WorldWideScience

Sample records for reversed electromagnetic-wave properties

  1. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis......, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc....

  2. RF electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of ferrite polymer composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosoudil, Rastislav; Usakova, Marianna; Franek, Jaroslav; Slama, Jozef; Olah, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    The frequency dispersion of complex initial (relative) permeability (μ * =μ ' -jμ ' ') and the electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of composite materials based on NiZn sintered ferrite and a polyvinylchloride (PVC) polymer matrix have been studied in frequency range from 1MHz to 1GHz. The complex permeability of the composites was found to increase as the ferrite content increased, and was characterized by frequency dispersion localized above 50MHz. The variation of return loss (RL) of single-layer RF absorbers using the prepared composite materials has been investigated as a function of frequency, ferrite content and the thickness of the absorbers

  3. Properties of backward electromagnetic waves and negative reflection in ferrite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vashkovsky, Anatolii V; Lock, Edwin H

    2006-01-01

    For a backward electromagnetic wave (magnetostatic wave) in a ferrite film, reflection from a perfect mirror formed by the straight edge of the film is investigated experimentally and theoretically. It is found that when the incident wave is collinear (the group velocity vector and the wave vector have opposite directions), negative reflection occurs at any angle of incidence, i.e., the incident and reflected beams are on the same side of the normal to the boundary. It is discovered that a noncollinear backward wave is nonreciprocal in the sense that its energy can be localized both near the surface and in the middle of the film. This property, previously observed only for surface magnetostatic waves, provides both the efficiency of generating and receiving the wave and the possibility of observing the reflected beam. A situation is realized where wave reflection results in two reflected beams. The properties of backward electromagnetic waves propagating in ferrite films are briefly analyzed. (methodological notes)

  4. Electromagnetic wave absorption properties of composites with micro-sized magnetic particles dispersed in amorphous carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin Peng [Research Center of Carbon Fiber, Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Tianjin Binhai New Area Finance Bureau, Tianjin 300450 (China); Wang, Cheng Guo, E-mail: sduwangchg@gmail.com [Research Center of Carbon Fiber, Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Wang, Wen [Norinco Group China North Material Science and Engineering Technology Group Corporation, Jinan 250031 (China); Yu, Mei Jie; Gao, Rui; Chen, Yang; Xiang Wang, Yan [Research Center of Carbon Fiber, Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2014-09-01

    Composites with micro-sized magnetic particles dispersed in amorphous carbon were fabricated conveniently and economically by carbonizing polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers mixed with micro-sized iron particles under different temperatures. The composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electric microscope (SEM). The electromagnetic (EM) properties were measured by a vector network analyzer in the frequency range of 2–18 GHz based on which analog computations of EM wave absorption properties were carried out. The influences of temperature on phase composition and EM wave absorption properties were also investigated, indicating that the composites had good electromagnetic absorption properties with both electrical loss and magnetic loss. Effective reflection loss (RL<−10 dB) was observed in a large frequency range of 7.5–18 GHz with the absorber thickness of 2.0–3.0 mm for the paraffin samples with composite powders heated up to 750 °C and the minimum absorption peak around −40 dB appeared at approximately 10 GHz with matching thickness of 2.0 mm for the paraffin sample with composite powders heated up to 800 °C. - Highlights: • High-performance electromagnetic wave absorption materials were fabricated conveniently and economically. • The materials are composites with micro-sized magnetic particles dispersed in porous amorphous carbon. • The influences of temperature on phase composition and electromagnetic wave absorption properties were investigated. • The composites heated up to 750 °C and 800 °C had good electromagnetic wave absorption property.

  5. Electromagnetic Wave Absorption Property of Graphene with FeO4 Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Dai, Shenglong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Tianyu; Yan, Shaojiu; Zhao, Xiuying

    2016-02-01

    Nanomaterials consisting of various ratios of Fe3O4 and graphene (defined C-Fe3O4/GR) were pre- pared by an in situ coordination complex hydro-thermal synthesis method. The structure and morphology of the nanomaterials C-Fe3O4/GR obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the Fe3O4 nanoparticles distributed on the surfaces of graphene, and had a spinel structure and a uniform chemical phase when the weight ratios of Fe3O4 to graphene oxide (GO) were 9:1 or 9:2. It was suggested that GO had been successfully reduced to graphene and the Fe3O4 nanoparticles were chemically bonded to graphene. The SQUID vibrating sample magnetometer (SQUID-VSM) indicated that the maximum of the saturation magnetization was 83.6 emmicro g(-1) when the mass ratio of Fe3O4 to GO was 9:2. Electromagnetic wave absorption showed that the chemical compound of Fe3O4 and graphene had a better electromagnetic property than the mechanical blend of Fe3O4 and graphene (M-Fe3O4/GR). The C-Fe3O4/GR had a reflection loss larger than -10 dB in the frequency range 12.9-17.0 GHz for an absorber thickness of 3 mm, and a maximum reflection loss of -12.3 dB at 14.8 GHz and a maximum reflection loss of -31.2 dB at 10.5 GHz for an absorber thickness of 10 mm. Theoretical analysis showed that the electromagnetic wave absorption behavior obeyed the quarter-wave principles. These results showed that the C-Fe3O4/GR nanomaterials can meet the requirements for some engineering applications, showing great application potential in electromagnetic wave absorption.

  6. Measurement of optical properties of nano-cement using THz electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heon Young; Kang, Dong Hoon; Joo, Chulmin; Oh, Seung Jae

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing mechanical strength of concrete has been fascinated using carbon-based nanomaterials such as CNT and graphene. The key to improving strength is a dispersion of nanomaterials. A novel method is required to investigate the dispersion inner concrete nondestructively. In this study, the optical optical properties such as refractive index and absorption coefficient are measured in nano-cement mortar specimens containing MWCNT and GO using THz electro-magnetic waves. From the results, the properties of nano-cement mortar are confirmed to be 1.0% to 2.5% higher in refractive index, and -14% to 28% higher in absorption coefficient than those of cement mortar at the average values. Using these characteristics, visualizing the dispersion of nano-concrete structures seems possible in future

  7. Electromagnetic wave absorption properties of composites with ultrafine hollow magnetic fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Jin Woo [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (BK21 Granted Program), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Composites Research Center, Korea Institute of Materials Science, 66 Sang-nam-dong, Changwon, Gyeongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Bok; Kim, Jin Bong; Lee, Sang Kwan [Composites Research Center, Korea Institute of Materials Science, 66 Sang-nam-dong, Changwon, Gyeongnam (Korea, Republic of); Park, O Ok, E-mail: oopark@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (BK21 Granted Program), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), 50-1, Sang-ri, Hyeongpung-myeon, Dalseong-gun, Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Ultrafine hollow magnetic fibers were prepared by electroless plating using hydrolyzed polyester fiber as a sacrificial substrate. These hollow fibers can be served for lightweight and efficient electromagnetic (EM) absorbing materials. As observed from SEM and EDS analysis, hollow structures consisting of Ni inner layer and Fe or Fe–Co outer layer were obtained. By introducing Co onto Fe, oxidation of the Fe layer was successfully prevented making it possible to enhance the complex permeability compared to a case in which only Fe was used. Polymeric composites containing the hollow fibers with different weight fractions and fiber lengths were prepared by a simple mixing process. The electromagnetic wave properties of the composites were measured by a vector network analyzer and it was found that the hollow magnetic fibers show a clear resonance peak of the complex permittivity around the X-band range (8–12 GHz) and the resonance frequency strongly depends on the fiber concentration and length. A possible explanation for the unique resonance is that the hollow fibers possess relatively low electrical conductivity and a long mean free path due to their oxidized phase and hollow structure. The calculated EM wave absorption with the measured EM wave properties showed that the composite containing 30 wt% hollow Ni/Fe–Co (7:3) fibers in length of 180 μm exhibited multiple absorbance peaks resulting in a broad absorption bandwidth of 4.2 GHz. It is obvious that this multiple absorbance is attributed to the resonance characteristic of the composite. - Highlights: • The ultrafine hollow fibers consist of inner Ni layer (∼100 nm) and outer Fe or Fe–Co layer (500–700 nm). • Composites with the fibers show a high permittivity as well as permeability at low weight fractions (10–30 wt%). • The composites show a permittivity resonance and the resonance frequency can be controlled by fiber content and length. • The composite absorber exhibits a double

  8. "Hearing" Electromagnetic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Marta; Munoz, Juan

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an educational experience is described in which a microwave communication link is used to make students aware that all electromagnetic waves have the same physical nature and properties. Experimental demonstrations are linked to theoretical concepts to increase comprehension of the physical principles underlying electromagnetic…

  9. Ku-band electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of polysiloxane derived Si-O-C bulk ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Donghai; Li, Zipei; Xiao, Guoqing; Yang, Shaoyu

    2018-02-01

    The bulk Si-O-C ceramics were prepared by polymer derived ceramics (PDCs) route using polysiloxane as precursor and their properties were investigated for electromagnetic wave absorbing in the frequency range of 12.4-18 GHz (Ku-band). It was found that the catalytic pyrolysis can enhance substantially the absorbing properties by in situ formation of turbostratic carbon network, ordered carbon, and multi-wall carbon nanotubes. The matching thickness of sample containing 1.5 wt% FeCl3 (FPSO-1.5) is 2.2 mm, and its reflection loss exceeds -10 dB in the whole Ku-band with an absorption peak of -35.48 dB at 14.16 GHz. For sample containing 1.5 wt% FeCl3, its absorption peak increases to -15.78 dB, but its matching thickness decreases significantly to 2.2 mm. The polymer derived Si-O-C ceramics could be used as excellent electromagnetic functional devices working in harsh environments.

  10. Electromagnetic waves in stratified media

    CERN Document Server

    Wait, James R; Fock, V A; Wait, J R

    2013-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Electromagnetic Waves, Volume 3: Electromagnetic Waves in Stratified Media provides information pertinent to the electromagnetic waves in media whose properties differ in one particular direction. This book discusses the important feature of the waves that enables communications at global distances. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general analysis for the electromagnetic response of a plane stratified medium comprising of any number of parallel homogeneous layers. This text then explains the reflection of electromagne

  11. Electromagnetic wave matching device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides an electromagnetic wave matching capable of reducing a cost for the transmission system in a system of using electromagnetic waves for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor. Namely, incident electromagnetic waves are reflected by using a plurality of phase correction mirrors. The reflected electromagnetic waves are connected to an external transmission system through an exit. The phase correction mirrors have such a shape to receive a plurality of beam-like electromagnetic waves and output electromagnetic waves by the number different from the number of the received electromagnetic wave beams having a predetermined distribution. Further, at least two of the phase correction mirrors have such a shape to change the phase of the electromagnetic waves beams incident to the reflection surface of the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection surface. Then, the cost for transmission system can greatly be reduced. (I.S.)

  12. Radiation and propagation of electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Tyras, George; Declaris, Nicholas

    1969-01-01

    Radiation and Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves serves as a text in electrical engineering or electrophysics. The book discusses the electromagnetic theory; plane electromagnetic waves in homogenous isotropic and anisotropic media; and plane electromagnetic waves in inhomogenous stratified media. The text also describes the spectral representation of elementary electromagnetic sources; the field of a dipole in a stratified medium; and radiation in anisotropic plasma. The properties and the procedures of Green's function method of solution, axial currents, as well as cylindrical boundaries a

  13. Electromagnetic wave matching device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a matching device capable of increasing an efficiency of combining beams of electromagnetic waves outputted from an output window of a gyrotron which is expected for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor and an electromagnetic wave transmission system as high as possible. Namely, an electromagnetic wave matching device reflects beams of electromagnetic waves incident from an inlet by a plurality of phase correction mirrors and combines them to an external transmission system through an exit. In this case, the phase correction mirrors change the phase of the beams of electromagnetic waves incident to the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection mirrors. Then, the beams of electromagnetic waves outputted, for example, from a gyrotron can properly be shaped as desired for the intensity and the phase. As a result, combination efficiency with the transmission system can be increased. (I.S.)

  14. Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Claire M; Liu, Xianliang; Padilla, Willie J

    2012-06-19

    The advent of negative index materials has spawned extensive research into metamaterials over the past decade. Metamaterials are attractive not only for their exotic electromagnetic properties, but also their promise for applications. A particular branch-the metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA)-has garnered interest due to the fact that it can achieve unity absorptivity of electromagnetic waves. Since its first experimental demonstration in 2008, the MPA has progressed significantly with designs shown across the electromagnetic spectrum, from microwave to optical. In this Progress Report we give an overview of the field and discuss a selection of examples and related applications. The ability of the MPA to exhibit extreme performance flexibility will be discussed and the theory underlying their operation and limitations will be established. Insight is given into what we can expect from this rapidly expanding field and future challenges will be addressed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Rational Construction of Uniform CoNi-Based Core-Shell Microspheres with Tunable Electromagnetic Wave Absorption Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Na; Jiang, Jian-Tang; Xu, Cheng-Yan; Yan, Shao-Jiu; Zhen, Liang

    2018-02-16

    Core-shell particles with integration of ferromagnetic core and dielectric shell are attracting extensive attention for promising microwave absorption applications. In this work, CoNi microspheres with conical bulges were synthesized by a simple and scalable liquid-phase reduction method. Subsequent coating of dielectric materials was conducted to acquire core-shell structured CoNi@TiO 2 composite particles, in which the thickness of TiO 2 is about 40 nm. The coating of TiO 2 enables the absorption band of CoNi to effectively shift from K u to S band, and endows CoNi@TiO 2 microspheres with outstanding electromagnetic wave absorption performance along with a maximum reflection loss of 76.6 dB at 3.3 GHz, much better than that of bare CoNi microspheres (54.4 dB at 17.8 GHz). The enhanced EMA performance is attributed to the unique core-shell structures, which can induce dipole polarization and interfacial polarization, and tune the dielectric properties to achieve good impedance matching. Impressively, TiO 2 coating endows the composites with better microwave absorption capability than CoNi@SiO 2 microspheres. Compared with SiO 2 , TiO 2 dielectric shells could protect CoNi microspheres from merger and agglomeration during annealed. These results indicate that CoNi@TiO 2 core-shell microspheres can serve as high-performance absorbers for electromagnetic wave absorbing application.

  16. Electromagnetic wave in a relativistic magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasovitskiy, V. B.

    2009-01-01

    Results are presented from a theoretical investigation of the dispersion properties of a relativistic plasma in which an electromagnetic wave propagates along an external magnetic field. The dielectric tensor in integral form is simplified by separating its imaginary and real parts. A dispersion relation for an electromagnetic wave is obtained that makes it possible to analyze the dispersion and collisionless damping of electromagnetic perturbations over a broad parameter range for both nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic plasmas.

  17. Electromagnetic wave absorption properties of NiCoP alloy nanoparticles decorated on reduced graphene oxide nanosheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Weichun; Fu, Jiajia; Wang, Qin; Wang, Chunming; Xue, Desheng

    2015-01-01

    NiCoP alloy nanoparticles supported on reduced graphene oxide (NiCoP/RGO) are synthesized by in situ co-reduction of Ni 2+ , Co 2+ and graphene oxide (GO) with sodium hypophosphite in a one-pot reaction. This synthesis route is simple and can be used for industrial preparation. The different molar ratios of Ni/Co can be obtained by changing the molar ratio of their salts in the reaction bath. The effect of annealing temperature on the crystal structure of NiCoP alloys has been further investigated. After 500 °C annealing, NiCoP alloys exhibit good crystallinity. The as-prepared NiCoP/RGO composites demonstrate high dielectric constant and magnetic loss in the frequency range of 2–18 GHz due to the conductive and ferromagnetic behavior. Also, their coercivity and magnetization strength are decreased from magnetic measurement with the increase of Ni content. As the molar ratio of Ni/Co is 3:1, the maximum value of the reflection loss reaches to −17.84 dB. Furthermore, the NiCoP/RGO composites have better corrosion resistance than traditional iron series magnetic nanoparticles. It is expected that the composites with the thin, light-weighted and broadband absorbing and good anti-corrosion properties will have a great potential for electromagnetic wave absorption applications. - Highlights: • NiCoP alloys supported on graphene were prepared via a co-reduction method. • The nanocomposites exhibited strong microwave wave absorption properties. • The microwave absorption properties enhanced with the increase of Ni content. • The nanocomposites showed good anti-corrosion property

  18. Electromagnetic wave absorption properties of NiCoP alloy nanoparticles decorated on reduced graphene oxide nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Weichun, E-mail: yewch@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province and Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of MOE, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Fu, Jiajia; Wang, Qin; Wang, Chunming [Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province and Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Xue, Desheng, E-mail: xueds@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of MOE, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2015-12-01

    NiCoP alloy nanoparticles supported on reduced graphene oxide (NiCoP/RGO) are synthesized by in situ co-reduction of Ni{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+} and graphene oxide (GO) with sodium hypophosphite in a one-pot reaction. This synthesis route is simple and can be used for industrial preparation. The different molar ratios of Ni/Co can be obtained by changing the molar ratio of their salts in the reaction bath. The effect of annealing temperature on the crystal structure of NiCoP alloys has been further investigated. After 500 °C annealing, NiCoP alloys exhibit good crystallinity. The as-prepared NiCoP/RGO composites demonstrate high dielectric constant and magnetic loss in the frequency range of 2–18 GHz due to the conductive and ferromagnetic behavior. Also, their coercivity and magnetization strength are decreased from magnetic measurement with the increase of Ni content. As the molar ratio of Ni/Co is 3:1, the maximum value of the reflection loss reaches to −17.84 dB. Furthermore, the NiCoP/RGO composites have better corrosion resistance than traditional iron series magnetic nanoparticles. It is expected that the composites with the thin, light-weighted and broadband absorbing and good anti-corrosion properties will have a great potential for electromagnetic wave absorption applications. - Highlights: • NiCoP alloys supported on graphene were prepared via a co-reduction method. • The nanocomposites exhibited strong microwave wave absorption properties. • The microwave absorption properties enhanced with the increase of Ni content. • The nanocomposites showed good anti-corrosion property.

  19. Study of influence of 2.4 GHz electromagnetic waves on electrophysical properties of coniferous trees wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurahimov, Nursulton; Lagunov, Alexey; Melehov, Vladimir

    2017-09-01

    Climate change has a significant impact on changing weather conditions in the Arctic. Wood is a traditional building material in the North of Russia. Supports of communication lines are made of wood. Dry wood is a solid dielectric with a low conductivity. At the same time it is porous material having high hygroscopicity. The presence of moisture leads to wood rotting. To prevent rotting of a support it needs to be impregnated with antiseptics. A tree dried by means of convection drying cannot provide required porosity of wood for impregnation. Our studies of electrophysical properties of coniferous species showed that microwave drying of wood increases the porosity of the wood. Wood dried in this way is easily impregnated with antiseptics. Thorough wood drying requires creating optimal conditions in a microwave oven. During the drying process in a chamber there is a resonant phenomenon. These phenomena depend on electro-physical properties of the material placed in the chamber. Dielectric constant of wood has the most influence. A resonator method to determine the dielectric constant of the wood was used. The values of permittivity for the spruce and pine samples were determined. The measured value of the dielectric constant of wood was used to provide optimal matching of the generator with the resonator in a wood-drying resonator type microwave chamber, and to maintain it in the process of wood drying. It resulted in obtaining the samples with a higher permeability of wood in radial and longitudinal direction. This creates favorable conditions for wood impregnation with antiseptics and flame retardants. Timber dried by means of electromagnetic waves in the 2.4 GHz band has a deeper protective layer. The support made of such wood will serve longer as supports of communication lines.

  20. Scattering Properties of Electromagnetic Waves from Randomly Oriented Rough Metal Plate in the Lower Terahertz Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Gang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An efficient hybrid algorithm is proposed to analyze the electromagnetic scattering properties of an infinitely thin metal plate in the lower terahertz (THz frequency region. In this region, the metal plate can be viewed as a perfect electrically conductive object with a marginally rough surface. Hence, the THz scattered field from the metal plate can be divided into coherent and incoherent parts. The physical optics and truncated-wedge incremental-length diffraction coefficients methods are used to compute the coherent part, whereas the small perturbation method is used to compute the incoherent part. Then, the radar cross section of the rough metal plate surface is computed by the multilevel fast multipole and proposed hybrid algorithms. The numerical results show that the proposed algorithm has a good accuracy when rapidly simulating the scattering properties in the lower THz region.

  1. Scattering properties of electromagnetic waves from metal object in the lower terahertz region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Dang, H. X.; Hu, T. Y.; Su, Xiang; Lv, R. C.; Li, Hao; Tan, X. M.; Cui, T. J.

    2018-01-01

    An efficient hybrid algorithm is proposed to analyze the electromagnetic scattering properties of metal objects in the lower terahertz (THz) frequency. The metal object can be viewed as perfectly electrical conducting object with a slightly rough surface in the lower THz region. Hence the THz scattered field from metal object can be divided into coherent and incoherent parts. The physical optics and truncated-wedge incremental-length diffraction coefficients methods are combined to compute the coherent part; while the small perturbation method is used for the incoherent part. With the MonteCarlo method, the radar cross section of the rough metal surface is computed by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm and the proposed hybrid algorithm, respectively. The numerical results show that the proposed algorithm has good accuracy to simulate the scattering properties rapidly in the lower THz region.

  2. Theoretical study of turbulent channel flow - Bulk properties, pressure fluctuations, and propagation of electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, V. M.; Hartke, G. J.; Battaglia, A.; Chasnov, J.; Albrecht, G. F.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, we apply two theoretical turbulence models, DIA and the recent GISS model, to study properties of a turbulent channel flow. Both models provide a turbulent kinetic energy spectral function E(k) as the solution of a non-linear equation; the two models employ the same source function but different closures. The source function is characterized by a rate n sub s (k) which is derived from the complex eigenvalues of the Orr-Sommerfeld (OS) equation in which the basic flow is taken to be of a Poiseuille type. The O-S equation is solved for a variety of Reynolds numbers corresponding to available experimental data. A physical argument is presented whereby the central line velocity characterizing the basic flow, U0 sup L, is not to be identified with the U0 appearing in the experimental Reynolds number. The theoretical results are compared with two types of experimental data: (1) turbulence bulk properties, and (2) properties that depend strongly on the structure of the turbulence spectrum at low wave numbers. The only existing analytical expression for Pi (k) cannot be used in the present case because it applies to the case of a flat plate, not a finite channel.

  3. Study of dense-plasma properties using very high-frequency electromagnetic waves (light waves)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gormezano, C.

    1966-06-01

    A study is made of methods based on the use of lasers for measuring the electronic density and temperature of dense plasmas (N e > 10 15 e/cm 3 ): - an interferometric method using a gas laser, based on the. properties of the Perot-Fabry cavities; - a method making use of the 90 deg C scattering produced by the plasma on light emitted by a ruby laser. These methods have been applied to various dense plasmas: - high-frequency plasma torch; - azimuth compression; - plasma bursts produced by focussing a laser beam on a metal target. The measurements have also been carried out using conventional methods of diagnosis. It has thus been possible to measure densities of between 5.10 15 and 10 19 e/cm 3 and temperatures of between 3 and 10 eV. These different-methods are then compared, (author) [fr

  4. Electromagnetic wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Electromagnetic wave energy is converted into electric power with an array of mutually insulated electromagnetic wave absorber elements each responsive to an electric field component of the wave as it impinges thereon. Each element includes a portion tapered in the direction of wave propagation to provide a relatively wideband response spectrum. Each element includes an output for deriving a voltage replica of the electric field variations intercepted by it. Adjacent elements are positioned relative to each other so that an electric field subsists between adjacent elements in response to the impinging wave. The electric field results in a voltage difference between adjacent elements that is fed to a rectifier to derive dc output power.

  5. An ultra-small NiFe2O4 hollow particle/graphene hybrid: fabrication and electromagnetic wave absorption property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Feng; Guo, Dong; Zhang, Shen; Li, Chunyan; Zhu, Chunling; Zhang, Xitian; Chen, Yujin

    2018-02-08

    Herein, ultra-small NiFe 2 O 4 hollow particles, with the diameter and wall thickness of only 6 and 1.8 nm, respectively, were anchored on a graphene surface based on the nanoscale Kirkendall effect. The hybrid exhibits an excellent electromagnetic wave absorption property, comparable or superior to that of most reported absorbers. Our strategy may open a way to grow ultra-small hollow particles on graphene for applications in many fields such as eletromagnetic wave absorption and energy storage and conversion.

  6. Focusing of electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhayalan, V.

    1996-01-01

    The focusing of electromagnetic waves inside a slab has been examined together with two special cases in which the slab is reduced to a single interface or a single medium. To that end the exact solutions for the fields inside a layered medium have been used, given in terms of the outside current source in order to obtain the solutions for the focused electric field inside a slab. Both exact and asymptotic solutions of the problem have been considered, and the validity of the latter has been discussed. The author has developed a numerical algorithm for evaluation of the diffraction integral with special emphasis on reducing the computing time. The numerical techniques in the paper can be readily applied to evaluate similar diffraction integrals occurring e.g. in microstrip antennas. 46 refs

  7. Theory of electromagnetic wave propagation in ferromagnetic Rashba conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Junya; Takeuchi, Akihito; Kohno, Hiroshi; Tatara, Gen

    2018-02-01

    We present a comprehensive study of various electromagnetic wave propagation phenomena in a ferromagnetic bulk Rashba conductor from the perspective of quantum mechanical transport. In this system, both the space inversion and time reversal symmetries are broken, as characterized by the Rashba field α and magnetization M, respectively. First, we present a general phenomenological analysis of electromagnetic wave propagation in media with broken space inversion and time reversal symmetries based on the dielectric tensor. The dependence of the dielectric tensor on the wave vector q and M is retained to first order. Then, we calculate the microscopic electromagnetic response of the current and spin of conduction electrons subjected to α and M, based on linear response theory and the Green's function method; the results are used to study the system optical properties. First, it is found that a large α enhances the anisotropic properties of the system and enlarges the frequency range in which the electromagnetic waves have hyperbolic dispersion surfaces and exhibit unusual propagations known as negative refraction and backward waves. Second, we consider the electromagnetic cross-correlation effects (direct and inverse Edelstein effects) on the wave propagation. These effects stem from the lack of space inversion symmetry and yield q-linear off-diagonal components in the dielectric tensor. This induces a Rashba-induced birefringence, in which the polarization vector rotates around the vector (α ×q ) . In the presence of M, which breaks time reversal symmetry, there arises an anomalous Hall effect and the dielectric tensor acquires off-diagonal components linear in M. For α ∥M , these components yield the Faraday effect for the Faraday configuration q ∥M and the Cotton-Mouton effect for the Voigt configuration ( q ⊥M ). When α and M are noncollinear, M- and q-induced optical phenomena are possible, which include nonreciprocal directional dichroism in the

  8. Improving the Electromagnetic Wave Absorption Properties of the Layered MoS2 by Cladding with Ni Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zilong; Wang, Zilin; Heng, Liuyang; Wang, Shuai; Chen, Xiqiao; Fu, Xiquan; Zou, Yanhong; Tang, Zhixiang

    2018-05-01

    MoS2 is a promising material with microwave absorption performance due to its high dielectric properties and low density. However, pure MoS2 is non-magnetic and has a bad impedance matching characteristic. In this study we prepared the Ni/MoS2 nanocomposites by cladding the MoS2 micrometer slices with magnetic Ni nanoparticles. Our results show that the microwave absorption properties of Ni/MoS2 nanocomposites have been improved obviously compared with the pure MoS2. Because of the introduction of Ni particles, the permeability of the nanocomposites has been turned from one to a complex, indicating a newly added magnetic loss. Meanwhile, the big gap between the permittivity and permeability of the Ni/MoS2 nanocomposites has been properly narrowed, which suggests an improved impedance matching. Moreover, the dielectric Cole-Cole semicircle shows that there are more Debye relaxation processes for the Ni/MoS2 nanocomposites, which further enhances the dielectric loss. Due to its improved electromagnetic properties, the minimum reflection loss (RL) value of the Ni/MoS2 nanocomposites with 60 wt % loading reaches -55 dB and the absorption bandwidth (<-10 dB) is up to 4.0 GHz (10.8-14.8 GHz) with a matching thickness of 1.5 mm. The results provide an excellent candidate for microwave absorbing materials with a broad effective absorption bandwidth at thin thicknesses.

  9. Metamaterial Absorber for Electromagnetic Waves in Periodic Water Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Young Joon; Ju, Sanghyun; Park, Sang Yoon; Ju Kim, Young; Bong, Jihye; Lim, Taekyung; Kim, Ki Won; Rhee, Joo Yull; Lee, YoungPak

    2015-09-10

    Perfect metamaterial absorber (PMA) can intercept electromagnetic wave harmful for body in Wi-Fi, cell phones and home appliances that we are daily using and provide stealth function that military fighter, tank and warship can avoid radar detection. We reported new concept of water droplet-based PMA absorbing perfectly electromagnetic wave with water, an eco-friendly material which is very plentiful on the earth. If arranging water droplets with particular height and diameter on material surface through the wettability of material surface, meta-properties absorbing electromagnetic wave perfectly in GHz wide-band were shown. It was possible to control absorption ratio and absorption wavelength band of electromagnetic wave according to the shape of water droplet-height and diameter- and apply to various flexible and/or transparent substrates such as plastic, glass and paper. In addition, this research examined how electromagnetic wave can be well absorbed in water droplets with low electrical conductivity unlike metal-based metamaterials inquiring highly electrical conductivity. Those results are judged to lead broad applications to variously civilian and military products in the future by providing perfect absorber of broadband in all products including transparent and bendable materials.

  10. Electromagnetic waves in single- and multi-Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hideki; Koyama, Tomio; Machida, Masahiko

    2008-01-01

    The terahertz wave emission from the intrinsic Josephson junctions is one of recent topics in high T c superconductors. We investigate, by numerical simulation, properties of the electromagnetic waves excited by a constant bias current in the single- and multi-Josephson junctions. Nonlinear equations of phase-differences are solved numerically by treating the effects of the outside electromagnetic fields as dynamical boundary conditions. It is shown that the emitted power of the electromagnetic wave can become large near certain retrapping points of the I-V characteristics. An instability of the inside phase oscillation is related to large amplitude of the oscillatory waves. In the single- (or homogeneous mutli-) Josephson junctions, electromagnetic oscillations can occur either in a form of standing waves (shorter junctions) or by formation of vortex-antivortex pairs (longer junctions). How these two effects affects the behavior of electromagnetic waves in the intrinsic Josephson junctions is discussed

  11. Electromagnetic waves in optical fibres in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelik, V S; Burdanova, M G

    2016-01-01

    A new method is reported of recording the secondary radiation of luminescent substances based on the use of capillary fibres of great length. Theoretical analysis of the dispersion curves of electromagnetic radiation in capillary fibres doped with erbium ions Er 3+ has been established. The Lorentz model is used for describing the dispersion properties of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous medium doped with rare-earth ions. The dispersion dependencies of polariton and axion–polariton waves in erbium nitrate hydrate are determined on the basis of the model of the interaction between electromagnetic waves and the resonance electronic states of erbium ions in the absence and presence of a magnetic field. (paper)

  12. Interacting electromagnetic waves in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    The problem is considered of finding exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations which describe the physical situation of two colliding and subsequently interacting electromagnetic waves. The general theory of relativity predicts a nonlinear interaction between electromagnetic waves. The situation is described using an approximate geometrical method, and a new exact solution describing two interacting electromagnetic waves is given. This describes waves emitted from two sources mutually focusing each other on the opposite source. (author)

  13. Radiation Safety of Electromagnetic Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.

    2009-01-01

    The wide spread of Electromagnetic Waves (EMW) through the power lines, multimedia, communications, devices, appliances, etc., are well known. The probable health hazards associated with EMW and the radiation safety criteria are to be reviewed. However, the principles of the regulatory safety are based on radiation protection procedure, intervention to combat the relevant risk and to mitigate consequences. The oscillating electric magnetic fields (EMF) of the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) induce electrical hazards. The extremely high power EMR can cause fire hazards and explosions of pyrotechnic (Rad Haz). Biological hazards of EMF result as dielectric heat, severe burn, as well as the hazards of eyes. Shielding is among the technical protective measures against EMR hazards. Others are limitation of time of exposure and separation distance apart of the EMR source. Understanding and safe handling of the EMR sources are required to feel safety.

  14. Electromagnetic wave energy conversion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. L.; Callahan, P. S.

    1975-01-01

    Known electromagnetic wave absorbing structures found in nature were first studied for clues of how one might later design large area man-made radiant-electric converters. This led to the study of the electro-optics of insect dielectric antennae. Insights were achieved into how these antennae probably operate in the infrared 7-14um range. EWEC theoretical models and relevant cases were concisely formulated and justified for metal and dielectric absorber materials. Finding the electromagnetic field solutions to these models is a problem not yet solved. A rough estimate of losses in metal, solid dielectric, and hollow dielectric waveguides indicates future radiant-electric EWEC research should aim toward dielectric materials for maximum conversion efficiency. It was also found that the absorber bandwidth is a theoretical limitation on radiant-electric conversion efficiency. Ideally, the absorbers' wavelength would be centered on the irradiating spectrum and have the same bandwith as the irradiating wave. The EWEC concept appears to have a valid scientific basis, but considerable more research is needed before it is thoroughly understood, especially for the complex randomly polarized, wide band, phase incoherent spectrum of the sun. Specific recommended research areas are identified.

  15. Coupled seismic and electromagnetic wave propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    Coupled seismic and electromagnetic wave propagation is studied theoretically and experimentally. This coupling arises because of the electrochemical double layer, which exists along the solid-grain/fluid-electrolyte boundaries of porous media. Within the double layer, charge is redistributed,

  16. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by obstacles

    CERN Document Server

    Kristensson, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by Obstacles is to give a theoretical treatment of the scattering phenomena, and to illustrate numerical computations of some canonical scattering problems for different geometries and materials.

  17. Teaching Electromagnetic Waves in College Physics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezerashvili, Roman Y.; Leng, L.

    2006-12-01

    One of the important educational advantages of the simultaneous study of the electromagnetic waves and light is to show that light and the electromagnetic radiation have the same properties so that the students can visualize the properties of the electromagnetic radiation through observation of light propagation. In our approach we are suggest to study the properties of a microwave radiation and light in parallel. The following experiments can be easily designed and they provide a methodical introduction to electromagnetic theory using the microwave radiation and light: the study of the inverse square law of the dependence of the intensity of radiation (microwave and light) on the distance, the law of reflection and refraction, investigation of the phenomenon of polarization and how a polarizer can be used to alter the polarization of microwave radiation and light, measuring the Brewster's angle, studying interference by performing double-slit experiment for microwave radiation and light. Finally students measure the wavelength of the laser light and microwave radiation using the corresponding versions the Michelson’s interferometer, and recognize that these two radiations only differ by the wavelength or frequency.

  18. Properties of ELF electromagnetic waves in and above the earth's ionosphere deduced from plasma wave experiments on the OV1-17 and Ogo 6 satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, M.C.; Tsurutani, B.T.; Mozer, F.S.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of ac electric field data obtained on board the OV1-17 satellite and ac magnetic field data obtained on board the Ogo 6 satellite has been made during the northern hemisphere spring and summer of 1969 with the purpose of studying extreme low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic waves above the earth's ionosphere. The results are in basic agreement with a number of previous ground-based and low-altitude satellite experiments in that the peak signal was observed at high latitudes outside the statistical location of the plasmapause on the day side of the earth, that ELF chorus was very often observed in conjunction with the steady ELF hiss emissions, that the winter hemisphere signal was considerably smaller than that observed in summer or in equinoctial months, and that the emission strength and region of occurrence are asymmetric about magnetic noon. Observations of such strong hiss signals outside the plasmasphere are somewhat surprising in light of Ogo 3 and Ogo 5 measurements which show steady ELF hiss to be closely confined to the plasmasphere at high altitudes during normal circumstances. The present study supports the hypothesis that hiss leaks out of the plasmasphere and refracts downward into the lower ionosphere; such a model predicts the observed summer-winter asymmetry and the poleward skewing of the ELF peak signal strength with decreasing altitude

  19. Stimulated brillouin scattering of electromagnetic waves in a dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimullah, M.; Sen, A.

    1991-08-01

    The stimulated Brilluoin scattering of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous, unmagnetized and collisionless dusty plasma has been investigated theoretically. The Vlasov equation has been solved perturbatively to find the nonlinear response of the plasma particles. The presence of the dust particles introduces a background inhomogeneous electric field which significantly influences the dispersive properties of the plasma. At the ion acoustic branch we find the usual scattering slightly modified by the charged dust grains. However, at the frequency lower than the ion acoustic branch we find a new mode of the plasma arising from the oscillations of the ions in the static structure of the dust distribution. This low frequency branch causes enhanced stimulated Brillouin scattering of electromagnetic waves in a dusty plasma. (author). 15 refs

  20. Coupled elasto-electromagnetic waves in bounded piezoelectric structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darinskii, A N [Institute of Crystallography RAS, Leninskiy pr. 59, Moscow, 119333 (Russian Federation); Clezio, E Le [Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, ENI Val de Loire, LUSSI, FRE CNRS 2448, rue de la Chocolaterie, BP3410, 41034 Blois (France); Feuillard, G [Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, ENI Val de Loire, LUSSI, FRE CNRS 2448, rue de la Chocolaterie, BP3410, 41034 Blois (France)

    2007-12-15

    The work studies theoretically the effect of electromagnetic wave generation on the acoustic wave reflection/transmission in anisotropic materials possessing piezoelectric properties. We are concerned with quasi-normal incidence at angles {theta}{sub i} {>=} v{sub a}/v{sub el} {approx} 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -5}, where v{sub a} and v{sub el} are the typical velocities of the acoustic and electromagnetic waves. It is shown that electromagnetic and acoustic waves are able to interact strongly despite a huge difference in velocities so that the wave behavior of time-dependent electric fields can drastically change the coefficients of mode conversion. In particular, examples exist of the situations where the acoustic wave must be totally reflected but quasi-electrostatic calculations predict almost total transmission.

  1. Terrestrial propagation of long electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Galejs, Janis; Fock, V A

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial Propagation of Long Electromagnetic Waves deals with the propagation of long electromagnetic waves confined principally to the shell between the earth and the ionosphere, known as the terrestrial waveguide. The discussion is limited to steady-state solutions in a waveguide that is uniform in the direction of propagation. Wave propagation is characterized almost exclusively by mode theory. The mathematics are developed only for sources at the ground surface or within the waveguide, including artificial sources as well as lightning discharges. This volume is comprised of nine chapte

  2. Electromagnetic wave propagating along a space curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Meng-Yun; Wang, Yong-Long; Liang, Guo-Hua; Wang, Fan; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2018-03-01

    By using the thin-layer approach, we derive the effective equation for the electromagnetic wave propagating along a space curve. We find intrinsic spin-orbit, extrinsic spin-orbit, and extrinsic orbital angular-momentum and intrinsic orbital angular-momentum couplings induced by torsion, which can lead to geometric phase, spin, and orbital Hall effects. And we show the helicity inversion induced by curvature that can convert a right-handed circularly polarized electromagnetic wave into a left-handed polarized one, vice versa. Finally, we demonstrate that the gauge invariance of the effective dynamics is protected by the geometrically induced gauge potential.

  3. Nonlocal theory of electromagnetic wave decay into two electromagnetic waves in a rippled density plasma channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sati, Priti; Tripathi, V. K.

    2012-01-01

    Parametric decay of a large amplitude electromagnetic wave into two electromagnetic modes in a rippled density plasma channel is investigated. The channel is taken to possess step density profile besides a density ripple of axial wave vector. The density ripple accounts for the momentum mismatch between the interacting waves and facilitates nonlinear coupling. For a given pump wave frequency, the requisite ripple wave number varies only a little w.r.t. the frequency of the low frequency decay wave. The radial localization of electromagnetic wave reduces the growth rate of the parametric instability. The growth rate decreases with the frequency of low frequency electromagnetic wave.

  4. Science 101: Can Electromagnetic Waves Affect Emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2017-01-01

    The answer to this month's question, "Can electromagnetic waves affect emotions," is yes. Wherever there are electromagnetic (EM) waves (basically everywhere!), there is the potential for them directly or indirectly to affect the emotions. But what about the likely motivation behind the originally-posed question? Can EM waves affect your…

  5. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Random Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1984-01-01

    The propagation of a narrow frequency band beam of electromagnetic waves in a medium with randomly varying index of refraction is considered. A novel formulation of the governing equation is proposed. An equation for the average Green function (or transition probability) can then be derived...

  6. Current generation by monochromatic electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belikov, V.S.; Kolesnichenko, Ya.I.; Plotnik, I.S.

    1983-01-01

    The generation of longitudinal currents in a magnetically confined plasma with travelling monochromatic electromagnetic waves of finite amplitude propagating at some angle to the external magnetic field is considered. By averaging over the particle cyclotron gyration period, the kinetic equation for the distribution function of electrons interacting with an electromagnetic wave is derived. This equation is solved for the case of low-frequency waves, on the assumption that the bounce period of electrons trapped by the wave field is small compared to the typical times of Coulomb collisions (in which case, the driving current is largest). From the solution obtained, analytic expressions for the driving current and the absorbed power, which are valid for a wide range of wave phase velocities, are found. The current drive method considered and the method using the wave packet are compared. (author)

  7. Electromagnetic waves in gravitational wave spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haney, M.; Bini, D.; Ortolan, A.; Fortini, P.

    2013-01-01

    We have considered the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a space-time representing an exact gravitational plane wave and calculated the induced changes on the four-potential field Aμ of a plane electromagnetic wave. By choosing a suitable photon round-trip in a Michelson interferometer, we have been able to identify the physical effects of the exact gravitational wave on the electromagnetic field, i.e. phase shift, change of the polarization vector, angular deflection and delay. These results have been exploited to study the response of an interferometric gravitational wave detector beyond the linear approximation of the general theory of relativity. A much more detailed examination of this problem can be found in our paper recently published in Classical and Quantum Gravity (28 (2011) 235007).

  8. Electromagnetic wave analogue of electronic diode

    OpenAIRE

    Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of the polarization state rotation and is also a key component of optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by ...

  9. Reflection of electromagnetic wave from the boundary of the piezoelectric half-space with cubic symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberyan, A. Kh; Garakov, V. G.

    2018-04-01

    A large number of works have been devoted to investigation of the influence of the piezoelectric properties of a material on the propagation of elastic waves [1–3]. Herewith, the quasi-static piezoelasticity model was mainly used. In the problem of an electromagnetic wave reflection from an elastic medium with piezoelectric properties, it is necessary to consider hyperbolic equations [4].

  10. Radiation of planar electromagnetic waves by a line source in anisotropic metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Qiang; Jiang Weixiang; Cui Tiejun

    2010-01-01

    We show experimentally that a line source in an anisotropic metamaterial directly radiates planar electromagnetic waves instead of cylindrical waves, when one component of the permeability tensor approaches zero. The impedance of this material can be perfectly matched to that of free space, which can significantly reduce the reflections between the source and the superstrate, as in traditional highly directive antennas based on zero index metamaterials. Such a unique property determines the two-way propagation of electromagnetic waves excited by a line source, instead of all-way propagation. From this feature, a highly directive emission of electromagnetic waves is achieved using the anisotropic metamaterial with arbitrary shape. We have designed and fabricated the anisotropic metamaterial in the microwave region, and observed the generation of plane waves and their highly directive emission. The proposed plane-wave emission is independent of the shape variance of the anisotropic metamaterial, which can be utilized in the design of conformal antennas.

  11. Studies on anti-tumor effect of electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadota, Ikuhito; Wakabayashi, Toshio; Ogoshi, Kyoji; Kamijo, Akemi

    1995-01-01

    Hyperthermia have treated cancer with thermal effect of electromagnetic waves for biological systems, but the expected effect is not shown. Also non-thermal effect of electromagnetic waves is out of consideration. If irradiation conditions of electromagnetic waves with non-thermal anti-tumor effect are obtained, we can expect newly spread in cancer therapy. We had in vivo experiments that electromagnetic waves were irradiated to mice. In some irradiation conditions, the non-thermal anti-tumor effect of electromagnetic waves showed. In order to specify the irradiation conditions, we had in vitro experiments. We found that activity ratio of tumor cells which was measured by MTT method depended on irradiation time and power of electromagnetic waves. These results are useful for the cancer therapy. (author)

  12. Virtual Singular Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves in Transformation Media Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Barabanenkov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available If a scatterer and an observation point (receive both approach the so-called near field zone of a source of electromagnetic waves, the scattering process becomes singular one which is mathematically attributed to the spatial singularity of the free space Green function at the origin. Starting from less well known property of left-handed material slab to transfer the singularity of the free space Green function by implementing coordinate transformation, we present a phenomenon of virtual singular scattering of electromagnetic wave on an inhomogeneity located in the volume of left – handed material slab. Virtual singular scattering means that a scatterer is situated only virtually in the near field zone of a source, being, in fact, positioned in the far field zone. Such a situation is realized if a scatterer is embedded into a flat Veselago’s lens and approaches the lens’s inner focus because a slab of Veselago medium produces virtual sources inside and behind the slab and virtual scatterer (as a source of secondary waves from both slab sides. Considering a line-like dielectric scatterer we demonstrate that the scattering efficiency is proportional to product of singular quasistatic parts of two empty space Green functions that means a multiplicative quasistatic singularity of the Green function for a slab of inhomogeneous Veselago medium. We calculate a resonance value of the scattering amplitude in the regime similar to the known Mie resonance scattering.

  13. Utilization Of Carbon Nanotubes In Electromagnetic Wave Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hanis Zakariah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Direct detection of hydrocarbon by an active source using electromagnetic (EM energy termed seabed logging (SBL has shown very promising results. However, currently available electromagnetic wave technology has a number of challenges include sensitivity and frequency matching. This paper presents development of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs as electromagnetic wave detector due to outstanding properties of carbon nanotubes. They are currently one of the desired materials for advanced technologies. Two types of detectors were developed in this work, carbon nanotube-based (D1 and without nanotube-based (D2 detectors. Various configuration and arrangement for each type of detector were investigated to determine the one with the highest detection measurement and stability of frequency stability of detection system. It was found that 20 turn-coils coil placed at its centre gives the maximum detection of induction voltage, 39.61 mV. However, the 20 turn- coils with CNTs which gives 36.50 mV is the preferred EM detectors due to the stability in frequency of the detection system.

  14. Electromagnetic wave scattering by many small particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramm, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Scattering of electromagnetic waves by many small particles of arbitrary shapes is reduced rigorously to solving linear algebraic system of equations bypassing the usual usage of integral equations. The matrix elements of this linear algebraic system have physical meaning. They are expressed in terms of the electric and magnetic polarizability tensors. Analytical formulas are given for calculation of these tensors with any desired accuracy for homogeneous bodies of arbitrary shapes. An idea to create a 'smart' material by embedding many small particles in a given region is formulated

  15. Transversality of Electromagnetic Waves in the Calculus-Based Introductory Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burko, Lior M.

    2008-01-01

    Introductory calculus-based physics textbooks state that electromagnetic waves are transverse and list many of their properties, but most such textbooks do not bring forth arguments why this is so. Both physical and theoretical arguments are at a level appropriate for students of courses based on such books, and could be readily used by…

  16. Excitation of a surface wave by an s-polarized electromagnetic wave incident upon a boundary of a dense magnetoactive plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragila, R.; Vukovic, S.

    1988-01-01

    The properties of surfave waves that are associated with a boundary between a rare plasma and a dense magnetoactive plasma and that propagate along a dc magnetic field are investigated. It is shown that the presence of the magnetic field introduces symmetry in terms of the polarization of the incident electromagnetic wave that excites the surface waves. A surface wave excited by an incident p-polarized (s-polarized) electromagnetic wave leaks in the form of an s-polarized (p-polarized) electromagnetic wave. The rate of rotation of polarization is independent of the polarization of the incident wave. Because a surface wave can leak in the form of an s-polarized electromagnetic wave, it can also be pumped by such a wave, and conditions were found for excitation of a surface wave by an s-polarized incident electromagnetic wave

  17. Local electromagnetic waves in layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gvozdikov, V.M.; Vega-Monroy, R.

    1999-01-01

    A dispersion equation for electromagnetic waves localized on a defect layer of a layered superconductor is obtained in the frame of a model which neglects electron hopping between layers but assumes an arbitrary current-current response function within the layers. The defect layer differs from the rest of the layers by density and mass of charge carriers. It is shown that near the critical temperature in the London limit the local mode lies within the superconducting gap and has a wave vector threshold depending on the layered crystal and defect layer parameters. In the case of highly anisotropic layered superconductors, like Bi- or Tl-based high-T c cuprates, the local mode exists within a narrow range of positive variations of the mass and charge carriers. (author)

  18. Electromagnetic wave analogue of an electronic diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadrivov, Ilya V; Powell, David A; Kivshar, Yuri S; Fedotov, Vassili A; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2011-01-01

    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of rotation of the polarization state and is also a key component in optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by an extraordinarily strong nonlinear wave propagation effect in the same way as the electronic diode function is provided by the nonlinear current characteristic of a semiconductor junction. The effect exploited in this new electromagnetic diode is an intensity-dependent polarization change in an artificial chiral metamolecule. This microwave effect exceeds a similar optical effect previously observed in natural crystals by more than 12 orders of magnitude and a direction-dependent transmission that differs by a factor of 65.

  19. Effect of electromagnetic waves on human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wdowiak, Artur; Mazurek, Paweł A; Wdowiak, Anita; Bojar, Iwona

    2017-03-31

    Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitting from the natural environment, as well as from the use of industrial and everyday appliances, constantly influence the human body. The effect of this type of energy on living tissues may exert various effects on their functioning, although the mechanisms conditioning this phenomenon have not been fully explained. It may be expected that the interactions between electromagnetic radiation and the living organism would depend on the amount and parameters of the transmitted energy and type of tissue exposed. Electromagnetic waves exert an influence on human reproduction by affecting the male and female reproductive systems, the developing embryo, and subsequently, the foetus. Knowledge concerning this problem is still being expanded; however, all the conditionings of human reproduction still remain unknown. The study presents the current state of knowledge concerning the problem, based on the latest scientific reports.

  20. Propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Weiyan

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with the SLF/ELF wave propagation, an important branch of electromagnetic theory. The SLF/ELF wave propagation theory is well applied in earthquake electromagnetic radiation, submarine communication, thunderstorm detection, and geophysical prospecting and diagnostics. The propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves is introduced in various media like the earth-ionospheric waveguide, ionospheric plasma, sea water, earth, and the boundary between two different media or the stratified media. Applications in the earthquake electromagnetic radiation and the submarine communications are also addressed. This book is intended for scientists and engineers in the fields of radio propagation and EM theory and applications. Prof. Pan is a professor at China Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation in Qingdao (China). Dr. Li is a professor at Zhejiang University in Hangzhou (China).

  1. Do electromagnetic waves always propagate along null geodesics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenjo, Felipe A; Hojman, Sergio A

    2017-01-01

    We find exact solutions to Maxwell equations written in terms of four-vector potentials in non–rotating, as well as in Gödel and Kerr spacetimes. We show that Maxwell equations can be reduced to two uncoupled second-order differential equations for combinations of the components of the four-vector potential. Exact electromagnetic waves solutions are written on given gravitational field backgrounds where they evolve. We find that in non–rotating spherical symmetric spacetimes, electromagnetic waves travel along null geodesics. However, electromagnetic waves on Gödel and Kerr spacetimes do not exhibit that behavior. (paper)

  2. Scattering of electromagnetic waves into plasma oscillations via plasma particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, A.T.; Dawson, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    A plasma subjected to an intense electromagnetic wave can exhibit a large number of parametric instabilities. An interesting example which has received little attention is the decay of the electromagnetic wave into a plasma oscillation with the excess energy and momentum being carried off by electrons. This process has been simulated on a one-and-two-halves dimensional electromagnetic code. The incident electromagnetic wave had a frequency near the plasma frequency so that decay into a plasma oscillation and a backscattered electromagnetic wave was excluded. As expected, the threshold for this instability was very large , so it is unlikely that this instability is competitive in most laser plasmas. Nevertheless, the physical mechanism involved provides a means for absorption of laser light and acceleration of particles in a plasma containing large amplitude plasma oscillations

  3. The solitary electromagnetic waves in the graphene superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryuchkov, Sergey V.; Kukhar', Egor I.

    2013-01-01

    d’Alembert equation written for the electromagnetic waves propagating in the graphene superlattice is analyzed. The possibility of the propagation of the solitary electromagnetic waves in the graphene superlattice is discussed. The amplitude and the width of the electromagnetic pulse are calculated. The drag current induced by such wave across the superlattice axis is investigated. The numerical estimate of the charge dragged by the solitary wave is made.

  4. Width of electromagnetic wave instability spectrum in tungsten plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinkevich, A.B.

    1995-01-01

    Based on the study of high-frequency signal modulation and spectrum analysis of the envelope a measurement of spectrum width for electromagnetic wave instability was carried out under conditions of current pulse action on tungsten plate in magnetic field. The existence of amplitude-frequency wave modulation was revealed. The width of current disturbance spectrum in a specimen was evaluated. Current disturbances are shown to cause the instability of electromagnetic wave. 11 refs.; 6 figs

  5. Electromagnetic wave scattering by aerial and ground radar objects

    CERN Document Server

    Sukharevsky, Oleg I

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic Wave Scattering by Aerial and Ground Radar Objects presents the theory, original calculation methods, and computational results of the scattering characteristics of different aerial and ground radar objects. This must-have book provides essential background for computing electromagnetic wave scattering in the presence of different kinds of irregularities, as well as Summarizes fundamental electromagnetic statements such as the Lorentz reciprocity theorem and the image principleContains integral field representations enabling the study of scattering from various layered structur

  6. The Fermionic Signature Operator and Hadamard States in the Presence of a Plane Electromagnetic Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Felix; Reintjes, Moritz

    2017-05-01

    We give a non-perturbative construction of a distinguished state for the quantized Dirac field in Minkowski space in the presence of a time-dependent external field of the form of a plane electromagnetic wave. By explicit computation of the fermionic signature operator, it is shown that the Dirac operator has the strong mass oscillation property. We prove that the resulting fermionic projector state is a Hadamard state.

  7. Fabrication process and electromagnetic wave absorption characterization of a CNT/Ni/epoxy nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seongwoo; Mo, Chan Bin; Lee, Haeshin; Hong, Soon Hyung

    2013-11-01

    Since carbon nanotube (CNT) was first discovered in 1991, it has been considered as a viable type of conductive filler for electromagnetic wave absorption materials in the GHz range. In this paper, pearl-necklace-structure CNT/Ni nano-powders were fabricated by a polyol process as conductive fillers. Compared to synthesized CNT, pearl-necklace Ni-decorated CNT increased the electrical conductivity by an order of 1 due to the enhancement of the Ni-conductive network. Moreover, the decorated Ni particles prevented the agglomeration of CNTs by counterbalancing the Van der Walls interaction between the CNTs. A CNT/Ni nanocomposite showed a homogeneous dispersion in an epoxy-based matrix. This enhanced physical morphology and electrical properties lead to an increase in the loss tangent and reflection loss in the CNT/Ni/Epoxy nanocomposite compared to these characteristics of a CNT/Epoxy nanocomposite in range of 8-12 GHz. The electromagnetic wave absorption properties of CNT/Ni/epoxy nanocomposites will provide enormous opportunities for electronic applications where lightweight EMI shielding or electro-magnetic wave absorption properties are necessary.

  8. Transversality of electromagnetic waves in the calculus-based introductory physics course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burko, Lior M

    2008-01-01

    Introductory calculus-based physics textbooks state that electromagnetic waves are transverse and list many of their properties, but most such textbooks do not bring forth arguments why this is so. Both physical and theoretical arguments are at a level appropriate for students of courses based on such books, and could be readily used by instructors of such courses. Here, we discuss two physical arguments (based on polarization experiments and on lack of monopole electromagnetic radiation) and the full argument for the transversality of (plane) electromagnetic waves based on the integral Maxwell equations. We also show, at a level appropriate for the introductory course, why the electric and magnetic fields in a wave are in phase and the relation of their magnitudes

  9. On the Possibility of the Existence of a Surface Electromagnetic Wave in the Permafrost Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkhanov, V. K.; Bashkuev, Yu. B.; Advokatov, V. R.

    2018-01-01

    The results of measurements of the vertical component of electric field at a radio path with the permafrost at a frequency of 255 kHz have been interpreted. An analysis of the results has shown that the considered radio path exhibits the properties of a two-part impedance surface, i.e., it consists of two sections. At a distance of 70 km from a radiation source and at a frequency of 255 kHz of the electromagnetic wave, the field decreases with the distance R according to the power law as R -1.5 and a power index takes an intermediate value between the power indices for decreasing the field in free space R -2 and for the decrease in the field above an ideal conducting surface R -1. With further propagation at a distance of 70-220 km, the field shows the specific behavior of a surface electromagnetic wave.

  10. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride photonic crystals for improved-performance surface electromagnetic wave biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinibaldi, Alberto; Descrovi, Emiliano; Giorgis, Fabrizio; Dominici, Lorenzo; Ballarini, Mirko; Mandracci, Pietro; Danz, Norbert; Michelotti, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    We exploit the properties of surface electromagnetic waves propagating at the surface of finite one dimensional photonic crystals to improve the performance of optical biosensors with respect to the standard surface plasmon resonance approach. We demonstrate that the hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride technology is a versatile platform for fabricating one dimensional photonic crystals with any desirable design and operating in a wide wavelength range, from the visible to the near infrared. We prepared sensors based on photonic crystals sustaining either guided modes or surface electromagnetic waves, also known as Bloch surface waves. We carried out for the first time a direct experimental comparison of their sensitivity and figure of merit with surface plasmon polaritons on metal layers, by making use of a commercial surface plasmon resonance instrument that was slightly adapted for the experiments. Our measurements demonstrate that the Bloch surface waves on silicon nitride photonic crystals outperform surface plasmon polaritons by a factor 1.3 in terms of figure of merit.

  11. Transversality of electromagnetic waves in the calculus-based introductory physics course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burko, Lior M.

    2008-11-01

    Introductory calculus-based physics textbooks state that electromagnetic waves are transverse and list many of their properties, but most such textbooks do not bring forth arguments why this is so. Both physical and theoretical arguments are at a level appropriate for students of courses based on such books, and could be readily used by instructors of such courses. Here, we discuss two physical arguments (based on polarization experiments and on lack of monopole electromagnetic radiation) and the full argument for the transversality of (plane) electromagnetic waves based on the integral Maxwell equations. We also show, at a level appropriate for the introductory course, why the electric and magnetic fields in a wave are in phase and the relation of their magnitudes.

  12. Transversality of Electromagnetic Waves in the Calculus--Based Introductory Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burko, Lior M.

    2009-05-01

    Introductory calculus--based physics textbooks state that electromagnetic waves are transverse and list many of their properties, but most such textbooks do not bring forth arguments why this is so. Both physical and theoretical arguments are at a level appropriate for students of courses based on such books, and could be readily used by instructors of such courses. Here, we discuss two physical arguments (based on polarization experiments and on lack of monopole electromagnetic radiation), and the full argument for the transversality of (plane) electromagnetic waves based on the integral Maxwell equations. We also show, at a level appropriate for the introductory course, why the electric and magnetic fields in a wave are in phase and the relation of their magnitudes. We have successfully integrated this approach in the calculus--based introductory physics course at the University of Alabama in Huntsville.

  13. Parametric study of electromagnetic waves propagating in absorbing curved S ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Kenneth J.

    1989-01-01

    A finite-element Galerkin formulation has been developed to study attenuation of transverse magnetic (TM) waves propagating in two-dimensional S-curved ducts with absorbing walls. In the frequency range where the duct diameter and electromagnetic wave length are nearly equal, the effect of duct length, curvature (duct offset), and absorber wall thickness was examined. For a given offset in the curved duct, the length of the S-duct was found to significantly affect both the absorptive and reflective characteristics of the duct. For a straight and a curved duct with perfect electric conductor terminations, power attenuation contours were examined to determine electromagnetic wall properties associated with maximum input signal absorption. Offset of the S-duct was found to significantly affect the value of the wall permittivity associated with the optimal attenuation of the incident electromagnetic wave.

  14. Quantifying and predicting meat and meat products quality attributes using electromagnetic waves: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damez, Jean-Louis; Clerjon, Sylvie

    2013-12-01

    The meat industry needs reliable meat quality information throughout the production process in order to guarantee high-quality meat products for consumers. Besides laboratory researches, food scientists often try to adapt their tools to industrial conditions and easy handling devices useable on-line and in slaughterhouses already exist. This paper overviews the recently developed approaches and latest research efforts related to assessing the quality of different meat products by electromagnetic waves and examines the potential for their deployment. The main meat quality traits that can be assessed using electromagnetic waves are sensory characteristics, chemical composition, physicochemical properties, health-protecting properties, nutritional characteristics and safety. A wide range of techniques, from low frequency, high frequency impedance measurement, microwaves, NMR, IR and UV light, to X-ray interaction, involves a wide range of physical interactions between the electromagnetic wave and the sample. Some of these techniques are now in a period of transition between experimental and applied utilization and several sensors and instruments are reviewed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Resonant emission of electromagnetic waves by plasma solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, V.A.; Sergeev, A.M.; Khimich, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of plasma-wave solitons to radiate electromagnetic waves at the frequency of the natural oscillations of the field is considered. It is shown that this radiation is the main energy dissipation channel for strong plasma turbulence in a magnetoactive plasma. An interpretation is proposed for the artificial radio emission produced when the ionosphere is acted upon by beams of strong electromagnetic waves. The use of this phenomenon for plasma turbulence, particularly in the outer-space plasma near the earth, is discussed

  16. Analytic descriptions of cylindrical electromagnetic waves in a nonlinear medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hao; Si, Liu-Gang; Yang, Xiaoxue; Wu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    A simple but highly efficient approach for dealing with the problem of cylindrical electromagnetic waves propagation in a nonlinear medium is proposed based on an exact solution proposed recently. We derive an analytical explicit formula, which exhibiting rich interesting nonlinear effects, to describe the propagation of any amount of cylindrical electromagnetic waves in a nonlinear medium. The results obtained by using the present method are accurately concordant with the results of using traditional coupled-wave equations. As an example of application, we discuss how a third wave affects the sum- and difference-frequency generation of two waves propagation in the nonlinear medium. PMID:26073066

  17. Cell therapy for spinal cord injury informed by electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Jack; Ye, Hui

    2016-10-01

    Spinal cord injury devastates the CNS, besetting patients with symptoms including but not limited to: paralysis, autonomic nervous dysfunction, pain disorders and depression. Despite the identification of several molecular and genetic factors, a reliable regenerative therapy has yet to be produced for this terminal disease. Perhaps the missing piece of this puzzle will be discovered within endogenous electrotactic cellular behaviors. Neurons and stem cells both show mediated responses (growth rate, migration, differentiation) to electromagnetic waves, including direct current electric fields. This review analyzes the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury, the rationale for regenerative cell therapy and the evidence for directing cell therapy via electromagnetic waves shown by in vitro experiments.

  18. Transition operators in electromagnetic-wave diffraction theory - General theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahne, G. E.

    1992-01-01

    A formal theory is developed for the scattering of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves from impenetrable immobile obstacles with given linear, homogeneous, and generally nonlocal boundary conditions of Leontovich (impedance) type for the wave of the obstacle's surface. The theory is modeled on the complete Green's function and the transition (T) operator in time-independent formal scattering theory of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. An expression for the differential scattering cross section for plane electromagnetic waves is derived in terms of certain matrix elements of the T operator for the obstacle.

  19. Electromagnetic fields of Nanometer electromagnetic waves and X-ray. New frontiers of electromagnetic wave engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The investigating committee aimed at research on electromagnetic fields in functional devices and X-ray fibers for efficient coherent X-ray generation and their material science, high-precision manufacturing, X-ray microscope, application to medical and information communication technologies, such as interaction between material and nanometer electromagnetic waves of radiated light and X-ray, interaction between microwaves and particle beams, theory and design of high-frequency waveguides for resonator and accelerator, from January 2003 to December 2005. In this report, we describe our research results, in particular, on the topics of synchrotron radiation and Cherenkov radiation, Kyushu synchrotron light source and its technology, nanometer electromagnetic fields in optical region, process of interaction between evanescent waves and near-field light, orthogonal relation of electromagnetic fields including evanescent waves in dispersive dielectrics, optical amplification using electron beam, nanometer electromagnetic fields in focusing waveguide lens device with curved facets, electromagnetic fields in nanometer photonic crystal waveguide consisting of atoms, X-ray scattering and absorption I bio-material for image diagnosis. (author)

  20. On scattering of electromagnetic waves by a wormhole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillov, A.A.; Savelova, E.P.

    2012-01-01

    We consider scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by a wormhole. It is found that the scattered wave is depolarized and has a specific interference picture depending on parameters of the wormhole and the distance to the observer. It is proposed that such features can be important in the direct search of wormholes.

  1. On scattering of electromagnetic waves by a wormhole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillov, A.A., E-mail: ka98@mail.ru [Dubna International University of Nature, Society and Man, Universitetskaya Str. 19, Dubna, 141980 (Russian Federation); Savelova, E.P. [Dubna International University of Nature, Society and Man, Universitetskaya Str. 19, Dubna, 141980 (Russian Federation)

    2012-04-20

    We consider scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by a wormhole. It is found that the scattered wave is depolarized and has a specific interference picture depending on parameters of the wormhole and the distance to the observer. It is proposed that such features can be important in the direct search of wormholes.

  2. THE SIMULATION OF SCATTERING OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES ON ANGULAR STRUCTURES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Preobrazhensky

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the characteristics of scattering of electromagnetic waves on the angular diffraction structures. The solution of the problem is based on the method of integral equations. A comparative analysis of the scattering characteristics of structures with different shape is carried out.

  3. FDTD Modelling of Electromagnetic waves in Stratified Medium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The technique is an adaptation of the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) approach usually applied to model electromagnetic wave propagation. In this paper a simple 2D implementation of FDTD algorithm in mathematica environment is presented. Source implementation and the effect of conductivity on the incident field ...

  4. On new electromagnetic waves in a multicomponent insulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubovik, V. M.

    The dispersion equation for additional transverse electromagnetic waves in a multicomponent amorphous insulator is analyzed in the vicinity of a narrow absorption line. Such waves can be excited due to spatial dispersion associated with fluctuation of the polarizability of insulator molecules. The

  5. Wigner functions for nonparaxial, arbitrarily polarized electromagnetic wave fields in free space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Miguel A

    2004-11-01

    New representations are defined for describing electromagnetic wave fields in free space exactly in terms of rays for any wavelength, level of coherence or polarization, and numerical aperture, as long as there are no evanescent components. These representations correspond to tensors assigned to each ray such that the electric and magnetic energy densities, the Poynting vector, and the polarization properties of the field correspond to simple integrals involving these tensors for the rays that go through the specified point. For partially coherent fields, the ray-based approach provided by the new representations can reduce dramatically the computation times for the physical properties mentioned earlier.

  6. Ponderomotive force of a uniform electromagnetic wave in a time varying dielectric medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, W.B.; Katsouleas, T.

    1992-01-01

    A ponderomotive force associated with a uniform electromagnetic wave propagating in a medium with time varying dielectric properties [e.g., ε=ε(x-v 0 t)] is identified. In particular, when a laser ionizes a gas through which it propagates, a force is exerted on the medium at the ionization front that is proportional to (∇ε)E 2 rather than the usual (ε-1)∇E 2 . This force excites a wake in the plasma medium behind the ionization front. The ponderomotive force and wake amplitude are derived and tested with 1D particle-in-cell simulations

  7. The SEM description of interaction of a transient electromagnetic wave with an object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, L. W.; Wilton, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    The singularity expansion method (SEM), proposed as a means for determining and representing the transient surface current density induced on a scatterer by a transient electromagnetic wave is described. The resulting mathematical description of the transient surface current on the object is discussed. The data required to represent the electromagnetic scattering properties of a given object are examined. Experimental methods which were developed for the determination of the SEM description are discussed. The feasibility of characterizing the surface current induced on aircraft flying in proximity to a lightning stroke by way of SEM is examined.

  8. Condition for invariant spectrum of an electromagnetic wave scattered from an anisotropic random media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Wu, Pinghui; Chang, Liping

    2015-08-24

    Within the accuracy of the first-order Born approximation, sufficient conditions are derived for the invariance of spectrum of an electromagnetic wave, which is generated by the scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave from an anisotropic random media. We show that the following restrictions on properties of incident fields and the anisotropic media must be simultaneously satisfied: 1) the elements of the dielectric susceptibility matrix of the media must obey the scaling law; 2) the spectral components of the incident field are proportional to each other; 3) the second moments of the elements of the dielectric susceptibility matrix of the media are inversely proportional to the frequency.

  9. Interaction of the electromagnetic waves and non-magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Aiping; Qiu Xiaoming; Dong Yuying; Li Liqiong

    2002-01-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves with 0.5 - 10 GHz in a non-magnetized collisional plasma slab is studied numerically. The change in the absorbed power, reflected power and transmitted power of the electromagnetic wave with collisional frequency of electrons and neutral atoms in plasma from 0.1 - 10 GHz, is calculated, in the condition of the uniform plasma with density of 10 10 or 10 11 cm -3 and depth of 10 cm, and the non-uniform plasma with density distribution of n = n 0 exp[2(z/d-1)] and depth of 10 cm, respectively. The results show that the absorbed power in either uniform or non-uniform plasma is large when the plasma density is large and collision frequency is high, and the peak value is 90%

  10. Parametric trapping of electromagnetic waves in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silin, V.P.; Starodub, A.N.

    1977-01-01

    Considered is parametric instability in an inhomogeneous plasma at which a pumping wave is transformed to an electromagnetic wave and aperiodically in-time-growing disturbances. It is shown that after achievement of some boundary pumping value by electric field intensity an absolute parametric instability evolution becomes possible. In-time growing plasma disturbances are localized near electric field extremums of a pumping wave. Such localization areas are small as compared to characteristic size of pumping inhomogeneity in a plasma. The secondary electromagnetic waves stay within the localization areas and, therefore, are not scattered by a plasma. As following from this it has been established, that due to parametric instability electromagnetic radiation trapping by a plasma occurs. Such a trapping is considerably connected with a spatial structure of a pumping field and it cannot arise within the field of a running wave in the theoretical model considered. However parametric trapping turns out to be possible even with very small reflection coefficients

  11. Relativistic electromagnetic waves in an electron-ion plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Abraham C.-L.; Kennel, Charles F.

    1987-01-01

    High power laser beams can drive plasma particles to relativistic energies. An accurate description of strong waves requires the inclusion of ion dynamics in the analysis. The equations governing the propagation of relativistic electromagnetic waves in a cold electron-ion plasma can be reduced to two equations expressing conservation of energy-momentum of the system. The two conservation constants are functions of the plasma stream velocity, the wave velocity, the wave amplitude, and the electron-ion mass ratio. The dynamic parameter, expressing electron-ion momentum conversation in the laboratory frame, can be regarded as an adjustable quantity, a suitable choice of which will yield self-consistent solutions when other plasma parameters were specified. Circularly polarized electromagnetic waves and electrostatic plasma waves are used as illustrations.

  12. Dispersion relation of linearly polarized strong electromagnetic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, A; Massaglia, S [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Dobrowolny, M [Comitato Nazionale per l' Energia Nucleaire, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Plasma Spazio

    1975-12-15

    A numerical study is presented of the dispersion relation of linearly polarized strong electromagnetic waves in a cold electron plasma. The nonlinear effects introduced by the relativistic motion of electrons are: (1) the dispersion relation depends explicitly on the field strength ..cap alpha..=eE/sub 0//mc..omega../sub 0/, and (2) the propagation of modes with frequencies below the formal electron plasma frequency is allowed.

  13. Capture of charged particles by transverse electromagnetic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydovskii, V Ya; Sapogin, V G; Ukolov, A S

    1975-01-01

    An estimate is made of the maximum possible number of resonance particles interacting with a plane, transverse electromagnetic wave. The estimate is obtained by means of a distribution function, which is expressed in terms of the integrals of motion of the particles in the wave. Values of proton fluxes accelerated by an amplitude-modulated wave in the solar corona coincide with those observed during bursts of sporadic radioemission. (SJR)

  14. Electromagnetic waves in dusty magnetoplasmas using two-potential theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubia, K.; Jamil, M.; Salimullah, M.

    2009-01-01

    The low-frequency long wavelength electromagnetic waves, viz., shear Alfven waves in a cold dusty plasma, have been examined employing two-potential theory and plasma fluid model. The presence of the unmagnetized dust particles and magnetized plasma components gives rise to a new ion-dust lower hybrid cutoff frequency for the electromagnetic shear Alfven wave propagation. The importance and relevance of the present work to the space dusty plasma environments are also pointed out.

  15. Small discussion of electromagnetic wave anomalies preceding earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Six brief pieces on various aspects of electromagnetic wave anomalies are presented. They cover: earthquake electromagnetic emanations; the use of magnetic induction information for earthquake forecasting; electromagnetic pulse emissions as pre-earthquake indicators; the use of magnetic sensors to determine medium-wavelength field strength for earthquake prediction purposes; magnetic deviation indicators inside reinforced-concrete buildings; and a discussion of the general physical principles involved.

  16. [Mechanisms of primary reception of electromagnetic waves of optical range].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huliar, S O; Lymans'kyĭ, Iu P

    2003-01-01

    An existence of separate functional system of regulation of electromagnetic balance of organism has been substantiated and a working conception of light therapy has been formulated. As a basis, there is a possibility to use the acupuncture points for input of biologically necessary electromagnetic waves into the system of their conductors in a body that might be considered as a transport facility for energy of the polarized electromagnetic waves. Zones-recipients are organs having an electromagnetic disbalance due to excess of biologically inadequate radiation and being the targets for peroxide oxidation. Foremost, a body has the neurohormonal and immune regulatory systems. Electromagnetic stimulation or modification of functions of the zones-recipients determines the achievement of therapeutic and useful effects, and their combination with local reparative processes allows to attain a clinical goal. We represent own and literary experimental data about the development of physiological responses (analgesia) to BIOPTRON-light exposure on the acupuncture points or biologically active zones. We show the experimental facts in support of a hypothesis that a living organism can perceive an action of the electromagnetic fields of optical range not only via the visual system, but also through the off-nerve receptors (specific energy-sensitive proteins detecting critical changes of energy in cells and functioning as the "sensory" cell systems), as well as via the acupuncture points. It confirms an important role of the electromagnetic waves of optical range in providing normal vital functions of living organisms. A current approach to BIOPTRON light therapy (by polarized polychromatic coherent low energy light) consists in combined (local and system) exposure of the electromagnetic waves within the biologically necessary range.

  17. On the polarization and depolarization of the electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghese, Ferdinando; Denti, Paolo; Saija, Rosalba; Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare

    2005-01-01

    We discuss a general description of the polarization of monochromatic electromagnetic waves that proves useful when the customary description in terms of Stokes parameters does not apply. We also show how this description can be exploited to study the depolarization of linearly polarized waves in the interior of porous model cosmic dust grains. The results that we discuss may affect our understanding of several problems that are relevant for astrobiology

  18. A large volume uniform plasma generator for the experiments of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Min; Li Xiaoping; Xie Kai; Liu Donglin; Liu Yanming

    2013-01-01

    A large volume uniform plasma generator is proposed for the experiments of electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in plasma, to reproduce a “black out” phenomenon with long duration in an environment of the ordinary laboratory. The plasma generator achieves a controllable approximate uniform plasma in volume of 260 mm× 260 mm× 180 mm without the magnetic confinement. The plasma is produced by the glow discharge, and the special discharge structure is built to bring a steady approximate uniform plasma environment in the electromagnetic wave propagation path without any other barriers. In addition, the electron density and luminosity distributions of plasma under different discharge conditions were diagnosed and experimentally investigated. Both the electron density and the plasma uniformity are directly proportional to the input power and in roughly reverse proportion to the gas pressure in the chamber. Furthermore, the experiments of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma are conducted in this plasma generator. Blackout phenomena at GPS signal are observed under this system and the measured attenuation curve is of reasonable agreement with the theoretical one, which suggests the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Self-consistent adjoint analysis for topology optimization of electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yongbo; Korvink, Jan G.

    2018-05-01

    In topology optimization of electromagnetic waves, the Gâteaux differentiability of the conjugate operator to the complex field variable results in the complexity of the adjoint sensitivity, which evolves the original real-valued design variable to be complex during the iterative solution procedure. Therefore, the self-inconsistency of the adjoint sensitivity is presented. To enforce the self-consistency, the real part operator has been used to extract the real part of the sensitivity to keep the real-value property of the design variable. However, this enforced self-consistency can cause the problem that the derived structural topology has unreasonable dependence on the phase of the incident wave. To solve this problem, this article focuses on the self-consistent adjoint analysis of the topology optimization problems for electromagnetic waves. This self-consistent adjoint analysis is implemented by splitting the complex variables of the wave equations into the corresponding real parts and imaginary parts, sequentially substituting the split complex variables into the wave equations with deriving the coupled equations equivalent to the original wave equations, where the infinite free space is truncated by the perfectly matched layers. Then, the topology optimization problems of electromagnetic waves are transformed into the forms defined on real functional spaces instead of complex functional spaces; the adjoint analysis of the topology optimization problems is implemented on real functional spaces with removing the variational of the conjugate operator; the self-consistent adjoint sensitivity is derived, and the phase-dependence problem is avoided for the derived structural topology. Several numerical examples are implemented to demonstrate the robustness of the derived self-consistent adjoint analysis.

  20. Magnesiothermic reduction of rice husk ash for electromagnetic wave adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shu-Ting; Yan, Kang-kang; Zhang, Yuan hu; Jin, Shi-di; Ye, Ying; Chen, Xue-Gang, E-mail: chenxg83@zju.edu.cn

    2015-11-15

    The increase in electromagnetic pollution due to the extensive exploitation of electromagnetic (EM) waves in modern technology creates correspondingly urgent need for developing effective EM wave absorbers. In this study, we carried out the magnesiothermic reduced the rice husk ash under different temperatures (400–800 °C) and investigated the electromagnetic wave adsorption of the products. The EM absorbing for all samples are mainly depend on the dielectric loss, which is ascribed to the carbon and silicon carbide content. RA samples (raw rice husk ashed in air and was magesiothermic reduced in different temperatures) exhibit poor dielectric properties, whereas RN samples (raw rice husk ashed in nitrogen and was magesiothermic reduced in different temperatures) with higher content of carbon and silicon carbide display considerable higher dielectric loss values and broader bandwidth for RL<−5 dB and −10 dB. For RN samples, the maximum bandwidth for −5 dB and −10 dB decrease with carbon contents, while the optimum thickness decrease with increasing SiC content. The optimum thickness of RN400–800 for EM absorption is 1.5–2.0 mm, with maximum RL of between −28.9 and −68.4 dB, bandwidth of 6.7–13 GHz for RL<−5 dB and 3.2–6.2 GHz for RL<−10 dB. The magnesiothermic reduction will enhance the potential application of rice husk ash in EM wave absorption and the samples benefited from low bulk density and low thickness. With the advantages of light-weight, high EM wave absorption, low cost, RN400–800 could be promising candidates for light-weight EM wave absorption materials over many conventional EM wave absorbers. - Highlights: • RN400–800 samples are potential light-weight electromagnetic absorbers. • Carbon and SiC are considered as dominating contributions for the dielectric loss. • Magnesiumothermic reduction extends the EM wave absorption potential of RHN.

  1. Electromagnetic wave propagation in relativistic magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, I.

    1985-01-01

    An improved mathematical technique and a new code for deriving the conductivity tensor for collisionless plasmas have been developed. The method is applicable to a very general case, including both hot (relativistic) and cold magnetized plasmas, with only isotropic equilibrium distributions being considered here. The usual derivation starts from the relativistic Vlasov equation and leads to an integration over an infinite sum of Bessel functions which has to be done numerically. In the new solution the integration is carried out over a product of two Bessel functions only. This reduces the computing time very significantly. An added advantage over existing codes is our capability to perform the computations for waves propagating obliquely to the magnetic field. Both improvements greatly facilitate investigations of properties of the plasma under conditions hitherto unexplored

  2. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nanooctahedra MnFe₂O₄ onto the Wood Surface with Soft Magnetism, Fire Resistance and Electromagnetic Wave Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanwei; Yao, Qiufang; Wang, Chao; Ma, Zhongqing; Sun, Qingfeng; Fan, Bitao; Jin, Chunde; Chen, Yipeng

    2017-05-23

    In this study, nanooctahedra MnFe₂O₄ were successfully deposited on a wood surface via a low hydrothermal treatment by hydrogen bonding interactions. As-prepared MnFe₂O₄/wood composite (MW) had superior performance of soft magnetism, fire resistance and electromagnetic wave absorption. Among them, small hysteresis loops and low coercivity (magnetization-field curve of MW with saturation magnetization of 28.24 emu/g, indicating its excellent soft magnetism. The MW also exhibited a good fire-resistant property due to its initial burning time at 20 s; while only 6 s for the untreated wood (UW) in combustion experiments. Additionally, this composite revealed good electromagnetic wave absorption with a minimum reflection loss of -9.3 dB at 16.48 GHz. Therefore, the MW has great potential in the fields of special decoration and indoor electromagnetic wave absorbers.

  3. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the plasma near electron cyclotron resonance: Undulator-induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvets, G.; Tushentsov, M.; Tokman, M.D.; Kryachko, A.

    2005-01-01

    Propagation of electromagnetic waves in magnetized plasma near the electron cyclotron frequency can be strongly modified by adding a weak magnetic undulator. For example, both right- and left-hand circularly polarized waves can propagate along the magnetic field without experiencing resonant absorption. This effect of entirely eliminating electron cyclotron heating is referred to as the undulator-induced transparency (UIT) of the plasma, and is the classical equivalent of the well-known quantum mechanical effect of electromagnetically induced transparency. The basics of UIT are reviewed, and various ways in which UIT can be utilized to achieve exotic propagation properties of electromagnetic waves in plasmas are discussed. For example, UIT can dramatically slow down the waves' group velocity, resulting in the extreme compression of the wave energy in the plasma. Compressed waves are polarized along the propagation direction, and can be used for synchronous electron or ion acceleration. Strong coupling between the two wave helicities are explored to impart the waves with high group velocities ∂ω/∂k for vanishing wave numbers k. Cross-helicity coupling for realistic density and magnetic field profiles are examined using a linearized fluid code, particle-in-cell simulations, and ray-tracing WKB calculations

  4. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by a traversable wormhole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nasr Esfahani

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available   Replacing the wormhole geometry with an equivalent medium using the perturbation theory of scattering and the Born approximation, we have calculated the differential scattering cross section of electromagnetic waves by a traversable wormhole. It is shown that scattering at long wavelenghts can essentially distinguish wormhole from ordinary scattering object. Some of the zeros of the scattering cross section are determined which can be used for estimating the radius of the throat of wormholes. The known result that in this kind of scattering the linear polarization remains unchanged is verified here.

  5. Self-reflection of intense electromagnetic waves in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari, D P; Kumar, A; Sharma, J K [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi. Dept. of Physics

    1977-10-01

    A uniform electromagnetic wave of high power density, propagating in a collisional plasma gives rise to a modification in temperature-dependent collision frequency and in turn induces a gradient in the complex refractive index of the medium. A WKB solution of the problem predicts a backward propagating wave on account of the self-induced inhomogeneity. The amplitude of the backward (i.e. reflected) wave increases with increasing power density of the wave. This is a volume nonlinear effect and is appreciable for usually employed power densities.

  6. Model of the electromagnetic waves processing in ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrego L, J.; Azorin N, J.; Siles A, S.; Cruz O, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, a model to process the electromagnetic waves in ultrasonic equipment is proposed and it is experimentally demonstrated that, the origin of the ultrasound is electronic and non mechanic. The above mentioned, it has been demonstrated when making in an electronic equipment a spectral analysis the one that indicated an unfolding of the original ultrasonic pulses of 17 K Hz., to 88 K Hz., and of 5 MHz., to 23 GHz. Also, it was obtained the degradation with ultrasound of particles of Hematite and of Galena, as well as the fading of the methylene blue and the generation of an electric current exciting with ultrasound. (Author)

  7. Spectrum of classes of point emitters of electromagnetic wave fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Román

    2016-09-01

    The spectrum of classes of point emitters has been introduced as a numerical tool suitable for the design, analysis, and synthesis of non-paraxial optical fields in arbitrary states of spatial coherence. In this paper, the polarization state of planar electromagnetic wave fields is included in the spectrum of classes, thus increasing its modeling capabilities. In this context, optical processing is realized as a filtering on the spectrum of classes of point emitters, performed by the complex degree of spatial coherence and the two-point correlation of polarization, which could be implemented dynamically by using programmable optical devices.

  8. Electromagnetic Wave Chaos in Gradient Refractive Index Optical Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, P. B.; Fromhold, T. M.; Taylor, R. P.; Micolich, A. P.

    2001-01-01

    Electromagnetic wave chaos is investigated using two-dimensional optical cavities formed in a cylindrical gradient refractive index lens with reflective surfaces. When the planar ends of the lens are cut at an angle to its axis, the geometrical ray paths are chaotic. In this regime, the electromagnetic mode spectrum of the cavity is modulated by both real and ghost periodic ray paths, which also 'scar' the electric field intensity distributions of many modes. When the cavity is coupled to waveguides, the eigenmodes generate complex series of resonant peaks in the electromagnetic transmission spectrum

  9. Facile synthesis of iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites: application for electromagnetic wave absorption at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Yu, Xinxin; Hu, Hongrui; Li, Yang; Wu, Mingzai; Wang, Zhongzhu; Li, Guang; Sun, Zhaoqi; Chen, Changle

    2015-03-19

    Iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites were synthesized by facile thermochemical reactions of graphite oxide and FeSO4 · 7H2O. By adjusting reaction temperature, α-Fe2O3/reduced graphene oxide and Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide composites can be obtained conveniently. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide sheets were demonstrated to regulate the phase transition from α-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 via γ-Fe2O3, which was reported for the first time. The hydroxyl groups attached on the graphene oxide sheets and H2 gas generated during the annealing of graphene oxide are believed to play an important role during these phase transformations. These samples showed good electromagnetic wave absorption performance due to their electromagnetic complementary effect. These samples possess much better electromagnetic wave absorption properties than the mixture of separately prepared Fe3O4 with rGO, suggesting the crucial role of synthetic method in determining the product properties. Also, these samples perform much better than commercial absorbers. Most importantly, the great stability of these composites is highly advantageous for applications as electromagnetic wave absorption materials at high temperatures.

  10. Excitation of planetary electromagnetic waves in the inhomogeneous ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Rapoport

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a new method for the analysis of excitation and propagation of planetary electromagnetic waves (PEMW in the ionosphere of the Earth. The nonlinear system of equations for PEMW, valid for any height, from D to F regions, including intermediate altitudes between D and E and between E and F regions, is derived. In particular, we have found the system of nonlinear one-fluid MHD equations in the β-plane approximation valid for the ionospheric F region (Aburjania et al., 2003a, 2005. The series expansion in a "small" (relative to the local geomagnetic field non-stationary magnetic field has been applied only at the last step of the derivation of the equations. The small mechanical vertical displacement of the media is taken into account. We have shown that obtained equations can be reduced to the well-known system with Larichev–Reznik vortex solution in the equatorial region (see e.g. Aburjania et al., 2002. The excitation of planetary electromagnetic waves by different initial perturbations has been investigated numerically. Some means for the PEMW detection and data processing are discussed.

  11. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in stratified media with nonlinearity in both dielectric and magnetic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kihong; Phung, D K; Rotermund, F; Lim, H

    2008-01-21

    We develop a generalized version of the invariant imbedding method, which allows us to solve the electromagnetic wave equations in arbitrarily inhomogeneous stratified media where both the dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability depend on the strengths of the electric and magnetic fields, in a numerically accurate and efficient manner. We apply our method to a uniform nonlinear slab and find that in the presence of strong external radiation, an initially uniform medium of positive refractive index can spontaneously change into a highly inhomogeneous medium where regions of positive or negative refractive index as well as metallic regions appear. We also study the wave transmission properties of periodic nonlinear media and the influence of nonlinearity on the mode conversion phenomena in inhomogeneous plasmas. We argue that our theory is very useful in the study of the optical properties of a variety of nonlinear media including nonlinear negative index media fabricated using wires and split-ring resonators.

  12. Quantifying Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Environment Using Measurements From A Small Buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE PROPAGATION ENVIRONMENT USING MEASUREMENTS FROM A SMALL BUOY by Andrew E. Sweeney June 2017 Thesis Advisor: Qing Wang...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE QUANTIFYING ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE PROPAGATION ENVIRONMENT USING MEASUREMENTS FROM A...the Coupled Air Sea Processes and Electromagnetic (EM) ducting Research (CASPER), to understand air-sea interaction processes and their representation

  13. Examination of Bursty Electromagnetic Waves Observed During Intervals of Turbulent Magnetosheath Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Mark L.; Wendel, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate observations of intense bursts of electromagnetic waves in association with magnetic reconnection in the turbulent magnetosheath. These structured, broadband bursts occur above 80-Hz, often displaying features reminiscent of absorption bands and are observed at local minima in the magnetic field. We present detailed analyses of these intense bursts of electromagnetic waves and quantify their proximity to X- and O-nulls.

  14. 2D full wave simulation on electromagnetic wave propagation in toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, Hitoshi; Uruta, Go; Nakayama, Kazunori; Mase, Atsushi

    2002-01-01

    Global full-wave simulation on electromagnetic wave propagation in toroidal plasma with an external magnetic field imaging a tokamak configuration is performed in two dimensions. The temporal behavior of an electromagnetic wave launched into plasma from a wave-guiding region is obtained. (author)

  15. The modulational and filamentational instabilities of two coupled electromagnetic waves in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.K.

    1992-01-01

    The modulational and filamentational instabilities of two coupled electromagnetic waves have been investigated, taking into account the combined effect of relativistic electron mass variations and nonresonant density fluctuations that are driven by the ponderomotive force. The relevance of our investigation to phenomena related with nonlinear mixing of electromagnetic waves is pointed out. (orig.)

  16. On the self-trapping of an electromagnetic wave in magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ashry, M.Y.; Berezhiani, V.I.; Pichkhadze, Sh.D.

    1987-06-01

    The possibility of relativistic self-trapping of an electromagnetic wave in magnetized plasma is studied. It is shown that in the case of propagation of fast wave packet of electromagnetic wave in plasma, self-trapping is possible due to the effect of relativistic non-linearity, which is effective even for small amplitudes of the pumping wave. (author). 7 refs

  17. Descriptive Study of Electromagnetic Wave Distribution for Various Seating Positions: Using Digital Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seomun, GyeongAe; Kim, YoungHwan; Lee, Jung-Ah; Jeong, KwangHoon; Park, Seon-A; Kim, Miran; Noh, Wonjung

    2014-01-01

    To better understand environmental electromagnetic wave exposure during the use of digital textbooks by elementary school students, we measured numeric values of the electromagnetic fields produced by tablet personal computers (TPCs). Specifically, we examined the distribution of the electromagnetic waves for various students' seating positions in…

  18. Division of the momentum of electromagnetic waves in linear media into electromagnetic and material parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Pablo L

    2010-02-01

    It is proposed a natural and consistent division of the momentum of electromagnetic waves in linear, non-dispersive and non-absorptive dielectric and magnetic media into material and electromagnetic parts. The material part is calculated using directly the Lorentz force law and the electromagnetic momentum density has the form epsilon(0)E x B, without an explicit dependence on the properties of the media. The consistency of the treatment is verified through the obtention of a correct momentum balance equation in many examples and showing the compatibility of the division with the Einstein's theory of relativity by the use of a gedanken experiment. An experimental prediction for the radiation pressure on mirrors immersed in linear dielectric and magnetic media is also made.

  19. Longitudinal elliptically polarized electromagnetic waves in off-diagonal magnetoelectric split-ring composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, S T; Wang, Weihua; Zhou, L; Lin, Z F

    2009-07-22

    We study the propagation of plane electromagnetic waves through different systems consisting of arrays of split rings of different orientations. Many extraordinary EM phenomena were discovered in such systems, contributed by the off-diagonal magnetoelectric susceptibilities. We find a mode such that the electric field becomes elliptically polarized with a component in the longitudinal direction (i.e. parallel to the wavevector). Even though the group velocity [Formula: see text] and the wavevector k are parallel, in the presence of damping, the Poynting vector does not just get 'broadened', but can possess a component perpendicular to the wavevector. The speed of light can be real even when the product ϵμ is negative. Other novel properties are explored.

  20. Reflection and transmission of electromagnetic waves in planarly stratified media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caviglia, G.

    1999-01-01

    Propagation of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves in planarly stratified multilayers is investigated. Each layer is allowed to be inhomogeneous and the layers are separated by interfaces. The procedure is based on the representation of the electromagnetic field in the basis of the eigenvectors of the matrix characterizing the first-order system. Hence the local reflection and transmission matrices are defined and the corresponding differential equations, in the pertinent space variable are determined. The jump conditions at interfaces are also established. The present model incorporates dissipative materials and the procedure holds without any restrictions to material symmetries. Differential equations appeared in the literature are shown to hold in particular (one-dimensional) cases or to represent homogeneous layers only

  1. Nonlinear electromagnetic waves in a degenerate electron-positron plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Labany, S.K., E-mail: skellabany@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, New Damietta (Egypt); El-Taibany, W.F., E-mail: eltaibany@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, College of Science for Girls in Abha, King Khalid University, Abha (Saudi Arabia); El-Samahy, A.E.; Hafez, A.M.; Atteya, A., E-mail: ahmedsamahy@yahoo.com, E-mail: am.hafez@sci.alex.edu.eg, E-mail: ahmed_ateya2002@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2015-08-15

    Using the reductive perturbation technique (RPT), the nonlinear propagation of magnetosonic solitary waves in an ultracold, degenerate (extremely dense) electron-positron (EP) plasma (containing ultracold, degenerate electron, and positron fluids) is investigated. The set of basic equations is reduced to a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation for the lowest-order perturbed magnetic field and to a KdV type equation for the higher-order perturbed magnetic field. The solutions of these evolution equations are obtained. For better accuracy and searching on new features, the new solutions are analyzed numerically based on compact objects (white dwarf) parameters. It is found that including the higher-order corrections results as a reduction (increment) of the fast (slow) electromagnetic wave amplitude but the wave width is increased in both cases. The ranges where the RPT can describe adequately the total magnetic field including different conditions are discussed. (author)

  2. Parametric decay of an extraordinary electromagnetic wave in relativistic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorofeenko, V. G. [Institute for Advanced Studies (Austria); Krasovitskiy, V. B., E-mail: krasovit@mail.ru [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation); Turikov, V. A. [Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Parametric instability of an extraordinary electromagnetic wave in plasma preheated to a relativistic temperature is considered. A set of self-similar nonlinear differential equations taking into account the electron “thermal” mass is derived and investigated. Small perturbations of the parameters of the heated plasma are analyzed in the linear approximation by using the dispersion relation determining the phase velocities of the fast and slow extraordinary waves. In contrast to cold plasma, the evanescence zone in the frequency range above the electron upper hybrid frequency vanishes and the asymptotes of both branches converge. Theoretical analysis of the set of nonlinear equations shows that the growth rate of decay instability increases with increasing initial temperature of plasma electrons. This result is qualitatively confirmed by numerical simulations of plasma heating by a laser pulse injected from vacuum.

  3. Interaction between electromagnetic waves and plasma waves in motional plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S. Y.; Gao, M.; Tang, C. J.; Peng, X. D.

    2009-01-01

    The electromagnetic wave (EM wave) behavior and the electromagnetic instability caused by the interaction between an EM wave and a plasma wave in motional plasma are studied. The dispersion relation of EM waves and the dielectric tensor of motional plasma are derived by magnetohydrodynamics, and the wave phenomenon in motional plasma is displayed. As a result, the electromagnetic instability, which is excited by the interaction between the EM waves and the plasma waves, is revealed. The mechanism of the instability is the coupling between high frequency electromagnetic field and the transverse electron oscillation derived from the deflection of longitudinal electron oscillation due to self-magnetic field. The present research is useful with regard to the new type of plasma radiation source, ion-focusing accelerator, and plasma diagnostic technique.

  4. Study of dense-plasma properties using very high-frequency electromagnetic waves (light waves); Etude des proprietes des plasmas denses au moyen d'ondes electromagnetiques de tres haute frequence (ondes lumineuses)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gormezano, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    A study is made of methods based on the use of lasers for measuring the electronic density and temperature of dense plasmas (N{sub e} > 10{sup 15}e/cm{sup 3}): - an interferometric method using a gas laser, based on the. properties of the Perot-Fabry cavities; - a method making use of the 90 deg C scattering produced by the plasma on light emitted by a ruby laser. These methods have been applied to various dense plasmas: - high-frequency plasma torch; - azimuth compression; - plasma bursts produced by focussing a laser beam on a metal target. The measurements have also been carried out using conventional methods of diagnosis. It has thus been possible to measure densities of between 5.10{sup 15} and 10{sup 19} e/cm{sup 3} and temperatures of between 3 and 10 eV. These different-methods are then compared, (author) [French] On etudie la mesure de la densite et de la temperature electronique des plasmas denses (N{sub e} > 10{sup 15} e/cm{sup 3}) a I'aide de methodes utilisant des lasers: - une methode interferometrique utilisant un laser a gaz, basee sur les proprietes des cavites Perot Fabry; -- une methode utilisant la diffusion a 900 deg C par le plasma de la lumiere issue d'un laser a rubis. Ces methodes ont ete appliquees sur differents plasmas denses: - Torche a plasma haute-frequence; - Compression azimutale; - Bouffees de plasma produites par la focalisation d'un faisceau laser sur une cible metallique. Les mesures ont ete egalement faites a I'aide de diagnostics classiques. On a pu ainsi mesurer des densites comprises entre 5.10{sup 15} et 10{sup 19} e/cm{sup 3} et des temperatures comprises entre 3 et 10 eV. On compare ensuite ces differentes methodes. (auteur)

  5. Study of dense-plasma properties using very high-frequency electromagnetic waves (light waves); Etude des proprietes des plasmas denses au moyen d'ondes electromagnetiques de tres haute frequence (ondes lumineuses)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gormezano, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    A study is made of methods based on the use of lasers for measuring the electronic density and temperature of dense plasmas (N{sub e} > 10{sup 15}e/cm{sup 3}): - an interferometric method using a gas laser, based on the. properties of the Perot-Fabry cavities; - a method making use of the 90 deg C scattering produced by the plasma on light emitted by a ruby laser. These methods have been applied to various dense plasmas: - high-frequency plasma torch; - azimuth compression; - plasma bursts produced by focussing a laser beam on a metal target. The measurements have also been carried out using conventional methods of diagnosis. It has thus been possible to measure densities of between 5.10{sup 15} and 10{sup 19} e/cm{sup 3} and temperatures of between 3 and 10 eV. These different-methods are then compared, (author) [French] On etudie la mesure de la densite et de la temperature electronique des plasmas denses (N{sub e} > 10{sup 15} e/cm{sup 3}) a I'aide de methodes utilisant des lasers: - une methode interferometrique utilisant un laser a gaz, basee sur les proprietes des cavites Perot Fabry; -- une methode utilisant la diffusion a 900 deg C par le plasma de la lumiere issue d'un laser a rubis. Ces methodes ont ete appliquees sur differents plasmas denses: - Torche a plasma haute-frequence; - Compression azimutale; - Bouffees de plasma produites par la focalisation d'un faisceau laser sur une cible metallique. Les mesures ont ete egalement faites a I'aide de diagnostics classiques. On a pu ainsi mesurer des densites comprises entre 5.10{sup 15} et 10{sup 19} e/cm{sup 3} et des temperatures comprises entre 3 et 10 eV. On compare ensuite ces differentes methodes. (auteur)

  6. The scattering properties of anisotropic dielectric spheres on electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hui; Zhang Weiyi; Wang Zhenlin; Ming Naiben

    2004-01-01

    The scattering coefficients of spheres with dielectric anisotropy are calculated analytically in this paper using the perturbation method. It is found that the different modes of vector spherical harmonics and polarizations are coupled together in the scattering coefficients (c-matrix) in contrast to the isotropic case where all modes are decoupled from each other. The generalized c-matrix is then incorporated into our codes for a vector wave multiple scattering program; the preliminary results on face centred cubic structure show that dielectric anisotropy reduces the symmetry of the scattering c-matrix and removes the degeneracy in photonic band structures composed of isotropic dielectric spheres

  7. Risk perception and public concerns of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghee; Kim, Hae-Joon; Song, Dae Jong; Cho, Yong Min; Choi, Jae Wook

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the difference between the risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones and the risk perception of other factors such as environment and food was analyzed. The cause of the difference in the psychological and social factors that affect the group with high risk perception of electromagnetic waves was also analyzed. A questionnaire survey on the risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones was carried out on 1001 subjects (men and women) over the age of 20. In the group with high risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones, women had higher risk perception than men. Logistic regression analysis, where the group with high risk perception of electromagnetic waves and the group with low risk perception were used as dependent variables, indicated that the risk perception of electromagnetic waves in women was 1.815 times statistically significantly higher than the risk perception of men (95% CI: 1.340-2.457). Also, high risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones was observed when the subjects considered that they had more personal knowledge (OR: 1.416, 95% CI: 1.216-1.648), that the seriousness of the risk to future generations was high (OR: 1.410, 95% CI: 1.234-1.611), and their outrage for the occurrence of accidents related to electromagnetic waves was high (OR: 1.460, 95% CI: 1.264-1.686). The results of this study need to be sufficiently considered and reflected in designing the risk communication strategies and communication methods for the preventive measures and advice on electromagnetic waves from cellular phones. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Electromagnetic wave theory for boundary-value problems an advanced course on analytical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Eom, Hyo J

    2004-01-01

    Electromagnetic wave theory is based on Maxwell's equations, and electromagnetic boundary-value problems must be solved to understand electromagnetic scattering, propagation, and radiation. Electromagnetic theory finds practical applications in wireless telecommunications and microwave engineering. This book is written as a text for a two-semester graduate course on electromagnetic wave theory. As such, Electromagnetic Wave Theory for Boundary-Value Problems is intended to help students enhance analytic skills by solving pertinent boundary-value problems. In particular, the techniques of Fourier transform, mode matching, and residue calculus are utilized to solve some canonical scattering and radiation problems.

  9. SO-FDTD method and its application to the calculation of electromagnetic wave reflection coefficients of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hongwei; Nanjing Agricultural Univ., Nanjing; Chen Rushan; Zhang Yun

    2006-01-01

    The dielectric property of dispersive media is written as rational polynomial function, the relation between D and E is derived in time domain. It is named shift operator FDTD (SO-FDTD) method. The high accuracy and efficiency of this method is confirmed by computing the reflection coefficients of electromagnetic waves by a collisional plasma slab. The reflection coefficients between plasma and the atmosphere or vacuum can be calculated by using the SO-FDTD method. The result is that the reflection coefficients are affected by plasma thickness, electron numerical density, the distributing orderliness of electron density, and incidence wave frequency. (authors)

  10. Geodetic refraction effects of electromagnetic wave propagation through the atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    1984-01-01

    With very few exceptions, geodetic measurements use electro­ magnetic radiation in order to measure directions, distances, time delays, and Doppler frequency shifts, to name the main ter­ restrial and space observables. Depending on the wavelength of the radiation and the purpose of the measurements, the follow­ ing parameters of the electromagnetic wave are measured: ampli­ tude, phase, angle-of-arrival, polarisation and frequency. Ac­ curate corrections have to be applied to the measurements in order to take into account the effects of the intervening medium between transmitter and receiver. The known solutions use at­ mospheric models, special observation programs, remote sensing techniques and instrumental methods. It has been shown that the effects of the earth's atmospheric envelope present a fundamental limitation to the accuracy and precision of geodetic measurements. This applies equally to ter­ restrial and space applications. Instrumental accuracies are al­ ready below the atmospherically i...

  11. Studying Lorentz-violating electromagnetic waves in confined media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, Davidson R.; Gomes, Andre H.; Fonseca, Jakson M.; Moura-Melo, Winder A.

    2009-01-01

    Full text. Planck energy scale is still far beyond current possibilities. A question of interest is whether the Lorentz symmetry remains valid at these extremely high energies, whose answer certainly would be useful whenever building grand unified theories, in which general relativity is consistently accommodated. Here, we study a reminiscent of this possible symmetry violation, incorporated in the body of the so-called Standard Model Extension (SME). More precisely, we deal with the pure (Abelian) gauge sector, so that we have a modified classical electromagnetism in (3+1) dimensions, whose Lagrangian include a term proportional to a (constant) background tensor that breaks the Lorentz symmetry, but respecting CPT. Our attention is devoted to the wave-like solutions constrained to propagate inside confined media, like waveguides and resonant cavities. Our preliminary findings indicate that Lorentz-breaking implies in modifications of the standard results which are proportional to the (very small) violating parameters, but could be largely enhanced by diminishing the size of the confined media. Under study is the case of a toroidal cavity where the electromagnetic field should respect the additional requirement of being single-valued in the (toroidal) angular variable. Perhaps, such an extra feature combined with the usual boundary conditions could lead us to large effects of this violation, somewhat similar to those predicted for CPT- and Lorentz-odd electromagnetic waves constrained to propagate along a hollow conductor waveguide. (author)

  12. Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by Many Nano-Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Ramm

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic wave scattering by many parallel to the z−axis, thin, impedance, parallel, infinite cylinders is studied asymptotically as a → 0. Let Dm be the cross-section of the m−th cylinder, a be its radius and xˆm = (xm1, xm2 be its center, 1 ≤ m ≤ M , M =   M (a. It is assumed that the points, xˆm, are distributed, so that N (∆  = (1 / 2πa * ∫∆ N (xˆdxˆ[1 + o(1], where N (∆ is the number of points, xˆm, in an arbitrary open subset, ∆, of the plane, xoy. The function, N (xˆ ≥ 0, is a continuous function, which an experimentalist can choose. An equation for the self-consistent (effective field is derived as a → 0. A formula is derived for the refraction coefficient in the medium in which many thin impedance cylinders are distributed. These cylinders may model nano-wires embedded in the medium. One can produce a desired refraction coefficient of the new medium by choosing a suitable boundary impedance of the thin cylinders and their distribution law.

  13. Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by Drift Vortex in Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dong; Chen Yinhua; Wang Ge

    2008-01-01

    In a quasi-two-dimensional model, the scattering of incident ordinary electromagnetic waves by a dipole-electrostatic drift vortex is studied with first-order Born approximation. The distribution of the scattering cross-section and total cross-section are evaluated analytically in different approximate conditions, and the physical interpretations are discussed. When the wavelength of incident wave is much longer than the vortex radius (k i a || 1), it is found that the angle at which the scattering cross-section reaches its maxim depends significantly on the approximation of the parameters of the vortex used. It is also found that the total scattering cross-section has an affinitive relation with the parameters of the plasma, while it is irrelevant to the frequency of the incident wave in a wide range of parameters of the vortex. In a totally different range of parameters when incident wave is in the radar-frequency range (then k i a || 1, the wavelength of incident wave is much shorter than the vortex radius), the numerical procedure is conducted with computer in order to obtain the distribution and the total expression of the scattering cross-section. Then it is found that the total scattering cross-section in the low frequency range is much larger than that in high frequency range, so the scattering is more effective in the low frequency range than in high frequency range.

  14. Shaping electromagnetic waves using software-automatically-designed metasurfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Wan, Xiang; Liu, Shuo; Yuan Yin, Jia; Zhang, Lei; Jun Cui, Tie

    2017-06-15

    We present a fully digital procedure of designing reflective coding metasurfaces to shape reflected electromagnetic waves. The design procedure is completely automatic, controlled by a personal computer. In details, the macro coding units of metasurface are automatically divided into several types (e.g. two types for 1-bit coding, four types for 2-bit coding, etc.), and each type of the macro coding units is formed by discretely random arrangement of micro coding units. By combining an optimization algorithm and commercial electromagnetic software, the digital patterns of the macro coding units are optimized to possess constant phase difference for the reflected waves. The apertures of the designed reflective metasurfaces are formed by arranging the macro coding units with certain coding sequence. To experimentally verify the performance, a coding metasurface is fabricated by automatically designing two digital 1-bit unit cells, which are arranged in array to constitute a periodic coding metasurface to generate the required four-beam radiations with specific directions. Two complicated functional metasurfaces with circularly- and elliptically-shaped radiation beams are realized by automatically designing 4-bit macro coding units, showing excellent performance of the automatic designs by software. The proposed method provides a smart tool to realize various functional devices and systems automatically.

  15. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Through the ZR Z-Pinch Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.; Madrid, E. A.; Miller, C. L.; Clark, R. E.; Stygar, W. A.; Struve, K.; Corcoran, P. A.; Whitney, B.

    2009-01-01

    A fully three-dimensional electromagnetic model of the major pulsed power components of the 26-MA ZR accelerator is presented. This large-scale simulation model tracks the evolution of electromagnetic waves through the intermediate storage capacitors, laser-triggered gas switches, pulse-forming lines, water switches, tri-plate transmission lines, and water convolute to the vacuum insulator stack. The plates at the insulator stack are coupled to a transmission line circuit model of the four-level magnetically-insulated transmission line section and post-hole convolutes. The vacuum section circuit model is terminated by either a short-circuit load or dynamic models of imploding z-pinch loads. The simulations results are compared with electrical measurements made throughout the ZR accelerator and good agreement is found, especially for times before and up to peak load power. This modeling effort represents new opportunities for modeling existing and future large-scale pulsed power systems used in a variety of high energy density physics and radiographic applications.

  16. Impact of Mobile Phone Electromagnetic Waves on Brainwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chien Kao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the era of wireless communication, cellular phone becomes an indispensable accessory to most people. People use cellular phone to interact with others, perform commercial and financial transactions, or conducting recreational activities, etc. The advance in wireless technology and escalate of broadband networks not only flourish communications industry and application service providers but also encourage people perform prolonged wireless network activities under the risk of over exposing themselves in long term high frequency electromagnetic waves. For example, some people conduct excessive phone-trading activities, as it is necessary to the job, and some people exercise the non-stop e-learning or recreation activities on mobile devices with long hours. However, would prolonged exposure to high frequency EMW environment bring adverse effects on human health? This research from the perspective of cognitive neuroscience investigates the effect of EMW from cellular phone to the energy distribution of human brainwave characteristic band by examine brainwave changes of test subjects when exposing to high frequency EMW environment. Experiment uses left ear and right ear to answer the phone separately. The calling session is divided into three stages: the instant of call connection, during the call, and after the call. On each ear, the brainwave signal of each calling stage is extracted and analyzed. The experiment shows at the instant of call connection stage, resulting maximum EMW strength, having extreme effect on the energy distribution of the human brainwave characteristic band, and causing severe changes on the energy of human brainwave.

  17. Relativistic harmonic content of nonlinear electromagnetic waves in underdense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, W.B.; Decker, C.D.; Leemans, W.P.

    1993-01-01

    The relativistic harmonic content of large amplitude electromagnetic waves propagating in underdense plasmas is investigated. The steady state harmonic content of nonlinear linearly polarized waves is calculated for both the very underdense (w p /w o ) much-lt 1 and critical density (w p /w o ) ≅ 1 limits. For weak nonlinearities, eE o /mcw o p /w o . Arguments are given for extending these results for arbitrary wave amplitudes. The authors also show that the use of the variable x-ct and the quasi-static approximation leads to errors in both magnitude and sign when calculating the third harmonic. In the absence of damping or density gradients the third harmonic's amplitude is found to oscillate between zero and twice the steady state value. Preliminary PIC simulation results are presented. The simulation results are in basic agreement with the uniform plasma predictions for the third harmonic amplitude. However, the higher harmonics are orders of magnitude larger than expected and the presence of density ramps significantly modifies the results

  18. Dispersion of linearly polarized electromagnetic wave in magnetized quantum plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Abhisek Kumar; Kumar, Punit

    2015-01-01

    The generation of harmonic radiation is significant in terms of laser-plasma interaction and has brought interesting notice due to the diversity of its applications. The odd harmonics of laser frequency are generated in the majority of laser interactions with homogenous plasma. It has been remarked that second harmonic generation takes place in the presence of density gradient which gives rise to perturbation in the electron density at the laser frequency. The density perturbation coupled with the quiver motion of the electrons produces a source current at the second harmonic frequency. Second harmonic generation has also been related with filamentation. In the present paper, a study of second harmonic generation by propagation of a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave through homogeneous high density quantum plasma in the presence of transverse magnetic field. The nonlinear current density and dispersion relations for the fundamental and second harmonic frequencies have been obtained using the recently developed quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model. The effect of quantum Bohm potential, Fermi pressure and the electron spin have been taken into account. The second harmonic is found to be less dispersed than the first. (author)

  19. Solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation in the field of a plane electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starostin, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    A solution is obtained of the Bethe--Salpeter equation for positronium in the field of linearly and circularly polarized plane electromagnetic waves at frequencies much higher than atomic. It is not assumed that the field is weak

  20. Stimulated scattering of electromagnetic waves by magnetosonic modes in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenflo, L.

    1985-01-01

    The dispersion relation for magnetosonic waves in a dissipative plasma, which is penetrated by a high-frequency electromagnetic wave, is derived. Previous results are generalized and discussed. (author)

  1. Storage and retrieval of electromagnetic waves with orbital angular momentum via plasmon-induced transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhengyang; Xu, Datang; Huang, Guoxiang

    2017-01-23

    We propose a scheme to realize the storage and retrieval of high-dimensional electromagnetic waves with orbital angular momentum (OAM) via plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) in a metamaterial, which consists of an array of meta-atoms constructed by a metallic structure loaded with two varactors. We show that due to PIT effect the system allows the existence of shape-preserving dark-mode plasmonic polaritons, which are mixture of electromagnetic-wave modes and dark oscillatory modes of the meta-atoms and may carry various OAMs. We demonstrate that the slowdown, storage and retrieval of multi-mode electromagnetic waves with OAMs can be achieved through the active manipulation of a control field. Our work raises the possibility for realizing PIT-based spatial multi-mode memory of electromagnetic waves and is promising for practical application of information processing with large capacity by using room-temperature metamaterials.

  2. Influence of Sea Surface Roughness on the Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in the Duct Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, X.; Huang, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with a study of the influence of sea surface roughness on the electromagnetic wave propagation in the duct environment. The problem of electromagnetic wave propagation is modeled by using the parabolic equation method. The roughness of the sea surface is computed by modifying the smooth surface Fresnel reflection coefficient to account for the reduction in the specular reflection due to the roughness resulting from sea wind speed. The propagation model is solved by the mixed ...

  3. Magnetic Field Effects and Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Highly Collisional Plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Steven Paul

    The homogeneity and size of radio frequency (RF) and microwave driven plasmas are often limited by insufficient penetration of the electromagnetic radiation. To investigate increasing the skin depth of the radiation, we consider the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a weakly ionized plasma immersed in a steady magnetic field where the dominant collision processes are electron-neutral and ion-neutral collisions. Retaining both the electron and ion dynamics, we have adapted the theory for cold collisionless plasmas to include the effects of these collisions and obtained the dispersion relation at arbitrary frequency omega for plane waves propagating at arbitrary angles with respect to the magnetic field. We discuss in particular the cases of magnetic field enhanced wave penetration for parallel and perpendicular propagation, examining the experimental parameters which lead to electromagnetic wave propagation beyond the collisional skin depth. Our theory predicts that the most favorable scaling of skin depth with magnetic field occurs for waves propagating nearly parallel to B and for omega << Omega_{rm e} where Omega_{rm e} is the electron cyclotron frequency. The scaling is less favorable for propagation perpendicular to B, but the skin depth does increase for this case as well. Still, to achieve optimal wave penetration, we find that one must design the plasma configuration and antenna geometry so that one generates primarily the appropriate angles of propagation. We have measured plasma wave amplitudes and phases using an RF magnetic probe and densities using Stark line broadening. These measurements were performed in inductively coupled plasmas (ICP's) driven with a standard helical coil, a reverse turn (Stix) coil, and a flat spiral coil. Density measurements were also made in a microwave generated plasma. The RF magnetic probe measurements of wave propagation in a conventional ICP with wave propagation approximately perpendicular to B show an increase in

  4. Development of a Ferrite-Based Electromagnetic Wave Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hanish Zakariah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Direct detection of hydrocarbon by an active source using electromagnetic (EM wave termed Sea Bed Logging (SBL has shown very promising results. However, currently available electromagnetic wave technology has a number of challenges including sensitivity and lapsed time. Our initial response to this issue is to develop a ferrite-based EM wave detector for Sea Bed Logging (SBL. Ferrite bar and copper rings in various diameters were used as detector 1 (D1. For Detector 2 (D2, toroid added with copper wires in different lengths at the centre of it were used. The first experiment is to determine the inductance and resistance for both detectors by using LCR meter. We obtained the highest inductance value of 0.02530 mH at the ferrite bar when it was paired with a 15 cm diameter copper ring and 0.00526 mH for D2 using a 100 cm copper wire placed at the centre of the toroid. The highest resistivity for D1 was measured at ferrite bar paired with a 15 cm diameter  copper ring and 1.099 Ω when using 20 cm length of copper wire. The second interest deals with voltage peak-to-peak (Vp-p value for both detectors by using oscilloscope. The highest voltage value at the ferrite bar of D1 was 25.30 mV. While at D2, the highest voltage measured was 27.70 mV when using a 100 cm copper wire. The third premise is the comparison of sensitivity and lapsed time for both detectors. It was found that D1 was 61% more sensitive than D2 but had higher lapsed time than D2.

  5. Electromagnetic waves near the proton cyclotron frequency: Stereo observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian, L. K. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Wei, H. Y.; Russell, C. T. [Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Luhmann, J. G. [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Klecker, B. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Omidi, N. [Solana Scientific Inc., Solana Beach, CA 92075 (United States); Isenberg, P. A. [Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Goldstein, M. L.; Figueroa-Viñas, A. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MD 20771 (United States); Blanco-Cano, X., E-mail: lan.jian@nasa.gov [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Coyoacán D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-05-10

    Transverse, near-circularly polarized, parallel-propagating electromagnetic waves around the proton cyclotron frequency were found sporadically in the solar wind throughout the inner heliosphere. They could play an important role in heating and accelerating the solar wind. These low-frequency waves (LFWs) are intermittent but often occur in prolonged bursts lasting over 10 minutes, named 'LFW storms'. Through a comprehensive survey of them from Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory A using dynamic spectral wave analysis, we have identified 241 LFW storms in 2008, present 0.9% of the time. They are left-hand (LH) or right-hand (RH) polarized in the spacecraft frame with similar characteristics, probably due to Doppler shift of the same type of waves or waves of intrinsically different polarities. In rare cases, the opposite polarities are observed closely in time or even simultaneously. Having ruled out interplanetary coronal mass ejections, shocks, energetic particles, comets, planets, and interstellar ions as LFW sources, we discuss the remaining generation scenarios: LH ion cyclotron instability driven by greater perpendicular temperature than parallel temperature or by ring-beam distribution, and RH ion fire hose instability driven by inverse temperature anisotropy or by cool ion beams. The investigation of solar wind conditions is compromised by the bias of the one-dimensional Maxwellian fit used for plasma data calibration. However, the LFW storms are preferentially detected in rarefaction regions following fast winds and when the magnetic field is radial. This preference may be related to the ion cyclotron anisotropy instability in fast wind and the minimum in damping along the radial field.

  6. Electron beam injection during active experiments. 1. Electromagnetic wave emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winglee, R.M.; Kellogg, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    During the active injection of an electron beam, a broad spectrum of waves is generated. In this paper examples of spectra from the recent Echo 7 experiment are presented. These results show that the characteristics of the emissions can change substantially with altitude. Two-dimensional (three velocity) relativistic electromagnetic particle simulations are used to investigate the changes in the plasma conditions required to account for the observed spectral variations. It is shown that many of these variations can be accounted for by assuming that the ratio of the electron plasma frequency ω pe to cyclotron frequency Ω e is less than unity at the lower altitudes of about 200 km and near or above unity at apogee of about 300 km. In the former case, whistlers with a cutoff at ω pe , lower hybrid and plasma waves are driven by the parallel beam energy while electromagnetic fundamental z mode and second harmonic x mode and electrostatic upper hybrid waves are driven by the perpendicular beam energy through the master instability. E x B drifts driven by perpendicular electric fields associated with the beam-plasma interaction can also be important in generating maser emission, particularly for field-aligned injection where there is no intrinsic perpendicular beam energy. The power in the electrostatic waves is a few percent of the beam energy and that in the electromagnetic waves a few tenths of a percent. In the latter case, where ω pe /Ω e increases above unity, emission in the fundamental z mode and second harmonic x mode become suppressed

  7. Whistler Observations on DEMETER Compared with Full Electromagnetic Wave Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compston, A. J.; Cohen, M.; Lehtinen, N. G.; Inan, U.; Linscott, I.; Said, R.; Parrot, M.

    2014-12-01

    Terrestrial Very Low Frequency (VLF) electromagnetic radiation, which strongly impacts the Van Allen radiation belt electron dynamics, is injected across the ionosphere into the Earth's plasmasphere from two primary sources: man-made VLF transmitters and lightning discharges. Numerical models of trans-ionospheric propagation of such waves remain unvalidated, and early models may have overestimated the absorption, hindering a comprehensive understanding of the global impact of VLF waves in the loss of radiation belt electrons. In an attempt to remedy the problem of a lack of accurate trans-ionospheric propagation models, we have used a full electromagnetic wave method (FWM) numerical code to simulate the propagation of lightning-generated whistlers into the magnetosphere and compared the results with whistlers observed on the DEMETER satellite and paired with lightning stroke data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). We have identified over 20,000 whistlers occuring in 14 different passes of DEMETER over the central United States during the summer of 2009, and 14,000 of those occured within the 2000 km x 2000 km simulation grid we used. As shown in the attached figure, which shows a histogram of the ratio of the simulated whistler energy to the measured whistler energy for the 14,000 whistlers we compared, the simulation tends to slightly underestimate the total whistler energy injected by about 5 dB. However, the simulation underestimates the DEMETER measurements more as one gets further from the source lightning stroke, so since the signal to noise ratio of more distant whistlers will be smaller, possibly additive noise in the DEMETER measurements (which of course is not accounted for in the model) may explain some of the observed discrepancy.

  8. [INVITED] Coherent perfect absorption of electromagnetic wave in subwavelength structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chao; Pu, Mingbo; Luo, Jun; Huang, Yijia; Li, Xiong; Ma, Xiaoliang; Luo, Xiangang

    2018-05-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) absorption is a common process by which the EM energy is transformed into other kinds of energy in the absorber, for example heat. Perfect absorption of EM with structures at subwavelength scale is important for many practical applications, such as stealth technology, thermal control and sensing. Coherent perfect absorption arises from the interplay of interference and absorption, which can be interpreted as a time-reversed process of lasing or EM emitting. It provides a promising way for complete absorption in both nanophotonics and electromagnetics. In this review, we discuss basic principles and properties of a coherent perfect absorber (CPA). Various subwavelength structures including thin films, metamaterials and waveguide-based structures to realize CPAs are compared. We also discuss the potential applications of CPAs.

  9. Porous CNTs/Co Composite Derived from Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework: A Lightweight, Ultrathin, and Highly Efficient Electromagnetic Wave Absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yichao; Liu, Xiaofang; Wei, Xiaojun; Yu, Ronghai; Shui, Jianglan

    2016-12-21

    Porous carbon nanotubes/cobalt nanoparticles (CNTs/Co) composite with dodecahedron morphology was synthesized by in situ pyrolysis of the Co-based zeolitic imidazolate framework in a reducing atmosphere. The morphology and microstructure of the composite can be well tuned by controlling the pyrolysis conditions. At lower pyrolysis temperature, the CNTs/Co composite is composed of well-dispersed Co nanoparticles and short CNT clusters with low graphitic degree. The increase of pyrolysis temperature/time promotes the growth and graphitization of CNTs and leads to the aggregation of Co nanoparticles. The optimized CNTs/Co composite exhibits strong dielectric and magnetic losses as well as a good impedance matching property. Interestingly, the CNTs/Co composite displays extremely strong electromagnetic wave absorption with a maximum reflection loss of -60.4 dB. More importantly, the matching thickness of the absorber is as thin as 1.81 mm, and the filler loading of composite in the matrix is only 20 wt %. The highly efficient absorption is closely related to the well-designed structure and the synergistic effect between CNTs and Co nanoparticles. The excellent absorbing performance together with lightweight and ultrathin thickness endows the CNTs/Co composite with the potential for application in the electromagnetic wave absorbing field.

  10. Scaling properties of paleomagnetic reversal sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Ivanov

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of reversals of main geomagnetic field during last 160 My is analyzed as a sequence of events, presented as a point set on the time axis. Different techniques were applied including the method of boxcounting, dispersion counter-scaling, multifractal analysis and examination of attractor behaviour in multidimensional phase space. The existence of a crossover point at time interval 0.5-1.0 My was clearly identified, dividing the whole time range into two subranges with different scaling properties. The long-term subrange is characterized by monofractal dimension 0.88 and by an attractor, whose correlation dimension converges to 1.0, that provides evidence of a deterministic dynamical system in this subrange, similar to most existing dynamo models. In the short-term subrange the fractal dimension estimated by different methods varies from 0.47 to 0.88 and the dimensionality of the attractor is obtained to be about 3.7. These results are discussed in terms of non-linear superposition of processes in the Earth's geospheres.

  11. Particle acceleration through the resonance of high magnetic field and high frequency electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Liu; He, X.T.; Chen, S.G.; Zhang, W.Y.; He, X.T.; Hong, Liu

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new particle acceleration mechanism. Electrons can be accelerated to relativistic energy within a few electromagnetic wave cycles through the mechanism which is named electromagnetic and magnetic field resonance acceleration (EMRA). We find that the electron acceleration depends not only on the electromagnetic wave intensity, but also on the ratio between electron Larmor frequency and electromagnetic wave frequency. As the ratio approaches to unity, a clear resonance peak is observed, corresponding to the EMRA. Near the resonance regime, the strong magnetic fields still affect the electron acceleration dramatically. We derive an approximate analytical solution of the relativistic electron energy in adiabatic limit, which provides a full understanding of this phenomenon. In typical parameters of pulsar magnetospheres, the mechanism allows particles to increase their energies through the resonance of high magnetic field and high frequency electromagnetic wave in each electromagnetic wave period. The energy spectra of the accelerated particles exhibit the synchrotron radiation behavior. These can help to understand the remaining emission of high energy electron from radio pulsar within supernova remnant. The other potential application of our theory in fast ignition scheme of inertial confinement fusion is also discussed. (authors)

  12. Modulation of a compressional electromagnetic wave in a magnetized electron-positron quantum plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M R

    2015-09-01

    Amplitude modulation of a compressional electromagnetic wave in a strongly magnetized electron-positron pair plasma is considered in the quantum magnetohydrodynamic regime. The important ingredients of this study are the inclusion of the external strong magnetic field, Fermi quantum degeneracy pressure, particle exchange potential, quantum diffraction effects via the Bohm potential, and dissipative effect due to collision of the charged carriers. A modified-nonlinear Schödinger equation is developed for the compressional magnetic field of the electromagnetic wave by employing the standard reductive perturbation technique. The linear and nonlinear dispersions of the electromagnetic wave are discussed in detail. For some parameter ranges, relevant to dense astrophysical objects such as the outer layers of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and magnetars, etc., it is found that the compressional electromagnetic wave is modulationally unstable and propagates as a dissipated electromagnetic wave. It is also found that the quantum effects due to the particle exchange potential and the Bohm potential are negligibly small in comparison to the effects of the Fermi quantum degeneracy pressure. The numerical results on the growth rate of the modulation instability is also presented.

  13. Detection and Characterization of Flaws in Sprayed on Foam Insulation with Pulsed Terahertz Frequency Electromagnetic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfree, William P.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2005-01-01

    The detection and repair of flaws such as voids and delaminations in the sprayed on foam insulation of the external tank reduces the probability of foam debris during shuttle ascent. The low density of sprayed on foam insulation along with it other physical properties makes detection of flaws difficult with conventional techniques. An emerging technology that has application for quantitative evaluation of flaws in the foam is pulsed electromagnetic waves at terahertz frequencies. The short wavelengths of these terahertz pulses make them ideal for imaging flaws in the foam. This paper examines the application of terahertz pulses for flaw detection in foam characteristic of the foam insulation of the external tank. Of particular interest is the detection of voids and delaminations, encapsulated in the foam or at the interface between the foam and a metal backing. The technique is shown to be capable of imaging small voids and delaminations through as much as 20 cm of foam. Methods for reducing the temporal responses of the terahertz pulses to improve flaw detection and yield quantitative characterizations of the size and location of the flaws are discussed.

  14. Nonlinear propagation of intense electromagnetic waves in weakly-ionized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.K.

    1993-01-01

    The nonlinear propagation of intense electromagnetic waves in weakly-ionized plasmas is considered. Stimulated scattering mechanisms involving electromagnetic and acoustic waves in an unmagnetized plasma are investigated. The growth rate and threshold for three-wave decay interactions as well as modulational and filamentation instabilities are presented. Furthermore, the electromagnetic wave modulation theory is generalized for weakly ionized collisional magnetoplasmas. Here, the radiation envelope is generally governed by a nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Accounting for the dependence of the attachment frequency on the radiation intensity, ponderomotive force, as well as the differential Joule heating nonlinearity, the authors derive the equations for the nonthermal electron density and temperature perturbations. The various nonlinear terms in the electron motion are compared. The problems of self-focusing and wave localization are discussed. The relevance of the investigation to ionospheric modification by powerful electromagnetic waves is pointed out

  15. Influence of Sea Surface Roughness on the Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in the Duct Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a study of the influence of sea surface roughness on the electromagnetic wave propagation in the duct environment. The problem of electromagnetic wave propagation is modeled by using the parabolic equation method. The roughness of the sea surface is computed by modifying the smooth surface Fresnel reflection coefficient to account for the reduction in the specular reflection due to the roughness resulting from sea wind speed. The propagation model is solved by the mixed Fourier split-step algorithm. Numerical experiments indicate that wind-driven roughened sea surface has an impact on the electromagnetic wave propagation in the duct environment, and the strength is intensified along with the increment of sea wind speeds and/or the operating frequencies. In a fixed duct environment, however, proper disposition of the transmitter could reduce these impacts.

  16. Simulation study of localization of electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional random dipolar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Ye Zhen

    2003-01-01

    We study the propagation and scattering of electromagnetic waves by random arrays of dipolar cylinders in a uniform medium. A set of self-consistent equations, incorporating all orders of multiple scattering of the electromagnetic waves, is derived from first principles and then solved numerically for electromagnetic fields. For certain ranges of frequencies, spatially localized electromagnetic waves appear in such a simple but realistic disordered system. Dependence of localization on the frequency, radiation damping, and filling factor is shown. The spatial behavior of the total, coherent, and diffusive waves is explored in detail, and found to comply with a physical intuitive picture. A phase diagram characterizing localization is presented, in agreement with previous investigations on other systems

  17. Excitation of surface electromagnetic waves in a graphene-based Bragg grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekanth, Kandammathe Valiyaveedu; Zeng, Shuwen; Shang, Jingzhi; Yong, Ken-Tye; Yu, Ting

    2012-01-01

    Here, we report the fabrication of a graphene-based Bragg grating (one-dimensional photonic crystal) and experimentally demonstrate the excitation of surface electromagnetic waves in the periodic structure using prism coupling technique. Surface electromagnetic waves are non-radiative electromagnetic modes that appear on the surface of semi-infinite 1D photonic crystal. In order to fabricate the graphene-based Bragg grating, alternating layers of high (graphene) and low (PMMA) refractive index materials have been used. The reflectivity plot shows a deepest, narrow dip after total internal reflection angle corresponds to the surface electromagnetic mode propagating at the Bragg grating/air boundary. The proposed graphene based Bragg grating can find a variety of potential surface electromagnetic wave applications such as sensors, fluorescence emission enhancement, modulators, etc.

  18. Simulation study of localization of electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional random dipolar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Ye, Zhen

    2003-12-01

    We study the propagation and scattering of electromagnetic waves by random arrays of dipolar cylinders in a uniform medium. A set of self-consistent equations, incorporating all orders of multiple scattering of the electromagnetic waves, is derived from first principles and then solved numerically for electromagnetic fields. For certain ranges of frequencies, spatially localized electromagnetic waves appear in such a simple but realistic disordered system. Dependence of localization on the frequency, radiation damping, and filling factor is shown. The spatial behavior of the total, coherent, and diffusive waves is explored in detail, and found to comply with a physical intuitive picture. A phase diagram characterizing localization is presented, in agreement with previous investigations on other systems.

  19. Relativistic electron beam acceleration by cascading nonlinear Landau damping of electromagnetic waves in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugaya, R.; Ue, A.; Maehara, T.; Sugawa, M.

    1996-01-01

    Acceleration and heating of a relativistic electron beam by cascading nonlinear Landau damping involving three or four intense electromagnetic waves in a plasma are studied theoretically based on kinetic wave equations and transport equations derived from relativistic Vlasov endash Maxwell equations. Three or four electromagnetic waves excite successively two or three nonresonant beat-wave-driven relativistic electron plasma waves with a phase velocity near the speed of light [v p =c(1-γ -2 p ) 1/2 , γ p =ω/ω pe ]. Three beat waves interact nonlinearly with the electron beam and accelerate it to a highly relativistic energy γ p m e c 2 more effectively than by the usual nonlinear Landau damping of two electromagnetic waves. It is proved that the electron beam can be accelerated to more highly relativistic energy in the plasma whose electron density decreases temporally with an appropriate rate because of the temporal increase of γ p . copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  20. On electromagnetic wave propagation through a plasma sheath produced by a moving ionization source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenova, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    Features of the interaction of electromagnetic waves are considered with a nonstationary plasma layer of a finite thickness, produced in an immovable gas by a movable ionization source. It is shown that a static magnetic field excited on the ionization front in build-up of electrons produced in the incident wave field reemits the energy to the electromagnetic wave during the plasma relaxation caused by recombination processes. As a result the electromagnetic wave of a finite amplitude may propagate behind the nonstationary layer of an ''opaque'' (ωsub(p)sup(2)>>ωsub(urc)sup((0))sup(2)) plasma as distinct from the layer of a movable stationary plasma with the same parameters

  1. Dirac electron in a chiral space-time crystal created by counterpropagating circularly polarized plane electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzdov, G. N.

    2017-10-01

    The family of solutions to the Dirac equation for an electron moving in an electromagnetic lattice with the chiral structure created by counterpropagating circularly polarized plane electromagnetic waves is obtained. At any nonzero quasimomentum, the dispersion equation has two solutions which specify bispinor wave functions describing electron states with different energies and mean values of momentum and spin operators. The inversion of the quasimomentum results in two other linearly independent solutions. These four basic wave functions are uniquely defined by eight complex scalar functions (structural functions), which serve as convenient building blocks of the relations describing the electron properties. These properties are illustrated in graphical form over a wide range of quasimomenta. The superpositions of two basic wave functions describing different spin states and corresponding to (i) the same quasimomentum (unidirectional electron states with the spin precession) and (ii) the two equal-in-magnitude but oppositely directed quasimomenta (bidirectional electron states) are also treated.

  2. Brewster angle for an E-polarized electromagnetic wave interacting with a moving dielectric medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, P.K.

    1977-01-01

    The Brewster-angle phenomena of total transmission has been investigated with reference to an E-polarized electromagnetic wave interacting with a dielectric half-space moving along the interface. Analytic conditions are derived for the existence of Brewster angles. We also discuss how the Brewster angles are modified by replacing the incident region (in which the incident electromagnetic wave is propagated) with an isotropic or a uniaxially anisotropic plasma. The Brewster angles are found to behave in a remarkably different fashion under various conditions. Numerical results for the Brewster angles, showing their dependence on the nondimensional velocity of the medium β, are presented for several values of the physical parameters

  3. Interaction of the superconducting domains induced by external electric field with electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.Y.

    1992-01-01

    The behavior of a superconductor in time-independent electric field perpendicular to the surface and in the external electromagnetic wave is theoretically investigated. A new type of the resonance interaction between superconducting domains localized along the magnetic field (if the superconducting phase transition takes place in the external magnetic field perpendicular to the surface) and electromagnetic waves is predicted. The surface impedance of the superconductor with domains is calculated. It is shown that the real part of the impedance has a saturation if the skin length equals the domain size. (orig.)

  4. Self-generation and management of spin-electromagnetic wave solitons and chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustinov, Alexey B.; Kondrashov, Alexandr V.; Nikitin, Andrey A.; Kalinikos, Boris A.

    2014-01-01

    Self-generation of microwave spin-electromagnetic wave envelope solitons and chaos has been observed and studied. For the investigation, we used a feedback active ring oscillator based on artificial multiferroic, which served as a nonlinear waveguide. We show that by increasing the wave amplification in the feedback ring circuit, a transition from monochromatic auto-generation to soliton train waveform and then to dynamical chaos occurs in accordance with the Ruelle-Takens scenario. Management of spin-electromagnetic-wave solitons and chaos parameters by both dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability of the multiferroic waveguiding structure is demonstrated.

  5. Scattering and absorption of electromagnetic waves by a Schwarzschild black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, R.

    1975-01-01

    The scattering and absorption of electromagnetic waves by a spherically symmetric nonrotating black hole is studied in the Schwarzschild background, by means of the known expansion of the modified Debye potentials in partial waves. The power reflection coefficients and the phase shifts of the partial waves are evaluated at both high and low frequencies. Then the scattering and absorption cross sections of the black hole are determined. It is shown that the black hole is almost unable to absorb electromagnetic waves when the wave length of the radiation is greater than the Schwarzschild radius

  6. WKB solution 4×4 for electromagnetic waves in a planar magnetically anisotropic inhomogeneous layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseeva, Natalya Michailovna; Moiseev, Anton Vladimirovich

    2018-04-01

    In the paper, an oblique incidence of a plane electromagnetic wave on a planar magnetically anisotropic inhomogeneous layer is considered. We consider the case when all the components of the magnetic permeability tensor are non zero and vary with distance from the interface of media. The WKB method gives a matrix 4 × 4 solution for the projections of the electromagnetic wave fields during its propagation. The dependence of the cross-polarized components on the orientation of the anisotropic medium relative to the plane of incidence of the medium is analyzed.

  7. Spectrum of harmonic emission by inhomogeneous plasma in intense electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalev, V.F.; Pustovalov, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    The spectrum and angular distribution of the harmonics of arbitrary index emitted by a cold, inhomogeneous electron plasma subjected to a p-polarized electromagnetic wave have been studied analytically. The results are shown in graphical form. The intensity of the wave was varied over a wide range. At energy flux densities of the electromagnetic wave at which the inverse effect of the higher harmonics on the lower harmonics becomes appreciable, it becomes possible to observe a decay of the absolute value of the complex amplitude of a harmonic with increasing harmonic index in vacuum which is substantially slower than that predicted by the theory for a weak nonlinearity

  8. Spontaneous generation of electromagnetic waves in plasmas with electron thermal flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Toshio

    1977-01-01

    Spontaneous generation of propagating electromagnetic fields due to a microinstability is investigated for plasmas which convey electron thermal fluxes. The following two cases are examined: 1) Electromagnetic fields spontaneously excited by electrons in a velocity distribution of skewed Maxwellian type. 2) Electromagnetic waves generated by electrons in a velocity distribution which consists of a main part and a high energy part. In this case, the electron thermal flux can be very high. In both cases, induced electromagnetic waves with relatively low frequencies propagate parallel to the direction of Thermal flux. (auth.)

  9. On the Hartman paradox, electromagnetic wave tunneling and supraluminal velocities (comment on the paper 'Tunneling of electromagnetic waves: paradoxes and prospects' by A B Shvartsburg)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidovich, Mikhail V

    2009-01-01

    Some paradoxes are discussed concerning the interpretation of the passage of particles and electromagnetic waves (pulses) across potential barriers and through nonuniform media, in particular, those with frequency dispersion and therefore dissipation. It is emphasized that a rigorous nonstationary approach does not entail any supraluminal velocities for the transfer of physical substances, although supraluminal velocities are indeed possible for several kinematically defined velocities, e.g., for the group velocity. (letters to the editors)

  10. Elliptically polarized electromagnetic waves in a magnetized quantum electron-positron plasma with effects of exchange-correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahmansouri, M., E-mail: mshmansouri@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Arak University, Arak 38156-8 8349 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Misra, A. P., E-mail: apmisra@visva-bharati.ac.in, E-mail: apmisra@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Siksha Bhavana, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731 235, West Bengal (India)

    2016-07-15

    The dispersion properties of elliptically polarized electromagnetic waves in a magnetized electron-positron-pair (EP-pair) plasma are studied with the effects of particle dispersion associated with the Bohm potential, the Fermi degenerate pressure, and the exchange-correlation force. Two possible modes of the extraordinary or X wave, modified by these quantum effects, are identified and their propagation characteristics are investigated numerically. It is shown that the upper-hybrid frequency and the cutoff and resonance frequencies are no longer constants but are dispersive due to these quantum effects. It is found that the particle dispersion and the exchange-correlation force can have different dominating roles on each other depending on whether the X waves are of short or long wavelengths (in comparison with the Fermi Debye length). The present investigation should be useful for understanding the collective behaviors of EP plasma oscillations and the propagation of extraordinary waves in magnetized dense EP-pair plasmas.

  11. Ducted electromagnetic waves in the Martian ionosphere detected by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenfei; Orosei, Roberto; Huang, Qian; Zhang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    In the data of the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding on board the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Mars Express (MEX), a distinctive type of signals (called the "epsilon signature"), which is similar to that previously detected during radio sounding of the terrestrial F region ionosphere, is found. The signature is interpreted to originate from multiple reflections of electromagnetic waves propagating along sounder pulse-created, crustal magnetic field-aligned plasma bubbles (waveguides). The signatures have a low (below 0.5%) occurrence rate and apparent cutoff frequencies 3-5 times higher than the theoretical one for an ordinary mode wave. These properties are explained by the influence of the perpendicular ionospheric plasma density gradient and the sounder pulse frequency on the formation of waveguides.

  12. Dissipation of a power electromagnetic wave in an inhomogeneous plasma and ''superstrong'' plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.; Shapiro, V.D.; Shevchenko, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    An attempt is made to analyze two assumptions of the present theory of plasma turbulence, initiated by an electromagnetic wave, as applied to the problem of heating the plasma target. It has been assumed that in the long-scale region (the region of an electromagnetic wave source) and in the inertia range, separating the source region and the short-wave absorption region, there is a permanent pumping. The first assumption consists in simulating a situation in a plasma target when the Langmuir turbulence arises due to an electromagnetic wave incident on the target. The second assumption is valid only at a very high intensity of plasma waves when their energy is significantly less than the thermal energy of plasma W/nsub(c)T 0 is the frequency of an incident electromagnetic wave). At W approximately equal to nsub(c)T the plasma oscillations, arising due to modulation instability from the electromagnetic pumping wave, fall immediately into the absorption region. A phenomenological theory of such a turbulence, called ''superstrong'', is formulated on the assumption that there is a mechanism of ''mixing up'' plasmon phases as a result of their populating the long-wave density fluctuations

  13. Effect of energy emission from evanescent electromagnetic wave at scattering by a dielectric structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyaev, Yu.V. [Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 125009 Moscow (Russian Federation); Barabanenkov, Yu.N. [Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 125009 Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: yu.barab@mail.ip.sitek.net; Barabanenkov, M.Yu. [Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High Purity Materials of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Nikitov, S.A. [Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 125009 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2005-02-21

    We present an optical theorem for evanescent (near field) electromagnetic wave scattering by a dielectric structure. The derivation is based on the formalism of angular spectrum wave amplitudes. The optical theorem shows that an energy flux at scattering is emitted in the direction of incident evanescent wave decay.

  14. Magnetization of a warm plasma by the nonstationary ponderomotive force of an electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Nitin; Shukla, P. K.; Stenflo, L.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that magnetic fields can be generated in a warm plasma by the nonstationary ponderomotive force of a large-amplitude electromagnetic wave. In the present Brief Report, we derive simple and explicit results that can be useful for understanding the origin of the magnetic fields that are produced in intense laser-plasma interaction experiments.

  15. On the nature of electromagnetic waves in the vicinity of auroral archs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volokitin, A.S.; Mordovskaya, V.G.

    1988-01-01

    Excitation of kinetic Alfven waves by longitudinal current in the vicinity of auroral arcs is considered in the framework of quasilinear theory. It is shown that experimentally observed low-frequency electromagnetic waves with f<2Hz frequency in the vicinity of uniform auroral arcs represent the Alfven waves, excited at altitudes of three Earth radii and above by longitudinal electric current

  16. Making structured metals transparent for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves and acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Ren-Hao; Peng, Ru-Wen; Huang, Xian-Rong; Wang, Mu

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we present our recent work on making structured metals transparent for broadband electromagnetic waves and acoustic waves via excitation of surface waves. First, we theoretically show that one-dimensional metallic gratings can become transparent and completely antireflective for extremely broadband electromagnetic waves by relying on surface plasmons or spoof surface plasmons. Second, we experimentally demonstrate that metallic gratings with narrow slits are highly transparent for broadband terahertz waves at oblique incidence and high transmission efficiency is insensitive to the metal thickness. Further, we significantly develop oblique metal gratings transparent for broadband electromagnetic waves (including optical waves and terahertz ones) under normal incidence. In the third, we find the principles of broadband transparency for structured metals can be extended from one-dimensional metallic gratings to two-dimensional cases. Moreover, similar phenomena are found in sonic artificially metallic structures, which present the transparency for broadband acoustic waves. These investigations provide guidelines to develop many novel materials and devices, such as transparent conducting panels, antireflective solar cells, and other broadband metamaterials and stealth technologies. - Highlights: • Making structured metals transparent for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves. • Non-resonant excitation of surface plasmons or spoof surface plasmons. • Sonic artificially metallic structures transparent for broadband acoustic waves

  17. Electromagnetic waves in a layer of hot plasma with negligible collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacca, J.

    1975-01-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves in a plane plasma layer in a uniform magnetic field has been studied, following the hypothesis of immoble ions and negligible ion-electron interactions. Waves dependent on one spatial coordinate are considered and all the parameters of the problems are considered. The cases of perpendicular and parallel magnetic field are treated

  18. FDTD-analyse of electromagnetic wave propagation through photonic band gap structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendel', M.O.; Danilov, V.V.; Makarov, D.G.; Nechiporuk, O.Yu.

    2007-01-01

    FDTD-method for numerical solution of Maxwell's equation has used for investigation of electromagnetic wave transmission through the periodically inhomogeneous planar waveguide. The spectral dependence for transmission factor has obtained. This result compared with the previous one, obtained with approximate analytical calculations

  19. On the energy flux of stationary electromagnetic waves in anisotropic dissipative media with spatial dispersion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tokman, M. D.; Westerhof, E.; Gavrilova, M. A.

    2000-01-01

    The special features of the propagation of electromagnetic waves in gyrotropic medium with dispersion and resonant dissipation (specifically, in a magnetoactive plasma) are studied. Even though the anti-Hermitian components of the permittivity tensor are substantial in magnitude, weakly damped waves

  20. A Review of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Wave Phenomena Related to Tropospheric-Ionospheric Coupling Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, Fernando; Pfaff, Robert; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Klenzing, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of coupling mechanisms between the troposphere and the ionosphere requires a multidisciplinary approach involving several branches of atmospheric sciences, from meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, and fulminology to aeronomy, plasma physics, and space weather. In this work, we review low frequency electromagnetic wave propagation in the Earth-ionosphere cavity from a troposphere-ionosphere coupling perspective. We discuss electromagnetic wave generation, propagation, and resonance phenomena, considering atmospheric, ionospheric and magnetospheric sources, from lightning and transient luminous events at low altitude to Alfven waves and particle precipitation related to solar and magnetospheric processes. We review in situ ionospheric processes as well as surface and space weather phenomena that drive troposphere-ionosphere dynamics. Effects of aerosols, water vapor distribution, thermodynamic parameters, and cloud charge separation and electrification processes on atmospheric electricity and electromagnetic waves are reviewed. We also briefly revisit ionospheric irregularities such as spread-F and explosive spread-F, sporadic-E, traveling ionospheric disturbances, Trimpi effect, and hiss and plasma turbulence. Regarding the role of the lower boundary of the cavity, we review transient surface phenomena, including seismic activity, earthquakes, volcanic processes and dust electrification. The role of surface and atmospheric gravity waves in ionospheric dynamics is also briefly addressed. We summarize analytical and numerical tools and techniques to model low frequency electromagnetic wave propagation and solving inverse problems and summarize in a final section a few challenging subjects that are important for a better understanding of tropospheric-ionospheric coupling mechanisms.

  1. NUMERICAL STUDY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES GENERATED BY A PROTOTYPE DIELECTRIC LOGGING TOOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    To understand the electromagnetic waves generated by a prototype dielectric logging tool, a numerical study was conducted using both the finite-difference, time-domain method and a frequency- wavenumber method. When the propagation velocity in the borehole was greater than th...

  2. Damping and scattering of electromagnetic waves by small ferrite spheres suspended in an insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Gerald W.

    1992-01-01

    The intentional degradation of electromagnetic waves by their penetration into a media comprised of somewhat sparsely distributed energy absorbing ferrite spheres suspended in an electrical insulator is investigated. Results are presented in terms of generalized parameters involving wave length and sphere size, sphere resistivity, permeability, and spacing; their influence on dissipation of wave power by eddy currents, magnetic hysteresis, and scattering is shown.

  3. Electromagnetic Waves with Frequencies Near the Local Proton Gryofrequency: ISEF-3 1 AU Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, B.

    1993-01-01

    Low Frequency electromagnetic waves with periods near the local proton gyrofrequency have been detected near 1 AU by the magnetometer onboard ISEE-3. For these 1 AU waves two physical processes are possible: solar wind pickup of nuetral (interstellar?) particles and generation by relativistic electron beams propagating from the Sun.

  4. On the stability of a finite amplitude circularly polarized electromagnetic wave in an anisotropic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodin, G.; Lundberg, J.

    1990-01-01

    To study the stability of a finite amplitude circularly polarized electromagnetic wave in a plasma with pressure anisotropy we make use of a generalized version of the Chew-Goldberger-Low equations. The dispersion relation is derived. Special attention is focused on the MHD-limit. (orig.)

  5. Detection of Metallic and Electronic Radar Targets by Acoustic Modulation of Electromagnetic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    by Acoustic Modulation of Electromagnetic Waves 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Gregory J... Program 13 List of Symbols, Abbreviations, and Acronyms 18 Distribution List 19 Approved for public release; distribution is...4 Fig. 4 Flowchart of wireless experiment to receive acoustically modulated radar waveforms

  6. Making structured metals transparent for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves and acoustic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Ren-Hao [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Peng, Ru-Wen, E-mail: rwpeng@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Huang, Xian-Rong [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Wang, Mu [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-07-15

    In this review, we present our recent work on making structured metals transparent for broadband electromagnetic waves and acoustic waves via excitation of surface waves. First, we theoretically show that one-dimensional metallic gratings can become transparent and completely antireflective for extremely broadband electromagnetic waves by relying on surface plasmons or spoof surface plasmons. Second, we experimentally demonstrate that metallic gratings with narrow slits are highly transparent for broadband terahertz waves at oblique incidence and high transmission efficiency is insensitive to the metal thickness. Further, we significantly develop oblique metal gratings transparent for broadband electromagnetic waves (including optical waves and terahertz ones) under normal incidence. In the third, we find the principles of broadband transparency for structured metals can be extended from one-dimensional metallic gratings to two-dimensional cases. Moreover, similar phenomena are found in sonic artificially metallic structures, which present the transparency for broadband acoustic waves. These investigations provide guidelines to develop many novel materials and devices, such as transparent conducting panels, antireflective solar cells, and other broadband metamaterials and stealth technologies. - Highlights: • Making structured metals transparent for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves. • Non-resonant excitation of surface plasmons or spoof surface plasmons. • Sonic artificially metallic structures transparent for broadband acoustic waves.

  7. Photophysical properties of pyronin dyes in reverse micelles of AOT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayraktutan, Tuğba; Meral, Kadem; Onganer, Yavuz, E-mail: yonganer@atauni.edu.tr

    2014-01-15

    The photophysical properties of pyronin B (PyB) and pyronin Y (PyY) in reverse micelles formed with water/sodium bis (2-ethyl-1-hexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)/n-heptane were investigated by UV–vis absorption, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. This study was carried out a wide range of reverse micelle sizes, with hydrodynamic radii ranging from 1.85 to 9.38 nm. Significant photophysical parameters as band shifts, fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes were determined to understand how photophysical and spectroscopic features of the dye compounds were affected by the variation of reverse micelle sizes. In this regard, control of reverse micelle size by changing W{sub 0}, the molar ratio of water to surfactant, allowed tuning the photophysical properties of the dyes in organic solvent via reverse micelle. Non-fluorescent H-aggregates of pyronin dyes were observed for the smaller reverse micelles whereas an increase in the reverse micelle size induced an increment in the amount of dye monomers instead of dye aggregates. Thus, the fluorescence intensities of the dyes were improved by increasing W{sub 0} due to the predomination of the fluorescent dye monomers. As a result, the fluorescence quantum yields also increased. The fluorescence lifetimes of the dyes in the reverse micelles were determined by the time-resolved fluorescence decay studies. Evaluation of the fluorescence lifetimes calculated for pyronin dyes in the reverse micelles showed that the size of reverse micelle affected the fluorescence lifetimes of pyronin dyes. -- Highlights: • The photophysical properties of pyronin dyes were examined by spectroscopic techniques. • Optical properties of the dyes were tuned by changing of W{sub 0} values. • The fluorescence lifetime and quantum yield values of the dyes in reverse micelles were discussed.

  8. Dispersion characteristics of electromagnetic waves in dipolar (m=±1) modes travelling along a magnetized plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, E.; Ghanashev, I.; Zhelyazkov, I.

    1992-01-01

    The modelling of isotropic plasma columns sustained by travelling electromagnetic waves in the dipolar mode (angular dependence exp imφ, m=±1) shows that the m=±1 modes have identical dispersion characteristics. In the presence of an external static magnetic field, however, the modes behave rather differently. This observation arose in studying the axial structures of magnetized plasma columns surrounded by vacuum and produced by travelling electromagnetic waves in the dipolar modes. We examine the propagation of electromagnetic waves along a homogeneous cold plasma column of radius R and electron number density n immersed in an axial constant magnetic field. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs

  9. Manipulating electromagnetic waves with metamaterials: Concept and microwave realizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Qiong; Xiao Shi-Yi; Li Xin; Song Zheng-Yong; Sun Wu-Jiong; Zhou Lei; Sun Shu-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Our recent efforts in manipulating electromagnetic (EM) waves using metamaterials (MTMs) are reviewed with emphasis on 1) manipulating wave polarization and transporting properties using homogeneous MTMs, 2) manipulating surface-wave properties using plasmonic MTMs, and 3) bridging propagating and surface waves using inhomogeneous meta-surfaces. For all these topics, we first illustrate the physical concepts and then present several typical practical realizations and applications in the microwave regime. (topical review - plasmonics and metamaterials)

  10. Properties of Pliocene sedimentary geomagnetic reversal records from the Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Linssen, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    In the history of the Earth the dipolar geomagnetic field has frequently reversed polarity. Though this property was already known early this century (Brunhes, 1906), nowadays the characteristics and the origin of polarity transitions are still largely unknown. The geomagnetic field and its variations are recorded in rocks as a natural remanent magnetization (NRM) during the formation of these rocks. The study of the NRM in sedimentary reversal records is the subject of this dissertation.

  11. Diffusion properties of active particles with directional reversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Großmann, R; Bär, M; Peruani, F

    2016-01-01

    The diffusion properties of self-propelled particles which move at constant speed and, in addition, reverse their direction of motion repeatedly are investigated. The internal dynamics of particles triggering these reversal processes is modeled by a stochastic clock. The velocity correlation function as well as the mean squared displacement is investigated and, furthermore, a general expression for the diffusion coefficient for self-propelled particles with directional reversal is derived. Our analysis reveals the existence of an optimal, finite rotational noise amplitude which maximizes the diffusion coefficient. We comment on the relevance of these results with regard to biological systems and suggest further experiments in this context. (paper)

  12. Ground receiving station (GRS) of UMS - receiving and processing the electromagnetic wave data from satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Syahmi Nordin; Fauziah Abdul Aziz

    2007-01-01

    The low resolution Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar-orbiting satellites Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is being received and recorded in real-time mode at ground receiving station in School of Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah. The system is suitable for the developing and undeveloped countries in south and Southeast Asia and is said to be acceptable for engineering, agricultural, climatological and environmental applications. The system comprises a personal computer attached with a small APT receiver. The data transmission between the ground receiving station and NOAA satellites is using the electromagnetic wave. The relation for receiving and processing the electromagnetic wave in the transmission will be discussed. (Author)

  13. Wireless system controlling of electromagnetic wave distribution in nuclear power plant use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Hidehiko; Kume, Naoto; Oshima, Tomomi; Takakura, Kei; Oda, Naotaka; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Odanaka, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    Recently, wireless technologies have rapidly spread by cellular phones, smartphones and tablet devices. Wireless systems in the nuclear power plant are expected to bring various advantages such as shortening of the inspection time, online monitoring, remote control and cable reduction, etc. However, wireless systems have hardly applied to the nuclear power plant, from the point of security and electromagnetic interference (EMI). We propose a new wireless system controlling automatically electromagnetic wave distribution. In our wireless system, the transmitter / receiver modules automatically measure the wave strength and adjust the power and directivity of the wave, resulting in wireless communication only in target zones, i.e. non-influence to safety-related instruments and non-leakage of information. We will present the algorithm of the electromagnetic wave controlling and experimental results about the proposed system. (author)

  14. Electromagnetic wave propagation in a medium with a progressive sinusoidal fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Ito, Akinari

    1984-01-01

    Study was made on the rigorous solutions for electromagnetic waves transmitted and reflected by a medium of finite length with time-space periodic fluctuation, loaded in a rectangular waveguide. When an electromagnetic wave is incident upon the medium modulated in a travelling wave fashion by a pump wave, the reflected and transmitted waves are shifted in frequency by +nω 1 (where n is an integer, ω 1 is the angular frequency of fluctuation). The harmonic level of the reflected waves is much increased as the frequency of the incident wave approaches the cutoff-frequency of TE 10 mode of the rectangular waveguide. Measurement of the spectrum of the reflected waves can be utilized as a diagnosis of even a very slightly fluctuating medium. The theoretical results have been verified on examining experimentally the harmonic level of the microwave reflected by a plasma, weakly modulated (about 10 -4 ) by RF signal and loaded in the WRJ-10 waveguide. (author)

  15. Propagation Characteristics of Electromagnetic Waves Recorded by the Four CLUSTER Satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrot, M.; Santolik, O.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Maksimovic, M.; Harvey, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will describe the methods we use to determine the propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves observed by the four CLUSTER satellites. The data is recorded aboard CLUSTER by the STAFF (Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations) spectrum analyser. This instrument has several modes of operation, and can provide the spectral matrix of three magnetic and two electric components. This spectral matrix is processed by a dedicated software (PRASSADCO: Propagation Analysis of STAFF-SA Data with Coherency Tests) in order to determine the wave normal directions with respect to the DC magnetic field. PRASSADCO also provides a number of alternative methods to estimate wave polarisation and propagation parameters, such as the Poynting vector, and the refractive index. It is therefore possible to detect the source extension of various electromagnetic waves using the 4 satellites. Results of this data processing will be shown here for one event observed by one satellite. (author)

  16. Multiphoton processes in the field of two-frequency circularly polarized plane electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, An

    1997-01-01

    The authors solve Dirac's equation for an electron in the field of a two-frequency plane electromagnetic wave, deriving general formulae for the probabilities of radiation of a photon by the electron, and for the probabilities for pair production by a photon when the two-frequency wave is circularly polarized. In contrast to the case of a monochromatic-plane electromagnetic wave, when an electron is in the field of a two-frequency circularly polarized wave, besides the absorption of multiphotons and emission of simple harmonics of the individual waves, stimulated multiphoton emission processes and various composite harmonic-photon emission processes are occurred: when a high-energy photon is in a such a field, multiphoton processes also follow the pair production processes

  17. The electromagnetic wave energy effect(s) in microwave-assisted organic syntheses (MAOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Tomoki; Narita, Atsushi; Suzuki, Yumiko; Serpone, Nick

    2018-03-26

    Organic reactions driven by microwaves have been subjected for several years to some enigmatic phenomenon referred to as the microwave effect, an effect often mentioned in microwave chemistry but seldom understood. We identify this microwave effect as an electromagnetic wave effect that influences many chemical reactions. In this article, we demonstrate its existence using three different types of microwave generators with dissimilar oscillation characteristics. We show that this effect is operative in photocatalyzed TiO 2 reactions; it negatively influences electro-conductive catalyzed reactions, and yet has but a negligible effect on organic syntheses. The relationship between this electromagnetic wave effect and chemical reactions is elucidated from such energetic considerations as the photon energy and the reactions' activation energies.

  18. Electromagnetic waves destabilized by runaway electrons in near-critical electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komar, A.; Pokol, G. I. [Department of Nuclear Techniques, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Association EURATOM, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Fueloep, T. [Department of Applied Physics, Nuclear Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology and Euratom-VR Association, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2013-01-15

    Runaway electron distributions are strongly anisotropic in velocity space. This anisotropy is a source of free energy that may destabilize electromagnetic waves through a resonant interaction between the waves and the energetic electrons. In this work, we investigate the high-frequency electromagnetic waves that are destabilized by runaway electron beams when the electric field is close to the critical field for runaway acceleration. Using a runaway electron distribution appropriate for the near-critical case, we calculate the linear instability growth rate of these waves and conclude that the obliquely propagating whistler waves are most unstable. We show that the frequencies, wave numbers, and propagation angles of the most unstable waves depend strongly on the magnetic field. Taking into account collisional and convective damping of the waves, we determine the number density of runaways that is required to destabilize the waves and show its parametric dependences.

  19. Numerical simulation of electromagnetic wave propagation using time domain meshless method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuno, Soichiro; Fujita, Yoshihisa; Itoh, Taku; Nakata, Susumu; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Kamitani, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    The electromagnetic wave propagation in various shaped wave guide is simulated by using meshless time domain method (MTDM). Generally, Finite Differential Time Domain (FDTD) method is applied for electromagnetic wave propagation simulation. However, the numerical domain should be divided into rectangle meshes if FDTD method is applied for the simulation. On the other hand, the node disposition of MTDM can easily describe the structure of arbitrary shaped wave guide. This is the large advantage of the meshless time domain method. The results of computations show that the damping rate is stably calculated in case with R < 0.03, where R denotes a support radius of the weight function for the shape function. And the results indicate that the support radius R of the weight functions should be selected small, and monomials must be used for calculating the shape functions. (author)

  20. Beta Decay in the Field of an Electromagnetic Wave and Experiments on Measuring the Neutrino Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorofeev, O.F.; Lobanov, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    Investigations of the effect of an electromagnetic wave field on the beta-decay process are used to analyze the tritium-decay experimental data on the neutrino mass. It is shown that the electromagnetic wave can distort the beta spectrum, shifting the end point to the higher energy region. This phenomenon is purely classical and it is associated with the electron acceleration in the radiation field. Since strong magnetic fields exist in setups for precise measurement of the neutrino mass, the indicated field can appear owing to the synchrotron radiation mechanism. The phenomenon under consideration can explain the experimentally observed anomalies in the spectrum of the decay electrons; in particular, the effect of the 'negative square of the neutrino mass'

  1. Descriptive study of electromagnetic wave distribution for various seating positions: using digital textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seomun, GyeongAe; Kim, YoungHwan; Lee, Jung-Ah; Jeong, KwangHoon; Park, Seon-A; Kim, Miran; Noh, Wonjung

    2014-04-01

    To better understand environmental electromagnetic wave exposure during the use of digital textbooks by elementary school students, we measured numeric values of the electromagnetic fields produced by tablet personal computers (TPCs). Specifically, we examined the distribution of the electromagnetic waves for various students' seating positions in an elementary school that uses digital textbooks. Electric and magnetic fields from TPCs were measured using the HI-3603 Visual Display Terminal/ Very Low Frequency (VDT/VLF) radiation measurement system. Electromagnetic field values from TPCs measured at a student's seat and at a teacher's computer were deemed not harmful to health. However, electromagnetic field values varied based on the distance between students, other electronic devices such as a desktop computers, and student posture while using a TPC. Based on these results, it is necessary to guide students to observe proper posture and to arrange seats at an appropriate distance in the classroom.

  2. Breatherlike electromagnetic wave propagation in an antiferromagnetic medium with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavitha, L.; Saravanan, M.; Srividya, B.; Gopi, D.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the nature of propagation of electromagnetic waves (EMWs) in an antiferromagnetic medium with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) interaction environment. The interplay of bilinear and DM exchange spin coupling with the magnetic field component of the EMW has been studied by solving Maxwell's equations coupled with a nonlinear spin equation for the magnetization of the medium. We made a nonuniform expansion of the magnetization and magnetic field along the direction of propagation of EMW, in the framework of reductive perturbation method, and the dynamics of the system is found to be governed by a generalized derivative nonlinear Schroedinger (DNLS) equation. We employ the Jacobi-elliptic function method to solve the DNLS equation, and the electromagnetic wave propagation in an antiferromagnetic medium is governed by the breatherlike spatially and temporally coherent localized modes under the influence of DM interaction parameter.

  3. Measurement of the environmental broadband electromagnetic waves in a mid-size European city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-García, R; Gil, I

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, the level of exposure to broadband radiofrequency electromagnetic field in a mid-size European city was evaluated in accordance with the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines from 1998. With the aim to analyse all the potential electromagnetic waves present in the city up to 18GHz, a total of 271 locations distributed along Terrassa (Spain) have been measured. To show the results in an easy-to-interpret way by the citizen, the results have been represented in a set of raster maps. The measurement results obtained showed that the electromagnetic wave measured in all broadband frequency range along the city is much lower than the safety level according to the international regulations for both public and occupational sectors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effect of Electromagnetic Waves on the General Health of Zahedan Gas Power Plant Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereydoon Laal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: With ever improving technology and increasing the use of high voltage power in industrial environments, concerns about the destructive effects of electromagnetic waves on human health have increased. Thus the present study aims to evaluate the effects of electromagnetic waves on the general health of Zahedan gas power plant personnel. Materials & Method: The present case-control study investigated the health of people at one point of time and their amount of exposure to electromagnetic waves at the same time. The data collection tool in this study was 28-item general health questionnaire (GHQ-28. After measuring the electromagnetic waves at distances of 1, 1.5 and 3 meters at high voltage power substations and data extraction, the data were entered to SPSS software and analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test and chi-square. Results: In this study, the age and experience variables were not significantly different in two groups (p> 0.05. The highest magnetic fields in high voltage power substations was at a distance of 1 meter in the substation 607 (28/1 mG and in precision tool work units (7.03 mG. The results showed that the depressive and general health symptoms were significantly different between the exposed and unexposed groups (p = 0.04, however the difference was not significant in terms of physical performance, anxiety and social performance (p> 0.05. Conclusion: although the level of exposure was lower than standard level determined in Iran, the significant difference of the general health and depression between the two groups, explains the necessity of conducting more studies in this regard. Also by reducing the exposure time and increasing people’s awareness it is possible to take important steps to reduce exposure and complications.

  5. Luminosity distance for Born-Infeld electromagnetic waves propagating in a cosmological magnetic background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiello, Matias; Bengochea, Gabriel R; Ferraro, Rafael, E-mail: aiello@iafe.uba.ar, E-mail: gabriel@iafe.uba.ar, E-mail: ferraro@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2008-06-15

    Born-Infeld electromagnetic waves interacting with a static magnetic background in an expanding universe are studied. The non-linear character of Born-Infeld electrodynamics modifies the relation between the energy flux and the distance to the source, which gains a new dependence on the redshift that is governed by the background field. We compute the luminosity distance as a function of the redshift and compare with Maxwellian curves for supernovae type Ia.

  6. On the generation of electromagnetic waves in the terahertz frequency range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namiot, V.A.; Shchurova, L.Yu.

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that a thin dielectric plate, which can act as an open dielectric waveguide, it is possible to produce amplification and generation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies in the terahertz range. For this purpose, we propose using a dielectric plate with a corrugated surface, in which case the electric field of the transverse electromagnetic wave in the waveguide has a periodic spatial structure in the local area near to the corrugation. Terahertz electromagnetic waves are excited by a beam of electrons moving in vacuum along the dielectric plate at a small distance from its corrugated surface. Corrugation period is chosen in order to ensure the most effective interaction of the electron beam with the first harmonic of the electric field induced by the corrugation. Amplification and generation of electromagnetic waves propagating in a dielectric waveguide is realized as a result of deceleration of the electron beam by a wave electric field induced by a corrugated dielectric surface in the zone near the corrugation. We discuss possible ways to create electron beams with the desired characteristics. We offer a way to stabilize the beam position above the plate, avoiding the bombardment of the plate by electrons. It is shown that it is possible to significantly increase the efficiency of the device through the recovery of energy that remains in the electrons after their interaction with the wave. -- Highlights: → We propose a scheme of a generator of radio waves in the terahertz range. → This scheme includes a corrugated dielectric plate, which can act as an open waveguide. → A strip electron beam is in vacuum near the dielectric corrugated surface. → Generation is achieved by converting electrons' energy into electromagnetic energy. → The waveguide wave extends perpendicularly to electron motion.

  7. Absorption of low-frequency electromagnetic waves by plasma in electromagnetic trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'yakov, V.E.

    1984-01-01

    Absorption of electromagnetic waves in plasma of the electromagnetic trap is investigated. An integro-differential equation describing the behaviour of the electrical and magnetic fields of the wave is obtained. The wave has a component along the plasma inhomogeneity axis. Solution of this equation is found within the low frequency range corresponding to the anomalous skin-effect. The possibility of ion-acoustic waves excitation is demonstrated. Expressions are found for reflection, absorption and transformation coefficients

  8. Sound excitation at reflection of two electromagnetic waves from dence semibounded plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livdan, D.O.; Muratov, V.I.; Shuklin, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of two electromagnetic waves reflection by semibounded plasma which is nontransparent for each of these waves is solved. The reflection coefficients are obtained for normally incident waves. It is shown that the moduli of the reflection coefficients differ from the unit and this is due to the interaction of the external raiation with the acoustic wave excited in plasma. The energy flux in plasma is calculated

  9. On the theory of interaction of electromagnetic waves with Bose-Einstein magnon condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loktev, V.M.

    2008-01-01

    An attempt is made to analyze the dependence of the Raman scattering cross section or the absorption/emission of electromagnetic waves by a Bose-Einstein condensate of magnons on their (magnons) density. Specifically, the intensities of one- and two-magnon transitions are compared and it is concluded that latter dominate in a Bose condensate. The salient features and possible role of the inter-magnon interaction are discussed briefly

  10. Analysis of multidimensional measurements of electromagnetic waves in the Earth's magnetosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Pechal, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Title: Analysis of multidimensional measurements of electromagnetic waves in the Earth's magnetosphere Author: Radim Pechal Department: Department of Surface and Plasma Science Supervisor: doc. RNDr. Lubomír Přech, Dr. Supervisor's e-mail address: Abstract: The thesis introduces into basic knowledge of waves in plasma, especially waves in the Earth's magnetosphere. There are mentioned some space projects focused on chorus waves. The second part of this thesis is a la...

  11. Polarization of the interference field during reflection of electromagnetic waves from an intermedia boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulakhov, M. G.; Buyanov, Yu. I.; Yakubov, V. P.

    1996-10-01

    It has been shown that a full vector measurement of the total field allows one to uniquely distinguish the incident and reflected waves at each observation point without the use of a spatial difference based on an analysis of the polarization structure of the interference pattern which arises during reflection of electromagnetic waves from an intermedia boundary. We have investigated the stability of these procedures with respect to measurement noise by means of numerical modeling.

  12. Electromagnetic wave propagation over an inhomogeneous flat earth (two-dimensional integral equation formulation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Jong, G.

    1975-01-01

    With the aid of a two-dimensional integral equation formulation, the ground wave propagation of electromagnetic waves transmitted by a vertical electric dipole over an inhomogeneous flat earth is investigated. For the configuration in which a ground wave is propagating across an ''island'' on a flat earth, the modulus and argument of the attenuation function have been computed. The results for the two-dimensional treatment are significantly more accurate in detail than the calculations using a one-dimensional integral equation

  13. Perturbation theory for the Bethe-Salpeter equation in the field of a plane electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starostin, V.S.; Litskevich, I.K.

    1990-01-01

    The completeness and orthogonality of the solutions of the Bethe-Salpeter equation is proven. A correct derivation of perturbation-theory equations is given. A generalization that includes the field of a plane electromagnetic wave is proposed. The rate of one-photon annihilation of positronium in this field is calculated. If the one-photon decay is allowed, the stationary states of the system are found (states of light-positronium)

  14. Effects of chronic exposure to electromagnetic waves on the auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgür, Abdulkadir; Tümkaya, Levent; Terzi, Suat; Kalkan, Yıldıray; Erdivanlı, Özlem Çelebi; Dursun, Engin

    2015-08-01

    The results support that chronic electromagnetic field exposure may cause damage by leading to neuronal degeneration of the auditory system. Numerous researches have been done about the risks of exposure to the electromagnetic fields that occur during the use of these devices, especially the effects on hearing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the electromagnetic waves emitted by the mobile phones through the electrophysiological and histological methods. Twelve adult Wistar albino rats were included in the study. The rats were divided into two groups of six rats. The study group was exposed to the electromagnetic waves over a period of 30 days. The control group was not given any exposure to the electromagnetic fields. After the completion of the electromagnetic wave application, the auditory brainstem responses of both groups were recorded under anesthesia. The degeneration of cochlear nuclei was graded by two different histologists, both of whom were blinded to group information. The histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis showed neuronal degeneration signs, such as increased vacuolization in the cochlear nucleus, pyknotic cell appearance, and edema in the group exposed to the electromagnetic fields compared to the control group. The average latency of wave in the ABR was similar in both groups (p > 0.05).

  15. On the possibility of the autoresonant motion of an electron in a slow electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milantiev, V.P.

    1994-01-01

    By autoresonant motion one usually means the motion when the condition of cyclotron resonance of gyrating particle with electromagnetic wave is conserved during all the time of the motion in spite of the relativistic mass increase. Such a motion takes place only in the case of vacuum wave, when the phase velocity ν p is equal to the speed of light in a vacuum C. Otherwise autoresonance is impossible, and energy of the particle oscillates in time. The authors now discuss the possibility of the autoresonance in a slow electromagnetic wave (ν p < c) propagating along the straight lines of the external magnetic field. It turns out that the autoresonant regime of the motion in a slow electromagnetic wave possible if some rather restrictive relations between the electric drift velocity and the phase velocity of wave take place. It depends also on the polarization of wave. The general case of the elliptical polarization is considered. The optimal regime corresponds to the wave with linear polarization in the direction of the constant electric field. For this case the calculations show that energy of the particle can unlimitedly increase (or decrease). The rate of acceleration can be even larger than in the case of vacuum wave. Radiation forces will restrict this process

  16. Electron beam injection during active experiments. I - Electromagnetic wave emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winglee, R. M.; Kellogg, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    The wave emissions produced in Echo 7 experiment by active injections of electron beams were investigated to determine the properties of the electromagnetic and electrostatic fields for both the field-aligned and cross-field injection in such experiments and to evaluate the sources of free energy and relative efficiencies for the generation of the VLF and HF emissions. It is shown that, for typical beam energies in active experiments, electromagnetic effects do not substantially change the bulk properties of the beam, spacecraft charging, and plasma particle acceleration. Through simulations, beam-generated whistlers; fundamental z-mode and harmonic x-mode radiation; and electrostatic electron-cyclotron, upper-hybrid, Langmuir, and lower-hybrid waves were identified. The characteristics of the observed wave spectra were found to be sensitive to both the ratio of the electron plasma frequency to the cyclotron frequency and the angle of injection relative to the magnetic field.

  17. An alternative to the plasma emission model: Particle-in-cell, self-consistent electromagnetic wave emission simulations of solar type III radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsiklauri, David

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution (sub-Debye length grid size and 10 000 particle species per cell), 1.5D particle-in-cell, relativistic, fully electromagnetic simulations are used to model electromagnetic wave emission generation in the context of solar type III radio bursts. The model studies generation of electromagnetic waves by a super-thermal, hot beam of electrons injected into a plasma thread that contains uniform longitudinal magnetic field and a parabolic density gradient. In effect, a single magnetic line connecting Sun to Earth is considered, for which five cases are studied. (i) We find that the physical system without a beam is stable and only low amplitude level electromagnetic drift waves (noise) are excited. (ii) The beam injection direction is controlled by setting either longitudinal or oblique electron initial drift speed, i.e., by setting the beam pitch angle (the angle between the beam velocity vector and the direction of background magnetic field). In the case of zero pitch angle, i.e., when v-vector b ·E-vector perpendicular =0, the beam excites only electrostatic, standing waves, oscillating at local plasma frequency, in the beam injection spatial location, and only low level electromagnetic drift wave noise is also generated. (iii) In the case of oblique beam pitch angles, i.e., when v-vector b ·E-vector perpendicular =0, again electrostatic waves with same properties are excited. However, now the beam also generates the electromagnetic waves with the properties commensurate to type III radio bursts. The latter is evidenced by the wavelet analysis of transverse electric field component, which shows that as the beam moves to the regions of lower density and hence lower plasma frequency, frequency of the electromagnetic waves drops accordingly. (iv) When the density gradient is removed, an electron beam with an oblique pitch angle still generates the electromagnetic radiation. However, in the latter case no frequency decrease is seen. (v) Since in most of

  18. On the Feasibility of Gap Detection of Power Transformer Partial Discharge UHF Signals: Gap Propagation Characteristics of Electromagnetic Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxing Zhang; Guozhi Zhang; Yalong Li; Jian Zhang; Rui Huang

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed the transformer electromagnetic gap propagation characteristics. The influence of gap size is also analyzed, and the results experimentally verified. The obtained results indicated that the gap propagation characteristics of electromagnetic wave signals radiated by the partial discharge (PD) source in different directions are substantially different. The intensity of the electromagnetic wave in the gap reaches a maximum at a gap height of 1 cm; and inside the gap, the inte...

  19. Design of Metamaterials for control of electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschny, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Metamaterials are artificial effective media supporting propagating waves that derive their properties form the average response of deliberately designed and arranged, usually resonant scatterers with structural length-scales much smaller than the wavelength inside the material. Electromagnetic metamaterials are the most important implementation of metamaterials, which are made from deeply sub-wavelength electric, magnetic and chiral resonators and can be designed to work from radio frequencies all the way to visible light. Metamaterials have been major new development in physics and materials science over the last decade and are still attracting more interest as they enable us to create materials with unique properties like negative refraction, flat and super lenses, impedance matching eliminating reflection, perfect absorbers, deeply sub-wavelength sized wave guides and cavities, tunability, enhanced non-linearity and gain, chirality and huge optical activity, control of Casimir forces, and spontaneous emission, etc. In this talk, I will discuss the design, numerical simulation, and mathematical modeling of metamaterials. I will survey the current state of the art and discuss challenges, possible solutions and perspectives. In particular, the problem of dissipative loss and their possible compensation by incorporating spatially distributed gain in metamaterials. If the gain sub-system is strongly coupled to the sub-wavelength resonators of the metamaterial loss compensation and undamping of the resonant response of the metamaterials can occur. I will explore new, alternative dielectric low loss resonators for metamaterials as well as the potential of new conducting materials such as Graphene to replace metals as the conducting material in resonant metamaterials. Two dimensional metamaterials or metasurfaces, implementations of effective electromagnetic current sheets in which both electric and magnetic sheet conductivities are controlled by the average response

  20. Preparation and electromagnetic wave absorption of RGO/Cu nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Tian, Xingyou; Zhang, Xian; Li, Shikuo; Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian

    2017-09-01

    We use a facile pyrolysis method to prepare reduced graphene oxide and copper nanocomposite (RGO/Cu) based on it. The product shows an outstanding wave absorption properties. The maximum reflection loss is up to-50.7 dB at 3.8 GHz. The reflection loss of-10 dB (90% power absorption) corresponds to a bandwidth of 11.2 GHz (3.4-14.6 GHz range) for the layer thickness of 2-5 mm. Therefore, it is suggested that the RGO/Cu nanocomposite is also a new kind of lightweight and high-performance EM wave absorbing material.

  1. Double-layer Electromagnetic Wave Absorber Based on Carbon Nanotubes Doped with La(NO33 and Fe3O4 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiling HOU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Double-layer structure absorbing materials based on the impedance matching principle and transmission line theory can effectively improve the electromagnetic wave absorbing properties. In this paper, the electro-magnetic wave absorbing properties of double-layer absorbers (2 mm thickness, where multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT-La(NO33/polyvinyl chloride (PVC and MWCNT-Fe3O4/PVC composites had been taken turns as the absorption layer and matching layer, were investigated in 2 – 18 GHz range. The absorbing properties of single- and double-layer structure and different each-layer thickness with two types of combinations were compared. The results showed that the design of double-layer structure for composites could effectively broaden the absorption frequency area, and increase the absorption intensity. When MWCNT-La(NO33/PVC composite were used as absorption layers with 0.6 mm thickness, the absorption bandwidth (< – 15 dB or > 97 % of double-layer composite was the widest, reaching a maximum of about 3.36 GHz, and the absorption peak value was also the lowest about – 46.02 dB at 16.24 GHz.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.3.16279

  2. Effect of environment on the propagation of electromagnetic waves in GRC 408E digital radiorelay devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojkan M. Radonjić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality transmission of digital signals from a transmitting radio-relay device to a receiving one depends on the impact of environmental effects on the propagation of electromagnetic waves. In this paper some of the most important effects are explained and modeled, especially those characteristic for the frequency range within which the GRC 408E operates. The modeling resulted in the conclusions about the quality of transmission of digital signals in the GRC 408E radio-relay equipment. Propagation of electromagnetic waves A radio-relay link is achieved by direct electromagnetic waves, provided there is a line of sight between the transmitting and receiving antenna of a radio-relay device. Electromagnetic waves on the road are exposed to various environmental influences causing phenomena such as bending, reflection, refraction, absorption and multiple propagation. Due to these environmental effects, the quality of information transmission is not satisfactory and a radio-relay link is not reliable. The approach to the analysis of the quality of links in digital radiorelay devices is different from the one in analog radio-relay devices. Therefore, the quality is seen through errors in the received bit ( BER , the propagation conditions are taken into account, a reservation for the fading is determined by other means, etc.. Phenomena which accompany the propagation of electromagnetic waves in digital radio-relay links The propagation of direct EM waves is followed by the following phenomena: - attenuation due to propagation, - diffraction (changing table, - refraction (refraction, - reflection (refusing, - absorption (absorption and - multiple wave propagation. Each of these has a negative effect on the quality of the received signal at the receiving antenna of the radio-relay device. Attenuation due to propagation of electromagnetic waves The main parameter for evaluating the quality of radio-relay links is the level of the field at the reception

  3. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in a weakly ionized dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Jieshu; Yuan, Chengxun; Gao, Ruilin; Wang, Ying; Liu, Yaoze; Gao, Junying; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Sun, Xiudong; Li, Hui; Wu, Jian; Pu, Shaozhi

    2015-01-01

    Propagation properties of electromagnetic (EM) waves in weakly ionized dusty plasmas are the subject of this study. Dielectric relation for EM waves propagating at a weakly ionized dusty plasma is derived based on the Boltzmann distribution law while considering the collision and charging effects of dust grains. The propagation properties of EM energy in dusty plasma of rocket exhaust are numerically calculated and studied, utilizing the parameters of rocket exhaust plasma. Results indicate that increase of dust radius and density enhance the reflection and absorption coefficient. High dust radius and density make the wave hardly transmit through the dusty plasmas. Interaction enhancements between wave and dusty plasmas are developed through effective collision frequency improvements. Numerical results coincide with observed results by indicating that GHz band wave communication is effected by dusty plasma as the presence of dust grains significantly affect propagation of EM waves in the dusty plasmas. The results are helpful to analyze the effect of dust in plasmas and also provide a theoretical basis for the experiments. (paper)

  4. Elastic metamaterials for tuning circular polarization of electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, Yair; Babaee, Sahab; Kang, Sung H; Neshev, Dragomir N; Shadrivov, Ilya V; Bertoldi, Katia; Powell, David A

    2016-06-20

    Electromagnetic resonators are integrated with advanced elastic material to develop a new type of tunable metamaterial. An electromagnetic-elastic metamaterial able to switch on and off its electromagnetic chiral response is experimentally demonstrated. Such tunability is attained by harnessing the unique buckling properties of auxetic elastic materials (buckliballs) with embedded electromagnetic resonators. In these structures, simple uniaxial compression results in a complex but controlled pattern of deformation, resulting in a shift of its electromagnetic resonance, and in the structure transforming to a chiral state. The concept can be extended to the tuning of three-dimensional materials constructed from the meta-molecules, since all the components twist and deform into the same chiral configuration when compressed.

  5. Electromagnetic aquametry electromagnetic wave interaction with water and moist substances

    CERN Document Server

    Kupfer, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of Electromagnetic Aquametry. It summarizes the wide area of metrology and its applications in electromagnetic sensing of moist materials. The physical properties of water in various degrees of binding interacting with electromagnetic fields is presented by model systems. The book describes measurement methods and sensors in the frequency domain, TDR-techniques for environmental problems, methods and sensors for quality assessment of biological substances, and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Environmental sciences, as well as civil and geoengineering, fossil fuels, food and pharmaceutical science are the main fields of application. A very wide frequency sprectrum is used for dielectric measurement methods, but the microwave range is clearly dominant. Multiparameter methods as well as methods of principal components and artificial neural networks for density independent measurements are described.

  6. RCS Diversity of Electromagnetic Wave Carrying Orbital Angular Momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Chen, Dong; Jiang, Xuefeng

    2017-11-13

    An electromagnetic (EM) wave with orbital angular momentum (OAM) has a helical wave front, which is different from that of the plane wave. The phase gradient can be found perpendicular to the direction of propagation and proportional to the number of OAM modes. Herein, we study the backscattering property of the EM wave with different OAM modes, i.e., the radar cross section (RCS) of the target is measured and evaluated with different OAM waves. As indicated by the experimental results, different OAM waves have the same RCS fluctuation for the simple target, e.g., a small metal ball as the target. However, for complicated targets, e.g., two transverse-deployed small metal balls, different RCSs can be identified from the same incident angle. This valuable fact helps to obtain RCS diversity, e.g., equal gain or selective combining of different OAM wave scattering. The majority of the targets are complicated targets or expanded targets; the RCS diversity can be utilized to detect a weak target traditionally measured by the plane wave, which is very helpful for anti-stealth radar to detect the traditional stealth target by increasing the RCS with OAM waves.

  7. Controlling Energy Radiations of Electromagnetic Waves via Frequency Coding Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haotian; Liu, Shuo; Wan, Xiang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Dan; Li, Lianlin; Cui, Tie Jun

    2017-09-01

    Metamaterials are artificial structures composed of subwavelength unit cells to control electromagnetic (EM) waves. The spatial coding representation of metamaterial has the ability to describe the material in a digital way. The spatial coding metamaterials are typically constructed by unit cells that have similar shapes with fixed functionality. Here, the concept of frequency coding metamaterial is proposed, which achieves different controls of EM energy radiations with a fixed spatial coding pattern when the frequency changes. In this case, not only different phase responses of the unit cells are considered, but also different phase sensitivities are also required. Due to different frequency sensitivities of unit cells, two units with the same phase response at the initial frequency may have different phase responses at higher frequency. To describe the frequency coding property of unit cell, digitalized frequency sensitivity is proposed, in which the units are encoded with digits "0" and "1" to represent the low and high phase sensitivities, respectively. By this merit, two degrees of freedom, spatial coding and frequency coding, are obtained to control the EM energy radiations by a new class of frequency-spatial coding metamaterials. The above concepts and physical phenomena are confirmed by numerical simulations and experiments.

  8. Properties of Pliocene sedimentary geomagnetic reversal records from the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linssen, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    In the history of the Earth the dipolar geomagnetic field has frequently reversed polarity. Though this property was already known early this century (Brunhes, 1906), nowadays the characteristics and the origin of polarity transitions are still largely unknown. The geomagnetic field and its

  9. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foteinopoulou, Stavroula [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In this dissertation, they have undertaken the challenge to understand the unusual propagation properties of the photonic crystal (PC). The photonic crystal is a medium where the dielectric function is periodically modulated. These types of structures are characterized by bands and gaps. In other words, they are characterized by frequency regions where propagation is prohibited (gaps) and regions where propagation is allowed (bands). In this study they focus on two-dimensional photonic crystals, i.e., structures with periodic dielectric patterns on a plane and translational symmetry in the perpendicular direction. They start by studying a two-dimensional photonic crystal system for frequencies inside the band gap. The inclusion of a line defect introduces allowed states in the otherwise prohibited frequency spectrum. The dependence of the defect resonance state on different parameters such as size of the structure, profile of incoming source, etc., is investigated in detail. For this study, they used two popular computational methods in photonic crystal research, the Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) and the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM). The results for the one-dimensional defect system are analyzed, and the two methods, FDTD and TMM, are compared. Then, they shift their attention only to periodic two-dimensional crystals, concentrate on their band properties, and study their unusual refractive behavior. Anomalous refractive phenomena in photonic crystals included cases where the beam refracts on the ''wrong'' side of the surface normal. The latter phenomenon, is known as negative refraction and was previously observed in materials where the wave vector, the electric field, and the magnetic field form a left-handed set of vectors. These materials are generally called left-handed materials (LHM) or negative index materials (NIM). They investigated the possibility that the photonic crystal behaves as a LHM, and how this behavior relates

  10. Reversible Surface Properties of Polybenzoxazine/Silica Nanocomposites Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the reversible surface properties (hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity of a polybenzoxazine (PBZ thin film through simple application of alternating UV illumination and thermal treatment. The fraction of intermolecularly hydrogen bonded O–H⋯O=C units in the PBZ film increased after UV exposure, inducing a hydrophilic surface; the surface recovered its hydrophobicity after heating, due to greater O–H⋯N intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Taking advantage of these phenomena, we prepared a PBZ/silica nanocomposite coating through two simple steps; this material exhibited reversible transitions from superhydrophobicity to superhydrophilicity upon sequential UV irradiation and thermal treatment.

  11. Fe3O4@polyaniline yolk-shell micro/nanospheres as bifunctional materials for lithium storage and electromagnetic wave absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Minwei; Zhao, Jianming; Huang, Guoyong; Sun, Hongyu

    2018-01-01

    Unique Fe3O4/polyaniline (PANI) composite with yolk-shell micro/nanostructure (FPys) has been successfully synthesized by a facile silica-assisted in-situ polymerization and subsequent etching strategy. The structural and compositional studies of the FPys composites are performed by employing X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The yolk-shell morphology of the products is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. When evaluated as anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the as-prepared FPys electrodes deliver superior capacity, better cycling stability and rate capability than those of bare Fe3O4 micro/nanospheres and Fe3O4/PANI core-shell (FPcs) electrodes. Moreover, FPys also exhibits excellent electromagnetic wave absorption performance when comparing to the synthesized Fe3O4-based electromagnetic wave absorbers, in which strong reflection loss and extensive response bandwidth can be achieved simultaneously. The excellent bifunctional properties of FPys material are associated with the specially designed hierarchical micro/nanostructures. The current strategy that application directed structural design can be applied to the synthesis of other multifunctional materials.

  12. Polyaniline-stabilized electromagnetic wave absorption composites of reduced graphene oxide on magnetic carbon nanotube film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinsong; Duan, Yan; Lu, Weibang; Chou, Tsu-Wei

    2018-04-01

    A multi-layered composite with exceptionally high electromagnetic wave-absorbing capacity and performance stability was fabricated via the facile electrophoresis of a reduced graphene oxide network on carbon nanotube (CNT)-Fe3O4-polyaniline (PANI) film. Minimum reflection loss (RL) of -53.2 dB and absorbing bandwidth of 5.87 GHz (graphene-based absorbers. In particular, comparing to the original composites, the minimum RL and bandwidth (< -10 dB) maintains 82.5% and 99.7%, respectively, after 20 h charge/discharge cycling, demonstrating high environmental suitability.

  13. Interaction of electromagnetic waves with plasma in the radiation-dominated regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulanov, S.V.; Esirkepov, T.Zh.; Koga, J.; Tajima, T.

    2004-01-01

    A study is made of the main regimes of interaction of relativistically strong electromagnetic waves with plasma under conditions in which the radiation from particles plays a dominant role. The discussion is focused on such issues as the generation of short electromagnetic pulses in the interaction of laser light with clusters and highly efficient ion acceleration in a thin plasma slab under the action of the ponderomotive pressure of the wave. An approach is developed for generating superintense electromagnetic pulses by means of up-to-date laser devices

  14. Nonlinear propagation of electromagnetic waves in negative-refraction-index composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourakis, I; Shukla, P K

    2005-07-01

    We investigate the nonlinear propagation of electromagnetic waves in left-handed materials. For this purpose, we consider a set of coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (CNLS) equations, which govern the dynamics of coupled electric and magnetic field envelopes. The CNLS equations are used to obtain a nonlinear dispersion, which depicts the modulational stability profile of the coupled plane-wave solutions in left-handed materials. An exact (in)stability criterion for modulational interactions is derived, and analytical expressions for the instability growth rate are obtained.

  15. Simulation study on cross polarization scattering of ultrashort-pulse electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuragawa, Naoki; Hojo, Hitoshi; Mase, Atushi

    1996-11-01

    Simulation study on cross polarization scattering of ultrashort-pulse electromagnetic waves due to magnetic fluctuations is presented. One-dimensional coupled wave equations for the ordinary and extraordinary modes are solved for incident unipolar sub-cycle pulses in an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma. It is shown that the peak frequencies in the frequency-spectral signals of the mode-converted reflected waves are determined from the Bragg resonance condition in the wave numbers of the ordinary mode, the extraordinary mode and the magnetic fluctuations for relatively short-wavelength localized magnetic fluctuations. (author)

  16. Chaotic behavior in a relativistic electron beam interacting with a transverse slow electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serbeto, A.; Alves, M.V.

    1993-01-01

    Using a nonlinear set of equations which describes the excitation of a purely transverse slow electromagnetic wave by a relativistic electron beam, it is shown that the system runs from chaotic behavior to a regular stable state due to crisis phenomenon and from stabilized soliton and repeated stabilized explosive solutions to a temporal chaos. These behaviors suggest that the primary mechanism for the saturation of the explosive instability is not only the cubic nonlinear frequency shift as pointed out by many authors until now. The inclusion of the velocity perturbation in the beam charge initial equilibrium state leads the system to these strange behaviors. (author)

  17. Compact dispersion relations for parametric instabilities of electromagnetic waves in magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.I.

    1987-01-01

    The existence of compact dispersion relations for parametric instabilities of coherent electromagnetic waves in magnetized plasmas is addressed here. In general, comprehensive dispersion relations for parametric instabilities in unmagnetized plasmas become more complicated in the presence of an applied time-independent magnetic field. This is demonstrated with a fluid perturbation theory. A compact dispersion relation for parametric instabilities in unmagnetized plasma is heuristically extended here to the case of a magnetized plasma. This dispersion relation gives the correct results in a variety of circumstances of interest in considering electron cyclotron heating applications

  18. A maximally informative version of inelastic scattering of electromagnetic waves by Langmuir waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erofeev, V. I.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of informativeness of nonlinear plasma physics scenarios is explained. Natural ideas of developing highly informative models of plasma kinetics are spelled out. A maximally informative version of inelastic scattering of electromagnetic waves by Langmuir waves in a weakly turbulent inhomogeneous plasma is developed with consideration of possible changes in wave polarization. In addition, a new formula for wave drift in spatial positions and wave vectors is derived. New scenarios of the respective wave drift and inelastic scattering are compared with the previous visions. The results indicate the need for further revision of the traditional understanding of nonlinear plasma phenomena

  19. Electromagnetic wave absorption in high-Tc superconductors and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porjesz, T.; Khatiashvili, N.; Kovacs, Gy.; Leppavuori, S.; Uusimaki, A.; Kokkomaki, T.; Hagberg, J.

    1995-08-01

    The experimental study of the electromagnetic wave absorption of high-Tc superconductors subjected to small magnetic fields has been extended to a wide frequency range. The results obtained show an almost frequency independent behaviour in the 4 MHz - 20 GHz region. The measurement technique for the high frequency regime was developed in such a way that the sensitivity increased so much that the sample under investigation could be used as a very sensitive magnetic field detector, too. (author). 4 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  20. Raman backscattering of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves propagating along a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraghechi, B.; Willett, J.e.

    1979-01-01

    The stimulated Raman backscattering of an intense electromagnetic wave propagating in the extraordinary mode along a uniform, static magnetic field is considered. The dispersion relation for a homogeneous magnetized plasma in the presence of the circularly polarized pump waves is developed in the cold-plasma approximation with the pump frequency above the plasma frequency. Formulas are derived for the threshold νsub(OT) of the parametric instability and for the growth rate γ of the backscattered extraordinary wave and Langmuir wave. The effects of the magnetic field parallel to the direction of propagation on νsub(0T) and γ are studied numerically. (author)

  1. Ultra-low-frequency electromagnetic waves in the Earth's crust and magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guglielmi, A V

    2007-01-01

    Research on natural intra- and extraterrestrially produced electromagnetic waves with periods ranging from 0.2 to 600 s is reviewed. The way in which the energy of rock movements transforms into the energy of an alternating magnetic field is analyzed. Methods for detecting seismomagnetic signals against a strong background are described. In discussing the physics of ultra-low-frequency waves in the magnetosphere, the 11-year activity modulation of 1-Hz waves and ponderomotive forces affecting plasma distribution are emphasized. (reviews of topical problems)

  2. Novel Aspects of Evolution of the Stokes Parameters for an Electromagnetic Wave in Anisotropic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botet, R.; Kuratsuji, H.; Seto, R.

    2006-08-01

    Polarization of a plane electromagnetic wave travelling through a medium is studied in the slowly-varying field envelope approximation. It is shown that the problem is identical to the 4-momentum evolution of a negatively-charged massless relativistic particle in an electromagnetic field. The approach is exemplified by the resonant oscillations of circular polarization in a medium embedded in a static magnetic field and a modulated electric field. The effect of dissipation in the medium is discussed. It is shown that the Rabi oscillations are stable below a threshold depending on the absorption coefficient. Above it, oscillations disappear.

  3. To the theory of quantum processes in the field of an intense electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajer, V.N.; Katkov, V.M.; Mil'shtejn, A.I.; Strakhovenko, V.M.

    1975-01-01

    The operator diagram technique, developed earlier for considering phenomena in a homogeneous external field, is applied to processes occurring in a plane electromagnetic wave field. Calculations are carried out on the basis of a specific technique of ''entangling'' of operator expressions. The mass operator of scalar and spinor particles determined by a double integral is found in the field of an elliptically polarized wave of a general type. Imaginary part of the operator presents a new concept of the full probability of a particle emission in a wave field. Polarization effects are analyzed for spinor particles

  4. Multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves by a collection of plasma drift turbulent vortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resendes, D.

    1995-01-01

    An application of the self-consistent multiple-scattering theory of electro-magnetic waves to drift turbulent vortices is presented. Using the known single-vortex solution, the integral equation describing the scattering from a finite density of drift turbulent vortices is obtained. Rather than solving this equation and then averaging, the averaging operation is taken first to obtain statistical moment equations, from which the coherent and incoherent scattering follow. These results are expressed in a Fourier basis, and the cross-section is evaluated. Limiting forms of the theory and straightforward generalizations are discussed. (Author)

  5. Weakly nonlinear electromagnetic waves in an electron-ion positron plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzato, F.B.; Schneider, R.S.; Dillenburg, D.

    1987-01-01

    The modulation of a high-frequency electromagnetic wave which is circulary polarized and propagates in a plasma made up of electrons, ions and positrons is investigated. The coefficient of the cubic nonlinear term in the Schroedinger equation may change sign as the relative particle concentrations vary, and consequently a marginal state of modulation instability may exist. To described the system in the neighbourhood of this state an appropriate equation is derived. Particular stationary solutions of this equation are envelope solitary waves, envelope Kinks and envelope hole solitary waves. The dependence of the amplitude of the solutions on the propagation velocity and the particle concentrations is discussed. (author) [pt

  6. A theoretical study of hot plasma spheroids in the presence of low-frequency electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadizadeh, Y.; Jazi, B.; Barjesteh, S.

    2016-07-01

    While taking into account thermal motion of electrons, scattering of electromagnetic waves with low frequency from hot plasma spheroids is investigated. In this theoretical research, ions are heavy to respond to electromagnetic fluctuations. The solution of scalar wave equation in spheroidal coordinates for electric potential inside the plasma spheroids are obtained. The variations of resonance frequencies vs. Debye length are studied and consistency between the obtained results in this paper and the results for the well-known plasma objects such as plasma column and spherical plasma have been proved.

  7. Unconditionally stable WLP-FDTD method for the modeling of electromagnetic wave propagation in gyrotropic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng-Wei; Xi, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Jin-Sheng; Liu, Jiang-fan

    2015-12-14

    The unconditional stable finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method based on field expansion with weighted Laguerre polynomials (WLPs) is applied to model electromagnetic wave propagation in gyrotropic materials. The conventional Yee cell is modified to have the tightly coupled current density components located at the same spatial position. The perfectly matched layer (PML) is formulated in a stretched-coordinate (SC) system with the complex-frequency-shifted (CFS) factor to achieve good absorption performance. Numerical examples are shown to validate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.

  8. Bursty, Broadband Electromagnetic Waves Associated with Thin Current Layers and Turbulent Magnetosheath Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, M. L.; Wendel, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate observations of intense bursts of electromagnetic wave energy in association with the thin current layers of turbulent magnetosheath reconnection. These observed emissions form two distinct types: (i) broadband emissions that extend continuously to lOs of Hertz; and (ii) structured bursts of emitted energy that occur above 80-Hz, often displaying features reminiscent of absorption bands and are observed at local minima in the magnetic field. We present detailed analyses of these intense bursts of electromagnetic energy and quantify their proximity to X- and O-nulls, as well as their correlation to the amount of magnetic energy converted by the process of magnetic reconnection.

  9. Theory and experiment on electromagnetic-wave-propagation velocities in stacked superconducting tunnel structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, S.; Ustinov, A. V.; Kohlstedt, H.

    1994-01-01

    Characteristic velocities of the electromagnetic waves propagating in vertically stacked Josephson transmission are theoretically discussed. An equation for solving n velocities of the waves in an n Josephson-junction stack is derived. The solutions of two- and threefold stacks are especially...... focused on. Furthermore, under the assumption that all parameters of the layers are equal, analytic solutions for a generic N-fold stack are presented. The velocities of the waves in two- and three-junction stacks by Nb-Al-AlOx-Nb systems are experimentally obtained by measuring the cavity resonance...

  10. Attenuation bands and cut-off frequencies for ELF electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, J.L.; Lefeuvre, F.; Cerisier, J.C.; Berthelier, J.J.; Boud'ko, N.; Michailova, G.; Kapustina, O.

    1985-01-01

    The propagation characteristic of ELF (10 Hz - 1500 Hz) electromagnetic waves observed on ARCAD 3, in three different zones: low L value (L 6). Unambiguous determinations of the wave normal directions are obtained from the interpretations of the measurements of four (3 magnetic, 1 electric) wave field components. The technique that is used, is based on the Means method in the cases of highly polarized waves and on the Storey and Lefeuvre WDF method in the other cases. A particular emphasis is put on the propagation characteristics of the waves, in a multiple ion plasma, and on the cut-off frequencies which appear at and below the local proton gyrofrequency

  11. Resonant interaction of electromagnetic wave with plasma layer and overcoming the radiocommunication blackout problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatskaya, A. V.; Klenov, N. V.; Tereshonok, M. V.; Adjemov, S. S.; Popov, A. M.

    2018-05-01

    We present an analysis of the possibility of penetrating electromagnetic waves through opaque media using an optical-mechanical analogy. As an example, we consider the plasma sheath surrounding the vehicle as a potential barrier and analyze the overcoming of radiocommunication blackout problem. The idea is to embed a «resonator» between the surface on the vehicle and plasma sheath which is supposed to provide an effective tunneling of the signal to the receiving antenna. We discuss the peculiarities of optical mechanical analogy applicability and analyze the radio frequency wave tunneling regime in detail. The cases of normal and oblique incidence of radiofrequency waves on the vehicle surface are studied.

  12. Dispersion relation of electromagnetic waves in one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, Hitoshi; Mase, Atsushi

    2004-01-01

    The dispersion relation of electromagnetic waves in one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals is studied. The plasma photonic crystal is a periodic array composed of alternating thin plasma and dielectric material. The dispersion relation is obtained by solving a Maxwell wave equation using a method analogous to Kronig-Penny's problem in quantum mechanics, and it is found that the frequency gap and cut-off appear in the dispersion relation. The frequency gap is shown to become larger with the increase of the plasma density as well as plasma width. (author)

  13. The method of impedance transformation for electromagnetic waves propagating in one-dimension plasma photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Jingfeng; Yuan, Chengxun, E-mail: yuancx@hit.edu.cn, E-mail: zhouzx@hit.edu.cn; Gao, Ruilin; Jia, Jieshu; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Zhongxiang, E-mail: yuancx@hit.edu.cn, E-mail: zhouzx@hit.edu.cn; Wang, Xiaoou [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wu, Jian [National Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Environment (LEME), China Research Institute of Radio Wave Propagation, Beijing 102206 (China); Li, Hui [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); National Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Environment (LEME), China Research Institute of Radio Wave Propagation, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2016-08-15

    This study focuses on the transmission of normal-incidence electromagnetic waves in one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals. Using the Maxwell's equations in a medium, a method that is based on the concept of impendence is employed to perform the simulation. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by simulating a one-layer plasma and conventional photonic crystal. In frequency-domain, the transmission and reflection coefficients in the unmagnetized plasma photonic crystal were calculated, and the influence factors on plasma photonic crystals including dielectric constants of dielectric, spatial period, filling factor, plasma frequency, and collision frequency were studied.

  14. Frequency dependence of localization length of an electromagnetic wave in a one-dimensional system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradov, A.P.; Merzlikin, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that the existence in the high-frequency limit of the localization length of an electromagnetic wave in a randomly layered system requires the presence of an infinitely large number of layers with different incommensurable optical paths. Moreover, the measure of the layers with optical paths that are multiples of any real number should equal zero. The localization length in the high-frequency limit is determined by the mean value of the layer thickness and impedance distribution only. The scaling behavior L loc (k 0 )∼k 0 -2 is observed only if the mean value tends to zero (corresponding to a delta-correlated process)

  15. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by anomalous fluctuations of a magnetized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlenko, V. N.; Panchenko, V. G.

    1990-04-01

    Fluctuations and scattering of transverse electromagnetic waves by density fluctuations in a magnetized plasma in the presence of parametric decay of the pump wave are investigated. The spectral density of electron-density fluctuations is calculated. It is shown that the differential scattering cross-section has sharp maxima at the ion-acoustic and lower-hybrid frequencies when parametric decay of the lower-hybrid pump wave occurs. We note that scattering at the ion-acoustic frequency is dominant. When the pump-wave amplitude tends to the threshold strength of the electric field the scattering cross-section increases anomalously, i.e. there is critical opalescence.

  16. Model of the electromagnetic waves processing in ultrasound; Modelo de procesamiento de ondas electromagneticas en ultrasonido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrego L, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Azorin N, J. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Siles A, S. [CICATA, IPN, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Cruz O, A. [CINVESTAV, IPN, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    In this work, a model to process the electromagnetic waves in ultrasonic equipment is proposed and it is experimentally demonstrated that, the origin of the ultrasound is electronic and non mechanic. The above mentioned, it has been demonstrated when making in an electronic equipment a spectral analysis the one that indicated an unfolding of the original ultrasonic pulses of 17 K Hz., to 88 K Hz., and of 5 MHz., to 23 GHz. Also, it was obtained the degradation with ultrasound of particles of Hematite and of Galena, as well as the fading of the methylene blue and the generation of an electric current exciting with ultrasound. (Author)

  17. Monitoring dynamic reactions of red blood cells to UHF electromagnetic waves radiation using a novel micro-imaging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Ping; Yong, Junguang; Shen, Hongtao; Zheng, Xianrong

    2012-12-01

    Multiple state-of-the-art techniques, such as multi-dimensional micro-imaging, fast multi-channel micro-spetrophotometry, and dynamic micro-imaging analysis, were used to dynamically investigate various effects of cell under the 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation. Cell changes in shape, size, and parameters of Hb absorption spectrum under different power density electromagnetic waves radiation were presented in this article. Experimental results indicated that the isolated human red blood cells (RBCs) do not have obviously real-time responses to the ultra-low density (15 μW/cm(2), 31 μW/cm(2)) electromagnetic wave radiation when the radiation time is not more than 30 min; however, the cells do have significant reactions in shape, size, and the like, to the electromagnetic waves radiation with power densities of 1 mW/cm(2) and 5 mW/cm(2). The data also reveal the possible influences and statistical relationships among living human cell functions, radiation amount, and exposure time with high-frequency electromagnetic waves. The results of this study may be significant on protection of human being and other living organisms against possible radiation affections of the high-frequency electromagnetic waves.

  18. Reverse osmosis membrane of high urea rejection properties. [water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. C.; Wydeven, T. J. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Polymeric membranes suitable for use in reverse osmosis water purification because of their high urea and salt rejection properties are prepared by generating a plasma of an unsaturated hydrocarbon monomer and nitrogen gas from an electrical source. A polymeric membrane is formed by depositing a polymer of the unsaturated monomer from the plasma onto a substrate, so that nitrogen from the nitrogen gas is incorporated within the polymer in a chemically combined form.

  19. Instability of electromagnetic waves in a self-gravitating rotating magnetized dusty plasma with opposite polarity grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Nitin; Moslem, W. M.; Shukla, P. K.

    2007-01-01

    By using the two fluid and Maxwell equations, the properties of electromagnetic waves in a rotating positive-negative dusty magnetoplasmas are investigated. It is found that the cross-coupling between the equilibrium dust flows and the perturbed magnetic field produces a Lorentz force that separates positive and negative dust grains. A new dispersion relation is derived and analyzed numerically. The effects of the dust grain radius, the equilibrium streaming speed, Jeans frequency, and the rotational frequency on the behavior of the real and imaginary parts of the wave frequency are examined. It is found that for small dust grain radius, the growth rate (the real frequency) increases (decreases) with the increase of the streaming dust speed and Jeans frequency. However, the dust rotational frequency does not have an important role in this case. For large dust grain radius, only the imaginary part of the wave frequency is presented. It is found that the rotational frequency (Jeans frequency and dust streaming speed) decreases (increase) the growth rate

  20. Nonlinear self-precession and wavenumber shift of electromagnetic waves under resonance and of Alfven waves in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, B.; Chakraborty, B.

    1979-01-01

    Nonlinear corrections of a left and a right circularly polarized electromagnetic wave of the same frequency, propagating in the direction of a static and uniform magnetic field in a cold and collisionally damped two-component plasma, have been evaluated. The nonlinearly correct dispersion relation, self-generating nonlinear precessional rotation of the polarization ellipse of the wave and the shift in a wave parameter depend on linear combinations of products of the amplitude components taken two at a time and hence on the energies of the waves. Both in the low frequency resonance (that is when the ion cyclotron frequency equals the wave frequency) and in the high frequency resonance (that is when the electron cyclotron frequency equals the wave frequency), the self-precessional rate and wavenumber shift are found to be large and so have the possibility of detection in laboratory experiments. Moreover, for the limit leading to Alfven waves, these nonlinear effects have been found to have some interesting and significant properties. (Auth.)

  1. One-step leapfrog ADI-FDTD method for simulating electromagnetic wave propagation in general dispersive media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang-Hua; Yin, Wen-Yan; Chen, Zhi Zhang David

    2013-09-09

    The one-step leapfrog alternating-direction-implicit finite-difference time-domain (ADI-FDTD) method is reformulated for simulating general electrically dispersive media. It models material dispersive properties with equivalent polarization currents. These currents are then solved with the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) and then incorporated into the one-step leapfrog ADI-FDTD method. The final equations are presented in the form similar to that of the conventional FDTD method but with second-order perturbation. The adapted method is then applied to characterize (a) electromagnetic wave propagation in a rectangular waveguide loaded with a magnetized plasma slab, (b) transmission coefficient of a plane wave normally incident on a monolayer graphene sheet biased by a magnetostatic field, and (c) surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) propagation along a monolayer graphene sheet biased by an electrostatic field. The numerical results verify the stability, accuracy and computational efficiency of the proposed one-step leapfrog ADI-FDTD algorithm in comparison with analytical results and the results obtained with the other methods.

  2. Effect of Electromagnetic Waves Generated by Base Transiver Station on Liver Enzymes in Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam-Ali Jelodar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was investigating the effect of electromagnetic wave generated by mobile and base transceiver station (900 MHz on liver enzymes in both mature and immature female age.Materials and Methods: In this study, 20 rats Sprague Dawley white mature female age 8 to 9 weeks and weight 180 to 200 g and 20 rats immature age 3 to 4 weeks, weight 80 to 100 g, each age group were randomly divided in two groups (control and test. Test groups, were daily for four hours and four different times exposed to electromagnetic waves with signal generator (900 MHz, 5-meter intervals. Control groups were kept at equal condition (themperature and light in laboratory during experiment. After at the end experimental period, blood was collected by heart puncture of all animal. Exposure to EMF generated by BTS had significant effect on liver enzymes composition in mature and immature rats.Results: AST, ALT and ALP in immature-test groups decreased significantly compared with their respective control groups (p<0.05. ALP in mature-test groups increased significantly compared with their respective control groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: These result suggest that exposure to EMF generated by BTS has a deleterious effect on liver enzymes and that this effect is more sever in immature animals.

  3. Electron Bernstein wave excitation by counterpropagating electromagnetic waves in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Asheel; Tripathi, V.K.

    2005-01-01

    Two high-power counterpropagating electromagnetic waves (ω 1 ,k 1 x) and (ω 2 ,-k 2 x) in a low-density plasma in the presence of a static magnetic field B s z, drive an electron Bernstein wave at the beat frequency ω=ω 1 -ω 2 and k=(k 1 +k 2 )x, when ω∼ω c 1 ,ω 2 and kρ≥1, where ω c is the electron cyclotron frequency and ρ is the Larmor radius. The electromagnetic waves exert a ponderomotive force on the electrons and resonantly drive the Bernstein mode(ω,k). When the pump waves have finite z extent, the Bernstein wave has an effective k z and a component of group velocity in the direction of the magnetic field, leaking it out of the interaction region, limiting the level of the Bernstein mode. Plasma inhomogeneity also introduces convection losses. However, the electron Bernstein mode potential could still be significantly greater than the ponderomotive potential

  4. On the Feasibility of Gap Detection of Power Transformer Partial Discharge UHF Signals: Gap Propagation Characteristics of Electromagnetic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the transformer electromagnetic gap propagation characteristics. The influence of gap size is also analyzed, and the results experimentally verified. The obtained results indicated that the gap propagation characteristics of electromagnetic wave signals radiated by the partial discharge (PD source in different directions are substantially different. The intensity of the electromagnetic wave in the gap reaches a maximum at a gap height of 1 cm; and inside the gap, the intensity of the electromagnetic wave depicted an increasing trend at the tail area of the gap. Finally, from the obtained results, some suggestions on where to install sensors in practical systems for ultra high frequency (UHF PD signal detection in the transformer gap are provided. The obtained results confirmed the feasibility of using this approach. These results can be seen as a benchmark and a challenge for further research in this field.

  5. Probable Effects Of Exposure To Electromagnetic Waves Emitted From Video Display Terminals On Ocular Functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing body of evidence that usage of computers can adversely affect the visual health. Considering the rising number of computer users in Egypt, computer-related visual symptoms might take an epidemic form. In view of that, this study was undertaken to find out the magnitude of the visual problems in computer operators and its relationship with various personal and workplace factors. Aim: To evaluate the probable effects of exposure to electromagnetic waves radiated from visual display terminals on some visual functions. Subjects and Methods: hundred fifty computer operators working in different institutes were randomly selected. They were asked to fill a pre-tested questionnaire (written in Arabic), after obtaining their verbal consent. The selected exposed subjects were were subjected to the following clinical assessment: 1-Visual acuity measurements 2-Refraction (using autorefractometer). 3- Measurements of the ocular dryness defects using the following different diagnostic tests: Schirmer test-,Fluorescein staining , Rose Bengal staining, Tear Break Up Time (TBUT) and LIPCOF test (lid parallel conjunctival fold). A control group included hundred fifty participants, they are working in a field does not necessitate exposure to video display terminals. Inclusion criteria of the subjects were as follows: minimum three symptoms of computer vision syndrome (CVS), minimum one year exposure to (VDT, s) and minimum 6 hs/day in 5working days/week. Exclusion criteria included candidates having ocular pathology like: glaucoma, optic atrophy, diabetic retinopathy, papilledema The following complaints were studied: 1-Tired eyes. 2- Burning eyes with excessive tear production. 3-Dry sore eyes 4-Blurred near vision (letters on the screen run together). 5-Asthenopia. 6-Neck, shoulder and back aches, overall bodily fatigue or tiredness. An interventional protective measure for the selected subjects from the exposed group was administered, it included the following (1

  6. The Study of Electromagnetic Wave Propogation in Photonic Crystals Via Planewave Based Transfer (Scattering) Matrix Method with Active Gain Material Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LI, Ming [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In this dissertation, a set of numerical simulation tools are developed under previous work to efficiently and accurately study one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional(2D), 2D slab and three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal structures and their defects effects by means of spectrum (transmission, reflection, absorption), band structure (dispersion relation), and electric and/or magnetic fields distribution (mode profiles). Furthermore, the lasing property and spontaneous emission behaviors are studied when active gain materials are presented in the photonic crystal structures. Various physical properties such as resonant cavity quality factor, waveguide loss, propagation group velocity of electromagnetic wave and light-current curve (for lasing devices) can be obtained from the developed software package.

  7. Collision effects on propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves in a sub-wavelength plasma slab of partially ionized dense plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, LI; Zhibin, WANG; Qiuyue, NIE; Xiaogang, WANG; Fanrong, KONG; Zhenyu, WANG

    2018-01-01

    Intensive collisions between electrons and neutral particles in partially ionized plasmas generated in atmospheric/sub-atmospheric pressure environments can sufficiently affect the propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves, particularly in the sub-wavelength regime. To investigate the collisional effect in such plasmas, we introduce a simplified plasma slab model with a thickness on the order of the wavelength of the incident electromagnetic wave. The scattering matrix method (SMM) is applied to solve the wave equation in the plasma slab with significant nonuniformity. Results show that the collisions between the electrons and the neutral particles, as well as the incident angle and the plasma thickness, can disturb the transmission and reduce reflection significantly.

  8. Separation performance and interfacial properties of nanocomposite reverse osmosis membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Pendergast, MaryTheresa M.; Ghosh, Asim K.; Hoek, E.M.V.

    2013-01-01

    Four different types of nanocomposite reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were formed by interfacial polymerization of either polyamide (PA) or zeolite A-polyamide nanocomposite (ZA-PA) thin films over either pure polysulfone (PSf) or zeolite A-polysulfone nanocomposite (ZA-PSf) support membranes cast by wet phase inversion. All three nanocomposite membranes exhibited superior separation performance and interfacial properties relative to hand-cast TFC analogs including: (1) smoother, more hydrophilic surfaces (2) higher water permeability and salt rejection, and (3) improved resistance to physical compaction. Less compaction occurred for membranes with nanoparticles embedded in interfacially polymerized coating films, which adds further proof that flux decline associated with physical compaction is influenced by coating film properties in addition to support membrane properties. The new classes of nanocomposite membrane materials continue to offer promise of further improved RO membranes for use in desalination and advanced water purification. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Scattering of electromagnetic wave by the layer with one-dimensional random inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Lev; Zaboronkova, Tatiana; Grigoriev, Gennadii., IV.

    A great deal of attention has been paid to the study of probability characteristics of electro-magnetic waves scattered by one-dimensional fluctuations of medium dielectric permittivity. However, the problem of a determination of a density of a probability and average intensity of the field inside the stochastically inhomogeneous medium with arbitrary extension of fluc-tuations has not been considered yet. It is the purpose of the present report to find and to analyze the indicated functions for the plane electromagnetic wave scattered by the layer with one-dimensional fluctuations of permittivity. We assumed that the length and the amplitude of individual fluctuations as well the interval between them are random quantities. All of indi-cated fluctuation parameters are supposed as independent random values possessing Gaussian distribution. We considered the stationary time cases both small-scale and large-scale rarefied inhomogeneities. Mathematically such problem can be reduced to the solution of integral Fred-holm equation of second kind for Hertz potential (U). Using the decomposition of the field into the series of multiply scattered waves we obtained the expression for a probability density of the field of the plane wave and determined the moments of the scattered field. We have shown that all odd moments of the centered field (U-¡U¿) are equal to zero and the even moments depend on the intensity. It was obtained that the probability density of the field possesses the Gaussian distribution. The average field is small compared with the standard fluctuation of scattered field for all considered cases of inhomogeneities. The value of average intensity of the field is an order of a standard of fluctuations of field intensity and drops with increases the inhomogeneities length in the case of small-scale inhomogeneities. The behavior of average intensity is more complicated in the case of large-scale medium inhomogeneities. The value of average intensity is the

  10. Localized Measurement of Turbulent Fluctuations in Tokamaks with Coherent Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzucato, E.

    2002-01-01

    Localized measurements of short-scale turbulent fluctuations in tokamaks are still an outstanding problem. In this paper, the method of coherent scattering of electromagnetic waves for the detection of density fluctuations is revisited. Results indicate that the proper choice of frequency, size and launching of the probing wave can transform this method into an excellent technique for high-resolution measurements of those fluctuations that plasma theory indicates as the potential cause of anomalous transport in tokamaks. The best spatial resolution can be achieved when the range of scattering angles corresponding to the spectrum of fluctuations under investigation is small. This favors the use of high frequency probing waves, such as those of far infrared lasers. The application to existing large tokamaks is discussed

  11. Preparation of Reduced Graphene Oxide/MnO Composite and Its Electromagnetic Wave Absorption Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiangtao; Li, Kunzhen; Liu, Zhongfei; Jin, Shaowei; Li, Shikuo; Zhang, Hui

    2018-02-01

    The composite containing reduced graphene oxide and MnO nanoparticles (RGO/MnO) has been prepared via a one step pyrolysis method. The MnO nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed on the surface of RGO nanosheets forming MnO/RGO composite. The composite displays a maximum absorption of ‒38.9 dB at 13.5 GHz and the bandwidth of reflection loss corresponding to -10 dB can reach 4.9 GHz (from 11.5 to 16.4 GHz) with a coating layer thickness of only 2 mm. Therefore, the obtained RGO/MnO composite a perfect lightweight and high-performance electromagnetic wave absorbent.

  12. Sound absorption in a field of a strong electromagnetic wave in a quantizied magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chajkovskij, I.A.

    1974-01-01

    A coefficient of sound absorption GAMMA in a semiconductor and semi-metal in the quantized magnetic field is calculated for a system exposed to a field of strong electromagnetic radiation. The cases E parallel H and E orthogonal H are considered. Along with the already known strong oscillations of sound absorption in magnetic fields, the absorption spectrum GAMMAsub(par) and GAMMAsub(orth) shows new oscillations representing a manifestation of the quasi-energetic electron spectrum in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave. The oscillation height at E parallel H is modulated by the electromagnetic field. It is shown that the ratio GAMMAsub(par)/GAMMAsub(orth) allows the determination of the effective mass of the carriers

  13. Power absorption of high-frequency electromagnetic waves in a partially ionized magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Bin; Wang Xiaogang

    2005-01-01

    Power absorption of high-frequency electromagnetic waves in a uniformly magnetized plasma layer covering a highly conducting surface is studied under atmosphere conditions. It is assumed that the system consists of not only electrons and positive ions but negative ions as well. By a general formula derived in our previous work [B. Guo and X. G. Wang, Plasma Sci. Tech. 7, 2645 (2005)], the total power absorption in the plasma layer with multiple reflections between an air-plasma interface and the conducting surface is computed. The results show that although the existence of negative ions greatly reduces the total power absorption, the magnetization of the plasma can, however, partially enhance it. Parameter dependence of the effects is calculated and discussed

  14. Effect of electromagnetic waves and higher harmonics in capacitively coupled plasma phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, R R; Sawada, I; Ventzek, P L G; Raja, L L

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution self-consistent numerical simulation of electromagnetic wave phenomena in an axisymmetric capacitively coupled plasma reactor is reported. A prominent centre-peaked plasma density profile is observed for driving frequencies of 60 MHz and is consistent with observations in the literature and accompanying experimental studies. A power spectrum of the simulated wave electric field reveals the presence of well-resolved high frequency harmonic content up to the 20th harmonic of the excitation frequency; an observation that has also been reported in experiments. Importantly, the simulation results reveal that the occurrence of higher harmonics is strongly correlated with the occurrence of a centre-peaked plasma density profile. (fast track communication)

  15. Multiple bio-monitoring system using visible light for electromagnetic-wave free indoor healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jinyoung; Pham, Ngoc Quan; Chung, Wan-Young

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a multiple biomedical data transmission system with visible light communication (VLC) is proposed for an electromagnetic-wave-free indoor healthcare. VLC technology has emerged as an alternative solution to radio-frequency (RF) wireless systems, due to its various merits, e.g., ubiquity, power efficiency, no RF radiation, and security. With VLC, critical bio-medical signals, including electrocardiography (ECG), can be transmitted in places where RF radiation is restricted. This potential advantage of VLC could save more lives in emergency situations. A time hopping (TH) scheme is employed to transfer multiple medical-data streams in real time with a simple system design. Multiple data streams are transmitted using identical color LEDs and go into an optical detector. The received multiple data streams are demodulated and rearranged using a TH-based demodulator. The medical data is then monitored and managed to provide the necessary medical care for each patient.

  16. Excitation and absorption of electromagnetic waves in helicon discharges by plasma immersed antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.

    1998-01-01

    Excitation and absorption of electromagnetic waves are numerically studied for helicon discharges driven by antennas immersed in the plasma. The Maxwell equations are reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations, which are solved for radially inhomogeneous plasmas by using the shooting method. Numerical results show that the plasma resistance is much larger and its peaks due to eigenmode resonance appear at higher densities for the immersed antenna case than for the case of the antenna located outside the plasma under otherwise same conditions. It is also found that the m=-1 mode can be excited in the nonuniform plasma with an inner antenna, while it can be hardly excited when the plasma is driven by an outer antenna. In addition, the fast wave approximation neglecting the electron inertia is discussed. (author)

  17. Electromagnetic wave propagation in time-dependent media with antisymmetric magnetoelectric coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Shi-Rong; Zhang, Ruo-Yang; Ma, Yi-Rong; Jia, Wei; Zhao, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Time-dependent permittivity combined with antisymmetric magnetoelectric coupling will yield a novel linear birefringence. • Distinct dynamical behaviors of these two birefringent modes are analyzed. • As a new nonlinear optical effect, a scheme utilizing optical Kerr effect in moving media is proposed. - Abstract: This paper deals with electromagnetic wave propagation in time-dependent media with an antisymmetric magnetoelectric coupling and an isotropic time-dependent permittivity. We identify a new mechanism of linear birefringence, originated from the combined action of the time-dependent permittivity and the antisymmetric magnetoelectric coupling. Permittivity with linear and exponential temporal variations exemplifies the creation and control of these two distinct types of linear birefringent modes. As a novel nonlinear optical effect, a scheme utilizing optical Kerr effect in moving media is proposed for the realization of the predicted birefringence.

  18. Electromagnetic wave propagation in time-dependent media with antisymmetric magnetoelectric coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shi-Rong [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, Ruo-Yang [Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Ma, Yi-Rong; Jia, Wei [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhao, Qing, E-mail: qzhaoyuping@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-07-29

    Highlights: • Time-dependent permittivity combined with antisymmetric magnetoelectric coupling will yield a novel linear birefringence. • Distinct dynamical behaviors of these two birefringent modes are analyzed. • As a new nonlinear optical effect, a scheme utilizing optical Kerr effect in moving media is proposed. - Abstract: This paper deals with electromagnetic wave propagation in time-dependent media with an antisymmetric magnetoelectric coupling and an isotropic time-dependent permittivity. We identify a new mechanism of linear birefringence, originated from the combined action of the time-dependent permittivity and the antisymmetric magnetoelectric coupling. Permittivity with linear and exponential temporal variations exemplifies the creation and control of these two distinct types of linear birefringent modes. As a novel nonlinear optical effect, a scheme utilizing optical Kerr effect in moving media is proposed for the realization of the predicted birefringence.

  19. Dynamics of electrons in a parabolic magnetic field perturbed by an electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neishtadt, Anatoly; Vainchtein, Dmitri; Vasiliev, Alexei

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the resonance interaction between monochromatic electromagnetic waves and fully magnetized electrons in a model parabolic magnetic field (like, e.g., in the Earth's magnetotail). The smallness of certain physical parameters allows us to approach this problem using perturbation theory for multiscale (slow-fast) systems: the study of the global interaction is reduced to the analysis of slow passages of particles through a resonance. At the resonance, two important phenomena occur: capture into resonance and scattering on resonance. We show that while the primary adiabatic invariant (magnetic moment or Larmor radius) remains conserved, these processes result in destruction of the second, longitudinal, adiabatic invariant. We find significant acceleration of particles by capture into resonance, while the scatterings on resonances lead to decrease in energy and chaotization of particles.

  20. Potential damage to DC superconducting magnets due to the high frequency electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental data are presented in support of the hypothesis that a dc superconducting magnet coil does not behave strictly as an inductor, but as a complicated electrodynamic device capable of supporting electromagnetic waves. Travel times of nanosecond pulses and evidence of sinusoidal standing waves were observed on a prototype four-layer solenoidal coil at room temperature. Ringing observed during switching transients appears as a sequence of multiple reflected square pulses whose durations are related to the layer lengths. With sinusoidal excitation of the coil, the voltage amplitude between a pair of points on the coil exhibits maxima at those frequencies such that the distance between these points is an odd multiple of half wavelength in free space. Evidence indicates that any disturbance, such as that resulting from switching or sudden fault, initiates multiple reflections between layers, thus raising the possibility for sufficiently high voltages to cause breakdown.

  1. Quasiparticles in Raman scattering of an electromagnetic wave by an atomic condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il’ichev, L. V.

    2011-01-01

    Raman scattering of an intense electromagnetic wave by a free atomic Bose condensate is considered. In a system of atoms and photons, a subsystem is separated whose dynamics can be naturally described in terms of quasiparticles: quasi-atoms and quasi-photons. The dispersion laws of quasiparticles are interrupted by the instability interval. The introduction of quasiparticles within this interval is impossible, while dispersion laws that are continued formally acquire imaginary components. The dynamic scattering model is generalized by including dissipative annihilation processes of scattered photons and uncondensed atoms. A stationary solution of the corresponding quantum control equation is found, allowing the calculation of momentum distributions of real particles and quasiparticles. The outlook for the experimental detection of quasiparticles is discussed.

  2. Analogical scaffolding and the learning of abstract ideas in physics: An example from electromagnetic waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah D. Finkelstein

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a model of analogy, analogical scaffolding, which explains present and prior results of student learning with analogies. We build on prior models of representation, blending, and layering of ideas. Extending this model’s explanatory power, we propose ways in which the model can be applied to design a curriculum directed at teaching abstract ideas in physics using multiple, layered analogies. We report on a recent empirical study that motivates this model. Students taught about electromagnetic waves in a curriculum that builds on the model of analogical scaffolding posted substantially greater gains pre- to postinstruction than students taught using a more traditional (non-analogy-based tutorial (21% vs 7%.

  3. Generation of higher derivatives operators and electromagnetic wave propagation in a Lorentz-violation scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, L.H.C., E-mail: luizhenriqueunifei@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Av. dos Estados, 5001, Santo André, SP, 09210-580 (Brazil); Dias, A.G., E-mail: alex.dias@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Av. dos Estados, 5001, Santo André, SP, 09210-580 (Brazil); Ferrari, A.F., E-mail: alysson.ferrari@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Av. dos Estados, 5001, Santo André, SP, 09210-580 (Brazil); Nascimento, J.R., E-mail: jroberto@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, João Pessoa, Paraíba, 58051-970 (Brazil); Petrov, A.Yu., E-mail: petrov@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, João Pessoa, Paraíba, 58051-970 (Brazil)

    2016-05-10

    We study the perturbative generation of higher-derivative Lorentz violating operators as quantum corrections to the photon effective action, originated from a specific Lorentz violation background, which has already been studied in connection with the physics of light pseudoscalars. We calculate the complete one loop effective action of the photon field through the proper-time method, using the zeta function regularization. This result can be used as a starting point to study possible effects of the Lorentz violating background we are considering in photon physics. As an example, we focus on the lowest order corrections and investigate whether they could influence the propagation of electromagnetic waves through the vacuum. We show, however, that no effects of the kind of Lorentz violation we consider can be detected in such a context, so that other aspects of photon physics have to be studied.

  4. Self-modulation and filamentation of electromagnetic waves in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R.; Lashmore-Davies, C.N.

    1976-01-01

    Self-modulation and filamentation of an electromagnetic wave is considered as a problem of the non-linear interaction between electromagnetic and ion waves. A new electro-magnetic modulational instability is obtained, whose threshold is the same as that of the oscillating two-stream instability. A simple geometrical model is given of filamentation when the non-linearity is due to the ponderomotive force. The relationship between the filamentation and electromagnetic modulational instabilities and other parametric instabilities is considered. In particular, it is shown that both electromagnetic modulational and filamentation instabilities can occur at the critical density where they have the same threshold as the modulational instability of a Langmuir wave. Finally, a conservation relation (a generalization of the Manley-Rowe relation) for the wave action density is obtained for the filamentation instability. This shows clearly that this instability results from a four wave interaction. (author)

  5. Transition operators in electromagnetic-wave diffraction theory. II - Applications to optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahne, G. E.

    1993-01-01

    The theory developed by Hahne (1992) for the diffraction of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves from fixed obstacles is briefly summarized and extended. Applications of the theory are considered which comprise, first, a spherical harmonic expansion of the so-called radiation impedance operator in the theory, for a spherical surface, and second, a reconsideration of familiar short-wavelength approximation from the new standpoint, including a derivation of the so-called physical optics method on the basis of quasi-planar approximation to the radiation impedance operator, augmented by the method of stationary phase. The latter includes a rederivation of the geometrical optics approximation for the complete Green's function for the electromagnetic field in the presence of a smooth- and a convex-surfaced perfectly electrically conductive obstacle.

  6. FD_BH: a program for simulating electromagnetic waves from a borehole antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2002-01-01

    Program FD_BH is used to simulate the electromagnetic waves generated by an antenna in a borehole. The model representing the antenna may include metallic parts, a coaxial cable as a feed to the driving point, and resistive loading. The program is written in the C programming language, and the program has been tested on both the Windows and the UNIX operating systems. This Open-File Report describes • The contents and organization of the Zip file (section 2). • The program files, the installation of the program, the input files, and the execution of the program (section 3). • Address to which suggestions for improving the program may be sent (section 4).

  7. Propagation of electromagnetic waves parallel to the magnetic field in the nightside Venus ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huba, J. D.; Rowland, H. L.

    1993-01-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves parallel to the magnetic field in the nightside Venus ionosphere is presented in a theoretical and numerical analysis. The model assumes a source of electromagnetic radiation in the Venus atmosphere, such as that produced by lightning. Specifically addressed is wave propagation in the altitude range z = 130-160 km at the four frequencies detectable by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Electric Field Detector: 100 Hz, 730 Hz, 5.4 kHz, and 30 kHz. Parameterizations of the wave intensities, peak electron density, and Poynting flux as a function of magnetic field are presented. The waves are found to propagate most easily in conditions of low electron density and high magnetic field. The results of the model are consistent with observational data.

  8. Adiabatic description of capture into resonance and surfatron acceleration of charged particles by electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A V; Neishtadt, A I; Zelenyi, L M; Vainchtein, D L

    2010-12-01

    We present an analytical and numerical study of the surfatron acceleration of nonrelativistic charged particles by electromagnetic waves. The acceleration is caused by capture of particles into resonance with one of the waves. We investigate capture for systems with one or two waves and provide conditions under which the obtained results can be applied to systems with more than two waves. In the case of a single wave, the once captured particles never leave the resonance and their velocity grows linearly with time. However, if there are two waves in the system, the upper bound of the energy gain may exist and we find the analytical value of that bound. We discuss several generalizations including the relativistic limit, different wave amplitudes, and a wide range of the waves' wavenumbers. The obtained results are used for qualitative description of some phenomena observed in the Earth's magnetosphere. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Analysis of Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves in Atmospheric Hydrometeors on Low-Elevation Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grabner

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Attenuation of electromagnetic waves in millimeter wave bands is analyzed by means of experimental measurement of received signal fluctuations on terrestrial radio links operating in frequency bands 58, 94 and 122 GHz. Long-term time series of the received signal are processed to obtain annual and two-year cumulative distributions of attenuation due to hydrometeors. The measured statistics give the attenuation higher than predicted by the model of the Recommendation ITU-R P.530. Rain intensity measured simultaneously with rain attenuation is used to obtain fitted parameters of an attenuation/intensity power-law relationship. The empirical data extracted from the experiment are compared with the results of numerical simulations of attenuation due to rain and hailstones.

  10. Bursty, Broadband Electromagnetic Waves Associated with Three-Dimensional Nulls Observed in Turbulent Magnetosheath Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Mark L.; Wendel, D. E.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate observations of intense bursts of electromagnetic wave energy in association with the thin current layers of turbulent magnetosheath reconnection. These observed emissions - typically detected in the layers immediately outside of the current layer proper - form two distinct types: (i) broadband emissions that extend continuously to lOs of Hertz; and (ii) structured bursts of emitted energy that occur above 80-Hz, often displaying features reminiscent of absorption bands and are observed near the local minima in the magnetic field. We present detailed analyses of these intense bursts of electromagnetic energy and quantify their proximity to X-IO-nulls and magnetic spine connected null pairs, as well as their correlation - if any - to the amount of magnetic energy converted by the process of magnetic reconnection.

  11. ASYMPTOTICAL CALCULATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES SCATTERED FROM A DIELECTRIC COATED CYLINDRICAL SURFACE WITH PHYSICAL OPTICS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur YALÇIN

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, quasi-optical scattering of finite source electromagnetic waves from a dielectric coated cylindrical surface is analysed with Physical Optics (PO approach. A linear electrical current source is chosen as the finite source. Reflection coefficient of the cylindrical surface is derived by using Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD. Then, with the help of this coefficient, fields scattered from the surface are obtained. These field expressions are used in PO approach and surface scattering integral is determined. Evaluating this integral asymptotically, fields reflected from the surface and surface divergence coefficient are calculated. Finally, results obtained in this study are evaluated numerically and effects of the surface impedance to scattered fields are analysed. The time factor is taken as j te? in this study.

  12. The theory of electromagnetic wave scattering by density fluctuations in nonequilibrium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlenko, V.N.; Panchenko, V.G.

    1993-01-01

    Scattering of electromagnetic waves by density fluctuations in a magnetized plasma in the presence of the external pump field is investigated. The spectral density of electron density fluctuations is calculated. The pump wave is supposed to decay into a lower hybrid wave and low frequency oscillations (ion-acoustic wave, modified convective cell and ion-cyclotron wave with ion-temperature anisotropy). When the pump wave amplitude tends to the threshold strength of the electric field, the scattering cross section increases anomalously, i.e. there is the critical opalescence. The differential scattering cross section dependence on the pump amplitude and ion temperature anisotropy is obtained in the region above the parametric instability threshold. For characteristic parameters of fusion and space plasmas it is shown that the pump field terms considerably surmount the thermal noise contribution to the scattering cross section

  13. PECULIARITIES OF THE EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES OF THE VISIBLE RANGE ON LIVING ORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Gulyar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Our experimental studies and a set of the published data allow one to conclude that animals and humans can perceive visible light not only with mediation of the visual sensory system, but also due to the existence of specific extraocular photoreceptors. In the latter system, we can classify three separate stable levels of interaction with exogeneous electromagnetic waves (EMW of the visible range. The first, most simple level is the cellular level (cells possessing sensor proteins reactable to EMW. The next, higher level is based on interaction of EVW with specialized electromagnetoreceptors; acupuncture points and meridians providing the maintenance of electromagnetic homeostasis of the organism cam be considered such a receptor system. Finally, the most complex level involves specialized sensory pathways and central brain structures controlling general homeostasis of the organism with mediation of the processes of metabolism.

  14. Non linear dynamic of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guede, Jose Ricardo Abalde

    1995-11-01

    The aim of this work is to study the nonlinear dynamics of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas. Firstly, the generalized Zakharov equations are derived which are used to study the hybrid parametric instability involving the generation of daughter Langmuir, electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves induced by two counter-propagating Langmuir pump waves with different amplitudes based on a coupled dispersion relation. Secondly, starting from the generalized Zakharov equations the linear and nonlinear coupled mode theories of three-wave and four-wave parametric interactions are developed, respectively. In three-waves processes, a Langmuir wave decays into another Langmuir wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electrostatic parametric decay) or into an electromagnetic wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electromagnetic parametric decay). In four-wave (modulational) processes, the interaction involves two wave triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplet the coupling of a pump wave with a low-frequency wave generate an anti-Stokes wave. These modulational processes are convective and resonant processes wherein the low-frequency modes are Eigenmodes of plasma and are known as the stimulated modulational processes. Four such processes are investigated in this thesis: two with Langmuir pump waves (electrostatic and hybrid stimulated modulation processes) and the other two with electromagnetic pump waves (stimulated modulation Brillouin scattering and electromagnetic stimulated modulation process). Applications of the theoretical results in space plasmas are discussed. In particular, it is shown that the electrostatic and electromagnetic parametric decay processes of Langmuir waves can model the generation and modulation of radio emissions and Langmuir waves in the

  15. Transient analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions on high-contrast scatterers using volume electric field integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin; Ulku, Huseyin Arda; Bagci, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    A marching on-in-time (MOT)-based time domain volume electric field integral equation (TD-VEFIE) solver is proposed for accurate and stable analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions on high-contrast scatterers. The stability is achieved using

  16. Landau Quasi-energy Spectrum Destruction for an Electron in Both a Static Magnetic Field and a Resonant Electromagnetic Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoblin, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    Free nonrelativistic electrons in both a static magnetic field and an electromagnetic wave are considered. A plane-polarized wave propagates along a magnetic field, its frequency is close to the electron rotation frequency in a magnetic field. Electron spin is taken into account. An electron quasi energy spectrum and steady states (quasi energy states) are constructed. 6 refs

  17. Uniqueness and existence result around lax-milgram lemma: application to electromagnetic waves propagation in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebelin, E.; Peysson, Y.; Litaudon, X.; Moreau, D.

    1997-09-01

    In the context of complex Hilbert spaces is proved, around Lax-Milgram lemma, the existence and uniqueness of solutions associated to a class of stationary variational problems. This result is applied to the study of variational problems from the propagation equation of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves in confined tokamak plasmas. (author)

  18. Uniqueness and existence result around lax-milgram lemma: application to electromagnetic waves propagation in tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebelin, E.; Peysson, Y.; Litaudon, X.; Moreau, D. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Miellou, J.C. [Besancon Univ., 25 (France). Laboratoire d`Analyse Numerique; Lafitte, O. [CEA Limeil, 94 - Villeneuve-Saint-Georges (France)

    1997-09-01

    In the context of complex Hilbert spaces is proved, around Lax-Milgram lemma, the existence and uniqueness of solutions associated to a class of stationary variational problems. This result is applied to the study of variational problems from the propagation equation of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves in confined tokamak plasmas. (author) 21 refs.

  19. MECHANISMS OF PRIMARY RECEPTION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES OF OPTICAL RANGE AS A BIOPHYSICAL BASIS OF POLARIZED LIGHT THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Hulyar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An existence of separate functional system of electromagnetic balance regulation has been substantiated and a working conception of light puncture has been formulated. As a basis, there is a possibility to use the acupuncture points for input of biologically necessary electromagnetic waves into the system of their conductors in a body that might be considered as a transport facility for energy ofthe polarized electromagnetic waves. Zones-recipients are organs having an electromagnetic disbalance due to excess of biologically inadequate radiation and being the targets for peroxide oxidation, foremost, a body has the neurohormonal and immune regulatory systems. Electromagnetic stimulation or modification of functions of the zones-recipients determines achievement of therapeutic and useful effects, and their combination with local reparative processes allows attaining a clinical goal. We represent own and literary experimental data about development of physiological responses (analgesia, bronchospasm control, immune stimulation and inhibition of peroxide oxidation of lipids to BIOPTRON-light exposure on the acupuncture points or biologically active zones. We show the experimental facts in support of a hypothesis that a living organism can perceive an action of the electromagnetic waves of optical range not only via the visual system, but also through the off-nerve receptors (specific energy-sensitive proteins detecting critical changes of energy in cells and functioning as the "sensory" cell systems, as well as via the acupuncture points. This confirms an important role of the electromagnetic waves of optical range in providing normal vital functions of living organisms. A current approach to BIOPTRON light therapy consists in combined (local and system exposure of the electromagnetic waves within the biologically necessary range.

  20. Investigation on broadband propagation characteristic of terahertz electromagnetic wave in anisotropic magnetized plasma in frequency and time domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Yuan; Han, Yiping, E-mail: yphan@xidian.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China); Ai, Xia [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Test physics and Numerical Mathematical, Beijing 100076 (China); Liu, Xiuxiang [Science and Technology on Space Physics Laboratory, Beijing 100076 (China)

    2014-12-15

    In this paper, we investigate the propagation of terahertz (THz) electromagnetic wave in an anisotropic magnetized plasma by JE convolution-finite difference time domain method. The anisotropic characteristic of the plasma, which leads to right-hand circularly polarized (RCP) and right-hand circularly polarized (LCP) waves, has been taken into account. The interaction between electromagnetic waves and magnetized plasma is illustrated by reflection and transmission coefficients for both RCP and LCP THz waves. The effects of both the magnetized plasma thickness and the external magnetized field are analyzed and numerical results demonstrate that the two factors could influence the THz wave greatly. It is worthy to note that besides the reflection and transmission coefficients in the frequency domain, the waveform of the electric field in the time domain varying with thicknesses and external magnetic fields for different polarized direction has been studied.

  1. Three-dimensional ray tracing of electrostatic cyclotron harmonic waves and Z mode electromagnetic waves in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, K.; Yamaashi, K.; Kimura, I.; Kyoto Univ., Japan)

    1987-01-01

    Three-dimensional ray tracing is performed for electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves and Z mode electromagnetic waves in the earth's magnetosphere using the hot dispersion relation. Propagation characteristics of cyclotron harmonic waves under the electrostatic approximation are considered, and it is noted that waves starting near the equator can propagate over a long distance without damping. Ray tracing without the electrostatic approximation confirms mode conversion from cyclotron harmonic waves to Z mode electromagnetic waves, and the conditions for the conversion are clarified. It is suggested that further conversion to the L-O mode continuum radiation is possible under strict constraints. The present results are not inconsistent with the conversion mechanism for the generation of escaping continuum radiation in the magnetosphere. 20 references

  2. Effect Of Electromagnetic Waves Emitted From Mobile Phone On Brain Stem Auditory Evoked Potential In Adult Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K

    2015-01-01

    Mobile phone (MP) is commonly used communication tool. Electromagnetic waves (EMWs) emitted from MP may have potential health hazards. So, it was planned to study the effect of electromagnetic waves (EMWs) emitted from the mobile phone on brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) in male subjects in the age group of 20-40 years. BAEPs were recorded using standard method of 10-20 system of electrode placement and sound click stimuli of specified intensity, duration and frequency.Right ear was exposed to EMW emitted from MP for about 10 min. On comparison of before and after exposure to MP in right ear (found to be dominating ear), there was significant increase in latency of II, III (p potential.

  3. The interaction of an electromagnetic wave with an inhomogeneous plasma slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacina, J.; Preinhaelter, J.

    1982-07-01

    In connection with the problem of plasma heating by high-frequency waves a numerical code was developed which makes it possible to study the incidence of an electromagnetic wave on an inhomogeneous plasma slab. Using a one-dimensional model, non-magnetized plasma is described by means of two-fluid equations with finite electron pressure and with the adiabatic condition for all processes. It is shown that at normal incidence of a wave on a cold plasma, the wave is reflected from the region of plasma resonance. A standing wave arises which generates an electrostatic standing wave of a double frequency. At the same time the density gradient sharply rises in this region. In a warm plasma the incident wave again creates a standing wave but nonlinear perturbations propagate from the region of plasma resonance at ion acoustic velocity to the whole plasma volume. In this case the density gradient does not change very much. In the region of plasma resonance ion acoustic waves are also generated. (author)

  4. Modified Clemmow-Mullaly-Allis diagram for large-amplitude electromagnetic waves in magnetoplasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, K.; Mori, Y.; Takeda, S.

    1975-02-01

    A possible modification to the well known Clemmow- Mullaly-Allis diagram is analysed taking into account the radiation pressure force due to a large-amplitude electromagnetic field E in magnetoplasmas. We restrict ourselves here to the propagations parallel (the right and left-hand circularly polarized waves) and/or perpendicular (the ordinary and extraordinary modes) to the static magnetic field Bsub(o). We analyse electromagnetic waves incident normally on a semi-infinite uniform plasma, on which Bsub(o) is applied parallel and/or perpendicular to the surface. Considerations are limited to a cold collisionless plasma where the incident waves are evanescent. Simple expressions are obtained for the cut-off conditions of the waves except the extraordinary mode. In the latter case, the cut-off condition is calculated numerically solving an integral equation. The results are demonstrated in the usual Clemmow-Mullaly-Allis diagram for the various values of b=2Esub(i) 2 e 2 /mω 2 kappaTsub(e') where Esub(i) and ω are, respectively, the amplitude and the angular frequency of the incident wave. The cut-off lines are shown to move towards the higher densities with increasing b. (auth.)

  5. Study on ultrastructural changes in thyroid gland of rats exposed to pulsed electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaoguang; Zeng Guiying; Ren Dongqing; Fang Henghu; Su Xiaoming; Huang Xiaofeng

    2006-01-01

    The work is to observe effects of PEMW (pulse electromagnetic wave) exposure on function and morphology of thyroid gland of rats. At different time points (24, 48, 96 and 192 h) after exposure to PEMW (E=115 kV m -1 , 12000 pulses), radioimmunoassay was performed to observe the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T 4 ) and triiodo- thyronine (T 3 ) in sera of the male Sparague-Dawley rats. Optic microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to observe structural changes of the thyroid gland at the time points. The T 3 , T 4 and TSH in sera increased significantly, reaching a peak at 24 h and decreasing gradually then. Although no obvious changes in the thyroid gland were observed under the optic microscope, some ultrastructural changes in the thyroid gland were found under the TEM. The ultrastructures were obviously changed at 12 h and aggravated until 48 h. In the experimented rats, dilatated endoplasmic reticulum gathered with lots of protein excretion, lipid droplet and heterochromatin gathered under the nucleus membranes were observed in follicular epithelial cells. These changes were palliated at 96 h but not recovered. PEMW can affect levels of hormones in sera and the hazard ultrastructural changes of thyroid gland. Endoplasmic reticulum is the main injured organelle. (authors)

  6. Controlling runaway vortex via externally injected high-frequency electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zehua; McDevitt, Chris; Tang, Xianzhu

    2017-10-01

    One way of mitigating runaway damage of the plasma-facing components in a tokamak fusion reactor is by limiting the runaway electron energy under a few MeV, while not necessarily reducing the runaway current appreciably. Here we describe a physics mechanism by which such momentum space engineering of the runaway distribution can be facilitated by externally injected high-frequency electromagnetic waves such as the whistler waves. The drastic impact that wave-induced scattering can have on the runaway energy distribution is fundamentally the result of its ability to control the runaway vortex in the momentum space. The runaway vortex, which is a local circulation of runaways in momentum space, is the outcome of the competition between Coulomb collisions, synchrotron radiation damping, and runaway acceleration by parallel electric field. By introducing a wave that resonantly interacts with runaways at a particular range of energy that is mildly relativistic, the enhanced scattering would reshape the vortex by cutting off the part that is highly relativistic. The efficiency of resonant scattering accentuates the requirement that the wave amplitude can be small so the power requirement from external wave injection is practical for the mitigation scheme.

  7. Electromagnetic waves in irregular multilayered spheroidal structures of finite conductivity: full wave solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahar, E.

    1976-01-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves excited by electric dipoles oriented along the axis of multilayered spheroidal structures of finite conductivity is investigated. The electromagnetic parameters and the thickness of the layers of the structure are assumed to be functions of the latitude. In the analysis, electric and magnetic field transforms that constitute a discrete and a continuous spectrum of spherical waves are used to provide a suitable basis for the expansion of the electromagnetic fields at any point in the irregular spheroidal structure. For spheroidal structures with good conducting cores, the terms in the solutions associated with the continuous part of the wave spectrum vanish. In general, however, when the skin depth for the core is large compared to its dimensions or when the sources are located in the core of the structure and propagation in the core is of special interest, the contribution from the continuous part of the wave spectrum cannot be neglected. At each interface between the layers of the irregular spheroidal structure, exact boundary conditions are imposed. Since the terms of the field expansions in the irregular structure do not individually satisfy the boundary conditions, Maxwell's equations are reduced to sets of coupled ordinary first-order differential equations for the wave amplitudes. The solutions are shown to satisfy the reciprocity relationships in electromagnetic theory. The analysis may be applied to problems of radio wave propagation in a nonuniform model of the earth-ionosphere waveguide, particularly when focusing effects at the antipodes are important

  8. Transmission and total reflection of subhertz electromagnetic waves at the earth-atmosphere interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiozawa, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    For the purpose of providing for a theoretical background for the study of electromagnetic fields generated by precursory effects of earthquakes, the problem of transmission and total reflection at the earth-atmosphere interface is investigated in detail for a subhertz plane electromagnetic wave incident from the earth's crust. The term ''subhertz'' means 'below 1 Hz'. First, for the special case of normal incidence, the overall power transmission coefficient at the earth-atmosphere interface is found to take a maximum value at a definite frequency f 0 which is inversely proportional to the square of the depth of a virtual hypocenter. A typical value of f 0 falls around 0.01 Hz. For oblique incidence as well, this feature of the overall power transmission coefficient is retained except in the vicinity of the critical angle of incidence for the H-wave. At the critical angle of incidence, the power flow carried by a surface wave along the interface becomes anomalously large for the H-wave. However, over a wide range of angles of incidence greater than the critical angle, the power flow carried by the E-wave exceeds that carried by the H-wave by orders of magnitude. Finally, the energy conservation relations for the incident, reflected, and transmitted waves at the earth-atmosphere interface are discussed. For an incident wave coming from the earth's crust, the interactive power between the incident and reflected waves plays a crucial role for the conservation of energy at the interface.

  9. Evidence of L-mode electromagnetic wave pumping of ionospheric plasma near geomagnetic zenith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. B. Leyser

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The response of ionospheric plasma to pumping by powerful HF (high frequency electromagnetic waves transmitted from the ground into the ionosphere is the strongest in the direction of geomagnetic zenith. We present experimental results from transmitting a left-handed circularly polarized HF beam from the EISCAT (European Incoherent SCATter association Heating facility in magnetic zenith. The CASSIOPE (CAScade, Smallsat and IOnospheric Polar Explorer spacecraft in the topside ionosphere above the F-region density peak detected transionospheric pump radiation, although the pump frequency was below the maximum ionospheric plasma frequency. The pump wave is deduced to arrive at CASSIOPE through L-mode propagation and associated double (O to Z, Z to O conversion in pump-induced radio windows. L-mode propagation allows the pump wave to reach higher plasma densities and higher ionospheric altitudes than O-mode propagation so that a pump wave in the L-mode can facilitate excitation of upper hybrid phenomena localized in density depletions in a larger altitude range. L-mode propagation is therefore suggested to be important in explaining the magnetic zenith effect.

  10. Study of a condition for the mode conversion from purely perpendicular electrostatic waves to electromagnetic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalaee, Mohammad Javad, E-mail: mjkalaee@ut.ac.ir [Space Physics Group, Institute of Geophysics, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Katoh, Yuto, E-mail: yuto@stpp.gp.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Geophysics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University (Japan)

    2016-07-15

    One of the mechanisms for generating electromagnetic plasma waves (Z-mode and LO-mode) is mode conversion from electrostatic waves into electromagnetic waves in inhomogeneous plasma. Herein, we study a condition required for mode conversion of electrostatic waves propagating purely perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, by numerically solving the full dispersion relation. An approximate model is derived describing the coupling between electrostatic waves (hot plasma Bernstein mode) and Z-mode waves at the upper hybrid frequency. The model is used to study conditions required for mode conversion from electrostatic waves (electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves, including Bernstein mode) into electromagnetic plasma waves (LO-mode). It is shown that for mode conversion to occur in inhomogeneous plasma, the angle between the boundary surface and the magnetic field vector should be within a specific range. The range of the angle depends on the norm of the k vector of waves at the site of mode conversion in the inhomogeneous region. The present study reveals that inhomogeneity alone is not a sufficient condition for mode conversion from electrostatic waves to electromagnetic plasma waves and that the angle between the magnetic field and the density gradient plays an important role in the conversion process.

  11. Growth Retardation of Chick Embryo Exposed to a Low Dose of Electromagnetic Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, N.; Norrish, M.; Heming, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to explore the effects of low dose of the non-ionizing (REW) emitted by a mobile phone on the development of chick embryo. Methods: one hundred and twenty chick fertilized eggs were equally divided into a control and an exposed group. Sixty fertilized eggs were placed in an egg incubator with a mobile phone (SAR US: 1.10W/kg (head) 0.47 W/kg body) in silent mode having vibration disable mode. Mobile was called for a total of 20 minutes in 24 hours. Twenty embryos each were sacrificed at day 5, 10 and 15, mortality, wet body weight, head to rump length, eye diameter and morphological changes were noted. The control group, 60 eggs were incubated in the same conditions, having removed the phone. Results: No mortality was noted. The experimental group exposed to REW showed subcutaneous haemorrhagic areas and significant growth retardation at day 10 as evidence by smaller eye diameter, wet weight and CR length than the control group. There were no significant growth differences at either day 5 or at day 15. Conclusion: Electromagnetic waves emitted from mobile phones even though for a very short duration of 20 minutes per day have affected the growth of the chick embryo at day 10 of incubation, Hence exposure of these waves are not 100 percent safe. (author)

  12. Frequency downshifting and trapping of an electromagnetic wave by a rapidly created spatially periodic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faith, J.; Kuo, S.P.; Huang, J.

    1997-01-01

    Experimental and numerical results of the interaction of electromagnetic waves with rapidly time varying spatially periodic plasmas are presented. It is shown that a number of Floquet modes, each with their own oscillation frequency, are created during the interaction. Included among these modes are downshifted waves which will not exist in the single slab case, and also waves with a larger upshifted frequency than one can obtain with a single plasma layer of the same density. In addition, the periodic structure is characterized by pass and stop bands that are different from those of a single plasma layer, and the frequencies of the downshifted modes falling in the stop band of a single plasma layer. Therefore these waves are trapped within the plasma structure until the plasma decays away. To show this phenomenon a chamber experiment is conducted, with the periodic plasma being produced by a capacitive discharge. The power spectrum recorded for waves interacting with the plasma shows vastly improved efficiency in the downshift mechanism, which the numerical calculations suggest is related to the trapping of the wave within the plasma. Reproducible results are recorded which are found to agree well with the numerical simulation. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  13. Growth Retardation Of Chick Embryo Exposed To A Low Dose Of Electromagnetic Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Najam; John C, Muthusami; Norrish, Mark; Heming, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the effects of low dose of the nonionizing (REW) emitted by a mobile phone on the development of chick embryo. one hundred and twenty chick fertilized eggs were equally divided into a control and an exposed group. Sixty fertilized eggs were placed in an egg incubator with a mobile phone (SAR US: 1.10W/kg (head) 0.47 W/kg body) in silent mode having vibration disable mode. Mobile was called for a total of 20 minutes in 24 hours. Twenty embryos each were sacrificed at day 5, 10 and 15, mortality, wet body weight, head to rump length, eye diameter and morphological changes were noted. The control group, 60 eggs were incubated in the same conditions, having removed the phone. No mortality was noted. The experimental group exposed to REW showed subcutaneous haemorrhagic areas and significant growth retardation at day 10 as evidence by smaller eye diameter, wet weight and CR length than the control group. There were no significant growth differences at either day 5 or at day 15. Electromagnetic waves emitted from mobile phones even though for a very short duration of 20 minutes per day have affected the growth of the chick embryo at day 10 of incubation, Hence exposure of these waves are not 100% safe.

  14. Electromagnetic waves with frequencies near the local proton gyrofrequency: ISEE-3 1 AU observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Arballo, John K.; Mok, John; Smith, Edward J.; Mason, Glenn M.; Tan, Lun C.

    1994-01-01

    Low Frequency (LF) electromagnetic waves with periods near the local proton gyrofrequency have been detected in interplanetary space by the magnetometer onboard International-Sun-Earth-Explorer-3 (ISEE-3). Transverse peak-to-peak amplitudes as large as delta vector B/absolute value of B approximately 0.4 have been noted with compressional components (Delta absolute value of B/absolute value of B) typically less than or = 0.1. Generally, the waves have even smaller amplitudes, or are not detectable within the solar wind turbulence. The waves are elliptically/linearly polarized and are often, but not always, found to propagate nearly along vector B(sub zero). Both right- and left-hand polarizations in the spacecraft-frame have been detected. The waves are observed during all orientations of the interplanetary magnetic field, with the Parker spiral orientation being the most common case. Because the waves are detected at and near the local proton cyclotron frequency, the generation mechanism must almost certainly be solar wind pickup of freshly created hydrogen ions. Possible sources for the hydrogen are the Earth's atmosphere, coronal mass ejections from the Sun, comets and interstellar neutral atoms. At this time it is not obvious which potential source is the correct one. Statistical tests employing over one year of ISEE-3 data will be done in the near future to eliminate/confirm some of these possibilities.

  15. Generation of electromagnetic waves and Alfven waves during coalescence of magnetic islands in pair plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, J.I.; Haruki, T.; Kazimura, Y.

    2000-01-01

    It is shown by using a 2-D fully relativistic electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) code that the tearing instability in a current sheet of pair plasmas is caused by Landau resonances of both electrons and positrons. Strong magnetic flux can be generated during coalescence of magnetic islands in the nonlinear phase of the tearing instability. The magnetic flux produced in an O-type magnetic island is caused from the counter-streaming instability found by Kazimura et al. (1998). It is also shown that charge separation with a quadrupole-like structure is generated from the localized strong magnetic flux. During the decay of the quadrupole-like charge structure as well as the magnetic flux, there appear wave emission with high-frequency electromagnetic waves and Alfven waves as well as Langmuir waves. We also show by using a 3-D PIC code that current filaments associated with the O-type magnetic islands become unstable against the kink instability during the coalescence of current filaments. (orig.)

  16. Nonstationary self-action of electromagnetic wave beams in the beat accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramyan, L.A.; Litvak, A.G.; Mironov, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    The resonance excitation of a plasma wave in a modified accelerator using the beats of two electromagnetic waves permits to increase considerably the intensity of the accelerating field and, consequently, the rate of the accumulation of the energy by charged particles. The efficiency of the electromagnetic radiation conversion to the longitudinal wave is defined by nonlinear processes. The saturation of the accelerating field is considered which is due to the appearance of multiflux motion of electrons oscillating in the wave field with overturn of waves, due to the development of parametric instabilities and due to the change of natural frequency of plasma oscillations caused by the relativistic increase of electron mass. The effects of self-action which change the form of the electromagnetic radiation pulse and the wave beam structure play a significant role in the most promising laser plasma beat accelerator. We consider dynamics of space distribution of the plasma wave in a self-consistent field of the wave beam. (author) 5 refs., 2 figs

  17. Collective scattering of electromagnetic waves and cross-B plasma diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gresillon, D.; Cabrit, B.; Truc, A.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetized plasmas occuring in nature as well as in fusion laboratories are oftenly irregularly shaked by magnetic field fluctuations. The so-called ''coherent scattering'' of electromagnetic wave from nonuniform, irregularly moving plasmas is investigated in the case where the scattering wavelength is large compared to the Debye length, but of the order of the irregularities correlation length. The scattered signal frequency spectrum is shown to be a transform of the plasma motion statistical characteristics. When the scattering wavelength is larger than the plasma motion correlation length, the frequency spectrum is shown to be of a lorentzian shape, with a frequency width that provides a direct measurement of the cross-B particle diffusion coefficient. This is illustrated by two series of recently obtained experimental results: radar coherent backscattering observations of the auroral plasma, and far infrared scattering from tokamak fusion plasma. Radar coherent backscattering shows the transition from Gauss to Lorentz scattered frequency spectra. In infrared Laser coherent scattering experiments from the Tore-Supra tokamak, a particular frequency line is observed to present a Lorentzian shape, that directly provides an electron cross-field diffusion coefficient. This diffusion coefficient agrees with the electron heat conductivity coefficient that is obtained from the observation of temperature profiles and energy balance. (Author)

  18. Electrosmog. Effects of high-frequency electromagnetic waves on health. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthes, R.

    1993-01-01

    1) The concept of Electrosmog concerns technically electromagnetic waves and fields of variable frequency and intensity. In our environment, high frequency fields come almost entirely from man-made sources. 2) High frequency electromagnetic fields can cause physical effects either directly or indirectly - eg through conductive materials. Thermal effects are the most prominent. The action of force mediated by the field can cause the loadig of there electric charges in the body. 3) The amount of energy absorbed by a fabric can be calculated from the intensity of the yield and the conductivity of the material. 4) In-vitro studies have suggested that high frequency fields affect the cell membranes and can cause changes in their permeability, enzyme activity and immune responses; although there are no proven results blaming high frequency fields for such mutations, and effects on cell proliferation have not been ascertained. 5) A basic limit of O-4 W/kg has been set internationally for work-related exposure, according to public health considerations, and the limit for the general public is 0.08 W/kg. 6) These basic limits are generally kept as a minimum requirement, and generally exposure is a hot lower. When high frequency equipment is in use nearby, measures must be taken to ensure that sefety limits are upheld and injury avoided, to the eyes in particular. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Radiation from a Relativistic Electron Beam in a Molecular Medium due to Parametric Pumping by a Strong Electromagnetic Wave,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS 4WJD ASTRONOMY COLLG PAM A 2 3i 81 4 30) 235. RADIATION FROM A .ELATIVISTIC_§LECTRON BEAM IN AZOLECULAR...A MOLECULAR MEDIUM DUE TO PARAMETRIC PUMPING BY A STRONG ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE L. Stenflo Department of Plasma Physics Umel University S-90187 Umel...GUteborg, Sweden and Laboratory for Plasma and Fusion Energy Studies University of Maryland College Park, Maryland 20742 Physics Publication Number 81

  20. Numerical simulation of electromagnetic waves in Schwarzschild space-time by finite difference time domain method and Green function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shouqing; La, Dongsheng; Ma, Xuelian

    2018-04-01

    The finite difference time domain (FDTD) algorithm and Green function algorithm are implemented into the numerical simulation of electromagnetic waves in Schwarzschild space-time. FDTD method in curved space-time is developed by filling the flat space-time with an equivalent medium. Green function in curved space-time is obtained by solving transport equations. Simulation results validate both the FDTD code and Green function code. The methods developed in this paper offer a tool to solve electromagnetic scattering problems.

  1. The exact calculation of the e. m. field arising from the scattering of twodimensional electromagnetic waves at a perfectly conducting cylindrical surface of arbitrary shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenders, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    The scattered field generated by the interaction of an incoming twodimensional electromagnetic wave with a cylindrical perfectly conducting surface is calculated. The scattered field is obtained in closed form.

  2. Confinement properties of the RFP [Reversed Field Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, P.G.; Schoenberg, K.F.; Ingraham, J.C.; Miller, G.; Munson, C.P.; Pickrell, M.M.; Wurden; Tsui, H.Y.W.; Ritz, Ch.P.

    1990-01-01

    Research in ZT-40M has been focused on elucidating the confinement properties of the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP). Recent improvements in diagnostic capability have permitted measurement of radial profiles, as well as a detailed study of the edge plasma. The emerging confinement picture for ZT-40M has several ingredients: Typically 0.3 of the Ohmic input power to ZT-40M is available to drive fluctuations. Evidence points to this fluctuational power heating the ions. Approximately one quarter of the input power is lost through radiation, with metal impurities playing a key role. Magnetic fluctations in ZT-40M are at the percent level, as measured in the edge plasma. Extrapolating these data to small radii shows stochasticity in the core plasma. Suprathermal electrons are measured in the edge plasma. These electrons originate in the core, and transport to the edge along the fluctuating magnetic field lines. Under typical conditions, these electrons constitute the major electron energy loss channel in ZT-40M. Electrostatic fluctuations dominate the edge electron particle flux, but not the electron thermal flux. The major ion loss process is charge exchange, with smaller contributions from conduction and convection. In examining these observations, and the parametric dependences of confinement, a working model for RFP confinement emerges. An overview of this model, together with implications for the multi-mega-ampere ZTH experiment will be presented

  3. Fe3O4–graphene hybrids: nanoscale characterization and their enhanced electromagnetic wave absorption in gigahertz range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinghua; Yi Haibo; Zhang Junwei; Feng Juan; Li Fashen; Xue Desheng; Zhang Haoli; Peng Yong; Mellors, Nigel J.

    2013-01-01

    Fe 3 O 4 –graphene hybrid materials have been fabricated by a simple polyol method, and their morphology, chemistry and crystal structure have been characterized at the nanoscale. It is found that each Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles decorated on the graphene has a polycrystalline fcc spinel structure and a uniform chemical phase. Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy suggest that Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles are chemically bonded to the graphene sheets. Electromagnetic wave absorption shows that the material has a reflection loss exceeding −10 dB in 7.5–18 GHz for an absorber thickness of 1.48–3 mm, accompanying a maximum reflection loss value of −30.1 dB at a 1.48-mm matching thickness and 17.2-GHz matching frequency. Theoretic analysis shows that the electromagnetic wave absorption behavior obeys quarter-wave principles. The results suggest that the magnetic Fe 3 O 4 –graphene hybrids are good candidates for the use as a light-weight electromagnetic wave-absorbing material in X- and K u -bands.

  4. Anomalous Signal Detection in ELF Band Electromagnetic Wave using Multi-layer Neural Network with Wavelet Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itai, Akitoshi; Yasukawa, Hiroshi; Takumi, Ichi; Hata, Masayasu

    It is well known that electromagnetic waves radiated from the earth's crust are useful for predicting earthquakes. We analyze the electromagnetic waves received at the extremely low frequency band of 223Hz. These observed signals contain the seismic radiation from the earth's crust, but also include several undesired signals. Our research focuses on the signal detection technique to identify an anomalous signal corresponding to the seismic radiation in the observed signal. Conventional anomalous signal detections lack a wide applicability due to their assumptions, e.g. the digital data have to be observed at the same time or the same sensor. In order to overcome the limitation related to the observed signal, we proposed the anomalous signals detection based on a multi-layer neural network which is trained by digital data observed during a span of a day. In the neural network approach, training data do not need to be recorded at the same place or the same time. However, some noises, which have a large amplitude, are detected as the anomalous signal. This paper develops a multi-layer neural network to decrease the false detection of the anomalous signal from the electromagnetic wave. The training data for the proposed network is the decomposed signal of the observed signal during several days, since the seismic radiations are often recorded from several days to a couple of weeks. Results show that the proposed neural network is useful to achieve the accurate detection of the anomalous signal that indicates seismic activity.

  5. Formulation of electromagnetic-wave analysis by boundary element method and its application to the analysis of RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washizu, Masao; Tanabe, Yoshio.

    1986-01-01

    In a system handling the electromagnetic waves of large power such as the cavity resonator for a high energy accelerator and the high frequency heater for a nuclear fusion apparatus, the margin in the thermal and mechanical design of a wave guide system cannot be taken large, accordingly, the detailed analysis of electromagnetic waves is required. When the analysis in a general form is carried out, boundary element method may be a useful method of solution. This time, the authors carried out the formulation of steady electromagnetic wave problems by boundary element method, and it was shown that the formulation was able to be carried out under the physically clear boundary condition also in this case, and especially in the case of a perfect conductor system, a very simple form was obtained. In this paper, first, the techniques of formulation in a general case, and next, as a special case, the formulation for a perfect conductor system are described. Taking the analysis of the cavity resonators of cylindrical and rectangular parallelepiped forms as examples, the comparison with the analytical solution was carried out. (Kako, I.)

  6. Study of Electromagnetic Wave Absorption Properties of Carbon Nanotubes-Based Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    Publications: [1]. G. L. Zhao, Z. Ye, Z. Li, J. A. Roberts, "New carbon nanotube-epoxy composite for dampening microwave cavity resonance", IEEE Xplore ...Nanotechnology ( IEEE - NANO), 2012 12th IEEE Conference on 20-23 Aug. 2012. [2]. Z. Li, G. L. Zhao, P. Zhang, S. Guo, J. Tang, " Thermoelectric

  7. Acute effects of the electromagnetic waves emitted by mobile phones on attention in emergency physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuntas, Gurkan; Sadoglu, Davut; Ardic, Senol; Yilmaz, Hakan; Imamoglu, Melih; Turedi, Suleyman

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of the electromagnetic waves (EMW) emitted by mobile phones on attention in emergency physicians. This single-center, prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical study was performed among emergency physicians in a tertiary hospital. Thirty emergency physicians were enrolled in the study. Initial d2 test was applied in the evaluation of attention and concentration of all the physicians, who were randomly assigned into one of two groups. The control group members hold mobile phones in 'off' mode to their left ears for 15min. The members of the intervention group hold mobile phones in 'on' mode to their left ears for 15min, thus exposing them to 900-1800MHz EMW. The d2 test was re-applied to both groups after this procedure. Differences in attention and concentration levels between the groups were compared. Difference between initial and final d2 test in total performance (TN-E, p=0.319), in total number of figures marked (TN, p=0.177), in test performance percentile (PR, p=0.619) and in attention fluctuation (FR, p=0.083) were similar between the groups. However, difference in the number of figures missed (E1 selective attention, p=0.025), difference between numbers of incorrectly marked figures (E2, p=0,018) and difference in focus levels (E, p=0.016) were significantly in favor of the intervention group. According to our study findings, the EMW emitted by mobile phones has no deleterious effect on the attention and concentration levels of emergency physicians, and even has a positive impact on selective attention levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of electromagnetic waves emitted by the cell phones on the testicular tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Ihsan Karaman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Various risks have emerged in parallel to the rapidly increasing use of cell phones. Herein we studied the effects of cell phone emitted electromagnetic waves (EMW on rat testes. Material and Methods: Twenty one adult male Albino rats were grouped into 3 groups each consisting of 7 rats. The first group was exposed to EMW on talk mode for 8 hours per day for 20 days and then their testes were extracted. The testes of the second group were extracted after 20 days of whole day EMW exposure. The third group was the control group. For the statistical analysis Mann- Whitney U analysis was performed. Results: At light microscopic examination of the testicular tissue, the existence of a high number of immature cells in the lumen of the seminiferous tubule in addition to the normal seminiferous tubules, besides irregular tubules with a reduction in the spermatogenic cell lines and tubules without lumen were observed in groups 1 and 2. Histopathological alterations were scored as 0 = none, 1 = low, 2 = medium, 3 = serious. The average scores of the three groups were found to be 4.25 ± 1.5 for the group 1, 4.33 ± 3.9 for the group 2 and 0.37 ± 1.1 for the group 3 respectively. As a result of the statistical evaluation, group 1 and group 2 had significantly higher scores than the control group (p = 0.001. Conclusion: Infertility is one of the current problems of today due to a rapid increase in its incidence and cost. The negative effects of the EMWs on the testis should be taken into account and the necessary measures should be taken for prevention.

  9. Anomalous propagation conditions of electromagnetic wave observed over Bosten Lake, China in July and August, 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zheng; Ning Hui; Tang Jing; Xie Yong-Jie; Shi Peng-Fei; Wang Jian-Hua; Wang Ke

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric duct is a common phenomenon over large bodies of water, and it can significantly affect the performance of many radio systems. In this paper, a two-month (in July and August, 2014) sounding experiment in ducting conditions over Bosten Lake was carried out at a littoral station (41.89° N, 87.22° E) with high resolution GPS radiosondes, and atmospheric ducts were observed for the first time in this area. During the two months, surface and surface-based ducts occurred frequently over the Lake. Strong diurnal variations in ducting characteristics were noticed in clear days. Ducting occurrence was found at its lowest in the early morning and at its highest (nearly 100%) in the afternoon. Duct strength was found increasing from early morning to forenoon, and reaching its maximum in the afternoon. But contrarily, duct altitude experienced a decrease in a clear day. Then the meteorological reasons for the variations were discussed in detail, turbulent bursting was a possible reason for the duct formation in the early morning and the prevailing lake-breeze front was the main reason in the afternoon. The propagation of electromagnetic wave in a ducting environment was also investigated. A ray-tracing framework based on Runge–Kutta method was proposed to assess the performance of radio systems, and the precise critical angle and grazing angle derived from the ray-tracing equations were provided. Finally, numerical investigations on the radar performance in the observed ducting environments have been carried out with high accuracy, which demonstrated that atmospheric ducts had made great impacts on the performance of radio systems. The range/height errors for radar measurement induced by refraction have also been presented, too, which shows that the height errors were very large for trapped rays when the total range was long enough. (paper)

  10. Reflection and Transmission of Plane Electromagnetic Waves by a Geologic Layer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, David F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-01

    is acknowledged as the originator of the concept underpinning a recent patent grant (Aldridge and Bartel, 2016) involving electromagnetic wave scattering.

  11. Properties of the reverse transcription reaction in mRNA quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ståhlberg, Anders; Håkansson, Joakim; Xian, Xiaojie

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In most measurements of gene expression, mRNA is first reverse-transcribed into cDNA. We studied the reverse transcription reaction and its consequences for quantitative measurements of gene expression. METHODS: We used SYBR green I-based quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) to measure...... the properties of reverse transcription reaction for the beta-tubulin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, Glut2, CaV1D, and insulin II genes, using random hexamers, oligo(dT), and gene-specific reverse transcription primers. RESULTS: Experimental variation in reverse transcription-QPCR (RT......-QPCR) was mainly attributable to the reverse transcription step. Reverse transcription efficiency depended on priming strategy, and the dependence was different for the five genes studied. Reverse transcription yields also depended on total RNA concentration. CONCLUSIONS: RT-QPCR gene expression measurements...

  12. Transport properties of mixed metallic salts through reverse osmosis membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Akio; Nishimaki, Kenzo

    1991-01-01

    Applicability of reverse osmosis to the treatment of radioactive liquid waste was investigated. In previous papers, we showed the ability of reverse osmosis to decontaminate liquid waste which contains ionic radionuclides with chloride ion. When sulfate ion coexists with chloride, logarithms of DFs of one cation are approximately expressed by a linear function of logarithms of SO 4 2- /Cl - ratio. In this paper, we investigate the relation between DFs and concentrations of coexisting ions in multicomponent cation/anion system. As a result of this study, DFs of cations change more seriously with coexisting anions composition than with cations. In the case of anion, these influences are the reverse. Logarithms of DFs of cations and anions are expressed by linear equation with the two variables, logarithmic concentration ratio of univalent/divalent cations and logarithmic concentration ratio of SO 4 2- /Cl - . (author)

  13. Study of interaction of electromagnetic waves with thin rotating cylindrical shell of conductor in vicinity of weakly gravitating string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muminov, A.T.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: As it shown in the work [1,2], interaction of electromagnetic wave with rotating cylindrical shell of conductor leads to an interesting phenomenon of energy transmission from rotating body to the wave. We study influence of the gravitational field of the string on the process of interaction of electromagnetic waves with infinitesimally thin conducting cylindrical shell. Since in the outer space and inside the shell electromagnetic field satisfies source free Maxwell equations we start with constructing the most general solutions of this equation. Then we match the fields on the cylinder with account of boundary conditions on it. Matching the fields gives expressions for reflection factors of cylindrical waves for two cases of polarization. The reflection factors for distinct wave polarizations show the ratio of outgoing energy flux to in going one. Curved cylindrical symmetric space-time with weakly gravitating string-like source is described by static metric: δs 2 = f(r)δt 2 - h(r)(δz 2 + δr 2 ) - l(r)δψ 2 ; f(r) = r ε ; h(r) = r -ε ; l(r) = r 2 /f(r). Which corresponds to low line density of mass ε on the string. The metric is particular case of Lewis metric [3,4] with zero angular momentum of the string and its weak gravity. The boundary value problem for electromagnetic waves interaction with thin conducting rotating cylindrical shell in static cylindrical metric with weakly gravitating string has been solved analytically. It is found that character of dependence of the factors on Ω at ω R<<1 and ΩR<<1 approximation remains the same as in flat space-time ε =0. Analysis of expressions for the reflection factors in frames of considered approximation has been done

  14. Microwave metamaterials—from passive to digital and programmable controls of electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tie Jun

    2017-08-01

    functions. We realised that when the digital state of a coding unit is controlled by a field programmable gate array, the programmable metamaterial, which is capable of manipulating electromagnetic waves in real time, can generate many different functions.

  15. Effects of electromagnetic waves emitted from 3G+wi-fi modems on human semen analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Koosha; Atarod, Mohammadmehdi; Sarhadi, Saeedeh; Nikbakht, Javad; Emami, Maryam; Maghsoudi, Robab; Salimi, Hormoz; Fallahpour, Bita; Kamali, Negar; Momtazan, Abdolreza; Ameli, Mojtaba

    2017-10-25

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 3G+wifi modems on human sperm quality.A total of 40 semen specimens were gathered between March and September 2015, from healthy adult men. The sperm samples were divided into two groups - 3G+wi-fi exposed and unexposed groups. In the unexposed group, the specimens were shielded by aluminum foil in three layers and put into an incubator at a temperature of 37°C for 50 minutes. The exposed group was positioned in another room in an incubator at a temperature of 37°C for 50 minutes. A 3G+wi-fi modem was put into the same incubator and a laptop computer was connected to the modem and was downloading for the entire 50 minutes.Semen analysis was done for each specimen and comparisons between parameters of the two groups were done by using Kolmogorov-Smirnov study and a paired t-test. Mean percentage of sperm with class A and B motility were not significantly different in two groups (p = 0.22 and 0.54, respectively). In class C, it was significantly lower in the exposed group (p = 0.046), while in class D it was significantly higher (p = 0.022).Velocity curvilinear, velocity straight line, velocity average path, mean angular displacement, lateral displacement and beat cross frequency were significantly higher in the unexposed group. The limitation was the in vitro design. Electromagnetic waves (EMWs) emitted from 3G+wi-fi modems cause a significant decrease in sperm motility and velocity, especially in non-progressive motile sperms. Other parameters of semen analysis did not change significantly.EMWs, which are used in communications worldwide, are a suspected cause of male infertility. Many studies evaluated the effects of cell phones and wi-fi on fertility. To our knowledge, no study has yet been done to show the effects of EMWs emitted from 3G+wi-fi modems on fertility.Our study revealed a significant decrease in the quality of human semen after exposure to EMWs emitted from 3G+wi-fi modems.

  16. [A historic case of Wegener's granulomatosis: the physicist who discovered the electromagnetic waves: Heinrich Hertz].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, H

    2005-06-01

    A diary and an extensive correspondence of Heinrich Hertz and his family provide a meticulous documentation of his life, made available by Albrecht Folsing in 1997 through a carefully investigated biography, which permit the conclusion that H. Hertz died of Wegener's granulomatosis, 45 years before this disease had been explored. WEGENER'S GRANULOMATOSIS: The symptoms of the granulomatosis, that was first described by Friedrich Wegener in 1936 and 1939 are presented in short with literal quotations of the author: It begins with a refractory cold that will last until the end, then follow involvement of the paranasal sinuses, ears, mucous lining of mouth and pharynx, slight fever, weakness, in the final phase dissemination with nephritis, septic fever, arthritis, myalgia, paralyses leading to total immobility, exitus. The etiology is not fully understood but probably based on immunoreaction. H. HERTZ: CURRICULUM VITAE: Born in Hamburg, Germany, in 1857: after secondary school academic training in physics at Dresden, Munic and Berlin. 1885 professor of physics in Karlsruhe, then starting in 1889 at Bonn. 1887/88 exploration of the electromagnetic waves, now the basis for all radio communication, and exploration of the photoelectric effect, the basis of solar techniques. Numerous highranking distinctions. H. HERTZ: The case history is presented in detail based on numerous literal quotations from personal letters and the diary. After a few banal affections involving the teeth and toes the systemic disease became manifest in summer 1892 with a refractory cold which remained the focus of treatment until death. Granulation tissue in the nose that was excised several times: no tuberculosis, no carcinoma. Otitis with purulent mastoiditis, in October 1892 mastoidectomy, persistent purulence. Early in 1893 diagnosis of nephritis. Extraction of a superior tooth, punturing of the maxillary sinus, then twice radical opening of the maxillary sinus. Painful ankylosis and paralyses

  17. Analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions on nonlinear scatterers using time domain volume integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda

    2014-07-06

    Effects of material nonlinearities on electromagnetic field interactions become dominant as field amplitudes increase. A typical example is observed in plasmonics, where highly localized fields “activate” Kerr nonlinearities. Naturally, time domain solvers are the method of choice when it comes simulating these nonlinear effects. Oftentimes, finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is used for this purpose. This is simply due to the fact that explicitness of the FDTD renders the implementation easier and the material nonlinearity can be easily accounted for using an auxiliary differential equation (J.H. Green and A. Taflove, Opt. Express, 14(18), 8305-8310, 2006). On the other hand, explicit marching on-in-time (MOT)-based time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers have never been used for the same purpose even though they offer several advantages over FDTD (E. Michielssen, et al., ECCOMAS CFD, The Netherlands, Sep. 5-8, 2006). This is because explicit MOT solvers have never been stabilized until not so long ago. Recently an explicit but stable MOT scheme has been proposed for solving the time domain surface magnetic field integral equation (H.A. Ulku, et al., IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 61(8), 4120-4131, 2013) and later it has been extended for the time domain volume electric field integral equation (TDVEFIE) (S. B. Sayed, et al., Pr. Electromagn. Res. S., 378, Stockholm, 2013). This explicit MOT scheme uses predictor-corrector updates together with successive over relaxation during time marching to stabilize the solution even when time step is as large as in the implicit counterpart. In this work, an explicit MOT-TDVEFIE solver is proposed for analyzing electromagnetic wave interactions on scatterers exhibiting Kerr nonlinearity. Nonlinearity is accounted for using the constitutive relation between the electric field intensity and flux density. Then, this relation and the TDVEFIE are discretized together by expanding the intensity and flux - sing half

  18. Study of the Electromagnetic Waves Propagation over the Improved Fractal Sea Surface Based on Parabolic Equation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwan Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved fractal sea surface model, which can describe the capillary waves very well, is introduced to simulate the one-dimension rough sea surface. In this model, the propagation of electromagnetic waves (EWs is computed by the parabolic equation (PE method using the finite-difference (FD algorithm. The numerical simulation results of the introduced model are compared with those of the Miller-Brown model and the Elfouhaily spectrum inversion model. It has been shown that the effects of the fine structure of the sea surface on the EWs propagation in the introduced model are more apparent than those in the other two models.

  19. Second coordinate readout in drift chambers by timing of the electromagnetic wave propagating along the anode wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boie, R.A.; Radeka, V.; Rehak, P.; Xi, D.M.

    1980-11-01

    The feasibility of using an anode wire and surrounding electrodes in drift chambers as a transmission line for second coordinate readout has been studied. The method is based on propagation of the electromagnetic wave along the anode wire is determined by measurement, in an optimized electronic readout system, of the time difference between the arrivals of the signal to the ends of the wire. The resolution obtained on long wires (approx. 2 meters) is about 2 cm FWHM for minimum ionizing particles at a gas gain of approx. = 10 5

  20. Transient reflection and transmission of E polarized electromagnetic waves at boundary surface between air and moving isotropic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Yukimasa

    1977-01-01

    The transient reflection and transmission waves of E polarized electromagnetic waves coming into the boundary surface between air and moving isotropic plasma were theoretically investigated. By using the Laplace transformation in the moving system, the formulae of Lorentz and inverse Lorentz transformations concerning electromagnetic field were transformed, thus the transient reflection and transmission waves were obtained. These waves were normalized with the angular frequency of the incident waves, and the variation of the wave form was obtained. Examples of the numerical calculation of reflected waves are shown for the plasma moving in parallel to the boundary surface. (Kato, T.)

  1. The focusing effect of electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional photonic crystals with gradually varying lattice constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Bakhshi Garmi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we studied the focusing effect of electromagnetic wave in the two-dimensional graded photonic crystal consisting of Silicon rods in the air background with gradually varying lattice constant. The results showed that graded photonic crystal can focus wide beams on a narrow area at frequencies near the lower edge of the band gap, where equal frequency contours are not concave. For calculation of photonic band structure and equal frequency contours, we have used plane wave expansion method and revised plane wave expansion method, respectively. The calculation of the electric and magnetic fields was performed by finite difference time domain method.

  2. Diffraction of a plane electromagnetic wave on a dielectric plate of variable density. [Field equatios, diffracted-wave angular distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aivazyan, Yu M; Mergelyan, O S; Poulatov, M P

    1974-01-01

    Aproblem for the diffraction of a plane electromagnetic wave on a dielectric plate between two other dielectrics is solved. The dielectric constant of the plate depends periodically on three coordinates. From this solution it is possible to obtain the equations for fields and the angular distribution of diffracted waves for the particular cases of a crystal plate and a dielectric surface fluted in all directions. If the expansion is made in the variable of the electron density in crystals, the results will correspond to the problem for the X-ray diffraction on a crystal lattice, the values of the coefficient ..cap alpha -->..sub(tau) being determined by the lattice parameters.

  3. Topology optimization for three-dimensional electromagnetic waves using an edge element-based finite-element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yongbo; Korvink, Jan G

    2016-05-01

    This paper develops a topology optimization procedure for three-dimensional electromagnetic waves with an edge element-based finite-element method. In contrast to the two-dimensional case, three-dimensional electromagnetic waves must include an additional divergence-free condition for the field variables. The edge element-based finite-element method is used to both discretize the wave equations and enforce the divergence-free condition. For wave propagation described in terms of the magnetic field in the widely used class of non-magnetic materials, the divergence-free condition is imposed on the magnetic field. This naturally leads to a nodal topology optimization method. When wave propagation is described using the electric field, the divergence-free condition must be imposed on the electric displacement. In this case, the material in the design domain is assumed to be piecewise homogeneous to impose the divergence-free condition on the electric field. This results in an element-wise topology optimization algorithm. The topology optimization problems are regularized using a Helmholtz filter and a threshold projection method and are analysed using a continuous adjoint method. In order to ensure the applicability of the filter in the element-wise topology optimization version, a regularization method is presented to project the nodal into an element-wise physical density variable.

  4. Precise real-time polarization measurement of terahertz electromagnetic waves by a spinning electro-optic sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumatsu, Naoya; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2012-02-01

    We propose and develop a method to quickly and precisely determine the polarization direction of coherent terahertz electromagnetic waves generated by femtosecond laser pulses. The measurement system consists of a conventional terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system with the electro-optic (EO) sampling method, but we add a new functionality in the EO crystal which is continuously rotating with the angular frequency ω. We find a simple yet useful formulation of the EO signal as a function of the crystal orientation, which enables a lock-in-like detection of both the electric-field amplitude and the absolute polarization direction of the terahertz waves with respect to the probe laser pulse polarization direction at the same time. The single measurement finishes around two periods of the crystal rotations (∼21 ms), and we experimentally prove that the accuracy of the polarization measurement does not suffer from the long-term amplitude fluctuation of the terahertz pulses. Distribution of the measured polarization directions by repeating the measurements is excellently fitted by a gaussian distribution function with a standard deviation of σ = 0.56°. The developed technique is useful for the fast direct determination of the polarization state of the terahertz electromagnetic waves for polarization imaging applications as well as the precise terahertz Faraday or Kerr rotation spectroscopy.

  5. Scattering of acoustic and electromagnetic waves by small impedance bodies of arbitrary shapes applications to creating new engineered materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ramm, Alexander G

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of acoustic or electromagnetic waves reflecting off, and scattering from, intercepted bodies of any size and kind can make determinations about the materials of those bodies and help in better understanding how to manipulate such materials for desired characteristics. This book offers analytical formulas which allow you to calculate acoustic and electromagnetic waves, scattered by one and many small bodies of an arbitrary shape under various boundary conditions. Equations for the effective (self-consistent) field in media consisting of many small bodies are derived. These results and formulas are new and not available in the works of other authors. In particular, the theory developed in this book is different from the classical work of Rayleigh on scattering by small bodies: not only analytical formulas are derived for the waves scattered by small bodies of an arbitrary shape, but the amplitude of the scattered waves is much larger, of the order O(a 2-k), than in Rayleigh scattering, where the or...

  6. Measurement of electromagnetic waves in ELF and VLF bands to monitor lightning activity in the Maritime Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kozo; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Ohya, Hiroyo; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Sato, Mitsuteru; Matsumoto, Jun

    2013-04-01

    Data of lightning discharge has been focused on as an effective way for monitoring and nowcasting of thunderstorm activity which causes extreme weather. Spatial distribution of lightning discharge has been used as a proxy of the presence or absence of deep convection. Latest observation shows that there is extremely huge lightning whose scale is more than hundreds times bigger than that of averaged event. This result indicates that lightning observation should be carried out to estimate not only existence but also scale for quantitative evaluation of atmospheric convection. In this study, lightning observation network in the Maritime Continent is introduced. This network is consisted of the sensors which make possible to measure electromagnetic wave radiated from lightning discharges. Observation frequency is 0.1 - 40 kHz for the measurement of magnetic field and 1 - 40 kHz for that of electric field. Sampling frequency is 100 kHz. Waveform of electromagnetic wave is recorded by personal computer. We have already constructed observation stations at Tainan in Taiwan (23.1N, 121.1E), Saraburi in Thailand (14.5N, 101.0E), and Pontianak in Indonesia (0.0N, 109.4E). Furthermore, we plan to install the monitoring system at Los Banos in Philippines (14.18, 121.25E) and Hanoi in Viet Nam. Data obtained by multipoint observation is synchronized by GPS receiver installed at each station. By using data obtained by this network, location and scale of lightning discharge can be estimated. Location of lightning is determined based on time of arrival method. Accuracy of geolocation could be less than 10km. Furthermore, charge moment is evaluated as a scale of each lightning discharge. It is calculated from electromagnetic waveform in ELF range (3-30 kHz). At the presentation, we will show the initial result about geolocation for source of electromagnetic wave and derivation of charge moment value based on the measurement of ELF and VLF sferics.

  7. Ergodic properties and thermodynamic behavior of elementary reversible cellular automata. I. Basic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takesue, Shinji

    1989-01-01

    This is the first part of a series devoted to the study of thermodynamic behavior of large dynamical systems with the use of a family of full-discrete and conservative models named elementary reversible cellular automata (ERCAs). In this paper, basic properties such as conservation laws and phase space structure are investigated in preparation for the later studies. ERCAs are a family of one-dimensional reversible cellular automata having two Boolean variables on each site. Reflection and Boolean conjugation symmetries divide them into 88 equivalence classes. For each rule, additive conserved quantities written in a certain form are regarded as a kind of energy, if they exist. By the aid of the discreteness of the variables, every ERCA satisfies the Liouville theorem or the preservation of phase space volume. Thus, if an energy exists in the above sense, statistical mechanics of the model can formally be constructed. If a locally defined quantity is conserved, however, it prevents the realization of statistical mechanics. The existence of such a quantity is examined for each class and a number of rules which have at least one energy but no local conservation laws are selected as hopeful candidates for the realization of thermodynamic behavior. In addition, the phase space structure of ERCAs is analyzed by enumerating cycles exactly in the phase space for systems of comparatively small sizes. As a result, it is revealed that a finite ERCA is not ergodic, that is, a large number of orbits coexist on an energy surface. It is argued that this fact does not necessarily mean the failure of thermodynamic behavior on the basis of an analogy with the ergodic nature of infinite systems

  8. Calculus of the amplification and absorption coefficients of the electromagnetic waves in a cylindrical over dense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzate P, N.

    1994-01-01

    Based on the fundamental theory of cylindrical waveguides and resonant cavities, the main characteristic parameters of the microwave plasma source reported in [1] are calculated. The absorption coefficient of an electromagnetic wave which is excited in H 11 mode in a cylindrical waveguide that contains a cold, inhomogeneous and magnetized plasma column is determined by using the perturbative method describe in [2]. In similar way, due to the presence of the plasma column, the shifts of the resonant frequency and of the inverse of the quality of a cylindrical resonant cavity where a TE 111 mode is oscilating are obtained. Finally, based on the linear theory, an analysis of the penetration of electromagnetic fields in a semi-bounded plasma and a plasma layer is done. The reflexion, transmission and absorption coefficients of H waves for the cases of an isotropic homogeneous and weak inhomogeneous plasma are calculated. (Author)

  9. Electron acceleration by an obliquely propagating electromagnetic wave in the regime of validity of the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizanidis, Kyriakos; Vlahos, L.; Polymilis, C.

    1989-01-01

    The relativistic motion of an ensemble of electrons in an intense monochromatic electromagnetic wave propagating obliquely in a uniform external magnetic field is studied. The problem is formulated from the viewpoint of Hamiltonian theory and the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov approach analyzed by Hizanidis (1989), leading to a one-dimensional diffusive acceleration along paths of constant zeroth-order generalized Hamiltonian. For values of the wave amplitude and the propagating angle inside the analytically predicted stochastic region, the numerical results suggest that the diffusion probes proceeds in stages. In the first stage, the electrons are accelerated to relatively high energies by sampling the first few overlapping resonances one by one. During that stage, the ensemble-average square deviation of the variable involved scales quadratically with time. During the second stage, they scale linearly with time. For much longer times, deviation from linear scaling slowly sets in.

  10. Multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves in disordered magnetic media localization parameter, energy transport velocity and diffusion constant

    CERN Document Server

    Pinheiro, F A; Martínez, A S

    2001-01-01

    We review some of our recent results concerning the single and multiple electromagnetic scattering by magnetic spherical particles. For a single electromagnetic scattering we show that the magnetic contribution alters, when compared to nonmagnetic scattering, the behavior of the cross sections and mean cosine of the scattering angle (cos omega). For ferromagnetic particles, resonances may occur even in the small-particle limit when the particle radius is much smaller than the wavelength. The resonances increase the cross sections while (cos omega) is diminished , and even may become negative. Several quantities such the Ioffe-Regel parameter for localization are calculated for the multiple scattering regime. We show that magnetic scattering favors the observation of localization of electromagnetic waves in three dimensions. Further, this is also verified for dynamical experiments, where we show that the diffusion constant can be very small. Since the magnetic permeability of the scatterers can vary significan...

  11. Coherent light scattering of heterogeneous randomly rough films and effective medium in the theory of electromagnetic wave multiple scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berginc, G [THALES, 2 avenue Gay-Lussac 78995 ELANCOURT (France)

    2013-11-30

    We have developed a general formalism based on Green's functions to calculate the coherent electromagnetic field scattered by a random medium with rough boundaries. The approximate expression derived makes it possible to determine the effective permittivity, which is generalised for a layer of an inhomogeneous random medium with different types of particles and bounded with randomly rough interfaces. This effective permittivity describes the coherent propagation of an electromagnetic wave in a random medium with randomly rough boundaries. We have obtained an expression, which contains the Maxwell – Garnett formula at the low-frequency limit, and the Keller formula; the latter has been proved to be in good agreement with experiments for particles whose dimensions are larger than a wavelength. (coherent light scattering)

  12. Trajectories of electrons with large longitudinal momenta in the phase plane during surfatron acceleration by an electromagnetic wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mkrtichyan, G. S., E-mail: hay-13@mail.ru [Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    The trajectories of electrons with large longitudinal momenta in the phase plane in the course of their surfatron acceleration by an electromagnetic wave propagating in space plasma across the external magnetic field are analyzed. Electrons with large longitudinal momenta are trapped immediately if the initial wave phase Ψ(0) on the particle trajectory is positive. For negative values of Ψ(0), no electrons trapping by the wave is observed over the available computational times. According to numerical calculations, the trajectories of trapped particles in the phase plane have a singular point of the stable focus type and the behavior of the trajectory corresponds to the motion in a complex nonstationary effective potential well. For some initial phases, electrons are confined in the region of the accelerating electric field for relatively short time, the energy gain being about 50–130% and more.

  13. Transient analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions on high-contrast scatterers using volume electric field integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin

    2014-07-01

    A marching on-in-time (MOT)-based time domain volume electric field integral equation (TD-VEFIE) solver is proposed for accurate and stable analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions on high-contrast scatterers. The stability is achieved using band-limited but two-sided (non-causal) temporal interpolation functions and an extrapolation scheme to cast the time marching into a causal form. The extrapolation scheme is designed to be highly accurate for oscillating and exponentially decaying fields, hence it accurately captures the physical behavior of the resonant modes that are excited inside the dielectric scatterer. Numerical results demonstrate that the resulting MOT scheme maintains its stability as the number of resonant modes increases with the contrast of the scatterer.

  14. Electromagnetic wave scattering from a forest or vegetation canopy - Ongoing research at the University of Texas at Arlington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Mostafa A.; Amar, Faouzi; Fung, Adrian K.

    1993-01-01

    The Wave Scattering Research Center at the University of Texas at Arlington has developed a scattering model for forest or vegetation, based on the theory of electromagnetic-wave scattering in random media. The model generalizes the assumptions imposed by earlier models, and compares well with measurements from several forest canopies. This paper gives a description of the model. It also indicates how the model elements are integrated to obtain the scattering characteristics of different forest canopies. The scattering characteristics may be displayed in the form of polarimetric signatures, represented by like- and cross-polarized scattering coefficients, for an elliptically-polarized wave, or in the form of signal-distribution curves. Results illustrating both types of scattering characteristics are given.

  15. Analysis of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in a Magnetized Re-Entry Plasma Sheath Via the Kinetic Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Based on a theoretical model of the propagation of electromagnetic waves through a hypersonically induced plasma, it has been demonstrated that the classical radiofrequency communications blackout that is experienced during atmospheric reentry can be mitigated through the appropriate control of an external magnetic field of nominal magnitude. The model is based on the kinetic equation treatment of Vlasov and involves an analytical solution for the electric and magnetic fields within the plasma allowing for a description of the attendant transmission, reflection and absorption coefficients. The ability to transmit through the magnetized plasma is due to the magnetic windows that are created within the plasma via the well-known whistler modes of propagation. The case of 2 GHz transmission through a re-entry plasma is considered. The coefficients are found to be highly sensitive to the prevailing electron density and will thus require a dynamic control mechanism to vary the magnetic field as the plasma evolves through the re-entry phase.

  16. Diffraction of electromagnetic waves by a metallic bar grating with a defect in dielectric filling of the slits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetova, Lyudmila A.; Prosvirnin, Sergey L.

    2018-04-01

    The problem of electromagnetic wave diffraction by the metallic bar grating with inhomogeneous dielectric filling of each slit between bars has been investigated by using the mode matching technique. The transmission and the inner field distribution have been analyzed for the structure which has a single defect in the periodic filling of slits. Such periodic structures are of particular interest for applications in optics, as they have the ability to concentrate a strong inner electromagnetic field and are characterized by high-Q transmission resonances. We use a simple approach to control the width and location of the stopband of the structure by placing a defect in the periodic filling of the grating slits. As a result, we observe the narrow resonance of transmission in terms of stopband width of the defect-free grating and confinement of strong inner electromagnetic field. By changing the permittivity of the defect layer we can shift the frequency of the resonant transmission.

  17. Generation of surface electromagnetic waves in terahertz spectral range by free-electron laser radiation and their refractive index determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolov, G.D.; Jeong, Uk Young; Zhizhin, G.N.; Nikitin, A.K.; Zavyalov, V.V.; Kazakevich, G.M.; Lee, Byung Cheol

    2005-01-01

    First experiments for observation of surface electromagnetic waves (SEW) in the terahertz spectral range generated on dense aluminum films covering the optical quality glass plates are presented in this paper. Coherent radiation of the new free-electron laser covering the frequency range from 30 to 100cm -1 was used. The interference technique employing SEW propagation in the part of one shoulder of the asymmetric interferometer was applied. From the interference pattern the real part of SEW's effective refractive index ae ' was determined for the two laser emission wavelengths: at λ=150μm-ae ' =1+5x10 -5 , at λ=110μm-ae ' =1+8x10 -4 . High sensitivity of the interference patterns to overlayers made of Ge and Si with thickness of 100nm was demonstrated as well

  18. Non-ionizing radiofrequency electromagnetic waves traversing the head can be used to detect cerebrovascular autoregulation responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oziel, M.; Hjouj, M.; Gonzalez, C. A.; Lavee, J.; Rubinsky, B.

    2016-02-01

    Monitoring changes in non-ionizing radiofrequency electromagnetic waves as they traverse the brain can detect the effects of stimuli employed in cerebrovascular autoregulation (CVA) tests on the brain, without contact and in real time. CVA is a physiological phenomenon of importance to health, used for diagnosis of a number of diseases of the brain with a vascular component. The technology described here is being developed for use in diagnosis of injuries and diseases of the brain in rural and economically underdeveloped parts of the world. A group of nine subjects participated in this pilot clinical evaluation of the technology. Substantial research remains to be done on correlating the measurements with physiology and anatomy.

  19. Dynamics of the relativistic acceleration of charged particles in space plasma while surfing the package electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erokhin, N.S.; Zol'nikova, N.N.; Kuznetsov, E.A.; Mikhajlovskaya, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Based on numerical calculations considered the relativistic acceleration of charged particles in space plasma when surfing on the spatially localized package of electromagnetic waves. The problem is reduced to the study of unsteady, nonlinear equation for the wave phase at the carrier frequency at the location of the accelerated charge, which is solved numerically. We study the temporal dynamics of the relativistic factor, the component of momentum and velocity of the particle, its trajectory is given gyro-rotation in an external magnetic field after the departure of the effective potential well. Dependence of the dynamics of a particle interacting with the wave of the sign of the velocity of the charge along the wave front. We formulate the optimal conditions of the relativistic particle acceleration wave packet, indicate the possibility of again (after a number gyro-turnover) charge trapping wave with an additional relativistic acceleration.

  20. The effect of Wi-Fi electromagnetic waves in unimodal and multimodal object recognition tasks in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanshahi, Amin; Shafeie, Seyed Ali; Fatemi, Iman; Hassanshahi, Elham; Allahtavakoli, Mohammad; Shabani, Mohammad; Roohbakhsh, Ali; Shamsizadeh, Ali

    2017-06-01

    Wireless internet (Wi-Fi) electromagnetic waves (2.45 GHz) have widespread usage almost everywhere, especially in our homes. Considering the recent reports about some hazardous effects of Wi-Fi signals on the nervous system, this study aimed to investigate the effect of 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi radiation on multisensory integration in rats. This experimental study was done on 80 male Wistar rats that were allocated into exposure and sham groups. Wi-Fi exposure to 2.4 GHz microwaves [in Service Set Identifier mode (23.6 dBm and 3% for power and duty cycle, respectively)] was done for 30 days (12 h/day). Cross-modal visual-tactile object recognition (CMOR) task was performed by four variations of spontaneous object recognition (SOR) test including standard SOR, tactile SOR, visual SOR, and CMOR tests. A discrimination ratio was calculated to assess the preference of animal to the novel object. The expression levels of M1 and GAT1 mRNA in the hippocampus were assessed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Results demonstrated that rats in Wi-Fi exposure groups could not discriminate significantly between the novel and familiar objects in any of the standard SOR, tactile SOR, visual SOR, and CMOR tests. The expression of M1 receptors increased following Wi-Fi exposure. In conclusion, results of this study showed that chronic exposure to Wi-Fi electromagnetic waves might impair both unimodal and cross-modal encoding of information.

  1. Characteristics of Human Body Sensoring towards Electromagnetic Waves in Space (Papers Presented at the International Symposium on Safety Control and Risk Management, SCRM)

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiwara, Shizuo; 藤原, 鎮男

    1989-01-01

    Human body works as a kind of tuning filter for the electromagnetic waves in space. The work can be interpretted in terms of the modelling of the surface of the human body as an equivalent circuit formed of the electronic components of inductance, capacit

  2. Enhancement of mechanical properties of a TRIP-aided austenitic stainless steel by controlled reversion annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, A.S., E-mail: atef.hamada@suezuniv.edu.eg [Centre for Advanced Steels Research, Box 4200, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Petroleum & Mining Engineering, Suez University, Box 43721, Suez (Egypt); Kisko, A.P. [Centre for Advanced Steels Research, Box 4200, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Sahu, P. [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Karjalainen, L.P. [Centre for Advanced Steels Research, Box 4200, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu (Finland)

    2015-03-25

    Controlled martensitic reversion annealing was applied to a heavily cold-worked metastable austenitic low-Ni Cr–Mn austenitic stainless steel (Type 201) to obtain different ultrafine austenite grain sizes to enhance the mechanical properties, which were then compared with the conventional coarse-grained steel. Characterization of the deformed and reversion annealed microstructures was performed by electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The steel with a reverted grain size ~1.5 μm due to annealing at 800 °C for 10 s showed significant improvements in the mechanical properties with yield stress ~800 MPa and tensile strength ~1100 MPa, while the corresponding properties of its coarse grained counterpart were ~450 MPa and ~900 MPa, respectively. However, the fracture elongation of the reversion annealed steel was ~50% as compared to ~70% in the coarse grained steel. A further advantage is that the anisotropy of mechanical properties present in work-hardened steels also disappears during reversion annealing.

  3. Irradiation effects on properties of reverse osmosis membrane based on cross-linked aromatic polyamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakase, Yoshiaki; Yanagi, Tadashi; Uemura, Tadahiro.

    1994-01-01

    In order to develop a membrane suitable for reverse osmotic condensation of radioactive liquid wastes, a new cross-linked aromatic polyamide composite reverse osmosis membrane (ROM) was irradiated in water or in wet system, and its mechanical and some thermal properties, and the separation performance for inorganic salt were investigated. A membrane was degraded by irradiation more severely in wet system than in dry system, probably due to the reaction with OH-radicals. In the separation performance for NaCl, the salt rejection of the membrane was kept over 88% until irradiation reached 2MGy, maintaining about 90% of its original water flux. (author)

  4. Dynamics of a charged particle in a circularly polarized travelling electromagnetic wave. Self-consistent model for the wave-particle dynamical interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdier, A.

    1999-01-01

    This work concerns mainly the dynamics of a charged particle in an electromagnetic wave. It is a first step in elaborating a more general model permitting to predict the wave-particle interaction. We show how deriving a first integral gives an idea on how to create an electron current in a cold electron plasma. We present results which can be used to test the 2D and 3D Vlasov-Maxwell codes being built up in CEA-DAM. These codes will allow the calcination of the magnetic field created by an electromagnetic wave like the one due to the inverse Faraday effect when a circularly polarized wave drives the electrons of a plasma into circular orbits. (author)

  5. Electromagnetic wave survey on voids behind waterway channel lining; Suiro kaikyo sokuheki haimen kudo no denjiha tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koitabashi, H [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Inagaki, M

    1996-10-01

    Voids behind lining were surveyed by applying electromagnetic wave reflection method to the waterway channel of a hydraulic power plant. Since waterway channel lining is ranged from oblique to vertical direction, voids are hardly formed. However, formation of voids or cavities behind lining is supposed such as voids between ground and lining due to change with time or consolidation settlement, and voids due to soil loss. Electromagnetic radar reflection suggesting continuous void was observed behind terrace concrete lining. As the result of core boring, thin continuous void of 2-5cm thick and more than 100m long was found. This was possibly formed by consolidation settlement for a long time. In some sites, continuous void signal was observed at the upper part of side walls although this signal was smaller than that at the upper part of a terrace. This continuous cavity of 10-20cm thick and 20m long was different from voids, and unevenly distributed at the upper part of an open channel along flowing surface with large flow rate. In addition, it is necessary to clarify the relation to cracks. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  6. The collective emission of electromagnetic waves from astrophysical jets - Luminosity gaps, BL Lacertae objects, and efficient energy transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Borovsky, Joseph E.; Benford, Gregory; Eilek, Jean A.

    1988-01-01

    A model of the inner portions of astrophysical jets is constructed in which a relativistic electron beam is injected from the central engine into the jet plasma. This beam drives electrostatic plasma wave turbulence, which leads to the collective emission of electromagnetic waves. The emitted waves are beamed in the direction of the jet axis, so that end-on viewing of the jet yields an extremely bright source (BL Lacertae object). The relativistic electron beam may also drive long-wavelength electromagnetic plasma instabilities (firehose and Kelvin-Helmholtz) that jumble the jet magnetic field lines. After a sufficient distance from the core source, these instabilities will cause the beamed emission to point in random directions and the jet emission can then be observed from any direction relative to the jet axis. This combination of effects may lead to the gap turn-on of astrophysical jets. The collective emission model leads to different estimates for energy transport and the interpretation of radio spectra than the conventional incoherent synchrotron theory.

  7. Coincidence of features of emitted THz electromagnetic wave power form a single Josephson junction and different current components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdipour, Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    By applying a voltage to a Josephson junction, the charge in superconducting layers (S-layers) will oscillate. Wavelength of the charge oscillations in S-layers is related to external current in junction, by increasing the external current, the wavelength will decrease which cause in some currents the wavelength be incommensurate with width of junction, so the CVC shows Fiske like steps. External current throwing along junction has some components, resistive, capacitive and superconducting current, beside these currents there is a current in lateral direction of junction, (x direction). On the other hand, the emitted electromagnetic wave power in THz region is related to AC component of electric field in junction, which itself is related to charge density in S-layers, which is related to currents in the system. So we expect that features of variation of current components reflect the features of emitted THz power form junction. Here we study in detail the superconductive current in a long Josephson junction (JJ), the current voltage characteristics (CVC) of junction and emitted THz power from the system. Then we compare the results. Comparing the results we see that there is a good qualitative coincidence in features of emitted THz power and supercurrent in junction.

  8. Influence of radiofrequency-electromagnetic waves from 3rd-generation cellular phones on fertilization and embryo development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Satoshi; Okutsu, Miho; Suganuma, Ryota; Komiya, Hiromi; Nakatani-Enomoto, Setsu; Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Tateno, Hiroyuki; Fujimori, Keiya

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 3rd-generation (3G) cellular phone radiofrequency-electromagnetic wave (RF-EMW) exposure on fertilization and embryogenesis in mice. Oocytes and spermatozoa were exposed to 3G cellular phone RF-EMWs, 1.95 GHz wideband code division multiple access, at a specific absorption rate of 2 mW/g for 60 min, or to sham exposure. After RF-EMW exposure, in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection were performed. Rates of fertilization, embryogenesis (8-cell embryo, blastocyst), and chromosome aberration were compared between the combined spermatozoa and oocyte groups: both exposed, both non-exposed, one exposed, and the other non-exposed. Rates of fertilization, embryogenesis, and blastocyst formation did not change significantly across the four groups. Considering that the degree of exposure in the present study was ≥100 times greater than daily exposure of human spermatozoa and even greater than daily exposure of oocytes, the present results indicate safety of RF-EMW exposure in humans. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:466-473, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Light Spins of Cylindrical Electromagnetic Waves and their Jumps across Material Interfaces in the Presence of Energy Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mok

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate light spins for cylindrical electromagnetic waves on resonance. To this goal, we consider both a dielectric cylinder of infinite length immersed in vacuum and a cylindrical hole punched through a dense dielectric medium. In order for waves of constant frequencies to be established through lossless media, energy absorption is allowed in the surrounding medium to compensate for radiation loss. The dispersion relation is then numerically solved for an asymmetry parameter implying a balance in energy exchange. Numerical studies are performed by varying parameters of refractive index contrast, azimuthal mode index, and size parameter of a cylindrical object. The resulting data is presented mostly in terms of a specific spin, defined as light spin per energy density. This specific spin is found to be bounded in its magnitude, with its maximum associated with either optical vortices or large rotations. Depending on parametric combinations, the specific spin could not only undergo finite jumps across the material interface but also exhibit limit behaviors.

  10. Theory of hysteresis during electron heating of electromagnetic wave scattering by self-organized dust structures in complex plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsytovich, Vadim, E-mail: tsytov@lpi.ru [A. M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova str. 38, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching (Germany); Gusein-zade, Namik; Ignatov, Alexander [A. M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova str. 38, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Medicobiologic Faculty, Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    Dust structuring is a natural and universal process in complex plasmas. The scattering of electromagnetic waves by dust structures is governed by the factor of coherency, i.e., the total number of coherent electrons in a single structure. In the present paper, we consider how the factor of coherency changes due to additional pulse electron heating and show that it obeys a hysteresis. After the end of the pulse heating, the scattering intensity differs substantially from that before heating. There are three necessary conditions for scattering hysteresis: first, the radiation wavelength should be larger than the pattern (structure) size; second, the total number of coherent electrons confined by the structure should be large; and third, the heating pulse duration should be shorter than the characteristic time of dust structure formation. We present the results of numerical calculations using existing models of self-consistent dust structures with either positively or negatively charged dust grains. It is shown that, depending on the grain charge and the ionization rate, two types of hysteresis are possible: one with a final increase of the scattering and the other with a final decrease of the scattering. It is suggested that the hysteresis of coherent scattering can be used as a tool in laboratory experiments and that it can be a basic mechanism explaining the observed hysteresis in radar scattering by noctilucent clouds during active experiments on electron heating in mesosphere.

  11. 18. day devoted to electromagnetic waves organised by WHIST LAB, the joint laboratory of Institut Telecom and Orange Labs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibille, Alain; Veyret, B.; Laurent, L.; Deltour, I.; Slottje, Pauline; Cardis, E.; Bontoux, L.; Miquel, A.; Wiedemann, P.; Ravazzani, P.; Wiart, J.

    2011-12-01

    This 2011 edition of the annual meeting devoted to the electromagnetic waves and to their interactions with the human being brought together 170 participants from various European countries and communities (academic, regulators, operators, industrialists..). Various aspects of the problem of RF waves were approached during this conference day: technological, biological, epidemiological, societal, risk management. This document gathers the available presentations (slides) given during the meeting and dealing with: 1 - A key parameters based vision of trends in Wireless systems (A. Sibille); 2 - In search of the missing 'non-thermal' effect (B. Veyret); 3 - National Programme 'Occupational and environmental health and safety' of ANSES (L. Laurent); 4 - Epidemiological evidence in relation to the IARC 2b classification (I. Deltour); 5 - COSMOS: International Cohort Study on Mobile Phones and Health (P. Slottje); 6 - Mobi-kids: study on communication technology, environmental dn brain tumors in young people (E. Cardis); 7 - The EMF issue at DG SANCO - Latest developments (L. Bontoux); 8 - Upgrade of the exposure control system - the COMOP (operational committee) works (A. Miquel); 9 - 2B: possibly carcinogenic to humans - A communication challenge (P. Wiedemann); 10 - EFHRAN Project. State of the art and next actions (P. Ravazzani); 11 - Trends in dosimetry and standards (J. Wiart)

  12. 19. day devoted to electromagnetic waves organised by WHIST LAB, the joint laboratory of Institut Telecom and Orange Labs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debbah, Merouane; Matthes, Ruediger; Isabelle Deltour; Veyret, Bernard; Mann, Simon; Van Rongen, Eric; Laurent, L.; Celli, Bernard; Wiedemann, Peter; Ravazzani, P.; Rowley, Jack; Wiart, Joe

    2012-12-01

    This 2012 edition of the annual meeting devoted to the electromagnetic waves and to their interactions with the human being was the occasion to tackle the problem of RF waves under various aspects: technological, biological, epidemiological, societal, risk management. This document gathers the available presentations (slides) given during the meeting and dealing with: 1 - Green Small Cell Flexible Networks (Debbah, M.); 2 - Electromagnetic Fields - The ICNIRP View (Matthes, R.); 3 - IARC Research Actions on Radio-frequencies (Deltour, I.); 4 - Research activity worldwide on mobile telephony and health/Review of international research on RF bio-effects (Veyret, B.); 5 - HPA Research on RF Exposures (Mann, S.); 6 - The Dutch research programme 'Electromagnetic Fields and Health' (Van Rongen, E.); 7 - National Programme 'Occupational and environmental health and safety' of ANSES (Laurent, L.); 8 - ANFR and public exposure to radioelectric waves (Celli, B.); 9 - EMF exposure and risk perception: Challenges and needs of the next decade (Wiedemann, P.); 10 - The EFHRAN project: an European experience of EMF Health Risk Assessment (Ravazzani, P.); 11 - Mobile Networks: Exposure Levels (Rowley, J.); 12 - Lexnet, low EMF exposure future networks (Wiart, J.)

  13. Awareness and Self-Reported Health Hazards of Electromagnetic Waves from Mobile Phone Towers in Dhaka, Bangladesh: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Over the last few years there have been concerns regarding the health effects of electromagnetic waves (EMW produced by mobile phone base transmitter stations (BTS. Data on possible health effects of EMW in developing countries are rare. This study was conducted to determine the awareness and self-reported health hazards of EMW from the mobile phone BTS in Dhaka city. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 220 respondents living around BTS in Dhaka city. Data was collected on sociodemographic characteristics, mobile phone use, BTS and EMW awareness, and self-reported health problems. Results. The majority of respondents (92.7% reported to have seen a BTS but only 29.5% knows how it works and 74.5% had no knowledge about the EMW. 49% respondents experienced sleeping disturbances while recent episodes of headache or dizziness were reported by 47% and mood change or anxiety or depression by 41%. About 22% complained about other physical or mental symptoms. Conclusion. Awareness about the possible health hazards from EMW of BTS is low among the inhabitants of Dhaka city. A number of respondents mentioned recent health effects but the association with BTS could not be established.

  14. Nonlinear Electromagnetic Waves and Spherical Arc-Polarized Waves in Space Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, B.; Ho, Christian M.; Arballo, John K.; Lakhina, Gurbax S.; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Neubauer, Fritz M.

    1997-01-01

    We review observations of nonlinear plasma waves detected by interplanetary spacecraft. For this paper we will focus primarily on the phase-steepened properties of such waves. Plasma waves at comet Giacobini-Zinner measured by the International Cometary Explorer (ICE), at comets Halley and Grigg-Skjellerup measured by Giotto, and interplanetary Alfven waves measured by Ulysses, will be discussed and intercompared.

  15. Waveguide propagation of electromagnetic waves in high-density ducts aligned along the geomagnetic field in the near-equatorial magnetospheric region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    Waveguide propagation of electromagnetic waves in axial symmetric ducts with increased plasma density aligned along the constant external magnetic field is considered for frequencies, being higher than low-hybrid, in the WKB approximation. In this case tunnel effects leading to captured wave damping are taken into account. Conditions for waveguide propagation and the logarithmic decrement of damping are found. Field construction is performed using the systems of axially symmetric WKB solutions of the Maxwell equations

  16. Self-organization of large-scale ULF electromagnetic wave structures in their interaction with nonuniform zonal winds in the ionospheric E region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburjania, G. D.; Chargazia, Kh. Z.

    2011-01-01

    A study is made of the generation and subsequent linear and nonlinear evolution of ultralow-frequency planetary electromagnetic waves in the E region of a dissipative ionosphere in the presence of a nonuniform zonal wind (a sheared flow). Hall currents flowing in the E region and such permanent global factors as the spatial nonuniformity of the geomagnetic field and of the normal component of the Earth’s angular velocity give rise to fast and slow planetary-scale electromagnetic waves. The efficiency of the linear amplification of planetary electromagnetic waves in their interaction with a nonuniform zonal wind is analyzed. When there are sheared flows, the operators of linear problems are non-self-conjugate and the corresponding eigenfunctions are nonorthogonal, so the canonical modal approach is poorly suited for studying such motions and it is necessary to utilize the so-called nonmodal mathematical analysis. It is shown that, in the linear evolutionary stage, planetary electromagnetic waves efficiently extract energy from the sheared flow, thereby substantially increasing their amplitude and, accordingly, energy. The criterion for instability of a sheared flow in an ionospheric medium is derived. As the shear instability develops and the perturbation amplitude grows, a nonlinear self-localization mechanism comes into play and the process ends with the self-organization of nonlinear, highly localized, solitary vortex structures. The system thus acquires a new degree of freedom, thereby providing a new way for the perturbation to evolve in a medium with a sheared flow. Depending on the shape of the sheared flow velocity profile, nonlinear structures can be either purely monopole vortices or vortex streets against the background of the zonal wind. The accumulation of such vortices can lead to a strongly turbulent state in an ionospheric medium.

  17. Theoretical investigation of resonance frequencies in long wavelength electromagnetic wave scattering process from plasma prolate and oblate spheroids placed in a dielectric layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadizadeh, Y.; Jazi, B.; Abdoli-Arani, A.

    2014-01-01

    Response of a prolate spheroid plasma and/or an oblate spheroid plasma in presence of long wavelength electromagnetic wave has been studied. The resonance frequencies of these objects are obtained and it is found that they reduce to the resonance frequency of spherical cold plasma. Moreover, the resonant frequencies of prolate spheroid plasma and oblate spheroid plasma covered by a dielectric are investigated as well. Furthermore, their dependency on dielectric permittivity and geometry dimensions is simulated.

  18. Guiding electromagnetic waves around sharp corners: topologically protected photonic transport in meta-waveguides (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvets, Gennady B.; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Ma, Tzuhsuan; Lai, Kueifu

    2015-09-01

    Science thrives on analogies, and a considerable number of inventions and discoveries have been made by pursuing an unexpected connection to a very different field of inquiry. For example, photonic crystals have been referred to as "semiconductors of light" because of the far-reaching analogies between electron propagation in a crystal lattice and light propagation in a periodically modulated photonic environment. However, two aspects of electron behavior, its spin and helicity, escaped emulation by photonic systems until recent invention of photonic topological insulators (PTIs). The impetus for these developments in photonics came from the discovery of topologically nontrivial phases in condensed matter physics enabling edge states immune to scattering. The realization of topologically protected transport in photonics would circumvent a fundamental limitation imposed by the wave equation: inability of reflections-free light propagation along sharply bent pathway. Topologically protected electromagnetic states could be used for transporting photons without any scattering, potentially underpinning new revolutionary concepts in applied science and engineering. I will demonstrate that a PTI can be constructed by applying three types of perturbations: (a) finite bianisotropy, (b) gyromagnetic inclusion breaking the time-reversal (T) symmetry, and (c) asymmetric rods breaking the parity (P) symmetry. We will experimentally demonstrate (i) the existence of the full topological bandgap in a bianisotropic, and (ii) the reflectionless nature of wave propagation along the interface between two PTIs with opposite signs of the bianisotropy.

  19. The single- and double-particle properties and the current reversal of coupled Brownian motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chen-Pu; Chen, Hong-Bin; Zheng, Zhi-Gang; Fan, Hong; Shen, Wen-Mei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the directed transport of coupled Brownian motors composed of two identical particles which is individually subject to a time-symmetric rocking force in spatially-symmetric periodic potentials. We find that both the coupling free length and the coupling strength can induce the reversed motion of the coupled Brownian motors, the essence of which is the coupled Brownian motors can exhibit completely different single- or double-particle properties under certain conditions. Namely, the current reversal is the result of the mutual conversion between the single- and double-particle properties of the coupled Brownian motors. Moreover, the directed current of coupled Brownian motors can be optimized and manipulated by adjusting the strength, the period, the phase difference of the rocking forces, and the noise intensity. (paper)

  20. Preparation and selected properties of ion-containing reverse osmosis membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, E.S.A.; Dessouki, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Ion-containing reverse osmosis membranes were prepared by the post radiation grafting of 4-vinylpyridine onto low density polyethylene films, followed by quaternization of the pyridine rings in the graft chains to confer ionic character to the membranes. The effect of some preparation conditions on the grafting yield was investigated. Different quaternizing agents such as methyl iodide, allyl bromide, and hydrochloric acid were used for the quaternization of the graft chains. The effect of quaternizing agent and degree of grafting on the properties of the membranes such as swelling behaviour, specific electric resistance, water flux and salt rejection, was investigated. The properties of these ionic membranes did not deteriorate with the operation time and they show a great promise for the use in the field of reverse osmosis desalination of sea water. (author)

  1. The training on propagation of guided electromagnetic waves from the point of view of LSM LSE modes; La ensenanza de las ondas electromagneticas guiadas desde el punto de vista de los modos LSM y LSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.

    1997-09-01

    In this work, LSM and LSE modes are proposed as a didactic alternative for modeling the propagation of guided electromagnetic waves. Our considerations can be applied to the most common electromagnetic waves guiding systems: empty metallic waveguides, metallic waveguides partially filled with dielectrics, dielectric sheet waveguides and 3-D dielectric waveguides. In all cases, our interest is focussed on modes with a defined polarization; therefore the teaching activity can be treated from the scalar wave approximation point of view. (Author)

  2. Radial wave crystals: radially periodic structures from anisotropic metamaterials for engineering acoustic or electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent, Daniel; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2009-08-07

    We demonstrate that metamaterials with anisotropic properties can be used to develop a new class of periodic structures that has been named radial wave crystals. They can be sonic or photonic, and wave propagation along the radial directions is obtained through Bloch states like in usual sonic or photonic crystals. The band structure of the proposed structures can be tailored in a large amount to get exciting novel wave phenomena. For example, it is shown that acoustical cavities based on radial sonic crystals can be employed as passive devices for beam forming or dynamically orientated antennas for sound localization.

  3. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in a weak collisional and fully ionized dusty plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Jieshu; Yuan, Chengxun, E-mail: yuancx@hit.edu.cn; Gao, Ruilin; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Zhong-Xiang [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Liu, Sha; Yue, Feng [Shanghai Institute of Spaceflight Control Technology, Shanghai 200233 (China); Wu, Jian [China Research Institute of Radio wave Propagation, Beijing 102206 (China); Li, Hui [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); China Research Institute of Radio wave Propagation, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2016-04-15

    The propagation properties of electromagnetic (EM) waves in fully ionized dusty plasmas is the subject of this study. The dielectric relationships for EM waves propagating in a fully ionized dusty plasma was derived from the Boltzmann distribution law, taking into consideration the collision and charging effects of the dust grains. The propagation properties of the EM waves in a dusty plasma were numerically calculated and studied. The study results indicated that the dusty grains with an increased radius and charge were more likely to impede the penetration of EM waves. Dust grains with large radii and high charge cause the attenuation of the EM wave in the dusty plasma. The different density of the dust in the plasma appeared to have no obvious effect on the transmission of the EM waves. The propagation of the EM waves in a weakly ionized dusty plasma varies from that in a fully ionized dusty plasma. The results are helpful to analyze the effects of dust in dusty plasmas and also provide a theoretical basis for future studies.

  4. Electromagnetic Waves Dispersion and Interaction of an Annular Beam-Ion Channel System in Plasma Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiong Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A linear theory for the electromagnetic properties and interactions of an annular beam-ion channel system in plasma waveguide is presented. The dispersion relations for two families of propagating modes, including the electrostatic and transverse magnetic modes, are derived. The dependencies of the dispersion behavior and interaction for different wave modes on the thickness of the annular beam and betatron oscillation frequency are studied in detail by numerical calculations. The results show that the inner and outer radii of the beam have different influences on propagation properties of the electrostatic and electromagnetic modes with different betatron oscillation parameters. In the weak ion channel situation, the two types of electrostatic waves, that is, space charge and betatron modes, have no interaction with the transverse magnetic modes. However, in the strong ion channel situation, the transverse magnetic modes will have two branches and a low frequency mode emerged as the new branch. In this case, compared with the solid beam case, the betatron modes not only can interact with the high frequency branch at small wavenumber but also can interact with the low frequency branch at large wavenumber.

  5. Efficient heat generation in large-area graphene films by electromagnetic wave absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sangmin; Choi, Haehyun; Lee, Soo Bin; Park, Seong Chae; Park, Jong Bo; Lee, Sangkyu; Kim, Youngsoo; Hong, Byung Hee

    2017-06-01

    Graphene has been intensively studied due to its outstanding electrical and thermal properties. Recently, it was found that the heat generation by Joule heating of graphene is limited by the conductivity of graphene. Here we suggest an alternative method to generate heat on a large-area graphene film more efficiently by utilizing the unique electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption property of graphene. The EM wave induces an oscillating magnetic moment generated by the orbital motion of moving electrons, which efficiently absorbs the EM energy and dissipate it as a thermal energy. In this case, the mobility of electron is more important than the conductivity, because the EM-induced diamagnetic moment is directly proportional to the speed of electron in an orbital motion. To control the charge carrier mobility of graphene we functionalized substrates with self-assembled monolayers (SAM). As the result, we find that the graphene showing the Dirac voltage close to zero can be more efficiently heated by EM waves. In addition, the temperature gradient also depends on the number of graphene. We expect that the efficient and fast heating of graphene films by EM waves can be utilized for smart heating windows and defogging windshields.

  6. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in a weak collisional and fully ionized dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Jieshu; Yuan, Chengxun; Gao, Ruilin; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Zhong-Xiang; Liu, Sha; Yue, Feng; Wu, Jian; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The propagation properties of electromagnetic (EM) waves in fully ionized dusty plasmas is the subject of this study. The dielectric relationships for EM waves propagating in a fully ionized dusty plasma was derived from the Boltzmann distribution law, taking into consideration the collision and charging effects of the dust grains. The propagation properties of the EM waves in a dusty plasma were numerically calculated and studied. The study results indicated that the dusty grains with an increased radius and charge were more likely to impede the penetration of EM waves. Dust grains with large radii and high charge cause the attenuation of the EM wave in the dusty plasma. The different density of the dust in the plasma appeared to have no obvious effect on the transmission of the EM waves. The propagation of the EM waves in a weakly ionized dusty plasma varies from that in a fully ionized dusty plasma. The results are helpful to analyze the effects of dust in dusty plasmas and also provide a theoretical basis for future studies.

  7. Propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves in dusty plasma with full ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Li; Guo, Li-Xin; Li, Jiang-Ting

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the propagation characteristics of electromagnetic (EM) waves in fully ionized dusty plasmas. The propagation characteristics of fully ionized plasma with and without dust under the Fokker-Planck-Landau (FPL) and Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) models are compared to those of weakly ionized plasmas by using the propagation matrix method. It is shown that the FPL model is suitable for the analysis of the propagation characteristics of weakly collisional and fully ionized dusty plasmas, as is the BGK model. The influence of varying the dust parameters on the propagation properties of EM waves in the fully ionized dusty plasma was analyzed using the FPL model. The simulation results indicated that the densities and average radii of dust grains influence the reflection and transmission coefficients of fully ionized dusty plasma slabs. These results may be utilized to analyze the effects of interaction between EM waves and dusty plasmas, such as those associated with hypersonic vehicles.

  8. Manipulating Electromagnetic Waves in Magnetized Plasmas: Compression, Frequency Shifting, and Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avitzour, Yoav; Shvets, Gennady

    2008-01-01

    A new approach to manipulating the duration and frequency of microwave pulses using magnetized plasmas is demonstrated. The plasma accomplishes two functions: (i) slowing down and spatially compressing the incident wave, and (ii) modifying the propagation properties (group velocity and frequency) of the wave in the plasma during a uniform in space adiabatic in time variation of the magnitude and/or direction of the magnetic field. The increase in the group velocity results in the shortening of the temporal pulse duration. Depending on the plasma parameters, the frequency of the outgoing compressed pulse can either change or remain unchanged. Such dynamic manipulation of radiation in plasma opens new avenues for manipulating high power microwave pulses

  9. Stochastic Modeling and Generation of Partially Polarized or Partially Coherent Electromagnetic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brynmor; Kim, Edward; Piepmeier, Jeffrey; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Many new Earth remote-sensing instruments are embracing both the advantages and added complexity that result from interferometric or fully polarimetric operation. To increase instrument understanding and functionality a model of the signals these instruments measure is presented. A stochastic model is used as it recognizes the non-deterministic nature of any real-world measurements while also providing a tractable mathematical framework. A stationary, Gaussian-distributed model structure is proposed. Temporal and spectral correlation measures provide a statistical description of the physical properties of coherence and polarization-state. From this relationship the model is mathematically defined. The model is shown to be unique for any set of physical parameters. A method of realizing the model (necessary for applications such as synthetic calibration-signal generation) is given and computer simulation results are presented. The signals are constructed using the output of a multi-input multi-output linear filter system, driven with white noise.

  10. Analysis of transient electromagnetic wave interactions on graphene-based devices using integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Yifei

    2015-10-26

    Graphene is a monolayer of carbon atoms structured in the form of a honeycomb lattice. Recent experimental studies have revealed that it can support surface plasmons at Terahertz frequencies thanks to its dispersive conductivity. Additionally, characteristics of these plasmons can be dynamically adjusted via electrostatic gating of the graphene sheet (K. S. Novoselov, et al., Science, 306, 666–669, 2004). These properties suggest that graphene can be a building block for novel electromagnetic and photonic devices for applications in the fields of photovoltaics, bio-chemical sensing, all-optical computing, and flexible electronics. Simulation of electromagnetic interactions on graphene-based devices is not an easy task. The thickness of the graphene sheet is orders of magnitude smaller than any other geometrical dimension of the device. Consequently, discretization of such a device leads to significantly large number of unknowns and/or ill-conditioned matrix systems.

  11. Atomistic simulation of MgO nanowires subject to electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xianqiao; Lee, James D

    2010-01-01

    This work is concerned with the application of atomistic field theory (AFT) in modeling and simulation of polarizable materials under an electromagnetic (EM) field. AFT enables us to express an atomic scale local property of a multi-element crystalline (which has more than one kind of atom in the unit cell) system in terms of the distortions of lattice cells and the rearrangement of atoms within the lattice cell, thereby making AFT suitable to fully reproduce both acoustic and optical branches in phonon dispersion relations. Due to the applied EM field, the inhomogeneous motions of discrete atoms in the polarizable crystal give rise to the rearrangement of microstructure and polarization. The AFT and its corresponding finite element implementation are briefly introduced. Single-crystal MgO nanowires under an EM field is modeled and simulated. The numerical results have demonstrated that AFT can serve as a tool to analyze the electromagnetic phenomena of multi-element crystal materials at micro/nano-level within a field framework

  12. Gyrokinetic approach to the propagation of electromagnetic waves in nonuniform bounded plasma slabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauter, O.; Vaclavik, J.

    1994-05-01

    A new code, SEMAL, has been developed which solves the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell wave equations to all orders in Larmor radii. Arbitrary density and temperature profiles as well as nonuniform magnetic fields are considered in slab geometry. The vacuum regions adjacent to the plasma slab are limited by perfect conducting walls and contain an antenna as an excitation source. The linear response is obtained by solving the system of one first-order and two second-order integro-differential equations using a non-polluting finite element discretization. The general equations in the Fourier space, derived in a new comprehensive way, and their inverse transform, using k y =0, are described as well as the convergence and non-polluting properties of the method. We present the results concerning the influence of alpha particles on ICRF heating schemes for ITER, where we show that small alphas concentration can alter the steady-state operation envisaged with ICRF fast wave current-drive. (author) 7 figs., 3 tabs., 28 refs

  13. In situ preparation of cobalt nanoparticles decorated in N-doped carbon nanofibers as excellent electromagnetic wave absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huihui; Li, Yajing; Yuan, Mengwei; Sun, Genban; Li, Huifeng; Ma, Shulan; Liao, Qingliang; Zhang, Yue

    2018-06-11

    The electrospinning and annealing methods is applied to prepare cobalt nanoparticles decorated in N-doped carbon nanofibers (Co/N-C NFs) with solid and macroporous structures. In detail, the nanocomposites are synthesized by carbonization of as-electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/cobalt acetylacetonate nanofibers in an argon atmosphere. The solid Co/N-C NFs has lengths up to dozens of microns with the average diameter of ca. 500 nm and possess abundant cobalt nanoparticles on both the surface and within the fibers, and the cobalt nanoparticles size is about 20 nm. The macroporous Co/N-C NFs possess a hierarchical pore structure, and there are macropores (500 nm) and mesopores (2-50 nm) existed in this material. The saturation magnetization (Ms) and coercivity (Hc) of the solid Co/N-C NFs are 28.4 emu g-1 and 661 Oe, respectively. And those of the macroporous Co/N-C NFs are 23.3 emu g-1 and 580 Oe, respectively. The solid Co/N-C NFs exhibits excellent electromagnetic wave absorbability, a minimum reflection loss (RL) value of -25.7 dB is achieved with a matching thickness of 2 mm for solid Co/N-C NFs when the filler loading is 5 wt%, and the effective bandwidth (BW) (RL≤-10 dB) is 4.3 GHz. Moreover, the effective microwave absorption can be achieved in the whole range of 1-18 GHz by adjusting the thickness of the sample layer and content of the dopant sample.

  14. Beamed-Energy Propulsion (BEP): Considerations for Beaming High Energy-Density Electromagnetic Waves Through the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    A study to determine the feasibility of employing beamed electromagnetic energy for vehicle propulsion within and outside the Earth's atmosphere was co-funded by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency that began in June 2010 and culminated in a Summary Presentation in April 2011. A detailed report entitled "Beamed-Energy Propulsion (BEP) Study" appeared in February 2012 as NASA/TM-2012-217014. Of the very many nuances of this subject that were addressed in this report, the effects of transferring the required high energy-density electromagnetic fields through the atmosphere were discussed. However, due to the limitations of the length of the report, only a summary of the results of the detailed analyses were able to be included. It is the intent of the present work to make available the complete analytical modeling work that was done for the BEP project with regard to electromagnetic wave propagation issues. In particular, the present technical memorandum contains two documents that were prepared in 2011. The first one, entitled "Effects of Beaming Energy Through the Atmosphere" contains an overview of the analysis of the nonlinear problem inherent with the transfer of large amounts of energy through the atmosphere that gives rise to thermally-induced changes in the refractive index; application is then made to specific beamed propulsion scenarios. A brief portion of this report appeared as Appendix G of the 2012 Technical Memorandum. The second report, entitled "An Analytical Assessment of the Thermal Blooming Effects on the Propagation of Optical and Millimeter- Wave Focused Beam Waves For Power Beaming Applications" was written in October 2010 (not previously published), provides a more detailed treatment of the propagation problem and its effect on the overall characteristics of the beam such as its deflection as well as its radius. Comparisons are then made for power beaming using the disparate electromagnetic wavelengths of 1.06 microns and 2

  15. Reversed Microstructures and Tensile Properties after Various Cold Rolling Reductions in AISI 301LN Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Järvenpää

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Heavy cold rolling is generally required for efficient grain size refinement in the martensitic reversion process, which is, however, not desirable in practical processing. In the present work, the influence of cold rolling reductions of 32%, 45% and 63% on the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of a metastable austenitic AISI 301LN type steel were investigated in detail adopting scanning electron microscopy with the electron backscatter diffraction method and mechanical testing. A completely austenitic microstructure and a partially reversed counterpart were created. It was found that the fraction of grains with a size of 3 µm or larger, called medium-sized grains, increased with decreasing the prior cold rolling reduction. These grains are formed mainly from the shear-reversed austenite, transformed from slightly-deformed martensite, by gradual evolution of subgrains to grains. However, in spite of significant amounts of medium-sized grains, the tensile properties after the 32% or 45% cold rolling reductions were practically equal to those after the 63% reduction. The austenite stability against the formation of deformation-induced martensite in subsequent straining was reduced by lowering the cold rolling reduction, due to the larger grain size of medium-sized grains and the shift of their orientation towards {211} .

  16. Progress Towards Left-Handed Electromagnetic Waves in Rare-Earth Doped Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Nicholas Riley

    In 1968 Victor Veselago determined that a material with both a negative permittivity and negative permeability would have some extraordinary properties. The index of refraction of this material would be negative and light propagating inside would be 'left-handed'. This research went relatively unnoticed until the year 2000 when John Pendry discovered that a lens with an index of refraction of n = -1 could, in principle, have infinite resolution. Since 2000, research into negative index materials has exploded. The challenging part of this research is to get a material to respond to magnetic fields at optical frequencies. Artificially created metamaterials are able to achieve this and have been the focus of most negative index research. The long term goal of our project is to produce left-handed light in an atomic system. In order to do this, an atomic transition needs to be utilized that is magnetic dipole in character. Pure magnetic dipole transitions in the optical regime are more rare and fundamentally much weaker than the electric dipole transitions typically used in atomic physics experiments. They can be found, however, in the complex atomic structure of rare-earth elements. The 7F0 → 5D 1 transition in europium doped yttrium orthosilicate (Eu3+:Y 2SiO5) has a wavelength of 527.5 nm and is a pure magnetic dipole transition. We measured its dipole moment to be (0.063 +/- 0.005)mu B via Rabi oscillations, inferring a magnetization on the order of 10 -2 A/m. Demonstrating this large magnetic response at an optical frequency is a major first step in realizing left-handed light in atomic systems.

  17. Preparation and electromagnetic wave absorption of chain-like CoNi by a hydrothermal route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Biao; Shao, Gang; Fan, Bingbing; Xie, Yajun; Zhang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    One-dimension CoNi chains with lengths of several to tens and diameter of 1-2 μm were synthesized through a tartrate assisted hydrothermal method at 140 °C for 15 h. The obtained CoNi chains were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The electromagnetic characteristics of CoNi chains were studied at 1–18 GHz. The maximum reflection loss (RL) can reach −34.33 dB at 17.5 GHz with a thickness of 1.0 mm. The value of reflection loss below −10 dB can be tuned in the 4.6–18 GHz by adjusting the absorber thickness of 1.0–3.0 mm. The excellent microwave absorption properties of the CoNi chains are ascribed to the good impedance matching, multiple polarization and unique chain-like shape. The experimental results showed that chain-like CoNi is a promising candidate as a low density, strong-absorption, wide-band and thin-thickness microwave absorber. - Highlights: • The CoNi chains were prepared through a tartrate-assisted hydrothermal method. • The CoNi chains are polyphasic with a mixture of fcc lattice and hcp lattice. • An optimal reflection loss value of −34.33 dB could be obtained at 17.5 GHz. • The RL below −10 dB is from 4.6 to 18.0 GHz with thickness of 1.0–3.0 mm. • The chain-like CoNi is a promising absorber with wide-band and thin-thickness

  18. Influence of reverse bias on the LEDs properties used as photo-detectors in VLC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Marcin; Siuzdak, Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    Continuous increasing share of light emitting diodes (LEDs) in a lighting market, which we observe during the last couple years, opens new possibilities. Especially, when we talk about practical realization the concept of visible light communications (VLC), which gains on popularity recently. The VLC concept presupposes utilization of illumination systems for a purpose of data transmission. It means, the emitters, in this case the LEDs, will not of a light source only, but also the data transmitters. Currently, most of the conducted researches in this area is concentrated on achievement of effective transmission methods. It means a transmission only in one direction. This is not enough, when we talk about the fully functional transmission system. Ensuring of feedback transmission channel is a necessary also. One of the ideas, which was postulated by authors of this article, is using for this purpose the LEDs in a double role. A utilization of LEDs as photo-detectors requires a reverse polarization, in contrast to a forward bias, which has a place when they work as light emitters. Ensuring of proper polarization get significant meaning. The article presents the investigations results on the influence of reverse bias on photo-receiving properties of LEDs used as light detectors. The conducted research proved that an improvement of sensitivity and bandwidth parameters are possible by application of appropriate value of the reverse voltage in a receiver.

  19. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    the increacd availabilit , ol such systems are critical for their optimum use. This computers and display technology. An early example is illustrated...Gaseous zO - H 0.25 mm/hr 2 H2 I - Temperature - 20 C D ~~Sea Level - p1 am, Z Water Vapour - 7.5 g/m 3 I- < 0 3Gaseous L . II I I I LIiIU hJ1 001 10

  20. Forerunners of electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gendenshtejn, L.Eh.; Polovin, R.V.

    1980-01-01

    The given paper is a review. Considered are forerunners at the sudden switching the signal in the medium with frequency dispersion. The consideration is carried out by the pass method. Described are the first and the second forerunners, as well as the momentum of the main signal coming. It is noted, that in the case of the active medium the second forerunner, connected with eigen medium vibrations, can grow

  1. Different roles of electron beam in two stream instability in an elliptical waveguide for generation and amplification of THz electromagnetic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, S.; Jazi, B., E-mail: jaziada@kashanu.ac.ir [Department of Laser and Photonics, Faculty of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jahanbakht, S. [Department of Communications Engineering, Faculty of Electrical And Computer Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    In this work, two stream instability in a metallic waveguide with elliptical cross-section and with a hollow annular dielectric layer is studied for generation and amplification of THz electromagnetic waves. Dispersion relation of waves and their dependents to geometric dimensions and characteristics of the electron beam are analyzed. In continuation, the diagrams of growth rate for some operating frequencies are presented, so that effective factors on the growth rates, such as geometrical dimensions, dielectric constant of dielectric layer, accelerating voltage, and applied current intensity are analyzed. It is shown that while an electron beam is responsible for instability, another electron beam plays a stabilizing role.

  2. The properties of chromium electrodeposited with programmed currents. Part II. Reversing current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANJA M. KOSTIC

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrodeposition of chromium in programmed reversing current (RC, was investigated in the regime of high cathodic current density (77 A dm-2 and anodic current density (55 A dm-2. The ratio of the cathodic and anodic time (60 : 1 was used. Chromium was deposed on a steel substrate from a chromic-sulphuric acid solution, during one hour. Anode and cathode were suited in a system of parallel plates. Basic properties of deposits, like thickness, morphology, microhardness, brightness were examined. Surface distribution of the deposits was obtained from the measurements of the thicknesses of the deposits (between 32 and 67 µm. A ferromagnetic non-destructive method was used in the measurements. Based on the results, graphic models of deposit surface distribution were made. Two ranges of the thickness could be seen on the model (range 1 - average thickness 35.1 µm and range 2 - average thickness 57.81 µm. These results were statisticaly analysed by colums, rows and by the whole surface. For the whole specimens, the average thickness was 45.39 µm with a coefficient of variation of 0.2582. The basic properties of the deposits did not change with a variation of the thickness. Because of this, the coatings deposited with the reversing current could be much more considered reliable in wear and corrosion protection systems than ones deposited by direct current.

  3. Manganese ferrite prepared using reverse micelle process: Structural and magnetic properties characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, Mohd, E-mail: md.hashim09@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Shirsath, Sagar E. [Spin Device Technology Centre, Department of Engineering, Shinshu University, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan); Meena, S.S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mane, M.L. [Department of Physics, S.G.R.G. Shinde Mahavidyalaya, Paranda 413502, MS (India); Kumar, Shalendra [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changwon National University, Changwon, Gyeongnam 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Bhatt, Pramod [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kumar, Ravi [Centre for Material Science Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur, HP (India); Prasad, N.K.; Alla, S.K. [Deptartment of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Shah, Jyoti; Kotnala, R.K. [National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Mohammed, K.A. [Department of Mathematics & Physics Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Nizwa, Nizwa (Oman); Şentürk, Erdoğan [Department of Physics, Sakarya University, Esentepe, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey); Alimuddin [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India)

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • Preparation of Mn{sup 3+} substituted MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite by Reverse microemulsion process. • Characterization by XRD, SEM, VSM, Mössbauer spectroscopy and dielectric measurements techniques. • Magnetic properties of MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} enhanced after Mn{sup 3+} substitution. • The dielectric constant and ac conductivity increased with Mn{sup 3+} substitution. - Abstract: Reverse microemulsion process was employed to prepare of nanocrystalline Mn{sup 3+} substituted MnFe{sub 2−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 4} ferrites. The structural, magnetic and dielectric properties were studied for different concentrations of Mn{sup 3+}. The structural and microstructural properties were analyzed using X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy techniques. The phase identification of the materials was studied by Rietveld refined XRD patterns which reveals single phase with cubic symmetry for the samples. The lattice parameters were ranged in between 8.369 and 8.379 Å and do not show any significant change with the substitution of Mn{sup 3+}. The average particles size was found to be around 11 ± 3 nm. Magnetization results obtained from the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) confirm that the substitution of Mn{sup 3+} in MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite caused an increase in the saturation magnetization and coercivity. The dependence of Mössbauer parameters on Mn{sup 3+} substitution has been analyzed. Magnetic behavior of the samples were also studied at field cooled (FC) and zero field cooled (ZFC) mode. The dependence of Mössbauer parameters on Mn{sup 3+} substitution was also analyzed. All the magnetic characterization shows that Mn{sup 3+} substitution enhance the magnetic behavior of MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite nanoparticles.

  4. Morphological changes in neurons of the central nervous system in response to experimental influence of centimeter-range electromagnetic waves on the body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belokrinitskiy, V.S.

    1982-08-01

    Experiments on cats and dogs exposed to electromagnetic waves at thermal intensities of 400 to 500 mV/cm/sup 2/ for 1, 10, 20, or 30 days were used to study the effects on brain and spinal cord. Changes occurred in the neurons of animals immediately after irradiation, increasing in magnitude on the 10th, 20th, and 30th day of the study. In the brain, changes were observed in the size and shape of neurons and their components (nuclei, nucleoli, and processes therein), and in the density and location of chromophil and chromatin. The changes varied among neurons located in different regions of the brain. Immediately after irradiation and after prolonged exposure neuron changes were also observed in all sections of the spinal cord. However, each section of the spinal cord was uniquely affected by electromagnetic waves regarding type and number of altered neurons. By the 10th day after irradiation many neurons were in a state of total disintegration, and shadow cells were detected. Beginning with the 7th day after irradiation, the overall condition of the animals gradually worsened. The animals became less active and showed signs of depression. The symptoms were more pronounced in cats than in dogs. None of the animals survived.

  5. A study on the heating and diagnostic of a tokamak plasma by electromagnetic waves of the electron cyclotron range of frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Katsumichi

    1989-09-01

    A study on the heating and diagnosis of tokamak plasma by electromagnetic waves of electron cyclotron range of frequency is summarized. The main results obtained are as follows. On the engineering and technology, the technology of injecting high frequency, large power millimeter waves into tokamak plasma was established by carrying out the design, manufacture and test of a 60 GHz, 400 kW high frequency heating system, and the design, manufacture and test of a heterodyne type electron cyclotron radiation multi-channel mealsuring system were carried out, and the technology of measuring the radiation from tokamak plasma with the time resolution of 10 μs in multi-channel was established. On nuclear fusion reactor core engineering and plasma physics, the high efficiency electron heating of tokamak plasma by the incidence of fundamental irregular and regular waves at electron cyclotron frequency was verified. The discovery and analysis of the heating by electrostatic waves arising due to mode transformation from electromagnetic waves in upper hybrid resonance layer were carried out. By the incidence of second harmonic waves, the high efficiency electron heating of tokamak plasma was verified, and the heating characteristics were clarified. And others. (K.I.) 179 refs

  6. Hydraulic continuity and biological effects of low strength very low frequency electromagnetic waves: Case of microbial biofilm growth in water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, Merlin; Noamen, Omri; Evelyne, Gonze; Eric, Valette; Gilles, Cauffet; Marc, Henry

    2015-10-15

    This study aims to elucidate the interactions between water, subjected to electromagnetic waves of very low frequency (VLF) (kHz) with low strength electromagnetic fields (3.5 mT inside the coils), and the development of microbial biofilms in this exposed water. Experimental results demonstrate that in water exposed to VLF electromagnetic waves, the biomass of biofilm is limited if hydraulic continuity is achieved between the electromagnetic generator and the biofilm media. The measured amount of the biofilm's biomass is approximately a factor two lower for exposed biofilm than the non-exposed biofilm. Measurements of electromagnetic fields in the air and simulations exhibit very low intensities of fields (electromagnetic generator. Exposure to electric and magnetic fields of the quoted intensities cannot explain thermal and ionizing effects on the biofilm. A variable electrical potential with a magnitude close to 20 mV was detected in the tank in hydraulic continuity with the electromagnetic generator. The application of quantum field theory may help to explain the observed effects in this case. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of surfactants on the properties of hydrotalcites prepared by the reverse micelle method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holgado, Patricia H., E-mail: h.holgado@usal.es; Holgado, María J., E-mail: holgado@usal.es; San Román, María S., E-mail: sanroman@usal.es; Rives, Vicente, E-mail: vrives@usal.es

    2015-02-01

    Layered double hydroxides with the hydrotalcite-type structure have been prepared by the reverse micelles method. The layer cations were Ni{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} in all cases and the interlayer anion was carbonate. We have studied the effect of the surfactant used (with linear chains of different lengths, or cyclic) and the effect of the pH on the properties of the solids formed. These have been characterized by element chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, temperature-programmed reduction, FT-IR and Vis–UV spectroscopies and scanning electron microscopy. It has been found that the samples prepared at pH 9 are more crystalline than those prepared at pH 11 and their crystallite sizes are always larger than for samples prepared by the conventional precipitation method. Surfactants with cyclic organic chains lead to a larger crystallite size, probably because the water pool vesicle where the crystallite grows is larger due to sterical hindrance of the organic chains. - Graphical abstract: Layered double hydroxides with the hydrotalcite-type structure with Ni{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} cations in the layers have been prepared by the reverse micelles method. Different surfactants were used at different pH synthesis. Samples prepared at pH 9 are higher crystalline than those prepared at pH 11. Surfactants with cyclic organic chains lead to a larger crystallite size. - Highlights: • Hydrotalcites were prepared by the micelles reverse method. • Straight alkyl or cyclic chain surfactants were used. • All hydrotalcites are well crystallized at pH = 9 and 11. • The crystallite size depends on the linear/cyclic nature of the surfactant chain.

  8. Effect of surfactants on the properties of hydrotalcites prepared by the reverse micelle method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holgado, Patricia H.; Holgado, María J.; San Román, María S.; Rives, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Layered double hydroxides with the hydrotalcite-type structure have been prepared by the reverse micelles method. The layer cations were Ni 2+ and Fe 3+ in all cases and the interlayer anion was carbonate. We have studied the effect of the surfactant used (with linear chains of different lengths, or cyclic) and the effect of the pH on the properties of the solids formed. These have been characterized by element chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, temperature-programmed reduction, FT-IR and Vis–UV spectroscopies and scanning electron microscopy. It has been found that the samples prepared at pH 9 are more crystalline than those prepared at pH 11 and their crystallite sizes are always larger than for samples prepared by the conventional precipitation method. Surfactants with cyclic organic chains lead to a larger crystallite size, probably because the water pool vesicle where the crystallite grows is larger due to sterical hindrance of the organic chains. - Graphical abstract: Layered double hydroxides with the hydrotalcite-type structure with Ni 2+ and Fe 3+ cations in the layers have been prepared by the reverse micelles method. Different surfactants were used at different pH synthesis. Samples prepared at pH 9 are higher crystalline than those prepared at pH 11. Surfactants with cyclic organic chains lead to a larger crystallite size. - Highlights: • Hydrotalcites were prepared by the micelles reverse method. • Straight alkyl or cyclic chain surfactants were used. • All hydrotalcites are well crystallized at pH = 9 and 11. • The crystallite size depends on the linear/cyclic nature of the surfactant chain

  9. Light-enabled reversible self-assembly and tunable optical properties of stable hairy nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yihuang; Wang, Zewei; He, Yanjie; Yoon, Young Jun; Jung, Jaehan; Zhang, Guangzhao; Lin, Zhiqun

    2018-02-01

    The ability to dynamically organize functional nanoparticles (NPs) via the use of environmental triggers (temperature, pH, light, or solvent polarity) opens up important perspectives for rapid and convenient construction of a rich variety of complex assemblies and materials with new structures and functionalities. Here, we report an unconventional strategy for crafting stable hairy NPs with light-enabled reversible and reliable self-assembly and tunable optical properties. Central to our strategy is to judiciously design amphiphilic star-like diblock copolymers comprising inner hydrophilic blocks and outer hydrophobic photoresponsive blocks as nanoreactors to direct the synthesis of monodisperse plasmonic NPs intimately and permanently capped with photoresponsive polymers. The size and shape of hairy NPs can be precisely tailored by modulating the length of inner hydrophilic block of star-like diblock copolymers. The perpetual anchoring of photoresponsive polymers on the NP surface renders the attractive feature of self-assembly and disassembly of NPs on demand using light of different wavelengths, as revealed by tunable surface plasmon resonance absorption of NPs and the reversible transformation of NPs between their dispersed and aggregated states. The dye encapsulation/release studies manifested that such photoresponsive NPs may be exploited as smart guest molecule nanocarriers. By extension, the star-like block copolymer strategy enables the crafting of a family of stable stimuli-responsive NPs (e.g., temperature- or pH-sensitive polymer-capped magnetic, ferroelectric, upconversion, or semiconducting NPs) and their assemblies for fundamental research in self-assembly and crystallization kinetics of NPs as well as potential applications in optics, optoelectronics, magnetic technologies, sensory materials and devices, catalysis, nanotechnology, and biotechnology.

  10. Flexible electromagnetic wave sensor operating at GHz frequencies for instantaneous concentration measurements of NaCl, KCl, MnCl2 and CuCl solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korostynska, O; Ortoneda-Pedrola, M; Mason, A; Al-Shamma'a, A I

    2014-01-01

    A novel electromagnetic wave sensor operating at GHz frequencies for real-time chlorides concentration analysis is reported. The sensor response to deionized water, NaCl, KCl, MnCl 2  and CuCl solutions at various concentrations was tested. The sensing element, in the form of a silver pattern antenna that emits an electromagnetic field, was printed on a polyimide flexible laminate substrate to form a sensor to suit a broad range of applications, where a sensor could be placed in water reservoirs or fluid-carrying pipes for continuous analysis. The developed system confirmed the viability of using microwaves for real-time chloride solutions monitoring as the reflected signals represented by S 11  parameters were unique with clearly observed shifts in the resonant frequencies and amplitude changes when placed in direct contact with 20 µl of each solution. (paper)

  11. Terahertz emission and electromagnetic waves in single crystal Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieland, Raphael; Rudau, Fabian; Gross, Boris; Judd, Thomas; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold [Physikalisches Institut and Center for Collective Quantum Phenomena in LISA" +, Universitaet Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Kinev, Nickolay; Koshelets, Valery [Kotel' nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tsujimoto, Manabu [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Ji, Min; Huang, Ya; Zhou, Xianjing; An, Deyue; Wang, Huabing [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba (Japan); Research Institute of Superconductor Electronics, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); Wu, Peihang [Research Institute of Superconductor Electronics, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); Hatano, Takeshi [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    Josephson Junctions (JJs) offer a natural way to convert a dc voltage into high-frequency electromagnetic radiation. In the high-Tc superconductor Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} (BSCCO), JJs form intrinsically, allowing to fabricate stacks of hundreds of junctions easily. Emission can occur at relatively low bias currents but also at larger input power with frequencies from 0.4 to 1 THz. At high bias, a hot spot forms, affecting both the intensity and the linewidth of the radiation. BSCCO mesas are believed to work as a cavity for electromagnetic standing waves, synchronizing all the junctions in the stack. We investigated THz emission and hotspot formation using a combination of transport measurements, electromagnetic wave detection via a superconducting receiver and low temperature scanning laser microscopy.

  12. On the design of experiments for the study of extreme field limits in the ultra-relativistic interaction of electromagnetic waves with plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanov, Sergei V.; Esirkepov, Timur Z.; Hayashi, Yukio; Kando, Masaki; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Koga, James K.; Kondo, Kiminori; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Pirozhkov, Alexander S.; Bulanov, Stepan S.; Zhidkov, Alexei G.; Chen, Pisin; Neely, David; Kato, Yoshiaki; Narozhny, Nikolay B.; Korn, Georg

    2011-06-01

    The critical electric field of quantum electrodynamics, called also the Schwinger field, is so strong that it produces electron-positron pairs from vacuum, converting the energy of light into matter. Since the dawn of quantum electrodynamics, there has been a dream on how to reach it on Earth. With the rise of laser technology this field has become feasible through the construction of extremely high power lasers or/and with the sophisticated use of nonlinear processes in relativistic plasmas. This is one of the most attractive motivations for extremely high power laser development, i.e. producing matter from vacuum by pure light in fundamental process of quantum electrodynamics in the nonperturbative regime. Recently it has been realized that a laser with intensity well below the Schwinger limit can create an avalanche of electron-positron pairs similar to a discharge before attaining the Schwinger field. It has also been realized that the Schwinger limit can be reached using an appropriate configuration of laser beams. In experiments on the collision of laser light and high intensity electromagnetic pulses generated by relativistic flying mirrors, with electron bunches produced by a conventional accelerator and with laser wake field accelerated electrons the studying of extreme field limits in the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves is proposed. The regimes of dominant radiation reaction, which completely changes the electromagnetic wave-matter interaction, will be revealed. This will result in a new powerful source of high brightness gamma-rays. A possibility of the demonstration of the electronpositron pair creation in vacuum via multi-photon processes can be realized. This will allow modeling under terrestrial laboratory conditions neutron star magnetospheres, cosmological gamma ray bursts and the Leptonic Era of the Universe.

  13. Kinetic Effects on the Stability Properties of Field-reversed Configurations: I. Linear Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elena V. Belova; Ronald C. Davidson; Hantao Ji; Masaaki Yamada

    2003-01-28

    New computational results are presented which advance the understanding of the stability properties of the Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC). We present results of hybrid and two-fluid (Hall-MHD) simulations of prolate FRCs. The n = 1 tilt instability mechanism and growth rate reduction mechanisms are investigated in detail including resonant particle effects, finite Larmor radius and Hall stabilization, and profile effects. It is shown that the Hall effect determines the mode rotation and the change in the linear mode structure in the kinetic regime; however, the reduction in the growth rate is mostly due to finite Larmor radius effects. Resonant wave-particle interactions are studied as a function of (a) elongation, (b) the kinetic parameter S*, which is proportional to the ratio of the separatrix radius to the thermal ion Larmor radius, and (c) the separatrix shape. It is demonstrated that, contrary to the usually assumed stochasticity of the ion orbits in the FRC, a large fraction of the orbits are regular in long configurations when S* is small. A stochasticity condition is found, and a scaling with the S* parameter is presented. Resonant particle effects are shown to maintain the instability in the large gyroradius regime regardless of the separatrix shape.

  14. Changes in physicochemical and transport properties of a reverse osmosis membrane exposed to chloraminated seawater

    KAUST Repository

    Valentino, Lauren; Renkens, Tennie; Maugin, Thomas; Crouè , Jean-Philippe Philippe; Mariñ as, Benito J.

    2015-01-01

    This study contributed to improving our understanding of how disinfectants, applied to control biofouling of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, result in membrane performance degradation. We investigated changes in physicochemical properties and permeation performance of a RO membrane with fully aromatic polyamide (PA) active layer. Membrane samples were exposed to varying concentrations of monochloramine, bromide, and iodide in both synthetic and natural seawater. Elemental analysis of the membrane active layer by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) revealed the incorporation of bromine and iodine into the polyamide. The kinetics of polyamide bromination were first order with respect to the concentration of the secondary oxidizing agent Br2 for the conditions investigated. Halogenated membranes were characterized after treatment with a reducing agent and heavy ion probes to reveal the occurrence of irreversible ring halogenation and an increase in carboxylic groups, the latter produced as a result of amide bond cleavage. Finally, permeation experiments revealed increases in both water permeability and salt passage as a result of oxidative damage.

  15. A Reverse Shock and Unusual Radio Properties in GRB 160625B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, K. D.; Laskar, T.; Berger, E.; Guidorzi, C.; Dichiara, S.; Fong, W.; Gomboc, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Kopac, D.; Mundell, C. G.; Tanvir, N. R.; Williams, P. K. G.

    2017-10-01

    We present multi-wavelength observations and modeling of the exceptionally bright long γ-ray burst GRB 160625B. The optical and X-ray data are well fit by synchrotron emission from a collimated blastwave with an opening angle of {θ }j≈ 3\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 6 and kinetic energy of {E}K≈ 2× {10}51 erg, propagating into a low-density (n≈ 5× {10}-5 cm-3) medium with a uniform profile. The forward shock is sub-dominant in the radio band; instead, the radio emission is dominated by two additional components. The first component is consistent with emission from a reverse shock, indicating an initial Lorentz factor of {{{Γ }}}0≳ 100 and an ejecta magnetization of {R}B≈ 1{--}100. The second component exhibits peculiar spectral and temporal evolution and is most likely the result of scattering of the radio emission by the turbulent Milky Way interstellar medium (ISM). Such scattering is expected in any sufficiently compact extragalactic source and has been seen in GRBs before, but the large amplitude and long duration of the variability seen here are qualitatively more similar to extreme scattering events previously observed in quasars, rather than normal interstellar scintillation effects. High-cadence, broadband radio observations of future GRBs are needed to fully characterize such effects, which can sensitively probe the properties of the ISM and must be taken into account before variability intrinsic to the GRB can be interpreted correctly.

  16. Changes in physicochemical and transport properties of a reverse osmosis membrane exposed to chloraminated seawater

    KAUST Repository

    Valentino, Lauren

    2015-02-17

    This study contributed to improving our understanding of how disinfectants, applied to control biofouling of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, result in membrane performance degradation. We investigated changes in physicochemical properties and permeation performance of a RO membrane with fully aromatic polyamide (PA) active layer. Membrane samples were exposed to varying concentrations of monochloramine, bromide, and iodide in both synthetic and natural seawater. Elemental analysis of the membrane active layer by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) revealed the incorporation of bromine and iodine into the polyamide. The kinetics of polyamide bromination were first order with respect to the concentration of the secondary oxidizing agent Br2 for the conditions investigated. Halogenated membranes were characterized after treatment with a reducing agent and heavy ion probes to reveal the occurrence of irreversible ring halogenation and an increase in carboxylic groups, the latter produced as a result of amide bond cleavage. Finally, permeation experiments revealed increases in both water permeability and salt passage as a result of oxidative damage.

  17. The study of electromagnetic wave propagation in photonic crystals via planewave based transfer (scattering) matrix method with active gain material applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming

    material expressed by electric field dependent dielectric constant. Next, the concepts of spectrum interpolation (Chapter 3), higher-order incident (Chapter 4) and perfectly matched layer (Chapter 5) are introduced and applied to TMM, with detailed simulation for 1D, 2D, and 3D photonic crystal examples. Curvilinear coordinate transform is applied to the Maxwell's Equations to study waveguide bend (Chapter 6). By finding the phase difference along propagation direction at various XY plane locations, the behaviors of electromagnetic wave propagation (such as light bending, focusing etc) can be studied (Chapter 7), which can be applied to diffractive optics for new devices design. Numerical simulation tools for lasing devices are usually based on rate equations which are not accurate above the threshold and for small scale lasing cavities (such as nano-scale cavities). Recently, we extend the TMM package function to include the capacity of dealing active gain materials. Both lasing (above threshold) and spontaneous emission (below threshold) can be studied in the frame work of our Gain-TMM algorithm. Chapter 8 will illustrate the algorithm in detail and show the simulation results for 3D photonic crystal lasing devices. Then, microwave experiments (mainly resonant cavity embedded at layer-by-layer woodpile structures) are performed at Chapter 9 as an efficient practical way to study photonic crystal devices. The size of photonic crystal under microwave region is at the order of centimeter which makes the fabrication easier to realize. At the same time due to the scaling property, the result of microwave experiments can be applied directly to optical or infrared frequency regions. The systematic TMM simulations for various resonant cavities are performed and consistent results are obtained when compared with microwave experiments. Besides scaling the experimental results to much smaller wavelength, designing potential photonic crystal devices for application at microwave is

  18. Annealing effect reversal by water sorption-desorption and heating above the glass transition temperature-comparison of properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, A; Jean, Y C; Suryanarayanan, R

    2013-08-05

    Our objective is to compare the physical properties of materials obtained from two different methods of annealing reversal, that is, water sorption-desorption (WSD) and heating above glass transition temperature (HAT). Trehalose was annealed by storing at 100 °C for 120 h. The annealing effect was reversed either by WSD or HAT, and the resulting materials were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), water sorption studies, and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). While the products obtained by the two methods of annealing reversal appeared to be identical by conventional characterization methods, they exhibited pronounced differences in their water sorption behavior. Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), by measuring the fractional free volume changes in the processed samples, provided a mechanistic explanation for the differences in the observed behavior.

  19. The impact of chemical cleaning on separation efficiency and properties of reverse osmosis membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Baatiyyah, Hani

    2018-04-01

    One of most major concerns from both cost-effective and technical point of view in membrane process industry is membrane cleaning. The aim of the project was to investigate the variations in membrane surface properties and separation efficiency of reverse osmosis membrane. Compativtive analysis have to be performed on four RO membrane before and after exposing the virgin membrane into chemical cleaning to identify and analysis the impact of the chemical cleaning on the performance of RO membrane. Commerical chemical cleaning used in this project were caustic and acidic cleaning agent. The project’s aim is the investigation of simulation software’s precision for the four membranes performance projection at different conditions of the feed water. The assessment of the membranes performance was done in the Innovation Cluster at pilot plant that was industrial in size. The main commercial elements used were the thin-film composite membranes with a spiral-wound of 8-inch polyamide. Ultrafiltration (UF) and seawater RO membrane pretreatment process was done for the red sea sourced feed water. A pressure vessel dimensioned at 8-inch was operated in conjunction with an individual element at 8 -20 m3/hr feed flow rate, with an 8 to 12 % recovery and an average 35,000-42,000 mg/L of total dissolved solids (TDS) composition for the feed water. To achieve the project’s aim in assessing the membranes, three phase experimental stages were completed. The membranes performance was assessed in terms of their water flux, salt rejection, boron rejection, bicarbonate rejection and permeate quality. In addition, the membrane surfaces were characterized after exposing the fresh membranes with a chemical cleaning reagent. The experimental results showed an increase in both permeate flow and salt passage for all studied elements. The changes in the membranes performance were systematically explained based on the changes in the charge density and chemical structure of the membranes

  20. Non linear dynamic of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas; Dinamica nao linear de ondas de Langmuir e eletromagneticas em plasmas espaciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guede, Jose Ricardo Abalde

    1995-11-01

    The aim of this work is to study the nonlinear dynamics of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas. Firstly, the generalized Zakharov equations are derived which are used to study the hybrid parametric instability involving the generation of daughter Langmuir, electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves induced by two counter-propagating Langmuir pump waves with different amplitudes based on a coupled dispersion relation. Secondly, starting from the generalized Zakharov equations the linear and nonlinear coupled mode theories of three-wave and four-wave parametric interactions are developed, respectively. In three-waves processes, a Langmuir wave decays into another Langmuir wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electrostatic parametric decay) or into an electromagnetic wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electromagnetic parametric decay). In four-wave (modulational) processes, the interaction involves two wave triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplet the coupling of a pump wave with a low-frequency wave generate an anti-Stokes wave. These modulational processes are convective and resonant processes wherein the low-frequency modes are Eigenmodes of plasma and are known as the stimulated modulational processes. Four such processes are investigated in this thesis: two with Langmuir pump waves (electrostatic and hybrid stimulated modulation processes) and the other two with electromagnetic pump waves (stimulated modulation Brillouin scattering and electromagnetic stimulated modulation process). Applications of the theoretical results in space plasmas are discussed. In particular, it is shown that the electrostatic and electromagnetic parametric decay processes of Langmuir waves can model the generation and modulation of radio emissions and Langmuir waves in the

  1. Superhydrophobic TiO2-polymer nanocomposite surface with UV-induced reversible wettability and self-cleaning properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian Feng; Liu, Yang; Lin, Fang-Ju; Mondal, Bikash; Lyons, Alan M

    2013-09-25

    Multifunctional superhydrophobic nanocomposite surfaces based on photocatalytic materials, such as fluorosilane modified TiO2, have generated significant research interest. However, there are two challenges to forming such multifunctional surfaces with stable superhydrophobic properties: the photocatalytic oxidation of the hydrophobic functional groups, which leads to the permanent loss of superhydrophobicity, as well as the photoinduced reversible hydrolysis of the catalytic particle surface. Herein, we report a simple and inexpensive template lamination method to fabricate multifunctional TiO2-high-density polyethylene (HDPE) nanocomposite surfaces exhibiting superhydrophobicity, UV-induced reversible wettability, and self-cleaning properties. The laminated surface possesses a hierarchical roughness spanning the micro- to nanoscale range. This was achieved by using a wire mesh template to emboss the HDPE surface creating an array of polymeric posts while partially embedding untreated TiO2 nanoparticles selectively into the top surface of these features. The surface exhibits excellent superhydrophobic properties immediately after lamination without any chemical surface modification to the TiO2 nanoparticles. Exposure to UV light causes the surface to become hydrophilic. This change in wettability can be reversed by heating the surface to restore superhydrophobicity. The effect of TiO2 nanoparticle surface coverage and chemical composition on the mechanism and magnitude of wettability changes was studied by EDX and XPS. In addition, the ability of the surface to shed impacting water droplets as well as the ability of such droplets to clean away particulate contaminants was demonstrated.

  2. Reversible switching of fluorophore property based on intrinsic conformational transition of adenylate kinase during its catalytic cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Akira; Hirota, Shun; Matsuo, Takashi

    2013-07-17

    Adenylate kinase shows a conformational transition (OPEN and CLOSED forms) during substrate binding and product release to mediate the phosphoryl transfer between ADP and ATP/AMP. The protein motional characteristics will be useful to construct switching systems of fluorophore properties caused by the catalytic cycle of the enzyme. This paper demonstrates in situ reversible switching of a fluorophore property driven by the conformational transition of the enzyme. The pyrene-conjugated mutant adenylate kinase is able to switch the monomer/excimer emission property of pyrene on addition of ADP or P(1)P(5)-di(adenosine-5')pentaphosphate (Ap5A, a transition state analog). The observation under the dilute condition (~0.1 μM) indicates that the emission spectral change was caused by the motion of a protein molecule and not led by protein-protein interactions through π-π stacking of pyrene rings. The switching can be reversibly conducted by using hexokinase-coupling reaction. The fashion of the changes in emission intensities at various ligand concentrations is different between ADP, Mg(2+)-bound ADP, and Mg(2+)-bound Ap5A. The emission property switching is repeatable by a sequential addition of a substrate in a one-pot process. It is proposed that the property of a synthetic molecule on the enzyme surface is switchable in response to the catalytic cycle of adenylate kinase.

  3. Therapy by electromagnetic wave of millimeter energy range (EFH-therapy, MRT, IWT). Scientific and practical materials on the use of physical factors in clinical and health resort practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samosyuk, I.Z.; Fisenko, L.I.; Kolesnik, K.Eh.; Chukhraev, N.V.; Shimkov, G.E.

    1998-01-01

    Problems of extremely high frequency (EHF) therapy, microwave resonance therapy (MRT) and information-wave therapy (IWT) are considered. Possibilities of electromagnetic waves in millimeter energy range use in clinical and health resort practice are systematized. Recommendations on their use in treatment of different diseases are given. The main principles of selection of zones for meridian correction with the help of electromagnetic waves in millimeter energy range are exposed. The results of EFH-therapy clinical use indicate the possibility of its application practically in all cases, since positive results were obtained in most cases. The recommendations are prepared with account of possibilities and parameters of the apparatus ''MIT-1'' for reflexotherapy which was designed and produced by the Medical Innovative Centre in Kiev

  4. Modelling of a plasma column sustained by a travelling circularly polarized electromagnetic wave (m=1 mode) in the presence of a constant axial magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, E.; Staikov, P.; Zhelyazkov, I.

    1992-01-01

    A set of equations modelling a low-pressure plasma column sustained by a travelling electromagnetic wave in the dipolar mode in the presence of a constant external magnetic field is presented. It is shown that, from a practical point of view, only the m = 1 mode (the right-hand-polarized wave) can sustain plasma columns in a wide region of gas-discharge conditions: plasma radius R, wave frequency ω, magnetic field B 0 and low pressures, irrespective of the nature of the gas. The main result of this study is that the magnetic field makes it possible to sustain a plasma column for values of σ smaller than σ cr = 0.3726, below which, in the absence of a magnetic field, the dipolar wave cannot produce a plasma. Moreover, at a fixed wave power, the magnetic field - in contrast with the case of plasma columns sustained by azimuthally symmetric waves - increases the plasma density and its axial gradient. The limit of an infinite external magnetic field (Ω → ∞) is also considered. A three-dimensional wave structure is obtained, and it indicates that the wave can be a generalized surface mode, a pure surface or a pseudosurface one. (author)

  5. Hybridizing polypyrrole chains with laminated and two-dimensional Ti3C2Tx toward high-performance electromagnetic wave absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yuan; He, Man; Zhou, Yuming; Zhong, Xi; Fan, Lidan; Huang, Tingyuan; Liao, Qiang; Wang, Yongjuan

    2018-03-01

    In this study, multilayer sandwich heterostructural Ti3C2Tx MXenes decorated with polypyrrole chains have been synthesized successfully via HF etching treatment and in-situ chemical oxidative polymerization approach. The hybrids were investigated as EM wave absorbers for the first time. It is found that the composites consisting of 25 wt% Ti3C2Tx/PPy hybrids in a paraffin matrix exhibit a minimum reflection loss of -49.2 dB (∼99.99% absorption) at the thickness of 3.2 mm and a maximum effective absorption bandwidth of 4.9 GHz (12.4-17.3 GHz) corresponding to an absorber thickness of 2.0 mm. Additionally, a broad effective absorption bandwidth of 13.7 GHz (4.3-18.0 GHz) can be reached up by adjusting the thickness from 1.5 to 5.0 mm. Furthermore, the highest effective absorption bandwidth of 5.7 GHz can be reached when the mass fraction is 15 wt%. The enhanced comprehensive electromagnetic wave absorption has close correlation with the well-designed heterogeneous multilayered microstructure, generated heterogeneous interfaces, conductive paths, surface functional groups, localized defects and synergistic effect between laminated Ti3C2Tx and conductive polypyrrole network, which significantly improve impedance matching and attenuation abilities. The superior absorbing performance together with strong absorption and broad bandwidth endows the Ti3C2Tx/PPy hybrids with the potential prospect to be advanced EM wave absorbers.

  6. An Operator Method for Field Moments from the Extended Parabolic Wave Equation and Analytical Solutions of the First and Second Moments for Atmospheric Electromagnetic Wave Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    The extended wide-angle parabolic wave equation applied to electromagnetic wave propagation in random media is considered. A general operator equation is derived which gives the statistical moments of an electric field of a propagating wave. This expression is used to obtain the first and second order moments of the wave field and solutions are found that transcend those which incorporate the full paraxial approximation at the outset. Although these equations can be applied to any propagation scenario that satisfies the conditions of application of the extended parabolic wave equation, the example of propagation through atmospheric turbulence is used. It is shown that in the case of atmospheric wave propagation and under the Markov approximation (i.e., the delta-correlation of the fluctuations in the direction of propagation), the usual parabolic equation in the paraxial approximation is accurate even at millimeter wavelengths. The comprehensive operator solution also allows one to obtain expressions for the longitudinal (generalized) second order moment. This is also considered and the solution for the atmospheric case is obtained and discussed. The methodology developed here can be applied to any qualifying situation involving random propagation through turbid or plasma environments that can be represented by a spectral density of permittivity fluctuations.

  7. Exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic waves alters acetylcholinesterase gene expression, exploratory and motor coordination-linked behaviour in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obajuluwa, Adejoke Olukayode; Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob; Afolabi, Olakunle Bamikole; Adekoya, Khalid; Sanya, Joseph Olurotimi; Ishola, Azeez Olakunle

    2017-01-01

    Humans in modern society are exposed to an ever-increasing number of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and some studies have demonstrated that these waves can alter brain function but the mechanism still remains unclear. Hence, this study sought to investigate the effect of 2.5 Ghz band radio-frequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMF) exposure on cerebral cortex acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and their mRNA expression level as well as locomotor function and anxiety-linked behaviour in male rats. Animals were divided into four groups namely; group 1 was control (without exposure), group 2-4 were exposed to 2.5 Ghz radiofrequency waves from an installed WI-FI device for a period of 4, 6 and 8 weeks respectively. The results revealed that WiFi exposure caused a significant increase in anxiety level and affect locomotor function. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in AChE activity with a concomitant increase in AChE mRNA expression level in WiFi exposed rats when compared with control. In conclusions, these data showed that long term exposure to WiFi may lead to adverse effects such as neurodegenerative diseases as observed by a significant alteration on AChE gene expression and some neurobehavioral parameters associated with brain damage.

  8. Effect of exposure and withdrawal of 900-MHz-electromagnetic waves on brain, kidney and liver oxidative stress and some biochemical parameters in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragy, Merhan Mamdouh

    2015-01-01

    Increasing use of mobile phones in daily life with increasing adverse effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR), emitted from mobile on some physiological processes, cause many concerns about their effects on human health. Therefore, this work was designed to study the effects of exposure to mobile phone emits 900-MHz EMR on the brain, liver and kidney of male albino rats. Thirty male adult rats were randomly divided into four groups (10 each) as follows: control group (rats without exposure to EMR), exposure group (exposed to 900-MHz EMR for 1 h/d for 60 d) and withdrawal group (exposed to 900-MHz electromagnetic wave for 1 h/d for 60 d then left for 30 d without exposure). EMR emitted from mobile phone led to a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and significant decrease total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels in brain, liver and kidneys tissues. The sera activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), urea, creatinine and corticosterone were significantly increased (p electromagnetic field emitting from mobile phone might produce impairments in some biochemicals changes and oxidative stress in brain, liver and renal tissue of albino rats. These alterations were corrected by withdrawal.

  9. Formation of the reflected and refracted s-polarized electromagnetic waves in the Fresnel problem for the boundary vacuum-metamaterial from the viewpoint of molecular optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbukh, B. B.; Averbukh, I. B.

    2016-11-01

    The refraction of a plane s-polarized electromagnetic wave on the vacuum-metamaterial interface is considered. Point particles with electric and magnetic dipole polarizabilities are scattering elements of a medium. The medium consists of plane-parallel monolayers of electric or magnetic dipoles or Huygens elements influencing one another. Dipole fields are completely taken into account. The fields inside the medium and the reflected fields are calculated. The extinction theorem is analyzed in detail. The mechanism of rotation of the magnetic field vector during refraction is elucidated. A reason for the absence of the fourth wave propagating from the medium toward the boundary in the conventionally employed boundary conditions is elucidated. It is shown that, under certain conditions, this medium can behave as possessing a unity refractive index or zero refractive index at a preset frequency. In the case of a metamaterial layer of finite thickness shows the output region of the existence of backward waves outside metamaterial layer. It is shown that the refraction of the field in a homogeneous medium after the dielectric corresponds to Fermat's principle, and the interference nature of Fermat's principle is justified.

  10. Chrometric properties of curvilinear beam transport channels with reverses of longitudinal magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapchinskij, M.I.; Korenev, I.L.; Roginskij, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    Dynamics of charged particle beams in curvilinear transport channels comprising sections with counter direction of longitudinal focusing magnetic field is considered. It is shown that such magnetic field reverses reduce sufficiently the particle deflections conditioned by momentum spread of longitudinal motion and their application allows one to completely project the achromatic channel

  11. Phase and group refractive index curves for electromagnet waves moving in an ionised medium (1962); Courbes des indices de phase et de groupe d'ondes electromagnetiques se propageant dans un milieu ionise (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consoli, T [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    The family of curves presented in this table give the phase and group refractive indexes of plane electromagnetic waves propagating along and across a static magnetic field in a plasma. (author) [French] Les courbes presentees sous formes de reseaux donnent les indices de phase et de groupe d'ondes electromagnetiques planes se propageant longitudinalement ou transversalement dans un plasma en presence d'un champ magnetique statique. (auteur)

  12. Effect of electromagnetic waves from mobile phone on immune status of male rats: possible protective role of vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gohary, Ola Ahmed; Said, Mona Abdel-Azeem

    2017-02-01

    There are considerable public concerns about the relationship between mobile phone radiation and human health. The present study assesses the effect of electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted from a mobile phone on the immune system in rats and the possible protective role of vitamin D. Rats were randomly divided into six groups: Group I: control group; Group II: received vitamin D (1000 IU/kg/day) orally; Group III: exposed to EMF 1 h/day; Group IV: exposed to EMF 2 h/day; Group V: exposed to EMF 1 h/day and received vitamin D (1000 IU/kg/day); Group VI: exposed to EMF 2 h/day and received vitamin D (1000 IU/kg/day). After 30 days of exposure time, 1 h/day EMF exposure resulted in significant decrease in immunoglobulin levels (IgA, IgE, IgM, and IgG); total leukocyte, lymphocyte, eosinophil and basophil counts; and a significant increase in neutrophil and monocyte counts. These changes were more increased in the group exposed to 2 h/day EMF. Vitamin D supplementation in EMF-exposed rats reversed these results when compared with EMF-exposed groups. In contrast, 7, 14, and 21 days of EMF exposure produced nonsignificant differences in these parameters among all experimental groups. We concluded that exposure to mobile phone radiation compromises the immune system of rats, and vitamin D appears to have a protective effect.

  13. The role of matching thickness on the wideband electromagnetic wave suppresser using single layer doped barium ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shams Alam, Reza; Kavosh Tehrani, Masoud; Moradi, Mahmood; Hosseinpour, Ehsaneh; Sharbati, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The effect of Mg 2+ , Co 2+ and Ti 4+ substitution on microwave absorption has been studied for BaMg 0.5 Co 0.5 Ti 1.0 Fe 10 O 19 ferrite-acrylic resin composite in frequency range from 13 to 20 GHz. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), vector network analysis and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) were employed to analyze structure, electromagnetic and microwave absorption properties of prepared ferrite. The obtained results of reflectivity demonstrate that by varying matching thickness along with weight percentage of ferrite to acrylic resin, the bandwidth coupled with reflection loss values of prepared composites can be easily tuned. Based on microwave measurement on reflectivity, it is found that BaMg 0.5 Co 0.5 Ti 1.0 Fe 10 O 19 is a good candidate for wideband electromagnetic compatibility and other practical applications at high frequency. - Research highlights: → In our previous paper, the microwave attenuation properties of doped ferrites were evaluated. → Here we deal with the new substitution in barium ferrite which can easily tune the bandwidth of the reflection loss properties. → To the best of knowledge, this is a so simple composition which can offer practical applications in the field.

  14. Spectroscopic Analysis of 10MAG/LDAO Reverse Micelles to Determine Characteristic Properties and Behavioral Extrema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Joshua; Mawson, Cara; Norris, Zach; Nucci, Nathaniel

    Reverse micelles are spontaneously organizing complexes of surfactant that encapsulate a nanoscale pool of water in a bulk non-polar solvent. Reverse micelle (RM) mixtures have a wide range of applications, including biophysical investigation of protein systems. A new RM mixture composed of decyl-1-monoglycerol (10MAG) and lauryldimethylammonium-N-oxide (LDAO) was recently described. This mixture has the potential to prove more widely applicable for use of RMs in applications that involve encapsulation of macromolecules, yet little is known about the phase behavior or size of reverse micelles created by this mixture. Data describing such behaviors for this mixture are presented here. We have used dynamic light scattering (DLS) and fluorescence spectroscopy to investigate the size and partitioning behavior of RMs in varying mixtures of 10MAG, LDAO, water, pentane, and hexanol. These data demonstrate that the 10MAG/LDAO RM mixture exhibits markedly different phase and RM size behavior than that of commonly used RM surfactant mixtures. The implications of these findings for use of the 10MAG/LDAO mix for RM applications will also be addressed. Funding provided by Rowan University.

  15. Influence of prior cold rolling reduction on microstructure and mechanical properties of a reversion annealed high-Mn austenitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behjati, P., E-mail: p.behjatipournaki@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kermanpur, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karjalainen, L.P.; Järvenpää, A.; Jaskari, M. [Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Samaei Baghbadorani, H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafizadeh, A. [Foulad Institute of Technology, Fouladshahr, Isfahan 84916-63763 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamada, A. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez University, Suez 43721 (Egypt)

    2016-01-05

    The martensitic reversion is known to be effective in refining the grain size of metastable austenitic stainless steels. However, severe cold rolling reductions are generally required for this process. In this study, the influence of the degree of prior cold rolling and subsequent annealing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a metastable high-Mn austenitic steel was investigated. Three cold rolling reductions of 20%, 35% and 50% were applied at ambient temperature before the annealing at 700 °C for the durations of 10, 100 and 1000 s. Microstructures were examined by optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Mechanical properties were measured by hardness and tensile tests. The microstructure changes were followed by magnetic measurements and X-ray diffraction. It was shown that a relatively small reduction of 35% and 100 s annealing could provide efficient grain refinement (the average size of 0.5 µm) and accordingly an outstanding combination of strength-ductility properties with the yield strength 890 MPa, tensile strength 1340 MPa and elongation 41% was achieved. The occurrence of martensite reversion and recrystallization processes with different contributions in dependence on degree of prior deformation before annealing was discussed.

  16. Binding of Dumbbell Oligonucleotides to MoMuLV Reverse Transcriptase: Inhibitory Properties of RNase H Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dumbbell oligonucleotides with loops of various chemistry were synthesized. Incubation of dumbbell oligonucleotides containing phosphorothioate bonds or trimethylene phosphate linkages in loops with S1 nuclease did not result in significant cleavage under conditions which led to the degradation of dumbbell oligonucleotide containing phophodiester bonds in the loops. The binding of reverse transcriptase of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MoMuLV was evaluated with all the five oligonucleotides. The protein binds to all the dumbbell oligonucleotides with similar affinity. The dissociation constants evaluated using PAGE band mobility shift assays were of the order of 10-7. The inhibitory properties of the retroviral RNase H activity was evaluated using 3H –UTP-labeled RNA:RNA-DNA hybrid. It was found that the best dumbbell oligonucleotide, inhibitor contained phosphorothioate residues in both the loops. Our value studies demonstrated that this particularly designed oligonucleotide displays an IC50 of 18 nM in its inhibition on the reverse transcriptase RNase H activity, a magnitude lower than that of first nucleotide reverse transcriptase of HIV-1, tenofovir, introduced by Gilead Science in the market.

  17. Reversible switching of wetting properties and erasable patterning of polymer surfaces using plasma oxidation and thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Zeeshan; Atay, Ipek; Soydan, Seren; Yagci, M. Baris; Jonáš, Alexandr; Yilgor, Emel; Kiraz, Alper; Yilgor, Iskender

    2018-05-01

    Polymer surfaces reversibly switchable from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic by exposure to oxygen plasma and subsequent thermal treatment are demonstrated. Two inherently different polymers, hydrophobic segmented polydimethylsiloxane-urea copolymer (TPSC) and hydrophilic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) are modified with fumed silica nanoparticles to prepare superhydrophobic surfaces with roughness on nanometer to micrometer scale. Smooth TPSC and PMMA surfaces are also used as control samples. Regardless of their chemical structure and surface topography, all surfaces display completely reversible wetting behavior changing from hydrophobic to hydrophilic and back for many cycles upon plasma oxidation followed by thermal annealing. Influence of plasma power, plasma exposure time, annealing temperature and annealing time on the wetting behavior of polymeric surfaces are investigated. Surface compositions, textures and topographies are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and white light interferometry (WLI), before and after oxidation and thermal annealing. Wetting properties of the surfaces are determined by measuring their static, advancing and receding water contact angle. We conclude that the chemical structure and surface topography of the polymers play a relatively minor role in reversible wetting behavior, where the essential factors are surface oxidation and migration of polymer molecules to the surface upon thermal annealing. Reconfigurable water channels on polymer surfaces are produced by plasma treatment using a mask and thermal annealing cycles. Such patterned reconfigurable hydrophilic regions can find use in surface microfluidics and optofluidics applications.

  18. Macroscopic electromagnetic properties of the Irvine Field-Reversed Configuration: Equilibrium, power balance and fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Erik Harold

    The plasma parameters and characteristics of the Irvine Field-Reversed Configuration (IFRC) are summarized in this thesis. Particular emphasis is placed on the development of the different diagnostics used to make measurements in the experiment, as well as the measurements themselves. Whenever possible, actual measurements are used in lieu of theoretical or analytical fits to data. Analysis of magnetic probes (B-dots) comprises the bulk of what is known about the IFRC. From these B-dot probes, the magnetic field structure in a two dimensional plane at constant toroidal position has been determined, and has been found to be consistent with a field-reversed configuration. Peak reversed fields of approximately 250 Gauss have been observed. Further analyses have been developed to extract information from the magnetic field structure, including components of the electric field, the current density, and plasma pressure in the same two dimensional plane. Electric field magnitudes reach 600 V/m, concurrent with current densities greater than 105 Amps/m2 and thermal pressures over 200 Pa. Spectroscopic analysis of hydrogen lines has been done to make estimates of the electron temperature, while spectroscopic measurements of the Doppler broadening of the Halpha line31 have allowed an estimate of the ion temperature. Particle losses out one axial end plane measured by an array of Faraday cups quantify the how well the configuration traps particles. Spectral information derived from B-dot probes indicates that there is substantial power present at frequencies lying between the hydrogen cyclotron and mean gyrofrequency. These various measurements are used to find the following parameters that characterize the Irvine FRC: (1) Electromagnetic and thermal stored energies as functions of time. (2) Power balance, including input power from the field coils, resistive heating, power lost by particle transport and radiation, and particle and energy confinement times. (3) Strong

  19. Characterizing the Magnetic Properties of Natural Samples Using First-Order Reversal Curve Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, C. R.; Roberts, A. P.; Verosub, K. L.

    2001-12-01

    A FORC diagram is calculated from a class of partial hysteresis curves known as first-order reversal curves or FORCs. The measurement of a FORC begins by saturating a sample in a large positive applied field. The field is then decreased to a specified field and reversed; the FORC consists of the magnetization curve that results when the applied field is increased from this reversal field back to saturation. By repeating this measurement for different reversal fields, one obtains a suite of curves that provide detailed information on the distribution of particle switching fields (coercivities) and interaction fields in the sample. These magnetization data are transformed into a FORC distribution by calculating a second derivative of the magnetization data, and by applying a change in co-ordinates. The FORC distribution is, therefore, an empirically well-defined quantity that can be used to probe subtle variations in hysteresis behavior. We have used FORC diagrams to characterize the main types of hysteresis behavior observed in rock magnetism and environmental magnetism. FORC diagrams can be calculated using room-temperature or low-temperature data and enable identification of superparamagnetic, single domain and multi-domain grains, as well as magnetostatic interactions, even in mixed magnetic mineral assemblages. Routine use of FORC diagrams to examine representative bulk samples from large sample collections can provide important information concerning the magnetic particles that cannot be obtained using standard hysteresis measurements. In addition to using FORC diagrams to identify specific magnetic components in a sample, they can also be used to understand fundamental problems in rock magnetism. Our results suggest that pseudo-single domain grains contain contributions from single domain and multi-domain moments and that the hysteresis behavior observed in the multi-domain grains typically encountered in rock magnetism cannot be solely explained through

  20. Jordan-Schwinger map, 3D harmonic oscillator constants of motion, and classical and quantum parameters characterizing electromagnetic wave polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, R D; Xicotencatl, M A; Granados, V D

    2004-01-01

    In this work we introduce a generalization of the Jauch and Rohrlich quantum Stokes operators when the arrival direction from the source is unknown a priori. We define the generalized Stokes operators as the Jordan-Schwinger map of a triplet of harmonic oscillators with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices of the SU(3) symmetry group. We show that the elements of the Jordan-Schwinger map are the constants of motion of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. Also, we show that the generalized Stokes operators together with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices may be used to expand the polarization matrix. By taking the expectation value of the Stokes operators in a three-mode coherent state of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the corresponding generalized classical Stokes parameters. Finally, by means of the constants of motion of the classical 3D isotropic harmonic oscillator we describe the geometrical properties of the polarization ellipse

  1. Jordan Schwinger map, 3D harmonic oscillator constants of motion, and classical and quantum parameters characterizing electromagnetic wave polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, R. D.; Xicoténcatl, M. A.; Granados, V. D.

    2004-02-01

    In this work we introduce a generalization of the Jauch and Rohrlich quantum Stokes operators when the arrival direction from the source is unknown a priori. We define the generalized Stokes operators as the Jordan-Schwinger map of a triplet of harmonic oscillators with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices of the SU(3) symmetry group. We show that the elements of the Jordan-Schwinger map are the constants of motion of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. Also, we show that the generalized Stokes operators together with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices may be used to expand the polarization matrix. By taking the expectation value of the Stokes operators in a three-mode coherent state of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the corresponding generalized classical Stokes parameters. Finally, by means of the constants of motion of the classical 3D isotropic harmonic oscillator we describe the geometrical properties of the polarization ellipse.

  2. Jordan-Schwinger map, 3D harmonic oscillator constants of motion, and classical and quantum parameters characterizing electromagnetic wave polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, R D [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de IngenierIa y TecnologIas Avanzadas, IPN. Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2580, Col. La Laguna Ticoman, 07340 Mexico DF (Mexico); Xicotencatl, M A [Departamento de Matematicas del Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico DF, 07000 (Mexico); Granados, V D [Escuela Superior de FIsica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Ed. 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, 07738 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2004-02-20

    In this work we introduce a generalization of the Jauch and Rohrlich quantum Stokes operators when the arrival direction from the source is unknown a priori. We define the generalized Stokes operators as the Jordan-Schwinger map of a triplet of harmonic oscillators with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices of the SU(3) symmetry group. We show that the elements of the Jordan-Schwinger map are the constants of motion of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. Also, we show that the generalized Stokes operators together with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices may be used to expand the polarization matrix. By taking the expectation value of the Stokes operators in a three-mode coherent state of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the corresponding generalized classical Stokes parameters. Finally, by means of the constants of motion of the classical 3D isotropic harmonic oscillator we describe the geometrical properties of the polarization ellipse.

  3. The Fabrication and High-Efficiency Electromagnetic Wave Absorption Performance of CoFe/C Core-Shell Structured Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Gengping; Luo, Yongming; Wu, Lihong; Wang, Guizhen

    2018-03-01

    CoFe/C core-shell structured nanocomposites (CoFe@C) have been fabricated through the thermal decomposition of acetylene with CoFe2O4 as precursor. The as-prepared CoFe@C was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The results demonstrate that the carbon shell in CoFe@C has a poor crystallization with a thickness about 5-30 nm and a content approximately 48.5 wt.%. Due to a good combination between intrinsic magnetic properties and high-electrical conductivity, the CoFe@C exhibits not only excellent absorption intensity but also wide frequency bandwidth. The minimum RL value of CoFe@C can reach - 44 dB at a thickness of 4.0 mm, and RL values below - 10 dB is up to 4.3 GHz at a thickness of 2.5 mm. The present CoFe@C may be a potential candidate for microwave absorption application.

  4. Analysis of the dependence of surfatron acceleration of electrons by an electromagnetic wave in space plasma on the particle momentum along the wave front

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erokhin, A. N., E-mail: nerokhin@mx.iki.rssi.ru [People’s Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation); Zol’nikova, N. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation); Erokhin, N. S. [People’s Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Based on the numerical solution of the nonlinear nonstationary second-order equation for the wave phase on the particle trajectory, the dynamics of surfatron acceleration of electrons by an electromagnetic wave propagating across the external magnetic field in space plasma is analyzed as a function of the electron momentum along the wave front. Numerical calculations show that, for strongly relativistic initial values of the electron momentum component along the wave front g{sub y}(0) (the other parameters of the problem being the same), electrons are trapped into the regime of ultrarelativistic surfatron acceleration within a certain interval of the initial wave phase Ψ(0) on the particle trajectory. It is assumed in the calculations that vertical bar Ψ(0) vertical bar ≤ π. For strongly relativistic values of g{sub y}(0), electrons are immediately trapped by the wave for 19% of the initial values of the phase Ψ(0) (favorable phases). For the rest of the values of Ψ(0), trapping does not occur even at long times. This circumstance substantially simplifies estimations of the wave damping due to particle acceleration in subsequent calculations. The dynamics of the relativistic factor and the components of the electron velocity and momentum under surfatron acceleration is also analyzed. The obtained results are of interest for the development of modern concepts of possible mechanisms of generation of ultrarelativistic particle fluxes in relatively calm space plasma, as well as for correct interpretation of observational data on the fluxes of such particles and explanation of possible reasons for the deviation of ultrarelativistic particle spectra detected in the heliosphere from the standard power-law scalings and the relation of these variations to space weather and large-scale atmospheric processes similar to tropical cyclones.

  5. Analysis of the dependence of surfatron acceleration of electrons by an electromagnetic wave in space plasma on the particle momentum along the wave front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erokhin, A. N.; Zol’nikova, N. N.; Erokhin, N. S.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the numerical solution of the nonlinear nonstationary second-order equation for the wave phase on the particle trajectory, the dynamics of surfatron acceleration of electrons by an electromagnetic wave propagating across the external magnetic field in space plasma is analyzed as a function of the electron momentum along the wave front. Numerical calculations show that, for strongly relativistic initial values of the electron momentum component along the wave front g y (0) (the other parameters of the problem being the same), electrons are trapped into the regime of ultrarelativistic surfatron acceleration within a certain interval of the initial wave phase Ψ(0) on the particle trajectory. It is assumed in the calculations that vertical bar Ψ(0) vertical bar ≤ π. For strongly relativistic values of g y (0), electrons are immediately trapped by the wave for 19% of the initial values of the phase Ψ(0) (favorable phases). For the rest of the values of Ψ(0), trapping does not occur even at long times. This circumstance substantially simplifies estimations of the wave damping due to particle acceleration in subsequent calculations. The dynamics of the relativistic factor and the components of the electron velocity and momentum under surfatron acceleration is also analyzed. The obtained results are of interest for the development of modern concepts of possible mechanisms of generation of ultrarelativistic particle fluxes in relatively calm space plasma, as well as for correct interpretation of observational data on the fluxes of such particles and explanation of possible reasons for the deviation of ultrarelativistic particle spectra detected in the heliosphere from the standard power-law scalings and the relation of these variations to space weather and large-scale atmospheric processes similar to tropical cyclones

  6. Development of ACROSS (Accurately Controlled, Routinely Operated, Signal System) to realize constant monitoring the invisible earth's interiors by means of stationary coherent elastic and electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumazawa, Mineo; Kunitomo, Takahiro; Nakajima, Takahiro; Fujii, Naoyuki; Shigeta, Naotaka; Tsuruga, Kayoko; Hasada, Yoko; Nagao, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Kasahara, Junzo

    2007-03-01

    The developmental study made at Tono Geoscience Center under the Earthquake Frontier Research Project since 1996 is reported for a brand new technology system called ACROSS (Accurately Controlled, Routinely Operated, Signal System invented at Kagoya University in 1994). Various technology elements have been combined together under a specific theoretical framework for the underground exploration and monitoring of structures and physical states. The ACROSS is essentially a spectroscopy of the underground space consisted of complex media subjected to environmental noise. The robustness against noise is devised by utilizing coherent elastic and electromagnetic waves with phase controlled very accurately. Demanded hardware technology has been developed successfully and know how has been accumulated for practical applications. Accurate synchronization of transmission and observation systems has provided us with reliable data on the tensor transfer function between the source and receiver, which is equivalent to Green function within a limited frequency range. Several examples of the field application are demonstrated by the test experiments at Tono Mine site. After the developmental works of 10 years, the ACROSS is brought to be a practical method applied to the remote monitoring of temporal variation of underground states at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory and also it is being applied to the expected focal region of the coming Tokai earthquake near Hamaoka in Shizuoka prefecture. Whereas ACROSS technology is not mature enough yet, it is shown to be a potential and versatile methodology applied even for the health monitoring of the construction such as building strongly coupled with the ground in addition to the underground study. (author)

  7. Bow shock specularly reflected ions in the presence of low-frequency electromagnetic waves: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Meziane

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available An energetic ion (E≤40 event observed by the CLUSTER/CIS experiment upstream of the Earth's bow shock is studied in detail. The ion event is observed in association with quasi-monochromatic ULF MHD-like waves, which we show modulate the ion fluxes. According to three statistical bow shock position models, the Cluster spacecrafts are located at ~0.5 Re from the shock and the averaged bow shock θBn0 is about ~30°. The analysis of the three-dimensional angular distribution indicates that ions propagating roughly along the magnetic field direction are observed at the onset of the event. Later on, the angular distribution is gyrophase-bunched and the pitch-angle distribution is peaked at α0~θBn0, consistent with the specular reflection production mechanism. The analysis of the waves shows that they are left-handed in the spacecraft frame of reference (right-handed in the solar wind frame and propagate roughly along the ambient magnetic field; we have found that they are in cyclotron-resonance with the field-aligned beam observed just upstream. Using properties of the waves and particles, we explain the observed particle flux-modulation in the context of θBn changes at the shock caused by the convected ULF waves. We have found that the high count rates coincide with particles leaving the shock when θBn angles are less than ~40°, consistent with the specular reflection hypothesis as the production mechanism of ions.

  8. SERS active Ag encapsulated Fe@SiO2 nanorods in electromagnetic wave absorption and crystal violet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, Samarpita; Srivastava, Suneel Kumar; Singh, Shiv Brat; Kulkarni, Ajit R

    2014-11-01

    The present work is focused on the preparation of Fe nanorods by the chemical reduction of FeCl3 (aq) using NaBH4 in the presence of glycerol as template followed by annealing of the product at 500°C in the presence of H2 gas flow. Subsequently, its surface has been modified by silica followed by silver nanoparticles to form silica coated Fe (Fe@SiO2) and Ag encapsulated Fe@SiO2 nanostructure employing the Stöber method and silver mirror reaction respectively. XRD pattern of the products confirmed the formation of bcc phase of iron and fcc phase of silver, though silica remained amorphous. FESEM images established the growth of iron nanorods from the annealed product and also formation of silica and silver coating on its surface. The appearance of the characteristics bands in FTIR confirmed the presence of SiO2 on the Fe surface. Magnetic measurements at room temperature indicated the ferromagnetic behavior of as prepared iron nanorods, Fe@SiO2 and silver encapsulated Fe@SiO2 nanostructures. All the samples exhibited strong microwave absorption property in the high frequency range (10GHz), though it is superior for Ag encapsulated Fe@SiO2 (-14.7dB) compared with Fe@SiO2 (-9.7dB) nanostructures of the same thickness. The synthesized Ag encapsulated Fe@SiO2 nanostructure also exhibited the SERS phenomena, which is useful in the detection of the carcinogenic dye crystal violet (CV) upto the concentration of 10(-10)M. All these findings clearly demonstrate that the Ag encapsulated Fe@SiO2 nanostructure could efficiently be used in the environmental remediation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of Statistical Thermodynamics To Predict the Adsorption Properties of Polypeptides in Reversed-Phase HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasova, Irina A; Goloborodko, Anton A; Perlova, Tatyana Y; Pridatchenko, Marina L; Gorshkov, Alexander V; Evreinov, Victor V; Ivanov, Alexander R; Gorshkov, Mikhail V

    2015-07-07

    The theory of critical chromatography for biomacromolecules (BioLCCC) describes polypeptide retention in reversed-phase HPLC using the basic principles of statistical thermodynamics. However, whether this theory correctly depicts a variety of empirical observations and laws introduced for peptide chromatography over the last decades remains to be determined. In this study, by comparing theoretical results with experimental data, we demonstrate that the BioLCCC: (1) fits the empirical dependence of the polypeptide retention on the amino acid sequence length with R(2) > 0.99 and allows in silico determination of the linear regression coefficients of the log-length correction in the additive model for arbitrary sequences and lengths and (2) predicts the distribution coefficients of polypeptides with an accuracy from 0.98 to 0.99 R(2). The latter enables direct calculation of the retention factors for given solvent compositions and modeling of the migration dynamics of polypeptides separated under isocratic or gradient conditions. The obtained results demonstrate that the suggested theory correctly relates the main aspects of polypeptide separation in reversed-phase HPLC.

  10. Martensite phase reversion-induced nano/ ultrafine grained AISI 304L stainless steel with magnificent mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shirdel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Austenitic stainless steels are extensively used in various applications requiring good corrosion resistance and formability. In the current study, the formation of nano/ ultrafine grained austenitic microstructure in a microalloyed AISI 304L stainless steel was investigated by the advanced thermomechanical process of reversion of strain-induced martensite. For this purpose, samples were subjected to heavy cold rolling to produce a nearly complete martensitic structure. Subsequently, a wide range of annealing temperatures (600 to 800°C and times (1 to 240 min were employed to assess the reversion behavior and to find the best annealing condition for the production of the nano/ultrafine grained austenitic microstructure. Microstructural characterizations have been performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and magnetic measurement, whereas the mechanical properties were assessed by tensile and hardness tests. After thermomechanical treatment, a very fine austenitic structure was obtained, which was composed of nano sized grains of ~ 85 nm in an ultrafine grained matrix with an average grain size of 480 nm. This microstructure exhibited superior mechanical properties: high tensile strength of about 1280 MPa with a desirable elongation of about 41%, which can pave the way for the application of these sheets in the automotive industry.

  11. Observation austenite memory and significant enhancement of tensile properties during cyclic reverse martensite transformation in a Fe-Ni-C TRIP steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alaei, Aida; Jafarian, Hamidreza, E-mail: jafarian@iust.ac.ir; Eivani, Ali Reza

    2016-10-31

    In this study, the influence of reverse martensite transformation (reverse transformation) on microstructure development and mechanical properties of Fe-24Ni-0.3C metastable austenitic TRIP steel was investigated. Microstructural characterization by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) system proved that large amount of low angle boundaries appeared after 1-cycle of reverse transformation (γ→α→γ). It is also found that the 1-cycle reversely transformed austenite and original austenite exhibited similar shape, size and orientations indicating that austenite memory appeared during reverse transformation. By increasing the number of reverse transformation cycle, fraction of low angle boundaries significantly increased. Uniaxial tensile test exhibited that yield and ultimate tensile strengths significantly improved even by 1-cycle reverse transformation comparing to the starting material. In addition, further continuation of reverse transformation up to 5- or 7-cycle causes gradual increase in yield and ultimate tensile strengths as well. The significant improvement in yield strength should be originated from increasing the dislocation density that are introduced during reverse transformation.

  12. Supramolecular Cross-Links in Poly(alkyl methacrylate) Copolymers and Their Impact on the Mechanical and Reversible Adhesive Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzmann, Christian; Salz, Ulrich; Moszner, Norbert; Fiore, Gina L; Weder, Christoph

    2015-06-24

    Hydrogen-bonded, side-chain-functionalized supramolecular poly(alkyl methacrylate)s were investigated as light- and temperature-responsive reversible adhesives that are useful for bonding and debonding on demand applications. Here, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) was functionalized with 2-ureido-4[1H]pyrimidinone (UPy) via a hexamethylenediisocyanate (HMDI) linker, to create a monomer (UPy-HMDI-HEMA) that serves to form supramolecular cross-links by way of forming quadruple hydrogen bonded dimers. UPy-HMDI-HEMA was copolymerized with either hexyl methacrylate or butyl methacrylate to create copolymers comprising 2.5, 5, or 10 mol % of the cross-linker. The mechanical properties of all (co)polymers were investigated with stress-strain experiments and dynamic mechanical analysis. Furthermore, the adhesive properties were studied at temperatures between 20 and 60 °C by testing single lap joints formed with stainless steel substrates. It was found that increasing the concentration of the UPy-HMDI-HEMA cross-linker leads to improved mechanical and adhesive properties at elevated temperatures. Concurrently, the reversibility of the bond formation remained unaffected, where rebonded samples displayed the same adhesive strength as regularly bonded samples. Debonding on demand abilities were also tested exemplarily for one copolymer, which for light-induced debonding experiments was blended with a UV-absorber that served as light-heat converter. Single lap joints were subjected to a constant force and heated or irradiated with UV light until debonding occurred. The necessary debonding temperature was comparable for direct heating and UV irradiation and varied between 28 and 82 °C, depending on the applied force. The latter also influenced the debonding time, which under the chosen conditions ranged from 30 s to 12 min.

  13. Dispersion properties of transverse waves in electrically polarized BECs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, Pavel A; Kuz'menkov, L S

    2014-01-01

    Further development of the method of quantum hydrodynamics in applications for Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) is presented. To consider the evolution of polarization direction along with particle movement, we have developed a corresponding set of quantum hydrodynamic equations. It includes equations of the polarization evolution and the polarization-current evolution along with the continuity equation and the Euler equation (the momentum-balance equation). Dispersion properties of the transverse waves, including the electromagnetic waves propagating through the BECs, are considered. To this end, we consider a full set of the Maxwell equations for the description of electromagnetic field dynamics. This approximation gives us the possibility of considering the electromagnetic waves along with the matter waves. We find a splitting of the electromagnetic-wave dispersion on two branches. As a result, we have four solutions, two for the electromagnetic waves and two for the matter waves; the last two are the concentration-polarization waves appearing as a generalization of the Bogoliubov mode. We also find that if the matter wave propagates perpendicular to the external electric field then the dipolar contribution does not disappear (as it follows from our generalization of the Bogoliubov spectrum). A small dipolar frequency shift exists in this case due to the transverse electric field of perturbation. (paper)

  14. Viscoelastic Properties of Extracellular Polymeric Substances Can Strongly Affect Their Washing Efficiency from Reverse Osmosis Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando Chavez, Diana Lila; Nejidat, Ali; Herzberg, Moshe

    2016-09-06

    The role of the viscoelastic properties of biofouling layers in their removal from the membrane was studied. Model fouling layers of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) originated from microbial biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 differentially expressing the Psl polysaccharide were used for controlled washing experiments of fouled RO membranes. In parallel, adsorption experiments and viscoelastic modeling of the EPS layers were conducted in a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). During the washing stage, as shear rate was elevated, significant differences in permeate flux recovery between the three different EPS layers were observed. According to the amount of organic carbon remained on the membrane after washing, the magnitude of Psl production provides elevated resistance of the EPS layer to shear stress. The highest flux recovery during the washing stage was observed for the EPS with no Psl. Psl was shown to elevate the layer's shear modulus and shear viscosity but had no effect on the EPS adhesion to the polyamide surface. We conclude that EPS retain on the membrane as a result of the layer viscoelastic properties. These results highlight an important relation between washing efficiency of fouling layers from membranes and their viscoelastic properties, in addition to their adhesion properties.

  15. Unexpected retention behavior of baicalin: Hydrophilic interaction like properties of a reversed-phase column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magda, Balázs; Márta, Zoltán; Imre, Tímea; Kalapos-Kovács, Bernadett; Klebovich, Imre; Fekete, Jenő; Szabó, Pál T

    2015-01-01

    The original aim of this study was to develop a method for the determination of baicalin from membrane vesicles. The unconventional chromatographic separation ("inverse gradient elution" on a reversed phase column) was due to a lucky chance, which is detailed and discussed in this study. The validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method is proved to be sensitive, rapid and selective. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Zorbax SB-C8 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, i.d.; 5 μm) with 0.1% formic acid in water and methanol by linear gradient elution. Quantification of baicalin was determined by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using electrospray ionization (ESI). The calibration curve was linear (r = 0.9987) over the concentration range from 1 to 1000 nM. The coefficient of variation and relative error of baicalin for intra- and inter-assay at three quality control (QC) levels were 2.0-10.2% and -6.1 to 6.7%, respectively. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for baicalin was 1 nM (0.446 ng/ml), without preconcentration of the sample. This method was subsequently applied to vesicular transport assays of baicalin in membrane vesicles successfully. The developed method can open up new area of research in the chromatographic separation of flavonoids and their glucuronides. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. The Prediction Properties of Inverse and Reverse Regression for the Simple Linear Calibration Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Peter A.; Geoffrey, Vining G.; Wilson, Sara R.; Szarka, John L., III; Johnson, Nels G.

    2010-01-01

    The calibration of measurement systems is a fundamental but under-studied problem within industrial statistics. The origins of this problem go back to basic chemical analysis based on NIST standards. In today's world these issues extend to mechanical, electrical, and materials engineering. Often, these new scenarios do not provide "gold standards" such as the standard weights provided by NIST. This paper considers the classic "forward regression followed by inverse regression" approach. In this approach the initial experiment treats the "standards" as the regressor and the observed values as the response to calibrate the instrument. The analyst then must invert the resulting regression model in order to use the instrument to make actual measurements in practice. This paper compares this classical approach to "reverse regression," which treats the standards as the response and the observed measurements as the regressor in the calibration experiment. Such an approach is intuitively appealing because it avoids the need for the inverse regression. However, it also violates some of the basic regression assumptions.

  17. Synthesis of nanosilver particles by reverse micelle method and study of their bactericidal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Thi Ngoc Dung; Ngo Quoc Buu; Dang Viet Quang; Le Anh Bang; Nguyen Hoai Chau; Nguyen Thi Ly [Institute of Environmental Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay Distr., Hanoi (Viet Nam); Huynh Thi Ha [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay Distr., Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nguyen Vu Trung [National Institute for Infectious and Tropical Diseases, 1 Ton That Tung, Dong Da Distr., Hanoi (Viet Nam)], E-mail: ttndzung@yahoo.com, E-mail: buu_nq@yahoo.com

    2009-09-01

    Nanosilver particles have been synthesized by the reverse micelle method, where AgNO{sub 3} was used as a silver ions source, NaBH{sub 4} and quercetin - as reducing agents, CTAB, SDOSS and AOT- as surfactants, while the stabilizer was Vietnamese chitosan. Studying the factors influencing the process of nanosilver particle formation, it was shown that the particle size of the nanosilver products depends on the concentration of the reaction components and their stoichiometric ratio. It was also shown that the reaction system using AOT surfactant is capable of producing nanosilver particles with smallest nanoparticles ({phi}{sub av} {approx} 5 nm) and good particle-size distribution. The study on bactericidal activity of the nanosilver products indicated that the disinfecting solution with a nanosilver concentration of 3 ppm was able to inhibit all E.coli and Coliforms, TPC and fungi at 15 ppm, while Vibrio cholerae cells were inactivated completely with 0.5 ppm of nanosilver after 30 minutes exposition.

  18. Proposed electromagnetic wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Device converts wave energy into electric power through array of insulated absorber elements responsive to field of impinging electromagnetic radiation. Device could also serve as solar energy converter that is potentially less expensive and fragile than solar cells, yet substantially more efficient.

  19. Efficient transformer for electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R.B.

    A transformer structure for efficient transfer of electromagnetic energy from a transmission line to an unmatched load provides voltage multiplication and current division by a predetermined constant. Impedance levels are transformed by the square of that constant. The structure includes a wave splitter, connected to an input transmission device and to a plurality of output transmission devices. The output transmission devices are effectively connected in parallel to the input transmission device. The output transmission devices are effectively series connected to provide energy to a load. The transformer structure is particularly effective in increasing efficiency of energy transfer through an inverting convolute structure by capturing and transferring energy losses from the inverter to the load.

  20. Effects of surface coating process conditions on the water permeation and salt rejection properties of composite polyamide reverse osmosis membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Louie, Jennifer Sarah

    2011-02-01

    The application of polymer surface coatings to improve the fouling resistance of reverse osmosis membranes tends to increase flow resistance across the membrane. This paper presents a systematic analysis on how membrane properties and performance are impacted by the coating process steps, and investigates how such effects could contribute to lower water flux. On one hand, simply pre-soaking dry aromatic polyamide composite membranes in aliphatic alcohols results in a significant increase in water flux, which is attributed to wetting of pores in the selective polyamide layer and to changes in the polymer structure. This flux increase was not readily reversible, based on a 300-h water permeation test. Conversely, drying a wetted membrane led to a decrease in water flux, which we hypothesize is caused by increased interchain hydrogen-bonding in the selective layer. This drop in water flux was not permanent; higher flux was observed if the same wetted/dried membrane was then re-soaked in ethanol prior to the water permeation experiment. An ethanol pre-soaking step also increased water flux of a PEBAX-coated membrane by nearly 70%. In contrast to the reduction in water flux caused by the specific treatment sequence of ethanol-swelling followed by drying, this same sequence actually increased gas transport. The eight- to ten-fold increase in Knudsen diffusion-based gas permeance after this pre-treatment was attributed to an increase in the number or size of membrane defects. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Preparation and water desalination properties of POSS-polyamide nanocomposite reverse osmosis membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Jintang

    2015-01-01

    The application of nanotechnology to thin-film nanocomposites (TFN) is a new route to enhance membrane performance in water desalination. Here, the potential of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) as the nanofiller in polyamide (PA) reverse osmosis membranes was systematically investigated. Four POSS materials (P-8Phenyl, P-8NH3Cl, P-8NH2 and P-1NH2) were introduced into the selective layer by physical blending or chemical fixation during standard interfacial polymerization. Water flux and NaCl rejection were measured with 2000ppm NaCl solution under 15.5bar pressure, and SEM and TEM images of membrane selective layers were obtained. Membranes prepared without POSS showed water flux of 20.0±0.5L/m2·h and salt rejection of 98.0±0.2%. TFN membranes prepared with 0.4% (w/v) P-8Phenyl in the organic phase showed a 65% increase in water flux compared to the pristine PA membrane while maintaining high salt rejection. The selective layer of this membrane maintained the typical ridge-and-valley structure of aromatic PA. Results with P-8NH3Cl and P-8NH2 added to the organic phase were similar. TFN membranes prepared with monoamine P-1NH2 in the organic phase had poor water flux of 3.2L/m2·h, a smooth and more hydrophobic surface, and a much thicker (~400nm) selective layer. One of the four POSS compounds studied, P-8NH3Cl, is sufficiently soluble in water for incorporation into the selective layer via the aqueous phase. Membranes were prepared with P-8NH3Cl in the aqueous phase at varying reaction time, loading, and additive (triethylamine) concentration. With these parameters optimized, water flux increased to 35.4L/m2·h.

  2. Influence of lubricant oil residual fraction on recycled high density polyethylene properties and plastic packaging reverse logistics proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley Moraes Martins

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To recycle post-consumer HDPE contaminated with waste lubricating oils, companies include prior washing and drying in the process. This consumes large amounts of water and energy, generates significant effluent requiring treatment. This study assesses lubricating oil influence on HDPE properties to evaluate the feasibility of its direct mechanical recycling without washing. The current lubricating oil packaging reverse logistics in Rio de Janeiro municipality is also analyzed. HDPE bottle samples were processed with seven oil contents ranging from 1.6-29.4 (wt%. The results indicated the possibility to reprocess the polymer with oily residue not exceeding 3.2%. At higher levels, the external oil lubricating action affects the plastic matrix processing in the extruder and injection, and the recycled material has a burnt oil odor and free oil on the surface. Small residual oil amounts retain the plastic properties comparable to the washed recycled polymer and exhibited benefits associated with the oil plasticizer action. However, oil presence above 7.7% significantly changes the properties and reduces the elasticity and flexural modulus and the plastic matrix crystallinity.

  3. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of CaSiO3:Eu3+ spheres prepared by the reverse micelles soft template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Liangzhun; Fang Min; Du Lifen; Zhang Zhaojie; Ren Liwen; Yu Xibin

    2008-01-01

    We report here the successful synthesis of CaSiO 3 :Eu 3+ spheres using the reverse micelles soft template. The influence of the calcination temperature on the shape, crystallization and photoluminescence properties of the prepared spheres was investigated by DTA-TG, XRD, IR, SEM and PL. The results showed that the temperature of crystallization (from amorphous phase to β-CaSiO 3 ) is 668 deg. C. The temperature of phase transition (from β-CaSiO 3 to α-CaSiO 3 ) is 790 deg. C. The average size of CaSiO 3 :Eu 3+ spheres calcined at 700 deg. C was about 350 nm. The radiation was dominated by the red emission peak at 613 nm and the highest emission intensity was observed when the spheres were calcined at 700 deg. C. When calcined at 800 deg. C, the spheres are almost cracked and melted down, due to the high temperature

  4. Opinion on the behalf of the Commission for Sustainable Development and Land Planning on the bill project, modified by the Senate, related to sobriety, transparency, information and consultation with respect to exposure to electromagnetic waves (nr 2062). Nr 2501

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallard, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    This report first recalls the evolution of the bill project with its accepted or refused amendments associated with its main articles. Those articles addressed the return of the notion of sobriety for the exposure to electromagnetic fields, the crucial role of local executive power in the information and consultation procedure in the case of new installations of relay antennas, a more reliable definition of some atypical issues, obligations of information and awareness heightening of public and users, and maintaining the taking into account of the health impact of electromagnetic waves. Discussions of the commission on general issues and on the bill project articles are reported

  5. Report made on the behalf of the Commission of economic affairs on the bill project related to the application of the precautionary principle defined in the Charter for the Environment to risks resulting from electromagnetic waves - Nr 654

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeille, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    After an introduction commenting the determination of a threshold for low-intensity electromagnetic waves with athermal effects, this document reports the discussion of the Commission which commented the application of the precautionary principle as it is defined in the Charter for the Environment. Then the bill project articles are discussed. They notably concern the introduction of new chapters or articles in the French environment code and urban planning code, the prohibition of some advertising, and measures related to mobile phones. A table compares the existing measures, the bill project text and the text adopted by the commission. Amendments studied by the commission are indicated

  6. Report made on the behalf of the Commission on Economic Affairs on the bill project related to temperance, transparency and conciliation with regard to exposure to electromagnetic waves (nr 1635) - Nr 1677

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeille, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    This report first explains why to reduce the exposure to electromagnetic waves: we are living in an always denser wave environment, it is a matter of concern for the population, there is a probability of health risks, and there is now a political demand. The next part discusses how to reduce this exposure through information, anticipation, regulation and protection. The general discussion is then reported, and then the examination of the bill project articles. The topics addressed by the bill project are: moderation of exposure to electromagnetic fields and conciliation when installing radio-electric equipment, information and protection of public and users

  7. Electron Bernstein wave emission from an overdense reversed field pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Anderson, J.K.; Biewer, T.M.; Craig, D.; Forest, C.B.; Harvey, R.W.; Smirnov, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    Blackbody levels of emission in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies have been observed from an overdense (ω pe ∼3ω ce ) Madison Symmetric Torus [Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] reversed field pinch plasma, a result of electrostatic electron Bernstein waves emitted from the core and mode converted into electromagnetic waves at the extreme plasma edge. Comparison of the measured radiation temperature with profiles measured by Thomson scattering indicates that the mode conversion efficiency can be as high as ∼75%. Emission is preferentially in the X-mode polarization, and is strongly dependent upon the density and magnetic field profiles at the mode conversion point

  8. Structural properties and release of insulin-loaded reverse hexagonal (HII) liquid crystalline mesophase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishraki-Berkowitz, Tehila; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2017-01-15

    Insulin loading into the H II mesophases was examined as a function of its concentration, with addition of glycerol as a cosolvent and with addition of phosphatidylcholine (PC) as a structural stabilizer. The structural properties, the molecular interactions, the viscoelastic properties, and the dynamic behavior were investigated by SAXS, ATR-FTIR, and rheological measurements. Insulin release was then monitored and analyzed. Insulin incorporation into the H II systems shrank the cylinders as it competed with the lipids in water-bonding. Insulin interrupted the interface while increasing τ max and creating a more solid-like response. Upon addition of PC, cooperative flow behavior was detected, which is probably the reason for increase in insulin cumulative release from 28% to 52% after 300 min. In the presence of glycerol, the system was less cooperative but insulin was more compactly folded, resulting in a slight improvement in insulin release (up to 6%). Addition of both PC and glycerol caused the maximum release (55%). The addition of additives into the H II system demonstrates how structural modifications can improve insulin release, and influence future design of encapsulated drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reversible dielectric property degradation in moisture-contaminated fiber-reinforced laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Luis A.; García, Carla; Fittipaldi, Mauro; Grace, Landon R.

    2016-03-01

    The potential for recovery of dielectric properties of three water-contaminated fiber-reinforced laminates is investigated using a split-post dielectric resonant technique at X-band (10 GHz). The three material systems investigated are bismaleimide (BMI) reinforced with an eight-harness satin weave quartz fabric, an epoxy resin reinforced with an eight- harness satin weave glass fabric (style 7781), and the same epoxy reinforced with a four-harness woven glass fabric (style 4180). A direct correlation between moisture content, dielectric constant, and loss tangent was observed during moisture absorption by immersion in distilled water at 25 °C for five equivalent samples of each material system. This trend is observed through at least 0.72% water content by weight for all three systems. The absorption of water into the BMI, 7781 epoxy, and 4180 epoxy laminates resulted in a 4.66%, 3.35%, and 4.01% increase in dielectric constant for a 0.679%, 0.608%, and 0.719% increase in water content by weight, respectively. Likewise, a significant increase was noticed in loss tangent for each material. The same water content is responsible for a 228%, 71.4%, and 64.1% increase in loss tangent, respectively. Subsequent to full desorption through drying at elevated temperature, the dielectric constant and loss tangent of each laminate exhibited minimal change from the dry, pre-absorption state. The dielectric constant and loss tangent change after the absorption and desorption cycle, relative to the initial state, was 0.144 % and 2.63% in the BMI, 0.084% and 1.71% in the style 7781 epoxy, and 0.003% and 4.51% in the style 4180 epoxy at near-zero moisture content. The similarity of dielectric constant and loss tangent in samples prior to absorption and after desorption suggests that any chemical or morphological changes induced by the presence of water have not caused irreversible changes in the dielectric properties of the laminates.

  10. Reverse micellar synthesis, structural characterization and dielectric properties of Sr-doped BaZrO_3 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Tokeer; Ubaidullah, Mohd; Shahazad, Mohd; Kumar, Dinesh; Al-Hartomy, Omar A.

    2017-01-01

    Sr-doped BaZrO_3 nanoparticles with strontium content varying from 5 to 20 mol % were successfully synthesized by reverse micellar method at 900 °C for the first time. Systematic studies have been carried out to establish the structural and electrical properties of the as prepared nanoparticles. These nanoparticles were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, BET surface area and dielectric measurements. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the formation of monophasic and highly crystalline nanoparticles which could be indexed in cubic BaZrO_3 with contraction of lattice on strontium substitution. A monotonic shift of diffraction pattern towards higher angel confirms the formation of solid solutions of Ba_1_−_xSr_xZrO_3 (0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.20) which was corroborating well with lattice parameter studies. Transmission electron microscopic studies showed the formation of cubic, spherical and hexagonal nanoparticles with an average grain size of 40–65 nm. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic studies confirmed the presence of dopant (Sr"2"+) in the BaZrO_3 matrix and estimated chemical species corroborate well with the loaded composition. Specific surface area of the solid solution comes out to be in the range of 104–244 m"2 g"-"1. Smallest particle of size 40 nm shows highest surface area 244 m"2 g"-"1 for 20 mol% Sr-doped BaZrO_3. Dielectric and impedance studies were also carried out as a function of frequency and temperature to explore the electrical properties of Sr-doped BaZrO_3. The dielectric constant of Ba_1_−_xSr_xZrO_3 (0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.20) was found to be in the range of 13–25 for x = 0.05 to x = 0.20 with nearly similar dielectric loss of the order of 0.02. The conductance increases linearly with increase in frequency at room temperature, however the impedance has an inverse effect. - Highlights: • Monophasic nanocrystalline Ba_1_−_xSr_xZrO_3 at low dopant concentration using reverse micelles for the first

  11. Reverse micellar synthesis, structural characterization and dielectric properties of Sr-doped BaZrO{sub 3} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Tokeer, E-mail: tahmad3@jmi.ac.in [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, 110025 (India); Ubaidullah, Mohd [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, 110025 (India); Department of Chemistry, Banasthali University, Tonk, Rajasthan, 304022 (India); School of Science and Technology, Glocal University, Mirzapur, Saharanpur, 247121, Uttar Pradesh (India); Shahazad, Mohd [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, 110025 (India); Kumar, Dinesh [Department of Chemistry, Banasthali University, Tonk, Rajasthan, 304022 (India); Al-Hartomy, Omar A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-01-01

    Sr-doped BaZrO{sub 3} nanoparticles with strontium content varying from 5 to 20 mol % were successfully synthesized by reverse micellar method at 900 °C for the first time. Systematic studies have been carried out to establish the structural and electrical properties of the as prepared nanoparticles. These nanoparticles were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, BET surface area and dielectric measurements. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the formation of monophasic and highly crystalline nanoparticles which could be indexed in cubic BaZrO{sub 3} with contraction of lattice on strontium substitution. A monotonic shift of diffraction pattern towards higher angel confirms the formation of solid solutions of Ba{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}ZrO{sub 3} (0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.20) which was corroborating well with lattice parameter studies. Transmission electron microscopic studies showed the formation of cubic, spherical and hexagonal nanoparticles with an average grain size of 40–65 nm. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic studies confirmed the presence of dopant (Sr{sup 2+}) in the BaZrO{sub 3} matrix and estimated chemical species corroborate well with the loaded composition. Specific surface area of the solid solution comes out to be in the range of 104–244 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. Smallest particle of size 40 nm shows highest surface area 244 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} for 20 mol% Sr-doped BaZrO{sub 3}. Dielectric and impedance studies were also carried out as a function of frequency and temperature to explore the electrical properties of Sr-doped BaZrO{sub 3}. The dielectric constant of Ba{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}ZrO{sub 3} (0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.20) was found to be in the range of 13–25 for x = 0.05 to x = 0.20 with nearly similar dielectric loss of the order of 0.02. The conductance increases linearly with increase in frequency at room temperature, however the impedance has an inverse effect. - Highlights: • Monophasic nanocrystalline Ba{sub 1

  12. A reverse engineering approach to the suppression of citation biases reveals universal properties of citation distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Castellano, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    The large amount of information contained in bibliographic databases has recently boosted the use of citations, and other indicators based on citation numbers, as tools for the quantitative assessment of scientific research. Citations counts are often interpreted as proxies for the scientific influence of papers, journals, scholars, and institutions. However, a rigorous and scientifically grounded methodology for a correct use of citation counts is still missing. In particular, cross-disciplinary comparisons in terms of raw citation counts systematically favors scientific disciplines with higher citation and publication rates. Here we perform an exhaustive study of the citation patterns of millions of papers, and derive a simple transformation of citation counts able to suppress the disproportionate citation counts among scientific domains. We find that the transformation is well described by a power-law function, and that the parameter values of the transformation are typical features of each scientific discipline. Universal properties of citation patterns descend therefore from the fact that citation distributions for papers in a specific field are all part of the same family of univariate distributions.

  13. Reversibility and Viscoelastic Properties of Micropillar Supported and Oriented Magnesium Bundled F-Actin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Maier

    Full Text Available Filamentous actin is one of the most important cytoskeletal elements. Not only is it responsible for the elastic properties of many cell types, but it also plays a vital role in cellular adhesion and motility. Understanding the bundling kinetics of actin filaments is important in the formation of various cytoskeletal structures, such as filopodia and stress fibers. Utilizing a unique pillar-structured microfluidic device, we investigated the time dependence of bundling kinetics of pillar supported free-standing actin filaments. Microparticles attached to the filaments allowed the measurement of thermal motion, and we found that bundling takes place at lower concentrations than previously found in 3-dimensional actin gels, i.e. actin filaments formed bundles in the presence of 5-12 mM of magnesium chloride in a time-dependent manner. The filaments also displayed long term stability for up to hours after removing the magnesium ions from the buffer, which suggests that there is an extensive hysteresis between cation induced crosslinking and decrosslinking.

  14. Quantified Mechanical Properties of the Deltoid Muscle Using the Shear Wave Elastography: Potential Implications for Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Hatta

    Full Text Available The deltoid muscle plays a critical role in the biomechanics of shoulders undergoing reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA. However, both pre- and postoperative assessment of the deltoid muscle quality still remains challenging. The purposes of this study were to establish a novel methodology of shear wave elastography (SWE to quantify the mechanical properties of the deltoid muscle, and to investigate the reliability of this technique using cadaveric shoulders for the purpose of RSA. Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were obtained. The deltoid muscles were divided into 5 segments (A1, A2, M, P1 and P2 according to the muscle fiber orientation and SWE values were measured for each segment. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. To measure the response of muscle tension during RSA, the humeral shaft was osteotomized and subsequently elongated by an external fixator (intact to 15 mm elongation. SWE of the deltoid muscle was measured under each stretch condition. Intra- and inter-observer reliability of SWE measurements for all regions showed 0.761-0.963 and 0.718-0.947 for ICC(2,1. Especially, SWE measurements for segments A2 and M presented satisfactory repeatability. Elongated deltoid muscles by the external fixator showed a progressive increase in passive stiffness for all muscular segments. Especially, SWE outcomes of segments A2 and M reliably showed an exponential growth upon stretching (R2 = 0.558 and 0.593. Segmental measurements using SWE could be reliably and feasibly used to quantitatively assess the mechanical properties of the deltoid muscle, especially in the anterior and middle portions. This novel technique based on the anatomical features may provide helpful information of the deltoid muscle properties during treatment of RSA.

  15. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by an non-uniform cylindrical plasma; Diffusion coherente d'une onde electromagnetique par un cylindre de plasma inhomogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faugeras, P E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires. Groupe de recherches sur la fusion controlee

    1967-07-01

    The problem of the scattering of plane electromagnetic waves from a non-uniform, cylindrically symmetrical plasma is solved analytically, by a self-consistent field method, for a wave with the electric field parallel to the cylinder axis. Numerical results for the diffracted field are plotted for interesting ranges of the parameters involved: diameter, density on the axis, radial profile of the density, and collision frequencies. The case where the incident field is cylindric (waves surfaces parallel to the cylinder axis) is examined - this permits to connect theoretical calculations and experimental diffraction patterns, and also to explain the diffraction effects observed in a classical microwave interferometry experiment. These results, and the possibility of measuring exactly the diffracted field (showed by experiments with dielectric and metallic rods) lead to a new plasma diagnostic method, based on the diffraction, which has no theoretical limitations and it usable when the classical free-space wave methods are not (plasma diameter lower than 10 wave lengths). The feasibility of this method is tested with a plasma at atmospheric pressure and a 2 mm incident wavelength. The plasma is obtained by the laminar flow of a plasma torch, with a working gas (He or Ar) seeded by potassium (density continuously variable between 10{sup 11} and 10{sup 15} e/cm{sup 3}. Some diffraction patterns by this plasma and for various incident waves, are also given and explained with theoretical calculations. (author) [French] On etudie la diffusion coherente d'une onde electromagnetique par un cylindre de plasma inhomogene par une methode de champ self-consistant, et pour une onde de vecteur electrique parallele a l'axe du cylindre. On a calcule le champ diffracte en faisant varier le diametre du cylindre, la densite sur l'axe, le profil de densite et les frequences de collisions, et on donne ici les principaux resultats. On examine ensuite le cas d'une onde incidente cylindrique

  16. Self-assembly of block copolymer micelles: synthesis via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization and aqueous solution properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mya, Khine Y; Lin, Esther M J; Gudipati, Chakravarthy S; Gose, Halima B A S; He, Chaobin

    2010-07-22

    Poly(hexafluorobutyl methacrylate) (PHFBMA) homopolymer was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT)-mediated living radical polymerization in the presence of cyano-2-propyl dithiobenzoate (CPDB) RAFT agent. A block copolymer of PHFBMA-poly(propylene glycol acrylate) (PHFBMA-b-PPGA) with dangling poly(propylene glycol) (PPG) side chains was then synthesized by using CPDB-terminated PHFBMA as a macro-RAFT agent. The amphiphilic properties and self-assembly of PHFBMA-b-PPGA block copolymer in aqueous solution were investigated by dynamic and static light scattering (DLS and SLS) studies, in combination with fluorescence spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Although PPG shows moderately hydrophilic character, the formation of nanosize polymeric micelles was confirmed by fluorescence and TEM studies. The low value of the critical aggregation concentration exhibited that the tendency for the formation of copolymer aggregates in aqueous solution was very high due to the strong hydrophobicity of the PHFBMA(145)-b-PPGA(33) block copolymer. The combination of DLS and SLS measurements revealed the existence of micellar aggregates in aqueous solution with an association number of approximately 40 +/- 7 for block copolymer micelles. It was also found in TEM observation that there are 40-50 micelles accumulated into one aggregate and these micelles are loosely packed inside the aggregate.

  17. Unique Reversible Crystal-to-Crystal Phase Transition – Structural and Functional Properties of Fused Ladder Thienoarenes

    KAUST Repository

    Abe, Yuichiro

    2017-08-15

    Donor-acceptor type molecules based on fused ladder thienoarenes, indacenodithiophene (IDT) and dithienocyclopenta-thienothiophene (DTCTT), coupled with benzothiadiazole, are prepared and their solid-state structures are investigated. They display a rich variety of solid phases ranging from amorphous glass states to crystalline states, upon changes in the central aromatic core and side group structures. Most notably, the DTCTT-based derivatives showed reversible crystal-to-crystal phase transitions in heating and cooling cycles. Unlike what has been seen in π−conjugated molecules variable temperature XRD revealed that structural change occurs continuously during the transition. A columnar self-assembled structure with slip-stacked π−π interaction is proposed to be involved in the solid-state. This research provides the evidence of unique structural behavior of the DTCTT-based molecules through the detailed structural analysis. This unique structural transition paves the way for these materials to have self-healing of crystal defects, leading to improved optoelectronic properties.

  18. Preparation and characterization of bi-metallic nanoparticle catalyst having better anti-coking properties using reverse micelle technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharia, Thomas

    Energy needs are rising on an exponential basis. The mammoth energy sources like coal, natural gas and petroleum are the cause of pollution. The large outcry for an alternate energy source which is environmentally friendly and energy efficient is heard during the past few years. This is where “Clean-Fuel” like hydrogen gained its ground. Hydrogen is mainly produced by steam methane reforming (SMR). An alternate sustainable process which can reduce the cost as well as eliminate the waste products is Tri-reforming. In both these reforming processes nickel is used as catalyst. However as the process goes on the catalyst gets deactivated due to coking on the catalytic surface. This goal of this thesis work was to develop a bi-metallic catalyst which has better anti-coking properties compared to the conventional nickel catalyst. Tin was used to dope nickel. It was found that Ni3Sn complex around a core of Ni is coking resistant compared to pure nickel catalyst. Reverse micelle synthesis of catalyst preparation was used to control the size and shape of catalytic particles. These studies will benefit researches on hydrogen production and catalyst manufactures who work on different bi-metallic combinations.

  19. Unique Reversible Crystal-to-Crystal Phase Transition – Structural and Functional Properties of Fused Ladder Thienoarenes

    KAUST Repository

    Abe, Yuichiro; Savikhin, Victoria; Yin, Jun; Grimsdale, Andrew C.; Soci, Cesare; Toney, Michael F.; Lam, Yeng Ming

    2017-01-01

    Donor-acceptor type molecules based on fused ladder thienoarenes, indacenodithiophene (IDT) and dithienocyclopenta-thienothiophene (DTCTT), coupled with benzothiadiazole, are prepared and their solid-state structures are investigated. They display a rich variety of solid phases ranging from amorphous glass states to crystalline states, upon changes in the central aromatic core and side group structures. Most notably, the DTCTT-based derivatives showed reversible crystal-to-crystal phase transitions in heating and cooling cycles. Unlike what has been seen in π−conjugated molecules variable temperature XRD revealed that structural change occurs continuously during the transition. A columnar self-assembled structure with slip-stacked π−π interaction is proposed to be involved in the solid-state. This research provides the evidence of unique structural behavior of the DTCTT-based molecules through the detailed structural analysis. This unique structural transition paves the way for these materials to have self-healing of crystal defects, leading to improved optoelectronic properties.

  20. Lipeo-sCT: a novel reversible lipidized salmon calcitonin derivative, its biophysical properties and hypocalcemic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weiqiang; Lim, Lee-Yong

    2009-05-12

    We have previously described the design and synthesis of Mal-sCT and compared its biological activity with its reversible counterpart, REAL-sCT. Mal-sCT was salmon calcitonin (sCT) conjugated with two molecules of an epsilon-maleimido lysine derivative of palmitic acid via non-reversible thioether bonds at its cysteine residues while REAL-sCT was sCT conjugated with two molecules of a cysteine derivative of palmitic acid via reducible disulfide bonds at its cysteine residues. Neither compounds when dissolved in water could reproducibly improved the oral deliverability of sCT. The purpose of this study was to characterize and evaluate Lipeo-sCT, a novel sCT analog conjugated via reducible disulfide bonds with two amphiphilic groups consisting of a hydrophobic hexadecyl moiety attached via an ether bond to a hydrophilic triethylene glycol moiety. Lipeo-sCT was successfully synthesized by a 4-step reaction, purified and identified by ESI-MS. Analysis by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) suggested it had a propensity to form aggregates in water, although the aggregation behavior was controllable by modulating solvent polarity. MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay indicated a lack of cytotoxicity against the Caco-2 cells at up to 100 microM. Compared with sCT, Lipeo-sCT lowered plasma calcium to comparable levels when injected subcutaneously at 0.15 mg/kg into female Wistar rats, but the hypocalcemic activity of Lipeo-sCT was prolonged by at least 6 more hours. This was attributable to a continual regeneration of sCT from Lipeo-sCT. sCT was detectable in plasma 8h following subcutaneous injection of Lipeo-sCT (1.90 mg/kg), while Lipeo-sCT was not observed in plasma at all time points. By comparison, sCT was detectable in plasma for less than 2.5h following subcutaneous injection at an equivalent dose (1.50mg/kg). Data from this study complement those of previous studies, and add to the body of

  1. The Preparation and Properties of Thermo-reversibly Cross-linked Rubber Via Diels-Alder Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polgar, Lorenzo Massimo; van Duin, Martin; Picchioni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    A method for using Diels Alder thermo-reversible chemistry as cross-linking tool for rubber products is demonstrated. In this work, a commercial ethylene-propylene rubber, grafted with maleic anhydride, is thermo-reversibly cross-linked in two steps. The pending anhydride moieties are first modified

  2. Investigation on possible risks to human health by exposure to the radiation of electromagnetic waves produced by the radio communications; Investigacion sobre posibles riesgos a la salud humana por exposicion a la radiacion de ondas electromagneticas producidas por las radiocomunicaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Hernandez, Carlos Felipe; Ibarguengoytia Gonzalez, Pablo Hector; Flores Garcia, Andres; Franco Campos, Laura Elena [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-06-13

    This verification procedure is based on a research work on the possible risks to human health by exposure to the radiation of electromagnetic waves produced by the radio communications, cases of study: cellular telephony, radio digital troncalized and wireless telephony IP of Voice on IP (wireless local area network). The revision of all the international standards and the applicable national standardization was included, as well as the verification of fulfillment. [Spanish] Este procedimiento de verificacion esta basado en un trabajo de investigacion sobre posibles riesgos a la salud humana por exposicion a la radiacion de ondas electromagneticas producidas por la radiocomunicaciones, casos de estudio: telefonia celular, radio troncalizado digital y telefonia IP inalambrica de Voz sobre IP (red de area local inalambrica). Se incluyo la revision de todos los estandares internacionales y de la normatividad nacional aplicable, asi como la verificacion de cumplimiento.

  3. Local dialogue and information within the frame of the setting up of relay antennas. Decreasing the exposure to electromagnetic waves emitted by mobile phone relay antennas. First phase report by Francois Brottes, chairman of the 'experimentations' COMOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brottes, Francois

    2011-01-01

    The first part of this report describes the progress made on local dialogue and information within the frame of the setting up of relay antennas. It describes the implemented method with a selection of nine local communities, the main results of the dialogue (establishment of an information file, development of a tool set for the pilot communities, and operation, steering and assessment of experimentations). The second part describes the progress made on the exposure of population to electromagnetic waves emitted by mobile phone relay antennas (context, method, exposure status, simulation of the decreasing of relay antenna power, site experimentations). The third part proposes a set of recommendations related to local dialogue and information and to exposure

  4. Opinion of the Commission of sustainable development and land planning on the bill project related to the application of the precautionary principle defined in the Charter for the Environment to risks resulting from electromagnetic waves (nr 531) - Nr 585

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallard, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    In a first part, this report outlines that electromagnetic waves are always more present in our environment (mobile phones, radio and television waves, electricity transport, and domestic devices), comments the concern about possible hazards related to these waves and recommendations made by different French and international organisations (WHO, ANSES, European Agency for the Environment), and outlines improvements to be brought to the bill project. The second part reports the Commission's general discussion and comments on the different articles. A first set of articles contain general measures (modifications in the environment code, in the urban planning code, and in the post and telecommunications code, advertising prohibition, information campaign on the use of mobile phone). A second set of articles address provisional and financial measures

  5. Nano/ultrafine grained austenitic stainless steel through the formation and reversion of deformation-induced martensite: Mechanisms, microstructures, mechanical properties, and TRIP effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirdel, M., E-mail: mshirdel1989@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirzadeh, H., E-mail: hmirzadeh@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Advanced Metalforming and Thermomechanical Processing Laboratory, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parsa, M.H., E-mail: mhparsa@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for High Performance Materials, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Advanced Metalforming and Thermomechanical Processing Laboratory, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A comprehensive study was carried out on the strain-induced martensitic transformation, its reversion to austenite, the resultant grain refinement, and the enhancement of strength and strain-hardening ability through the transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) effect in a commercial austenitic 304L stainless steel with emphasis on the mechanisms and the microstructural evolution. A straightforward magnetic measurement device, which is based on the measurement of the saturation magnetization, for evaluating the amount of strain-induced martensite after cold rolling and reversion annealing in metastable austenitic stainless steels was used, which its results were in good consistency with those of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. A new parameter called the effective reduction in thickness was introduced, which corresponds to the reasonable upper bound on the obtainable martensite fraction based on the saturation in the martensitic transformation. By means of thermodynamics calculations, the reversion mechanisms were estimated and subsequently validated by experimental results. The signs of thermal martensitic transformation at cooling stage after reversion at 850 °C were found, which was attributed to the rise in the martensite start temperature due to the carbide precipitation. After the reversion treatment, the average grain sizes were around 500 nm and the nanometric grains of the size of ~ 65 nm were also detected. The intense grain refinement led to the enhanced mechanical properties and observation of the change in the work-hardening capacity and TRIP effect behavior. A practical map as a guidance for grain refining and characterizing the stability against grain growth was proposed, which shows the limitation of the reversion mechanism for refinement of grain size. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Nano/ultrafine grained austenitic stainless steel through martensite treatment • A parameter descriptive of a reasonable upper bound on

  6. Nano/ultrafine grained austenitic stainless steel through the formation and reversion of deformation-induced martensite: Mechanisms, microstructures, mechanical properties, and TRIP effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirdel, M.; Mirzadeh, H.; Parsa, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive study was carried out on the strain-induced martensitic transformation, its reversion to austenite, the resultant grain refinement, and the enhancement of strength and strain-hardening ability through the transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) effect in a commercial austenitic 304L stainless steel with emphasis on the mechanisms and the microstructural evolution. A straightforward magnetic measurement device, which is based on the measurement of the saturation magnetization, for evaluating the amount of strain-induced martensite after cold rolling and reversion annealing in metastable austenitic stainless steels was used, which its results were in good consistency with those of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. A new parameter called the effective reduction in thickness was introduced, which corresponds to the reasonable upper bound on the obtainable martensite fraction based on the saturation in the martensitic transformation. By means of thermodynamics calculations, the reversion mechanisms were estimated and subsequently validated by experimental results. The signs of thermal martensitic transformation at cooling stage after reversion at 850 °C were found, which was attributed to the rise in the martensite start temperature due to the carbide precipitation. After the reversion treatment, the average grain sizes were around 500 nm and the nanometric grains of the size of ~ 65 nm were also detected. The intense grain refinement led to the enhanced mechanical properties and observation of the change in the work-hardening capacity and TRIP effect behavior. A practical map as a guidance for grain refining and characterizing the stability against grain growth was proposed, which shows the limitation of the reversion mechanism for refinement of grain size. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Nano/ultrafine grained austenitic stainless steel through martensite treatment • A parameter descriptive of a reasonable upper bound on

  7. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Project of research and development of regional consortium (Development of energy saving type manufacturing process of smart material having electromagnetic wave absorbing function utilizing microwave-hydrothermal process); 1999 nendo micro ha - suinetsuho wo riyoshita denjiyha kyushu kino wo yusuru smart zairyo no sho energy gata seizo process no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The present research is aimed at developing an energy saving manufacturing process of a smart material having electromagnetic wave absorbing function in conventionally undeveloped bands as high as 30 MHz to 60 GHz. The process is composed of design, synthesis and forming of hybrid electromagnetic wave absorbing materials in which such magnetically permeable substance and conductive substance as ferrite is covered on fabrics having large dielectric loss through controlling the particle diameters and membrane thickness by using the microwave-hydrothermal process. The following researches have been performed: (1) development of smart material design and hybrid process technology, (2) evaluation on the electromagnetic wave absorbing function, (3) development of a manufacturing process for a smart forming material, and (4) development of a process for processing fabric material surface utilizing ocean resources. In Item (1), electromagnetic wave shielding function of 30 dB or higher was found provided in 200 MHz to 2 GHz bands. Calcium silicate and ferrite were manufactured by using the microwave-hydrothermal process, and calcium silicate was formed with energy being saved by using the hydrothermal curing process. In Item (2), TR17301A made by the Advanced Corporation was used to structure a system to evaluate the field in the vicinity of electric field and magnetic field. In Item (3), a ferrite forming material manufacturing process was developed. In Item (4), an attempt was carried out on forming ferrite by using reactions of nickel salt and iron salt. (NEDO)

  8. Reverse Algols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, K. C.

    1989-01-01

    Reverse Algols, binary systems with a semidetached configuration in which the more massive component is in contact with the critical equipotential surface, are examined. Observational evidence for reverse Algols is presented and the parameters of seven reverse Algols are listed. The evolution of Algols and reverse Algols is discussed. It is suggested that, because reverse Algols represent the premass-reversal semidetached phase of close binary evolution, the evolutionary time scale between regular and reverse Algols is the ratio of the number of confirmed systems of these two Algol types.

  9. Reverse Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Kulikova, Olga

    2016-01-01

    This thesis was focused on the analysis of the concept of reverse logistics and actual reverse processes which are implemented in mining industry and finding solutions for the optimization of reverse logistics in this sphere. The objective of this paper was the assessment of the development of reverse logistics in mining industry on the example of potash production. The theoretical part was based on reverse logistics and mining waste related literature and provided foundations for further...

  10. Static structure factor of polymerlike micelles: Overall dimension, flexibility, and local properties of lecithin reverse micelles in deuterated isooctane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jerke, G.; Pedersen, J.S.; Egelhaaf, S.U.

    1997-01-01

    We report a systematic investigation of the static structure factor S(q,c) of polymerlike reverse micelles formed by soybean lecithin and trace amounts of water in deuterated isooctane using small-angle neutron scattering and static light scattering. The experimental data for different concentrat......We report a systematic investigation of the static structure factor S(q,c) of polymerlike reverse micelles formed by soybean lecithin and trace amounts of water in deuterated isooctane using small-angle neutron scattering and static light scattering. The experimental data for different...

  11. Polarization reversal of electron cyclotron wave due to radial boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.; Kaneko, T.; Hatakeyama, R.

    2004-01-01

    The electron cyclotron wave is an important plasma wave in the fields of basic plasma physics and nuclear fusion. Propagation and absorption of electromagnetic waves with electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) frequency are experimentally and theoretically investigated for the case of inhomogeneously magnetized plasma column with peripheral vacuum layer, when a left-hand polarized wave (LHPW) is selectively launched. The polarization reversal from the LHPW to the right-hand polarized wave is found to occur near the ECR point. As a result, it is clarified that the LHPW, which has been considered not to be absorbed at the ECR point, is absorbed near the ECR point. The phenomena can be explained by taking into account the effects of the radial boundary conditions. In addition, it is found that the polarization reversal point can be adjusted by the external parameters, for example, plasma radius. (authors)

  12. Synthesis of sol–gel silica particles in reverse micelles with mixed-solvent polar cores: tailoring nanoreactor structure and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bürglová, Kristýna; Hlaváč, Jan [Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry (Czech Republic); Bartlett, John R., E-mail: jbartlett@usc.edu.au [University of the Sunshine Coast, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering (Australia)

    2015-07-15

    In this paper, we describe a new approach for producing metal oxide nano- and microparticles via sol–gel processing in confined media (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate reverse micelles), in which the chemical and physical properties of the polar aqueous core of the reverse micelles are modulated by the inclusion of a second polar co-solvent. The co-solvents were selected for their capacity to solubilise compounds with low water solubility and included dimethylsulfoxide, dimethylformamide, ethylene glycol, n-propanol, dimethylacetamide and N-methylpyrrolidone. A broad range of processing conditions across the sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate/cyclohexane/water phase diagram were identified that are suitable for preparing particles with dimensions <50 to >500 nm. In contrast, only a relatively narrow range of processing conditions were suitable for preparing such particles in the absence of the co-solvents, highlighting the role of the co-solvent in modulating the properties of the polar core of the reverse micelles. A mechanism is proposed that links the interactions between the various reactive sites on the polar head group of the surfactant and the co-solvent to the nucleation and growth of the particles.

  13. Influence of aging condition and reversion austenite on fatigue property of the 300 grade 18Ni maraging steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Michihiko; Takaki, Setsuo; Kawagoishi, Norio

    2000-01-01

    The influence of aging condition on fatigue strength of the 300 grade 18Ni maraging steel has been investigated in relation to the behavior of age hardening and the formation of reversion austenite. In this study, rotating bending fatigue tests were performed for three series of specimens with different aging condition; as solution-treated without aging, aged for various time at 753 K which is the temperature applied for the industrial aging treatment, and over-aged to form a small amount of reversion austenite. Effect of reversion austenite on fatigue strength was examined using specimens with the same static strength which had been controlled by varying aging temperature and time, namely under-aging or over-aging. The main results obtained are as follows. (1) In the case of 753 K aging, the fatigue limits of specimens aged for 11 ks to 48 ks were nearly the same value, although an under-aged (2.8 ks) specimen has as much lower value as a solution-treated specimen without aging treatment. (2) A small amount of reversion austenite is effective for increasing fatigue resistance. For instance, 2 vol% of austenite was enough for improving fatigue limit of the maraging steel used, from 580 MPa to 640 MPa at the same hardness level of Hv 610. (author)

  14. Reverse Osmosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    many applications, one of which is desalination of seawater. The inaugural Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded in 1901 to van 't Hoff for his seminal work in this area. The present article explains the principle of osmosis and reverse osmosis. Osmosis and Reverse Osmosis. As the name suggests, reverse osmosis is the ...

  15. Adsorption Properties and Potential Applications of Bamboo Charcoal: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa S.S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo charcoal was produced by pyrolysis or carbonization process with extraordinary properties such as high conductivity, large surface area and adsorption property. These properties can be improved by activation process that can be done thermally or chemically. In this paper, carbonization and activation process of bamboo, its structural and adsorption properties will be presented. Herein, the adsorption properties of bamboo charcoal that has fully utilized in solar cell as the electrode, adsorbent for water purification and electromagnetic wave absorber are reviewed.

  16. Two-photon fluorescent polysiloxane-based films with thermally responsive self switching properties achieved by a unique reversible spirocyclization mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yujing; Yang, Tingxin; Zhang, Yu; Gou, Zhiming; Tian, Minggang; Kong, Xiuqi; Lin, Weiying

    2018-03-14

    Responsiveness and reversibility are present in nature, and are ubiquitous in biological systems. The realization of reversibility and responsiveness is of great importance in the development of properties and the design of new materials. However, two-photon fluorescent thermal-responsive materials have not been reported to date. Herein, we engineered thermally responsive polysiloxane materials ( Dns-non ) that exhibited unique two-photon luminescence, and this is the first report about thermally responsive luminescent materials with two-photon fluorescence. The fluorescence of Dns-non could switch from the "on" to "off" state through a facile heating and cooling process, which could be observed by the naked eye. Monitoring the temperature of the CPU in situ was achieved by easily coating D1-non onto the CPU surface, which verified the potential application in devices of Dns-non . A unique alkaline tuned reversible transition mechanism of rhodamine-B from its spirocyclic to its ring-open state was proposed. Furthermore, Dns-non appeared to be a useful cell adhesive for the culture of cells on the surface. We believe that the constructed thermally responsive silicon films which have promising utilization as a new type of functional fluorescent material, may show broad applications in materials chemistry or bioscience.

  17. Properties of the edge plasma in the rebuilt Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vianello, N; Spolaore, M; Serianni, G; Bergsaker, H; Antoni, V; Drake, J R

    2002-01-01

    The edge region of the rebuilt Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment has been investigated using Langmuir probes. Radial profiles of main plasma parameters are obtained and compared with those of the previous device Extrap-T2. The spontaneous setting up of a double shear layer of ExB toroidal velocity is confirmed. The particle flux induced by electrostatic fluctuations is calculated and the resulting effective diffusion coefficient is consistent with the Bohm estimate. A close relationship between electrostatic fluctuations at the edge and non-linear coupling of MHD modes in the core is found

  18. Properties of the edge plasma in the rebuilt Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianello, N.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Bergsåker, H.; Antoni, V.; Drake, J. R.

    2002-12-01

    The edge region of the rebuilt Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment has been investigated using Langmuir probes. Radial profiles of main plasma parameters are obtained and compared with those of the previous device Extrap-T2. The spontaneous setting up of a double shear layer of E×B toroidal velocity is confirmed. The particle flux induced by electrostatic fluctuations is calculated and the resulting effective diffusion coefficient is consistent with the Bohm estimate. A close relationship between electrostatic fluctuations at the edge and non-linear coupling of MHD modes in the core is found.

  19. Construction and properties of a topological index for periodically driven time-reversal invariant 2D crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Carpentier

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present mathematical details of the construction of a topological invariant for periodically driven two-dimensional lattice systems with time-reversal symmetry and quasienergy gaps, which was proposed recently by some of us. The invariant is represented by a gap-dependent Z2-valued index that is simply related to the Kane–Mele invariants of quasienergy bands but contains an extra information. As a byproduct, we prove new expressions for the two-dimensional Kane–Mele invariant relating the latter to Wess–Zumino amplitudes and the boundary gauge anomaly.

  20. Numerical studies on the electromagnetic properties of the nonlinear Lorentz Computational model for the dielectric media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, H.; Okuda, H.

    1994-06-01

    We study linear and nonlinear properties of a new computer simulation model developed to study the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a dielectric medium in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The model is constructed by combining a microscopic model used in the semi-classical approximation for the dielectric media and the particle model developed for the plasma simulations. It is shown that the model may be useful for studying linear and nonlinear wave propagation in the dielectric media