protein binding, release of cytochrome c, leading ultimately to neuronal death. On the other hand, mitochondria also play a role to counteract the detrimental effects elicited by excessive oxidative stress. Recent studies have revealed that oxidative stress and the redox state of ischemic neurons are also implicated in the signaling pathway that involves peroxisome proliferative activated receptor-γ (PPARγ co-activator 1α (PGC1-α. PGC1-α is a master regulator of ROS scavenging enzymes including manganese superoxide dismutase 2 and the uncoupling protein 2, both are mitochondrial proteins, and may contribute to neuronal survival. PGC1-α is also involved in mitochondrial biogenesis that is vital for cell survival. Experimental evidence supports the roles of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress as determinants of neuronal death as well as endogenous protective mechanisms after stroke. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge focusing on the molecular mechanisms underlying cerebral ischemia involving ROS, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, mitochondrial proteins capable of ROS scavenging, and mitochondrial biogenesis.

  18. Sport psychology education for sport injury rehabilitation professionals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Caroline A; Walker, Natalie C; Green, Alison J K; Rostron, Claire L

    2015-02-01

    Sport psychology education has been shown to have a positive impact on the practice of sport injury rehabilitation professionals (SIRPs). The purpose of this paper is to review recommendations relating to such education. The paper presents a review of existing literature relating to the content and mode of delivery for a sport psychology education programme for SIRPs. The review seeks to address four questions: (1) What topic areas do researchers suggest should be integrated into the sport psychology education of SIRPs? (2) What topic areas are currently being recommended by professional bodies? (3) What are the findings of research examining the impact of sport psychology education on SIRPs? and (4) What do researchers recommend to be the most appropriate mode of delivery for sport psychology education for SIRPs? The findings of the review suggest that in order to maximise adherence amongst already qualified SIRPs sport psychology education should be delivered in a flexible short duration package. Additionally three broad areas that sport psychology education should cover emerged: (1) understanding of the psychological impact of injury, (2) interventions and psychological skills/techniques, and (3) referral and professional boundaries. This has important implications for the future training of SIRPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Injuries and other adverse events associated with yoga practice: A systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Holger; Ostermann, Thomas; Dobos, Gustav

    2018-02-01

    To systematically assess the prevalence of yoga-associated injuries and other adverse events in epidemiological studies. Systematic review of observational studies. Medline/PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, and IndMed were searched through October 2016 for epidemiological studies assessing the prevalence of adverse events of yoga practice or comparing the risk of any adverse events between yoga practitioners and non-yoga practitioners. Nine observational studies with a total 9129 yoga practitioners and 9903 non-yoga practitioners were included. Incidence proportion of adverse events during a yoga class was 22.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]=21.1%-24.3%); 12-months prevalence was 4.6% (95%CI=3.8%-5.4%), and lifetime prevalence ranged from 21.3% (95%CI=19.7%-22.9%) to 61.8% (95%CI=52.8%-70.8%) of yoga practitioners. Serious adverse events occurred in 1.9% (95%CI=1.4%-2.4%). The most common adverse events related to the musculoskeletal system; the most common injuries were sprains and strains. Compared to non-yoga practitioners, yoga practitioners had a comparable risk of falls (odds ratio [OR]=0.90; 95%CI=0.76-1.08), and falls-related injuries (OR=1.04; 95%CI=0.83-1.29), and higher risk of meniscus injuries (OR=1.72; 95%CI=1.23-2.41). A considerable proportion of yoga practitioners experienced injuries or other adverse events; however most were mild and transient and risks were comparable to those of non-yoga practitioners. There is no need to discourage yoga practice for healthy people. People with serious acute or chronic illnesses should seek medical advice before practicing yoga. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of psychoactive substances in persons with spinal cord injury: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tétrault, M; Courtois, F

    2014-12-01

    To undertake a critical review of literature on use of legal and illegal psychoactive substances (PAS) in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) before and after trauma. Hundred and five articles published between 1980 and 2014 on alcohol and drug use in persons with SCI before and after trauma were retrieved from the PubMed and PsycInfo search engines. Before injury, 25% to 96% of people with SCI reported using alcohol, while 32% to 35% had used illegal drugs. At the time of injury, 31% to 50% of individuals with SCI were intoxicated with alcohol, 16% to 33% with drugs and 26% with a combination of drugs and alcohol. Among those reporting PAS use before injury, up to 50% stated that they had reduced their use during active rehabilitation, during which time only 6% consumed psychoactive substances for the first time. A variety of risk factors are associated with consumption subsequent to spinal cord injury: personality alteration (impulsiveness, aggressiveness), posttraumatic depression, poor coping skills, lack of social support and pain. PAS use can affect the process of rehabilitation, diminish the effectiveness of medication and result in various medical complications. Few studies have explored the use of alcohol, drugs and psychoactive medications before SCI and during active rehabilitation. To our knowledge, no study has analyzed the evolution of PAS use after hospital discharge, even though return home is associated with new stressors that may trigger risky behaviors. It should be a priority, as early as possible during rehabilitation, to detect persons at risk of developing PAS abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Traffic calming for the prevention of road traffic injuries: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, F; Collier, T; Frost, C; Ker, K; Roberts, I; Wentz, R

    2003-09-01

    To assess whether area-wide traffic calming schemes can reduce road crash related deaths and injuries. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, EMBASE, Sociological Abstracts Science (and social science) citation index, National Technical Information service, Psychlit, Transport Research Information Service, International Road Research Documentation, and Transdoc, and web sites of road safety organisation were searched; experts were contacted, conference proceedings were handsearched, and relevant reference lists were checked. Randomised controlled trials, and controlled before/after studies of area-wide traffic calming schemes designed to discourage and slow down through traffic on residential roads. Data were collected on road user deaths, injuries, and traffic crashes. For each study rate ratios were calculated, the ratio of event rates before and after intervention in the traffic calmed area divided by the corresponding ratio of event rates in the control area, which were pooled to give an overall estimate using a random effects model. Sixteen controlled before/after studies met our inclusion criteria. Eight studies reported the number of road user deaths: pooled rate ratio 0.63 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14 to 2.59). Sixteen studies reported the number of injuries (fatal and non-fatal): pooled rate ratio 0.89 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.00). All studies were in high income countries. Area-wide traffic calming in towns and cities has the potential to reduce road traffic injuries. However, further rigorous evaluations of this intervention are needed, especially in low and middle income countries.

  2. Hypertonic saline (HTS versus standard (isotonic fluid therapy for traumatic brain injuries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrit Lourens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI is one of the foremost causes of mortality secondary to trauma. Poorer outcomes are associated with secondary insults, after the initial brain injury occurred. The management goal of TBI is to prevent or minimise the effects of secondary brain injuries. The primary objective of this systematic review/meta-analysis was to assess the effects of Hypertonic Saline (HTS compared to Standard Fluid Therapy (SFT in the treatment and resuscitation of TBI patients. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE (from 1966, EBSCOhost, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Proquest Medical Library and EMBASE (from 1980 in May 2010 and updated searches in February 2011. Data were assessed and extracted by two independent authors. Risk ratios (RR with a 95% confidence interval (CI were used as the effect measure. The review included three RCTs (1184 participants of which two were of high to moderate quality (1005 participants. HTS was not found to be associated with a reduction in mortality (3 RCTs, 1184 participants, RR 0.91, 95%CI 0.76 to 1.09 and morbidity in TBI patients. No significant improvement in haemodynamical stability was found whereas insufficient data were available to indicate a reduction in the intracranial pressure (ICP. In the HTS group, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP (MD 3.83 mmHg, 95%CI 1.08 to 6.57 and serum sodium level (MD 8 mEq/L, 95%CI 7.47 to 8.53 were higher. Existing studies show no indication that HTS, in comparison to SFT, reduces mortality or morbidity after the occurrence of TBI. Against this backdrop, some uncertainties still exist in terms of the use of different concentrations and volumes of HTS, the timing of administration as well as the benefit in specific injury profiles. As a result, formulating conclusive recommendations is complex.

  3. Contemporary management of subclavian and axillary artery injuries-A Western Trauma Association multicenter review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Christine J; Cogbill, Thomas H; Kallies, Kara J; Ramirez, Luis D; Cardenas, Justin M; Todd, S Rob; Chapman, Kayla J; Beckman, Marshall A; Sperry, Jason L; Anto, Vincent P; Eriksson, Evert A; Leon, Stuart M; Anand, Rahul J; Pearlstein, Maura; Capano-Wehrle, Lisa; Cothren Burlew, Clay; Fox, Charles J; Cullinane, Daniel C; Roberts, Jennifer C; Harrison, Paul B; Berg, Gina M; Haan, James M; Lightwine, Kelly

    2017-12-01

    Subclavian and axillary artery injuries are uncommon. In addition to many open vascular repairs, endovascular techniques are used for definitive repair or vascular control of these anatomically challenging injuries. The aim of this study was to determine the relative roles of endovascular and open techniques in the management of subclavian and axillary artery injuries comparing hospital outcomes, and long-term limb viability. A multicenter, retrospective review of patients with subclavian or axillary artery injuries from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2014, was completed at 11 participating Western Trauma Association institutions. Statistical analysis included χ, t-tests, and Cochran-Armitage trend tests. A p value less than 0.05 was significant. Two hundred twenty-three patients were included; mean age was 36 years, 84% were men. An increase in computed tomography angiography and decrease in conventional angiography was observed over time (p = 0.018). There were 120 subclavian and 119 axillary artery injuries. Procedure type was associated with injury grade (p < 0.001). Open operations were performed in 135 (61%) patients, including 93% of greater than 50% circumference lacerations and 83% of vessel transections. Endovascular repairs were performed in 38 (17%) patients; most frequently for pseudoaneurysms. Fourteen (6%) patients underwent a hybrid procedure. Use of endovascular versus open procedures did not increase over the duration of the study (p = 0.248). In-hospital mortality rate was 10%. Graft or stent thrombosis occurred in 7% and graft or stent infection occurred in 3% of patients. Mean follow-up was 1.6 ± 2.4 years (n = 150). Limb salvage was achieved in 216 (97%) patients. The management of subclavian and axillary artery injuries still requires a wide variety of open exposures and procedures, especially for the control of active hemorrhage from more than 50% vessel lacerations and transections. Endovascular repairs were used most often for

  4. Molecular Mechanisms of Neonatal Brain Injury

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    Claire Thornton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal/neonatal brain injury is an important cause of neurological disability. Hypoxia-ischemia and excitotoxicity are considered important insults, and, in spite of their acute nature, brain injury develops over a protracted time period during the primary, secondary, and tertiary phases. The concept that most of the injury develops with a delay after the insult makes it possible to provide effective neuroprotective treatment after the insult. Indeed, hypothermia applied within 6 hours after birth in neonatal encephalopathy reduces neurological disability in clinical trials. In order to develop the next generation of treatment, we need to know more about the pathophysiological mechanism during the secondary and tertiary phases of injury. We review some of the critical molecular events related to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis during the secondary phase and report some recent evidence that intervention may be feasible also days-weeks after the insult.

  5. Metrics to assess injury prevention programs for young workers in high-risk occupations: a scoping review of the literature

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    Jennifer Smith

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite legal protections for young workers in Canada, youth aged 15–24 are at high risk of traumatic occupational injury. While many injury prevention initiatives targeting young workers exist, the challenge faced by youth advocates and employers is deciding what aspect(s of prevention will be the most effective focus for their efforts. A review of the academic and grey literatures was undertaken to compile the metrics—both the indicators being evaluated and the methods of measurement—commonly used to assess injury prevention programs for young workers. Metrics are standards of measurement through which efficiency, performance, progress, or quality of a plan, process, or product can be assessed. Methods: A PICO framework was used to develop search terms. Medline, PubMed, OVID, EMBASE, CCOHS, PsychINFO, CINAHL, NIOSHTIC, Google Scholar and the grey literature were searched for articles in English, published between 1975-2015. Two independent reviewers screened the resulting list and categorized the metrics in three domains of injury prevention: Education, Environment and Enforcement. Results: Of 174 acquired articles meeting the inclusion criteria, 21 both described and assessed an intervention. Half were educational in nature (N=11. Commonly assessed metrics included: knowledge, perceptions, self-reported behaviours or intentions, hazardous exposures, injury claims, and injury counts. One study outlined a method for developing metrics to predict injury rates. Conclusion: Metrics specific to the evaluation of young worker injury prevention programs are needed, as current metrics are insufficient to predict reduced injuries following program implementation. One study, which the review brought to light, could be an appropriate model for future research to develop valid leading metrics specific to young workers, and then apply these metrics to injury prevention programs for youth.

  6. Clinical Utility of SPECT Neuroimaging in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review

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    Raji, Cyrus A.; Tarzwell, Robert; Pavel, Dan; Schneider, Howard; Uszler, Michael; Thornton, John; van Lierop, Muriel; Cohen, Phil; Amen, Daniel G.; Henderson, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: This systematic review evaluated the clinical utility of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: After defining a PICO Statement (Population, Intervention, Comparison and Outcome Statement), PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) criteria were applied to identify 1600 articles. After screening, 374 articles were eligible for review. Inclusion for review was focus on SPECT in the setting of mild,...

  7. The Effectiveness of Injury Prevention Programs to Modify Risk Factors for Non-Contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Hamstring Injuries in Uninjured Team Sports Athletes: A Systematic Review.

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    Alireza Monajati

    Full Text Available Hamstring strain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries are, respectively, the most prevalent and serious non-contact occurring injuries in team sports. Specific biomechanical and neuromuscular variables have been used to estimate the risk of incurring a non-contact injury in athletes.The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidences for the effectiveness of injury prevention protocols to modify biomechanical and neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injuries associated risk factors in uninjured team sport athletes.PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, U.S. National Institutes of Health clinicaltrials.gov, Sport Discuss and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant journal articles published until March 2015. A manual review of relevant articles, authors, and journals, including bibliographies was performed from identified articles.Nineteen studies were included in this review. Four assessment categories: i landing, ii side cutting, iii stop-jump, and iv muscle strength outcomes, were used to analyze the effectiveness of the preventive protocols. Eight studies using multifaceted interventions supported by video and/or technical feedback showed improvement in landing and/or stop-jump biomechanics, while no effects were observed on side-cutting maneuver. Additionally, multifaceted programs including hamstring eccentric exercises increased hamstring strength, hamstring to quadriceps functional ratio and/or promoted a shift of optimal knee flexion peak torque toward a more open angle position.Multifaceted programs, supported by proper video and/or technical feedback, including eccentric hamstring exercises would positively modify the biomechanical and or neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injury risk factors.

  8. The Effectiveness of Injury Prevention Programs to Modify Risk Factors for Non-Contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Hamstring Injuries in Uninjured Team Sports Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monajati, Alireza; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Goss-Sampson, Mark; Naclerio, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Hamstring strain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries are, respectively, the most prevalent and serious non-contact occurring injuries in team sports. Specific biomechanical and neuromuscular variables have been used to estimate the risk of incurring a non-contact injury in athletes. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidences for the effectiveness of injury prevention protocols to modify biomechanical and neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injuries associated risk factors in uninjured team sport athletes. PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, U.S. National Institutes of Health clinicaltrials.gov, Sport Discuss and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant journal articles published until March 2015. A manual review of relevant articles, authors, and journals, including bibliographies was performed from identified articles. Nineteen studies were included in this review. Four assessment categories: i) landing, ii) side cutting, iii) stop-jump, and iv) muscle strength outcomes, were used to analyze the effectiveness of the preventive protocols. Eight studies using multifaceted interventions supported by video and/or technical feedback showed improvement in landing and/or stop-jump biomechanics, while no effects were observed on side-cutting maneuver. Additionally, multifaceted programs including hamstring eccentric exercises increased hamstring strength, hamstring to quadriceps functional ratio and/or promoted a shift of optimal knee flexion peak torque toward a more open angle position. Multifaceted programs, supported by proper video and/or technical feedback, including eccentric hamstring exercises would positively modify the biomechanical and or neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injury risk factors.

  9. Occupational hand injuries: a current review of the prevalence and proposed prevention strategies for physical therapists and similar healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyer, Giles; Michael, Jimmy; Inklebarger, James

    2018-03-01

    Hand injury is the second most common work-related musculoskeletal injury among physical therapists (PTs) and other manual therapy professionals such as osteopaths, physiotherapists, chiropractors, acupuncturists and massage therapists. However, the nature and extent of this problem have not been fully explored yet. Therefore, the objective of this study was to review the existing literature published on the prevalence, risk factors, consequences, and prevention of hand injuries among PTs and similar healthcare professionals. The lifetime prevalence of hand injuries was about 15%-46%, and the annual prevalence was reported as 5%-30%. Thumb injuries were found to be the most prevalent of all injuries, accounting more than 50% of all hand-related problems. The most significant risk factors for job-related hand injuries were performing manual therapy techniques, repetitive workloads, treating many patients per day, continued work while injured or hurt, weakness of the thumb muscles, thumb hypermobility, and instability at the thumb joints. PTs reported modifying treatment technique, taking time off on sick leave, seeking intervention, shifting the specialty area, and decreasing patient contact hours as the major consequences of these injuries. The authors recommend that PTs should develop specific preventive strategies and put more emphasis on the use of aids and equipment to reduce the risk of an unnecessary injury. Copyright © 2018 Shanghai Changhai Hospital. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Paediatric trauma on the Last Frontier: an 11-year review of injury mechanisms, high-risk injury patterns and outcomes in Alaskan children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W. Snyder

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paediatric trauma system development in Alaska is complicated by a vast geographic coverage area, wide regional variations in environment and culture, and a lack of available published data. Objective: To provide a detailed description of paediatric trauma mechanisms, high-risk injury patterns and outcomes in Alaska. Design: This retrospective study included all children aged 17 years or younger in the State of Alaska Trauma Registry database admitted with traumatic injury between 2001 and 2011. Each injury record was reviewed individually and assigned a mechanism based on Centers for Disease Control E-codes. Geographic definitions were based on existing Emergency Medical Services regions. Mechanisms were compared by geographic region, patient demographics, injury characteristics and outcome. Subgroup analysis of fatal injuries was performed to identify causes of death. Results: Of 5,547 patients meeting inclusion criteria, the most common mechanisms of injury were falls (39%, motor vehicle collisions (10% and all-terrain vehicle (ATV accidents (9%. The overall case fatality rate was 2%. Mechanisms with the greatest risk of death were gunshot wounds (21%, pedestrians struck by motorized vehicles (9% and motor vehicle collisions (5%. These 3 mechanisms accounted for 15% of injuries but 60% of deaths in the overall cohort. Injury patterns involving combined central nervous system (CNS and torso injuries were unusual but especially lethal, occurring in 3% of patients but carrying a case fatality rate of 18%. Although the distribution of mechanisms was generally similar for each geographic region, ATV and snowmobile injuries were significantly more common in remote areas (23% remote vs. 7% non-remote, p < 0.0001. Conclusions: Mechanisms of paediatric trauma in Alaska have widely varying impacts on outcome and show some variation by region. Highest-risk mechanisms include gunshot wounds and motorized vehicle-related accidents. Prevention

  11. Pediatric Lower Extremity Lawn Mower Injuries and Reconstruction: Retrospective 10-Year Review at a Level 1 Trauma Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Leslie G; Crantford, John C; Thompson, James T; Tannan, Shruti C

    2017-11-01

    From 2004 to 2013, there were 9341 lawn mower injuries in children under 20 years old. The incidence of lawn mower injuries in children has not decreased since 1990 despite implementation of various different prevention strategies. In this report, the authors review the results of pediatric lawn mower-related lower-extremity injuries treated at a tertiary care referral center as well as review the overall literature. A retrospective review was performed at a level 1 trauma center over a 10-year period (2005-2015). Patients younger than 18 years who presented to the emergency room with lo