WorldWideScience

Sample records for reverse engineering links

  1. Engineering Encounters: Reverse Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Veronica Cassone; Ventura, Marcia; Bell, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue shares information on how students' everyday experiences can support science learning through engineering design. In this article, the authors outline a reverse-engineering model of instruction and describe one example of how it looked in our fifth-grade…

  2. Malware analysis and reverse engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Šváb, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Focus of this thesis is reverse engineering in information technology closely linked with the malware analysis. It explains fundamentals of IA-32 processors architecture and basics of operating system Microsoft Windows. Main part of this thesis is dedicated to the malware analysis, including description of creating a tool for simplification of static part of the analysis. In Conclusion various approaches to the malware analysis, which were described in previous part of the thesis, are practic...

  3. Reverse engineering for quality systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    When the age of software engineering began, many companies were faced with a problem of how to support the older, pre-software-engineering, programs. The techniques of reverse engineering and re-engineering were developed to bridge the gap between the past and the present. Although reverse engineering can be used for generating missing documentation, it can also be used as a means to demonstrate quality in these older programs. This paper presents, in the form of a case study, how Rolls-Royce and Associates Limited addressed the quality issues of reverse engineering and re-engineering. (author)

  4. Reverse engineering of RFID devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokslag, W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the relevance and potential impact of both RFID and reverse engineering of RFID technology, followed by a discussion of common protocols and internals of RFID technology. The focus of the paper is on providing an overview of the different approaches to reverse engineering RFID

  5. MODELS OF PROJECT REVERSE ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віктор Володимирович ІВАНОВ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Reverse engineering decided important scientific and technical problems of increasing the cost of the existing technical product by transforming it into a product with other features or design. Search ideas of the new application of existing products on the base of heuristic analysis were created. The concept of reverse engineering and its division into three types: conceptual, aggregate and complete was expanded. The use of heuristic methods for reverse engineering concept was showed. The modification model of Reverse engineering based on the model of РМВОК was developed. Our model includes two new phases: identification and transformation. At the identification phase, technical control is made. At the transformation phase, search heuristic idea of the new applied existing technical product was made. The model of execution phase that included heuristic methods, metrological equipment, and CAD/CAM/CAE program complex was created. The model that connected economic indicators of reverse engineering project was developed.

  6. Reverse engineering of integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Gregory H.; Eckmann, Steven T.; Lain, Christopher M.; Veroff, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    Software and a method therein to analyze circuits. The software comprises several tools, each of which perform particular functions in the Reverse Engineering process. The analyst, through a standard interface, directs each tool to the portion of the task to which it is most well suited, rendering previously intractable problems solvable. The tools are generally used iteratively to produce a successively more abstract picture of a circuit, about which incomplete a priori knowledge exists.

  7. Repeatable Reverse Engineering with PANDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-08

    necessary layout information for the Android 2.3 and 4.2 SDK kernels. See Section IV-C for an example of the kind of deep reverse engineering of Android apps ...code re-use and simplifying complex analysis development. We demonstrate PANDA’s effectiveness via a number of use cases, including enabling an old but...continue to function. 2) Identify critical vulnerabilities . 3) Understand the true purpose and actions of code. It is common for legacy code to stop

  8. DIC-CAM recipe for reverse engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Carrillo, P.; Lopez-Alba, E.; Dorado, R.; Diaz-Garrido, F. A.

    2012-04-01

    Reverse engineering (RE) tries to model and manufacture an object from measurements one of a reference object. Modern optical measurement systems and computer aided engineering software have improved reverse engineering procedures. We detail the main RE steps from 3D digitalization by Digital Image Correlation to manufacturing. The previous description is complemented with an application example, which portrays the performance of RE. The differences between original and manufactured objects are less than 2 mm (close to the tool radius).

  9. Reverse engineering of the robot base platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar A Rahman; Azizul Rahman A Aziz; Mohd Arif Hamzah; Muhd Nor Atan; Fadil Ismail; Rosli Darmawan

    2009-01-01

    The robot base platform used to place the robotic arm version 2 was imported through a local company. The robot base platform is used as a reference for reverse egineering development for a smaller size robot. The paper will discuss the reverse engineering design process and parameters involved in the development of the robot base platform. (Author)

  10. Research regarding reverse engineering for aircraft components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udroiu Razvan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse engineering is a useful technique used in manufacturing and design process of new components. In aerospace industry new components can be developed, based on existing components without technical Computer Aided Design (CAD data, in order to reduce the development cycle of new products. This paper proposes a methodology wherein the CAD model of turbine blade can be build using computer aided reverse engineering technique utilising a 5 axis Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM. The proposed methodology uses a scanning strategy by features, followed by a design methodology for 3D modelling of complex shapes.

  11. Detecting A Botnet By Reverse Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oesman Hendra Kelana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract— Botnet malware is a malicious program. Botnet that infects computers, called bots, will be controlled by a botmaster to do various things such as: spamming, phishing, keylogging Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS and other activities that are generally profitable to the owner of the bot (botmaster or those who use botnet services. The problem is that many computers have been controlled by botnets without the knowledge of the computer owner.  There are many ways to examine botnets, for example by studying the traffic from the botnet network, studying how botnets communicate to each, studying how each robot receives orders to do something, and so forth. Of the many methods, the most frequently and commonly used is the reverse engineering, where researchers study how a botnet works by botnet debugging. In this study the author tries to understand or research botnets by taking a type of botnet, namely Agobot, using reverse engineering.  One of the result of the research is that malware program files in general and in particular botnet has a technique to obscure the way that research using reverse engineering. Another result also shows that the botnet Agobot runs on computers by using the Windows service, and by changing the Windows registry so that every time the computer starts, Agobot always actively works in the computer memory. Keywords— Malware, Bot, Botnet, Botmaster, Agobot, Spam, Distributed Denial of Services, Identity Theft, Computer Security, Reverse Engineering, Debug, Windows Service, the Registry.

  12. Reversibility: An Engineer's Point of View

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berest, Pierre [LMS, ecole Polytechnique (France)

    2012-07-01

    Reversibility is the most consistent option in a democratic country. However reversibility may also have several drawbacks which must be identified and mitigated. Reversibility of a geological repository is a relatively new idea in France. The 1991 law dedicated to nuclear waste management considered reversibility as a possible option. Fifteen years later, the 2006 law mandated that a deep repository must be reversible and that the exact content of this notion should be defined by a new law to be discussed by the Parliament in 2015. Reversibility was not a concern put forward by engineers. It clearly originated from a societal demand sponsored and formulated by the Parliament. Since 1991, the exact meaning of this mandate progressively became more precise. In the early days, reversibility meant the technical and financial capability to retrieve the wastes from the repository, at least for some period of time after being emplaced. Progressively, a broader definition, suggested by Andra, was accepted: reversibility also means that a disposal facility should be operated in such a way that a stepwise decision-making process is possible. At each step, society must be able to decide to proceed to the next step, to pause or to reverse a step. Several benefits can be expected from a reversible repository. Some technical safety concerns may be only recognised after waste emplacement. Radioactive wastes may become a resource whose recoverability is desirable. Regulations may change, alternative waste treatment or better disposal techniques may be developed, or the need to modify a component of the facility may arise. Looking back at how chemical or domestic wastes were managed some 50 years ago easily underscores that it is not unreasonable to hope for significant advances in the future. For scientists and engineers, reversibility proves to have several other merits. To design and build a good repository, time is needed. The operator of a mine or of an oil field knows that

  13. Variable Cycle Intake for Reverse Core Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Gabriel L (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M (Inventor); Staubach, Joseph B (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas generator for a reverse core engine propulsion system has a variable cycle intake for the gas generator, which variable cycle intake includes a duct system. The duct system is configured for being selectively disposed in a first position and a second position, wherein free stream air is fed to the gas generator when in the first position, and fan stream air is fed to the gas generator when in the second position.

  14. Understanding Virtual Objects through Reverse Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Moitinho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of our research is to develop a new methodology, based on Reverse Engineering processes – 3D scan, quantitative data analysis and Artificial Intelligence techniques, in particular simulation – to study the relationship between form and function of artefacts. Furthermore, we aim to provide new data, as well as possible explanations of the archaeological record according to what it expects about social activity, including working processes, by simulating the potentialities of such actions in terms of input-output relationships.

  15. High Pressure Reverse Flow APS Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senneff, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    A design and test demonstration effort was undertaken to evaluate the concept of the reverse flow engine for the APS engine application. The 1500 lb (6672 N) thrust engine was designed to operate on gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen propellants at a mixture ratio of 4 and to achieve the objective performance of 435 sec (4266 Nsec/kg) specific impulse. Superimposed durability requirements called for a million-cycle capability with 50 hours duration. The program was undertaken as a series of tasks including the initial preliminary design, design of critical test components and finally, the design and demonstration of an altitude engine which could be used interchangeably to examine operating parameters as well as to demonstrate the capability of the concept. The program results are reported with data to indicate that all of the program objectives were met or exceeded within the course of testing on the program. The analysis effort undertaken is also reported in detail and supplemented with test data in some cases where prior definitions could not be made. The results are contained of these analyses as well as the test results conducted throughout the course of the program. Finally, the test data and analytical results were combined to allow recommendations for a flight weight design. This preliminary design effort is also detailed.

  16. Reverse engineering of inductive fault current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pina, J M; Neves, M Ventim; Rodrigues, A L [Centre of Technology and Systems Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Nova University of Lisbon Monte de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Suarez, P; Alvarez, A, E-mail: jmmp@fct.unl.p [' Benito Mahedero' Group of Electrical Applications of Superconductors Escuela de IngenierIas Industrials, University of Extremadura Avenida de Elvas s/n, 06006 Badajoz (Spain)

    2010-06-01

    The inductive fault current limiter is less compact and harder to scale to high voltage networks than the resistive one. Nevertheless, its simple construction and mechanical robustness make it attractive in low voltage grids. Thus, it might be an enabling technology for the advent of microgrids, low voltage networks with dispersed generation, controllable loads and energy storage. A new methodology for reverse engineering of inductive fault current limiters based on the independent analysis of iron cores and HTS cylinders is presented in this paper. Their electromagnetic characteristics are used to predict the devices' hysteresis loops and consequently their dynamic behavior. Previous models based on the separate analysis of the limiters' components were already derived, e.g. in transformer like equivalent models. Nevertheless, the assumptions usually made may limit these models' application, as shown in the paper. The proposed methodology obviates these limitations. Results are validated through simulations.

  17. Reverse engineering of inductive fault current limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, J M; Neves, M Ventim; Rodrigues, A L; Suarez, P; Alvarez, A

    2010-01-01

    The inductive fault current limiter is less compact and harder to scale to high voltage networks than the resistive one. Nevertheless, its simple construction and mechanical robustness make it attractive in low voltage grids. Thus, it might be an enabling technology for the advent of microgrids, low voltage networks with dispersed generation, controllable loads and energy storage. A new methodology for reverse engineering of inductive fault current limiters based on the independent analysis of iron cores and HTS cylinders is presented in this paper. Their electromagnetic characteristics are used to predict the devices' hysteresis loops and consequently their dynamic behavior. Previous models based on the separate analysis of the limiters' components were already derived, e.g. in transformer like equivalent models. Nevertheless, the assumptions usually made may limit these models' application, as shown in the paper. The proposed methodology obviates these limitations. Results are validated through simulations.

  18. Application of industrial CT in reverse engineering technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Liyong; Li Hui; Bai Jinping; Li Bailin

    2013-01-01

    The basic principle and basic steps of reverse engineering technology based on industrial CT are described. The recent research progresses and situation at home and abroad of reverse engineering technology based on industrial CT image are respectively described, analyzed and summarized from two routes which are surface segmentation and volume segmentation. An example of conch is used to exhibit the results from the two routes in reverse engineering technology based on industrial CT image. Finally, some difficulties in application and the future developments of reverse engineering technology based on industrial CT are prospected. (authors)

  19. Propagation engineering in radio links design

    CERN Document Server

    Ghasemi, Abdollah; Ghasemi, Farshid

    2013-01-01

    Propagation Engineering in Radio Link Design covers the basic principles of radiowaves propagation in a practical manner.  This fundamental understanding enables the readers to design radio links efficiently. This book elaborates on new achievements as well as recently developed propagation models.  This is in addition to a comprehensive overview of fundamentals of propagation in various scenarios. It examines theoretical calculations, approaches and applied procedures needed for radio links design. The authors study and analysis of the main propagation phenomena and its mechanisms based on the recommendations of International Telecommunications Union, (ITU). The book has been organized in 9 chapters and examines the role of antennas and passive reflectors in radio services, propagation mechanisms related to radar, satellite, short distance, broadcasting and trans-horizon radio links, with two chapters devoted to radio noise and main  parameters of radio link design. The book presents some 278 illustration...

  20. Novel combination of reverse engineering and vapid prototyping in medicine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schenker, R

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The technologies of reverse engineering and rapid prototyping are emerging as useful new tools in medicine. One application is of particular interest in orthopaedic, dental and reconstructive surgery. It involves the imaging, modelling...

  1. Reverse Engineering Integrated Circuits Using Finite State Machine Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oler, Kiri J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Carl H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-04-12

    In this paper, we present a methodology for reverse engineering integrated circuits, including a mathematical verification of a scalable algorithm used to generate minimal finite state machine representations of integrated circuits.

  2. Vertical Integration and Reverse Engineering of Agricultural Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang; WU; Yong; DU

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the potential effects of agricultural enterprise’s vertical integration and reverse engineering on downstream firms.Suppliers who invest reverse engineering technology can exploit customer’s information. An integrated supplier can obtain at no cost the information from its subsidiary. Based on repeated game and considered corporate " good" or " bad" type,this paper analysis supplier’s selection and downstream investment in innovation. The results showed that: when the cost is higher than the threshold value no company invest in reverse engineering,when the cost is lower than the threshold value the integration company invest in reverse engineering; in the second period,vertical integration reduce the downstream independent enterprise’s innovation investment and profits,integrated enterprise increase innovation investment and profits; during the first period of the game,the independent downstream firms being " completely foreclosure".

  3. Reverse Engineering Camouflaged Sequential Integrated Circuits Without Scan Access

    OpenAIRE

    Massad, Mohamed El; Garg, Siddharth; Tripunitara, Mahesh

    2017-01-01

    Integrated circuit (IC) camouflaging is a promising technique to protect the design of a chip from reverse engineering. However, recent work has shown that even camouflaged ICs can be reverse engineered from the observed input/output behaviour of a chip using SAT solvers. However, these so-called SAT attacks have so far targeted only camouflaged combinational circuits. For camouflaged sequential circuits, the SAT attack requires that the internal state of the circuit is controllable and obser...

  4. Microwave line of sight link engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Angueira, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to the design, implementation, and operation of line of sight microwave link systems The microwave Line of Sight (LOS) transport network of any cellular operator requires at least as much planning effort as the cellular infrastructure itself. The knowledge behind this design has been kept private by most companies and has not been easy to find. Microwave Line of Sight Link Engineering solves this dilemma. It provides the latest revisions to ITU reports and recommendations, which are not only key to successful design but have changed dramatically in

  5. Thermally reversible cross-linked poly(ether-urethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gaina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cross-linked poly(ether-urethanes were prepared by Diels-Alder (DA reaction of the furan-containing poly(ether-urethane to bismaleimides and showed thermal reversibility evidenced by differential scanning calorimetry and attenuated total reflectance in conjunction with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR. The furan-containing poly(ether-urethanes were synthesized by the polyaddition reaction of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI or 4,4'- dibenzyl diisocyanate (DBDI to poly(tetramethylene ether glycol (PTMEG having Mn = 250, 650, 1000, 1500 and 2000 and 2-[N,N-bis(2-methyl-2-hydroxyethylamino]furfuryl as chain extender by the solution prepolymer method. The molar ratio of isocyanate: PTMEG:chain extender varied from 2:1:1 to 4:1:3, which produces a molar concentration of furyl group ranging between 3.65•10–4 and 1.25•10–3 mol/g.

  6. GRASP/Ada 95: Reverse Engineering Tools for Ada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, James H., II

    1996-01-01

    The GRASP/Ada project (Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada) has successfully created and prototyped an algorithmic level graphical representation for Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD), and a new visualization for a fine-grained complexity metric called the Complexity Profile Graph (CPG). By synchronizing the CSD and the CPG, the CSD view of control structure, nesting, and source code is directly linked to the corresponding visualization of statement level complexity in the CPG. GRASP has been integrated with GNAT, the GNU Ada 95 Translator to provide a comprehensive graphical user interface and development environment for Ada 95. The user may view, edit, print, and compile source code as a CSD with no discernible addition to storage or computational overhead. The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and, as a result, improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis has been on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada 95 source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional prettyprinted Ada source code. The current update has focused on the design and implementation of a new Motif compliant user interface, and a new CSD generator consisting of a tagger and renderer. The Complexity Profile Graph (CPG) is based on a set of functions that describes the context, content, and the scaling for complexity on a statement by statement basis. When combined graphicafly, the result is a composite profile of complexity for the program unit. Ongoing research includes the development and refinement of the associated functions, and the development of the CPG generator prototype. The current Version 5.0 prototype provides the capability for the user to generate CSDs and CPGs from Ada 95 source code in a reverse engineering as well as forward engineering mode with a level of flexibility suitable for

  7. Android Application Protection against Static Reverse Engineering based on Multidexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nak Young Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available DEX files are executable files of Android applications. Since DEX files are in the format of Java bytecodes, their Java source codes can be easily obtained using static reverse engineering tools. This results in numerous Android application thefts. There are some tools (e.g. bangcle, ijiami, liapp that protect Android applications against static reverse engineering utilizing dynamic code loading. These tools usually encrypt classes.dex in an APK file. When the application is launched, the encrypted classes.dex file is decrypted and dynamically loaded. However, these tools fail to protect multidex APKs, which include more than one DEX files (classes2.dex, classes3.dex, ... to accommodate large-sized execution codes. In this paper, we propose a technique that protects multidex Android applications against static reverse engineering. The technique can encrypt/decrypt multiple DEX files in APK files and dynamically load them. The experimental results show that the proposed technique can effiectively protect multidex APKs.

  8. Parametric Optimization Design of Brake Block Based on Reverse Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hua-wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the key part of automotive brake,the performance of brake block has a direct impact on the safety and comfort of cars. Modeling the brake block of disc brake in reverse parameterization by reverse engineering software, analyzing and optimizing the reconstructed model by CAE software. Processing the scanned point cloud by Geomagic Studio and reconstructing the CAD model of the brake block with the parametric surface function of the software, then analyzing and optimizing it by Wrokbench. The example shows that it is quick to reconstruct the CAD model of parts by using reverse parameterization method and reduce part re-design development cycle significantly.

  9. Application of reverse engineering in the medical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleev, A. A.; Kashapov, L. N.; Kashapov, N. F.; Kashapov, R. N.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop on the basis of existing analogs new design of ophthalmologic microsurgical tweezers by using reverse engineering techniques. Virtual model was obtained by using a three-dimensional scanning system Solutionix Rexcan 450 MP. Geomagic Studio program was used to remove defects and inaccuracies of the obtained parametric model. A prototype of the finished model was made on the installation of laser stereolithography Projet 6000. Total time of the creation was 16 hours from the reverse engineering procedure to 3D-printing of the prototype.

  10. Teach CAD and Measuring Skills through Reverse Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board, Keith

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a reverse engineering activity that gives students hands-on, minds-on experience with measuring tools, machine parts, and CAD. The author developed this activity to give students an abundance of practical experience with measuring tools. Equally important, it provides a good interface between the virtual world of CAD 3D…

  11. A gene network simulator to assess reverse engineering algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Camillo, Barbara; Toffolo, Gianna; Cobelli, Claudio

    2009-03-01

    In the context of reverse engineering of biological networks, simulators are helpful to test and compare the accuracy of different reverse-engineering approaches in a variety of experimental conditions. A novel gene-network simulator is presented that resembles some of the main features of transcriptional regulatory networks related to topology, interaction among regulators of transcription, and expression dynamics. The simulator generates network topology according to the current knowledge of biological network organization, including scale-free distribution of the connectivity and clustering coefficient independent of the number of nodes in the network. It uses fuzzy logic to represent interactions among the regulators of each gene, integrated with differential equations to generate continuous data, comparable to real data for variety and dynamic complexity. Finally, the simulator accounts for saturation in the response to regulation and transcription activation thresholds and shows robustness to perturbations. It therefore provides a reliable and versatile test bed for reverse engineering algorithms applied to microarray data. Since the simulator describes regulatory interactions and expression dynamics as two distinct, although interconnected aspects of regulation, it can also be used to test reverse engineering approaches that use both microarray and protein-protein interaction data in the process of learning. A first software release is available at http://www.dei.unipd.it/~dicamill/software/netsim as an R programming language package.

  12. Contact mechanics of reverse engineered distal humeral hemiarthroplasty implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willing, Ryan; King, Graham J W; Johnson, James A

    2015-11-26

    Erosion of articular cartilage is a concern following distal humeral hemiarthroplasty, because native cartilage surfaces are placed in contact with stiff metallic implant components, which causes decreases in contact area and increases in contact stresses. Recently, reverse engineered implants have been proposed which are intended to promote more natural contact mechanics by reproducing the native bone or cartilage shape. In this study, finite element modeling is used in order to calculate changes in cartilage contact areas and stresses following distal humeral hemiarthroplasty with commercially available and reverse engineered implant designs. At the ulna, decreases in contact area were -34±3% (p=0.002), -27±1% (pengineered and cartilage reverse engineered designs, respectively. Peak contact stresses increased by 461±57% (p=0.008), 387±127% (p=0.229) and 165±16% (p=0.003). At the radius, decreases in contact area were -21±3% (p=0.013), -13±2% (p0.999), 241±32% (p=0.010) and 61±10% (p=0.021). Between the three different implant designs, the cartilage reverse engineered design yielded the largest contact areas and lowest contact stresses, but was still unable to reproduce the contact mechanics of the native joint. These findings align with a growing body of evidence indicating that although reverse engineered hemiarthroplasty implants can provide small improvements in contact mechanics when compared with commercially available designs, further optimization of shape and material properties is required in order reproduce native joint contact mechanics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The ATPG Attack for Reverse Engineering of Combinational Hybrid Custom-Programmable Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-23

    Introduction The widely practiced horizontal integrated circuit supply chain exposes a design to various types of attacks including the reverse engineering ...STT_CMOS designs for reverse- engineering prevention, DAC 2016. [5] M. E. Massad and et. al. Integrated circuit (IC) decamouflaging: reverse...The ATPG Attack for Reverse Engineering of Combinational Hybrid Custom-Programmable Circuits Raza Shafiq Hamid Mahmoodi Houman Homayoun Hassan

  14. Benefits of reverse engineering technologies in software development makerspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aabidi M.H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, the amount of data produced by scientific, engineering, and life science applications has increased with several orders of magnitude. In parallel with this development, the applications themselves have become increasingly complex in terms of functionality, structure, and behavior. In the same time, development and production cycles of such applications exhibit a tendency of becoming increasingly shorter, due to factors such as market pressure and rapid evolution of supporting and enabling technologies. As a consequence, an increasing fraction of the cost of creating new applications and manufacturing processes shifts from the creation of new artifacts to the adaption of existing ones. A key component of this activity is the understanding of the design, operation, and behavior of existing manufactured artifacts, such as software code bases, hardware systems, and mechanical assemblies. For instance, in the software industry, it is estimated that maintenance costs exceed 80% of the total costs of a software product's lifecycle, and software understanding accounts for as much as half of these maintenance costs. To facilitate the software development process, it would be ideal to have tools that automatically generate or help to generate UML (Unified Modeling Language models from source code. Reverse engineering the software architecture from source code provides a valuable service to software practitioners. Case tools implementing MDA and reverse-engineering constitute an important opportunity of software development engineers. So MDA and reverse engineering is an important key witch make makerspace more productive and more efficient.

  15. Reversible and irreversible heat engine and refrigerator cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Harvey S.

    2018-05-01

    Although no reversible thermodynamic cycles exist in nature, nearly all cycles covered in textbooks are reversible. This is a review, clarification, and extension of results and concepts for quasistatic, reversible and irreversible processes and cycles, intended primarily for teachers and students. Distinctions between the latter process types are explained, with emphasis on clockwise (CW) and counterclockwise (CCW) cycles. Specific examples of each are examined, including Carnot, Kelvin and Stirling cycles. For the Stirling cycle, potentially useful task-specific efficiency measures are proposed and illustrated. Whether a cycle behaves as a traditional refrigerator or heat engine can depend on whether it is reversible or irreversible. Reversible and irreversible-quasistatic CW cycles both satisfy Carnot's inequality for thermal efficiency, η ≤ η C a r n o t . Irreversible CCW cycles with two reservoirs satisfy the coefficient of performance inequality K ≤ K C a r n o t . However, an arbitrary reversible cycle satisfies K ≥ K C a r n o t when compared with a reversible Carnot cycle operating between its maximum and minimum temperatures, a potentially counterintuitive result.

  16. Mobile Timekeeping Application Built on Reverse-Engineered JPL Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witoff, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Every year, non-exempt employees cumulatively waste over one man-year tracking their time and using the timekeeping Web page to save those times. This app eliminates this waste. The innovation is a native iPhone app. Libraries were built around a reverse- engineered JPL API. It represents a punch-in/punch-out paradigm for timekeeping. It is accessible natively via iPhones, and features ease of access. Any non-exempt employee can natively punch in and out, as well as save and view their JPL timecard. This app is built on custom libraries created by reverse-engineering the standard timekeeping application. Communication is through custom libraries that re-route traffic through BrowserRAS (remote access service). This has value at any center where employees track their time.

  17. Computer-aided dental prostheses construction using reverse engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaberrieta, E; Minguez, R; Barrenetxea, L; Sierra, E; Etxaniz, O

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems with virtual articulators, which take into account the kinematics, constitutes a breakthrough in the construction of customised dental prostheses. This paper presents a multidisciplinary protocol involving CAM techniques to produce dental prostheses. This protocol includes a step-by-step procedure using innovative reverse engineering technologies to transform completely virtual design processes into customised prostheses. A special emphasis is placed on a novel method that permits a virtual location of the models. The complete workflow includes the optical scanning of the patient, the use of reverse engineering software and, if necessary, the use of rapid prototyping to produce CAD temporary prostheses.

  18. Tissue-Engineered Skeletal Muscle Organoids for Reversible Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, Herman; DelTatto, Michael; Shansky, Janet; Lemaire, Julie; Chang, Albert; Payumo, Francis; Lee, Peter; Goodyear, Amy; Raven, Latasha

    1996-01-01

    Genetically modified murine skeletal myoblasts were tissue engineered in vitro into organ-like structures (organoids) containing only postmitotic myofibers secreting pharmacological levels of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). Subcutaneous organoid Implantation under tension led to the rapid and stable appearance of physiological sera levels of rhGH for up to 12 weeks, whereas surgical removal led to its rapid disappearance. Reversible delivery of bioactive compounds from postimtotic cells in tissue engineered organs has several advantages over other forms of muscle gene therapy.

  19. Efficient Reverse-Engineering of a Developmental Gene Regulatory Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicin-Sain, Damjan; Ashyraliyev, Maksat; Jaeger, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the complex regulatory networks underlying development and evolution of multi-cellular organisms is a major problem in biology. Computational models can be used as tools to extract the regulatory structure and dynamics of such networks from gene expression data. This approach is called reverse engineering. It has been successfully applied to many gene networks in various biological systems. However, to reconstitute the structure and non-linear dynamics of a developmental gene network in its spatial context remains a considerable challenge. Here, we address this challenge using a case study: the gap gene network involved in segment determination during early development of Drosophila melanogaster. A major problem for reverse-engineering pattern-forming networks is the significant amount of time and effort required to acquire and quantify spatial gene expression data. We have developed a simplified data processing pipeline that considerably increases the throughput of the method, but results in data of reduced accuracy compared to those previously used for gap gene network inference. We demonstrate that we can infer the correct network structure using our reduced data set, and investigate minimal data requirements for successful reverse engineering. Our results show that timing and position of expression domain boundaries are the crucial features for determining regulatory network structure from data, while it is less important to precisely measure expression levels. Based on this, we define minimal data requirements for gap gene network inference. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of reverse-engineering with much reduced experimental effort. This enables more widespread use of the method in different developmental contexts and organisms. Such systematic application of data-driven models to real-world networks has enormous potential. Only the quantitative investigation of a large number of developmental gene regulatory networks will allow us to

  20. Cranioplasty prosthesis manufacturing based on reverse engineering technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzan, Robert; Urbanik, Andrzej; Karbowski, Krzysztof; Moskała, Marek; Polak, Jarosław; Pyrich, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Most patients with large focal skull bone loss after craniectomy are referred for cranioplasty. Reverse engineering is a technology which creates a computer-aided design (CAD) model of a real structure. Rapid prototyping is a technology which produces physical objects from virtual CAD models. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical usefulness of these technologies in cranioplasty prosthesis manufacturing. Material/Methods CT was performed on 19 patients with focal skull bone loss after craniectomy, using a dedicated protocol. A material model of skull deficit was produced using computer numerical control (CNC) milling, and individually pre-operatively adjusted polypropylene-polyester prosthesis was prepared. In a control group of 20 patients a prosthesis was manually adjusted to each patient by a neurosurgeon during surgery, without using CT-based reverse engineering/rapid prototyping. In each case, the prosthesis was implanted into the patient. The mean operating times in both groups were compared. Results In the group of patients with reverse engineering/rapid prototyping-based cranioplasty, the mean operating time was shorter (120.3 min) compared to that in the control group (136.5 min). The neurosurgeons found the new technology particularly useful in more complicated bone deficits with different curvatures in various planes. Conclusions Reverse engineering and rapid prototyping may reduce the time needed for cranioplasty neurosurgery and improve the prosthesis fitting. Such technologies may utilize data obtained by commonly used spiral CT scanners. The manufacturing of individually adjusted prostheses should be commonly used in patients planned for cranioplasty with synthetic material. PMID:22207125

  1. Biometrics in wearable products: Reverse Engineering and numerical modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The Reverse Engineering (RE) techniques and the Finite Element Modelling (FEM) are widely used tools in many scientific fields. They were firstly developed for the mechanics but in the last times became common for other disciplines. In the thesis these techniques are used for the customization of the wearable products. It is possible to observe that the geometry of whatever wearable product is fundamental for the comfort. In particular, starting from the need of wearable product it is possibl...

  2. A Predictive Approach to Network Reverse-Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Chris

    2005-03-01

    A central challenge of systems biology is the ``reverse engineering" of transcriptional networks: inferring which genes exert regulatory control over which other genes. Attempting such inference at the genomic scale has only recently become feasible, via data-intensive biological innovations such as DNA microrrays (``DNA chips") and the sequencing of whole genomes. In this talk we present a predictive approach to network reverse-engineering, in which we integrate DNA chip data and sequence data to build a model of the transcriptional network of the yeast S. cerevisiae capable of predicting the response of genes in unseen experiments. The technique can also be used to extract ``motifs,'' sequence elements which act as binding sites for regulatory proteins. We validate by a number of approaches and present comparison of theoretical prediction vs. experimental data, along with biological interpretations of the resulting model. En route, we will illustrate some basic notions in statistical learning theory (fitting vs. over-fitting; cross- validation; assessing statistical significance), highlighting ways in which physicists can make a unique contribution in data- driven approaches to reverse engineering.

  3. Reverse electrodialysis heat engine for sustainable power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamburini, A.; Tedesco, M.; Cipollina, A.; Micale, G.; Ciofalo, M.; Papapetrou, M.; Van Baak, W.; Piacentino, A.

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: State of the art technologies for the conversion of heat into power. Grey circles refer to technologies at very early stage of development and non-available at industrial level. The Carnot efficiency (on the secondary horizontal axis) is evaluated assuming a cold sink temperature of 25 °C. SRC-hot gases: Steam Rankine Cycle integrated with gas turbine/other topping cycles; SRC-fuel: Steam Rankine Cycle directly fuelled by oil, coal or other fuels; KC: Kalina Cycle; ORC: Organic Rankine Cycle; TEG: Thermoelectric Generation; PEPG: Piezoelectric Power Generation with waste heat-powered expansion/compression cycle; OHE: Osmotic Heat Engine; REDHE, Reverse Electrodialysis Heat Engine (this paper). Display Omitted -- Highlights: •For the first time, the potential of Reverse Electrodialysis Heat Engine is assessed. •An overview of the possible regeneration methods is presented. •Performance of the RED unit fed by different salty solutions was suitably optimized. •Three different RED Heat Engine scenarios were studied. •Exergetic efficiency of about 85% could be achieved in the foreseen future. -- Abstract: Reverse Electrodialysis Heat Engine (REDHE) is a promising technology to convert waste heat at temperatures lower than 100 °C into electric power. In the present work an overview of the possible regeneration methods is presented and the technological challenges for the development of the RED Heat Engine (REDHE) are identified. The potential of this power production cycle was investigated through a simplified mathematical model. In the first part of the work, several salts were singularly modelled as possible solutes in aqueous solutions feeding the RED unit and the corresponding optimal conditions were recognized via an optimization study. In the second part, three different RED Heat Engine scenarios were studied. Results show that power densities much higher than those relevant to NaCl-water solutions can be obtained by using different

  4. Strategies for replacement of obsolete equipment - including reverse engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    The presentation shall detail the challenges facing nuclear power plants with the replacement of obsolete equipment and the strategies used to overcome those challenges. The presentation will outline the common equipment types which are either obsolete or are becoming obsolete, with a focus on safety related components. The four options of the obsolete equipment replacement philosophy will be presented with replacement examples from each of the options shown for discussion purposes. Detailed examples from each of the four obsolete equipment replacement options of: commercially available equivalent component; modification of a commercial available component; reverse engineering of the original component; and finally, design changes using a new component, shall be presented to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each option. The presentation will include the technical challenges, cost and schedule concerns for each of the four options. Emphasis will be placed on the technological challenges associated with replacing old and obsolete equipment. The following is a bullet list of the challenges which will be discussed: Missing, misleading or no information on the original component; Acquiring information from the original equipment manufacturer and the plant; Using a sample component for the replacement evaluation and or reverse engineering; and Reverse engineering old equipment with newly available discrete components. The presentation will include the equivalency documentation using the EPRI guidelines when replacing an original component with a different yet form, fit and functional equivalent component. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the replacement of the obsolete component with a form, fit and functional equivalent component vs. the replacement of the original component with a new component with today's technology. (author)

  5. Critical evaluation of reverse engineering tool Imagix 4D!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rashmi; Patel, Ravindra; Kothari, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    The comprehension of legacy codes is difficult to understand. Various commercial reengineering tools are available that have unique working styles, and are equipped with their inherent capabilities and shortcomings. The focus of the available tools is in visualizing static behavior not the dynamic one. Therefore, it is difficult for people who work in software product maintenance, code understanding reengineering/reverse engineering. Consequently, the need for a comprehensive reengineering/reverse engineering tool arises. We found the usage of Imagix 4D to be good as it generates the maximum pictorial representations in the form of flow charts, flow graphs, class diagrams, metrics and, to a partial extent, dynamic visualizations. We evaluated Imagix 4D with the help of a case study involving a few samples of source code. The behavior of the tool was analyzed on multiple small codes and a large code gcc C parser. Large code evaluation was performed to uncover dead code, unstructured code, and the effect of not including required files at preprocessing level. The utility of Imagix 4D to prepare decision density and complexity metrics for a large code was found to be useful in getting to know how much reengineering is required. At the outset, Imagix 4D offered limitations in dynamic visualizations, flow chart separation (large code) and parsing loops. The outcome of evaluation will eventually help in upgrading Imagix 4D and posed a need of full featured tools in the area of software reengineering/reverse engineering. It will also help the research community, especially those who are interested in the realm of software reengineering tool building.

  6. Strategies for replacement of obsolete equipment, including reverse engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    The presentation shall detail the challenges facing nuclear power plants with the replacement of obsolete equipment and the strategies used to overcome those challenges. The presentation will outline the common equipment types which are either obsolete or are becoming obsolete, with a focus on safety related components. The four options of the obsolete equipment replacement philosophy will be presented with replacement examples from each of the options shown for discussion purposes. Detailed examples from each of the four obsolete equipment replacement options of, (1) commercially available equivalent component, (2) modification of a commercial available component, (3) reverse engineering of the original component and finally (4) design changes using a new component, shall be presented to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each option. The presentation will include the technical challenges, cost and schedule concerns for each of the four options. Emphasis will be placed on the technological challenges associated with replacing old and obsolete equipment. The following is a bullet list of the challenges which will be discussed: 1) Missing, misleading or no information on the original component. 2) Acquiring information from the original equipment manufacturer and the plant. 3) Using a sample component for the replacement evaluation and or reverse engineering. 4) Reverse engineering old equipment with newly available discrete components. The presentation will include the equivalency documentation using the EPRI guidelines when replacing an original component with a different yet form, fit and functional equivalent component. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the replacement of the obsolete component with a form, fit and functional equivalent component vs. the replacement of the original component with a new component with today's technology. (author)

  7. Graphical User Interfaces Reverse Engineering for Requirements Elicitation - Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Jaimes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper exhibits a synthesis of the use of legacy systems GUI reverse engineering as a tool to software requirements elicitation. It presents a literature review describing the approaches related to the topic. This work primary goal is to determine the major investigations in this area, and if there are techniques focused exclusively on the observation of the legacy applications GUI to obtain software requirements in a standard format, without the use of source code, data structures, documentation or sophisticated algorithms for the application analysis.

  8. Drag reduction of a reverse-engineered vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecrivain, G.; Slaouti, A.; Kennedy, I. [Manchester Metropolitan Univ., Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering and Technology

    2007-08-09

    The aerodynamic performance of a hand-made sports car was numerically assessed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of various shape modifications. The purpose was to achieve a lower drag design. Reverse-engineering was used to create a virtual model of complex 3D shapes for which no computer-aided drawings (CAD) data existed. From the predicted flow, the body could be redesigned for better performance prior to its remanufacturing. This paper described the multidisciplinary procedure involving reverse-engineering and CAD that was used to recreate a suitable watertight model of the sports car. The different errors embedded in the successive stages leading to the final model were accurately assessed and minimized. The whole vehicle was remodelled for drag reduction. Surface reconstruction was carried out, an an accurate set of high quality Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) surfaces was produced over the polygonal mesh resulting in a fine visual surface finish with smooth lines and contours, as required in the automotive industry. Further modifications were implemented for the purpose of drag reduction and to improve its aerodynamic performance. The application described in this paper can be extended to any other similarly intricate vehicle or industrial component. 12 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  9. Adding Robustness to Support Vector Machines Against Adversarial Reverse Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Many classification algorithms have been successfully deployed in security-sensitive applications including spam filters and intrusion detection systems. Under such adversarial environments, adversaries can generate exploratory attacks against the defender such as evasion and reverse engineering. In this paper, we discuss why reverse engineering attacks can be carried out quite efficiently against fixed classifiers, and investigate the use of randomization as a suitable strategy for mitigating their risk. In particular, we derive a semidefinite programming (SDP) formulation for learning a distribution of classifiers subject to the constraint that any single classifier picked at random from such distribution provides reliable predictions with a high probability. We analyze the tradeoff between variance of the distribution and its predictive accuracy, and establish that one can almost always incorporate randomization with large variance without incurring a loss in accuracy. In other words, the conventional approach of using a fixed classifier in adversarial environments is generally Pareto suboptimal. Finally, we validate such conclusions on both synthetic and real-world classification problems. Copyright 2014 ACM.

  10. 14 CFR 23.934 - Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.934 Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests. Thrust reverser systems of turbojet or turbofan engines must meet the requirements of § 33.97 of this...

  11. Smartphone based scalable reverse engineering by digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidvans, Amey; Basu, Saurabh

    2018-03-01

    There is a need for scalable open source 3D reconstruction systems for reverse engineering. This is because most commercially available reconstruction systems are capital and resource intensive. To address this, a novel reconstruction technique is proposed. The technique involves digital image correlation based characterization of surface speeds followed by normalization with respect to angular speed during rigid body rotational motion of the specimen. Proof of concept of the same is demonstrated and validated using simulation and empirical characterization. Towards this, smart-phone imaging and inexpensive off the shelf components along with those fabricated additively using poly-lactic acid polymer with a standard 3D printer are used. Some sources of error in this reconstruction methodology are discussed. It is seen that high curvatures on the surface suppress accuracy of reconstruction. Reasons behind this are delineated in the nature of the correlation function. Theoretically achievable resolution during smart-phone based 3D reconstruction by digital image correlation is derived.

  12. [Veneer computer aided design based on reverse engineering technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-li; Chen, Xiao-dong; Wang, Yong

    2012-03-01

    To explore the computer aided design (CAD) method of veneer restoration, and to assess if the solution can help prosthesis meet morphology esthetics standard. A volunteer's upper right central incisor needed to be restored with veneer. Super hard stone models of patient's dentition (before and after tooth preparation) were scanned with the three-dimensional laser scanner. The veneer margin was designed as butt-to-butt type. The veneer was constructed using reverse engineering (RE) software. The technique guideline of veneers CAD was explore based on RE software, and the veneers was smooth, continuous and symmetrical, which met esthetics construction needs. It was a feasible method to reconstruct veneer restoration based on RE technology.

  13. Automatic Reverse Engineering of Private Flight Control Protocols of UAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of civil unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs has the potential to threaten public safety and privacy. Therefore, airspace administrators urgently need an effective method to regulate UAVs. Understanding the meaning and format of UAV flight control commands by automatic protocol reverse-engineering techniques is highly beneficial to UAV regulation. To improve our understanding of the meaning and format of UAV flight control commands, this paper proposes a method to automatically analyze the private flight control protocols of UAVs. First, we classify flight control commands collected from a binary network trace into clusters; then, we analyze the meaning of flight control commands by the accumulated error of each cluster; next, we extract the binary format of commands and infer field semantics in these commands; and finally, we infer the location of the check field in command and the generator polynomial matrix. The proposed approach is validated via experiments on a widely used consumer UAV.

  14. Update of GRASP/Ada reverse engineering tools for Ada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, James H., II

    1993-01-01

    The GRASP/Ada project (Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada) successfully created and prototyped a new algorithmic level graphical representation for Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD). The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and, as a result, improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis was on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada PDL or source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional pretty printed Ada source code. In Phase 1 of the GRASP/Ada project, the CSD graphical constructs were created and applied manually to several small Ada programs. A prototype CSD generator (Version 1) was designed and implemented using FLEX and BISON running under VMS on a VAX 11-780. In Phase 2, the prototype was improved and ported to the Sun 4 platform under UNIX. A user interface was designed and partially implemented using the HP widget toolkit and the X Windows System. In Phase 3, the user interface was extensively reworked using the Athena widget toolkit and X Windows. The prototype was applied successfully to numerous Ada programs ranging in size from several hundred to several thousand lines of source code. Following Phase 3,e two update phases were completed. Update'92 focused on the initial analysis of evaluation data collected from software engineering students at Auburn University and the addition of significant enhancements to the user interface. Update'93 (the current update) focused on the statistical analysis of the data collected in the previous update and preparation of Version 3.4 of the prototype for limited distribution to facilitate further evaluation. The current prototype provides the capability for the user to generate CSD's from Ada PDL or source code in a reverse engineering as well as forward engineering mode with a level of flexibility suitable for practical

  15. Reversible S-nitrosylation in an engineered azurin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Shiliang; Liu, Jing; Cowley, Ryan E.; Hosseinzadeh, Parisa; Marshall, Nicholas M.; Yu, Yang; Robinson, Howard; Nilges, Mark J.; Blackburn, Ninian J.; Solomon, Edward I.; Lu, Yi

    2016-04-25

    S-Nitrosothiols are known as reagents for NO storage and transportation and as regulators in many physiological processes. Although the S-nitrosylation catalysed by haem proteins is well known, no direct evidence of S-nitrosylation in copper proteins has been reported. Here, we report reversible insertion of NO into a copper–thiolate bond in an engineered copper centre in Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin by rational design of the primary coordination sphere and tuning its reduction potential by deleting a hydrogen bond in the secondary coordination sphere. The results not only provide the first direct evidence of S-nitrosylation of Cu(II)-bound cysteine in metalloproteins, but also shed light on the reaction mechanism and structural features responsible for stabilizing the elusive Cu(I)–S(Cys)NO species. The fast, efficient and reversible S-nitrosylation reaction is used to demonstrate its ability to prevent NO inhibition of cytochrome bo3 oxidase activity by competing for NO binding with the native enzyme under physiologically relevant conditions.

  16. Un-Building Blocks: A Model of Reverse Engineering and Applicable Heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Inclusion relationships of root events, events, and subevents .................179  Table 5.  Formal specification of reverse engineering model using Monterey...intend to stay technologically competitive at personal as well as societal levels. Third, reverse engineering is important for pedagogical reasons. It is...increasingly blurred (Anderson, 2012).4 Third, reverse engineering can be a pedagogical tool (Otto & Wood, 2000; O’Brien, 2010; Halsmer, 2013

  17. Internet-based dimensional verification system for reverse engineering processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, In Ho; Kim, Kyung Don; Chung, Sung Chong

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a design methodology for a Web-based collaborative system applicable to reverse engineering processes in a distributed environment. By using the developed system, design reviewers of new products are able to confirm geometric shapes, inspect dimensional information of products through measured point data, and exchange views with other design reviewers on the Web. In addition, it is applicable to verifying accuracy of production processes by manufacturing engineers. Functional requirements for designing this Web-based dimensional verification system are described in this paper. ActiveX-server architecture and OpenGL plug-in methods using ActiveX controls realize the proposed system. In the developed system, visualization and dimensional inspection of the measured point data are done directly on the Web: conversion of the point data into a CAD file or a VRML form is unnecessary. Dimensional verification results and design modification ideas are uploaded to markups and/or XML files during collaboration processes. Collaborators review the markup results created by others to produce a good design result on the Web. The use of XML files allows information sharing on the Web to be independent of the platform of the developed system. It is possible to diversify the information sharing capability among design collaborators. Validity and effectiveness of the developed system has been confirmed by case studies

  18. Internet-based dimensional verification system for reverse engineering processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, In Ho [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Don [Small Business Corporation, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Sung Chong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    This paper proposes a design methodology for a Web-based collaborative system applicable to reverse engineering processes in a distributed environment. By using the developed system, design reviewers of new products are able to confirm geometric shapes, inspect dimensional information of products through measured point data, and exchange views with other design reviewers on the Web. In addition, it is applicable to verifying accuracy of production processes by manufacturing engineers. Functional requirements for designing this Web-based dimensional verification system are described in this paper. ActiveX-server architecture and OpenGL plug-in methods using ActiveX controls realize the proposed system. In the developed system, visualization and dimensional inspection of the measured point data are done directly on the Web: conversion of the point data into a CAD file or a VRML form is unnecessary. Dimensional verification results and design modification ideas are uploaded to markups and/or XML files during collaboration processes. Collaborators review the markup results created by others to produce a good design result on the Web. The use of XML files allows information sharing on the Web to be independent of the platform of the developed system. It is possible to diversify the information sharing capability among design collaborators. Validity and effectiveness of the developed system has been confirmed by case studies

  19. Neutron tomography as a reverse engineering method applied to the IS-60 Rover gas turbine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roos, TH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Probably the most common method of reverse engineering in mechanical engineering involves measuring the physical geometry of a component using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Neutron tomography, in contrast, is used primarily as a non...

  20. Reverse Engineering Nature to Design Biomimetic Total Knee Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadarajan, Kartik Mangudi; Zumbrunn, Thomas; Rubash, Harry E; Malchau, Henrik; Muratoglu, Orhun K; Li, Guoan

    2015-10-01

    While contemporary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) provides tremendous clinical benefits, the normal feel and function of the knee is not fully restored. To address this, a novel design process was developed to reverse engineer "biomimetic" articular surfaces that are compatible with normal soft-tissue envelope and kinematics of the knee. The biomimetic articular surface is created by moving the TKA femoral component along in vivo kinematics of normal knees and carving out the tibial articular surface from a rectangular tibial block. Here, we describe the biomimetic design process. In addition, we utilize geometric comparisons and kinematic simulations to show that; (1) tibial articular surfaces of conventional implants are fundamentally incompatible with normal knee motion, and (2) the anatomic geometry of the biomimetic surface contributes directly to restoration of normal knee kinematics. Such biomimetic implants may enable us to achieve the long sought after goal of a "normal" knee post-TKA surgery. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Linking Civil Engineering Education And Research With Industry (Session Keynote)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virdi, Kuldeep

    Linking engineering education with industry has been a basic aim of educators almost from the beginning of modern degree programmes. In the USA, reference is often made to ‘co-operative education’, where students spend periods in industry within the duration of their stay in a university. Indeed...

  2. Reverse engineering human neurodegenerative disease using pluripotent stem cell technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Deng, Wenbin

    2016-05-01

    With the technology of reprogramming somatic cells by introducing defined transcription factors that enables the generation of "induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)" with pluripotency comparable to that of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), it has become possible to use this technology to produce various cells and tissues that have been difficult to obtain from living bodies. This advancement is bringing forth rapid progress in iPSC-based disease modeling, drug screening, and regenerative medicine. More and more studies have demonstrated that phenotypes of adult-onset neurodegenerative disorders could be rather faithfully recapitulated in iPSC-derived neural cell cultures. Moreover, despite the adult-onset nature of the diseases, pathogenic phenotypes and cellular abnormalities often exist in early developmental stages, providing new "windows of opportunity" for understanding mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative disorders and for discovering new medicines. The cell reprogramming technology enables a reverse engineering approach for modeling the cellular degenerative phenotypes of a wide range of human disorders. An excellent example is the study of the human neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using iPSCs. ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons (MNs), culminating in muscle wasting and death from respiratory failure. The iPSC approach provides innovative cell culture platforms to serve as ALS patient-derived model systems. Researchers have converted iPSCs derived from ALS patients into MNs and various types of glial cells, all of which are involved in ALS, to study the disease. The iPSC technology could be used to determine the role of specific genetic factors to track down what's wrong in the neurodegenerative disease process in the "disease-in-a-dish" model. Meanwhile, parallel experiments of targeting the same specific genes in human ESCs could also be performed to control

  3. Chemical respiratory allergy: Reverse engineering an adverse outcome pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J.; Basketter, David A.; Boverhof, Darrell R.

    2014-01-01

    Allergic sensitisation of the respiratory tract by chemicals is associated with rhinitis and asthma and remains an important occupational health issue. Although less than 80 chemicals have been confirmed as respiratory allergens the adverse health effects can be serious, and in rare instances can be fatal, and there are, in addition, related socioeconomic issues. The challenges that chemical respiratory allergy pose for toxicologists are substantial. No validated methods are available for hazard identification and characterisation, and this is due in large part to the fact that there remains considerable uncertainty and debate about the mechanisms through which sensitisation of the respiratory tract is acquired. Despite that uncertainty, there is a need to establish some common understanding of the key events and processes that are involved in respiratory sensitisation to chemicals and that might in turn provide the foundations for novel approaches to safety assessment. In recent years the concept of adverse outcome pathways (AOP) has gained some considerable interest among the toxicology community as a basis for outlining the key steps leading to an adverse health outcome, while also providing a framework for focusing future research, and for developing alternative paradigms for hazard characterisation. Here we explore application of the same general principles to an examination of the induction by chemicals of respiratory sensitisation. In this instance, however, we have chosen to adopt a reverse engineering approach and to model a possible AOP for chemical respiratory allergy working backwards from the elicitation of adverse health effects to the cellular and molecular mechanisms that are implicated in the acquisition of sensitisation

  4. Laser marking as a result of applying reverse engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalache, Andrei; Nagîţ, Gheorghe; Rîpanu, Marius Ionuţ; Slǎtineanu, Laurenţiu; Dodun, Oana; Coteaţǎ, Margareta

    2018-05-01

    The elaboration of a modern manufacturing technology needs a certain quantum of information concerning the part to be obtained. When it is necessary to elaborate the technology for an existing object, such an information could be ensured by using the principles specific to the reverse engineering. Essentially, in the case of this method, the analysis of the surfaces and of other characteristics of the part must offer enough information for the elaboration of the part manufacturing technology. On the other hand, it is known that the laser marking is a processing method able to ensure the transfer of various inscriptions or drawings on a part. Sometimes, the laser marking could be based on the analysis of an existing object, whose image could be used to generate the same object or an improved object. There are many groups of factors able to affect the results of applying the laser marking process. A theoretical analysis was proposed to show that the heights of triangles obtained by means of a CNC marking equipment depend on the width of the line generated by the laser spot on the workpiece surface. An experimental research was thought and materialized to highlight the influence exerted by the line with and the angle of lines intersections on the accuracy of the marking process. By mathematical processing of the experimental results, empirical mathematical models were determined. The power type model and the graphical representation elaborated on the base of this model offered an image concerning the influences exerted by the considered input factors on the marking process accuracy.

  5. Irradiation effects on properties of reverse osmosis membrane based on cross-linked aromatic polyamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakase, Yoshiaki; Yanagi, Tadashi; Uemura, Tadahiro.

    1994-01-01

    In order to develop a membrane suitable for reverse osmotic condensation of radioactive liquid wastes, a new cross-linked aromatic polyamide composite reverse osmosis membrane (ROM) was irradiated in water or in wet system, and its mechanical and some thermal properties, and the separation performance for inorganic salt were investigated. A membrane was degraded by irradiation more severely in wet system than in dry system, probably due to the reaction with OH-radicals. In the separation performance for NaCl, the salt rejection of the membrane was kept over 88% until irradiation reached 2MGy, maintaining about 90% of its original water flux. (author)

  6. Experimental study of a reverse flow catalytic converter for a duel fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B.; Checkel, M. D. [Alberta Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Edmonton, ANB (Canada); Hayes, R. E. [Alberta Univ., Dept, of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Edmonton, AB, (Canada)

    2001-08-01

    Performance of a reverse flow catalytic converter for a methane/diesel dual fuel engine is evaluated under steady and transient engine conditions. The converter is of the monolith honeycomb type with palladium catalyst washcoat. Results of the reverse flow converter's performance was found to be superior for several steady state engine operations when compared to unidirectional flow operation. In transient operations following a step change in engine operating conditions, reverse flow was found to be better than unidirectional flow when the change in engine operation was such as to reduce the exhaust gas temperature. When exhaust gas temperature was increased, reverse flow decreased the rate of increase in the reactor temperature. Testing was done using the transient Japanese 6-Mode tests. Best results were achieved with a switch time in the five seconds to fifteen seconds range. 31 refs., 9 tabs., 24 figs.

  7. The Preparation and Properties of Thermo-reversibly Cross-linked Rubber Via Diels-Alder Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polgar, Lorenzo Massimo; van Duin, Martin; Picchioni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    A method for using Diels Alder thermo-reversible chemistry as cross-linking tool for rubber products is demonstrated. In this work, a commercial ethylene-propylene rubber, grafted with maleic anhydride, is thermo-reversibly cross-linked in two steps. The pending anhydride moieties are first modified

  8. Penerapan Reverse Engineering Dalam Penentuan Pola Interaksi Sequence Diagram Pada Sampel Aplikasi Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vierdy Sulfianto Rahmadani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to apply the application of reverse engineering to determine interaction patterns of the Sequence diagram that can be used by system analysts as a template for designing UML sequence diagrams. Sample applications from android are used as dataset for reverse engineering and pattern identification. The first step is collecting application datasets. The next stage is identifying the features and applications activity, reverse engineering to obtain a sequence diagram model, and then synthesize all of the models into an interaction pattern of sequence diagram. The final step is to test the patterns by implementing it in an application development case stud. The evaluation results concludes that interaction patterns of sequence diagram designs obtained in reverse engineering steps is able to be implemented in software development that contained similar features with the obtained features in this research.

  9. Threshold-Dependent Camouflaged Cells to Secure Circuits Against Reverse Engineering Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Collantes, Maria I. Mera; Massad, Mohamed El; Garg, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    With current tools and technology, someone who has physical access to a chip can extract the detailed layout of the integrated circuit (IC). By using advanced visual imaging techniques, reverse engineering can reveal details that are meant to be kept secret, such as a secure protocol or novel implementation that offers a competitive advantage. A promising solution to defend against reverse engineering attacks is IC camouflaging. In this work, we propose a new camouflaging technique based on t...

  10. Reverse engineering by design: using history to teach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagette, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Engineering students rarely have an opportunity to delve into the historic antecedents of design in their craft, and this is especially true for biomedical devices. The teaching emphasis is always on the new, the innovative, and the future. Even so, over the last decade, I have coupled a research agenda with engineering special projects into a successful format that allows young biomedical engineering students to understand aspects of their history and learn the complexities of design. There is value in having knowledge of historic engineering achievements, not just for an appreciation of these accomplishments but also for understanding exactly how engineers and clinicians of the day executed their feats-in other words, how the design process works. Ultimately, this particular educational odyssey confirms that history and engineering education are not only compatible but mutually supportive.

  11. REPTREE CLASSIFIER FOR IDENTIFYING LINK SPAM IN WEB SEARCH ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Jayanthi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Search Engines are used for retrieving the information from the web. Most of the times, the importance is laid on top 10 results sometimes it may shrink as top 5, because of the time constraint and reliability on the search engines. Users believe that top 10 or 5 of total results are more relevant. Here comes the problem of spamdexing. It is a method to deceive the search result quality. Falsified metrics such as inserting enormous amount of keywords or links in website may take that website to the top 10 or 5 positions. This paper proposes a classifier based on the Reptree (Regression tree representative. As an initial step Link-based features such as neighbors, pagerank, truncated pagerank, trustrank and assortativity related attributes are inferred. Based on this features, tree is constructed. The tree uses the feature inference to differentiate spam sites from legitimate sites. WEBSPAM-UK-2007 dataset is taken as a base. It is preprocessed and converted into five datasets FEATA, FEATB, FEATC, FEATD and FEATE. Only link based features are taken for experiments. This paper focus on link spam alone. Finally a representative tree is created which will more precisely classify the web spam entries. Results are given. Regression tree classification seems to perform well as shown through experiments.

  12. A Process Re-engineering Framework for Reverse Logistics based on a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing Kai Chan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Reverse logistics has gained increasing attention in recent years as a channel for companies to achieve operational excellence. The process involves manipulation of returned materials, or even products, which forms a pivotal role in sustainable development throughout the whole supply chains. To make reverse logistics possible, process re-engineering may need to be carried out. However, the processes involved in reengineering are practically complicated. Objectives, benefits, and applicability of any process re-engineering require a careful and detailed strategic planning. This paper aims to propose an easy-to-follow step-by-step framework for practitioners to perform process re-engineering, to learn and identify the critical issues in each step, and to be successful in applying process re-engineering in order to enhance reverse logistics performance. A learner-centred approach is adopted based on a case study of process re-engineering, which is demonstrated in the paper for explanation.

  13. Macromolecular cell surface engineering for accelerated and reversible cellular aggregation.

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, A. J.; Pasparakis, G.

    2015-01-01

    We report the synthesis of two simple copolymers that induce rapid cell aggregation within minutes in a fully reversible manner. The polymers can act as self-supporting "cellular glues" or as "drivers" of 3D cell spheroids/aggregates formation at minute concentrations.

  14. Alkali reversal of psoralen cross-link for the targeted delivery of psoralen monoadduct lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, A.T.; Dinehart, W.J.; Jones, B.K.

    1988-01-01

    Psoralen intercalates into double-stranded DNA and photoreacts mainly with thymines to form monoadducts and interstrand cross-links. The authors used an oligonucleotide model to demonstrate a novel mechanism: the reversal of psoralen cross-links by base-catalyzed rearrangement at 90 0 C (BCR). The BCR reaction is more efficient than the photoreversal reaction. They show that the BCR occurs predominantly on the furan side of a psoralen cross-link. The cleavage does not result in the breaking of the DNA backbone, and the thymine based freed from the cross-link by the cleavage reaction appears to be unmodified. Similarly, BCR of the furan-side monoadduct of psoralen removed the psoralen molecule and regenerated the unaltered native oligonucleotide. The pyrone-side psoralen monoadduct is relatively resistant to BCR. One can use BCR to perform efficient oligonucleotide-directed, site-specific delivery of a psoralen monoadduct. As a demonstration of this approach, they have hybridized a 19 base long oligonucleotide vehicle containing a furan-side psoralen monoadduct to a 56 base long complementary oligonucleotide target strand and formed a specific cross-link at the target site with 365-nm UV. Subsequent BCR released the oligonucleotide vehicle and deposited the psoralen at the target site

  15. Reverse Link CDMA System Capacity Evaluation for Stratospheric Platform Mobile Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskandar Iskandar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose an analysis of reverse link CDMA multispot beam stratospheric platforms (SPF in this paper. The SPF is currently proposed as a novel wireless technology for the development of the next generation fixed and mobile communications. The geometry of this technology is different from that of the terrestrial but rather similar to the satellite based cellular system. However, evaluation on the CDMA system capacity of this technology has not been much reported. This paper addresses all possible multiple access interference analyses including the effects of channel fading and shadowing in order to evaluate the system capacity. Single SPF and multiple SPF model are evaluated under perfect power control and imperfect power control. The results indicate that in SPF systems the reverse link CDMA capacity is significantly reduced because of the power control imperfections. Moreover, in multiple SPF model the interference caused by the users in overlapped region is not trivial. We found that because of this problem the capacity is reduced for both speech and real-time data applications compared with the single SPF model even though the assumption of perfect power control can be made. In order to improve the system capacity we proposed two methods, first is to increase the minimum elevation angle definition for each platform and the second is to employ an adaptive antenna.

  16. Reverse Flow Engine Core Having a Ducted Fan with Integrated Secondary Flow Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisska, Michael K. (Inventor); Princen, Norman H. (Inventor); Kuehn, Mark S. (Inventor); Cosentino, Gary B. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Secondary air flow is provided for a ducted fan having a reverse flow turbine engine core driving a fan blisk. The fan blisk incorporates a set of thrust fan blades extending from an outer hub and a set of integral secondary flow blades extending intermediate an inner hub and the outer hub. A nacelle provides an outer flow duct for the thrust fan blades and a secondary flow duct carries flow from the integral secondary flow blades as cooling air for components of the reverse flow turbine engine.

  17. Altering Height Data by Using Natural Logarithm as 3D Modelling Function for Reverse Engineering Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilham Aminullah Abdulqawi, Nur; Salman Abu Mansor, Mohd

    2018-01-01

    The raw data extracted from reverse engineering based on vision mostly do not resemble the actual geometrical representation yet. Even though the higher object surface reflected the most visible light towards the camera and yield higher number of value based on Lambertian illumination model, this does not mean the curvature profile are always accurate. After all, there are many mathematical models to shape curvature profiles into the correct representation. However, one of the most appropriate models found is the natural logarithm function. The function itself has alteration properties towards the raw data generated from reverse engineering based on vision.

  18. Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactors (CRFPR): preliminary engineering considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Miller, R.L.; Embrechts, M.J.; Schnurr, N.M.; Battat, M.E.; LaBauve, R.J.; Davidson, J.W.

    1984-08-01

    The unique confinement physics of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) projects to a compact, high-power-density fusion reactor that promises a significant reduction in the cost of electricity. The compact reactor also promises a factor-of-two reduction in the fraction of total cost devoted to the reactor plant equipment [i.e., fusion power core (FPC) plus support systems]. In addition to operational and developmental benefits, these physically smaller systems can operate economically over a range of total power output. After giving an extended background and rationale for the compact fusion approaches, key FPC subsystems for the Compact RFP Reactor (CRFPR) are developed, designed, and integrated for a minimum-cost, 1000-MWe(net) system. Both the problems and promise of the compact, high-power-density fusion reactor are quantitatively evaluated on the basis of this conceptual design. The material presented in this report both forms a framework for a broader, more expanded conceptual design as well as suggests directions and emphases for related research and development

  19. Multifunctional guest-host particles engineered by reversal nanoimprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Uh-Myong; Kaban, Burhan; Tomita, Andreea; Krekić, Kristijan; Klintuch, Dieter; Pietschnig, Rudolf; Ehresmann, Arno; Holzinger, Dennis; Hillmer, Hartmut

    2018-03-01

    Particulate polymeric microfibers with incorporated europium(III)oxide (Eu2O3) nanoparticles were introduced as a magneto-photoluminescent multifunctional material fabricated via reversal nanoimprint lithography. To specifically address the volume properties of these guest-host particles, the guest, Eu2O3, was milled down to an average particle size of 350 nm in diameter and mixed with the host-polymer, AMONIL®, before in situ hardening in the imprint stamp. The variation of the fabrication process parameters, i.e. delay time, spin coating speed, as well as the concentration of Eu2O3 nanoparticles was proven to have a significant impact on both the structure quality and the stamp release of the microfibers with respect to the formation of a thinner residual layer. Structural characterization performed by SEM revealed optimum fabrication process parameters for a homogeneous spatial distribution of Eu2O3 nanoparticles within the microfibers while simultaneously avoiding the formation of undesired agglomerates. The magneto-photoluminescent properties of Eu2O3 nanoparticles, i.e. a red emission at 613 nm and a paramagnetic response, were found to be superimposed to the optic and the diamagnetic behaviors of AMONIL®. The results imply that guest-host interdependence of these properties can be excluded and that the suggested technique enables for specific tailoring of particulate multifunctional materials with focus on their volume properties.

  20. Reverse engineering validation using a benchmark synthetic gene circuit in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Taek; White, Jacob T; Xie, Zhen; Benenson, Yaakov; Sontag, Eduardo; Bleris, Leonidas

    2013-05-17

    Multicomponent biological networks are often understood incompletely, in large part due to the lack of reliable and robust methodologies for network reverse engineering and characterization. As a consequence, developing automated and rigorously validated methodologies for unraveling the complexity of biomolecular networks in human cells remains a central challenge to life scientists and engineers. Today, when it comes to experimental and analytical requirements, there exists a great deal of diversity in reverse engineering methods, which renders the independent validation and comparison of their predictive capabilities difficult. In this work we introduce an experimental platform customized for the development and verification of reverse engineering and pathway characterization algorithms in mammalian cells. Specifically, we stably integrate a synthetic gene network in human kidney cells and use it as a benchmark for validating reverse engineering methodologies. The network, which is orthogonal to endogenous cellular signaling, contains a small set of regulatory interactions that can be used to quantify the reconstruction performance. By performing successive perturbations to each modular component of the network and comparing protein and RNA measurements, we study the conditions under which we can reliably reconstruct the causal relationships of the integrated synthetic network.

  1. Methylcellulose Based Thermally Reversible Hydrogel System for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram V. Devireddy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The thermoresponsive behavior of a Methylcellulose (MC polymer was systematically investigated to determine its usability in constructing MC based hydrogel systems in cell sheet engineering applications. Solution-gel analyses were made to study the effects of polymer concentration, molecular weight and dissolved salts on the gelation of three commercially available MCs using differential scanning calorimeter and rheology. For investigation of the hydrogel stability and fluid uptake capacity, swelling and degradation experiments were performed with the hydrogel system exposed to cell culture solutions at incubation temperature for several days. From these experiments, the optimal composition of MC-water-salt that was able to produce stable hydrogels at or above 32 °C, was found to be 12% to 16% of MC (Mol. wt. of 15,000 in water with 0.5× PBS (~150mOsm. This stable hydrogel system was then evaluated for a week for its efficacy to support the adhesion and growth of specific cells in culture; in our case the stromal/stem cells derived from human adipose tissue derived stem cells (ASCs. The results indicated that the addition (evenly spread of ~200 µL of 2 mg/mL bovine collagen type -I (pH adjusted to 7.5 over the MC hydrogel surface at 37 °C is required to improve the ASC adhesion and proliferation. Upon confluence, a continuous monolayer ASC sheet was formed on the surface of the hydrogel system and an intact cell sheet with preserved cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix was spontaneously and gradually detached when the grown cell sheet was removed from the incubator and exposed to room temperature (~30 °C within minutes.

  2. Methylcellulose based thermally reversible hydrogel system for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumala, Sreedhar; Gimble, Jeffrey M; Devireddy, Ram V

    2013-06-25

    The thermoresponsive behavior of a Methylcellulose (MC) polymer was systematically investigated to determine its usability in constructing MC based hydrogel systems in cell sheet engineering applications. Solution-gel analyses were made to study the effects of polymer concentration, molecular weight and dissolved salts on the gelation of three commercially available MCs using differential scanning calorimeter and rheology. For investigation of the hydrogel stability and fluid uptake capacity, swelling and degradation experiments were performed with the hydrogel system exposed to cell culture solutions at incubation temperature for several days. From these experiments, the optimal composition of MC-water-salt that was able to produce stable hydrogels at or above 32 °C, was found to be 12% to 16% of MC (Mol. wt. of 15,000) in water with 0.5× PBS (~150mOsm). This stable hydrogel system was then evaluated for a week for its efficacy to support the adhesion and growth of specific cells in culture; in our case the stromal/stem cells derived from human adipose tissue derived stem cells (ASCs). The results indicated that the addition (evenly spread) of ~200 µL of 2 mg/mL bovine collagen type -I (pH adjusted to 7.5) over the MC hydrogel surface at 37 °C is required to improve the ASC adhesion and proliferation. Upon confluence, a continuous monolayer ASC sheet was formed on the surface of the hydrogel system and an intact cell sheet with preserved cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix was spontaneously and gradually detached when the grown cell sheet was removed from the incubator and exposed to room temperature (~30 °C) within minutes.

  3. Interactive scalable condensation of reverse engineered UML class diagrams for software comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, Mohd Hafeez Bin

    2015-01-01

    Software design documentation is a valuable aid in software comprehension. However, keeping the software design up-to-date with evolving source code is challenging and time-consuming. Reverse engineering is one of the options for recovering software architecture from the implementation code.

  4. A reverse engineering algorithm for neural networks, applied to the subthalamopallidal network of basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floares, Alexandru George

    2008-01-01

    Modeling neural networks with ordinary differential equations systems is a sensible approach, but also very difficult. This paper describes a new algorithm based on linear genetic programming which can be used to reverse engineer neural networks. The RODES algorithm automatically discovers the structure of the network, including neural connections, their signs and strengths, estimates its parameters, and can even be used to identify the biophysical mechanisms involved. The algorithm is tested on simulated time series data, generated using a realistic model of the subthalamopallidal network of basal ganglia. The resulting ODE system is highly accurate, and results are obtained in a matter of minutes. This is because the problem of reverse engineering a system of coupled differential equations is reduced to one of reverse engineering individual algebraic equations. The algorithm allows the incorporation of common domain knowledge to restrict the solution space. To our knowledge, this is the first time a realistic reverse engineering algorithm based on linear genetic programming has been applied to neural networks.

  5. The investment strategies of sovereign wealth funds: A reverse engineered pitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Martínek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This letter describes personal reflection based on the utilization of the Faff’s (2017, Pitching Research pitch template for a reverse engineering technique in order to summarize, evaluate and properly interpret information from articles in respected scientific journals which represents key or seminal scientific research work upon which a researcher built his/her scientific work.

  6. Plasma engineering design of a compact reversed-field pinch reactor (CRFPR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathke, C.G.; Embrechts, M.J.; Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    The rationale for and the characteristics of the high-power-density Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (CRFPR) are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to key plasma engineering aspects of the conceptual design, including plasma operations, current drive, and impurity/ash control by means of pumped limiters or magnetic divertors. A brief description of the Fusion-Power-Core integration is given

  7. Linked-List-Based Multibody Dynamics (MBDyn) Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, John; Brain, Thomas; Wuiocho, Leslie; Huynh, An; Ghosh, Tushar

    2012-01-01

    This new release of MBDyn is a software engine that calculates the dynamics states of kinematic, rigid, or flexible multibody systems. An MBDyn multibody system may consist of multiple groups of articulated chains, trees, or closed-loop topologies. Transient topologies are handled through conservation of energy and momentum. The solution for rigid-body systems is exact, and several configurable levels of nonlinear term fidelity are available for flexible dynamics systems. The algorithms have been optimized for efficiency and can be used for both non-real-time (NRT) and real-time (RT) simulations. Interfaces are currently compatible with NASA's Trick Simulation Environment. This new release represents a significant advance in capability and ease of use. The two most significant new additions are an application programming interface (API) that clarifies and simplifies use of MBDyn, and a link-list infrastructure that allows a single MBDyn instance to propagate an arbitrary number of interacting groups of multibody top ologies. MBDyn calculates state and state derivative vectors for integration using an external integration routine. A Trickcompatible interface is provided for initialization, data logging, integration, and input/output.

  8. Reverse engineering development: Crosstalk opportunities between developmental biology and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcucio, Ralph S; Qin, Ling; Alsberg, Eben; Boerckel, Joel D

    2017-11-01

    The fields of developmental biology and tissue engineering have been revolutionized in recent years by technological advancements, expanded understanding, and biomaterials design, leading to the emerging paradigm of "developmental" or "biomimetic" tissue engineering. While developmental biology and tissue engineering have long overlapping histories, the fields have largely diverged in recent years at the same time that crosstalk opportunities for mutual benefit are more salient than ever. In this perspective article, we will use musculoskeletal development and tissue engineering as a platform on which to discuss these emerging crosstalk opportunities and will present our opinions on the bright future of these overlapping spheres of influence. The multicellular programs that control musculoskeletal development are rapidly becoming clarified, represented by shifting paradigms in our understanding of cellular function, identity, and lineage specification during development. Simultaneously, advancements in bioartificial matrices that replicate the biochemical, microstructural, and mechanical properties of developing tissues present new tools and approaches for recapitulating development in tissue engineering. Here, we introduce concepts and experimental approaches in musculoskeletal developmental biology and biomaterials design and discuss applications in tissue engineering as well as opportunities for tissue engineering approaches to inform our understanding of fundamental biology. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2356-2368, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Reverse polarity optical-OFDM (RPO-OFDM): dimming compatible OFDM for gigabit VLC links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgala, Hany; Little, Thomas D C

    2013-10-07

    Visible light communications (VLC) technology permits the exploitation of light-emitting diode (LED) luminaries for simultaneous illumination and broadband wireless communication. Optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (O-OFDM) is a promising modulation technique for VLC systems, in which the real-valued O-OFDM baseband signal is used to modulate the instantaneous power of the optical carrier to achieve gigabit data rates. However, a major design challenge that limits the commercialization of VLC is how to incorporate the industry-preferred pulse-width modulation (PWM) light dimming technique while maintaining a broadband and reliable communication link. In this work, a novel signal format, reverse polarity O-OFDM (RPO-OFDM), is proposed to combine the fast O-OFDM communication signal with the relatively slow PWM dimming signal, where both signals contribute to the effective LED brightness. The advantages of using RPO-OFDM include, (1) the data rate is not limited by the frequency of the PWM signal, (2) the LED dynamic range is fully utilized to minimize the nonlinear distortion of the O-OFDM communication signal, and (3) the bit-error performance is sustained over a large fraction of the luminaire dimming range. In addition, RPO-OFDM offers a practical approach to utilize off-the-shelf LED drivers. We show results of numerical simulations to study the trade-offs between the PWM duty cycle, average electrical O-OFDM signal power, radiated optical flux as well as human perceived light.

  10. Protocol vulnerability detection based on network traffic analysis and binary reverse engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shameng; Meng, Qingkun; Feng, Chao; Tang, Chaojing

    2017-01-01

    Network protocol vulnerability detection plays an important role in many domains, including protocol security analysis, application security, and network intrusion detection. In this study, by analyzing the general fuzzing method of network protocols, we propose a novel approach that combines network traffic analysis with the binary reverse engineering method. For network traffic analysis, the block-based protocol description language is introduced to construct test scripts, while the binary reverse engineering method employs the genetic algorithm with a fitness function designed to focus on code coverage. This combination leads to a substantial improvement in fuzz testing for network protocols. We build a prototype system and use it to test several real-world network protocol implementations. The experimental results show that the proposed approach detects vulnerabilities more efficiently and effectively than general fuzzing methods such as SPIKE.

  11. Protocol vulnerability detection based on network traffic analysis and binary reverse engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shameng Wen

    Full Text Available Network protocol vulnerability detection plays an important role in many domains, including protocol security analysis, application security, and network intrusion detection. In this study, by analyzing the general fuzzing method of network protocols, we propose a novel approach that combines network traffic analysis with the binary reverse engineering method. For network traffic analysis, the block-based protocol description language is introduced to construct test scripts, while the binary reverse engineering method employs the genetic algorithm with a fitness function designed to focus on code coverage. This combination leads to a substantial improvement in fuzz testing for network protocols. We build a prototype system and use it to test several real-world network protocol implementations. The experimental results show that the proposed approach detects vulnerabilities more efficiently and effectively than general fuzzing methods such as SPIKE.

  12. Using a Formal Approach for Reverse Engineering and Design Recovery to Support Software Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannod, Gerald C.

    2002-01-01

    This document describes 3rd year accomplishments and summarizes overall project accomplishments. Included as attachments are all published papers from year three. Note that the budget for this project was discontinued after year two, but that a residual budget from year two allowed minimal continuance into year three. Accomplishments include initial investigations into log-file based reverse engineering, service-based software reuse, and a source to XML generator.

  13. An Analytical Reverse Engineering of IELTS Listening Tasks for a Construct Model

    OpenAIRE

    Masood Khalili Sabet; Hamid Reza Babaee Bormanaki

    2017-01-01

    The study reported here was concerned with the issue of reverse engineering of language test items as it relates to the identification of the language constructs underlying listening tasks of LELTS test. In this regard, the IELTS examination papers, from IELTS 1 to IELTS 10 were compiled as a corpus for the analysis. Tasks were analyzed using a taxonomic frame work adopted from Moore, Morton and price (2012), that was originally adapted from Weir and Urquhart (1998), with a focus on two dimen...

  14. A Survey of Automatic Protocol Reverse Engineering Approaches, Methods, and Tools on the Inputs and Outputs View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baraka D. Sija

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A network protocol defines rules that control communications between two or more machines on the Internet, whereas Automatic Protocol Reverse Engineering (APRE defines the way of extracting the structure of a network protocol without accessing its specifications. Enough knowledge on undocumented protocols is essential for security purposes, network policy implementation, and management of network resources. This paper reviews and analyzes a total of 39 approaches, methods, and tools towards Protocol Reverse Engineering (PRE and classifies them into four divisions, approaches that reverse engineer protocol finite state machines, protocol formats, and both protocol finite state machines and protocol formats to approaches that focus directly on neither reverse engineering protocol formats nor protocol finite state machines. The efficiency of all approaches’ outputs based on their selected inputs is analyzed in general along with appropriate reverse engineering inputs format. Additionally, we present discussion and extended classification in terms of automated to manual approaches, known and novel categories of reverse engineered protocols, and a literature of reverse engineered protocols in relation to the seven layers’ OSI (Open Systems Interconnection model.

  15. Reverse engineering biological networks :applications in immune responses to bio-toxins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, Anthony A.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Davidson, George S.; Haaland, David Michael; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Thomas, Edward Victor; Slepoy, Alexander; Zhang, Zhaoduo; May, Elebeoba Eni; Martin, Shawn Bryan; Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel

    2005-12-01

    Our aim is to determine the network of events, or the regulatory network, that defines an immune response to a bio-toxin. As a model system, we are studying T cell regulatory network triggered through tyrosine kinase receptor activation using a combination of pathway stimulation and time-series microarray experiments. Our approach is composed of five steps (1) microarray experiments and data error analysis, (2) data clustering, (3) data smoothing and discretization, (4) network reverse engineering, and (5) network dynamics analysis and fingerprint identification. The technological outcome of this study is a suite of experimental protocols and computational tools that reverse engineer regulatory networks provided gene expression data. The practical biological outcome of this work is an immune response fingerprint in terms of gene expression levels. Inferring regulatory networks from microarray data is a new field of investigation that is no more than five years old. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt that integrates experiments, error analyses, data clustering, inference, and network analysis to solve a practical problem. Our systematic approach of counting, enumeration, and sampling networks matching experimental data is new to the field of network reverse engineering. The resulting mathematical analyses and computational tools lead to new results on their own and should be useful to others who analyze and infer networks.

  16. [Reconstruction and measurement of a digital dental model using grating projection and reverse engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenzhen, Wang; Yi, Lu; Jun, Song; Jun, Chen; Qin, Zhou

    2015-02-01

    This work lays the foundation for establishing a digital model database with normal occlusion. A digital dental cast is acquired through grating projection, and model features are measured through reverse engineering. The grating projection system controlled by a computer was projected onto the surface of a normal dental model. Three-dimensional contour data were obtained through multi-angle shooting. A three-dimensional model was constructed, and the model features were analyzed by using reverse engineering. The digital model was compared with the plaster model to determine the accuracy of the measurement system. The structure of three-dimensional reconstruction model was clear. The digital models of two measurements exhibited no significant difference (P > 0.05). When digital and plaster models were measured, we found that the crown length and arch width were not statistically different (P > 0.05), whereas the difference between the crown width and arch length was statistically significant (P model by using the grating projection technique and reverse engineering can be used for dental model measurement in clinic al and scientific research and can provide a scientific method for establishing a digital model database with normal occlusion.

  17. A novel technique for presurgical nasoalveolar molding using computer-aided reverse engineering and rapid prototyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Quan; Gong, Xin; Wang, Guo-Min; Yu, Zhe-Yuan; Qian, Yu-Fen; Shen, Gang

    2011-01-01

    To establish a new method of presurgical nasoalveolar molding (NAM) using computer-aided reverse engineering and rapid prototyping technique in infants with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). Five infants (2 males and 3 females with mean age of 1.2 w) with complete UCLP were recruited. All patients were subjected to NAM before the cleft lip repair. The upper denture casts were recorded using a three-dimensional laser scanner within 2 weeks after birth in UCLP infants. A digital model was constructed and analyzed to simulate the NAM procedure with reverse engineering software. The digital geometrical data were exported to print the solid model with rapid prototyping system. The whole set of appliances was fabricated based on these solid models. Laser scanning and digital model construction simplified the NAM procedure and estimated the treatment objective. The appliances were fabricated based on the rapid prototyping technique, and for each patient, the complete set of appliances could be obtained at one time. By the end of presurgical NAM treatment, the cleft was narrowed, and the malformation of nasoalveolar segments was aligned normally. We have developed a novel technique of presurgical NAM based on a computer-aided design. The accurate digital denture model of UCLP infants could be obtained with laser scanning. The treatment design and appliance fabrication could be simplified with a computer-aided reverse engineering and rapid prototyping technique.

  18. Analysis and simulation on two types of thrust reversers in an aircraft engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With rapid development of new composite material and manufacturing, innovative engineering solutions are supplied to the advanced nacelle, such as integrated propulsion system(IPS, carbon-fiber composite inner skin by single-piece molding process,which offers a reduction in fuel burn and less noise produced by engines. The advanced nacelle has an O-duct thrust reverser demonstrator whose composite structure is in the form of an “O” as opposed to the traditional “D-duct”. A comparative study is to be conducted to investigate the differences between the latest O-duct and conventional D-duct in numerical approaches. To focus on the quantitative analysis of thrust reverser’s operation, this paper mainly uses CATIA/Digital Mock Up(DMU to simulate under deployment and stowed conditions of two different thrust reverser. After comparing the structural weight, the design models of blocker door are built for kinematic analysis of relevant mechanism and simulation. The results show that simplified design and elimination of multiple interfaces generates weight saving, O-duct improves airflows within the engine, meanwhile D-duct has excellent cost effective and maintainability.

  19. Reverse engineering of a railcar prototype via energetic macroscopic representation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agbli, Kréhi Serge; Hissel, Daniel; Sorrentino, Marco; Chauvet, Frédéric; Pouget, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A complex EMR model of a new railcar range has been developed. • A satisfactory assessment of the fuel consumption of the railcar. • The significant potential benefits are attainable by hybridizing the original railcar. • The regenerative braking can provide up to 240 kW h saving. - Abstract: Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) modelling approach is proposed to perform model-based reverse-engineering of a new railcar range, having six propulsion units, each consisting of a diesel engine and a traction motor. Particularly, EMR intrinsic features were exploited to perform phenomenological structuration of power flows, thus allowing proper and comprehensive modelling of complex systems, such as the under-study railcar. Based on some prospective real trips, selected in such a way as to enable realistic evaluation of effective railcar effort, EMR-based prediction of railcar energy consumption is performed. Furthermore, physical consistency of each powertrain component operation was carefully verified. The suitability of EMR approach was thus proven effective to perform reverse-engineering of known specifications and available experimental data, with the final aim of reconstructing a high fidelity computational tool that meets computational burden requirements for subsequent model-based tasks deployment. Finally, specific simulation analyses were performed to evaluate the potential benefits attainable through electric hybridization of the original powertrain.

  20. Reversing flow catalytic converter for a natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, E.; Checkel, M.D. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Hayes, R.E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering; Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Zheng, M.; Mirosh, E. [Alternative Fuel Systems Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    An experimental and modelling study was performed for a reverse flow catalytic converter attached to a natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine. The catalytic converter had a segmented ceramic monolith honeycomb substrate and a catalytic washcoat containing a predominantly palladium catalyst. A one-dimensional single channel model was used to simulate the operation of the converter. The kinetics of the CO and methane oxidation followed first-order behaviour. The activation energy for the oxidation of methane showed a change with temperature, dropping from a value of 129 to 35 kJ/mol at a temperature of 874 K. The reverse flow converter was able to achieve high reactor temperature under conditions of low inlet gas temperature, provided that the initial reactor temperature was sufficiently high. (author)

  1. Analysis of a Combined Antenna Arrays and Reverse-Link Synchronous DS-CDMA System over Multipath Rician Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Yong-Seok

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the BER analysis of antenna array (AA receiver in reverse-link asynchronous multipath Rician channels and analyze the performance of an improved AA system which applies a reverse-link synchronous transmission technique (RLSTT in order to effectively make a better estimation of covariance matrices at a beamformer-RAKE receiver. In this work, we provide a comprehensive analysis of user capacity which reflects several important factors such as the ratio of the specular component power to the Rayleigh fading power, the shape of multipath intensity profile, and the number of antennas. Theoretical analysis demonstrates that for the case of a strong specular path's power or for a high decay factor, the employment of RLSTT along with AA has the potential of improving the achievable capacity by an order of magnitude.

  2. A reverse engineering methodology for nickel alloy turbine blades with internal features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gameros, A.; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Siller, H.R.

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this work is to present a reverse engineering (RE) methodology for freeform surfaces, based on a case study of a turbine blade made of Inconel, including the reconstruction of its internal cooling system. The methodology uses an optical scanner and X-ray computed tomography (CT......) equipment. Traceability of the measurements was obtained through the use of a Modular Freeform Gage (MFG). An uncertainty budget is presented for both measuring technologies and results show that the RE methodology presented is promising when comparing uncertainty values against common industrial tolerances....

  3. An analysis of extended entity relationship constructs extraction in database reverse engineering approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilani, M.A.; Aziz, A.; Hussain, T.

    2008-01-01

    Database reverse Engineering is technique used for transforming relational schema into a conceptual schema for finding and fixing design flaw for maintaining and re-engineering database systems for the integration of database system with another and migration of a database system from one platform to another. We studied the approaches from year 1993 to 2006 to find out which EER construct cannot be retrieved by most of the DBRE approaches so that they can be retrieved in the future. For each EER construct that can be retrieved by using a given DBRE approach. We show whether they are retrieved without user involvement (automatically). Partial user involvement (semi-automatically) or full user involvement (manually). We also discuss the relevant advantages and limitations of each DBRE technique considered in this paper. (author)

  4. Genome-wide analytical approaches for reverse metabolic engineering of industrially relevant phenotypes in yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Bart; Maris, Antonius J A; Daran, Jean-Marc; Pronk, Jack T

    2012-01-01

    Successful reverse engineering of mutants that have been obtained by nontargeted strain improvement has long presented a major challenge in yeast biotechnology. This paper reviews the use of genome-wide approaches for analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains originating from evolutionary engineering or random mutagenesis. On the basis of an evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of different methods, we conclude that for the initial identification of relevant genetic changes, whole genome sequencing is superior to other analytical techniques, such as transcriptome, metabolome, proteome, or array-based genome analysis. Key advantages of this technique over gene expression analysis include the independency of genome sequences on experimental context and the possibility to directly and precisely reproduce the identified changes in naive strains. The predictive value of genome-wide analysis of strains with industrially relevant characteristics can be further improved by classical genetics or simultaneous analysis of strains derived from parallel, independent strain improvement lineages. PMID:22152095

  5. Reverse engineering the mechanical and molecular pathways in stem cell morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kai; Gordon, Richard; Cao, Tong

    2015-03-01

    The formation of relevant biological structures poses a challenge for regenerative medicine. During embryogenesis, embryonic cells differentiate into somatic tissues and undergo morphogenesis to produce three-dimensional organs. Using stem cells, we can recapitulate this process and create biological constructs for therapeutic transplantation. However, imperfect imitation of nature sometimes results in in vitro artifacts that fail to recapitulate the function of native organs. It has been hypothesized that developing cells may self-organize into tissue-specific structures given a correct in vitro environment. This proposition is supported by the generation of neo-organoids from stem cells. We suggest that morphogenesis may be reverse engineered to uncover its interacting mechanical pathway and molecular circuitry. By harnessing the latent architecture of stem cells, novel tissue-engineering strategies may be conceptualized for generating self-organizing transplants. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The development of a program analysis environment for Ada: Reverse engineering tools for Ada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, James H., II

    1991-01-01

    The Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada (GRASP/Ada) has successfully created and prototyped a new algorithm level graphical representation for Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD). The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and thus improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis was on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional prettyprinted Ada source code. In Phase 1 of the GRASP/Ada project, the CSD graphical constructs were created and applied manually to several small Ada programs. A prototype (Version 1) was designed and implemented using FLEX and BISON running under the Virtual Memory System (VMS) on a VAX 11-780. In Phase 2, the prototype was improved and ported to the Sun 4 platform under UNIX. A user interface was designed and partially implemented. The prototype was applied successfully to numerous Ada programs ranging in size from several hundred to several thousand lines of source code. In Phase 3 of the project, the prototype was prepared for limited distribution (GRASP/Ada Version 3.0) to facilitate evaluation. The user interface was extensively reworked. The current prototype provides the capability for the user to generate CSD from Ada source code in a reverse engineering mode with a level of flexibility suitable for practical application.

  7. An Application of Reverse Engineering in Design of the Spur Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Çiçek

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed that the gear parameters required the design of a spur gear are obtained by use of reverse engineering techniques. Therefore, point cloud of tooth profile of the manufactured spur gear is extracted by a coordinate measuring machine (CMM. The gear parameters are derived by processing the obtained point cloud. 3D model of the spur gear are modeled through this parameters in a CAD environment. In the system, a hybrid programming approach is used. Generating and processing the point cloud, extraction of the gear parameters are performed by Visual BASIC programming language. 3D modeling in the CAD environment is performed also by AutoLISP programming language due to programming simplicity. These two softwares are provided to be in harmony by integrating them. In the study, SolidworksTM and AutoCADTM are selected as CAD environments. With this study, an alternative approach for the design of the spur gear is presented and modeling of the gears in the CAD environment is carried out using reverse engineering techniques.

  8. Topology reconstruction for B-Rep modeling from 3D mesh in reverse engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénière, Roseline; Subsol, Gérard; Gesquière, Gilles; Le Breton, François; Puech, William

    2012-03-01

    Nowadays, most of the manufactured objects are designed using CAD (Computer-Aided Design) software. Nevertheless, for visualization, data exchange or manufacturing applications, the geometric model has to be discretized into a 3D mesh composed of a finite number of vertices and edges. But, in some cases, the initial model may be lost or unavailable. In other cases, the 3D discrete representation may be modified, for example after a numerical simulation, and does not correspond anymore to the initial model. A reverse engineering method is then required to reconstruct a 3D continuous representation from the discrete one. In previous work, we have presented a new approach for 3D geometric primitive extraction. In this paper, to complete our automatic and comprehensive reverse engineering process, we propose a method to construct the topology of the retrieved object. To reconstruct a B-Rep model, a new formalism is now introduced to define the adjacency relations. Then a new process is used to construct the boundaries of the object. The whole process is tested on 3D industrial meshes and bring a solution to recover B-Rep models.

  9. Hydrostatic Pressure Project: Linked-Class Problem-Based Learning in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Freddie J.; Lockwood-Cooke, Pamela; Hunt, Emily M.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few years, WTAMU Mathematics, Engineering and Science faculty has used interdisciplinary projects as the basis for implementation of a linked-class approach to Problem-Based Learning (PBL). A project that has significant relevance to engineering statics, fluid mechanics, and calculus is the Hydrostatic Pressure Project. This project…

  10. Experimental and modelling study of reverse flow catalytic converters for natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B.

    2000-07-01

    There is renewed interest in the development of natural gas vehicles in response to the challenge to reduce urban air pollution and consumption of petroleum. The natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine is one way to apply natural gas to the conventional diesel engine. Dual fuel engines operating on natural gas and diesel emit less nitrogen oxides, and less carbon soot to the air compared to conventional diesel engines. The problem is that at light loads, fuel efficiency is reduced and emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are increased. This thesis focused on control methods for emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the dual fuel engine at light loads. This was done by developing a reverse flow catalytic converter to complement dual fuel engine exhaust characteristics. Experimental measurements and numerical simulations of reverse flow catalytic converters were conducted. Reverse flow creates a high reactor temperature even when the engine is run at low exhaust temperature levels at light loads. The increase in reactor temperature from reverse flow could be 2 or 3 times higher than the adiabatic temperature increase, which is based on the reactor inlet temperature and concentration. This temperature makes it possible for greater than 90 per cent of the hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide to be converted with a palladium based catalyst. Reverse flow appears to be better than conventional unidirectional flow to deal with natural gas/diesel dual fuel engine pollution at light loads. Reverse flow could also maintain reactor temperature at over 800 K and hydrocarbon conversion at about 80 per cent during testing. The newly presented model simulates reactor performance with reasonable accuracy. Both carbon monoxide and methane oxidation over the palladium catalyst in excess oxygen and water were described using first order kinetics.

  11. SpEnD: Linked Data SPARQL Endpoints Discovery Using Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Yumusak, Semih; Dogdu, Erdogan; Kodaz, Halife; Kamilaris, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel metacrawling method is proposed for discovering and monitoring linked data sources on the Web. We implemented the method in a prototype system, named SPARQL Endpoints Discovery (SpEnD). SpEnD starts with a "search keyword" discovery process for finding relevant keywords for the linked data domain and specifically SPARQL endpoints. Then, these search keywords are utilized to find linked data sources via popular search engines (Google, Bing, Yahoo, Yandex). By using this ...

  12. Systematic Comparison of Reverse Phase and Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography Platforms for the Analysis of N-linked Glycans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S. Hunter; Carlisle, Brandon C.; Muddiman, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the hydrophilic nature of glycans, reverse phase chromatography has not been widely used as a glycomic separation technique coupled to mass spectrometry. Other approaches such as hydrophilic interaction chromatography and porous graphitized carbon chromatography are often employed, though these strategies frequently suffer from decreased chromatographic resolution, long equilibration times, indefinite retention, and column bleed. Herein, it is shown that through an efficient hydrazone formation derivatization of N-linked glycans (∼4 hr of additional sample preparation time which is carried out in parallel), numerous experimental and practical advantages are gained when analyzing the glycans by online reverse phase chromatography. These benefits include an increased number of glycans detected, increased peak capacity of the separation, and the ability to analyze glycans on the identical liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry platform commonly used for proteomic analyses. The data presented show that separation of derivatized N-linked glycans by reverse phase chromatography significantly out-performs traditional separation of native or derivatized glycans by hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Furthermore, the movement to a more ubiquitous separation technique will afford numerous research groups the opportunity to analyze both proteomic and glycomic samples on the same platform with minimal time and physical change between experiments, increasing the efficiency of ‘multi-omic’ biological approaches. PMID:22954204

  13. [Computer aided design for fixed partial denture framework based on reverse engineering technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-chun; Lü, Pei-jun; Wang, Yong

    2006-03-01

    To explore a computer aided design (CAD) route for the framework of domestic fixed partial denture (FPD) and confirm the suitable method of 3-D CAD. The working area of a dentition model was scanned with a 3-D mechanical scanner. Using the reverse engineering (RE) software, margin and border curves were extracted and several reference curves were created to ensure the dimension and location of pontic framework that was taken from the standard database. The shoulder parts of the retainers were created after axial surfaces constructed. The connecting areas, axial line and curving surface of the framework connector were finally created. The framework of a three-unit FPD was designed with RE technology, which showed smooth surfaces and continuous contours. The design route is practical. The result of this study is significant in theory and practice, which will provide a reference for establishing the computer aided design/computer aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) system of domestic FPD.

  14. Political science. Reverse-engineering censorship in China: randomized experimentation and participant observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gary; Pan, Jennifer; Roberts, Margaret E

    2014-08-22

    Existing research on the extensive Chinese censorship organization uses observational methods with well-known limitations. We conducted the first large-scale experimental study of censorship by creating accounts on numerous social media sites, randomly submitting different texts, and observing from a worldwide network of computers which texts were censored and which were not. We also supplemented interviews with confidential sources by creating our own social media site, contracting with Chinese firms to install the same censoring technologies as existing sites, and--with their software, documentation, and even customer support--reverse-engineering how it all works. Our results offer rigorous support for the recent hypothesis that criticisms of the state, its leaders, and their policies are published, whereas posts about real-world events with collective action potential are censored. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Modeling planarian regeneration: a primer for reverse-engineering the worm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lobo

    Full Text Available A mechanistic understanding of robust self-assembly and repair capabilities of complex systems would have enormous implications for basic evolutionary developmental biology as well as for transformative applications in regenerative biomedicine and the engineering of highly fault-tolerant cybernetic systems. Molecular biologists are working to identify the pathways underlying the remarkable regenerative abilities of model species that perfectly regenerate limbs, brains, and other complex body parts. However, a profound disconnect remains between the deluge of high-resolution genetic and protein data on pathways required for regeneration, and the desired spatial, algorithmic models that show how self-monitoring and growth control arise from the synthesis of cellular activities. This barrier to progress in the understanding of morphogenetic controls may be breached by powerful techniques from the computational sciences-using non-traditional modeling approaches to reverse-engineer systems such as planaria: flatworms with a complex bodyplan and nervous system that are able to regenerate any body part after traumatic injury. Currently, the involvement of experts from outside of molecular genetics is hampered by the specialist literature of molecular developmental biology: impactful collaborations across such different fields require that review literature be available that presents the key functional capabilities of important biological model systems while abstracting away from the often irrelevant and confusing details of specific genes and proteins. To facilitate modeling efforts by computer scientists, physicists, engineers, and mathematicians, we present a different kind of review of planarian regeneration. Focusing on the main patterning properties of this system, we review what is known about the signal exchanges that occur during regenerative repair in planaria and the cellular mechanisms that are thought to underlie them. By establishing an

  16. Reverse-engineering of gene networks for regulating early blood development from single-cell measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiangyong; Hu, Xiaohua; Zou, Xiufen; Tian, Tianhai

    2017-12-28

    Recent advances in omics technologies have raised great opportunities to study large-scale regulatory networks inside the cell. In addition, single-cell experiments have measured the gene and protein activities in a large number of cells under the same experimental conditions. However, a significant challenge in computational biology and bioinformatics is how to derive quantitative information from the single-cell observations and how to develop sophisticated mathematical models to describe the dynamic properties of regulatory networks using the derived quantitative information. This work designs an integrated approach to reverse-engineer gene networks for regulating early blood development based on singel-cell experimental observations. The wanderlust algorithm is initially used to develop the pseudo-trajectory for the activities of a number of genes. Since the gene expression data in the developed pseudo-trajectory show large fluctuations, we then use Gaussian process regression methods to smooth the gene express data in order to obtain pseudo-trajectories with much less fluctuations. The proposed integrated framework consists of both bioinformatics algorithms to reconstruct the regulatory network and mathematical models using differential equations to describe the dynamics of gene expression. The developed approach is applied to study the network regulating early blood cell development. A graphic model is constructed for a regulatory network with forty genes and a dynamic model using differential equations is developed for a network of nine genes. Numerical results suggests that the proposed model is able to match experimental data very well. We also examine the networks with more regulatory relations and numerical results show that more regulations may exist. We test the possibility of auto-regulation but numerical simulations do not support the positive auto-regulation. In addition, robustness is used as an importantly additional criterion to select candidate

  17. Linking biomedical engineering ethics case study approach and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibrell, William; Dobie, Elizabeth Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we link bioengineering case study methods to the development of policy. The case study approach to ethics is an excellent way to show the complex nature of practical/moral reasoning. This approach can, however, lead to a kind of overwhelming complexity. The individual nature of each case makes it difficult to identify the most important information and difficult to see what moral considerations are most relevant. In order to make the overwhelming complexity less debilitating, we present a framework for moral decision making derived from suggestions made by W.D. Ross and Virginia Held. Ross articulates the multiple sources of morality and Held deepens the discussion by reminding us of the foundational importance of care and sympathy to our moral natures. We show how to use the notion of prima facie duty and discuss moral conflict. In doing this, we show how the framework, applied to cases, can be of assistance in helping us develop policies and codes of ethics with sufficient plasticity to be useful in the complex world of the bioengineer.

  18. HiDi: an efficient reverse engineering schema for large-scale dynamic regulatory network reconstruction using adaptive differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yue; Zenil, Hector; Tegnér, Jesper; Kiani, Narsis A

    2017-12-15

    The use of differential equations (ODE) is one of the most promising approaches to network inference. The success of ODE-based approaches has, however, been limited, due to the difficulty in estimating parameters and by their lack of scalability. Here, we introduce a novel method and pipeline to reverse engineer gene regulatory networks from gene expression of time series and perturbation data based upon an improvement on the calculation scheme of the derivatives and a pre-filtration step to reduce the number of possible links. The method introduces a linear differential equation model with adaptive numerical differentiation that is scalable to extremely large regulatory networks. We demonstrate the ability of this method to outperform current state-of-the-art methods applied to experimental and synthetic data using test data from the DREAM4 and DREAM5 challenges. Our method displays greater accuracy and scalability. We benchmark the performance of the pipeline with respect to dataset size and levels of noise. We show that the computation time is linear over various network sizes. The Matlab code of the HiDi implementation is available at: www.complexitycalculator.com/HiDiScript.zip. hzenilc@gmail.com or narsis.kiani@ki.se. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. HiDi: an efficient reverse engineering schema for large-scale dynamic regulatory network reconstruction using adaptive differentiation

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Yue

    2017-08-05

    Motivation: The use of differential equations (ODE) is one of the most promising approaches to network inference. The success of ODE-based approaches has, however, been limited, due to the difficulty in estimating parameters and by their lack of scalability. Here, we introduce a novel method and pipeline to reverse engineer gene regulatory networks from gene expression of time series and perturbation data based upon an improvement on the calculation scheme of the derivatives and a pre-filtration step to reduce the number of possible links. The method introduces a linear differential equation model with adaptive numerical differentiation that is scalable to extremely large regulatory networks. Results: We demonstrate the ability of this method to outperform current state-of-the-art methods applied to experimental and synthetic data using test data from the DREAM4 and DREAM5 challenges. Our method displays greater accuracy and scalability. We benchmark the performance of the pipeline with respect to dataset size and levels of noise. We show that the computation time is linear over various network sizes.

  20. Reverse engineering of B-pillar with 3D optical scanning for manufacturing of non-uniform thickness part

    OpenAIRE

    Islam Md. Tasbirul; Abdullah A.B.; Mahmud Mohamad Zihad

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents reverse engineering (RE) of a complex automobile structural part, B-pillar. As a major part of the automobile body-in white (BiW), B-pillar has substantial opportunity for weight reduction by introducing variable thickness across its sections. To leverage such potential, an existing B-pillar was reverse engineered with a 3D optical scanner and computer aided design (CAD) application. First, digital data (i.e. in meshes) of exiting B-pillar was obtained by the scanner, and ...

  1. Genome-wide analytical approaches for reverse metabolic engineering of industrially relevant phenotypes in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Bart; van Maris, Antonius J A; Daran, Jean-Marc; Pronk, Jack T

    2012-03-01

    Successful reverse engineering of mutants that have been obtained by nontargeted strain improvement has long presented a major challenge in yeast biotechnology. This paper reviews the use of genome-wide approaches for analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains originating from evolutionary engineering or random mutagenesis. On the basis of an evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of different methods, we conclude that for the initial identification of relevant genetic changes, whole genome sequencing is superior to other analytical techniques, such as transcriptome, metabolome, proteome, or array-based genome analysis. Key advantages of this technique over gene expression analysis include the independency of genome sequences on experimental context and the possibility to directly and precisely reproduce the identified changes in naive strains. The predictive value of genome-wide analysis of strains with industrially relevant characteristics can be further improved by classical genetics or simultaneous analysis of strains derived from parallel, independent strain improvement lineages. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Linking Engineering and Medical Training: A USC program seeks to introduce medical and engineering students to medical device development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolomiczenko, George; Sanger, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Medical students are attracted by the prospect of a meaningful addition to their clinical work. Engineering students are excited by a unique opportunity to learn directly alongside their medical student peers. For both, as well as the scientific community at large, the boutique program at the University of Southern California (USC) linking engineering and medical training at the graduate level is instructive of a new way of approaching engineering education that can potentially provide benefits to both students and society. Students who have grown up in an era of ?mass customization? in the retail and service industries can enjoy that same degree of flexibility also in the realm of education. At the same time, society gains engineers who have developed an increased empathy and awareness of the clinical contexts in which their innovations will be implemented.

  3. Bottom-up linking of carbon markets under far-sighted cap coordination and reversibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzig, Jobst; Kornek, Ulrike

    2018-03-01

    The Paris Agreement relies on nationally determined contributions to reach its targets and asks countries to increase ambitions over time, leaving open the details of this process. Although overcoming countries' myopic `free-riding' incentives requires cooperation, the global public good character of mitigation makes forming coalitions difficult. To cooperate, countries may link their carbon markets1, but is this option beneficial2? Some countries might not participate, not agree to lower caps, or not comply to agreements. While non-compliance might be deterred3, countries can hope that if they don't participate, others might still form a coalition. When considering only one coalition whose members can leave freely, the literature following the publication of refs 4,5 finds meagre prospects for effective collaboration6. Countries also face incentives to increase emissions when linking their markets without a cap agreement7,8. Here, we analyse the dynamics of market linkage using a game-theoretic model of far-sighted coalition formation. In contrast to non-dynamic models and dynamic models without far-sightedness9,10, in our model an efficient global coalition always forms eventually if players are sufficiently far-sighted or caps are coordinated immediately when markets are linked.

  4. Efficient sampling of reversible cross-linking polymers: Self-assembly of single-chain polymeric nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, Bernardo; Mognetti, Bortolo Matteo

    2018-03-01

    We present a new simulation technique to study systems of polymers functionalized by reactive sites that bind/unbind forming reversible linkages. Functionalized polymers feature self-assembly and responsive properties that are unmatched by the systems lacking selective interactions. The scales at which the functional properties of these materials emerge are difficult to model, especially in the reversible regime where such properties result from many binding/unbinding events. This difficulty is related to large entropic barriers associated with the formation of intra-molecular loops. In this work, we present a simulation scheme that sidesteps configurational costs by dedicated Monte Carlo moves capable of binding/unbinding reactive sites in a single step. Cross-linking reactions are implemented by trial moves that reconstruct chain sections attempting, at the same time, a dimerization reaction between pairs of reactive sites. The model is parametrized by the reaction equilibrium constant of the reactive species free in solution. This quantity can be obtained by means of experiments or atomistic/quantum simulations. We use the proposed methodology to study the self-assembly of single-chain polymeric nanoparticles, starting from flexible precursors carrying regularly or randomly distributed reactive sites. We focus on understanding differences in the morphology of chain nanoparticles when linkages are reversible as compared to the well-studied case of irreversible reactions. Intriguingly, we find that the size of regularly functionalized chains, in good solvent conditions, is non-monotonous as a function of the degree of functionalization. We clarify how this result follows from excluded volume interactions and is peculiar of reversible linkages and regular functionalizations.

  5. Analytical expression for an optimised link bar mechanism for a beta-type Stirling engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Henrik; Bovin, Jonas Kabell

    2007-01-01

    The design of a mechanism for kinematic beta-type Stirling engines, where the displacer piston and the working piston share the same cylinder, is complicated. A well-known solution is the rhombic drive, but this solution depends on oil lubrication because of the gear wheels connecting the two...... counter rotating crank shafts. In a hermetically sealed Stirling engine it is an advantage to avoid oil in the crank case, making the application of the rhombic drive difficult. In this paper, another crank mechanism is presented, which has been developed for a 9 kW single cylinder engine. The new crank...... mechanism is a further development of the mechanism in a previous 9 kW engine. The crank mechanism for the beta-type Stirling engine is based on two four-link straight line mechanisms pointing up and down, respectively. The mechanism pointing upwards is connected to the working piston, while the mechanism...

  6. Reverse osmosis desalination of chitosan cross-linked graphene oxide/titania hybrid lamellar membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hui; Sun, Penzhan; Zhang, Yingjiu; Zhu, Hongwei

    2016-07-08

    With excellent mass transport properties, graphene oxide (GO)-based lamellar membranes are believed to have great potential in water desalination. In order to quantify whether GO-based membranes are indeed suitable for reverse osmosis (RO) desalination, three sub-micrometer thick GO-based lamellar membranes: GO-only, reduced GO (RGO)/titania (TO) nanosheets and RGO/TO/chitosan (CTS) are prepared, and their RO desalination performances are evaluated in a home-made RO test apparatus. The photoreduction of GO by TO improves the salt rejection, which increases slowly with the membrane thickness. The RGO/TO/CTS hybrid membranes exhibit higher rejection rates of only about 30% (greater than threefold improvement compared with a GO-only membrane) which is still inferior compared to other commercial RO membranes. The low rejection rates mainly arise from the pressure-induced weakening of the ion-GO interlayer interactions. Despite the advantages of simple, low-cost preparation, high permeability and selectivity of GO-based lamellar membranes, as the current desalination performances are not high enough to afford practical application, there still remains a great challenge to realize high performance separation membranes for water desalination applications.

  7. Automation of reverse engineering process in aircraft modeling and related optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Swetits, J.

    1994-01-01

    During the year of 1994, the engineering problems in aircraft modeling were studied. The initial concern was to obtain a surface model with desirable geometric characteristics. Much of the effort during the first half of the year was to find an efficient way of solving a computationally difficult optimization model. Since the smoothing technique in the proposal 'Surface Modeling and Optimization Studies of Aerodynamic Configurations' requires solutions of a sequence of large-scale quadratic programming problems, it is important to design algorithms that can solve each quadratic program in a few interactions. This research led to three papers by Dr. W. Li, which were submitted to SIAM Journal on Optimization and Mathematical Programming. Two of these papers have been accepted for publication. Even though significant progress has been made during this phase of research and computation times was reduced from 30 min. to 2 min. for a sample problem, it was not good enough for on-line processing of digitized data points. After discussion with Dr. Robert E. Smith Jr., it was decided not to enforce shape constraints in order in order to simplify the model. As a consequence, P. Dierckx's nonparametric spline fitting approach was adopted, where one has only one control parameter for the fitting process - the error tolerance. At the same time the surface modeling software developed by Imageware was tested. Research indicated a substantially improved fitting of digitalized data points can be achieved if a proper parameterization of the spline surface is chosen. A winning strategy is to incorporate Dierckx's surface fitting with a natural parameterization for aircraft parts. The report consists of 4 chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of reverse engineering related to aircraft modeling and some preliminary findings of the effort in the second half of the year. Chapters 2-4 are the research results by Dr. W. Li on penalty functions and conjugate gradient methods for

  8. Reverse engineering of wörner type drilling machine structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, A.; Belly, I.; llhamsyah, R.; Indrawanto; Yuwana, Y.

    2018-03-01

    A product design needs to be modified based on the conditions of production facilities and existing resource capabilities without reducing the functional aspects of the product itself. This paper describes the reverse engineering process of the main structure of the wörner type drilling machine to obtain a machine structure design that can be made by resources with limited ability by using simple processes. Some structural, functional and the work mechanism analyzes have been performed to understand the function and role of each basic components. The process of dismantling of the drilling machine and measuring each of the basic components was performed to obtain sets of the geometry and size data of each component. The geometric model of each structure components and the machine assembly were built to facilitate the simulation process and machine performance analysis that refers to ISO standard of drilling machine. The tolerance stackup analysis also performed to determine the type and value of geometrical and dimensional tolerances, which could affect the ease of the components to be manufactured and assembled

  9. A data-driven approach to reverse engineering customer engagement models: towards functional constructs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Jane de Vries

    Full Text Available Online consumer behavior in general and online customer engagement with brands in particular, has become a major focus of research activity fuelled by the exponential increase of interactive functions of the internet and social media platforms and applications. Current research in this area is mostly hypothesis-driven and much debate about the concept of Customer Engagement and its related constructs remains existent in the literature. In this paper, we aim to propose a novel methodology for reverse engineering a consumer behavior model for online customer engagement, based on a computational and data-driven perspective. This methodology could be generalized and prove useful for future research in the fields of consumer behaviors using questionnaire data or studies investigating other types of human behaviors. The method we propose contains five main stages; symbolic regression analysis, graph building, community detection, evaluation of results and finally, investigation of directed cycles and common feedback loops. The 'communities' of questionnaire items that emerge from our community detection method form possible 'functional constructs' inferred from data rather than assumed from literature and theory. Our results show consistent partitioning of questionnaire items into such 'functional constructs' suggesting the method proposed here could be adopted as a new data-driven way of human behavior modeling.

  10. Engineering and physics of high-power-density, compact, reversed-field-pinch fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najmabadi, F.; Conn, R.W.; Krakowski, R.A.; Schultz, K.R.; Steiner, D.

    1989-01-01

    The technical feasibility and key developmental issues of compact, high-power-density Reversed-Field-Pinch (RFP) reactors are the primary results of the TITAN RFP reactor study. Two design approaches emerged, TITAN-I and TITAN-II, both of which are steady-state, DT-burning, circa 1000 MWe power reactors. The TITAN designs are physically compact and have a high neutron wall loading of 18 MW m 2 . Detailed analyses indicate that: a) each design is technically feasible; b) attractive features of compact RFP reactors can be realized without sacrificing the safety and environmental potential of fusion; and c) major features of this particular embodiment of the RFP reactor are retained in a design window of neutron wall loading ranging from 10 to 20 MW/m 2 . A major product of the TITAN study is the identification and quantification of major engineering and physics requirements for this class of RFP reactors. These findings are the focus of this paper. (author). 26 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  11. RegnANN: Reverse Engineering Gene Networks using Artificial Neural Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Grimaldi

    Full Text Available RegnANN is a novel method for reverse engineering gene networks based on an ensemble of multilayer perceptrons. The algorithm builds a regressor for each gene in the network, estimating its neighborhood independently. The overall network is obtained by joining all the neighborhoods. RegnANN makes no assumptions about the nature of the relationships between the variables, potentially capturing high-order and non linear dependencies between expression patterns. The evaluation focuses on synthetic data mimicking plausible submodules of larger networks and on biological data consisting of submodules of Escherichia coli. We consider Barabasi and Erdös-Rényi topologies together with two methods for data generation. We verify the effect of factors such as network size and amount of data to the accuracy of the inference algorithm. The accuracy scores obtained with RegnANN is methodically compared with the performance of three reference algorithms: ARACNE, CLR and KELLER. Our evaluation indicates that RegnANN compares favorably with the inference methods tested. The robustness of RegnANN, its ability to discover second order correlations and the agreement between results obtained with this new methods on both synthetic and biological data are promising and they stimulate its application to a wider range of problems.

  12. A data-driven approach to reverse engineering customer engagement models: towards functional constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Natalie Jane; Carlson, Jamie; Moscato, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Online consumer behavior in general and online customer engagement with brands in particular, has become a major focus of research activity fuelled by the exponential increase of interactive functions of the internet and social media platforms and applications. Current research in this area is mostly hypothesis-driven and much debate about the concept of Customer Engagement and its related constructs remains existent in the literature. In this paper, we aim to propose a novel methodology for reverse engineering a consumer behavior model for online customer engagement, based on a computational and data-driven perspective. This methodology could be generalized and prove useful for future research in the fields of consumer behaviors using questionnaire data or studies investigating other types of human behaviors. The method we propose contains five main stages; symbolic regression analysis, graph building, community detection, evaluation of results and finally, investigation of directed cycles and common feedback loops. The 'communities' of questionnaire items that emerge from our community detection method form possible 'functional constructs' inferred from data rather than assumed from literature and theory. Our results show consistent partitioning of questionnaire items into such 'functional constructs' suggesting the method proposed here could be adopted as a new data-driven way of human behavior modeling.

  13. An Integrated Reverse Engineering Approach for Accuracy Control of Free-Form Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathak Vimal Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Computer-aided tools help in shortening and eradicating numerous repetitive tasks that reduces the gap between digital model and actual product. Use of these tools assists in realizing free-form objects such as custom fit products as described by a stringent interaction with the human body. Development of such a model presents a challenging situation for reverse engineering (RE which is not analogous with the requirement for generating simple geometric models. Hence, an alternating way of producing more accurate three-dimensional models is proposed. For creating accurate 3D models, point clouds are processed through filtering, segmentation, mesh smoothing and surface generation. These processes help in converting the initial unorganized point data into a 3D digital model and simultaneously influence the quality of model. This study provides an optimum balance for the best accuracy obtainable with maximum allowable deviation to lessen computer handling and processing time. A realistic non trivial case study of free-form prosthetic socket is considered. The accuracy obtained for the developed model is acceptable for the use in medical applications and FEM analysis.

  14. An Analytical Reverse Engineering of IELTS Listening Tasks for a Construct Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Khalili Sabet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The study reported here was concerned with the issue of reverse engineering of language test items as it relates to the identification of the language constructs underlying listening tasks of LELTS test. In this regard, the IELTS examination papers, from IELTS 1 to IELTS 10 were compiled as a corpus for the analysis. Tasks were analyzed using a taxonomic frame work adopted from Moore, Morton and price (2012, that was originally adapted from Weir and Urquhart (1998, with a focus on two dimensions of difference: level of engagement, referring to the level of text with which a listener required to engage in order to respond to a task (local vs. global; type of engagement referring to the way (or ways  listeners expected to engage with a text in order to process the material to respond to a task (literal vs. interpretative. Overall, the analysis found evidences of bottom up processing underlying most IELTS listening tasks. The majority of tasks were identified to have a ‘local-literal’ configuration on their orientation, demanding primarily a basic understanding of relatively small textual units of the material. The results of the study were used to suggest the practical implications for the four groups of the people involved in the IELTS educational contexts: participants; teachers; material preparation experts, and curriculum designers.

  15. Reveal, A General Reverse Engineering Algorithm for Inference of Genetic Network Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shoudan; Fuhrman, Stefanie; Somogyi, Roland

    1998-01-01

    Given the immanent gene expression mapping covering whole genomes during development, health and disease, we seek computational methods to maximize functional inference from such large data sets. Is it possible, in principle, to completely infer a complex regulatory network architecture from input/output patterns of its variables? We investigated this possibility using binary models of genetic networks. Trajectories, or state transition tables of Boolean nets, resemble time series of gene expression. By systematically analyzing the mutual information between input states and output states, one is able to infer the sets of input elements controlling each element or gene in the network. This process is unequivocal and exact for complete state transition tables. We implemented this REVerse Engineering ALgorithm (REVEAL) in a C program, and found the problem to be tractable within the conditions tested so far. For n = 50 (elements) and k = 3 (inputs per element), the analysis of incomplete state transition tables (100 state transition pairs out of a possible 10(exp 15)) reliably produced the original rule and wiring sets. While this study is limited to synchronous Boolean networks, the algorithm is generalizable to include multi-state models, essentially allowing direct application to realistic biological data sets. The ability to adequately solve the inverse problem may enable in-depth analysis of complex dynamic systems in biology and other fields.

  16. Genetic Network Inference: From Co-Expression Clustering to Reverse Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaeseleer, Patrik; Liang, Shoudan; Somogyi, Roland

    2000-01-01

    Advances in molecular biological, analytical, and computational technologies are enabling us to systematically investigate the complex molecular processes underlying biological systems. In particular, using high-throughput gene expression assays, we are able to measure the output of the gene regulatory network. We aim here to review datamining and modeling approaches for conceptualizing and unraveling the functional relationships implicit in these datasets. Clustering of co-expression profiles allows us to infer shared regulatory inputs and functional pathways. We discuss various aspects of clustering, ranging from distance measures to clustering algorithms and multiple-duster memberships. More advanced analysis aims to infer causal connections between genes directly, i.e., who is regulating whom and how. We discuss several approaches to the problem of reverse engineering of genetic networks, from discrete Boolean networks, to continuous linear and non-linear models. We conclude that the combination of predictive modeling with systematic experimental verification will be required to gain a deeper insight into living organisms, therapeutic targeting, and bioengineering.

  17. Engineered reversal of drug resistance in cancer cells--metastases suppressor factors as change agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vinod Kumar; Kumar, Akinchan; Mann, Anita; Aggarwal, Suruchi; Kumar, Maneesh; Roy, Sumitabho Deb; Pore, Subrata Kumar; Banerjee, Rajkumar; Mahesh Kumar, Jerald; Thakur, Ram Krishna; Chowdhury, Shantanu

    2014-01-01

    Building molecular correlates of drug resistance in cancer and exploiting them for therapeutic intervention remains a pressing clinical need. To identify factors that impact drug resistance herein we built a model that couples inherent cell-based response toward drugs with transcriptomes of resistant/sensitive cells. To test this model, we focused on a group of genes called metastasis suppressor genes (MSGs) that influence aggressiveness and metastatic potential of cancers. Interestingly, modeling of 84 000 drug response transcriptome combinations predicted multiple MSGs to be associated with resistance of different cell types and drugs. As a case study, on inducing MSG levels in a drug resistant breast cancer line resistance to anticancer drugs caerulomycin, camptothecin and topotecan decreased by more than 50-60%, in both culture conditions and also in tumors generated in mice, in contrast to control un-induced cells. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of engineered reversal of drug resistance in cancer cells based on a model that exploits inherent cellular response profiles.

  18. A Critical Analysis of a Hand Orthosis Reverse Engineering and 3D Printing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Baronio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to realize highly customized orthoses is receiving boost thanks to the widespread diffusion of low-cost 3D printing technologies. However, rapid prototyping (RP with 3D printers is only the final stage of patient personalized orthotics processes. A reverse engineering (RE process is in fact essential before RP, to digitize the 3D anatomy of interest and to process the obtained surface with suitable modeling software, in order to produce the virtual solid model of the orthosis to be printed. In this paper, we focus on the specific and demanding case of the customized production of hand orthosis. We design and test the essential steps of the entire production process with particular emphasis on the accurate acquisition of the forearm geometry and on the subsequent production of a printable model of the orthosis. The choice of the various hardware and software tools (3D scanner, modeling software, and FDM printer is aimed at the mitigation of the design and production costs while guaranteeing suitable levels of data accuracy, process efficiency, and design versatility. Eventually, the proposed method is critically analyzed so that the residual issues and critical aspects are highlighted in order to discuss possible alternative approaches and to derive insightful observations that could guide future research activities.

  19. Design of microreactor by integration of reverse engineering and direct metal laser sintering process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bineli, Aulus Roberto Romao; Gimenez Perez, Ana Paula; Bernardes, Luiz Fernando; Munhoz, Andre Luiz Jardini; Maciel Filho, Rubens [Universidade de Campinas (LOPCA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). School of Chemical Engineering. Laboratory of Optimization, Design and Advanced Process Control], Email: aulus@feq.unicamp.br

    2010-07-01

    The propose of this work is to present high precision microfabrication facilities using computer aided technologies as Reverse Engineering (RE) and Rapid Manufacturing (RM) to analyze, design and construct micro reactors to produce high content hydrogen gas. Micro reactors are very compact, have a high surface to volume ratio, exhibit enhanced heat and mass transfer rates, denotes extremely low pressure drop and allow improved thermal integration in the processes involved. The main goals of micro reactors are the optimization of conventional chemical plants and low footprint, opening different ways to research new process technologies and synthesis of new products. In this work, a microchannels plate and housing structure of these plates were fabricated using DMLS method (Direct Metal Laser Sintering). The plates were analyzed to verify the minimum thickness wall that machine can produce, and the housing structure were digitalized, using a 3D scanning, to perform a 3D inspection and to verify the deflection of the constructed part in comparison with original CAD design models. It was observed that DMLS systems are able to produce micro reactors and microchannels plates with high precision at different metallic materials. However, it is important to choose appropriate conditions to avoid residual stresses and consequently warping parts. (author)

  20. SpEnD: Linked Data SPARQL Endpoints Discovery Using Search Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumusak, Semih; Dogdu, Erdogan; Kodaz, Halife; Kamilaris, Andreas; Vandenbussche, Pierre-Yves

    In this study, a novel metacrawling method is proposed for discovering and monitoring linked data sources on the Web. We implemented the method in a prototype system, named SPARQL Endpoints Discovery (SpEnD). SpEnD starts with a "search keyword" discovery process for finding relevant keywords for the linked data domain and specifically SPARQL endpoints. Then, these search keywords are utilized to find linked data sources via popular search engines (Google, Bing, Yahoo, Yandex). By using this method, most of the currently listed SPARQL endpoints in existing endpoint repositories, as well as a significant number of new SPARQL endpoints, have been discovered. Finally, we have developed a new SPARQL endpoint crawler (SpEC) for crawling and link analysis.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of hydrothermal cross-linked chitosan porous scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamekhi, Mohammad Amin; Rabiee, Ahmad; Mirzadeh, Hamid; Mahdavi, Hamid; Mohebbi-Kalhori, Davod; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza

    2017-11-01

    The use of various chemical cross-linking agents for the improvement of scaffolds physical and mechanical properties is a common practical method, which is limited by cytotoxicity effects. Due to exerting contract type forces, chondrocytes are known to implement shrinkage on the tissue engineered constructs, which can be avoided by the scaffold cross-linking. In the this research, chitosan scaffolds are cross-linked with hydrothermal treatment with autoclave sterilization time of 0, 10, 20 and 30min, to avoid the application of the traditional chemical toxic materials. The optimization studies with gel content and crosslink density measurements indicate that for 20min sterilization time, the gel content approaches to ~80%. The scaffolds are fully characterized by the conventional techniques such as SEM, porosity and permeability, XRD, compression, thermal analysis and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). FT-IR studies shows that autoclave inter-chain cross-linking reduces the amine group absorption at 1560cm -1 and increase the absorption of N-acetylated groups at 1629cm -1 . It is anticipated, that this observation evidenced by chitosan scaffold browning upon autoclave cross-linking is an indication of the familiar maillard reaction between amine moieties and carbonyl groups. The biodegradation rate analysis shows that chitosan scaffolds with lower concentrations, possess suitable degradation rate for cartilage tissue engineering applications. In addition, cytotoxicity analysis shows that fabricated scaffolds are biocompatible. The human articular chondrocytes seeding into 3D cross-linked scaffolds shows a higher viability and proliferation in comparison with the uncross-linked samples and 2D controls. Investigation of cell morphology on the scaffolds by SEM, shows a more spherical morphology of chondrocytes on the cross-linked scaffolds for 21days of in vitro culture. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Reverse Engineering and Security Evaluation of Commercial Tags for RFID-Based IoT Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M; Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Suárez-Albela, Manuel; Castedo, Luis

    2016-12-24

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a distributed system of physical objects that requires the seamless integration of hardware (e.g., sensors, actuators, electronics) and network communications in order to collect and exchange data. IoT smart objects need to be somehow identified to determine the origin of the data and to automatically detect the elements around us. One of the best positioned technologies to perform identification is RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), which in the last years has gained a lot of popularity in applications like access control, payment cards or logistics. Despite its popularity, RFID security has not been properly handled in numerous applications. To foster security in such applications, this article includes three main contributions. First, in order to establish the basics, a detailed review of the most common flaws found in RFID-based IoT systems is provided, including the latest attacks described in the literature. Second, a novel methodology that eases the detection and mitigation of such flaws is presented. Third, the latest RFID security tools are analyzed and the methodology proposed is applied through one of them (Proxmark 3) to validate it. Thus, the methodology is tested in different scenarios where tags are commonly used for identification. In such systems it was possible to clone transponders, extract information, and even emulate both tags and readers. Therefore, it is shown that the methodology proposed is useful for auditing security and reverse engineering RFID communications in IoT applications. It must be noted that, although this paper is aimed at fostering RFID communications security in IoT applications, the methodology can be applied to any RFID communications protocol.

  3. An approach for reduction of false predictions in reverse engineering of gene regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abhinandan; Saha, Goutam; Pal, Rajat Kumar

    2018-05-14

    A gene regulatory network discloses the regulatory interactions amongst genes, at a particular condition of the human body. The accurate reconstruction of such networks from time-series genetic expression data using computational tools offers a stiff challenge for contemporary computer scientists. This is crucial to facilitate the understanding of the proper functioning of a living organism. Unfortunately, the computational methods produce many false predictions along with the correct predictions, which is unwanted. Investigations in the domain focus on the identification of as many correct regulations as possible in the reverse engineering of gene regulatory networks to make it more reliable and biologically relevant. One way to achieve this is to reduce the number of incorrect predictions in the reconstructed networks. In the present investigation, we have proposed a novel scheme to decrease the number of false predictions by suitably combining several metaheuristic techniques. We have implemented the same using a dataset ensemble approach (i.e. combining multiple datasets) also. We have employed the proposed methodology on real-world experimental datasets of the SOS DNA Repair network of Escherichia coli and the IMRA network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Subsequently, we have experimented upon somewhat larger, in silico networks, namely, DREAM3 and DREAM4 Challenge networks, and 15-gene and 20-gene networks extracted from the GeneNetWeaver database. To study the effect of multiple datasets on the quality of the inferred networks, we have used four datasets in each experiment. The obtained results are encouraging enough as the proposed methodology can reduce the number of false predictions significantly, without using any supplementary prior biological information for larger gene regulatory networks. It is also observed that if a small amount of prior biological information is incorporated here, the results improve further w.r.t. the prediction of true positives

  4. Reverse Engineering and Security Evaluation of Commercial Tags for RFID-Based IoT Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago M. Fernández-Caramés

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is a distributed system of physical objects that requires the seamless integration of hardware (e.g., sensors, actuators, electronics and network communications in order to collect and exchange data. IoT smart objects need to be somehow identified to determine the origin of the data and to automatically detect the elements around us. One of the best positioned technologies to perform identification is RFID (Radio Frequency Identification, which in the last years has gained a lot of popularity in applications like access control, payment cards or logistics. Despite its popularity, RFID security has not been properly handled in numerous applications. To foster security in such applications, this article includes three main contributions. First, in order to establish the basics, a detailed review of the most common flaws found in RFID-based IoT systems is provided, including the latest attacks described in the literature. Second, a novel methodology that eases the detection and mitigation of such flaws is presented. Third, the latest RFID security tools are analyzed and the methodology proposed is applied through one of them (Proxmark 3 to validate it. Thus, the methodology is tested in different scenarios where tags are commonly used for identification. In such systems it was possible to clone transponders, extract information, and even emulate both tags and readers. Therefore, it is shown that the methodology proposed is useful for auditing security and reverse engineering RFID communications in IoT applications. It must be noted that, although this paper is aimed at fostering RFID communications security in IoT applications, the methodology can be applied to any RFID communications protocol.

  5. Effect of engineered environment on microbial community structure in biofilter and biofilm on reverse osmosis membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sanghyun; Cho, Kyungjin; Jeong, Dawoon; Lee, Seockheon; Leiknes, TorOve; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Bae, Hyokwan

    2017-11-01

    Four dual media filters (DMFs) were operated in a biofiltration mode with different engineered environments (DMF I and II: coagulation with/without acidification and DMF III and IV: without/with chlorination). Designed biofilm enrichment reactors (BERs) containing the removable reverse osmosis (RO) coupons, were connected at the end of the DMFs in parallel to analyze the biofilm on the RO membrane by DMF effluents. Filtration performances were evaluated in terms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and assimilable organic carbon (AOC). Organic foulants on the RO membrane were also quantified and fractionized. The bacterial community structures in liquid (seawater and effluent) and biofilm (DMF and RO) samples were analyzed using 454-pyrosequencing. The DMF IV fed with the chlorinated seawater demonstrated the highest reductions of DOC including LMW-N as well as AOC among the other DMFs. The DMF IV was also effective in reducing organic foulants on the RO membrane surface. The bacterial community structure was grouped according to the sample phase (i.e., liquid and biofilm samples), sampling location (i.e., DMF and RO samples), and chlorination (chlorinated and non-chlorinated samples). In particular, the biofilm community in the DMF IV differed from the other DMF treatments, suggesting that chlorination exerted as stronger selective pressure than pH adjustment or coagulation on the biofilm community. In the DMF IV, several chemoorganotrophic chlorine-resistant biofilm-forming bacteria such as Hyphomonas, Erythrobacter, and Sphingomonas were predominant, and they may enhance organic carbon degradation efficiency. Diverse halophilic or halotolerant organic degraders were also found in other DMFs (i.e., DMF I, II, and III). Various kinds of dominant biofilm-forming bacteria were also investigated in RO membrane samples; the results provided possible candidates that cause biofouling when DMF process is applied as the pretreatment option for the RO process. Copyright

  6. Social smile reproducibility using 3-D stereophotogrammetry and reverse engineering technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindaroğlu, Furkan; Duran, Gökhan Serhat; Görgülü, Serkan; Yetkiner, Enver

    2016-05-01

    To assess the range of social smile reproducibility using 3-D stereophotogrammetry and reverse engineering technology. Social smile images of white adolescents (N  =  15, mean age  =  15.4 ±1.5 years; range  =  14-17 years) were obtained using 3dMDFlex (3dMD, Atlanta, Ga). Each participant was asked to produce 16 social smiles at 3-minute intervals. All images were obtained in natural head position. Alignment of images, segmentation of smile area, and 3-D deviation analysis were carried out using Geomagic Control software (3D Systems Inc, Cary, NC). A single image was taken as a reference, and the remaining 15 images were compared with the reference image to evaluate positive and negative deviations. The differences between the mean deviation limits of participants with the highest and the lowest deviations and the total mean deviations were evaluated using Bland-Altman Plots. Minimum and maximum deviations of a single image from the reference image were 0.34 and 2.69 mm, respectively. Lowest deviation between two images was within 0.5 mm and 1.54 mm among all participants (mean, 0.96 ± 0.21 mm), and the highest deviation was between 0.41 mm and 2.69 mm (mean, 1.53 ± 0.46 mm). For a single patient, when all alignments were considered together, the mean deviation was between 0.32 ± 0.10 mm and 0.59 ± 0.24 mm. Mean deviation for one image was between 0.14 and 1.21 mm. The range of reproducibility of the social smile presented individual variability, but this variation was not clinically significant or detectable under routine clinical observation.

  7. Design and manufacture of customized dental implants by using reverse engineering and selective laser melting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianyu; Zhang, Zhiguang; Chen, Xianshuai; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Gong; Xu, Zhewu

    2014-11-01

    Recently a new therapeutic concept of patient-specific implant dentistry has been advanced based on computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology. However, a comprehensive study of the design and 3-dimensional (3D) printing of the customized implants, their mechanical properties, and their biomechanical behavior is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanical and biomechanical performance of a novel custom-made dental implant fabricated by the selective laser melting technique with simulation and in vitro experimental studies. Two types of customized implants were designed by using reverse engineering: a root-analog implant and a root-analog threaded implant. The titanium implants were printed layer by layer with the selective laser melting technique. The relative density, surface roughness, tensile properties, bend strength, and dimensional accuracy of the specimens were evaluated. Nonlinear and linear finite element analysis and experimental studies were used to investigate the stress distribution, micromotion, and primary stability of the implants. Selective laser melting 3D printing technology was able to reproduce the customized implant designs and produce high density and strength and adequate dimensional accuracy. Better stress distribution and lower maximum micromotions were observed for the root-analog threaded implant model than for the root-analog implant model. In the experimental tests, the implant stability quotient and pull-out strength of the 2 types of implants indicated that better primary stability can be obtained with a root-analog threaded implant design. Selective laser melting proved to be an efficient means of printing fully dense customized implants with high strength and sufficient dimensional accuracy. Adding the threaded characteristic to the customized root-analog threaded implant design maintained the approximate geometry of the natural root and exhibited better stress distribution and

  8. Effect of engineered environment on microbial community structure in biofilter and biofilm on reverse osmosis membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Sanghyun

    2017-07-25

    Four dual media filters (DMFs) were operated in a biofiltration mode with different engineered environments (DMF I and II: coagulation with/without acidification and DMF III and IV: without/with chlorination). Designed biofilm enrichment reactors (BERs) containing the removable reverse osmosis (RO) coupons, were connected at the end of the DMFs in parallel to analyze the biofilm on the RO membrane by DMF effluents. Filtration performances were evaluated in terms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and assimilable organic carbon (AOC). Organic foulants on the RO membrane were also quantified and fractionized. The bacterial community structures in liquid (seawater and effluent) and biofilm (DMF and RO) samples were analyzed using 454-pyrosequencing. The DMF IV fed with the chlorinated seawater demonstrated the highest reductions of DOC including LMW-N as well as AOC among the other DMFs. The DMF IV was also effective in reducing organic foulants on the RO membrane surface. The bacterial community structure was grouped according to the sample phase (i.e., liquid and biofilm samples), sampling location (i.e., DMF and RO samples), and chlorination (chlorinated and non-chlorinated samples). In particular, the biofilm community in the DMF IV differed from the other DMF treatments, suggesting that chlorination exerted as stronger selective pressure than pH adjustment or coagulation on the biofilm community. In the DMF IV, several chemoorganotrophic chlorine-resistant biofilm-forming bacteria such as Hyphomonas, Erythrobacter, and Sphingomonas were predominant, and they may enhance organic carbon degradation efficiency. Diverse halophilic or halotolerant organic degraders were also found in other DMFs (i.e., DMF I, II, and III). Various kinds of dominant biofilm-forming bacteria were also investigated in RO membrane samples; the results provided possible candidates that cause biofouling when DMF process is applied as the pretreatment option for the RO process.

  9. Reverse Engineering and Security Evaluation of Commercial Tags for RFID-Based IoT Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M.; Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Suárez-Albela, Manuel; Castedo, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a distributed system of physical objects that requires the seamless integration of hardware (e.g., sensors, actuators, electronics) and network communications in order to collect and exchange data. IoT smart objects need to be somehow identified to determine the origin of the data and to automatically detect the elements around us. One of the best positioned technologies to perform identification is RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), which in the last years has gained a lot of popularity in applications like access control, payment cards or logistics. Despite its popularity, RFID security has not been properly handled in numerous applications. To foster security in such applications, this article includes three main contributions. First, in order to establish the basics, a detailed review of the most common flaws found in RFID-based IoT systems is provided, including the latest attacks described in the literature. Second, a novel methodology that eases the detection and mitigation of such flaws is presented. Third, the latest RFID security tools are analyzed and the methodology proposed is applied through one of them (Proxmark 3) to validate it. Thus, the methodology is tested in different scenarios where tags are commonly used for identification. In such systems it was possible to clone transponders, extract information, and even emulate both tags and readers. Therefore, it is shown that the methodology proposed is useful for auditing security and reverse engineering RFID communications in IoT applications. It must be noted that, although this paper is aimed at fostering RFID communications security in IoT applications, the methodology can be applied to any RFID communications protocol. PMID:28029119

  10. Supramolecular Cross-Links in Poly(alkyl methacrylate) Copolymers and Their Impact on the Mechanical and Reversible Adhesive Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzmann, Christian; Salz, Ulrich; Moszner, Norbert; Fiore, Gina L; Weder, Christoph

    2015-06-24

    Hydrogen-bonded, side-chain-functionalized supramolecular poly(alkyl methacrylate)s were investigated as light- and temperature-responsive reversible adhesives that are useful for bonding and debonding on demand applications. Here, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) was functionalized with 2-ureido-4[1H]pyrimidinone (UPy) via a hexamethylenediisocyanate (HMDI) linker, to create a monomer (UPy-HMDI-HEMA) that serves to form supramolecular cross-links by way of forming quadruple hydrogen bonded dimers. UPy-HMDI-HEMA was copolymerized with either hexyl methacrylate or butyl methacrylate to create copolymers comprising 2.5, 5, or 10 mol % of the cross-linker. The mechanical properties of all (co)polymers were investigated with stress-strain experiments and dynamic mechanical analysis. Furthermore, the adhesive properties were studied at temperatures between 20 and 60 °C by testing single lap joints formed with stainless steel substrates. It was found that increasing the concentration of the UPy-HMDI-HEMA cross-linker leads to improved mechanical and adhesive properties at elevated temperatures. Concurrently, the reversibility of the bond formation remained unaffected, where rebonded samples displayed the same adhesive strength as regularly bonded samples. Debonding on demand abilities were also tested exemplarily for one copolymer, which for light-induced debonding experiments was blended with a UV-absorber that served as light-heat converter. Single lap joints were subjected to a constant force and heated or irradiated with UV light until debonding occurred. The necessary debonding temperature was comparable for direct heating and UV irradiation and varied between 28 and 82 °C, depending on the applied force. The latter also influenced the debonding time, which under the chosen conditions ranged from 30 s to 12 min.

  11. A Survey of Automatic Protocol Reverse Engineering Approaches, Methods, and Tools on the Inputs and Outputs View

    OpenAIRE

    Baraka D. Sija; Young-Hoon Goo; Kyu-Seok Shim; Huru Hasanova; Myung-Sup Kim

    2018-01-01

    A network protocol defines rules that control communications between two or more machines on the Internet, whereas Automatic Protocol Reverse Engineering (APRE) defines the way of extracting the structure of a network protocol without accessing its specifications. Enough knowledge on undocumented protocols is essential for security purposes, network policy implementation, and management of network resources. This paper reviews and analyzes a total of 39 approaches, methods, and tools towards ...

  12. Modeling formalin fixation and histological processing with ribonuclease A: effects of ethanol dehydration on reversal of formaldehyde cross-links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Carol B; O'Leary, Timothy J; Mason, Jeffrey T

    2008-07-01

    Understanding the chemistry of protein modification by formaldehyde fixation and subsequent tissue processing is central to developing improved methods for antigen retrieval in immunohistochemistry and for recovering proteins from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues for proteomic analysis. Our initial studies of single proteins, such as bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A), in 10% buffered formalin solution revealed that upon removal of excess formaldehyde, monomeric RNase A exhibiting normal immunoreactivity could be recovered by heating at 60 degrees C for 30 min at pH 4. We next studied tissue surrogates, which are gelatin-like plugs of fixed proteins that have sufficient physical integrity to be processed using normal tissue histology. Following histological processing, proteins could be extracted from the tissue surrogates by combining heat, detergent, and a protein denaturant. However, gel electrophoresis revealed that the surrogate extracts contained a mixture of monomeric and multimeric proteins. This suggested that during the subsequent steps of tissue processing protein-formaldehyde adducts undergo further modifications that are not observed in aqueous proteins. As a first step toward understanding these additional modifications we have performed a comparative evaluation of RNase A following fixation in buffered formaldehyde alone and after subsequent dehydration in 100% ethanol by combining gel electrophoresis, chemical modification, and circular dichroism spectroscopic studies. Our results reveal that ethanol-induced rearrangement of the conformation of fixed RNase A leads to protein aggregation through the formation of large geometrically compatible hydrophobic beta-sheets that are likely stabilized by formaldehyde cross-links, hydrogen bonds, and van der Waals interactions. It requires substantial energy to reverse the formaldehyde cross-links within these sheets and regenerate protein monomers free of formaldehyde modifications

  13. Reverse engineering of heavy-ion collisions: Unraveling initial conditions from anisotropic flow data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retinskaya, Ekaterina

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-Relativistic heavy-ion physics is a promising field of high energy physics connecting two fields: nuclear physics and elementary particle physics. Experimental achievements of the last years have provided an opportunity to study the properties of a new state of matter created in heavy-ion collisions called quark-gluon plasma. The initial state of two colliding nuclei is affected by fluctuations coming from wave- functions of nucleons. These fluctuations lead to the momentum anisotropy of the hadronic matter which is observed by the detectors. The system created in the collision behaves like a fluid, so the initial state is connected to the final state via hydrodynamic evolution. In this thesis we model the evolution with relativistic viscous hydrodynamics. Our results, combined with experimental data, give non trivial constraints on the initial state, thus achieving 'reverse engineering' of the heavy-ion collisions. The observable which characterizes the momentum anisotropy is the anisotropic flow v n . We present the first measurements of the first harmonic of the anisotropic flow called directed flow v 1 in Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC. We then perform the first viscous hydrodynamic modeling of directed flow and show that it is less sensitive to viscosity than higher harmonics. Comparison of these experimental data with the modeling allows to extract the values of the dipole asymmetry of the initial state, which provides constraints on the models of initial states. A prediction for directed flow v 1 in Au-Au collisions is also made for RHIC. We then perform a similar modeling of the second and third harmonics of the anisotropic flow, called respectively elliptic v 2 and triangular v 3 flow. A combined analysis of the elliptic and triangular flow data compared with viscous hydrodynamic calculations allows us to put constraints on initial ellipticity and triangularity of the system. These constraints are then used as a filter for different models of

  14. Insights gained from the reverse engineering of gene networks in keloid fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Toan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Keloids are protrusive claw-like scars that have a propensity to recur even after surgery, and its molecular etiology remains elusive. The goal of reverse engineering is to infer gene networks from observational data, thus providing insight into the inner workings of a cell. However, most attempts at modeling biological networks have been done using simulated data. This study aims to highlight some of the issues involved in working with experimental data, and at the same time gain some insights into the transcriptional regulatory mechanism present in keloid fibroblasts. Methods Microarray data from our previous study was combined with microarray data obtained from the literature as well as new microarray data generated by our group. For the physical approach, we used the fREDUCE algorithm for correlating expression values to binding motifs. For the influence approach, we compared the Bayesian algorithm BANJO with the information theoretic method ARACNE in terms of performance in recovering known influence networks obtained from the KEGG database. In addition, we also compared the performance of different normalization methods as well as different types of gene networks. Results Using the physical approach, we found consensus sequences that were active in the keloid condition, as well as some sequences that were responsive to steroids, a commonly used treatment for keloids. From the influence approach, we found that BANJO was better at recovering the gene networks compared to ARACNE and that transcriptional networks were better suited for network recovery compared to cytokine-receptor interaction networks and intracellular signaling networks. We also found that the NFKB transcriptional network that was inferred from normal fibroblast data was more accurate compared to that inferred from keloid data, suggesting a more robust network in the keloid condition. Conclusions Consensus sequences that were found from this study are

  15. The Science of Solubility: Using Reverse Engineering to Brew a Perfect Cup of Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Andrew B.; Sickel, Aaron J.; Cribbs, Jennifer D.

    2015-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards call for the integration of science and engineering. Often, the introduction of engineering activities occurs after instruction in the science content. That is, engineering is used as a way for students to elaborate on science ideas that have already been explored. However, using only this sequence of…

  16. Flight Measurements of the Effect of a Controllable Thrust Reverser on the Flight Characteristics of a Single-Engine Jet Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Seth B.; Cooper, George E.; Faye, Alan E., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    A flight investigation was undertaken to determine the effect of a fully controllable thrust reverser on the flight characteristics of a single-engine jet airplane. Tests were made using a cylindrical target-type reverser actuated by a hydraulic cylinder through a "beep-type" cockpit control mounted at the base of the throttle. The thrust reverser was evaluated as an in-flight decelerating device, as a flight path control and airspeed control in landing approach, and as a braking device during the ground roll. Full deflection of the reverser for one reverser configuration resulted in a reverse thrust ratio of as much as 85 percent, which at maximum engine power corresponded to a reversed thrust of 5100 pounds. Use of the reverser in landing approach made possible a wide selection of approach angles, a large reduction in approach speed at steep approach angles, improved control of flight path angle, and more accuracy in hitting a given touchdown point. The use of the reverser as a speed brake at lower airspeeds was compromised by a longitudinal trim change. At the lower airspeeds and higher engine powers there was insufficient elevator power to overcome the nose-down trim change at full reverser deflection.

  17. Enzymatic cross-linking of human recombinant elastin (HELP) as biomimetic approach in vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzini, Sabrina; Giuliano, Liliana; Altomare, Lina; Petrini, Paola; Bandiera, Antonella; Conconi, Maria Teresa; Farè, Silvia; Tanzi, Maria Cristina

    2011-12-01

    The use of polymers naturally occurring in the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a promising strategy in regenerative medicine. If compared to natural ECM proteins, proteins obtained by recombinant DNA technology have intrinsic advantages including reproducible macromolecular composition, sequence and molecular mass, and overcoming the potential pathogens transmission related to polymers of animal origin. Among ECM-mimicking materials, the family of recombinant elastin-like polymers is proposed for drug delivery applications and for the repair of damaged elastic tissues. This work aims to evaluate the potentiality of a recombinant human elastin-like polypeptide (HELP) as a base material of cross-linked matrices for regenerative medicine. The cross-linking of HELP was accomplished by the insertion of cross-linking sites, glutamine and lysine, in the recombinant polymer and generating ε-(γ-glutamyl) lysine links through the enzyme transglutaminase. The cross-linking efficacy was estimated by infrared spectroscopy. Freeze-dried cross-linked matrices showed swelling ratios in deionized water (≈2500%) with good structural stability up to 24 h. Mechanical compression tests, performed at 37°C in wet conditions, in a frequency sweep mode, indicated a storage modulus of 2/3 kPa, with no significant changes when increasing number of cycles or frequency. These results demonstrate the possibility to obtain mechanically resistant hydrogels via enzymatic crosslinking of HELP. Cytotoxicity tests of cross-linked HELP were performed with human umbilical vein endothelial cells, by use of transwell filter chambers for 1-7 days, or with its extracts in the opportune culture medium for 24 h. In both cases no cytotoxic effects were observed in comparison with the control cultures. On the whole, the results suggest the potentiality of this genetically engineered HELP for regenerative medicine applications, particularly for vascular tissue regeneration.

  18. Unprecedented Simultaneous and Rapid Reversal of Oral and Alimentary Mucositis using Polymerized Cross Linked Sucralfate: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky Wayne McCullough

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The quest to optimize cancer treatments and to extend cancer survival is consistently thwarted by an unavoidable but expected consequence – mucositis of the oral and gastrointestinal tract. Prior to market approval our Translational Medicine Research Center clinically tested polymerized cross-linked sucralfate (PCLS on a cancer treatment patient who underwent 6 weeks chemo-radiation for squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (SCCHN. This late-breaking Phase 4 observational experience from our Center discusses the post-approval use of PCLS (ProThelial™ in 2 patients: one with advanced oroesophageal mucositis from radiation and cetuximab for SCCHN and another patient with oral, esophageal, small and large bowel mucositis caused by Folfirinox (5- fluorouracil, folinic acid, irinotecan and oxaliplatin for inoperable metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Standard potency sucralfate is not recommended in the mucositis management guidelines of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer and International Society of Oral Oncology (MASCC\\ISOO. This higher potency sucralfate, PCLS, used in these patients exhibited an unprecedented simultaneously and rapid (2-3 day reversal of oroesophageal mucositis and alimentary mucositis. These results raise the novel proposition of single-agent management of both oral and alimentary mucositis caused by radiation, classic and newer bioengineered oncolytics. If validated, PCLS should energize discussions regarding mucositis clinical guidelines. The experience of these patients has been accepted for presentation in the upcoming 2014 International Symposium of the MASCC\\ISOO. Distinctions between standard potency sucralfate and PCLS are reviewed and modes of action explanations are offered.

  19. Reverse engineering of an affinity-switchable molecular interaction characterized by atomic force microscopy single-molecule force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmetti, Dario; Bartels, Frank Wilco; Becker, Anke; Decker, Björn; Eckel, Rainer; McIntosh, Matthew; Mattay, Jochen; Plattner, Patrik; Ros, Robert; Schäfer, Christian; Sewald, Norbert

    2008-02-19

    Tunable and switchable interaction between molecules is a key for regulation and control of cellular processes. The translation of the underlying physicochemical principles to synthetic and switchable functional entities and molecules that can mimic the corresponding molecular functions is called reverse molecular engineering. We quantitatively investigated autoinducer-regulated DNA-protein interaction in bacterial gene regulation processes with single atomic force microscopy (AFM) molecule force spectroscopy in vitro, and developed an artificial bistable molecular host-guest system that can be controlled and regulated by external signals (UV light exposure and thermal energy). The intermolecular binding functionality (affinity) and its reproducible and reversible switching has been proven by AFM force spectroscopy at the single-molecule level. This affinity-tunable optomechanical switch will allow novel applications with respect to molecular manipulation, nanoscale rewritable molecular memories, and/or artificial ion channels, which will serve for the controlled transport and release of ions and neutral compounds in the future.

  20. Credibility engineering in the food industry: linking science, regulation, and marketing in a corporate context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, Bart; Nelis, Annemiek P

    2011-12-01

    We expand upon the notion of the "credibility cycle" through a study of credibility engineering by the food industry. Research and development (R&D) as well as marketing contribute to the credibility of the food company Unilever and its claims. Innovation encompasses the development, marketing, and sales of products. These are directed towards three distinct audiences: scientific peers, regulators, and consumers. R&D uses scientific articles to create credit for itself amongst peers and regulators. These articles are used to support health claims on products. However, R&D, regulation, and marketing are not separate realms. A single strategy of credibility engineering connects health claims to a specific public through linking that public to a health issue and a food product.

  1. Novel covalently linked insulin dimer engineered to investigate the function of insulin dimerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Tine N.; Norrman, Mathias; Strauss, Holger M.

    2012-01-01

    An ingenious system evolved to facilitate insulin binding to the insulin receptor as a monomer and at the same time ensure sufficient stability of insulin during storage. Insulin dimer is the cornerstone of this system. Insulin dimer is relatively weak, which ensures dissociation into monomers...... in the circulation, and it is stabilized by hexamer formation in the presence of zinc ions during storage in the pancreatic ß-cell. Due to the transient nature of insulin dimer, direct investigation of this important form is inherently difficult. To address the relationship between insulin oligomerization...... and insulin stability and function, we engineered a covalently linked insulin dimer in which two monomers were linked by a disulfide bond. The structure of this covalent dimer was identical to the self-association dimer of human insulin. Importantly, this covalent dimer was capable of further oligomerization...

  2. Does a Link Exist Between Examination Performance and Lecture Attendance for First Year Engineering Students ?

    OpenAIRE

    O'Dwyer, Aidan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine if a link exists between lecture attendance and examination performance of Level 7, Year 1, Electrical Engineering students at Dublin Institute of Technology in the Electrical Systems subject. Lecture attendance was monitored and analysed over four academic years (2007-8, 2008-9, 2009-10 and 2010-11). The average lecture attendance for students in the three academic years from 2007-10 was 55%, increasing noticeably in the 2009-10 academic year. A stat...

  3. Principle and realization of segmenting contour series algorithm in reverse engineering based on X-ray computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yanfang; Liu Li; Yan Yonglian; Shan Baoci; Tang Xiaowei

    2007-01-01

    A new algorithm of segmenting contour series of images is presented, which can achieve three dimension reconstruction with parametric recognition in Reverse Engineering based on X-ray CT. First, in order to get the nested relationship between contours, a method of a certain angle ray is used. Second, for realizing the contour location in one slice, another approach is presented to generate the contour tree by scanning the relevant vector only once. Last, a judge algorithm is put forward to accomplish the contour match between slices by adopting the qualitative and quantitative properties. The example shows that this algorithm can segment contour series of CT parts rapidly and precisely. (authors)

  4. Cyclopentadiene-functionalized polyketone as self-cross-linking thermo-reversible thermoset with increased softening temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toncelli, Claudio; Bouwhuis, Stephan; Broekhuis, Antonius Augustinus; Picchioni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Self-cross-linkable thermo-reversible thermosets were obtained by a two-steps post-functionalization of aliphatic alternating polyketones yielding two different cyclopentadiene functionalization degree of 9 and 22% (with the respect of initial 1,4-dicarbonyl units). Thermo-reversibility was verified

  5. Effect of engineered environment on microbial community structure in biofilter and biofilm on reverse osmosis membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Sanghyun; Cho, Kyungjin; Jeong, Dawoon; Lee, Seockheon; Leiknes, TorOve; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Bae, Hyokwan

    2017-01-01

    Four dual media filters (DMFs) were operated in a biofiltration mode with different engineered environments (DMF I and II: coagulation with/without acidification and DMF III and IV: without/with chlorination). Designed biofilm enrichment reactors

  6. Linking biogeomorphic feedbacks from ecosystem engineer to landscape scale: a panarchy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichel, Jana

    2017-04-01

    Scale is a fundamental concept in both ecology and geomorphology. Therefore, scale-based approaches are a valuable tool to bridge the disciplines and improve the understanding of feedbacks between geomorphic processes, landforms, material and organisms and ecological processes in biogeomorphology. Yet, linkages between biogeomorphic feedbacks on different scales, e.g. between ecosystem engineering and landscape scale patterns and dynamics, are not well understood. A panarchy approach sensu Holling et al. (2002) can help to close this research gap and explain how structure and function are created in biogeomorphic ecosystems. Based on results from previous biogeomorphic research in Turtmann glacier foreland (Switzerland; Eichel, 2017; Eichel et al. 2013, 2016), a panarchy concept is presented for lateral moraine slope biogeomorphic ecosystems. It depicts biogeomorphic feedbacks on different spatiotemporal scales as a set of nested adaptive cycles and links them by 'remember' and 'revolt' connections. On a small scale (cm2 - m2; seconds to years), the life cycle of the ecosystem engineer Dryas octopetala L. is considered as an adaptive cycle. Biogeomorphic succession within patches created by geomorphic processes represents an intermediate scale adaptive cycle (m2 - ha, years to decades), while geomorphic and ecologic pattern development at a landscape scale (ha - km2, decades to centuries) can be illustrated by an adaptive cycle of ‚biogeomorphic patch dynamics' (Eichel, 2017). In the panarchy, revolt connections link the smaller scale adaptive cycles to larger scale cycles: on lateral moraine slopes, the development of ecosystem engineer biomass and cover controls the engineering threshold of the biogeomorphic feedback window (Eichel et al., 2016) and therefore the onset of the biogeomorphic phase during biogeomorphic succession. In this phase, engineer patches and biogeomorphic structures can be created in the patch mosaic of the landscape. Remember connections

  7. Automated and comprehensive link engineering supporting branched, ring, and mesh network topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, J.; Khomchenko, D.; Yevseyenko, D.; Meester, J.; Richter, A.

    2016-02-01

    Link design, while relatively easy in the past, can become quite cumbersome with complex channel plans and equipment configurations. The task of designing optical transport systems and selecting equipment is often performed by an applications or sales engineer using simple tools, such as custom Excel spreadsheets. Eventually, every individual has their own version of the spreadsheet as well as their own methodology for building the network. This approach becomes unmanageable very quickly and leads to mistakes, bending of the engineering rules and installations that do not perform as expected. We demonstrate a comprehensive planning environment, which offers an efficient approach to unify, control and expedite the design process by controlling libraries of equipment and engineering methodologies, automating the process and providing the analysis tools necessary to predict system performance throughout the system and for all channels. In addition to the placement of EDFAs and DCEs, performance analysis metrics are provided at every step of the way. Metrics that can be tracked include power, CD and OSNR, SPM, XPM, FWM and SBS. Automated routine steps assist in design aspects such as equalization, padding and gain setting for EDFAs, the placement of ROADMs and transceivers, and creating regeneration points. DWDM networks consisting of a large number of nodes and repeater huts, interconnected in linear, branched, mesh and ring network topologies, can be designed much faster when compared with conventional design methods. Using flexible templates for all major optical components, our technology-agnostic planning approach supports the constant advances in optical communications.

  8. Novel covalently linked insulin dimer engineered to investigate the function of insulin dimerization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine N Vinther

    Full Text Available An ingenious system evolved to facilitate insulin binding to the insulin receptor as a monomer and at the same time ensure sufficient stability of insulin during storage. Insulin dimer is the cornerstone of this system. Insulin dimer is relatively weak, which ensures dissociation into monomers in the circulation, and it is stabilized by hexamer formation in the presence of zinc ions during storage in the pancreatic β-cell. Due to the transient nature of insulin dimer, direct investigation of this important form is inherently difficult. To address the relationship between insulin oligomerization and insulin stability and function, we engineered a covalently linked insulin dimer in which two monomers were linked by a disulfide bond. The structure of this covalent dimer was identical to the self-association dimer of human insulin. Importantly, this covalent dimer was capable of further oligomerization to form the structural equivalent of the classical hexamer. The covalently linked dimer neither bound to the insulin receptor, nor induced a metabolic response in vitro. However, it was extremely thermodynamically stable and did not form amyloid fibrils when subjected to mechanical stress, underlining the importance of oligomerization for insulin stability.

  9. Reverse engineering of B-pillar with 3D optical scanning for manufacturing of non-uniform thickness part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Md. Tasbirul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents reverse engineering (RE of a complex automobile structural part, B-pillar. As a major part of the automobile body-in white (BiW, B-pillar has substantial opportunity for weight reduction by introducing variable thickness across its sections. To leverage such potential, an existing B-pillar was reverse engineered with a 3D optical scanner and computer aided design (CAD application. First, digital data (i.e. in meshes of exiting B-pillar was obtained by the scanner, and subsequently, this information was utilized in developing a complete 3D CAD model. CATIA V5 was used in the modeling where some of the essential work benches were “Digitized Shape Editor”, “Quick Surface Reconstruction”, “Wireframe and Surface Design”, “Freestyle”, “Generation Shape Design” and “Part design”. In the final CAD design, five different thicknesses were incorporated successfully in order to get a B-pillar with non-uniform sections. This research opened opportunities for thickness optimization and mold tooling design in real time manufacturing.

  10. Reverse engineering a mouse embryonic stem cell-specific transcriptional network reveals a new modulator of neuronal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cegli, Rossella; Iacobacci, Simona; Flore, Gemma; Gambardella, Gennaro; Mao, Lei; Cutillo, Luisa; Lauria, Mario; Klose, Joachim; Illingworth, Elizabeth; Banfi, Sandro; di Bernardo, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression profiles can be used to infer previously unknown transcriptional regulatory interaction among thousands of genes, via systems biology 'reverse engineering' approaches. We 'reverse engineered' an embryonic stem (ES)-specific transcriptional network from 171 gene expression profiles, measured in ES cells, to identify master regulators of gene expression ('hubs'). We discovered that E130012A19Rik (E13), highly expressed in mouse ES cells as compared with differentiated cells, was a central 'hub' of the network. We demonstrated that E13 is a protein-coding gene implicated in regulating the commitment towards the different neuronal subtypes and glia cells. The overexpression and knock-down of E13 in ES cell lines, undergoing differentiation into neurons and glia cells, caused a strong up-regulation of the glutamatergic neurons marker Vglut2 and a strong down-regulation of the GABAergic neurons marker GAD65 and of the radial glia marker Blbp. We confirmed E13 expression in the cerebral cortex of adult mice and during development. By immuno-based affinity purification, we characterized protein partners of E13, involved in the Polycomb complex. Our results suggest a role of E13 in regulating the division between glutamatergic projection neurons and GABAergic interneurons and glia cells possibly by epigenetic-mediated transcriptional regulation.

  11. Reversible Thermoset Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Murray, Benjamin C. (Inventor); Tong, Tat H. (Inventor); Hreha, Richard D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Embodiments of a reversible thermoset adhesive formed by incorporating thermally-reversible cross-linking units and a method for making the reversible thermoset adhesive are provided. One approach to formulating reversible thermoset adhesives includes incorporating dienes, such as furans, and dienophiles, such as maleimides, into a polymer network as reversible covalent cross-links using Diels Alder cross-link formation between the diene and dienophile. The chemical components may be selected based on their compatibility with adhesive chemistry as well as their ability to undergo controlled, reversible cross-linking chemistry.

  12. Reverse engineering the structural and acoustic behavior of a stradivari violin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrkosz, Michael

    There is a tremendous amount of mystery that surrounds the instruments of Antonio Stradivari. There have been many studies done in the past, but no one completely understands exactly how he made his instruments, or why they are still considered the best in the world. This project is designed to develop an engineering model of one of Stradivari's violins that will accurately simulate the structural and acoustic behavior of the instrument. It also hopes to shine some light on what makes the instruments of Stradivari unique when compared to other violins. It will focus on geometry and material properties, utilizing several modern engineering tools, including CT scanning, experimental modal analysis, finite element analysis, correlation techniques, and acoustic synthesis.

  13. Cameco engineered tailings program: linking research with industrial processes for improved tailings performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzer, T.; Hendry, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    The waste product from uranium mining and milling that generates the greatest public and regulatory concern is tailings. The tailings contain all of the mined material except uranium plus a host of processing reagents. These minerals and compounds have the potential to harm the local environment if not deposited in a fashion that is both geochemically and geotechnically stable. Environmental leadership impels Cameco Corporation to ensure that the methods used to dispose of tailings are at the forefront of best available technologies whereby tailings production results in a product with geotechnical and geochemical characteristics that minimize the environmental impact associated with long-term storage of this product. Cameco has developed an Engineered Tailings (ET) program to ensure optimization of long-term tailings performance and minimal impacts of elements of concern (EOCs) to the receiving environment, regardless of the ore being milled. Within this program chemical and physical performance of tailings from geochemical and geotechnical investigations and baseline environmental data, integrated with regulatory requirements and corporate commitments, will be used to evaluate and set criteria for mill- and tailings management facilities-based chemical and physical tailings characteristics, identify key knowledge gaps, prioritize areas of concern and implement appropriate responses. This paper provides an overview of the Engineered Tailings program, the research being conducted as part of the ET program, and how it links with present and future Cameco operations. (author)

  14. File Carving and Malware Identification Algorithms Applied to Firmware Reverse Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    Internet, and use of common network protocols, enable nuisance hacker attacks. Search engines like SHODAN make searching for Internet-facing SCADA networks... pipeline leak in Bellingham, Washington, to pipeline damage and degraded SCADA software performance [1]. The leak and a subsequent explosion resulted in... FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or

  15. Research on external flow field of a car based on reverse engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shushan; Liu, Ronge

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the point cloud data of FAW-VOLKSWAGEN car body shape is obtained by three coordinate measuring instrument and laser scanning method. The accurate three dimensional model of the car is obtained using CATIA software reverse modelling technology. The car body is gridded, the calculation field and boundary condition type of the car flow field are determined, and the numerical simulation is carried out in Hyper Mesh software. The pressure cloud diagram, velocity vector diagram, air resistance coefficient and lift coefficient of the car are obtained. The calculation results reflect the aerodynamic characteristics of the car's external flow field. The motion of the separation flow on the surface of the vehicle body is well simulated, and the area where the vortex motion is relatively intense has been determined. The results provide a theoretical basis for improving and optimizing the body shape.

  16. Cognitive science in the era of artificial intelligence: A roadmap for reverse-engineering the infant language-learner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupoux, Emmanuel

    2018-04-01

    Spectacular progress in the information processing sciences (machine learning, wearable sensors) promises to revolutionize the study of cognitive development. Here, we analyse the conditions under which 'reverse engineering' language development, i.e., building an effective system that mimics infant's achievements, can contribute to our scientific understanding of early language development. We argue that, on the computational side, it is important to move from toy problems to the full complexity of the learning situation, and take as input as faithful reconstructions of the sensory signals available to infants as possible. On the data side, accessible but privacy-preserving repositories of home data have to be setup. On the psycholinguistic side, specific tests have to be constructed to benchmark humans and machines at different linguistic levels. We discuss the feasibility of this approach and present an overview of current results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effective multiple oral administration of reverse genetics engineered infectious bursal disease virus in mice in the presence of neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornyák, Ákos; Lipinski, Kai S; Bakonyi, Tamás; Forgách, Petra; Horváth, Ernő; Farsang, Attila; Hedley, Susan J; Palya, Vilmos; Bakács, Tibor; Kovesdi, Imre

    2015-01-01

    Despite spectacular successes in hepatitis B and C therapies, severe hepatic impairment is still a major treatment problem. The clinically tested infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) superinfection therapy promises an innovative, interferon-free solution to this great unmet need, provided that a consistent manufacturing process preventing mutations or reversions to virulent strains is obtained. To address safety concerns, a tissue culture adapted IBDV vaccine strain V903/78 was cloned into cDNA plasmids ensuring reproducible production of a reverse engineered virus R903/78. The therapeutic drug candidate was characterized by immunocytochemistry assay, virus particle determination and immunoblot analysis. The biodistribution and potential immunogenicity of the IBDV agent was determined in mice, which is not a natural host of this virus, by quantitative detection of IBDV RNA by a quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and virus neutralization test, respectively. Several human cell lines supported IBDV propagation in the absence of visible cytopathic effect. The virus was stable from pH 8 to pH 6 and demonstrated significant resistance to low pH and also proved to be highly resistant to high temperatures. No pathological effects were observed in mice. Single and multiple oral administration of IBDV elicited antibodies with neutralizing activities in vitro. Repeat oral administration of R903/78 was successful despite the presence of neutralizing antibodies. Single oral and intravenous administration indicated that IBDV does not replicate in mammalian liver alleviating some safety related concerns. These data supports the development of an orally delivered anti-hepatitis B virus/ anti-hepatitis C virus viral agent for human use. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Cuckoo Search Algorithm with Lévy Flights for Global-Support Parametric Surface Approximation in Reverse Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Iglesias

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns several important topics of the Symmetry journal, namely, computer-aided design, computational geometry, computer graphics, visualization, and pattern recognition. We also take advantage of the symmetric structure of the tensor-product surfaces, where the parametric variables u and v play a symmetric role in shape reconstruction. In this paper we address the general problem of global-support parametric surface approximation from clouds of data points for reverse engineering applications. Given a set of measured data points, the approximation is formulated as a nonlinear continuous least-squares optimization problem. Then, a recent metaheuristics called Cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA is applied to compute all relevant free variables of this minimization problem (namely, the data parameters and the surface poles. The method includes the iterative generation of new solutions by using the Lévy flights to promote the diversity of solutions and prevent stagnation. A critical advantage of this method is its simplicity: the CSA requires only two parameters, many fewer than any other metaheuristic approach, so the parameter tuning becomes a very easy task. The method is also simple to understand and easy to implement. Our approach has been applied to a benchmark of three illustrative sets of noisy data points corresponding to surfaces exhibiting several challenging features. Our experimental results show that the method performs very well even for the cases of noisy and unorganized data points. Therefore, the method can be directly used for real-world applications for reverse engineering without further pre/post-processing. Comparative work with the most classical mathematical techniques for this problem as well as a recent modification of the CSA called Improved CSA (ICSA is also reported. Two nonparametric statistical tests show that our method outperforms the classical mathematical techniques and provides equivalent results to ICSA

  19. Linking First-Year and Senior Engineering Design Teams: Engaging Early Academic Career Students in Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Garey A.; Weckler, Paul; Thomas, Dan

    2015-01-01

    In Biosystems Engineering at Oklahoma State University, senior design is a two semester course in which students work on real-world projects provided by clients. First-year (freshmen and trans­fer) students enroll in an introductory engineering course. Historically, these students worked on a team-based analysis project, and the engineering design…

  20. Combining chemoinformatics with bioinformatics: in silico prediction of bacterial flavor-forming pathways by a chemical systems biology approach "reverse pathway engineering".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengjin; Bienfait, Bruno; Sacher, Oliver; Gasteiger, Johann; Siezen, Roland J; Nauta, Arjen; Geurts, Jan M W

    2014-01-01

    The incompleteness of genome-scale metabolic models is a major bottleneck for systems biology approaches, which are based on large numbers of metabolites as identified and quantified by metabolomics. Many of the revealed secondary metabolites and/or their derivatives, such as flavor compounds, are non-essential in metabolism, and many of their synthesis pathways are unknown. In this study, we describe a novel approach, Reverse Pathway Engineering (RPE), which combines chemoinformatics and bioinformatics analyses, to predict the "missing links" between compounds of interest and their possible metabolic precursors by providing plausible chemical and/or enzymatic reactions. We demonstrate the added-value of the approach by using flavor-forming pathways in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as an example. Established metabolic routes leading to the formation of flavor compounds from leucine were successfully replicated. Novel reactions involved in flavor formation, i.e. the conversion of alpha-hydroxy-isocaproate to 3-methylbutanoic acid and the synthesis of dimethyl sulfide, as well as the involved enzymes were successfully predicted. These new insights into the flavor-formation mechanisms in LAB can have a significant impact on improving the control of aroma formation in fermented food products. Since the input reaction databases and compounds are highly flexible, the RPE approach can be easily extended to a broad spectrum of applications, amongst others health/disease biomarker discovery as well as synthetic biology.

  1. Proceedings of the international workshop on engineering design of next step reversed field pinch devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, D.B.

    1987-11-01

    These Proceedings contain the formal contributed papers, the workshop papers and workshop summaries presented at the International Workshop on Engineering Design of Next Step RFP Devices held at Los Alamos, July 13-17, 1987. Contributed papers were presented at formal sessions on the topics: (1) physics overview (3 papers); (2) general overview (3 papers); (3) front-end (9 papers); (4) computer control and data acquisition (1 paper); (5) magnetics (5 papers); and (6) electrical design (9 papers). Informal topical workshop sessions were held on the topics: (1) RFP physics (9 papers); (2) front-end (7 papers); (3) magnetics (3 papers); and (4) electrical design (1 paper). This volume contains the summaries written by the Chairmen of each of the informal topical workshop sessions. The papers in these Proceedings represent a significant review of the status of the technical base for the engineering design of the next step RFP devices being developed in the US, Europe, and Japan, as of this date

  2. Proceedings of the international workshop on engineering design of next step reversed field pinch devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, D.B. (comp.)

    1987-11-01

    These Proceedings contain the formal contributed papers, the workshop papers and workshop summaries presented at the International Workshop on Engineering Design of Next Step RFP Devices held at Los Alamos, July 13-17, 1987. Contributed papers were presented at formal sessions on the topics: (1) physics overview (3 papers); (2) general overview (3 papers); (3) front-end (9 papers); (4) computer control and data acquisition (1 paper); (5) magnetics (5 papers); and (6) electrical design (9 papers). Informal topical workshop sessions were held on the topics: (1) RFP physics (9 papers); (2) front-end (7 papers); (3) magnetics (3 papers); and (4) electrical design (1 paper). This volume contains the summaries written by the Chairmen of each of the informal topical workshop sessions. The papers in these Proceedings represent a significant review of the status of the technical base for the engineering design of the next step RFP devices being developed in the US, Europe, and Japan, as of this date.

  3. Accuracy of energy measurement and reversible operation of a microcanonical Szilard engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergli, Joakim

    2014-04-01

    In a recent paper [Vaikuntanathan and Jarzynski, Phys. Rev. E 83, 061120 (2011)], a model was introduced whereby work could be extracted from a thermal bath by measuring the energy of a particle that was thermalized by the bath and manipulating the potential of the particle in the appropriate way, depending on the measurement outcome. If the extracted work is Wextracted and the work Werasure needed to be dissipated in order to erase the measured information in accordance with Landauer's principle, it was shown that Wextracted≤Werasure in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics. Here we extend this work in two directions: First, we discuss how accurately the energy should be measured. By increasing the accuracy one can extract more work, but at the same time one obtains more information that has to be deleted. We discuss what are the appropriate ways of optimizing the balance between the two and find optimal solutions. Second, whenever Wextracted is strictly less than Werasure it means that an irreversible step has been performed. We identify the irreversible step and propose a protocol that will achieve the same transition in a reversible way, increasing Wextracted so that Wextracted=Werasure.

  4. Evolutionary optimization with data collocation for reverse engineering of biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kuan-Yao; Wang, Feng-Sheng

    2005-04-01

    Modern experimental biology is moving away from analyses of single elements to whole-organism measurements. Such measured time-course data contain a wealth of information about the structure and dynamic of the pathway or network. The dynamic modeling of the whole systems is formulated as a reverse problem that requires a well-suited mathematical model and a very efficient computational method to identify the model structure and parameters. Numerical integration for differential equations and finding global parameter values are still two major challenges in this field of the parameter estimation of nonlinear dynamic biological systems. We compare three techniques of parameter estimation for nonlinear dynamic biological systems. In the proposed scheme, the modified collocation method is applied to convert the differential equations to the system of algebraic equations. The observed time-course data are then substituted into the algebraic system equations to decouple system interactions in order to obtain the approximate model profiles. Hybrid differential evolution (HDE) with population size of five is able to find a global solution. The method is not only suited for parameter estimation but also can be applied for structure identification. The solution obtained by HDE is then used as the starting point for a local search method to yield the refined estimates.

  5. Linking Big and Small Data Across the Social, Engineering, and Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; de Sherbinin, A. M.; Levy, M. A.; Downs, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    The challenges of sustainable development cut across the social, health, ecological, engineering, and Earth sciences, across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, and across the spectrum from basic to applied research and decision making. The rapidly increasing availability of data and information in digital form from a variety of data repositories, networks, and other sources provides new opportunities to link and integrate both traditional data holdings as well as emerging "big data" resources in ways that enable interdisciplinary research and facilitate the use of objective scientific data and information in society. Taking advantage of these opportunities not only requires improved technical and scientific data interoperability across disciplines, scales, and data types, but also concerted efforts to bridge gaps and barriers between key communities, institutions, and networks. Given the long time perspectives required in planning sustainable approaches to development, it is also imperative to address user requirements for long-term data continuity and stewardship by trustworthy repositories. We report here on lessons learned by CIESIN working on a range of sustainable development issues to integrate data across multiple repositories and networks. This includes CIESIN's roles in developing policy-relevant climate and environmental indicators, soil data for African agriculture, and exposure and risk measures for hazards, disease, and conflict, as well as CIESIN's participation in a range of national and international initiatives related both to sustainable development and to open data access, interoperability, and stewardship.

  6. Promoting Wired Links in Wireless Mesh Networks: An Efficient Engineering Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barekatain, Behrang; Raahemifar, Kaamran; Ariza Quintana, Alfonso; Triviño Cabrera, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) cannot completely guarantee good performance of traffic sources such as video streaming. To improve the network performance, this study proposes an efficient engineering solution named Wireless-to-Ethernet-Mesh-Portal-Passageway (WEMPP) that allows effective use of wired communication in WMNs. WEMPP permits transmitting data through wired and stable paths even when the destination is in the same network as the source (Intra-traffic). Tested with four popular routing protocols (Optimized Link State Routing or OLSR as a proactive protocol, Dynamic MANET On-demand or DYMO as a reactive protocol, DYMO with spanning tree ability and HWMP), WEMPP considerably decreases the end-to-end delay, jitter, contentions and interferences on nodes, even when the network size or density varies. WEMPP is also cost-effective and increases the network throughput. Moreover, in contrast to solutions proposed by previous studies, WEMPP is easily implemented by modifying the firmware of the actual Ethernet hardware without altering the routing protocols and/or the functionality of the IP/MAC/Upper layers. In fact, there is no need for modifying the functionalities of other mesh components in order to work with WEMPPs. The results of this study show that WEMPP significantly increases the performance of all routing protocols, thus leading to better video quality on nodes. PMID:25793516

  7. Improvement of handle grip using reverse engineering, CAE and Rapid Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoklasek Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The overwhelming majority of manual operations is even nowadays performed by using manual hand tools. These tools can be divided into 2 groups – hand tools designed for general use or a single-purpose hand tools for special operations. Tool described in this paper is used in assembling operation in the completion of electric motor. During the design of the existing tools the requirements for a functional part of the tool (lifespan, inability to damage the engine installation were fully considered, demands for ergonomic grip area, however, were not taken into account. Long-term use of incorrectly designed tool causes carpal tunnel syndrome, hand-arm vibration syndrome, diminished sensitivity or tingling in the fingers of workers. These difficulties can be reduced or entirely eliminated due to proper design of the grip of hand tool. Most authors focus on adjusting the grip for optimum ergonomics at individual types of grips (cylindrical, palmar, lateral, etc.. However, as already mentioned, there are tools for specific operations when the working area is limited by space or a specific type of load on the grip is needed. In some cases, it is often necessary to change the type of grip or combine different types of grips. This paper describes the design of an optimal grip of hand tool used for specific operation when assembling motors. Design of prototype mold and production of functional prototypes for ergonomics assessment directly in the workplace were realized. New design of handle should reduce the risk primarily of developing carpal tunnel in long-term use.

  8. Evaluation of a Commercial Tractor Safety Monitoring System Using a Reverse Engineering Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Camilla; Martelli, Roberta; Rondelli, Valda

    2016-10-17

    There is a high rate of work-related deaths in agriculture. In Italy, despite the obligato-ry installation of ROPS, fatal accidents involving tractors represent more than 40% of work-related deaths in agriculture. As death is often due to an overturn that the driver is incapable of predicting, driver assistance devices that can signal critical stability conditions have been studied and marketed to prevent accidents. These devices measure the working parameters of the tractor through sensors and elaborate the values using an algorithm that, taking into account the geometric characteristics of the tractor, pro-vides a risk index based on models elaborated on a theoretical basis. This research aimed to verify one of these stability indexes in the field, using a commercial driver as-sistance device to monitor five tractors on the University of Bologna experimental farm. The setup of the device involved determining the coordinates of the center of gravity of the tractor and the implement mounted on the tractor. The analysis of the stability in-dex, limited to events with a significant risk level, revealed a clear separation into two groups: events with high values of roll or pitch and low speeds, typical of a tractor when working, and events with low values of roll and pitch and high steering angle and forward speed, typical of travel on the road. The equation for calculating the critical speed when turning provided a significant contribution only for events that were typi-cal of travel rather than field work, suggesting a diversified calculation approach ac-cording to the work phase. Copyright© by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

  9. Performance of Reverse-Link Synchronous DS-CDMA System on a Frequency-Selective Multipath Fading Channel with Imperfect Power Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duk Kyung Kim

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the performance for reverse-link synchronous DS-CDMA system in a frequency-selective Rayleigh fading channel with an imperfect power control scheme. The performance degradation due to power control error (PCE, which is approximated by a log-normally distributed random variable, is estimated as a function of the standard deviation of the PCE. In addition, we investigate the impacts of the multipath intensity profile (MIP shape and the number of resolvable paths on the performance. Finally, the coded bit error performance is evaluated in order to estimate the system capacity. Comparing with the conventional CDMA system, we show an achievable gain of from 59% to 23% for reverse-link synchronous transmission technique (RLSTT in the presence of imperfect power control over asynchronous transmission for BER=10−6. As well, the effect of tradeoff between orthogonality and diversity can be seen according to the number of multipaths, and the tendency is kept even in the presence of PCE. We conclude that the capacity can be further improved via the RLSTT, because the DS-CDMA system is very sensitive to power control imperfections.

  10. Sex Reversal and Comparative Data Undermine the W Chromosome and Support Z-linked DMRT1 as the Regulator of Gonadal Sex Differentiation in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Claire E; Major, Andrew T; Ayers, Katie L; Brown, Rosie J; Mariette, Mylene; Sackton, Timothy B; Smith, Craig A

    2017-09-01

    The exact genetic mechanism regulating avian gonadal sex differentiation has not been completely resolved. The most likely scenario involves a dosage mechanism, whereby the Z-linked DMRT1 gene triggers testis development. However, the possibility still exists that the female-specific W chromosome may harbor an ovarian determining factor. In this study, we provide evidence that the universal gene regulating gonadal sex differentiation in birds is Z-linked DMRT1 and not a W-linked (ovarian) factor. Three candidate W-linked ovarian determinants are HINTW, female-expressed transcript 1 (FET1), and female-associated factor (FAF). To test the association of these genes with ovarian differentiation in the chicken, we examined their expression following experimentally induced female-to-male sex reversal using the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole (FAD). Administration of FAD on day 3 of embryogenesis induced a significant loss of aromatase enzyme activity in female gonads and masculinization. However, expression levels of HINTW, FAF, and FET1 were unaltered after experimental masculinization. Furthermore, comparative analysis showed that FAF and FET1 expression could not be detected in zebra finch gonads. Additionally, an antibody raised against the predicted HINTW protein failed to detect it endogenously. These data do not support a universal role for these genes or for the W sex chromosome in ovarian development in birds. We found that DMRT1 (but not the recently identified Z-linked HEMGN gene) is male upregulated in embryonic zebra finch and emu gonads, as in the chicken. As chicken, zebra finch, and emu exemplify the major evolutionary clades of birds, we propose that Z-linked DMRT1, and not the W sex chromosome, regulates gonadal sex differentiation in birds. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  11. Reverse engineering of fluid selection for thermodynamic cycles with cubic equations of state, using a compression heat pump as example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roskosch, Dennis; Atakan, Burak

    2015-01-01

    Fluid selection for thermodynamic cycles like refrigeration cycles, heat pumps or organic Rankine cycles remains an actual topic. Generally the search for a working fluid is based on experimental approaches or on a not very systematic trial and error approach, far from being elegant. An alternative method may be a theory based reverse engineering approach, proposed and investigated here: The design process should start with an optimal process and with (abstract) properties of the fluid needed to fit into this optimal process, best described by some general equation of state and the corresponding fluid-describing parameters. These should be analyzed and optimized with respect to the defined model process, which also has to be optimized simultaneously. From this information real fluids can be selected or even synthesized which have fluid defining properties in the optimum regime like critical temperature or ideal gas capacities of heat, allowing to find new working fluids, not considered so far. The number and kind of the fluid-defining parameters is mainly based on the choice of the used EOS (equation of state). The property model used in the present work is based on the cubic Peng–Robinson equation, chosen due to its moderate numerical expense, sufficient accuracy as well as a general availability of the fluid-defining parameters for many compounds. The considered model-process works between the temperature levels of 273.15 and 333.15 K and can be used as heat pump for supplying buildings with heat, typically. The objective functions are the COP (coefficient of performance) and the VHC (volumetric heating capacity) as a function of critical pressure, critical temperature, acentric factor and two coefficients for the temperature-dependent isobaric ideal gas heat capacity. Also, the steam quality at the compressor entrance has to be regarded as a problem variable. The results give clear hints regarding optimal fluid parameters of the analyzed process and deepen

  12. An Evaluation of Active Learning Causal Discovery Methods for Reverse-Engineering Local Causal Pathways of Gene Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sisi; Kemmeren, Patrick; Aliferis, Constantin F.; Statnikov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Reverse-engineering of causal pathways that implicate diseases and vital cellular functions is a fundamental problem in biomedicine. Discovery of the local causal pathway of a target variable (that consists of its direct causes and direct effects) is essential for effective intervention and can facilitate accurate diagnosis and prognosis. Recent research has provided several active learning methods that can leverage passively observed high-throughput data to draft causal pathways and then refine the inferred relations with a limited number of experiments. The current study provides a comprehensive evaluation of the performance of active learning methods for local causal pathway discovery in real biological data. Specifically, 54 active learning methods/variants from 3 families of algorithms were applied for local causal pathways reconstruction of gene regulation for 5 transcription factors in S. cerevisiae. Four aspects of the methods’ performance were assessed, including adjacency discovery quality, edge orientation accuracy, complete pathway discovery quality, and experimental cost. The results of this study show that some methods provide significant performance benefits over others and therefore should be routinely used for local causal pathway discovery tasks. This study also demonstrates the feasibility of local causal pathway reconstruction in real biological systems with significant quality and low experimental cost. PMID:26939894

  13. Reverse Engineering Tone-Deafness: Disrupting Pitch-Matching by Creating Temporary Dysfunctions in the Auditory-Motor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Hohmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Perceiving and producing vocal sounds are important functions of the auditory-motor system and are fundamental to communication. Prior studies have identified a network of brain regions involved in pitch production, specifically pitch matching. Here we reverse engineer the function of the auditory perception-production network by targeting specific cortical regions (e.g., right and left posterior superior temporal (pSTG and posterior inferior frontal gyri (pIFG with cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS—commonly found to decrease excitability in the underlying cortical region—allowing us to causally test the role of particular nodes in this network. Performance on a pitch-matching task was determined before and after 20 min of cathodal stimulation. Acoustic analyses of pitch productions showed impaired accuracy after cathodal stimulation to the left pIFG and the right pSTG in comparison to sham stimulation. Both regions share particular roles in the feedback and feedforward motor control of pitched vocal production with a differential hemispheric dominance.

  14. Reverse engineering of TLX oncogenic transcriptional networks identifies RUNX1 as tumor suppressor in T-ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Gatta, Giusy; Palomero, Teresa; Perez-Garcia, Arianne; Ambesi-Impiombato, Alberto; Bansal, Mukesh; Carpenter, Zachary W; De Keersmaecker, Kim; Sole, Xavier; Xu, Luyao; Paietta, Elisabeth; Racevskis, Janis; Wiernik, Peter H; Rowe, Jacob M; Meijerink, Jules P; Califano, Andrea; Ferrando, Adolfo A

    2012-02-26

    The TLX1 and TLX3 transcription factor oncogenes have a key role in the pathogenesis of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Here we used reverse engineering of global transcriptional networks to decipher the oncogenic regulatory circuit controlled by TLX1 and TLX3. This systems biology analysis defined T cell leukemia homeobox 1 (TLX1) and TLX3 as master regulators of an oncogenic transcriptional circuit governing T-ALL. Notably, a network structure analysis of this hierarchical network identified RUNX1 as a key mediator of the T-ALL induced by TLX1 and TLX3 and predicted a tumor-suppressor role for RUNX1 in T cell transformation. Consistent with these results, we identified recurrent somatic loss-of-function mutations in RUNX1 in human T-ALL. Overall, these results place TLX1 and TLX3 at the top of an oncogenic transcriptional network controlling leukemia development, show the power of network analyses to identify key elements in the regulatory circuits governing human cancer and identify RUNX1 as a tumor-suppressor gene in T-ALL.

  15. Gas engine driven reversible heat pumps: Innovative design. Realizzazione di una pompa di calore reversibile azionata da motore a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canci, F.; Zecchin, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a series of gas engine driven air-water compression heat pumps designed for reversible summer-winter operation. The development work was carried out within the framework of a joint venture combing the efforts of the Italian Gas Society, Natural Gas of Barcellona and Climaveneta of Vicenza (Italy), who acted as the heat pump constructor. The main objective of this venture was to develop a series of machines that would be suitable for the contemporaneous summer air conditioning and winter space heating of medium-sized buildings. The designs were optimized to allow cost and energy savings with respect to conventional equipment. The useful cooling power range of the innovative heat pump systems goes from 100 to 250 kW thus giving them the flexibility not yet afforded by conventional equipment currently sold on international markets. In addition to pointing out the new heat pumps' main design and performance features, this paper suggests some feasible applications.

  16. Reverse Engineering Applied to Red Human Hair Pheomelanin Reveals Redox-Buffering as a Pro-Oxidant Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunkyoung; Panzella, Lucia; Micillo, Raffaella; Bentley, William E.; Napolitano, Alessandra; Payne, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    Pheomelanin has been implicated in the increased susceptibility to UV-induced melanoma for people with light skin and red hair. Recent studies identified a UV-independent pathway to melanoma carcinogenesis and implicated pheomelanin’s pro-oxidant properties that act through the generation of reactive oxygen species and/or the depletion of cellular antioxidants. Here, we applied an electrochemically-based reverse engineering methodology to compare the redox properties of human hair pheomelanin with model synthetic pigments and natural eumelanin. This methodology exposes the insoluble melanin samples to complex potential (voltage) inputs and measures output response characteristics to assess redox activities. The results demonstrate that both eumelanin and pheomelanin are redox-active, they can rapidly (sec-min) and repeatedly redox-cycle between oxidized and reduced states, and pheomelanin possesses a more oxidative redox potential. This study suggests that pheomelanin’s redox-based pro-oxidant activity may contribute to sustaining a chronic oxidative stress condition through a redox-buffering mechanism. PMID:26669666

  17. Combining selected immunomodulatory Propionibacterium freudenreichii and Lactobacillus delbrueckii strains: Reverse engineering development of an anti-inflammatory cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plé, Coline; Breton, Jérôme; Richoux, Romain; Nurdin, Marine; Deutsch, Stéphanie-Marie; Falentin, Hélène; Hervé, Christophe; Chuat, Victoria; Lemée, Riwanon; Maguin, Emmanuelle; Jan, Gwénaël; Van de Guchte, Maarten; Foligné, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) constitutes a growing public health concern in western countries. Bacteria with anti-inflammatory properties are lacking in the dysbiosis accompanying IBD. Selected strains of probiotic bacteria with anti-inflammatory properties accordingly alleviate symptoms and enhance treatment of ulcerative colitis in clinical trials. Such properties are also found in selected strains of dairy starters such as Propionibacterium freudenreichii and Lactobacillus delbrueckii (Ld). We thus investigated the possibility to develop a fermented dairy product, combining both starter and probiotic abilities of both lactic acid and propionic acid bacteria, designed to extend remissions in IBD patients. We developed a single-strain Ld-fermented milk and a two-strain P. freudenreichii and Ld-fermented experimental pressed cheese using strains previously selected for their anti-inflammatory properties. Consumption of these experimental fermented dairy products protected mice against trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid induced colitis, alleviating severity of symptoms, modulating local and systemic inflammation, as well as colonic oxidative stress and epithelial cell damages. As a control, the corresponding sterile dairy matrix failed to afford such protection. This work reveals the probiotic potential of this bacterial mixture, in the context of fermented dairy products. It opens new perspectives for the reverse engineering development of anti-inflammatory fermented foods designed for target populations with IBD, and has provided evidences leading to an ongoing pilot clinical study in ulcerative colitis patients. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. A Combined Antenna Arrays and Reverse-Link Synchronous DS-CDMA System over Frequency-Selective Fading Channels with Power Control Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Seok Kim

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available An improved antenna array (AA has been introduced, in which reverse-link synchronous transmission technique (RLSTT is incorporated to effectively make better an estimation of covariance matrices at a beamformer-RAKE receiver. While RLSTT is effective in the first finger at the RAKE receiver in order to reject multiple-access interference (MAI, the beamformer estimates the desired user's complex weights, enhancing its signal and reducing cochannel interference (CCI from the other directions. In this work, it is attempted to provide a comprehensive analysis of user capacity which reflects several important factors such as the shape of multipath intensity profile (MIP, the number of antennas, and power control error (PCE. Theoretical analysis, confirmed by the simulations, demonstrates that the orthogonality provided by employing RLSTT along with AA may make the DS-CDMA system insensitive to the PCE even with fewer numbers of antennas.

  19. Reversible and Selective Encapsulation of Dextromethorphan and β-Estradiol Using an Asymmetric Molecular Capsule Assembled via the Weak-Link Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Arroyo, Jose; d'Aquino, Andrea I; Chinen, Alyssa B; Manraj, Yashin D; Mirkin, Chad A

    2017-02-01

    An allosterically regulated, asymmetric receptor featuring a binding cavity large enough to accommodate three-dimensional pharmaceutical guest molecules as opposed to planar, rigid aromatics, was synthesized via the Weak-Link Approach. This architecture is capable of switching between an expanded, flexible "open" configuration and a collapsed, rigid "closed" one. The structure of the molecular receptor can be completely modulated in situ through the use of simple ionic effectors, which reversibly control the coordination state of the Pt(II) metal hinges to open and close the molecular receptor. The substantial change in binding cavity size and electrostatic charge between the two configurations is used to explore the capture and release of two guest molecules, dextromethorphan and β-estradiol, which are widely found as pollutants in groundwater.

  20. Gravity-driven membrane filtration as pretreatment for seawater reverse osmosis: linking biofouling layer morphology with flux stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondi, Ebrahim; Wu, Bing; Sun, Shuyang; Marxer, Brigit; Lim, Weikang; Gu, Jun; Liu, Linbo; Burkhardt, Michael; McDougald, Diane; Pronk, Wouter; Fane, Anthony G

    2015-03-01

    In this study gravity-driven membrane (GDM) ultrafiltration is investigated for the pretreatment of seawater before reverse osmosis (RO). The impacts of temperature (21 ± 1 and 29 ± 1 °C) and hydrostatic pressure (40 and 100 mbar) on dynamic flux development and biofouling layer structure were studied. The data suggested pore constriction fouling was predominant at the early stage of filtration, during which the hydrostatic pressure and temperature had negligible effects on permeate flux. With extended filtration time, cake layer fouling played a major role, during which higher hydrostatic pressure and temperature improved permeate flux. The permeate flux stabilized in a range of 3.6 L/m(2) h (21 ± 1 °C, 40 mbar) to 7.3 L/m(2) h (29 ± 1 °C, 100 mbar) after slight fluctuations and remained constant for the duration of the experiments (almost 3 months). An increase in biofouling layer thickness and a variable biofouling layer structure were observed over time by optical coherence tomography and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The presence of eukaryotic organisms in the biofouling layer was observed by light microscopy and the microbial community structure of the biofouling layer was analyzed by sequences of 16S rRNA genes. The magnitude of permeate flux was associated with the combined effect of the biofouling layer thickness and structure. Changes in the biofouling layer structure were attributed to (1) the movement and predation behaviour of the eukaryotic organisms which increased the heterogeneous nature of the biofouling layer; (2) the bacterial debris generated by eukaryotic predation activity which reduced porosity; (3) significant shifts of the dominant bacterial species over time that may have influenced the biofouling layer structure. As expected, most of the particles and colloids in the feed seawater were removed by the GDM process, which led to a lower RO fouling potential. However, the dissolved organic carbon in the

  1. Analysis and metabolic engineering of lipid-linked oligosaccharides in glycosylation-deficient CHO cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Meredith B.; Tomiya, Noboru; Betenbaugh, Michael J.; Krag, Sharon S.

    2010-01-01

    Glycosylation-deficient Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines can be used to expand our understanding of N-glycosylation pathways and to study Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation, diseases caused by defects in the synthesis of N-glycans. The mammalian N-glycosylation pathway involves the step-wise assembly of sugars onto a dolichol phosphate (P-Dol) carrier, forming a lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO), followed by the transfer of the completed oligosaccharide onto the protein of interest. In order to better understand how deficiencies in this pathway affect the availability of the completed LLO donor for use in N-glycosylation, we used a non-radioactive, HPLC-based assay to examine the intermediates in the LLO synthesis pathway for CHO-K1 cells and for three different glycosylation-deficient CHO cell lines. B4-2-1 cells, which have a mutation in the dolichol phosphate-mannose synthase (DPM2) gene, accumulated LLO with the structure Man 5 GlcNAc 2 -P-P-Dol, while MI8-5 cells, which lack glucosyltransferase I (ALG6) activity, accumulated Man 9 GlcNAc 2 -P-P-Dol. CHO-K1 and MI5-4 cells both produced primarily the complete LLO, Glc 3 Man 9 GlcNAc 2 -P-P-Dol, though the relative quantity was lower in MI5-4. MI5-4 cells have reduced hexokinase activity which could affect the availability of many of the substrates required for LLO synthesis and, consequently, impair production of the final LLO donor. Increasing hexokinase activity by overexpressing hexokinase II in MI5-4 caused a decrease in the relative quantities of the incomplete LLO intermediates from Man 5 GlcNAc 2 -PP-Dol through Glc 1 Man 9 GlcNAc 2 -PP-Dol, and an increase in the relative quantity of the final LLO donor, Glc 3 Man 9 GlcNAc 2 -P-P-Dol. This study suggests that metabolic engineering may be a useful strategy for improving LLO availability for use in N-glycosylation.

  2. Analysis and metabolic engineering of lipid-linked oligosaccharides in glycosylation-deficient CHO cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Meredith B., E-mail: mbauman7@jhu.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Maryland Hall 221, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Tomiya, Noboru, E-mail: ntomiya1@jhu.edu [Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Mudd Hall 104A, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Betenbaugh, Michael J., E-mail: beten@jhu.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Maryland Hall 221, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Krag, Sharon S., E-mail: skrag@jhsph.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2010-04-23

    Glycosylation-deficient Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines can be used to expand our understanding of N-glycosylation pathways and to study Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation, diseases caused by defects in the synthesis of N-glycans. The mammalian N-glycosylation pathway involves the step-wise assembly of sugars onto a dolichol phosphate (P-Dol) carrier, forming a lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO), followed by the transfer of the completed oligosaccharide onto the protein of interest. In order to better understand how deficiencies in this pathway affect the availability of the completed LLO donor for use in N-glycosylation, we used a non-radioactive, HPLC-based assay to examine the intermediates in the LLO synthesis pathway for CHO-K1 cells and for three different glycosylation-deficient CHO cell lines. B4-2-1 cells, which have a mutation in the dolichol phosphate-mannose synthase (DPM2) gene, accumulated LLO with the structure Man{sub 5}GlcNAc{sub 2}-P-P-Dol, while MI8-5 cells, which lack glucosyltransferase I (ALG6) activity, accumulated Man{sub 9}GlcNAc{sub 2}-P-P-Dol. CHO-K1 and MI5-4 cells both produced primarily the complete LLO, Glc{sub 3}Man{sub 9}GlcNAc{sub 2}-P-P-Dol, though the relative quantity was lower in MI5-4. MI5-4 cells have reduced hexokinase activity which could affect the availability of many of the substrates required for LLO synthesis and, consequently, impair production of the final LLO donor. Increasing hexokinase activity by overexpressing hexokinase II in MI5-4 caused a decrease in the relative quantities of the incomplete LLO intermediates from Man{sub 5}GlcNAc{sub 2}-PP-Dol through Glc{sub 1}Man{sub 9}GlcNAc{sub 2}-PP-Dol, and an increase in the relative quantity of the final LLO donor, Glc{sub 3}Man{sub 9}GlcNAc{sub 2}-P-P-Dol. This study suggests that metabolic engineering may be a useful strategy for improving LLO availability for use in N-glycosylation.

  3. Red Phosphorus-Embedded Cross-Link-Structural Carbon Films as Flexible Anodes for Highly Reversible Li-Ion Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, Jiafeng [School of Materials; Yuan, Tao [School of Materials; Pang, Yuepeng [School of Materials; Xu, Xinbo [School of Materials; Yang, Junhe [School of Materials; Hu, Wenbin; Zhong, Cheng; Ma, Zi-Feng [Shanghai Electrochemical Energy Devices Research Center,; Bi, Xuanxuan [Chemical; Zheng, Shiyou [School of Materials

    2017-10-06

    Red phosphorus (P) is considered to be one of the most attractive anodic materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to its high theoretical capacity of 2596 mAh g–1. However, intrinsic characteristics such as the poor electronic conductivity and large volume expansion at lithiation impede the development of red P. Here, we design a new strategy to embed red P particles into a cross-link-structural carbon film (P–C film), in order to improve the electronic conductivity and accommodate the volume expansion. The red P/carbon film is synthesized via vapor phase polymerization (VPP) followed by the pyrolysis process, working as a flexible binder-free anode for LIBs. High cycle stability and good rate capability are achieved by the P–C film anode. With 21% P content in the film, it displays a capacity of 903 mAh g–1 after 640 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g–1 and a capacity of 460 mAh g–1 after 1000 cycles at 2.0 A g–1. Additionally, the Coulombic efficiency reaches almost 100% for each cycle. The superior properties of the P–C films together with their facile fabrication make this material attractive for further flexible and high energy density LIB applications.

  4. Development and evaluation of a digital dental modeling method based on grating projection and reverse engineering software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qin; Wang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Jun; Song, Jun; Chen, Lu; Lu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    For reasons of convenience and economy, attempts have been made to transform traditional dental gypsum casts into 3-dimensional (3D) digital casts. Different scanning devices have been developed to generate digital casts; however, each has its own limitations and disadvantages. The purpose of this study was to develop an advanced method for the 3D reproduction of dental casts by using a high-speed grating projection system and noncontact reverse engineering (RE) software and to evaluate the accuracy of the method. The methods consisted of 3 main steps: the scanning and acquisition of 3D dental cast data with a high-resolution grating projection system, the reconstruction and measurement of digital casts with RE software, and the evaluation of the accuracy of this method using 20 dental gypsum casts. The common anatomic landmarks were measured directly on the gypsum casts with a Vernier caliper and on the 3D digital casts with the Geomagic software measurement tool. Data were statistically assessed with the t test. The grating projection system had a rapid scanning speed, and smooth 3D dental casts were obtained. The mean differences between the gypsum and 3D measurements were approximately 0.05 mm, and no statistically significant differences were found between the 2 methods (P>.05), except for the measurements of the incisor tooth width and maxillary arch length. A method for the 3D reconstruction of dental casts was developed by using a grating projection system and RE software. The accuracy of the casts generated using the grating projection system was comparable with that of the gypsum casts. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Electrochemical reverse engineering: A systems-level tool to probe the redox-based molecular communication of biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinyang; Liu, Yi; Kim, Eunkyoung; March, John C; Bentley, William E; Payne, Gregory F

    2017-04-01

    The intestine is the site of digestion and forms a critical interface between the host and the outside world. This interface is composed of host epithelium and a complex microbiota which is "connected" through an extensive web of chemical and biological interactions that determine the balance between health and disease for the host. This biology and the associated chemical dialogues occur within a context of a steep oxygen gradient that provides the driving force for a variety of reduction and oxidation (redox) reactions. While some redox couples (e.g., catecholics) can spontaneously exchange electrons, many others are kinetically "insulated" (e.g., biothiols) allowing the biology to set and control their redox states far from equilibrium. It is well known that within cells, such non-equilibrated redox couples are poised to transfer electrons to perform reactions essential to immune defense (e.g., transfer from NADH to O 2 for reactive oxygen species, ROS, generation) and protection from such oxidative stresses (e.g., glutathione-based reduction of ROS). More recently, it has been recognized that some of these redox-active species (e.g., H 2 O 2 ) cross membranes and diffuse into the extracellular environment including lumen to transmit redox information that is received by atomically-specific receptors (e.g., cysteine-based sulfur switches) that regulate biological functions. Thus, redox has emerged as an important modality in the chemical signaling that occurs in the intestine and there have been emerging efforts to develop the experimental tools needed to probe this modality. We suggest that electrochemistry provides a unique tool to experimentally probe redox interactions at a systems level. Importantly, electrochemistry offers the potential to enlist the extensive theories established in signal processing in an effort to "reverse engineer" the molecular communication occurring in this complex biological system. Here, we review our efforts to develop this

  6. Reverse engineering of modified genes by Bayesian network analysis defines molecular determinants critical to the development of glioblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W Kunkle

    Full Text Available In this study we have identified key genes that are critical in development of astrocytic tumors. Meta-analysis of microarray studies which compared normal tissue to astrocytoma revealed a set of 646 differentially expressed genes in the majority of astrocytoma. Reverse engineering of these 646 genes using Bayesian network analysis produced a gene network for each grade of astrocytoma (Grade I-IV, and 'key genes' within each grade were identified. Genes found to be most influential to development of the highest grade of astrocytoma, Glioblastoma multiforme were: COL4A1, EGFR, BTF3, MPP2, RAB31, CDK4, CD99, ANXA2, TOP2A, and SERBP1. All of these genes were up-regulated, except MPP2 (down regulated. These 10 genes were able to predict tumor status with 96-100% confidence when using logistic regression, cross validation, and the support vector machine analysis. Markov genes interact with NFkβ, ERK, MAPK, VEGF, growth hormone and collagen to produce a network whose top biological functions are cancer, neurological disease, and cellular movement. Three of the 10 genes - EGFR, COL4A1, and CDK4, in particular, seemed to be potential 'hubs of activity'. Modified expression of these 10 Markov Blanket genes increases lifetime risk of developing glioblastoma compared to the normal population. The glioblastoma risk estimates were dramatically increased with joint effects of 4 or more than 4 Markov Blanket genes. Joint interaction effects of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10 Markov Blanket genes produced 9, 13, 20.9, 26.7, 52.8, 53.2, 78.1 or 85.9%, respectively, increase in lifetime risk of developing glioblastoma compared to normal population. In summary, it appears that modified expression of several 'key genes' may be required for the development of glioblastoma. Further studies are needed to validate these 'key genes' as useful tools for early detection and novel therapeutic options for these tumors.

  7. Use of single-representative reverse-engineered surface-models for RSA does not affect measurement accuracy and precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seehaus, Frank; Schwarze, Michael; Flörkemeier, Thilo; von Lewinski, Gabriela; Kaptein, Bart L; Jakubowitz, Eike; Hurschler, Christof

    2016-05-01

    Implant migration can be accurately quantified by model-based Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA), using an implant surface model to locate the implant relative to the bone. In a clinical situation, a single reverse engineering (RE) model for each implant type and size is used. It is unclear to what extent the accuracy and precision of migration measurement is affected by implant manufacturing variability unaccounted for by a single representative model. Individual RE models were generated for five short-stem hip implants of the same type and size. Two phantom analyses and one clinical analysis were performed: "Accuracy-matched models": one stem was assessed, and the results from the original RE model were compared with randomly selected models. "Accuracy-random model": each of the five stems was assessed and analyzed using one randomly selected RE model. "Precision-clinical setting": implant migration was calculated for eight patients, and all five available RE models were applied to each case. For the two phantom experiments, the 95%CI of the bias ranged from -0.28 mm to 0.30 mm for translation and -2.3° to 2.5° for rotation. In the clinical setting, precision is less than 0.5 mm and 1.2° for translation and rotation, respectively, except for rotations about the proximodistal axis (RSA can be achieved and are not biased by using a single representative RE model. At least for implants similar in shape to the investigated short-stem, individual models are not necessary. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:903-910, 2016. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Linked-Class Problem-Based Learning in Engineering: Method and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Emily M.; Lockwood-Cooke, Pamela; Kelley, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is a problem-centered teaching method with exciting potential in engineering education for motivating and enhancing student learning. Implementation of PBL in engineering education has the potential to bridge the gap between theory and practice. Two common problems are encountered when attempting to integrate PBL into…

  9. Informing via Research: Methods, Challenges and Success when Using a Multi-Disciplinary Team and Reverse Engineering Analysis Processes to Answer a 200 Year Old Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda H. Connor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to develop the foundation for the creation of a 21st century spiritual which could be used to mitigate the effects of stress and violence. Using a multi-disciplinary team and basing the work in the music of the antebellum Negro Spiritual (a group of 6000 works, reverse engineering, extensive use of engineering principles and utilization of existing databases was done to aid in the analysis of the neurological and physiological impact of the musical form and development of an applicable theory.

  10. System of systems engineering - the link between operational needs and system requirements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, CJ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, defence capability development practices have moved towards approaches that include capability based planning and traditional systems engineering methodologies. Internationally, defence force capability development efforts struggle...

  11. Reverse Engineering of Modified Genes by Bayesian Network Analysis Defines Molecular Determinants Critical to the Development of Glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkle, Brian W.; Yoo, Changwon; Roy, Deodutta

    2013-01-01

    In this study we have identified key genes that are critical in development of astrocytic tumors. Meta-analysis of microarray studies which compared normal tissue to astrocytoma revealed a set of 646 differentially expressed genes in the majority of astrocytoma. Reverse engineering of these 646 genes using Bayesian network analysis produced a gene network for each grade of astrocytoma (Grade I–IV), and ‘key genes’ within each grade were identified. Genes found to be most influential to development of the highest grade of astrocytoma, Glioblastoma multiforme were: COL4A1, EGFR, BTF3, MPP2, RAB31, CDK4, CD99, ANXA2, TOP2A, and SERBP1. All of these genes were up-regulated, except MPP2 (down regulated). These 10 genes were able to predict tumor status with 96–100% confidence when using logistic regression, cross validation, and the support vector machine analysis. Markov genes interact with NFkβ, ERK, MAPK, VEGF, growth hormone and collagen to produce a network whose top biological functions are cancer, neurological disease, and cellular movement. Three of the 10 genes - EGFR, COL4A1, and CDK4, in particular, seemed to be potential ‘hubs of activity’. Modified expression of these 10 Markov Blanket genes increases lifetime risk of developing glioblastoma compared to the normal population. The glioblastoma risk estimates were dramatically increased with joint effects of 4 or more than 4 Markov Blanket genes. Joint interaction effects of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10 Markov Blanket genes produced 9, 13, 20.9, 26.7, 52.8, 53.2, 78.1 or 85.9%, respectively, increase in lifetime risk of developing glioblastoma compared to normal population. In summary, it appears that modified expression of several ‘key genes’ may be required for the development of glioblastoma. Further studies are needed to validate these ‘key genes’ as useful tools for early detection and novel therapeutic options for these tumors. PMID:23737970

  12. Effects of alginate hydrogel cross-linking density on mechanical and biological behaviors for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jinah; Seol, Young-Joon; Kim, Hyeon Ji; Kundu, Joydip; Kim, Sung Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2014-09-01

    An effective cross-linking of alginate gel was made through reaction with calcium carbonate (CaCO3). We used human chondrocytes as a model cell to study the effects of cross-linking density. Three different pore size ranges of cross-linked alginate hydrogels were fabricated. The morphological, mechanical, and rheological properties of various alginate hydrogels were characterized and responses of biosynthesis of cells encapsulated in each gel to the variation in cross-linking density were investigated. Desired outer shape of structure was maintained when the alginate solution was cross-linked with the applied method. The properties of alginate hydrogel could be tailored through applying various concentrations of CaCO3. The rate of synthesized GAGs and collagens was significantly higher in human chondrocytes encapsulated in the smaller pore structure than that in the larger pore structure. The expression of chondrogenic markers, including collagen type II and aggrecan, was enhanced in the smaller pore structure. It was found that proper structural morphology is a critical factor to enhance the performance and tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biomimetic acellular detoxified glutaraldehyde cross-linked bovine pericardium for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathapati, Santosh; Bishi, Dillip Kumar; Guhathakurta, Soma; Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Verma, Rama Shanker

    2013-01-01

    Glutaraldehyde (GLUT) processing, cellular antigens, calcium ions in circulation, and phospholipids present in the native tissue are predominantly responsible for calcification, degeneration, and lack of natural microenvironment for host progenitor cell migration in tissue implants. The study presents an improved methodology for adhesion and proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) without significant changes in biomechanical and biodegradation properties of the processed acellular bovine pericardium. The anti-calcification potential of the processed tissue was enhanced by detoxification of GLUT-cross-linked bovine pericardium by decellularization, pretreating it with ethanol or removing the free aldehydes by citric acid treatment and lyophilization. The treated tissues were assessed for biomechanical properties, GLUT ligand quantification, adhesion, proliferation of EPCs, and biodegradability. The results indicate that there was no significant change in biomechanical properties and biodegradability when enzymatic hydrolysis (p > 0.05) is employed in detoxified acellular GLUT cross-linked tissue (DBP–G–CA–ET), compared with the native detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (NBP–G–CA–ET). DBP–G–CA–ET exhibited a significant (p > 0.05) increase in the viability of EPCs and cell adhesion as compared to acellular GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (p < 0.05). Lyophilized acellular detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, employed in our study as an alternative to conventional GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, might provide longer durability and better biocompatibility, and reduce calcification. The developed bovine pericardium patches could be used in cardiac reconstruction and repair, arteriotomy, soft tissue repair, and general surgical procedures with tissue regeneration dimensions. - Highlights: ► We improved the quality of patch biomaterial for cardiovascular surgical procedures. ► Bovine pericardium was

  14. Biomimetic acellular detoxified glutaraldehyde cross-linked bovine pericardium for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathapati, Santosh; Bishi, Dillip Kumar [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Frontier Lifeline Pvt Ltd. and Dr. K. M. Cherian Heart Foundation, Mogappair, Chennai (India); Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Guhathakurta, Soma [Departmet of Engineering Design, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen [Frontier Lifeline Pvt Ltd. and Dr. K. M. Cherian Heart Foundation, Mogappair, Chennai (India); Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Ramakrishna, Seeram [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Verma, Rama Shanker, E-mail: vermars@iitm.ac.in [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India)

    2013-04-01

    Glutaraldehyde (GLUT) processing, cellular antigens, calcium ions in circulation, and phospholipids present in the native tissue are predominantly responsible for calcification, degeneration, and lack of natural microenvironment for host progenitor cell migration in tissue implants. The study presents an improved methodology for adhesion and proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) without significant changes in biomechanical and biodegradation properties of the processed acellular bovine pericardium. The anti-calcification potential of the processed tissue was enhanced by detoxification of GLUT-cross-linked bovine pericardium by decellularization, pretreating it with ethanol or removing the free aldehydes by citric acid treatment and lyophilization. The treated tissues were assessed for biomechanical properties, GLUT ligand quantification, adhesion, proliferation of EPCs, and biodegradability. The results indicate that there was no significant change in biomechanical properties and biodegradability when enzymatic hydrolysis (p > 0.05) is employed in detoxified acellular GLUT cross-linked tissue (DBP–G–CA–ET), compared with the native detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (NBP–G–CA–ET). DBP–G–CA–ET exhibited a significant (p > 0.05) increase in the viability of EPCs and cell adhesion as compared to acellular GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (p < 0.05). Lyophilized acellular detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, employed in our study as an alternative to conventional GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, might provide longer durability and better biocompatibility, and reduce calcification. The developed bovine pericardium patches could be used in cardiac reconstruction and repair, arteriotomy, soft tissue repair, and general surgical procedures with tissue regeneration dimensions. - Highlights: ► We improved the quality of patch biomaterial for cardiovascular surgical procedures. ► Bovine pericardium was

  15. Enzyme engineering through evolution: thermostable recombinant group II intron reverse transcriptases provide new tools for RNA research and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kathleen; Nilsen, Timothy W

    2013-08-01

    Current investigation of RNA transcriptomes relies heavily on the use of retroviral reverse transcriptases. It is well known that these enzymes have many limitations because of their intrinsic properties. This commentary highlights the recent biochemical characterization of a new family of reverse transcriptases, those encoded by group II intron retrohoming elements. The novel properties of these enzymes endow them with the potential to revolutionize how we approach RNA analyses.

  16. Linking transgene expression of engineered mesenchymal stem cells and angiopoietin-1-induced differentiation to target cancer angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Claudius; Hüsemann, Yves; Niess, Hanno; von Luettichau, Irene; Huss, Ralf; Bauer, Christian; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Klein, Christoph A; Bruns, Christiane; Nelson, Peter J

    2011-03-01

    To specifically target tumor angiogenesis by linking transgene expression of engineered mesenchymal stem cells to angiopoietin-1-induced differentiation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used to deliver therapeutic genes into solid tumors. These strategies rely on their homing mechanisms only to deliver the therapeutic agent. We engineered murine MSC to express reporter genes or therapeutic genes under the selective control of the Tie2 promoter/enhancer. This approach uses the differentiative potential of MSCs induced by the tumor microenvironment to drive therapeutic gene expression only in the context of angiogenesis. When injected into the peripheral circulation of mice with either, orthotopic pancreatic or spontaneous breast cancer, the engineered MSCs were actively recruited to growing tumor vasculature and induced the selective expression of either reporter red florescent protein or suicide genes [herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (TK) gene] when the adoptively transferred MSC developed endothelial-like characteristics. The TK gene product in combination with the prodrug ganciclovir (GCV) produces a potent toxin, which affects replicative cells. The homing of engineered MSC with selective induction of TK in concert with GCV resulted in a toxic tumor-specific environment. The efficacy of this approach was demonstrated by significant reduction in primary tumor growth and prolongation of life in both tumor models. This "Trojan Horse" combined stem cell/gene therapy represents a novel treatment strategy for tailored therapy of solid tumors.

  17. Organic, cross-linking, and shape-stabilized solar thermal energy storage materials: A reversible phase transition driven by broadband visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yunming; Tang, Bingtao; Zhang, Shufen

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Organic shape-stabilized solar thermal energy storage materials (OCSPCMs) with broadband harvesting for visible light were obtained by crosslinking and color matching, which provided a new platform for improving the efficiency of solar radiation utilization. - Highlights: • Novel phase change materials (OCSPCMs) were obtained by crosslinking and color matching. • The η of the OCSPCM was higher than 0.74 (visible light from 400 nm to 700 nm). • The phase change latent heats of the OCSPCMs were more than 120 J/g. • The OCSPCM has excellent form-stable effect during phase change process. - Abstract: Broadband visible sunlight usage and shape-stabilized effect were achieved using organic, cross-linking, and shape-stabilized phase-changed materials (OCSPCMs) with broadband visible light absorption, which were obtained by cross-linking reticulation and color matching (yellow, red, and blue) according to solar irradiation energy density. The obtained OCSPCMs exhibited excellent form-stable phase-change energy storage and broadband visible light-harvesting. Under broadband irradiation (from 400 nm to 700 nm), the light-to-heat conversion and the thermal energy storage efficiency (η > 0.74) of the OCSPCMs were significantly improved upon solar irradiation by color matching compared with those of OCSPCMs with single-band selective absorption of visible light (yellow, red, or blue). Differential scanning calorimetric results indicated that the phase change temperatures and latent heats of OCSPCMs ranged from 32.6 °C to 60.2 °C and from 120.1 J/g to 132.7 J/g, respectively. The novel materials show a reversible (more than 200 cycles) phase transition via ON/OFF switching of visible light irradiation

  18. Cross-linking methods of electrospun fibrinogen scaffolds for tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sell, Scott A; Garg, Koyal; McClure, Michael J; Bowlin, Gary L; Francis, Michael P; Simpson, David G

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance the mechanical properties and slow the degradation of an electrospun fibrinogen scaffold, while maintaining the scaffold's high level of bioactivity. Three different cross-linkers were used to achieve this goal: glutaraldehyde vapour, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) in ethanol and genipin in ethanol. Scaffolds with a fibrinogen concentration of 120 mg ml -1 were electrospun and cross-linked with one of the aforementioned cross-linkers. Mechanical properties were determined through uniaxial tensile testing performed on scaffolds incubated under standard culture conditions for 1 day, 7 days and 14 days. Cross-linked scaffolds were seeded with human foreskin fibroblasts (BJ-GFP-hTERT) and cultured for 7, 14 and 21 days, with histology and scanning electron microscopy performed upon completion of the time course. Mechanical testing revealed significantly increased peak stress and modulus values for the EDC and genipin cross-linked scaffolds, with significantly slowed degradation. However, cross-linking with EDC and genipin was shown to have some negative effect on the bioactivity of the scaffolds as cell migration throughout the thickness of the scaffold was slowed.

  19. Active learning in engineering design education by linking the digital and physical domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Schreiber, Mads Peter; Jensen, Marc Podzimski

    2012-01-01

    of the object geometry in 3D computer programs and finally print out in a 3D printer or manufacture on a CNC machining center. A number of real world design cases will be demonstrated e.g. design configured to man-equipment interface, spectacular combinations of different products to a new product and also...... simple redesign of existing products. The participants will have the opportunity to get a hands-on experience with the involved equipment and also talk to students working in the Design Studio.......This hands-on session in the Design Studio of Copenhagen University College of Engineering (IHK) demonstrates how state-of -the-art hard- and soft-ware equipment for 3D laser scanning and rapid prototyping is used to enhance the motivation and engagement of students of the engineering design...

  20. Design of interstellar digital communication links: Some insights from communication engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerschmitt, David G.; Morrison, Ian S.

    2012-09-01

    The design of an end-to-end digital interstellar communication system at radio frequencies is discussed, drawing on the disciplines of digital communication engineering and computer network engineering in terrestrial and near-space applications. One goal is a roadmap to the design of such systems, aimed at future designers of either receivers (SETI) or transmitters (METI). In particular we emphasize the implications arising from the impossibility of coordination between transmitter and receiver prior to a receiver's search for a signal. A system architecture based on layering, as commonly used in network and software design, assists in organizing and categorizing the various design issues and identifying dependencies. Implications of impairments introduced in the interstellar medium, such as dispersion, scattering, Doppler, noise, and signal attenuation are discussed. Less fundamental (but nevertheless influential) design issues are the motivations of the transmitter designers and associated resource requirements at both transmitter and receiver. Unreliability is inevitably imposed by non-idealities in the physical communication channel, and this unreliability will have substantial implications for those seeking to convey interstellar messages.

  1. Advanced 3D tools used in reverse engineering and ray tracing simulation of phased array inspection of turbine components with complex geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daks, W.; Kovacshazy, C.; Mair, D.; Ciorau, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper outlines the practical aspects of reverse engineering and the integration of multiple pieces of software (Drafting, CNC Machining, Ray Tracing, Inspection Simulation Scenario and Phased Array UT Analysis), in order to inspect turbine components comprised of complex geometry. The CNC software, Mastercam, and design software, CADKEY/FastSURF, were used to validate the phased-array automated and manual inspection of blade root, rotor steeples and disk-blade rim attachment. The integration of a 3D part in the software engine, Imagine 3D and SimScan, as well as Tomoview analysis (specimen feature) is based on CADKEY Developer Kit - IGES/SAT file format. A generic Ray Tracing simulation for multi-probe beam was integrated into Imagine 3D. Representative examples of reference blocks and mock-ups, UT simulation and phased-array data comparison are presented. (author)

  2. Cameco engineered tailings program: linking applied research with industrial processes for improved tailings performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzer, T.G.

    2010-01-01

    'Full text:' Mine tailings at Cameco's operations are by-products of milling uranium ore having variable concentrations of uranium, metals, oxyanions and trace elements or elements of concern (EOC). Cameco has undertaken an Engineered Tailings (ET) program to optimize tailings performance and minimize environmental EOC impacts, regardless of the milled ore source. Applied geochemical and geotechnical tailings research is key within the ET program. In-situ drilling and experimental programs are used to understand long-term tailings behaviour and help validate source term predictions. Within this, the ET program proactively aids in the development of mill-based processes for production of tailings having improved long-term stability. (author)

  3. Development of a tetrameric streptavidin mutein with reversible biotin binding capability: engineering a mobile loop as an exit door for biotin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J O'Sullivan

    Full Text Available A novel form of tetrameric streptavidin has been engineered to have reversible biotin binding capability. In wild-type streptavidin, loop(3-4 functions as a lid for the entry and exit of biotin. When biotin is bound, interactions between biotin and key residues in loop(3-4 keep this lid in the closed state. In the engineered mutein, a second biotin exit door is created by changing the amino acid sequence of loop(7-8. This door is mobile even in the presence of the bound biotin and can facilitate the release of biotin from the mutein. Since loop(7-8 is involved in subunit interactions, alteration of this loop in the engineered mutein results in an 11° rotation between the two dimers in reference to wild-type streptavidin. The tetrameric state of the engineered mutein is stabilized by a H127C mutation, which leads to the formation of inter-subunit disulfide bonds. The biotin binding kinetic parameters (k(off of 4.28×10(-4 s(-1 and K(d of 1.9×10(-8 M make this engineered mutein a superb affinity agent for the purification of biotinylated biomolecules. Affinity matrices can be regenerated using gentle procedures, and regenerated matrices can be reused at least ten times without any observable reduction in binding capacity. With the combination of both the engineered mutein and wild-type streptavidin, biotinylated biomolecules can easily be affinity purified to high purity and immobilized to desirable platforms without any leakage concerns. Other potential biotechnological applications, such as development of an automated high-throughput protein purification system, are feasible.

  4. Development of a Tetrameric Streptavidin Mutein with Reversible Biotin Binding Capability: Engineering a Mobile Loop as an Exit Door for Biotin

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Valerie J.; Barrette-Ng, Isabelle; Hommema, Eric; Hermanson, Greg T.; Schofield, Mark; Wu, Sau-Ching; Honetschlaeger, Claudia; Ng, Kenneth K.-S.; Wong, Sui-Lam

    2012-01-01

    A novel form of tetrameric streptavidin has been engineered to have reversible biotin binding capability. In wild-type streptavidin, loop3–4 functions as a lid for the entry and exit of biotin. When biotin is bound, interactions between biotin and key residues in loop3–4 keep this lid in the closed state. In the engineered mutein, a second biotin exit door is created by changing the amino acid sequence of loop7–8. This door is mobile even in the presence of the bound biotin and can facilitate the release of biotin from the mutein. Since loop7–8 is involved in subunit interactions, alteration of this loop in the engineered mutein results in an 11° rotation between the two dimers in reference to wild-type streptavidin. The tetrameric state of the engineered mutein is stabilized by a H127C mutation, which leads to the formation of inter-subunit disulfide bonds. The biotin binding kinetic parameters (koff of 4.28×10−4 s−1 and Kd of 1.9×10−8 M) make this engineered mutein a superb affinity agent for the purification of biotinylated biomolecules. Affinity matrices can be regenerated using gentle procedures, and regenerated matrices can be reused at least ten times without any observable reduction in binding capacity. With the combination of both the engineered mutein and wild-type streptavidin, biotinylated biomolecules can easily be affinity purified to high purity and immobilized to desirable platforms without any leakage concerns. Other potential biotechnological applications, such as development of an automated high-throughput protein purification system, are feasible. PMID:22536357

  5. GRASP/Ada (Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada): The development of a program analysis environment for Ada. Reverse engineering tools for Ada, task 1, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, James H., II

    1990-01-01

    The study, formulation, and generation of structures for Ada (GRASP/Ada) are discussed in this second phase report of a three phase effort. Various graphical representations that can be extracted or generated from source code are described and categorized with focus on reverse engineering. The overall goal is to provide the foundation for a CASE (computer-aided software design) environment in which reverse engineering and forward engineering (development) are tightly coupled. Emphasis is on a subset of architectural diagrams that can be generated automatically from source code with the control structure diagram (CSD) included for completeness.

  6. MORE: mixed optimization for reverse engineering--an application to modeling biological networks response via sparse systems of nonlinear differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambo, Francesco; de Oca, Marco A Montes; Di Camillo, Barbara; Toffolo, Gianna; Stützle, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Reverse engineering is the problem of inferring the structure of a network of interactions between biological variables from a set of observations. In this paper, we propose an optimization algorithm, called MORE, for the reverse engineering of biological networks from time series data. The model inferred by MORE is a sparse system of nonlinear differential equations, complex enough to realistically describe the dynamics of a biological system. MORE tackles separately the discrete component of the problem, the determination of the biological network topology, and the continuous component of the problem, the strength of the interactions. This approach allows us both to enforce system sparsity, by globally constraining the number of edges, and to integrate a priori information about the structure of the underlying interaction network. Experimental results on simulated and real-world networks show that the mixed discrete/continuous optimization approach of MORE significantly outperforms standard continuous optimization and that MORE is competitive with the state of the art in terms of accuracy of the inferred networks.

  7. Morphology of Filamentous Fungi: Linking Cellular Biology to Process Engineering Using Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Rainer; Cordes, Christiana; Horn, Harald; Kampen, Ingo; Kwade, Arno; Neu, Thomas R.; Nörtemann, Bernd

    In various biotechnological processes, filamentous fungi, e.g. Aspergillus niger, are widely applied for the production of high value-added products due to their secretion efficiency. There is, however, a tangled relationship between the morphology of these microorganisms, the transport phenomena and the related productivity. The morphological characteristics vary between freely dispersed mycelia and distinct pellets of aggregated biomass. Hence, advantages and disadvantages for mycel or pellet cultivation have to be balanced out carefully. Due to this inadequate understanding of morphogenesis of filamentous microorganisms, fungal morphology, along with reproducibility of inocula of the same quality, is often a bottleneck of productivity in industrial production. To obtain an optimisation of the production process it is of great importance to gain a better understanding of the molecular and cell biology of these microorganisms as well as the approaches in biochemical engineering and particle technique, in particular to characterise the interactions between the growth conditions, cell morphology, spore-hyphae-interactions and product formation. Advances in particle and image analysis techniques as well as micromechanical devices and their applications to fungal cultivations have made available quantitative morphological data on filamentous cells. This chapter provides the ambitious aspects of this line of action, focussing on the control and characterisation of the morphology, the transport gradients and the approaches to understand the metabolism of filamentous fungi. Based on these data, bottlenecks in the morphogenesis of A. niger within the complex production pathways from gene to product should be identified and this may improve the production yield.

  8. Generation of a monoclonal antibody against the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked protein Rae-1 using genetically engineered tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiemiao; Vien, Long T; Xia, Xueqing; Bover, Laura; Li, Shulin

    2014-02-04

    Although genetically engineered cells have been used to generate monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against numerous proteins, no study has used them to generate mAbs against glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins. The GPI-linked protein Rae-1, an NKG2D ligand member, is responsible for interacting with immune surveillance cells. However, very few high-quality mAbs against Rae-1 are available for use in multiple analyses, including Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry. The lack of high-quality mAbs limits the in-depth analysis of Rae-1 fate, such as shedding and internalization, in murine models. Moreover, currently available screening approaches for identifying high-quality mAbs are excessively time-consuming and costly. We used Rae-1-overexpressing CT26 tumor cells to generate 60 hybridomas that secreted mAbs against Rae-1. We also developed a streamlined screening strategy for selecting the best anti-Rae-1 mAb for use in flow cytometry assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, and immunostaining. Our cell line-based immunization approach can yield mAbs against GPI-anchored proteins, and our streamlined screening strategy can be used to select the ideal hybridoma for producing such mAbs.

  9. Genipin cross-linked electrospun chitosan-based nanofibrous mat as tissue engineering scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Mirzaei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: To improve water stability of electrospun chitosan/ Polyethylene oxide (PEO nanofibers, genipin, a biocompatible and nontoxic agent, was used to crosslink chitosan based nanofibers.   Materials and Methods: Different amounts of genipin were added to the chitosan/PEO solutions, chitosan/PEO weight ratio 90/10 in 80 % acetic acid, and the solutions were then electrospun to form nanofibers. The spun nanofibers were exposed to water vapor to complete crosslinking. The nanofibrous membranes were subjected to detailed analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, swelling test, MTT cytotoxicity, and cell attachment. Results: SEM images of electrospun mats showed that genipin-crosslinked nanofibers retained their fibrous structure after immerging in PBS (pH=7.4 for 24 hours, while the uncrosslinked samples lost their fibrous structure, indicating the water stability of genipin-crosslinked nanofibers. The genipin-crosslinked mats also showed no significant change in swelling ratio in comparison with uncrosslinked ones. FTIR-ATR spectrum of uncrosslinked and genipin-crosslinked chitosan nanofibers revealed the reaction between genipin and amino groups of chitosan. Cytotoxicity of genipin-crosslinked nanofibers was examined by MTT assay on human fibroblast cells in the presence of nanofibers extraction media. The genipin-crosslinked nanofibers did not show any toxic effects on fibroblast cells at the lowest and moderate amount of genipin. The fibroblast cells also showed a good adhesion on genipin-crosslinked nanofibers. Conclusion: This electrospun matrix would be used for biomedical applications such as wound dressing and scaffold for tissue engineering without the concern of toxicity.

  10. Linking genes to microbial growth kinetics: an integrated biochemical systems engineering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Michalis; Kiparissides, Alexandros; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Lam, Ming-Chi; Martins Dos Santos, Vitor A P; de Lorenzo, Victor; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N; Mantalaris, Athanasios

    2011-07-01

    The majority of models describing the kinetic properties of a microorganism for a given substrate are unstructured and empirical. They are formulated in this manner so that the complex mechanism of cell growth is simplified. Herein, a novel approach for modelling microbial growth kinetics is proposed, linking biomass growth and substrate consumption rates to the gene regulatory programmes that control these processes. A dynamic model of the TOL (pWW0) plasmid of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 has been developed, describing the molecular interactions that lead to the transcription of the upper and meta operons, known to produce the enzymes for the oxidative catabolism of m-xylene. The genetic circuit model was combined with a growth kinetic model decoupling biomass growth and substrate consumption rates, which are expressed as independent functions of the rate-limiting enzymes produced by the operons. Estimation of model parameters and validation of the model's predictive capability were successfully performed in batch cultures of mt-2 fed with different concentrations of m-xylene, as confirmed by relative mRNA concentration measurements of the promoters encoded in TOL. The growth formation and substrate utilisation patterns could not be accurately described by traditional Monod-type models for a wide range of conditions, demonstrating the critical importance of gene regulation for the development of advanced models closely predicting complex bioprocesses. In contrast, the proposed strategy, which utilises quantitative information pertaining to upstream molecular events that control the production of rate-limiting enzymes, predicts the catabolism of a substrate and biomass formation and could be of central importance for the design of optimal bioprocesses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Forest gardening on abandoned terraces links local biomass carbon accumulation to international carbon markets, reverses land degradation, improves food diversity, and increases farmer income

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Pandit, Bishnu Hari; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    project to a carbon capture financing system. All planted trees are GIS inventoried and their yearly biomass carbon up-take is calculated on the base of the average ten-year carbon accumulation. The 25,000 mixed trees accumulate the equivalent of 350 t CO2 per year. At 35 US per t of CO2eq paid in advance by the international community in form of private carbon compensation subscriptions, all costs for the set-up of the forest gardens, their maintenance for three years plus a yearly prime could be paid. After this initial period of three years, the income from tree crops (fruits, nuts, medicine, essential oil, silk, perfume, honey, timber, animal fodder) exceeds by far the (catalyzer) carbon credits providing average crop incomes for the 25,000 trees including secondary mixed cropping of more than 150,000 USD per year. With new processed tree crop products, better-paid jobs are created, the local economy is fostered and the "lost generation" can start to return to their home villages. The objective of this pilot forest garden project was to establish a robust socio-agronomic system that can be multiplied from village to village, increasing soil fertility, protecting abandoned terraces from erosion, replenishing water resources, and generating stable incomes with climate-smart agriculture. The essential catalyst of the project was to link the global need to capture atmospheric carbon and to create negative emissions to slow down climate change with the local capacity to increase biomass growth and to sequester biomass carbon with new low-tech technology (biochar). The financial exchange between global CO2-emmitting communities with local CO2 capturing farmer communities could become a new motor to reverse land degradation, to reestablish ecosystem services, and to develop the rural socio-economy.

  12. Engineering nonlinearity characteristic compensation for commercial steam turbine control valve using linked MARS code and Matlab Simulink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halimi, B.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A nonlinearity characteristic compensation is proposed of the steam turbine control valve. ► A steady state and transient analyzer is developed of Ulchin Units 3 and 4 OPR1000 nuclear plants. ► MARS code and Matlab Simulink are used to verify the compensation concept. ► The results show the concept can compensate for the nonlinearity characteristic very well. - Abstract: Steam turbine control valves play a pivotal role in regulating the output power of the turbine in a commercial power plant. They thus have to be operated linearly to be run by an automatic control system. Unfortunately, the control valve has inherently nonlinearity characteristics. The flow increases more significantly near the closed end than near the open end of the stem travel given the valve position signal. The steam flow should nonetheless be proportional to the final desired quantity, output power, of the turbine to obtain a linear operation. This paper presents the valve engineering linked analysis (VELA) for nonlinearity characteristic compensation of the steam turbine control valve by using a linked two existing commercial software. The Multi-dimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety (MARS) code and Matlab Simulink have been selected for VELA to develop a steady state and transient analyzer of Ulchin Units 3 and 4 powered by the Optimized Power Reactor 1000 MWe (OPR1000). MARS is capable of modeling a wide range of systems from single pipes to full nuclear power plants. As one of standard nuclear power plant thermal hydraulic analysis software tools, MARS simulates the primary and secondary sides of the nuclear power plant. To simulate the electric power flow part, Matlab Simulink is chosen as the standard analysis software. Matlab Simulink having an interactive environment to model analyzes and simulates a wide variety of engineering dynamic systems including multimachine power systems. Based on the MARS code result, Matlab Simulink analyzes the power flow of the

  13. Cigarette company trade secrets are not secret: an analysis of reverse engineering reports in internal tobacco industry documents released as a result of litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velicer, Clayton; Lempert, Lauren K; Glantz, Stanton

    2015-09-01

    Use previously secret tobacco industry documents to assess tobacco companies' routine claims of trade secret protection for information on cigarette ingredients, additives and construction made to regulatory agencies, as well as the companies' refusal to publicly disclose this information. We analysed previously secret tobacco industry documents available at (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) to identify 100 examples of seven major tobacco companies' reverse engineering of their competitors' brands between 1937 and 2001. These reverse engineering reports contain detailed data for 142 different measurements for at least two companies, including physical parameters of the cigarettes, tobacco types, humectants, additives, flavourings, and smoke constituents of competitors' cigarettes. These 100 documents were distributed to 564 employees, including top managers in domestic and foreign offices across multiple departments, including executive leadership, research and design, product development, marketing and legal. These documents reported new competitors' products, measured ingredient changes over time, and informed companies' decisions regarding ingredients in their own products. Because cigarette companies routinely analyse their competitors' cigarettes in great detail, this information is neither secret nor commercially valuable and, thus, does not meet the legal definition of a 'trade secret.' This information is only being kept 'secret' from the people consuming cigarettes and the scientific community. Public agencies should release this detailed information because it would provide valuable information about how ingredients affect addictiveness and toxicity, and would help the public health community and consumers better understand the impact of cigarette design on human health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Molecular Defects in Cardiac Myofilament Ca2+-Regulation Due to Cardiomyopathy-Linked Mutations Can Be Reversed by Small Molecules Binding to Troponin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Alice; Messer, Andrew E; Papadaki, Maria; Choudhry, Afnan; Kren, Vladimír; Biedermann, David; Blagg, Brian; Khandelwal, Anuj; Marston, Steven B

    2018-01-01

    The inherited cardiomyopathies, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) are relatively common, potentially life-threatening and currently untreatable. Mutations are often in the contractile proteins of cardiac muscle and cause abnormal Ca 2+ regulation via troponin. HCM is usually linked to higher myofilament Ca 2+ -sensitivity whilst in both HCM and DCM mutant tissue there is often an uncoupling of the relationship between troponin I (TnI) phosphorylation by PKA and modulation of myofilament Ca 2+ -sensitivity, essential for normal responses to adrenaline. The adrenergic response is blunted, and this may predispose the heart to failure under stress. At present there are no compounds or interventions that can prevent or treat sarcomere cardiomyopathies. There is a need for novel therapies that act at a more fundamental level to affect the disease process. We demonstrated that epigallocatechin-3 gallate (EGCG) was found to be capable of restoring the coupled relationship between Ca 2+ -sensitivity and TnI phosphorylation in mutant thin filaments to normal in vitro , independent of the mutation (15 mutations tested). We have labeled this property "re-coupling." The action of EGCG in vitro to reverse the abnormality caused by myopathic mutations would appear to be an ideal pharmaceutical profile for treatment of inherited HCM and DCM but EGCG is known to be promiscuous in vivo and is thus unsuitable as a therapeutic drug. We therefore investigated whether other structurally related compounds can re-couple myofilaments without these off-target effects. We used the quantitative in vitro motility assay to screen 40 compounds, related to C-terminal Hsp90 inhibitors, and found 23 that can re-couple mutant myofilaments. There is no correlation between re-couplers and Hsp90 inhibitors. The Ca 2+ -sensitivity shift due to TnI phosphorylation was restored to 2.2 ± 0.01-fold ( n = 19) compared to 2.0 ± 0.24-fold ( n = 7) in wild-type thin filaments

  15. Molecular Defects in Cardiac Myofilament Ca2+-Regulation Due to Cardiomyopathy-Linked Mutations Can Be Reversed by Small Molecules Binding to Troponin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Sheehan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The inherited cardiomyopathies, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM are relatively common, potentially life-threatening and currently untreatable. Mutations are often in the contractile proteins of cardiac muscle and cause abnormal Ca2+ regulation via troponin. HCM is usually linked to higher myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity whilst in both HCM and DCM mutant tissue there is often an uncoupling of the relationship between troponin I (TnI phosphorylation by PKA and modulation of myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity, essential for normal responses to adrenaline. The adrenergic response is blunted, and this may predispose the heart to failure under stress. At present there are no compounds or interventions that can prevent or treat sarcomere cardiomyopathies. There is a need for novel therapies that act at a more fundamental level to affect the disease process. We demonstrated that epigallocatechin-3 gallate (EGCG was found to be capable of restoring the coupled relationship between Ca2+-sensitivity and TnI phosphorylation in mutant thin filaments to normal in vitro, independent of the mutation (15 mutations tested. We have labeled this property “re-coupling.” The action of EGCG in vitro to reverse the abnormality caused by myopathic mutations would appear to be an ideal pharmaceutical profile for treatment of inherited HCM and DCM but EGCG is known to be promiscuous in vivo and is thus unsuitable as a therapeutic drug. We therefore investigated whether other structurally related compounds can re-couple myofilaments without these off-target effects. We used the quantitative in vitro motility assay to screen 40 compounds, related to C-terminal Hsp90 inhibitors, and found 23 that can re-couple mutant myofilaments. There is no correlation between re-couplers and Hsp90 inhibitors. The Ca2+-sensitivity shift due to TnI phosphorylation was restored to 2.2 ± 0.01-fold (n = 19 compared to 2.0 ± 0.24-fold (n = 7 in wild-type thin

  16. Reverse engineering of logic-based differential equation models using a mixed-integer dynamic optimization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, David; Rocha, Miguel; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Banga, Julio R

    2015-09-15

    Systems biology models can be used to test new hypotheses formulated on the basis of previous knowledge or new experimental data, contradictory with a previously existing model. New hypotheses often come in the shape of a set of possible regulatory mechanisms. This search is usually not limited to finding a single regulation link, but rather a combination of links subject to great uncertainty or no information about the kinetic parameters. In this work, we combine a logic-based formalism, to describe all the possible regulatory structures for a given dynamic model of a pathway, with mixed-integer dynamic optimization (MIDO). This framework aims to simultaneously identify the regulatory structure (represented by binary parameters) and the real-valued parameters that are consistent with the available experimental data, resulting in a logic-based differential equation model. The alternative to this would be to perform real-valued parameter estimation for each possible model structure, which is not tractable for models of the size presented in this work. The performance of the method presented here is illustrated with several case studies: a synthetic pathway problem of signaling regulation, a two-component signal transduction pathway in bacterial homeostasis, and a signaling network in liver cancer cells. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. julio@iim.csic.es or saezrodriguez@ebi.ac.uk. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF A LARGE SAMPLE OF NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES: LINKING CENTRAL ENGINE AND HOST PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Dawei; Komossa, S.; Wang Jing; Yuan Weimin; Zhou Hongyan; Lu Honglin; Li Cheng; Grupe, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    We present a statistical study of a large, homogeneously analyzed sample of narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies, accompanied by a comparison sample of broad-line Seyfert 1 (BLS1) galaxies. Optical emission-line and continuum properties are subjected to correlation analyses, in order to identify the main drivers of the correlation space of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and of NLS1 galaxies in particular. For the first time, we have established the density of the narrow-line region as a key parameter in Eigenvector 1 space, as important as the Eddington ratio L/L Edd . This is important because it links the properties of the central engine with the properties of the host galaxy, i.e., the interstellar medium (ISM). We also confirm previously found correlations involving the line width of Hβ and the strength of the Fe II and [O III] λ5007 emission lines, and we confirm the important role played by L/L Edd in driving the properties of NLS1 galaxies. A spatial correlation analysis shows that large-scale environments of the BLS1 and NLS1 galaxies of our sample are similar. If mergers are rare in our sample, accretion-driven winds, on the one hand, or bar-driven inflows, on the other hand, may account for the strong dependence of Eigenvector 1 on ISM density.

  18. Service Oriented Integration of Distributed Heterogeneous IT Systems in Production Engineering Using Information Standards and Linked Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Shariat Zadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While design of production systems based on digital models brings benefits, the communication of models comes with challenges since models typically reside in a heterogeneous IT environment using different syntax and semantics. Coping with heterogeneity requires a smart integration strategy. One main paradigm to integrate data and IT systems is to deploy information standards. In particular, ISO 10303 STEP has been endorsed as a suitable standard to exchange a wide variety of product manufacturing data. One the other hand, service-oriented tool integration solutions are progressively adopted for the integration of data and IT-tools, especially with the emergence of Open Services for Lifecycle Collaboration whose focus is on the linking of data from heterogeneous software tools. In practice, there should be a combination of these approaches to facilitate the integration process. Hence, the aim of this paper is to investigate the applications of the approaches and the principles behind them and try to find criteria for where to use which approach. In addition, we explore the synergy between them and consequently suggest an approach based on combination of them. In addition, a systematic approach is suggested to identify required level of integrations and their corresponding approaches exemplified in a typical IT system architecture in Production Engineering.

  19. Effects of Genipin Concentration on Cross-Linked Chitosan Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering: Structural Characterization and Evidence of Biocompatibility Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Dimida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Genipin (GN is a natural molecule extracted from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis according to modern microbiological processes. Genipin is considered as a favorable cross-linking agent due to its low cytotoxicity compared to widely used cross-linkers; it cross-links compounds with primary amine groups such as proteins, collagen, and chitosan. Chitosan is a biocompatible polymer that is currently studied in bone tissue engineering for its capacity to promote growth and mineral-rich matrix deposition by osteoblasts in culture. In this work, two genipin cross-linked chitosan scaffolds for bone repair and regeneration were prepared with different GN concentrations, and their chemical, physical, and biological properties were explored. Scanning electron microscopy and mechanical tests revealed that nonremarkable changes in morphology, porosity, and mechanical strength of scaffolds are induced by increasing the cross-linking degree. Also, the degradation rate was shown to decrease while increasing the cross-linking degree, with the high cross-linking density of the scaffold disabling the hydrolysis activity. Finally, basic biocompatibility was investigated in vitro, by evaluating proliferation of two human-derived cell lines, namely, the MG63 (human immortalized osteosarcoma and the hMSCs (human mesenchymal stem cells, as suitable cell models for bone tissue engineering applications of biomaterials.

  20. Reverse Algols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, K. C.

    1989-01-01

    Reverse Algols, binary systems with a semidetached configuration in which the more massive component is in contact with the critical equipotential surface, are examined. Observational evidence for reverse Algols is presented and the parameters of seven reverse Algols are listed. The evolution of Algols and reverse Algols is discussed. It is suggested that, because reverse Algols represent the premass-reversal semidetached phase of close binary evolution, the evolutionary time scale between regular and reverse Algols is the ratio of the number of confirmed systems of these two Algol types.

  1. Reverse Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Kulikova, Olga

    2016-01-01

    This thesis was focused on the analysis of the concept of reverse logistics and actual reverse processes which are implemented in mining industry and finding solutions for the optimization of reverse logistics in this sphere. The objective of this paper was the assessment of the development of reverse logistics in mining industry on the example of potash production. The theoretical part was based on reverse logistics and mining waste related literature and provided foundations for further...

  2. Evaluation of Cytokine Synthesis in Human Whole Blood by Enzyme Linked Immunoassay (ELISA), Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), and Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-08

    deoxynucleotide triphosphates, from Sigma. Sequences for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase ( G3PDH ), IL-8,and TNF-a were amplified with primer...This was accomplished by normalizing all samples to the mRNA for the moderately expressed housekeeping function glyceraldehyde-3 -phosphate...without and with isolation of cells before reverse transcription and PCR. G3PDH mRNA target amplifies at 983 base pairs. The 630 base pair band is the

  3. Delineation and interpretation of gene networks towards their effect in cellular physiology- a reverse engineering approach for the identification of critical molecular players, through the use of ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutselos, K; Maglogiannis, I; Chatziioannou, A

    2010-01-01

    Exploiting ontologies, provides clues regarding the involvement of certain molecular processes in the cellular phenotypic manifestation. However, identifying individual molecular actors (genes, proteins, etc.) for targeted biological validation in a generic, prioritized, fashion, based in objective measures of their effects in the cellular physiology, remains a challenge. In this work, a new meta-analysis algorithm is proposed for the holistic interpretation of the information captured in -omic experiments, that is showcased in a transcriptomic, dynamic, DNA microarray dataset, which examines the effect of mastic oil treatment in Lewis lung carcinoma cells. Through the use of the Gene Ontology this algorithm relates genes to specific cellular pathways and vice versa in order to further reverse engineer the critical role of specific genes, starting from the results of various statistical enrichment analyses. The algorithm is able to discriminate candidate hub-genes, implying critical biochemical cross-talk. Moreover, performance measures of the algorithm are derived, when evaluated with respect to the differential expression gene list of the dataset.

  4. Large-scale Wind Turbine Blade Redesign Based on Reverse Engineering%大型风能发电机组叶片反求再设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶庆; 孙文磊

    2015-01-01

    叶片的外形设计和翼型的选择等都能影响风机性能和产能效率。提出一种大型风能发电机组叶片反求再设计的原理和方法,通过对大型风能发电机组叶片反求测量、大型风能发电机组叶片逆向CAD建模,寻找几何特征,探索制约叶片形状的基本因素,确定叶片截面参数计算公式,利用所开发的叶片翼型自动生成系统,完成了叶片的再设计,并得到了实际应用。%The large⁃scale wind turbine blade contour design and the choice of wing section affect the wind turbine performance and energy efficiency. A redesign principle and method for large⁃scale wind turbine blade was presented which was based on the analy⁃sis of blade CAD model from reverse engineering, looking for geometric features, exploring basic constraint factors on blade shape, and determining parameters of blade cross section calculation formula. Blade design was completed using this self⁃developed blade aerofoil automatic generation system. The results show that the redesign meets the production requirements.

  5. Reverse engineering of mandible and prosthetic framework: Effect of titanium implants in conjunction with titanium milled full arch bridge prostheses on the biomechanics of the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Roberto; Gloria, Antonio; Russo, Teresa; D'Amora, Ugo; Varriale, Angelo; Veltri, Mario; Balleri, Piero; Mollica, Francesco; Riccitiello, Francesco; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2014-12-18

    This study aimed at investigating the effects of titanium implants and different configurations of full-arch prostheses on the biomechanics of edentulous mandibles. Reverse engineered, composite, anisotropic, edentulous mandibles made of a poly(methylmethacrylate) core and a glass fibre reinforced outer shell were rapid prototyped and instrumented with strain gauges. Brånemark implants RP platforms in conjunction with titanium Procera one-piece or two-piece bridges were used to simulate oral rehabilitations. A lateral load through the gonion regions was used to test the biomechanical effects of the rehabilitations. In addition, strains due to misfit of the one-piece titanium bridge were compared to those produced by one-piece cast gold bridges. Milled titanium bridges had a better fit than cast gold bridges. The stress distribution in mandibular bone rehabilitated with a one-piece bridge was more perturbed than that observed with a two-piece bridge. In particular the former induced a stress concentration and stress shielding in the molar and symphysis regions, while for the latter design these stresses were strongly reduced. In conclusion, prosthetic frameworks changed the biomechanics of the mandible as a result of both their design and manufacturing technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reverse Osmosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    many applications, one of which is desalination of seawater. The inaugural Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded in 1901 to van 't Hoff for his seminal work in this area. The present article explains the principle of osmosis and reverse osmosis. Osmosis and Reverse Osmosis. As the name suggests, reverse osmosis is the ...

  7. Strengthening the Link between Theory and Practice in Teaching Design Engineering: An Empirical Study on a New Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempelman, E.; Pilot, A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering of the Delft University of Technology introduced a new bachelor program. Based on theories of learning and instruction three design principles were used to develop an approach that aims to make it easier for students to bridge the gap between theoretical design engineering courses and practical…

  8. Fiscal 1999 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Regional consortium activity in its 3rd year (Research and development of reverse engineering system for local craftwork articles); 1999 nendo chiiki kogeihin muke reverse engineering system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The effort concerns Ryukyu craftwork articles. Reverse engineering used to be regarded as a technique of imitation or duplication but today it is drawing attention as a concept of positively utilizing the directionality of information flow in the integrated environment. In the development of a reverse information system, novel designs are created by utilizing a 3-dimensional data base, a high-efficiency fabrication technology for metal patterns for the press-molding of glass is established incorporating some fabrication diagnosing techniques, and a system is constructed under which fabrication accuracy is evaluated and difference data are fed back. In the development of technologies for metal pattern cutting and surface reforming, a metal pattern fabrication technology for molding glass, low in cost and high in performance, is systematized, which enables short delivery. In the diversification of glass products, Ryukyu patterns are collected and Ryukyu glass products are tentatively manufactured by press-molding, and a good result is achieved. In the field of total system technology, basic technologies for an advanced and integrated common production base are established. A virtual reality assisted designing system is developed, under which the designer feels force on the finger tips when preparing a shape for a 3-dimensional structure. (NEDO)

  9. Reversible Modification of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) with K63-linked Polyubiquitin Regulates the Assembly and Activity of the β-Catenin Destruction Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hoanh; Polakis, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor forms a complex with Axin and GSK3β to promote the phosphorylation and degradation of β-catenin, a key co-activator of Wnt-induced transcription. Here, we establish that APC is modified predominantly with K63-linked ubiquitin chains when it is bound to Axin in unstimulated HEK293 cells. Wnt3a stimulation induced a time-dependent loss of K63-polyubiquitin adducts from APC, an effect synchronous with the dissociation of Axin from APC and the stabilization of cytosolic β-catenin. RNAi-mediated depletion of Axin or β-catenin, which negated the association between APC and Axin, resulted in the absence of K63-adducts on APC. Overexpression of wild-type and phosphodegron-mutant β-catenin, combined with analysis of thirteen human cancer cell lines that harbor oncogenic mutations in APC, Axin, or β-catenin, support the hypothesis that a fully assembled APC-Axin-GSK3β-phospho-β-catenin complex is necessary for the K63-polyubiquitylation of APC. Intriguingly, the degree of this modification on APC appears to correlate inversely with the levels of β-catenin in cells. Together, our results indicate that K63-linked polyubiquitin adducts on APC regulate the assembly and/or efficiency of the β-catenin destruction complex. PMID:22761442

  10. MODEL-DRIVEN REVERSE ENGINEERING AND PROGRAM COMPREHENSION: AN EXAMPLE INGENIERÍA REVERSA Y COMPRENSIÓN DE PROGRAMAS DIRIGIDA POR MODELOS: UN EJEMPLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio G Scalise P

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an example of how Model-Driven Engineering (MDE can be applied to the development of tools for reverse engineering and program comprehension. The tool CodeCrawler was selected as an example; in particular, the polymetric view feature was computed using MDE techniques. To this end, two metamodels were proposed (source and target and meta-level transformations that were used to deduce the information of a polymetric view associated to any software project (source code. The technologies selected to develop the example were those related with the Eclipse Modeling Project, specifically the ATL and the KM3 languages. The approach used in this paper to obtain the implementation can be used to develop all the features of a MDE-oriented software comprehension tool, obtaining a domain-oriented implementation.En este artículo se presenta un ejemplo que describe cómo la Ingeniería Dirigida por Modelos (IDM puede ser aplicada al desarrollo de herramientas para la ingeniería reversa y comprensión de programas. Se seleccionó como caso de estudio la herramienta CodeCrawler, específicamente la funcionalidad denominada polymetric view, desarrollada mediante tecnologías y técnicas de la IDM. Para ello, se emplearon dos metamodelos (entrada y salida y transformaciones a nivel de los metamodelos que permiten generar la información de un polymetric view asociado a un proyecto de software, utilizando la información extraída del código fuente. Las tecnologías utilizadas para el desarrollo del ejemplo, las relacionadas con el Eclipse Modeling Project, específicamente el lenguaje de transformación ATL y el lenguaje KM3. El enfoque seguido para obtener la implementación resultante puede ser utilizado para desarrollar una herramienta de ingeniería reversa y comprensión de software mediante técnicas de la IDM, incorporando el vocabulario del dominio en la implementación.

  11. GRASP/Ada: Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada. The development of a program analysis environment for Ada: Reverse engineering tools for Ada, task 2, phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, James H., II

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is the investigation, formulation, and generation of graphical representations of algorithms, structures, and processes for Ada (GRASP/Ada). The presented task, in which various graphical representations that can be extracted or generated from source code are described and categorized, is focused on reverse engineering. The following subject areas are covered: the system model; control structure diagram generator; object oriented design diagram generator; user interface; and the GRASP library.

  12. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 108 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1 SIN 108, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  13. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 109

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 109, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  14. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A2, S/N 108, 08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A2, S/N 108, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  15. Synthesis and characterization of biodegradable poly (ethylene glycol) and poly (caprolactone diol) end capped poly (propylene fumarate) cross linked amphiphilic hydrogel as tissue engineering scaffold material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Lekshmi; Jayabalan, Muthu

    2009-12-01

    Biodegradable poly (caprolactone diol-co-propylene fumarate-co-ethylene glycol) amphiphilic polymer with poly (ethylene glycol) and poly (caprolactone diol) chain ends (PCL-PPF-PEG) was prepared. PCL-PPF-PEG undergoes fast setting with acrylamide (aqueous solution) by free radical polymerization and produces a crosslinked hydrogel. The cross linked and freeze-dried amphiphilic material has porous and interconnected network. It undergoes higher degree of swelling and water absorption to form hydrogel with hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains at the surface and appreciable tensile strength. The present hydrogel is compatible with L929 fibroblast cells. PCL-PPF-PEG/acrylamide hydrogel is a candidate scaffold material for tissue engineering applications.

  16. Reverse translation of phase I biomarker findings links the activity of angiotensin-(1–7) to repression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α in vascular sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, W Jeffrey; Aklilu, Mebea; Varela, Victor A; Lovato, James; Savage, Paul D; Miller, Antonius A

    2012-01-01

    In a phase I study of angiotensin-(1–7) [Ang-(1–7)], clinical benefit was associated with reduction in plasma placental growth factor (PlGF) concentrations. The current study examines Ang-(1–7) induced changes in biomarkers according to cancer type and investigates mechanisms of action engaged in vitro. Plasma biomarkers were measured prior to Ang-(1–7) administration as well as 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 hours after treatment. Tests for interaction were performed to determine the impact of cancer type on angiogenic hormone levels. If a positive interaction was detected, treatment-induced biomarker changes for individual cancer types were assessed. To investigate mechanisms of action, in vitro growth assays were performed using a murine endothelioma cell line (EOMA). PCR arrays were performed to identify and statistically validate genes that were altered by Ang-(1–7) treatment in these cells. Tests for interaction controlled for dose cohort and clinical response indicated a significant impact of cancer type on post-treatment VEGF and PlGF levels. Following treatment, PlGF levels decreased over time in patients with sarcoma (P = .007). Treatment of EOMA cells with increasing doses of Ang-(1–7) led to significant growth suppression at doses as low as 100 nM. PCR arrays identified 18 genes that appeared to have altered expression after Ang-(1–7) treatment. Replicate analyses confirmed significant changes in 8 genes including reduction in PlGF (P = .04) and hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) expression (P < .001). Ang-(1–7) has clinical and pre-clinical activity for vascular sarcomas that is linked to reduced HIF-1α and PlGF expression

  17. The link between autism and skills such as engineering, maths, physics and computing: a reply to Jarrold and Routh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelwright, S; Baron-Cohen, S

    2001-06-01

    In the first edition of this journal, we published a paper reporting that fathers and grandfathers of children with autism were over-represented in the field of engineering. This result was interpreted as providing supporting evidence for the folk-psychology/folk-physics theory of autism. After carrying out further analyses on the same data, Jarrold and Routh found that fathers of children with autism were also over-represented in accountancy and science. They suggested that these results could either provide additional support for the folk-psychology/folk-physics theory or be accounted for by an over-representation of professionals amongst the fathers of children with autism. Here we present evidence that engineers are still over-represented among fathers of children with autism, even taking into account the professional bias.

  18. Biocompatibility of two model elastin-like recombinamer-based hydrogels formed through physical or chemical cross-linking for various applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Fonseca, Arturo; Ramos, Teresa L; González de Torre, Israel; Sánchez-Abarca, Luis Ignacio; Muntión, Sandra; Arias, Francisco Javier; Del Cañizo, María Consuelo; Alonso, Matilde; Sánchez-Guijo, Fermín; Rodríguez-Cabello, José Carlos

    2018-03-01

    Biocompatibility studies, especially innate immunity induction, in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity, and fibrosis, are often lacking for many novel biomaterials including recombinant protein-based ones, such as elastin-like recombinamers (ELRs), and has not been extensively explored in the scientific literature, in contrast to traditional biomaterials. Herein, we present the results from a set of experiments designed to elucidate the preliminary biocompatibility of 2 types of ELRs that are able to form extracellular matrix-like hydrogels through either physical or chemical cross-linking both of which are intended for different applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Initially, we present in vitro cytocompatibility results obtained upon culturing human umbilical vein endothelial cells on ELR substrates, showing optimal proliferation up to 9 days. Regarding in vivo cytocompatibility, luciferase-expressing hMSCs were viable for at least 4 weeks in terms of bioluminescence emission when embedded in ELR hydrogels and injected subcutaneously into immunosuppressed mice. Furthermore, both types of ELR-based hydrogels were injected subcutaneously in immunocompetent mice and serum TNFα, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, confirming the lack of inflammatory response, as also observed upon macroscopic and histological evaluation. All these findings suggest that both types of ELRs possess broad biocompatibility, thus making them very promising for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine-related applications. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Thermomchromic Reaction-Induced Reversible Upconversion Emission Modulation for Switching Devices and Tunable Upconversion Emission Based on Defect Engineering of WO3:Yb3+,Er3+ Phosphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jiufeng; Yang, Zhengwen; Huang, Anjun; Zhang, Hailu; Qiu, Jianbei; Song, Zhiguo

    2018-05-02

    Reversible luminescence modulation of upconversion phosphors has the potential applications as photoswitches and optical memory and data storage devices. Previously, the photochromic reaction was extensively used for the realization of reversible luminescence modulation. It is very necessary to develop other approaches such as thermomchromic reaction to obtain the reversible upconversion luminescence modulation. In this work, the WO 3 :Yb 3+ ,Er 3+ phosphors with various colors were prepared at various temperatures, exhibiting tunable upconversion luminescence attributed to the formation of oxygen vacancies in the host. Upon heat treatment in the reducing atmosphere or air, the WO 3 :Yb 3+ ,Er 3+ phosphors show a reversible thermomchromic property. The reversible upconversion luminescence modulation of WO 3 :Yb 3+ ,Er 3+ phosphors was observed based on thermomchromic reaction. Additionally, the upconversion luminescence modulation is maintained after several cycles, indicating its excellent stability. The WO 3 :Yb 3+ ,Er 3+ phosphors with reversible upconversion luminescence and excellent reproducibility have potential applications as the photoswitches and optical memory and data storage devices.

  20. Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 regional consortium R and D project. Regional consortium energy field / research and development of a reverse engineering system for local industrial articles (first fiscal year); 1997 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki consortium bun`ya / chiiki kogeihin muke reverse engineering system no kenkyu kaihatsu (daiichi nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper described the fiscal 1997 result of the research on the application of local industrial article use reverse engineering (RE, it had been regarded as imitation and reproduction technology, but has recently been as a part of the production information integration). With the actual local industrial article as standard, which has features in design and was added with local traditionality, such as glass having 3D free-form surface, 3D shape information modeling technology RE is developed, and a system for direct automatic metal mold processing is established, aiming at shortening of delivery date, cost reduction and higher grade. The target of the research is Okinawa prefecture. In fiscal 1997, study was made of the speeding-up of the non-contact 3D shape information inputting (multi-point simultaneous inputting by CCD of the laser reflected light of the actual model) and the data storage technology. Cast iron was selected as molding materials, judging from reactivity/machinability with heat resistant glass. Also studied was the blend of glass materials suitable for press forming. Further, studies were proceeded with of development of intellectual cutting tools into which sensor function is integrated and of virtual reality for facilitating/accelerating the design up to metal mold manufacturing. 39 refs., 88 figs., 21 tabs.

  1. Ecosystem engineering creates a direct nutritional link between 600-m deep cold-water coral mounds and surface productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soetaert, Karline; Mohn, Christian; Rengstorf, Anna; Grehan, Anthony; van Oevelen, Dick

    2016-10-01

    Cold-water corals (CWCs) form large mounds on the seafloor that are hotspots of biodiversity in the deep sea, but it remains enigmatic how CWCs can thrive in this food-limited environment. Here, we infer from model simulations that the interaction between tidal currents and CWC-formed mounds induces downwelling events of surface water that brings organic matter to 600-m deep CWCs. This positive feedback between CWC growth on carbonate mounds and enhanced food supply is essential for their sustenance in the deep sea and represents an example of ecosystem engineering of unparalleled magnitude. This ’topographically-enhanced carbon pump’ leaks organic matter that settles at greater depths. The ubiquitous presence of biogenic and geological topographies along ocean margins suggests that carbon sequestration through this pump is of global importance. These results indicate that enhanced stratification and lower surface productivity, both expected consequences of climate change, may negatively impact the energy balance of CWCs.

  2. Reverse Engineering and Software Products Reuse to Teach Collaborative Web Portals: A Case Study with Final-Year Computer Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Dominguez, Fuensanta; Sanchez-Segura, Maria-Isabel; Mora-Soto, Arturo; Amescua, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The development of collaborative Web applications does not follow a software engineering methodology. This is because when university students study Web applications in general, and collaborative Web portals in particular, they are not being trained in the use of software engineering techniques to develop collaborative Web portals. This paper…

  3. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Testing of Shoots Grown In Vitro and the Use of Immunocapture-Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction Improve the Detection of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus in Rose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moury, B; Cardin, L; Onesto, J P; Candresse, T; Poupet, A

    2000-05-01

    We developed and evaluated two different methods to improve the detection of the most prevalent virus of rose in Europe, Prunus necrotic ring-spot virus (PNRSV). Immunocapture-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was estimated to be about 100 times more sensitive than double-antibody sandwich-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) and showed an equivalent specificity. Based on the observation that PNRSV multiplies actively in young growing tissues (axillary shoots and cuttings), an in vitro culture method allowing rapid (about 15 days) and homogeneous development of dormant axillary buds with high virus titers was standardized. ELISA tests of these young shoots showed, in some cases, a 10(4) to 10(5) increase in sensitivity in comparison to adjacent leaf tissues from the rose mother plants. Between 21 and 98% (depending on the season) more samples were identified as positive by using ELISA on samples from shoot tips grown in vitro rather than on leaves collected directly from the PNRSV-infected mother plants. This simple method of growing shoot tips in vitro improved the confidence in the detection of PNRSV and eliminated problems in sampling appropriate tissues.

  4. Engineering sodium alginate-based cross-linked beads with high removal ability of toxic metal ions and cationic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zi-Jian; Huang, Xue-Lian; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Wei-Feng; Zhou, Xin-Zhi; Zhao, Chang-Sheng

    2018-05-01

    Sodium alginate (SA) beads with ultrahigh adsorption capacity were prepared via hydrogen bonds between SA and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropa-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS), and the AMPS was then post-cross-linked to manufacture SA/PAMPS beads. The equilibrium adsorption capacities of methylene blue (MB) and Pb 2+ for the SA/PAMPS10 beads were 2977 and 2042 mg/g, respectively. Although the SA beads exhibited higher equilibrium adsorption capacities of MB and Pb 2+ than those of the SA/PAMPS10 beads, the SA/PAMPS10 beads had better mechanical property and higher stability. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm described the adsorption processes of the SA/PAMPS10 beads for MB well. In addition, the SA/PAMPS10 beads could be reused with stable adsorption capacity for at least three cycles. The beads also had excellent performances on absorbing methylene violet and other heavy metal ions (Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ and Ni 2+ ). Therefore, the SA-based beads with high adsorption capacity might be good candidates for industrial pollutant treatments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Engineered disulfide bonds restore chaperone-like function of DJ-1 mutants linked to familial Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Todd; Clark, Lindsay; Ray, Soumya S

    2010-07-13

    Loss-of-function mutations such as L166P, A104T, and M26I in the DJ-1 gene (PARK7) have been linked to autosomal-recessive early onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Cellular and structural studies of the familial mutants suggest that these mutations may destabilize the dimeric structure. To look for common dynamical signatures among the DJ-1 mutants, short MD simulations of up to 1000 ps were conducted to identify the weakest region of the protein (residues 38-70). In an attempt to stabilize the protein, we mutated residue Val 51 to cysteine (V51C) to make a symmetry-related disulfide bridge with the preexisting Cys 53 on the opposite subunit. We found that the introduction of this disulfide linkage stabilized the mutants A104T and M26I against thermal denaturation, improved their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), and restored a chaperone-like function of blocking alpha-synuclein aggregation. The L166P mutant was far too unstable to be rescued by introduction of the V51C mutation. The results presented here point to the possible development of pharmacological chaperones, which may eventually lead to PD therapeutics.

  6. Numerical Prediction of the Influence of Thrust Reverser on Aeroengine's Aerodynamic Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiqiang, Wang; Xigang, Shen; Jun, Hu; Xiang, Gao; Liping, Liu

    2017-11-01

    A numerical method was developed to predict the aerodynamic stability of a high bypass ratio turbofan engine, at the landing stage of a large transport aircraft, when the thrust reverser was deployed. 3D CFD simulation and 2D aeroengine aerodynamic stability analysis code were performed in this work, the former is to achieve distortion coefficient for the analysis of engine stability. The 3D CFD simulation was divided into two steps, the single engine calculation and the integrated aircraft and engine calculation. Results of the CFD simulation show that with the decreasing of relative wind Mach number, the engine inlet will suffer more severe flow distortion. The total pressure and total temperature distortion coefficients at the inlet of the engines were obtained from the results of the numerical simulation. Then an aeroengine aerodynamic stability analysis program was used to quantitatively analyze the aerodynamic stability of the high bypass ratio turbofan engine. The results of the stability analysis show that the engine can work stably, when the reverser flow is re-ingested. But the anti-distortion ability of the booster is weaker than that of the fan and high pressure compressor. It is a weak link of engine stability.

  7. Reverse Osmosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Osmosis is a phenomenon which regulates many biological functions in plants and animals. That the plants stand upright, or the water reaches the tip of every leaf of a plant is due to osmotic pressure. The fact that we cannot survive by drinking seawater is also linked to this same phenomenon. J H van 't. Hoff showed in ...

  8. Engineering and Scaling the Spontaneous Magnetization Reversal of Faraday Induced Magnetic Relaxation in Nano-Sized Amorphous Ni Coated on Crystalline Au.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Hsien; Lee, Chi-Hung; Kuo, Chen-Chen

    2016-05-28

    We report on the generation of large inverse remanent magnetizations in nano-sized core/shell structure of Au/Ni by turning off the applied magnetic field. The remanent magnetization is very sensitive to the field reduction rate as well as to the thermal and field processes before the switching off of the magnetic field. Spontaneous reversal in direction and increase in magnitude of the remanent magnetization in subsequent relaxations over time were found. All of the various types of temporal relaxation curves of the remanent magnetizations are successfully scaled by a stretched exponential decay profile, characterized by two pairs of relaxation times and dynamic exponents. The relaxation time is used to describe the reduction rate, while the dynamic exponent describes the dynamical slowing down of the relaxation through time evolution. The key to these effects is to have the induced eddy current running beneath the amorphous Ni shells through Faraday induction.

  9. Engineering and Scaling the Spontaneous Magnetization Reversal of Faraday Induced Magnetic Relaxation in Nano-Sized Amorphous Ni Coated on Crystalline Au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Hsien; Lee, Chi-Hung; Kuo, Chen-Chen

    2016-01-01

    We report on the generation of large inverse remanent magnetizations in nano-sized core/shell structure of Au/Ni by turning off the applied magnetic field. The remanent magnetization is very sensitive to the field reduction rate as well as to the thermal and field processes before the switching off of the magnetic field. Spontaneous reversal in direction and increase in magnitude of the remanent magnetization in subsequent relaxations over time were found. All of the various types of temporal relaxation curves of the remanent magnetizations are successfully scaled by a stretched exponential decay profile, characterized by two pairs of relaxation times and dynamic exponents. The relaxation time is used to describe the reduction rate, while the dynamic exponent describes the dynamical slowing down of the relaxation through time evolution. The key to these effects is to have the induced eddy current running beneath the amorphous Ni shells through Faraday induction. PMID:28773549

  10. Reversible immortalisation enables genetic correction of human muscle progenitors and engineering of next-generation human artificial chromosomes for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Sara; Uno, Narumi; Hoshiya, Hidetoshi; Ragazzi, Martina; Ferrari, Giulia; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Moyle, Louise Anne; Tonlorenzi, Rossana; Lombardo, Angelo; Chaouch, Soraya; Mouly, Vincent; Moore, Marc; Popplewell, Linda; Kazuki, Kanako; Katoh, Motonobu; Naldini, Luigi; Dickson, George; Messina, Graziella; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Cossu, Giulio; Tedesco, Francesco Saverio

    2018-02-01

    Transferring large or multiple genes into primary human stem/progenitor cells is challenged by restrictions in vector capacity, and this hurdle limits the success of gene therapy. A paradigm is Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), an incurable disorder caused by mutations in the largest human gene: dystrophin. The combination of large-capacity vectors, such as human artificial chromosomes (HACs), with stem/progenitor cells may overcome this limitation. We previously reported amelioration of the dystrophic phenotype in mice transplanted with murine muscle progenitors containing a HAC with the entire dystrophin locus (DYS-HAC). However, translation of this strategy to human muscle progenitors requires extension of their proliferative potential to withstand clonal cell expansion after HAC transfer. Here, we show that reversible cell immortalisation mediated by lentivirally delivered excisable hTERT and Bmi1 transgenes extended cell proliferation, enabling transfer of a novel DYS-HAC into DMD satellite cell-derived myoblasts and perivascular cell-derived mesoangioblasts. Genetically corrected cells maintained a stable karyotype, did not undergo tumorigenic transformation and retained their migration ability. Cells remained myogenic in vitro (spontaneously or upon MyoD induction) and engrafted murine skeletal muscle upon transplantation. Finally, we combined the aforementioned functions into a next-generation HAC capable of delivering reversible immortalisation, complete genetic correction, additional dystrophin expression, inducible differentiation and controllable cell death. This work establishes a novel platform for complex gene transfer into clinically relevant human muscle progenitors for DMD gene therapy. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  11. Reversible Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2004-01-01

    The study aims is to describe how the inclusion and exclusion of materials and calculative devices construct the boundaries and distinctions between statistical facts and artifacts in economics. My methodological approach is inspired by John Graunt's (1667) Political arithmetic and more recent work...... within constructivism and the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The result of this approach is here termed reversible statistics, reconstructing the findings of a statistical study within economics in three different ways. It is argued that all three accounts are quite normal, albeit...... in different ways. The presence and absence of diverse materials, both natural and political, is what distinguishes them from each other. Arguments are presented for a more symmetric relation between the scientific statistical text and the reader. I will argue that a more symmetric relation can be achieved...

  12. Reversible Control of Anisotropic Electrical Conductivity using Colloidal Microfluidic Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beskok, Ali; Bevan, Michael; Lagoudas, Dimitris; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Bahukudumbi, Pradipkumar; Everett, William

    2007-01-01

    This research addresses the tunable assembly of reversible colloidal structures within microfluidic networks to engineer multifunctional materials that exhibit a wide range of electrical properties...

  13. High sensitive RNA detection by one-step RT-PCR using the genetically engineered variant of DNA polymerase with reverse transcriptase activity from hyperthermophilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Hiroyuki; Baba, Misato; Kawato, Katsuhiro; Hidese, Ryota; Yanagihara, Itaru; Kojima, Kenji; Takita, Teisuke; Fujiwara, Shinsuke; Yasukawa, Kiyoshi

    2018-03-01

    One-step RT-PCR has not been widely used even though some thermostable DNA polymerases with reverse transcriptase (RT) activity were developed from bacterial and archaeal polymerases, which is owing to low cDNA synthesis activity from RNA. In the present study, we developed highly-sensitive one-step RT-PCR using the single variant of family A DNA polymerase with RT activity, K4pol L329A (L329A), from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga petrophila K4 or the 16-tuple variant of family B DNA polymerase with RT activity, RTX, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis. Optimization of reaction condition revealed that the activities for cDNA synthesis and PCR of K4pol L329A and RTX were highly affected by the concentrations of MgCl 2 and Mn(OCOCH 3 ) 2 as well as those of K4pol L329A or RTX. Under the optimized condition, 300 copies/μl of target RNA in 10 μl reaction volumes were successfully detected by the one-step RT-PCR with K4pol L329A or RTX, which was almost equally sensitive enough compared with the current RT-PCR condition using retroviral RT and thermostable DNA polymerase. Considering that K4pol L329A and RTX are stable even at 90-100°C, our results suggest that the one-step RT-PCR with K4pol L329A or RTX is more advantageous than the current one. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most people agree that our world face daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant...... perspectives in challenge per-ception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of engineering education...... and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter strives to elicit the bodies...

  15. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping...... of engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...

  16. Ice911 Research: A Reversible Localized Geo-Engineering Technique to Mitigate Climate Change Effects: Field Testing, Instrumentation and Climate Modeling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, L. A.; Sholtz, A.; Chetty, S.; Manzara, A.; Johnson, D.; Christodoulou, E.; Decca, R.; Walter, P.; Katuri, K.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Ivanova, D.; Mlaker, V.; Perovich, D. K.

    2017-12-01

    This work uses ecologically benign surface treatment of silica-based materials in carefully selected, limited areas to reduce polar ice melt by reflecting energy from summertime polar sun to attempt to slow ice loss due to the Ice-Albedo Feedback Effect. Application of Ice911's materials can be accomplished within a season, at a comparatively low cost, and with far less secondary environmental impact than many other proposed geo-engineering solutions. Field testing, instrumentation, safety testing, data-handling and modeling results will be presented. The albedo modification has been tested over a number of melt seasons with an evolving array of instrumentation, at multiple sites and on progressively larger scales, most recently in a small artificial pond in Minnesota and in a lake in Barrow, Alaska's BEO (Barrow Experimental Observatory) area. The test data show that the glass bubbles can provide an effective material for increasing albedo, significantly reducing the melting rate of ice. Using NCAR's CESM package the environmental impact of the approach of surface albedo modification was studied. During two separate runs, region-wide Arctic albedo modification as well as more targeted localized treatments were modeled and compared. The parameters of a surface snow layer are used as a proxy to simulate Ice911's high-albedo materials, and the modification is started in January over selected ice/snow regions in the Arctic. Preliminary results show promising possibilities of enhancements in surface albedo, sea ice area and sea-ice concentration, as well as temperature reductions of .5 to 3 degree Kelvin in the Arctic, and global average temperature reductions of .5 to 1 degrees.

  17. An Engineered Disulfide Bond Reversibly Traps the IgE-Fc3-4 in a Closed, Nonreceptor Binding Conformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurzburg, Beth A.; Kim, Beomkyu; Tarchevskaya, Svetlana S.; Eggel, Alexander; Vogel, Monique; Jardetzky, Theodore S. [Bern; (Stanford-MED)

    2013-08-02

    IgE antibodies interact with the high affinity IgE Fc receptor, FcϵRI, and activate inflammatory pathways associated with the allergic response. The IgE-Fc region, comprising the C-terminal domains of the IgE heavy chain, binds FcϵRI and can adopt different conformations ranging from a closed form incompatible with receptor binding to an open, receptor-bound state. A number of intermediate states are also observed in different IgE-Fc crystal forms. To further explore this apparent IgE-Fc conformational flexibility and to potentially trap a closed, inactive state, we generated a series of disulfide bond mutants. Here we describe the structure and biochemical properties of an IgE-Fc mutant that is trapped in the closed, non-receptor binding state via an engineered disulfide at residue 335 (Cys-335). Reduction of the disulfide at Cys-335 restores the ability of IgE-Fc to bind to its high affinity receptor, FcϵRIα. The structure of the Cys-335 mutant shows that its conformation is within the range of previously observed, closed form IgE-Fc structures and that it retains the hydrophobic pocket found in the hinge region of the closed conformation. Locking the IgE-Fc into the closed state with the Cys-335 mutation does not affect binding of two other IgE-Fc ligands, omalizumab and DARPin E2_79, demonstrating selective blocking of the high affinity receptor binding.

  18. Managing Reverse Logistics or Reversing Logistics Management?

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Marisa

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the past, supply chains were busy fine-tuning the logistics from raw material to the end customer. Today an increasing flow of products is going back in the chain. Thus, companies have to manage reverse logistics as well.This thesis contributes to a better understanding of reverse logistics. The thesis brings insights on reverse logistics decision-making and it lays down theoretical principles for reverse logistics as a research field.In particular it puts together a framework ...

  19. Reverse Engineering in Data Integration Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad DIACONITA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Integrated applications are complex solutions that help build better consolidated and standardized systems from existing (usually transactional systems. Integrated applications are complex solutions, whose complexity are determined by the economic processes they implement, the amount of data employed (millions of records grouped in hundreds of tables, databases, hundreds of GB and the number of users [11]. Oracle, once mainly known for his database and e-business solutions has been constantly expanding its product portfolio, providing solutions for SOA, BPA, Warehousing, Big Data and Cloud Computing. In this article I will review the facilities and the power of using a dedicated integration tool in an environment with multiple data sources and a target data mart.

  20. Reverse Engineering Socialbot Infiltration Strategies in Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Carlos A.; Benevenuto, Fabrício; Ghosh, Saptarshi; Veloso, Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Data extracted from social networks like Twitter are increasingly being used to build applications and services that mine and summarize public reactions to events, such as traffic monitoring platforms, identification of epidemic outbreaks, and public perception about people and brands. However, such services are vulnerable to attacks from socialbots $-$ automated accounts that mimic real users $-$ seeking to tamper statistics by posting messages generated automatically and interacting with le...

  1. Managing Reverse Logistics or Reversing Logistics Management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the past, supply chains were busy fine-tuning the logistics from raw material to the end customer. Today an increasing flow of products is going back in the chain. Thus, companies have to manage reverse logistics as well.This thesis contributes to a better understanding of reverse

  2. Linking Project-Based Interdisciplinary Learning and Recommended Professional Competencies with Business Management, Digital Media, Distance Learning, Engineering Technology, and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Melinda; Fulwider, Miles; Stemkoski, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper encourages the investigation of real world problems by students and faculty and links recommended student competencies with project based learning. In addition to the traditional course objectives, project-based learning (PBL) uses real world problems for classroom instruction and fieldwork to connect students, instructors, and industry…

  3. Tubal Ligation Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seal off the fallopian tubes, such as the Essure or Adiana systems, generally aren't reversible. Why ... electrocautery). Some types of sterilization, such as the Essure or Adiana systems, aren't considered reversible. Risks ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Notes Podcasts E-Newsletters Public Education Projects National Drug & Alcohol Facts Week NIDA TV PEERx Drugs & Health Blog ... Award for Addiction Science USA Science & Engineering Festival Drug & Alcohol Chat Day HBO Addiction Project Learn the Link ...

  5. Reverse logistics - a framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we define and compare Reverse Logistics definitions. We start by giving an understanding framework of Reverse Logistics: the why-what-how. By this means, we put in context the driving forces for Reverse Logistics, a typology of return reasons, a classification of

  6. Projeto conceitual de componentes de um forno industrial por meio da integração entre a engenharia reversa e o DFMA Conceptual design of components of an industrial oven through the integration between the reverse engineering and DFMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Pereira Mello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O tema deste artigo é o estudo da integração da engenharia reversa (ER e o projeto para manufatura e montagem (DFMA como ferramentas de suporte ao projeto conceitual de produtos. A partir de uma fundamentação teórica sobre esses conceitos, o presente trabalho visa analisar a adequação de um modelo para a utilização integrada do DFMA com a prototipagem rápida em uma abordagem de ER no projeto de um novo sistema de fechadura para forno industrial e recomendar melhorias no projeto conceitual do novo sistema de fechadura. O método de pesquisa empregado foi a pesquisa-ação, uma vez que o pesquisador buscava resolver um problema identificado dentro do objeto de estudo em parceria com a equipe de profissionais da empresa. Os resultados das recomendações para o projeto conceitual apresentam redução, especialmente, no custo, no tempo para fabricação e no tempo para montagem. Conclui-se que o modelo de integração estudado foi adequado para apoiar o processo de projeto do sistema de fechadura proposto por meio da ER.This study focuses on investigating the integration between reverse engineering (RE and design for manufacture and assembly (DFMA as tools to support the conceptual design of products. From a literature review of these concepts, this research aims to examine the adequacy of a model for the integrated use of DFMA and rapid prototyping in an ER approach in the design of a new locking system for an industrial oven and recommend improvements in conceptual design of a new lock system. The research method employed was action-research since the aim was to solve a problem identified in the company, object of study, in partnership with the company team. The results of the conceptual design indicate reductions, especially in cost, time to manufacture, and assembly time. It was concluded that the integration model studied was adequate to support the design process of the locking system proposed by the ER approach.

  7. DC Linked Hybrid Generation System with an Energy Storage Device including a Photo-Voltaic Generation and a Gas Engine Cogeneration for Residential Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Chienru; Miyake, Shota; Kakigano, Hiroaki; Miura, Yushi; Ise, Toshifumi; Momose, Toshinari; Hayakawa, Hideki

    For the past few years, a hybrid generation system including solar panel and gas cogeneration is being used for residential houses. Solar panels can generate electronic power at daytime; meanwhile, it cannot generate electronic power at night time. But the power consumption of residential houses usually peaks in the evening. The gas engine cogeneration system can generate electronic power without such a restriction, and it also can generate heat power to warm up house or to produce hot water. In this paper, we propose the solar panel and gas engine co-generation hybrid system with an energy storage device that is combined by dc bus. If a black out occurs, the system still can supply electronic power for special house loads. We propose the control scheme for the system which are related with the charging level of the energy storage device, the voltage of the utility grid which can be applied both grid connected and stand alone operation. Finally, we carried out some experiments to demonstrate the system operation and calculation for loss estimation.

  8. Operative Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    educational goals, learning content, or value clarification. Health pedagogy is often a matter of retrospective rationalization rather than the starting point of planning. Health and risk behaviour approaches override health educational approaches. Conclusions: Operational links between health education......, health professionalism, and management strategies pose the foremost challenge. Operational links indicates cooperative levels that facilitate a creative and innovative effort across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  9. Reversible flowchart languages and the structured reversible program theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Many irreversible computation models have reversible counterparts, but these are poorly understood at present. We introduce reversible flowcharts with an assertion operator and show that any reversible flowchart can be simulated by a structured reversible flowchart using only three control flow...... operators. Reversible flowcharts are r- Turing-complete, meaning that they can simuluate reversible Turing machines without garbage data. We also demonstrate the injectivization of classical flowcharts into reversible flowcharts. The reversible flowchart computation model provides a theoretical...

  10. Time reversibility, computer simulation, algorithms, chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Hoover, William Graham

    2012-01-01

    A small army of physicists, chemists, mathematicians, and engineers has joined forces to attack a classic problem, the "reversibility paradox", with modern tools. This book describes their work from the perspective of computer simulation, emphasizing the author's approach to the problem of understanding the compatibility, and even inevitability, of the irreversible second law of thermodynamics with an underlying time-reversible mechanics. Computer simulation has made it possible to probe reversibility from a variety of directions and "chaos theory" or "nonlinear dynamics" has supplied a useful vocabulary and a set of concepts, which allow a fuller explanation of irreversibility than that available to Boltzmann or to Green, Kubo and Onsager. Clear illustration of concepts is emphasized throughout, and reinforced with a glossary of technical terms from the specialized fields which have been combined here to focus on a common theme. The book begins with a discussion, contrasting the idealized reversibility of ba...

  11. The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This paper on titan plasma engineering contains papers on the following topics: reversed-field pinch as a fusion reactor; parametric systems studies; magnetics; burning-plasma simulations; plasma transient operations; current drive; and physics issues for compact RFP reactors

  12. Introduction to reversible computing

    CERN Document Server

    Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2013-01-01

    Few books comprehensively cover the software and programming aspects of reversible computing. Filling this gap, Introduction to Reversible Computing offers an expanded view of the field that includes the traditional energy-motivated hardware viewpoint as well as the emerging application-motivated software approach. Collecting scattered knowledge into one coherent account, the book provides a compendium of both classical and recently developed results on reversible computing. It explores up-and-coming theories, techniques, and tools for the application of rever

  13. Rehabilitation Engineering: What is Rehabilitation Engineering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Corner Strategic Plan Budget Advisory Council Staff Directory Careers History Visitor Information You are here Home » Science Education » Science Topics » Rehabilitation Engineering SCIENCE EDUCATION SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links ...

  14. Reversible airfoils for stopped rotors in high speed flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemiec, Robert; Jacobellis, George; Gandhi, Farhan

    2014-01-01

    This study starts with the design of a reversible airfoil rib for stopped-rotor applications, where the sharp trailing-edge morphs into the rounded leading-edge, and vice-versa. A NACA0012 airfoil is approximated in a piecewise linear manner and straight, rigid outer profile links used to define the airfoil contour. The end points of the profile links connect to control links, each set on a central actuation rod via an offset. Chordwise motion of the actuation rod moves the control and the profile links and reverses the airfoil. The paper describes the design methodology and evolution of the final design, based on which two reversible airfoil ribs were fabricated and used to assemble a finite span reversible rotor/wing demonstrator. The profile links were connected by Aluminum strips running in the spanwise direction which provided stiffness as well as support for a pre-tensioned elastomeric skin. An inter-rib connector with a curved-front nose piece supports the leading-edge. The model functioned well and was able to reverse smoothly back-and-forth, on application and reversal of a voltage to the motor. Navier–Stokes CFD simulations (using the TURNS code) show that the drag coefficient of the reversible airfoil (which had a 13% maximum thickness due to the thickness of the profile links) was comparable to that of the NACA0013 airfoil. The drag of a 16% thick elliptical airfoil was, on average, about twice as large, while that of a NACA0012 in reverse flow was 4–5 times as large, even prior to stall. The maximum lift coefficient of the reversible airfoil was lower than the elliptical airfoil, but higher than the NACA0012 in reverse flow operation. (paper)

  15. Online Reverse Auctions: A Pricing Tool for Government Contracting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roll, Bruce

    2000-01-01

    Reverse Auctions (RA) are the next gene ration of procurement application software designed to link acquisition reform and common DoD procurement business processes with commercial best practices and advances in electronic commerce...

  16. Reversibility of female sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, A M; Hulka, J; Peretz, A

    1985-04-01

    The discussion considers the current status of reversibility of sterilization in the US and describes clinical and experimental efforts for developing techniques designed for reversibility. It focuses on regret following sterilization, reversal potential of current sterilization techniques, patient selection, current reversal techniques, results of sterilization procedures, experimental approaches to reversal of current techniques of sterilization, and sterilization procedures devised for reversibility, in humans and in animals. Request is the 1st stage of reversal, but a request for sterilization reversal (SR) does not always mean regret for a decision made at the time. Frequently it is a wish to restore fertility because life circumstances have changed after a sterilization that was ppropriate at the time it was performed. Schwyhart and Kutner reviewed 22 studies published between 1949-69 in which they found that the percentage of patients regretting the procedure ranged from 1.3-15%. Requests for reversal remain low in most countries, but if sterilization becomes a more popular method of contraception, requests will also increase. The ideal operation considered as a reversaible method of sterilization should include an easy, reliable outpatient method of tubal occlusion with miniml risk or patient discomfort that subsequently could be reversed without the need for a major surgical intervention. Endoscopic methods have progressed toward the 1st objective. A recent search of the literature uncovered few series of SR of more than 50 cases. The 767 operations found were analyzed with regard to pregnancy outcome. The precent of live births varied from 74-78.8%, and the occurance of tubal pregnancies ranged from 1.7-6.5%. All of the confounding variables in patient selection and small numbers of reported procedures preclude any conclusion about the different techniques or the number of operations that give a surgeon a level of expertise. Few authors classify their

  17. Strengthening injectable thermo-sensitive NIPAAm-g-chitosan hydrogels using chemical cross-linking of disulfide bonds as scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Wei; Liu, Xifeng; Miller, A Lee; Cheng, Yu-Shiuan; Yeh, Ming-Long; Lu, Lichun

    2018-07-15

    In the present study, we fabricated non-toxic, injectable, and thermo-sensitive NIPAAm-g-chitosan (NC) hydrogels with thiol modification for introduction of disulfide cross-linking strategy. Previously, NIPAAm and chitosan copolymer has been proven to have excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and rapid phase transition after injection, suitable to serve as cell carriers or implanted scaffolds. However, weak mechanical properties significantly limit their potential for biomedical fields. In order to overcome this issue, we incorporated thiol side chains into chitosan by covalently conjugating N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) with carbodiimide chemistry to strengthen mechanical properties. After oxidation of thiols into disulfide bonds, modified NC hydrogels did improve the compressive modulus over 9 folds (11.4 kPa). Oscillatory frequency sweep showed a positive correlation between storage modulus and cross-liking density as well. Additionally, there was no cytotoxicity observed to mesenchymal stem cells, fibroblasts and osteoblasts. We suggested that the thiol-modified thermo-sensitive polysaccharide hydrogels are promising to be a cell-laden biomaterial for tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantum reverse hypercontractivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubitt, Toby [Department of Computer Science, University College London, London, United Kingdom and Centre for Quantum Information and Foundations, DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kastoryano, Michael [NBIA, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Montanaro, Ashley [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Temme, Kristan [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    We develop reverse versions of hypercontractive inequalities for quantum channels. By generalizing classical techniques, we prove a reverse hypercontractive inequality for tensor products of qubit depolarizing channels. We apply this to obtain a rapid mixing result for depolarizing noise applied to large subspaces and to prove bounds on a quantum generalization of non-interactive correlation distillation.

  19. Atrioventricular Pacemaker Lead Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet K Aktas, MD

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During cardiac surgery temporary epicardial atrial and ventricular leads are placed in case cardiac pacing is required postoperatively. We present the first reported series of patients with reversal of atrioventricular electrodes in the temporary pacemaker without any consequent deleterious hemodynamic effect. We review the electrocardiographic findings and discuss the findings that lead to the discovery of atrioventricular lead reversal.

  20. An algebra of reversible computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    We design an axiomatization for reversible computation called reversible ACP (RACP). It has four extendible modules: basic reversible processes algebra, algebra of reversible communicating processes, recursion and abstraction. Just like process algebra ACP in classical computing, RACP can be treated as an axiomatization foundation for reversible computation.

  1. Operative Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    and have been the object of great expectations concerning the ability to incorporate health concerns into every welfare area through health promotion strategies. The paper draws on results and analyses of a collective research project funded by the Danish National Research Council and carried out...... links' that indicate cooperative levels which facilitate a creative and innovative effort in disease prevention and health promotion targeted at children and adolescents - across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  2. Sex reversal in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This special topic issue of Sexual Development gives an overview of sex reversal in vertebrates, from fishes naturally changing their sex, to rodents escaping the mammalian SRY-determining system. It offers eight up-to-date reviews on specific subjects in sex reversal, considering fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and placental mammals, including humans. The broad scope of represented animals makes this ideal for students and researchers, especially those interested in the...

  3. Scandinavian links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann; Knowles, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    are impressive mega structures spanning international waterways. These waterways between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea have played major roles in history. The length of each of the crossings are around 20 km. The fixed links closes gaps between the Scandinavian and European motorway and rail networks...

  4. Reversible Carnot cycle outside a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi-Hao, Deng; Si-Jie, Gao

    2009-01-01

    A Carnot cycle outside a Schwarzschild black hole is investigated in detail. We propose a reversible Carnot cycle with a black hole being the cold reservoir. In our model, a Carnot engine operates between a hot reservoir with temperature T 1 and a black hole with Hawking temperature T H . By naturally extending the ordinary Carnot cycle to the black hole system, we show that the thermal efficiency for a reversible process can reach the maximal efficiency 1 – T H /T 1 . Consequently, black holes can be used to determine the thermodynamic temperature by means of the Carnot cycle. The role of the atmosphere around the black hole is discussed. We show that the thermal atmosphere provides a necessary mechanism to make the process reversible. (general)

  5. On thermodynamic and microscopic reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, Gavin E

    2011-01-01

    The word 'reversible' has two (apparently) distinct applications in statistical thermodynamics. A thermodynamically reversible process indicates an experimental protocol for which the entropy change is zero, whereas the principle of microscopic reversibility asserts that the probability of any trajectory of a system through phase space equals that of the time reversed trajectory. However, these two terms are actually synonymous: a thermodynamically reversible process is microscopically reversible, and vice versa

  6. Reversibility of continuous-variable quantum cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filip, Radim; Marek, Petr; Fiurasek, Jaromir

    2004-01-01

    We analyze a reversibility of optimal Gaussian 1→2 quantum cloning of a coherent state using only local operations on the clones and classical communication between them and propose a feasible experimental test of this feature. Performing Bell-type homodyne measurement on one clone and anticlone, an arbitrary unknown input state (not only a coherent state) can be restored in the other clone by applying appropriate local unitary displacement operation. We generalize this concept to a partial reversal of the cloning using only local operations and classical communication (LOCC) and we show that this procedure converts the symmetric cloner to an asymmetric cloner. Further, we discuss a distributed LOCC reversal in optimal 1→M Gaussian cloning of coherent states which transforms it to optimal 1→M ' cloning for M ' < M. Assuming the quantum cloning as a possible eavesdropping attack on quantum communication link, the reversibility can be utilized to improve the security of the link even after the attack

  7. Reversible Communicating Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Brown

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reversible distributed programs have the ability to abort unproductive computation paths and backtrack, while unwinding communication that occurred in the aborted paths. While it is natural to assume that reversibility implies full state recovery (as with traditional roll-back recovery protocols, an interesting alternative is to separate backtracking from local state recovery. For example, such a model could be used to create complex transactions out of nested compensable transactions where a programmer-supplied compensation defines the work required to "unwind" a transaction. Reversible distributed computing has received considerable theoretical attention, but little reduction to practice; the few published implementations of languages supporting reversibility depend upon a high degree of central control. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that a practical reversible distributed language can be efficiently implemented in a fully distributed manner. We discuss such a language, supporting CSP-style synchronous communication, embedded in Scala. While this language provided the motivation for the work described in this paper, our focus is upon the distributed implementation. In particular, we demonstrate that a "high-level" semantic model can be implemented using a simple point-to-point protocol.

  8. Thermal noise engines

    OpenAIRE

    Kish, Laszlo B.

    2010-01-01

    Electrical heat engines driven by the Johnson-Nyquist noise of resistors are introduced. They utilize Coulomb's law and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem of statistical physics that is the reverse phenomenon of heat dissipation in a resistor. No steams, gases, liquids, photons, combustion, phase transition, or exhaust/pollution are present here. In these engines, instead of heat reservoirs, cylinders, pistons and valves, resistors, capacitors and switches are the building elements. For the ...

  9. Economic impact of reversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Estimations of the Norwegian hydropower production and various reversion models' market value have been made. The value of the Norwegian hydropower production until 01.01.2007 is estimated to about Nok 289 billion after taxes, or about 2,42 Nok/kWh medium production, given an expected future electricity price of around 0,25 Nok/kWh and a discount rate at 6,5 percent in nominal terms after taxes. The estimate is slightly above the level of prices for Norwegian hydropower plants in the last 8-10 years. The value of reversion in private plants which today have a limited licence time is estimated to Nok 5,5 billion. The value of reversion in public-owned Norwegian hydropower plants are about Nok 21 billion with a 60 year licence period from 01.01.2007, and about 12 billion for 75 years (ml)

  10. Reversible deep disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-10-01

    This presentation, given by the national agency of radioactive waste management (ANDRA) at the meeting of October 8, 2009 of the high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN), describes the concept of deep reversible disposal for high level/long living radioactive wastes, as considered by the ANDRA in the framework of the program law of June 28, 2006 about the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes. The document presents the social and political reasons of reversibility, the technical means considered (containers, disposal cavities, monitoring system, test facilities and industrial prototypes), the decisional process (progressive development and blocked off of the facility, public information and debate). (J.S.)

  11. Systems engineering research

    OpenAIRE

    Sahraoui , Abd-El-Kader; Buede , Dennis ,; Sage , Andrew ,

    2008-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose selected research topics that are believed central to progress and growth in the application of systems engineering (SE). As a professional activity, and as an intellectual activity, systems engineering has strong links to such associated disciplines as decision analysis, operation research, project management, quality management, and systems design. When focussing on systems engineering research, we should distinguish between subjects that ar...

  12. Thermosensory reversal effect quantified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2008-01-01

    At room temperature, some materials feel colder than others due to differences in thermal conductivity, heat capacity and geometry. When the ambient temperature is well above skin temperature, the roles of 'cold' and 'warm' materials are reversed. In this paper, this effect is quantified by

  13. Thermosensory reversal effect quantified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2008-01-01

    At room temperature, some materials feel colder than others due to differences in thermal conductivity, heat capacity and geometry. When the ambient temperature is well above skin temperature, the roles of ‘cold’ and ‘warm’ materials are reversed. In this paper, this effect is quantified by

  14. Time reversal communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, James V.; Meyer, Alan W.

    2008-12-02

    A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

  15. Sex Reversal in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrew T; Smith, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual differentiation in birds is controlled genetically as in mammals, although the sex chromosomes are different. Males have a ZZ sex chromosome constitution, while females are ZW. Gene(s) on the sex chromosomes must initiate gonadal sex differentiation during embryonic life, inducing paired testes in ZZ individuals and unilateral ovaries in ZW individuals. The traditional view of avian sexual differentiation aligns with that expounded for other vertebrates; upon sexual differentiation, the gonads secrete sex steroid hormones that masculinise or feminise the rest of the body. However, recent studies on naturally occurring or experimentally induced avian sex reversal suggest a significant role for direct genetic factors, in addition to sex hormones, in regulating sexual differentiation of the soma in birds. This review will provide an overview of sex determination in birds and both naturally and experimentally induced sex reversal, with emphasis on the key role of oestrogen. We then consider how recent studies on sex reversal and gynandromorphic birds (half male:half female) are shaping our understanding of sexual differentiation in avians and in vertebrates more broadly. Current evidence shows that sexual differentiation in birds is a mix of direct genetic and hormonal mechanisms. Perturbation of either of these components may lead to sex reversal. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Elastomers with Reversible Nanoporosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szewczykowski, Piotr Przemyslaw; Andersen, K.; Schulte, Lars

    2009-01-01

    nanostructure and displays liquid-filled cavities. Upon several cycles of swelling and drying the cavities open and close in a reversible fashion. When exposed to a nonsolvent, the material remains collapsed. This discriminating behavior of liquid-material interaction holds potential for the use...

  17. A reversible thermoresponsive sealant for temporary closure of ocular trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Niki; Zhang, Yi; Falabella, Paulo; Menefee, Roby; Whalen, John J; Humayun, Mark S; Thompson, Mark E

    2017-12-06

    Open globe injuries are full-thickness injuries sustained to the eye wall (cornea or sclera), which cause immediate drops in intraocular pressure that may lead to retinal detachment and permanent vision loss if not treated rapidly after injury. The current standard of care for open globe injuries consists of suturing the margins closed, but the technique can be time-consuming, requires specialized training and equipment, and can lead to patient discomfort, abrasion, and infection from eye rubbing. We engineered an injectable, thermoresponsive sealant (TRS) and a custom tool to occlude open globe injuries. The smart hydrogel sealant consists of physically cross-linked N -isopropylacrylamide copolymerized with butylacrylate. At low temperatures, it can be injected as a liquid, and when raised to body temperature, a heat-induced gelation converts the hydrogel into a solidified occlusion. The sealant can be repositioned or removed without causing additional trauma via exposure to cold water. In vitro and ex vivo assessments of mechanical adhesion to eye tissue revealed maintenance of intraocular pressure that is five times greater than the physiological range with reversible seal strength comparable to cyanoacrylate (super glue). In vivo assessment in a rabbit model of ocular trauma demonstrated ease of use for TRS deployment, statistically significant improvement in wound sealing, and no evidence of neurotoxicity, retinal tissue degradation, or significant chronic inflammatory response after 30 days of exposure. Given the advantages of body heat-induced gelation, rapid reversible occlusion, and in vivo safety and efficacy, shape-adaptable TRSs have translational potential as smart wound sealants for temporary occlusion of surgical incisions or traumatic injuries. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  18. Engineering Encounters: Engineering Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatling, Anne; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

    2015-01-01

    Engineering is not a subject that has historically been taught in elementary schools, but with the emphasis on engineering in the "Next Generation Science Standards," curricula are being developed to explicitly teach engineering content and design. However, many of the scientific investigations already conducted with students have…

  19. Reversed field pinch diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    The Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) is a toroidal, axisymmetric magnetic confinement configuration characterized by a magnetic field configuration in which the toroidal magnetic field is of similar strength to the poloidal field, and is reversed at the edge compared to the center. The RFP routinely operates at high beta, and is a strong candidate for a compact fusion device. Relevant attributes of the configuration will be presented, together with an overview of present and planned experiments and their diagnostics. RFP diagnostics are in many ways similar to those of other magnetic confinement devices (such as tokamaks); these lectures will point out pertinent differences, and will present some diagnostics which provide special insights into unique attributes of the RFP

  20. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy (PRES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moron E, Fanny E; Diaz Marchan, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    The Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) is a clinical Syndrome composed of cephalea, alteration in vision and convulsions, usually observed in patients with sudden elevation of arterial pressure. The imagenologic evidence shows reversible vasogenic brain edema without stroke. Its location is predominantly posterior; it affects the cortex and the subcortical white matter of the occipital, parietal and temporal lobes. The treatment with antihypertensive drugs and the removing of immunosupressor medication are generally associated with complete neurological recovery; this is reflected also in the images which return to their basal condition. The untreated hypertension, on the other side, can result in a progressive defect of the autoregulation system of the central nervous system with cerebral hemorrhage, irreversible brain stroke, coma and death

  1. A Representation-Theoretic Approach to Reversible Computation with Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maniotis, Andreas Milton

    Reversible computing is a sub-discipline of computer science that helps to understand the foundations of the interplay between physics, algebra, and logic in the context of computation. Its subjects of study are computational devices and abstract models of computation that satisfy the constraint ......, there is still no uniform and consistent theory that is general in the sense of giving a model-independent account to the field....... of information conservation. Such machine models, which are known as reversible models of computation, have been examined both from a theoretical perspective and from an engineering perspective. While a bundle of many isolated successful findings and applications concerning reversible computing exists...

  2. Reversible infantile mitochondrial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczonadi, Veronika; Bansagi, Boglarka; Horvath, Rita

    2015-05-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are usually severe and progressive conditions; however, there are rare forms that show remarkable spontaneous recoveries. Two homoplasmic mitochondrial tRNA mutations (m.14674T>C/G in mt-tRNA(Glu)) have been reported to cause severe infantile mitochondrial myopathy in the first months of life. If these patients survive the first year of life by extensive life-sustaining measures they usually recover and develop normally. Another mitochondrial disease due to deficiency of the 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridylate methyltransferase (TRMU) causes severe liver failure in infancy, but similar to the reversible mitochondrial myopathy, within the first year of life these infants may also recover completely. Partial recovery has been noted in some other rare forms of mitochondrial disease due to deficiency of mitochondrial tRNA synthetases and mitochondrial tRNA modifying enzymes. Here we summarize the clinical presentation of these unique reversible mitochondrial diseases and discuss potential molecular mechanisms behind the reversibility. Understanding these mechanisms may provide the key to treatments of potential broader relevance in mitochondrial disease, where for the majority of the patients no effective treatment is currently available.

  3. Positioning paper on reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    After having recalled the legal framework adopted in 2006 for the deep geological storage of radioactive wastes, and briefly introduced the concept of reversibility, this publication presents the principle of geological storage, presents high and medium level and long life wastes, highlights the ethical necessity to deal with these radioactive wastes, outlines that geological storage is the generally admitted and adopted solution at the international level, and presents additional means implemented for radioactive waste management. It presents the Cigeo project as the technical answer to the issue of radioactive waste storage, describes the Cigeo development process, its current status and its development planning, and justifies the choice of this technical solution, notably from an ethical point of view. It addresses the issue of reversibility and proposes an overview of the various tools and means which aim at guaranteeing this reversibility. Appendices propose figures illustrating the Cigeo project and its development process, and a rather detailed Power Point presentation of the project by the ANDRA (history, object, planning, installations, and so on)

  4. Tandem mirror and field-reversed mirror experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coensgen, F.H.; Simonen, T.C.; Turner, W.C.

    1979-08-21

    This paper is largely devoted to tandem mirror and field-reversed mirror experiments at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL), and briefly summarizes results of experiments in which field-reversal has been achieved. In the tandem experiment, high-energy, high-density plasmas (nearly identical to 2XIIB plasmas) are located at each end of a solenoid where plasma ions are electrostatically confined by the high positive poentials arising in the end plug plasma. End plug ions are magnetically confined, and electrons are electrostatically confined by the overall positive potential of the system. The field-reversed mirror reactor consists of several small field-reversed mirror plasmas linked together for economic reasons. In the LLL Beta II experiment, generation of a field-reversed plasma ring will be investigated using a high-energy plasma gun with a transverse radial magnetic field. This plasma will be further heated and sustained by injection of intense, high-energy neutral beams.

  5. Status of time reversal invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    Time Reversal Invariance is introduced, and theories for its violation are reviewed. The present experimental and theoretical status of Time Reversal Invariance and tests thereof will be presented. Possible future tests will be discussed. 30 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  6. Introduction to time reversal theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    Theory and reaction mechanisms relevant to time reversal invariance are reviewed. Consequences of time reversal invariance are presented under the headings of CP tests, electromagnetic moments, weak emissions or absorptions, and scattering reactions. 8 refs., 4 figs

  7. BER and Availability Measured on FSO Link

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvíčala, R.; Kvičera, V.; Grábner, M.; Fišer, Ondřej

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2007), s. 7-12 ISSN 1210-2512 Grant - others:Ministry of research and technology(DE) 17050531 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : free space optical links * quality of service * meteorological optical range * link unavailability * bit error rate Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  8. The Causes of Preference Reversal.

    OpenAIRE

    Tversky, Amos; Slovic, Paul; Kahneman, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Observed preference reversal cannot be adequately explained by violations of independence, the reduction axiom, or transitivity. The primary cause of preference reversal is the failure of procedure invariance, especially the overpricing of low-probability, high-payoff bets. This result violates regret theory and generalized (nonindependent) utility models. Preference reversal and a new reversal involving time preferences are explained by scale compatibility, which implies that payoffs are wei...

  9. Geomagnetic Field During a Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirtzler, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    It has frequently been suggested that only the geomagnetic dipole, rather than higher order poles, reverse during a geomagnetic field reversal. Under this assumption the geomagnetic field strength has been calculated for the surface of the Earth for various steps of the reversal process. Even without an eminent a reversal of the field, extrapolation of the present secular change (although problematic) shows that the field strength may become zero in some geographic areas within a few hundred years.

  10. A Study on Reverse Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Dhananjaya

    2011-01-01

    In the competitive world of manufacturing, companies are often searching for new ways to improve their process, customer satisfaction and stay ahead in the game with their competitors. Reverse logistics has been considered a strategy to bring these things to life for the past decade or so. This thesis work tries to shed some light on the basics of reverse logistics and how reverse logistics can be used as a management strategy. This paper points out the fundamentals of reverse logistics and l...

  11. Geomagnetic Reversals during the Phanerozoic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhinny, M W

    1971-04-09

    An antalysis of worldwide paleomagnetic measurements suggests a periodicity of 350 x 10(6) years in the polarity of the geomagnetic field. During the Mesozoic it is predominantly normal, whereas during the Upper Paleozoic it is predominantly reversed. Although geomagnetic reversals occur at different rates throughout the Phanerozoic, there appeaars to be no clear correlation between biological evolutionary rates and reversal frequency.

  12. Reversal Strategies for NOACs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Steen; Verheugt, Freek; Comuth, Willemijn

    2015-01-01

    , coagulation factor concentrates or NOAC-specific antidotes could be used. Coagulation factor concentrates can be used in patients with haemophilia and to reverse the effect of VKAs but, in NOAC-treated patients, results are inconsistent and these agents could potentially have pro-thrombotic effects. Specific...... antidotes for NOACs are expected to be on the market soon. Phase III clinical trials with a humanized antibody fragment directed against dabigatran (idarucizumab) and recombinant, modified factor Xa (andexanet alfa) are ongoing. A molecule (aripazine) with broad activity against various anticoagulants...

  13. Reversible brazing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jim D.; Stephens, John J.; Walker, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    A method of reversibly brazing surfaces together. An interface is affixed to each surface. The interfaces can be affixed by processes such as mechanical joining, welding, or brazing. The two interfaces are then brazed together using a brazing process that does not defeat the surface to interface joint. Interfaces of materials such as Ni-200 can be affixed to metallic surfaces by welding or by brazing with a first braze alloy. The Ni-200 interfaces can then be brazed together using a second braze alloy. The second braze alloy can be chosen so that it minimally alters the properties of the interfaces to allow multiple braze, heat and disassemble, rebraze cycles.

  14. Reversed-field multiple mirror concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.; Grossmann, W.; Seyler, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    The reversed-field multiple mirror (RFMM), is a promising technique for end-stoppering linear magnetic fusion plasmas. By this means the physics and engineering advantages of a linear plasma are gained while circumventing the endloss problem, allowing the projection of very short (less than or equal to 100 m) conceptual reactors. RFMM end-stoppering is accomplished by a string of closed field-line cells on the plasma column axis; these cells strongly retard the axial flow of particles and energy. We describe the reactor implications of the RFMM

  15. Reversibly Bistable Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2015-05-01

    Introducing the notion of transformational silicon electronics has paved the way for integrating various applications with silicon-based, modern, high-performance electronic circuits that are mechanically flexible and optically semitransparent. While maintaining large-scale production and prototyping rapidity, this flexible and translucent scheme demonstrates the potential to transform conventionally stiff electronic devices into thin and foldable ones without compromising long-term performance and reliability. In this work, we report on the fabrication and characterization of reversibly bistable flexible electronic switches that utilize flexible n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The transistors are fabricated initially on rigid (100) silicon substrates before they are peeled off. They can be used to control flexible batches of light-emitting diodes, demonstrating both the relative ease of scaling at minimum cost and maximum reliability and the feasibility of integration. The peeled-off silicon fabric is about 25 µm thick. The fabricated devices are transferred to a reversibly bistable flexible platform through which, for example, a flexible smartphone can be wrapped around a user’s wrist and can also be set back to its original mechanical position. Buckling and cyclic bending of such host platforms brings a completely new dimension to the development of flexible electronics, especially rollable displays.

  16. Sex-linked dominant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...

  17. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Yu, Won Jong; Ahn, Kook Jin; Jung, So Lyung; Lee, Yeon Soo; Kim, Ji Chang; Kang, Si Won; Song, Chang Joon; Song, Soon-Young; Koo, Ja Hong; Kim, Man Deuk

    2001-01-01

    To review reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. We reviewed 22 patients (M:F=3:19; age, 17-46 years) with the characteristic clinical and imaging features of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. All underwent brain MRI, and in three cases both CT and MRI were performed. In one, MRA was obtained, and in eleven, follow-up MR images were obtained. We evaluated the causes of this syndrome, its clinical manifestations, and MR findings including the locations of lesions, the presence or absence of contrast enhancement, and the changes seen at follow-up MRI. Of the 22 patients, 13 had eclampsia (six during pregnancy and seven during puerperium). Four were receiving immunosuppressive therapy (three, cyclosporine ; one, FK 506). Four suffered renal failure and one had complicated migraine. The clinical manifestations included headache (n=12), visual disturbance (n=13), seizure (n=15), focal neurologic sign (n=3), and altered mental status (n=2). Fifteen patients had hypertension and the others normotension. MRI revealed that lesions were bilateral (n=20) or unilateral (n=2). In all patients the lesion was found in the cortical and subcortical areas of the parieto-occipital lobes ; other locations were the basal ganglia (n=9), posterior temporal lobe (n=8), frontal lobe (n=5), cerebellum (n=5), pons (n=2), and thalamus (n=1). All lesions were of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and of iso to low intensity on T1-weighted images. One was combined with acute hematoma in the left basal ganglia. In eight of 11 patients who underwent postcontrast T1-weighted MRI, there was no definite enhancement ; in one, enhancement was mild, and in tow, patchy. CT studies showed low attenuation, and MRA revealed mild vasospasm. The symptoms of all patients improved. Follow-up MRI in nine of 11 patients depicted complete resolution of the lesions ; in two, small infarctions remained but the extent of the lesions had decreased. Reversible posterior

  18. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Yu, Won Jong; Ahn, Kook Jin; Jung, So Lyung; Lee, Yeon Soo; Kim, Ji Chang; Kang, Si Won [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Chang Joon [Chungnam National Univ. School of Medicine, Cheonju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon-Young; Koo, Ja Hong [Kwandong Univ. College of Medicine, Myungji Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Man Deuk [College of Medicine Pochon CHA Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    To review reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. We reviewed 22 patients (M:F=3:19; age, 17-46 years) with the characteristic clinical and imaging features of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. All underwent brain MRI, and in three cases both CT and MRI were performed. In one, MRA was obtained, and in eleven, follow-up MR images were obtained. We evaluated the causes of this syndrome, its clinical manifestations, and MR findings including the locations of lesions, the presence or absence of contrast enhancement, and the changes seen at follow-up MRI. Of the 22 patients, 13 had eclampsia (six during pregnancy and seven during puerperium). Four were receiving immunosuppressive therapy (three, cyclosporine ; one, FK 506). Four suffered renal failure and one had complicated migraine. The clinical manifestations included headache (n=12), visual disturbance (n=13), seizure (n=15), focal neurologic sign (n=3), and altered mental status (n=2). Fifteen patients had hypertension and the others normotension. MRI revealed that lesions were bilateral (n=20) or unilateral (n=2). In all patients the lesion was found in the cortical and subcortical areas of the parieto-occipital lobes ; other locations were the basal ganglia (n=9), posterior temporal lobe (n=8), frontal lobe (n=5), cerebellum (n=5), pons (n=2), and thalamus (n=1). All lesions were of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and of iso to low intensity on T1-weighted images. One was combined with acute hematoma in the left basal ganglia. In eight of 11 patients who underwent postcontrast T1-weighted MRI, there was no definite enhancement ; in one, enhancement was mild, and in tow, patchy. CT studies showed low attenuation, and MRA revealed mild vasospasm. The symptoms of all patients improved. Follow-up MRI in nine of 11 patients depicted complete resolution of the lesions ; in two, small infarctions remained but the extent of the lesions had decreased. Reversible posterior

  19. Reverse osmosis application studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golomb, A.

    1982-02-01

    To assess the feasibility of applying reverse osmosis (RO) and ultrafiltration (UF) for effective treatment of process and waste streams from operations at Ontario Hydro's thermal and nuclear stations, an extensive literature survey has been carried out. It is concluded that RO is not at present economic for pretreatment of Great Lakes water prior to ion exchange demineralization for boiler makeup. Using both conventional and novel commercial membrane modules, RO pilot studies are recommended for treatment of boiler cleaning wastes, fly ash leachates, and flue gas desulphurization scrubber discharges for removal of heavy metals. Volume reduction and decontamination of nuclear station low-level active liquid waste streams by RO/UF also appear promising. Research programmes are proposed

  20. Reverse photoacoustic standoff spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, Charles W [Kingston, TN; Senesac, Lawrence R [Knoxville, TN; Thundat, Thomas G [Knoxville, TN

    2011-04-12

    A system and method are disclosed for generating a reversed photoacoustic spectrum at a greater distance. A source may emit a beam to a target and a detector measures signals generated as a result of the beam being emitted on the target. By emitting a chopped/pulsed light beam to the target, it may be possible to determine the target's optical absorbance by monitoring the intensity of light collected at the detector at different wavelengths. As the wavelength of light is changed, the target may absorb or reject each optical frequency. Rejection may increase the intensity at the sensing element and absorption may decrease the intensity. Accordingly, an identifying spectrum of the target may be made with the intensity variation of the detector as a function of illuminating wavelength.

  1. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate; Duan, Xiaoli; Wendel, Emily M.

    2013-08-26

    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). ¬The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.¬

  2. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.

  3. Sex Reversal in Amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians have been widely used to study developmental biology due to the fact that embryo development takes place independently of the maternal organism and that observations and experimental approaches are easy. Some amphibians like Xenopus became model organisms in this field. In the first part of this article, the differentiation of the gonads in amphibians and the mechanisms governing this process are reviewed. In the second part, the state of the art about sex reversal, which can be induced by steroid hormones in general and by temperature in some species, is presented. Also information about pollutants found in the environment that could interfere with the development of the amphibian reproductive apparatus or with their reproductive physiology is given. Such compounds could play a part in the amphibian decline, since in the wild, many amphibians are endangered species. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Reprojeto de um dispositivo eletromecânico em uma abordagem de engenharia reversa integrada ao projeto para manufatura e montagem e à prototipagem rápida Redesign of an electromechanical device in a reverse engineering approach integrated to design for manufacturing and assembly and rapid prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Pereira Mello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O tema deste trabalho é o estudo da integração do projeto para manufatura e montagem com a prototipagem rápida, em uma abordagem de engenharia reversa, como ferramenta de suporte ao reprojeto de produtos. A partir de uma fundamentação teórica sobre esses conceitos, o presente trabalho visa analisar a aplicação de um modelo para a utilização integrada do projeto para manufatura com a prototipagem rápida em uma abordagem da engenharia reversa no processo de reprojeto de produtos eletromecânicos e analisar os resultados da aplicação do referido modelo para a redução do tempo de produção/montagem e dos custos de manufatura/montagem no reprojeto desse produto que está, há mais de 30 anos, no mercado. O método de pesquisa empregado foi a pesquisa-ação, uma vez que o pesquisador buscava resolver um problema identificado dentro do objeto de estudo em parceria com a equipe de profissionais da empresa. Os resultados das recomendações para o reprojeto do produto apresentam uma redução no tempo de montagem, do número de processos e de componentes e no custo-meta do produto, propiciando a oportunidade de melhorar a sua competitividade no mercado.The purpose of this work was the study of the integration between design for manufacturing and assembly with rapid prototyping, in a reverse engineering approach, such as some tools to support product redesign. Based on a literature review of these concepts, this paper aimed at examining the application of a model that integrates the design for manufacture and assembly with rapid prototyping in reverse engineering approach in the redesign of an electromechanical device. The objective was to analyze the results of the application of this model in order to reduce the time of manufacture/assembly and the cost of assembly in the redesign of the product, which has been marketed for more than 30 years. The research method employed was action-research, because the researcher wanted to address a

  5. Reversed field pinch ignition requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werley, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma models are described and used to calculated numerically the transport confinement (nτ E ) requirements and steady state operation points for both the reversed field pinch (RFP) and the tokamak. The models are used to examine the CIT tokamak ignition conditions and the RFP experimental and ignition conditions. Physics differences between RFPs and tokamaks and their consequences for a D-T ignition machine are discussed. Compared with a tokamak, the ignition RFP has many physics advantages, including Ohmic heating to ignition (no need for auxiliary heating systems), higher beta, lower ignition current, less sensitivity of ignition requirements to impurity effects, no hard disruptions (associated with beta or density limits) and successful operation with high radiation fractions (f RAD ∼ 0.95). These physics advantages, coupled with important engineering advantages associated with lower external magnetic field, larger aspect ratios and smaller plasma cross-sections, translate to significant cost reductions for both ignition and reactor applications. The primary drawback of the RFP is the uncertainty that the present scaling will extrapolate to reactor regimes. Devices that are under construction should go a long way toward resolving this scaling uncertainty. The 4 MA ZTH is expected to extend the nτ E transport scaling data by three orders of magnitude above the results of ZT-40M, and, if the present scaling holds, ZTH is expected to achieve a D-T equivalent scientific energy breakeven, Q = 1. A base case RFP ignition point is identified with a plasma current of 8.1 MA and no auxiliary heating. (author). 19 refs, 11 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Navigation of the autonomous vehicle reverse movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachkov, M.; Petukhov, S.

    2018-02-01

    The paper presents a mathematical formulation of the vehicle reverse motion along a multi-link polygonal trajectory consisting of rectilinear segments interconnected by nodal points. Relevance of the problem is caused by the need to solve a number of tasks: to save the vehicle in the event of а communication break by returning along the trajectory already passed, to avoid a turn on the ground in constrained obstacles or dangerous conditions, or a partial return stroke for the subsequent bypass of the obstacle and continuation of the forward movement. The method of navigation with direct movement assumes that the reverse path is elaborated by using landmarks. To measure landmarks on board, a block of cameras is placed on a vehicle controlled by the operator through the radio channel. Errors in estimating deviation from the nominal trajectory of motion are determined using the multidimensional correlation analysis apparatus based on the dynamics of a lateral deviation error and a vehicle speed error. The result of the experiment showed a relatively high accuracy in determining the state vector that provides the vehicle reverse motion relative to the reference trajectory with a practically acceptable error while returning to the start point.

  7. 49 CFR 230.89 - Reverse gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reverse gear. 230.89 Section 230.89 Transportation... Reversing Gear § 230.89 Reverse gear. (a) General provisions. Reverse gear, reverse levers, and quadrants... quadrant. Proper counterbalance shall be provided for the valve gear. (b) Air-operated power reverse gear...

  8. Reversibility and the structure of the local state space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safi, Sabri W; Richens, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The richness of quantum theory’s reversible dynamics is one of its unique operational characteristics, with recent results suggesting deep links between the theory’s reversible dynamics, its local state space and the degree of non-locality it permits. We explore the delicate interplay between these features, demonstrating that reversibility places strong constraints on both the local and global state space. Firstly, we show that all reversible dynamics are trivial (composed of local transformations and permutations of subsytems) in maximally non-local theories whose local state spaces satisfy a dichotomy criterion; this applies to a range of operational models that have previously been studied, such as d-dimensional ‘hyperballs’ and almost all regular polytope systems. By separately deriving a similar result for odd-sided polygons, we show that classical systems are the only regular polytope state spaces whose maximally non-local composites allow for non-trivial reversible dynamics. Secondly, we show that non-trivial reversible dynamics do exist in maximally non-local theories whose state spaces are reducible into two or more smaller spaces. We conjecture that this is a necessary condition for the existence of such dynamics, but that reversible entanglement generation remains impossible even in this scenario. (paper)

  9. Genetic dissection of behavioral flexibility: reversal learning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Rick E; Grant, Tara L; Williams, Robert W; Jentsch, J David

    2011-06-01

    Behavioral inflexibility is a feature of schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and behavior addictions that likely results from heritable deficits in the inhibitory control over behavior. Here, we investigate the genetic basis of individual differences in flexibility, measured using an operant reversal learning task. We quantified discrimination acquisition and subsequent reversal learning in a cohort of 51 BXD strains of mice (2-5 mice/strain, n = 176) for which we have matched data on sequence, gene expression in key central nervous system regions, and neuroreceptor levels. Strain variation in trials to criterion on acquisition and reversal was high, with moderate heritability (∼.3). Acquisition and reversal learning phenotypes did not covary at the strain level, suggesting that these traits are effectively under independent genetic control. Reversal performance did covary with dopamine D2 receptor levels in the ventral midbrain, consistent with a similar observed relationship between impulsivity and D2 receptors in humans. Reversal, but not acquisition, is linked to a locus on mouse chromosome 10 with a peak likelihood ratio statistic at 86.2 megabase (p work demonstrates the clear trait independence between, and genetic control of, discrimination acquisition and reversal and illustrates how globally coherent data sets for a single panel of highly related strains can be interrogated and integrated to uncover genetic sources and molecular and neuropharmacological candidates of complex behavioral traits relevant to human psychopathology. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. KESS: Knowledge Engineering Support System

    OpenAIRE

    Said, Mohamed Ben; Dougherty, Nini; Anderson, Curtis; Altman, Stanley J.; Bouhaddou, Omar; Warner, Homer R.

    1987-01-01

    KESS (Knowledge Engineering Support System) is a relational information management system created at the University of Utah to document each step in the building of four expert knowledge bases. In weekly knowledge engineering sessions, groups of experts propose decision making criteria and examine information sources in the process of creating HELP knowledge frames. KESS utilizes many-to-many links with multiple files and central link files to track the different kinds of information generate...

  11. Engineer Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-01

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  12. Field reversal experiments (FRX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.; Armstrong, W.T.; Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, E.G.

    1978-01-01

    The equilibrium, confinement, and stability properties of the reversed-field configuration (RFC) are being studied in two theta-pinch facilities. The RFC is an elongated toroidal plasma confined in a purely poloidal field geometry. The open field lines of the linear theta pinch support the closed-field RFC much like the vertical field centers the toroidal plasma in a tokamak. Depending on stability and confinement properties, the RFC might be used to greatly reduce the axial losses in linear fusion devices such as mirrors, theta pinches, and liners. The FRX systems produce RFC's with a major radius R = 2-6 cm, minor radius a approximately 2 cm, and a total length l approximately 35 cm. The observed temperatures are T/sub e/ approximately 100 eV and T/sub i/ = 150-350 eV with a peak density n approximately 2 x 10 15 cm -3 . After the plasma reaches equilibrium, the RFC remains stable for up to 30 μs followed by the rapid growth of the rotational m = 2 instability, which terminates the confinement. During the stable equilibrium, the particle and energy confinement times are more than 10 times longer than in an open-field system. The behavior of the m = 2 mode qualitatively agrees with the theoretically predicted instability for rotational velocities exceeding some critical value

  13. Field reversal experiments (FRX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.; Armstrong, W.T.; Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, E.G.

    1979-01-01

    The equilibrium, confinement, and stability properties of the reversed-field configuration (RFC) are being studied in two theta-pinch facilities. The RFC is an elongated toroidal plasma confined in a purely poloidal field geometry. The open field lines of the linear theta pinch support the closed-field RFC much like the vertical field centres the toroidal plasma in a tokamak. Depending on stability and confinement properties, the RFC might be used to greatly reduce the axial losses in linear fusion devices such as mirrors, theta pinches, and liners. The FRX systems produce RFCs with a major radius R=2-6cm, a minor radius a approximately 2cm, and a total length l approximately 35cm. The observed temperatures are Tsub(e) approximately 100eV and Tsub(i)=150-350eV with a peak density n approximately 2x10 15 cm -3 . After the plasma has reached equilibrium, the RFC remains stable for up to 30μs, followed by the rapid growth of the rotational m=2 instability, which terminates the confinement. During the stable equilibrium, the particle and energy confinement times are more than 10 times longer than in an open-field system. The behaviour of the m=2 mode agrees qualitatively with the theoretically predicted instability for rotational velocities exceeding some critical value. (author)

  14. Thermally reversible rubber-toughened thermoset networks via Diels-Alder chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya-Hermosilla, R.; Fortunato, G.; Pucci, A.; Raffa, P.; Polgar, L.; Broekhuis, A. A.; Pourhossein, P.; Lima, G. M. R.; Beljaars, M.; Picchioni, F.

    In this work we present a reversible and toughened thermoset system based on the covalent incorporation of a furane functionalized ethylene-propylene rubber (EPM-Fu) into a thermoset furane functionalized polyketone (PK-Fu) via Diels-Alder (DA) reversible cross-linking with bismaleimide (b-MA).

  15. Towards a reversible functional language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2012-01-01

    /equality operator also simplifies inverse computation and program inversion. We discuss the advantages of a reversible functional language using example programs, including run-length encoding. Program inversion is seen to be as lightweight as for imperative reversible languages and realized by recursive descent...

  16. How decision reversibility affects motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullens, L.; van Harreveld, F.; Förster, J.; Higgins, T.E.

    2014-01-01

    The present research examined how decision reversibility can affect motivation. On the basis of extant findings, it was suggested that 1 way it could affect motivation would be to strengthen different regulatory foci, with reversible decision making, compared to irreversible decision making,

  17. Enzymatic reactions in reversed micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    It has been recognised that enzymes in reversed micelles have potential for application in chemical synthesis. Before these expectations will be realised many problems must be overcome. This thesis deals with some of them.
    In Chapter 1 the present knowledge about reversed micelles and

  18. Reversible networks in supramolecular polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans - van Beek, D.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Non–covalent interactions between low molecular weight polymers form the basis of supramolecular polymers. The material properties of such polymers are determined by the strength and lifetime of the non–covalent reversible interactions. Due to the reversibility of the interactions between the low

  19. Reverse genetics of avian metapneumoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infection in turkeys and development of a reverse genetics system for aMPV subgroup C (aMPV-C) virus will be presented. By using reverse genetics technology, we generated recombinant aMPV-C viruses containing a different length of glycoprotein (G) gene or...

  20. MECHATRONICS SYSTEM ENGINEERING FOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Roli, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    rotary vane actuator for robot manipulators is presented. The contribution proposes mathematical modelling, control and simulation of a novel water hydraulic rotary vane actuator applied to power and control a three-links manipulator. The results include engineering design and test of the proposed...

  1. Systems and Control Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 1. Systems and Control Engineering - Notions of Control. A Rama Kalyan J R Vengateswaran. General Article Volume 4 Issue 1 January 1999 pp 45-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  2. What do reversible programs compute?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Reversible computing is the study of computation models that exhibit both forward and backward determinism. Understanding the fundamental properties of such models is not only relevant for reversible programming, but has also been found important in other fields, e.g., bidirectional model...... transformation, program transformations such as inversion, and general static prediction of program properties. Historically, work on reversible computing has focussed on reversible simulations of irreversible computations. Here, we take the viewpoint that the property of reversibility itself should...... are not strictly classically universal, but that they support another notion of universality; we call this RTM-universality. Thus, even though the RTMs are sub-universal in the classical sense, they are powerful enough as to include a self-interpreter. Lifting this to other computation models, we propose r...

  3. Fundamentals of reversible flowchart languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the fundamentals of reversible flowcharts. They are intended to naturally represent the structure and control flow of reversible (imperative) programming languages in a simple computation model, in the same way classical flowcharts do for conventional languages......, structured reversible flowcharts are as expressive as unstructured ones, as shown by a reversible version of the classic Structured Program Theorem. We illustrate how reversible flowcharts can be concretized with two example programming languages, complete with syntax and semantics: a low-level unstructured...... language and a high-level structured language. We introduce concrete tools such as program inverters and translators for both languages, which follow the structure suggested by the flowchart model. To further illustrate the different concepts and tools brought together in this paper, we present two major...

  4. The Geomagnetic Field During a Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirtzler, James R.

    2003-01-01

    By modifying the IGRF it is possible to learn what may happen to the geomagnetic field during a geomagnetic reversal. If the entire IGRF reverses then the declination and inclination only reverse when the field strength is zero. If only the dipole component of the IGRF reverses a large geomagnetic field remains when the dipole component is zero and he direction of the field at the end of the reversal is not exactly reversed from the directions at the beginning of the reversal.

  5. Fast switching of bistable magnetic nanowires through collective spin reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindigni, Alessandro; Rettori, Angelo; Bogani, Lapo; Caneschi, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante; Sessoli, Roberta; Novak, Miguel A.

    2005-08-01

    The use of magnetic nanowires as memory units is made possible by the exponential divergence of the characteristic time for magnetization reversal at low temperature, but the slow relaxation makes the manipulation of the frozen magnetic states difficult. We suggest that finite-size segments can show a fast switching if collective reversal of the spins is taken into account. This mechanism gives rise at low temperatures to a scaling law for the dynamic susceptibility that has been experimentally observed for the dilute molecular chain Co(hfac)2NitPhOMe. These results suggest a possible way of engineering nanowires for fast switching of the magnetization.

  6. How decision reversibility affects motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullens, Lottie; van Harreveld, Frenk; Förster, Jens; Higgins, Tory E

    2014-04-01

    The present research examined how decision reversibility can affect motivation. On the basis of extant findings, it was suggested that 1 way it could affect motivation would be to strengthen different regulatory foci, with reversible decision making, compared to irreversible decision making, strengthening prevention-related motivation relatively more than promotion-related motivation. If so, then decision reversibility should have effects associated with the relative differences between prevention and promotion motivation. In 5 studies, we manipulated the reversibility of a decision and used different indicators of regulatory focus motivation to test these predictions. Specifically, Study 1 tested for differences in participants' preference for approach versus avoidance strategies toward a desired end state. In Study 2, we used speed and accuracy performance as indicators of participants' regulatory motivation, and in Study 3, we measured global versus local reaction time performance. In Study 4, we approached the research question in a different way, making use of the value-from-fit hypothesis (Higgins, 2000, 2002). We tested whether a fit between chronic regulatory focus and focus induced by the reversibility of the decision increased participants' subjective positive feelings about the decision outcome. Finally, in Study 5, we tested whether regulatory motivation, induced by decision reversibility, also influenced participants' preference in specific product features. The results generally support our hypothesis showing that, compared to irreversible decisions, reversible decisions strengthen a prevention focus more than a promotion focus. Implications for research on decision making are discussed.

  7. Harmonic uniflow engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2016-03-22

    A reciprocating-piston uniflow engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. When released, the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium position to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. In other embodiments, the harmonic oscillator arrangement of the inlet valve enables the uniflow engine to be reversibly operated as a uniflow compressor.

  8. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.

    1993-11-30

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

  9. Virtual Parts Engineering Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    engineering 10 materials. High strength alloys , composites (polymer composites and metallic composites), and the like cannot merely be replaced by...ceramics, smart materials, shape memory alloys , super plastic materials and nano- structured materials may be more appropriate substitutes in a reverse...molding process using thermosetting Bakelite. For remanufacturing the part in small quantities, machining has been identified as the most economical

  10. Field reversal in mirror machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearlstein, L.D.; Anderson, D.V.; Boozer, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    This report discusses some of the physics issues anticipated in field-reversed mirrors. The effect of current cancellation due to electrons is described. An estimate is made of the required impurity level to maintain a field-reversed configuration. The SUPERLAYER code is used to simulate the high-β 2XIIB results, and favorable comparisons require inclusion of quasilinear RF turbulence. Impact of a quadrupole field on field-line closure and resonant transport is discussed. A simple self-consistent model of ion currents is presented. Conditions for stability of field-reversed configurations to E x B driven rotations are determined

  11. Zero field reversal probability in thermally assisted magnetization reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetya, E. B.; Utari; Purnama, B.

    2017-11-01

    This paper discussed about zero field reversal probability in thermally assisted magnetization reversal (TAMR). Appearance of reversal probability in zero field investigated through micromagnetic simulation by solving stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gibert (LLG). The perpendicularly anisotropy magnetic dot of 50×50×20 nm3 is considered as single cell magnetic storage of magnetic random acces memory (MRAM). Thermally assisted magnetization reversal was performed by cooling writing process from near/almost Curie point to room temperature on 20 times runs for different randomly magnetized state. The results show that the probability reversal under zero magnetic field decreased with the increase of the energy barrier. The zero-field probability switching of 55% attained for energy barrier of 60 k B T and the reversal probability become zero noted at energy barrier of 2348 k B T. The higest zero-field switching probability of 55% attained for energy barrier of 60 k B T which corespond to magnetif field of 150 Oe for switching.

  12. Reverse engineering a 'responsible drinking' campaign to assess strategic intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Biagioni, Nicole; Daube, Mike; Stafford, Julia; Jones, Sandra C; Chikritzhs, Tanya

    2016-06-01

    The alcohol industry produces 'responsible drinking' advertising campaigns. There is concern that these may promote drinking while persuading governments and the general public that the industry is acting responsibly. This paper examined young people's thoughts and feelings in response to one of these campaigns in Australia. A qualitative analysis of introspection data provided by young drinkers after exposure to a responsible drinking advertisement produced by DrinkWise called 'How to Drink Properly'. Perth, Western Australia. Forty-eight 18-21-year-old drinkers. The qualitative data were imported into NVivo10 and coded according to the various stages of advertising effects frameworks. A thematic analysis approach was used to identify patterns in the data relating to (i) perceptions of the source and purpose of the advertisement and (ii) any resulting attitudinal or behavioural outcomes. Despite the sample comprising mainly high-risk drinkers, participants were generally unable to relate to the heavy drinkers depicted in the DrinkWise advertisement. This disassociation resulted in a perceived lack of need to modify their own drinking behaviours. Instead, the study participants found the advertisement to be entertaining and supportive of existing social norms relating to heavy drinking among members of this age group. The 'How to Drink Properly' advertisement by Drinkwise in Australia may reinforce existing drinking attitudes and behaviours among young drinkers. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Conservation of Information: Reverse engineering dark social systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lawless, W. F.; Rifkin, Stan; Sofge, Donald; Hobbs, Stephen H.; Angjellari-Dajci, F.; Chaudron, Laurent; Wood, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    A broad appeal for a new theory of interdependence, 'iota', has been requested for the science of complexity in a special issue of Science, for social network analysis by the National Academy of Sciences, for effects-based operations by the US military, and for modernizing the fields of law and economics. We have proposed a new theory of 'iota' for organizations and systems that already appears to exhibit some validity. It is expressed in a physics of 'iota' (e.g., bistability) that includes ...

  14. Intelligent Data-Driven Reverse Engineering of Software Design Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Alhusain, Sultan

    2016-01-01

    Recognising implemented instances of Design Patterns (DPs) in software design discloses and recovers a wealth of information about the intention of the original designers and the rationale for their design decisions. Because it is often the case that the documentation available for software systems, if any, is poor and/or obsolete, recovering such information can be of great help and importance for maintenance tasks. However, since DPs are abstractly and vaguely defined, a set of software cla...

  15. Learning Reverse Engineering and Simulation with Design Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsworth, Paul J.

    2018-01-01

    The Design Visualization (DV) group supports work at the Kennedy Space Center by utilizing metrology data with Computer-Aided Design (CAD) models and simulations to provide accurate visual representations that aid in decision-making. The capability to measure and simulate objects in real time helps to predict and avoid potential problems before they become expensive in addition to facilitating the planning of operations. I had the opportunity to work on existing and new models and simulations in support of DV and NASA’s Exploration Ground Systems (EGS).

  16. Conservation of Information: Reverse Engineering Dark Social Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Division of Business Chaudron, Laurent, Director, ONERA Provence Res. Center, French Air Force Academy Wood, Joseph, US Army Ft. Gordon, Georgia...American cinema : Directors and directions, Reprinted 1996 De Capo Press. Schlesinger, A. (1949). The vital center. Cambridge, MA, Riverside. Schweitzer

  17. Dynamic Protocol Reverse Engineering: A Grammatical Inference Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    domain-specific languages”. OOPSLA ’05: Companion to the 20th annual ACM SIGPLAN conference on Object-oriented programming, systems, languages, and...Representation to k-TSS Lan- guage Models”. Computación y Sistemas , 3(4):273–244, 2000. ISSN 1405-5546. 256. Trakhtenbrot, B.A. and Y.M. Barzdin. Finite

  18. Reverse engineering large-scale genetic networks: synthetic versus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Development of microarray technology has resulted in an exponential rise in gene expression data. Linear computational methods are of great assistance in identifying molecular interactions, and elucidating the functional properties of gene networks. It overcomes the weaknesses of in vivo experiments including high cost, ...

  19. A Framework for Reverse Engineering Large C++ Code Bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Byelas, Heorhiy; Voinea, Lucian

    2009-01-01

    When assessing the quality and maintainability of large C++ code bases, tools are needed for extracting several facts from the source code, such as: architecture, structure, code smells, and quality metrics. Moreover, these facts should be presented in such ways so that one can correlate them and

  20. A Framework for Reverse Engineering Large C++ Code Bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Byelas, Heorhiy; Voinea, Lucian

    2008-01-01

    When assessing the quality and maintainability of large C++ code bases, tools are needed for extracting several facts from the source code, such as: architecture, structure, code smells, and quality metrics. Moreover, these facts should be presented in such ways so that one can correlate them and

  1. Reverse engineering Turing Machines and insights into the Collatz conjecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Nixon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I have extended my earlier work \\cite{jn} on small Turing Machines (TMs by developing a method for obtaining recursive definitions of the irreducible regular rules (IRR for a TM when explicit formulae for them cannot be obtained. This has been illustrated by two examples. The first example was randomly chosen and the second example was designed to simulate the Collatz conjecture. Analysis of this TM based on the its IRR suggested new approaches that might be the basis for a proof of this conjecture. The method involves running the TM backwards from a configuration set (CS. This in general produces a tree of CSs at each step. The aim is to find CS's $\\mathtt{y}$ that are reachable from a CS $x$ that simply specifies the symbol about to be read and the machine state. This means that following the computation forward from $x$ by adding some symbols when needed at the pointer, the CS $y$ can be reached. These CS's form the basis of the LHS's of the IRR.

  2. Reverse engineering Turing Machines and insights into the Collatz conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    John Nixon

    2017-01-01

    In this paper I have extended my earlier work \\cite{jn} on small Turing Machines (TMs) by developing a method for obtaining recursive definitions of the irreducible regular rules (IRR) for a TM when explicit formulae for them cannot be obtained. This has been illustrated by two examples. The first example was randomly chosen and the second example was designed to simulate the Collatz conjecture. Analysis of this TM based on the its IRR suggested new approaches that might be the basis for a pr...

  3. Reverse engineering GTPase programming languages with reconstituted signaling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Scott M

    2016-07-02

    The Ras superfamily GTPases represent one of the most prolific signaling currencies used in Eukaryotes. With these remarkable molecules, evolution has built GTPase networks that control diverse cellular processes such as growth, morphology, motility and trafficking. (1-4) Our knowledge of the individual players that underlie the function of these networks is deep; decades of biochemical and structural data has provided a mechanistic understanding of the molecules that turn GTPases ON and OFF, as well as how those GTPase states signal by controlling the assembly of downstream effectors. However, we know less about how these different activities work together as a system to specify complex dynamic signaling outcomes. Decoding this molecular "programming language" would help us understand how different species and cell types have used the same GTPase machinery in different ways to accomplish different tasks, and would also provide new insights as to how mutations to these networks can cause disease. We recently developed a bead-based microscopy assay to watch reconstituted H-Ras signaling systems at work under arbitrary configurations of regulators and effectors. (5) Here we highlight key observations and insights from this study and propose extensions to our method to further study this and other GTPase signaling systems.

  4. A reverse engineering approach for automatic annotation of Web pages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Virgilio (Roberto); F. Frasincar (Flavius); W. Hop (Walter); S. Lachner (Stephan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe Semantic Web is gaining increasing interest to fulfill the need of sharing, retrieving, and reusing information. Since Web pages are designed to be read by people, not machines, searching and reusing information on the Web is a difficult task without human participation. To this aim

  5. Reverse-engineering graphical innovation: an introduction to graphical regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Arsenault

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Technological innovation in the video games industry is a rich area of research that has barely been explored as of yet. Gamers are always clamoring for novelty and a remedy to the oft-decried “sequelitis” that “plagues” the industry, while game publishers and platform holders secretly plan a next-gen platform to capture the ever-shifting market. In this light, the importance of graphics cannot be understated, as it is usually taken for granted in game historiography that “[g]ame graphics were, and to a large extent still are, the main criteria by which advancing video game technology is benchmarked” (Wolf, 2003, p.53.

  6. Reverse engineering genius: historiometric studies of superlative talent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2016-08-01

    Although genius has been defined in the dictionary as requiring an IQ above 140, this definition depends on an arbitrary methodological decision made by Lewis Terman for his longitudinal study of more than 1500 intellectually gifted children, a study that occupies four of the five volumes of Genetic Studies of Genius. Yet, only the second volume, by Catharine Cox, studied bona fide geniuses, by applying historiometric methods to 301 highly eminent creators and leaders. After defining historiometric research, I examine the difference between historical genius and intellectual giftedness with respect to heterogeneous intellects, personality differences, and early development and show that the actual relation between IQ and genius is small and heavily contingent on domain-specific assessment, the operation of traits like persistence and openness to experience, and the impact of diversifying experiences, including both developmental adversity and subclinical psychopathology. Hence, the dictionary definition of "genius" has minimal, if any, justification. If, using historiometric methods, one works backward from recognized geniuses, such as those studied by Cox, one might not obtain the kind of sample that Terman obtained for his longitudinal study. The two methods produce two distinct subgroups of the larger population. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Reverse engineering large-scale genetic networks: synthetic versus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... process computationally to describe the structure of the sys- tem and ... to the different mathematical formalisms used to model net-. Keywords. gene ..... All the algorithms were implemented in MATLAB 7.0 and run on all the 'gold ..... De Jong H. 2002 Medeling and simulation of genetic regulatory systems: a ...

  8. Diagnostics of machine parts by means of reverse engineering procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Rysinski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, an application of a three-dimensional scanner for building a special diagnostic stand is described. An experimental method of detection of material defects is discussed. The considered defects are connected with cooperation of particular surfaces of machine parts. In the discussed experiments, particularly the dimensions of pitting holes can be evaluated. Availability of laboratory facilities required that the investigations were performed using geared wheels. The three-dimensional model which represents a degenerated surface, obtained based upon the diagnostic measurements, was compared with the pattern of an undamaged surface. The latter was generated by means of our pre-processor. The pre-processor enables generation of files which are compatible with the majority of the computer-aided design system formats. Therefore, the analyses were performed by means of commercial system inventor and computer-aided three-dimensional interactive application.

  9. Adding Robustness to Support Vector Machines Against Adversarial Reverse Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim; Gao, Xin; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2014-01-01

    their risk. In particular, we derive a semidefinite programming (SDP) formulation for learning a distribution of classifiers subject to the constraint that any single classifier picked at random from such distribution provides reliable predictions with a high

  10. Engineering opportunities in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    The pattern of education and training of Nuclear Engineers in the UK is outlined under the headings; degree courses for professional engineers, postgraduate courses, education of technician engineers. Universities which offer specific courses are stated and useful addresses listed. (UK)

  11. Linked data management

    CERN Document Server

    Hose, Katja; Schenkel, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Linked Data Management presents techniques for querying and managing Linked Data that is available on today’s Web. The book shows how the abundance of Linked Data can serve as fertile ground for research and commercial applications. The text focuses on aspects of managing large-scale collections of Linked Data. It offers a detailed introduction to Linked Data and related standards, including the main principles distinguishing Linked Data from standard database technology. Chapters also describe how to generate links between datasets and explain the overall architecture of data integration systems based on Linked Data. A large part of the text is devoted to query processing in different setups. After presenting methods to publish relational data as Linked Data and efficient centralized processing, the book explores lookup-based, distributed, and parallel solutions. It then addresses advanced topics, such as reasoning, and discusses work related to read-write Linked Data for system interoperation. Desp...

  12. A Typology of Reverse Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Zedtwitz, Max; Corsi, Simone; Søberg, Peder Veng

    2015-01-01

    secondary market introduction, this study expands the espoused definition of reverse innovation beyond its market-introduction focus with reversals in the flow of innovation in the ideation and product development phases. Recognizing that each phase can take place in different geographical locations...... taking place in an emerging country. This analytical framework allows recasting of current research at the intersection between innovation and international business. Of the 10 reverse innovation flows, six are new and have not been covered in the literature to date. The study addresses questions......’s portfolio of global innovation competence and capability. The implications for management are concerned with internal and external resistance to reverse innovation. Most significantly, while greater recognition and power of innovation in formerly subordinate organizational units is inconvenient to some...

  13. Wave Engine Topping Cycle Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Gerard E.

    1996-01-01

    The performance benefits derived by topping a gas turbine engine with a wave engine are assessed. The wave engine is a wave rotor that produces shaft power by exploiting gas dynamic energy exchange and flow turning. The wave engine is added to the baseline turboshaft engine while keeping high-pressure-turbine inlet conditions, compressor pressure ratio, engine mass flow rate, and cooling flow fractions fixed. Related work has focused on topping with pressure-exchangers (i.e., wave rotors that provide pressure gain with zero net shaft power output); however, more energy can be added to a wave-engine-topped cycle leading to greater engine specific-power-enhancement The energy addition occurs at a lower pressure in the wave-engine-topped cycle; thus the specific-fuel-consumption-enhancement effected by ideal wave engine topping is slightly lower than that effected by ideal pressure-exchanger topping. At a component level, however, flow turning affords the wave engine a degree-of-freedom relative to the pressure-exchanger that enables a more efficient match with the baseline engine. In some cases, therefore, the SFC-enhancement by wave engine topping is greater than that by pressure-exchanger topping. An ideal wave-rotor-characteristic is used to identify key wave engine design parameters and to contrast the wave engine and pressure-exchanger topping approaches. An aerodynamic design procedure is described in which wave engine design-point performance levels are computed using a one-dimensional wave rotor model. Wave engines using various wave cycles are considered including two-port cycles with on-rotor combustion (valved-combustors) and reverse-flow and through-flow four-port cycles with heat addition in conventional burners. A through-flow wave cycle design with symmetric blading is used to assess engine performance benefits. The wave-engine-topped turboshaft engine produces 16% more power than does a pressure-exchanger-topped engine under the specified topping

  14. Spontaneous direct and reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valitov, N.Kh.

    1996-01-01

    It has been ascertained experimentally that in the course of separation of CsCl, KCl, NaCl aqueous solutions by semi-permeable membrane from distilled water the direct and then reverse osmosis are observed. The same sequence is observed in case of separation of CsCl aqueous solutions from NaCl of different concentrations. The reason for the direct and reverse osmosis has been explained. 5 refs.; 3 figs. 1 tab

  15. Bio-inspired reversible underwater adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanhua; Wu, Yang; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Manman; Chen, Xuan; Liu, Minjie; Fan, Jun; Liu, Junqiu; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Zuankai

    2017-12-20

    The design of smart surfaces with switchable adhesive properties in a wet environment has remained a challenge in adhesion science and materials engineering. Despite intense demands in various industrial applications and exciting progress in mimicking the remarkable wet adhesion through the delicate control of catechol chemistry, polyelectrolyte complex, and supramolecular architectures, the full recapitulation of nature's dynamic function is limited. Here, we show a facile approach to synthesize bioinspired adhesive, which entails the reversible, tunable, and fast regulation of the wet adhesion on diverse surfaces. The smart wet adhesive takes advantage of the host-guest molecular interaction and the adhesive nature of catechol chemistry, as well as the responsive polymer, allowing for screening and activation of the interfacial interaction simply by a local temperature trigger in an on-demand manner. Our work opens up an avenue for the rational design of bioinspired adhesives with performances even beyond nature.

  16. Reversible Polarization Rotation in Epitaxial Ferroelectric Bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Guangqing; Zhang, Qi; Huang, Hsin-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Polarization rotation engineering is a promising path to giant dielectric and electromechanical responses in ferroelectric materials and devices. This work demonstrates robust and reversible in- to out-of-plane polarization rotation in ultrathin (nanoscale) epitaxial (001) tetragonal PbZr0.3Ti0.7O3...... large-scale polarization rotation switching (≈60 μC cm−2) and an effective d 33 response 500% (≈250 pm V−1) larger than the PZT-R layer alone. Furthermore, this enhancement is stable for more than 107 electrical switching cycles. These bilayers present a simple and highly controllable means to design...... and optimize rotational polar systems as an alternate to traditional composition-based approaches. The precise control of the subtle interface-driven interactions between the lattice and the external factors that control polarization opens a new door to enhanced—or completely new—functional properties....

  17. Engineering Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projects Past Projects Publications NSEC » Engineering Institute Engineering Institute Multidisciplinary engineering research that integrates advanced modeling and simulations, novel sensing systems and new home of Engineering Institute Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 665-0860 Email UCSD EI

  18. Garbage collection for reversible functional languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2015-01-01

    Reversible languages are programming languages where all programs can run both forwards and backwards. Reversible functional languages have been proposed that use symmetric pattern matching and data construction. To be reversible, these languages require linearity: Every variable must be used...

  19. A new digitized reverse correction method for hypoid gears based on a one-dimensional probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianxing; Li, Jubo; Deng, Xiaozhong; Yang, Jianjun; Li, Genggeng; Ma, Wensuo

    2017-12-01

    In order to improve the tooth surface geometric accuracy and transmission quality of hypoid gears, a new digitized reverse correction method is proposed based on the measurement data from a one-dimensional probe. The minimization of tooth surface geometrical deviations is realized from the perspective of mathematical analysis and reverse engineering. Combining the analysis of complex tooth surface generation principles and the measurement mechanism of one-dimensional probes, the mathematical relationship between the theoretical designed tooth surface, the actual machined tooth surface and the deviation tooth surface is established, the mapping relation between machine-tool settings and tooth surface deviations is derived, and the essential connection between the accurate calculation of tooth surface deviations and the reverse correction method of machine-tool settings is revealed. Furthermore, a reverse correction model of machine-tool settings is built, a reverse correction strategy is planned, and the minimization of tooth surface deviations is achieved by means of the method of numerical iterative reverse solution. On this basis, a digitized reverse correction system for hypoid gears is developed by the organic combination of numerical control generation, accurate measurement, computer numerical processing, and digitized correction. Finally, the correctness and practicability of the digitized reverse correction method are proved through a reverse correction experiment. The experimental results show that the tooth surface geometric deviations meet the engineering requirements after two trial cuts and one correction.

  20. The metallurgy, science and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineau, A.; Quere, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Metallurgy, the science of metals and the technical discipline concerned with the production, shaping and assembling of metals, is one of the major assets of European economy. The French metallurgy industry - from producers (steel, light alloys, ...) to users (car, aviation, nuclear industries, ...) -- has achieved in many of its sectors a world-class level of excellence, based on high-quality research centres that are recognized both for their theoretical and experimental academic work. By contrast, public research is insufficiently concerned with engineering. In 2004, this industry employed 1 800 000 persons, 220 000 of which worked as engineers and managers in 45 000 companies, with a turnover of 420 billion euros. This state of grace is starting to decline. We are undergoing, in this sector as in others, a de-industrialization that affects upstream activities: courses in these disciplines, which have been previously outstanding, have partially disappeared; laboratories have shrunk; expertise has been dispersed; students are staying away from a discipline they consider 'unfruitful', like many other engineering sciences. Simultaneously, further up in this sector, decision centres have moved away from production centres and away from our country. France still maintains a few important R and D centres within international groups in spite of France's decreasing weight in world production. However, these groups see the future of R and D as being centred in the emerging countries (China, India...). The main users (transport, energy, ...) are losing their experts as are the technical centres on which rely a large network of small and medium businesses. The consequences are alarming in view of the already noticeable loss of technical control. This trend can and must be reversed. Because of its presence in many industrial sectors and its excellence, metallurgy - including both research and industry - is an essential activity in which France should remain a major player

  1. Quantum Vertex Model for Reversible Classical Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamon, Claudio; Mucciolo, Eduardo; Ruckenstein, Andrei; Yang, Zhicheng

    We present a planar vertex model that encodes the result of a universal reversible classical computation in its ground state. The approach involves Boolean variables (spins) placed on links of a two-dimensional lattice, with vertices representing logic gates. Large short-ranged interactions between at most two spins implement the operation of each gate. The lattice is anisotropic with one direction corresponding to computational time, and with transverse boundaries storing the computation's input and output. The model displays no finite temperature phase transitions, including no glass transitions, independent of circuit. The computational complexity is encoded in the scaling of the relaxation rate into the ground state with the system size. We use thermal annealing and a novel and more efficient heuristic \\x9Dannealing with learning to study various computational problems. To explore faster relaxation routes, we construct an explicit mapping of the vertex model into the Chimera architecture of the D-Wave machine, initiating a novel approach to reversible classical computation based on quantum annealing.

  2. Mechanical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Darbyshire, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Alan Darbyshire's best-selling text book provides five-star high quality content to a potential audience of 13,000 engineering students. It explains the most popular specialist units of the Mechanical Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering and Operations & Maintenance Engineering pathways of the new 2010 BTEC National Engineering syllabus. This challenging textbook also features contributions from specialist lecturers, ensuring that no stone is left unturned.

  3. Reversibility and retrievability in geologic disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Reversibility of decisions is an important consideration in the step-wise decision-making process that is foreseen for engineered geologic disposal of radioactive waste. The implications of favouring retrievability of the waste within disposal strategies and the methods to implement it are also being considered by NEA Member countries. This report reviews the concepts of reversibility and retrievability as they may apply to the planning and development of engineered geologic repositories. The concepts span technical, policy and ethical issues, and it is important that a broad understanding is developed of their value and implications. Furthermore, improved comprehension and communication of these issues will clarify the value of flexible, step-wise decision making in repository development programmes and may help to generate a climate conducive to the further progress of such programmes. (author)

  4. Extracting Macroscopic Information from Web Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelwall, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of Web-based link analysis focuses on an evaluation of Ingversen's proposed external Web Impact Factor for the original use of the Web, namely the interlinking of academic research. Studies relationships between academic hyperlinks and research activities for British universities and discusses the use of search engines for Web link…

  5. Winchester - Yei Hospitals Link

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    midwives, an electrical engineer and a chemical engineer. (The midwives described their ... In surgery our orthopaedic surgeon and accident and emergency nurse ... pleased to have taken part in the process of supporting. YCH and its staff.

  6. Vasectomy reversal: a clinical update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek P Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vasectomy is a safe and effective method of contraception used by 42-60 million men worldwide. Approximately 3%-6% of men opt for a vasectomy reversal due to the death of a child or divorce and remarriage, change in financial situation, desire for more children within the same marriage, or to alleviate the dreaded postvasectomy pain syndrome. Unlike vasectomy, vasectomy reversal is a much more technically challenging procedure that is performed only by a minority of urologists and places a larger financial strain on the patient since it is usually not covered by insurance. Interest in this procedure has increased since the operating microscope became available in the 1970s, which consequently led to improved patency and pregnancy rates following the procedure. In this clinical update, we discuss patient evaluation, variables that may influence reversal success rates, factors to consider in choosing to perform vasovasostomy versus vasoepididymostomy, and the usefulness of vasectomy reversal to alleviate postvasectomy pain syndrome. We also review the use of robotics for vasectomy reversal and other novel techniques and instrumentation that have emerged in recent years to aid in the success of this surgery.

  7. Nonlinear degradation of a visible-light communication link: A Volterra-series approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakis, Thomas; Dede, Georgia

    2018-06-01

    Visible light communications can be used to provide illumination and data communication at the same time. In this paper, a reverse-engineering approach is presented for assessing the impact of nonlinear signal distortion in visible light communication links. The approach is based on the Volterra series expansion and has the advantage of accurately accounting for memory effects in contrast to the static nonlinear models that are popular in the literature. Volterra kernels describe the end-to-end system response and can be inferred from measurements. Consequently, this approach does not rely on any particular physical models and assumptions regarding the individual link components. We provide the necessary framework for estimating the nonlinear distortion on the symbol estimates of a discrete multitone modulated link. Various design aspects such as waveform clipping and predistortion are also incorporated in the analysis. Using this framework, the nonlinear signal-to-interference is calculated for the system at hand. It is shown that at high signal amplitudes, the nonlinear signal-to-interference can be less than 25 dB.

  8. Reversed field pinch reactor study 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollis, A.A.; Mitchell, J.T.D.

    1977-12-01

    This report, the third of a series on the Reversed Field Pinch Reactor, describes a preliminary concept of the engineering design and layout of this pulsed toroidal reactor, which uses the stable plasma behaviour first observed in ZETA. The basic parameters of the 600 MW(e) reactor are taken from a companion study by Hancox and Spears. The plasma volume is 1.75m minor radius and 16m major radius surrounded by a 1.8m blanket-shield region - with the blanket divided into 14 removable segments for servicing. The magnetic confinement system consists of 28 toroidal field coils situated just outside the blanket and inside the poloidal and vertical field coils and all coils have normal copper conductors. The requirement to incorporate a conducting shell at the front of the blanket to provide a short-time plasma stability has a marked effect on the design. It sets the size of the blanket segment and the scale of the servicing operations, limits the breeding gain and complicates the blanket cooling and its integration with the heat engine. An extensive study will be required to confirm the overall reactor potential of the concept. (author)

  9. Wallops Low Elevation Link Analysis for the Constellation Launch/Ascent Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Keith; Ho, C.; Kantak, A.; Lee, C.; Tye, R.; Richards, E.; Sham, C.; Schlesinger, A.; Barritt, B.

    2011-01-01

    To execute the President's Vision for Space Exploration, the Constellation Program (CxP) was formed to build the next generation spacecraft Orion and launch vehicles Ares, to transport human and cargo to International Space Station (ISS), moon, and Mars. This paper focuses on the detailed link analysis for Orion/Ares s launch and ascent links with Wallops 11.3m antenna (1) Orion's Dissimilar Voice link: 10.24 Kbps, 2-way (2) Ares Developmental Flight Instrument link, 20 Mbps, downlink. Three launch trajectories are considered: TD7-E, F (Feb), and G (Aug). In certain launch scenarios, the critical events of main engine cutoff (MECO) and Separation occur during the low elevation regime of WFF s downrange -- less than 5 degree elevation angle. The goal of the study is to access if there is enough link margins for WFF to track the DV and DFI links.

  10. Reverse Knowledge Transfer in MNEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mudambi, Ram; Piscitello, Lucia; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    2014-01-01

    a positive correlation with the extent of reverse knowledge transfers to the parent MNE. Relying on the headquarters-subsidiary view of the MNE, we argue that, beyond a point, increasing subsidiary innovativeness will be associated with lower reverse knowledge transfers. Further, we argue......It is now well recognized that multinational enterprises (MNEs) are differentiated networks wherein subsidiaries vary in terms of their ability to create new knowledge and competencies for their parent groups. In much of this theory, it is taken for granted that subsidiary innovativeness has...... that this relationship is sensitive to the subsidiary entry mode. Using data from a sample of 293 Italian subsidiaries, we find strong support for our hypotheses. In particular, our results confirm that the effect of subsidiary innovativeness on reverse knowledge transfers displays an inverted-U shape...

  11. Ice ages and geomagnetic reversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    There have been speculations on the relationship between climatic cooling and polarity reversals of the earth's magnetic field during the Pleistocene. Two of the common criticisms on this relationship have been the reality of these short duration geomagnetic events and the accuracy of their dates. Champion et al. (1988) have reviewed recent progress in this area. They identified a total of 10 short-duration polarity events in the last 1 Ma and 6 of these events have been found in volcanic rocks, which also have K-Ar dates. Supposing that the speculated relationship between climatic cooling and geomagnetic reversals actually exist, two mechanisms that assume climatic cooling causes short period magnetic reversals will be investigated. These two methods are core-mantle boundary topography and transfer of the rotational energy to the core.

  12. Reverse innovation in maternal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoz, Tabassum; Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Nathan, Hannah L; Payne, Beth; Magee, Laura A

    2017-09-01

    Reverse innovation, defined as the flow of ideas from low- to high-income settings, is gaining traction in healthcare. With an increasing focus on value, investing in low-cost but effective and innovative solutions can be of mutual benefit to both high- and low-income countries. Reverse innovation has a role in addressing maternal health challenges in high-income countries by harnessing these innovative solutions for vulnerable populations especially in rural and remote regions. In this paper, we present three examples of 'reverse innovation' for maternal health: a low-cost, easy-to-use blood pressure device (CRADLE), a diagnostic algorithm (mini PIERS) and accompanying mobile app (PIERS on the Move), and a novel method for mapping maternal outcomes (MOM).

  13. Reverse Transfection Using Gold Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shigeru; Fujita, Satoshi; Uchimura, Eiichiro; Miyake, Masato; Miyake, Jun

    Reverse transfection from a solid surface has the potential to deliver genes into various types of cell and tissue more effectively than conventional methods of transfection. We present a method for reverse transfection using a gold colloid (GC) as a nanoscaffold by generating nanoclusters of the DNA/reagentcomplex on a glass surface, which could then be used for the regulation of the particle size of the complex and delivery of DNA into nuclei. With this method, we have found that the conjugation of gold nanoparticles (20 nm in particle size) to the pEGFP-N1/Jet-PEI complex resulted in an increase in the intensity of fluorescence of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) (based on the efficiency of transfection) from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), as compared with the control without GC. In this manner, we constructed a method for reverse transfection using GC to deliver genes into the cells effectively.

  14. Designing the Reverse Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobbi, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of the product residual value (PRV) and the loss of value over time of returned products in the reverse supply chain configuration. It also examines whether or not the distinction of Fisher's functional and innovative products holds...... that allows for recapturing most of the PRV. These notions have then been tested by analyzing two reverse supply chains with a case study research methodology. Findings – The findings show that low PRV is associated with second-class recovery options (recycling and energy recovery) and that high PRV...... is associated with first-class recovery options (reconditioning and remarketing). When the recovery option is recycling, time is not relevant, the primary objective is cost reduction (efficiency), the chain is centralized, and actors and phases of the reverse chain are determined by the specificity...

  15. Inherited XX sex reversal originating from wild medaka populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinomiya, A; Otake, H; Hamaguchi, S; Sakaizumi, M

    2010-11-01

    The teleost fish, medaka (Oryzias latipes), has an XX/XY sex-determining mechanism. A Y-linked DM domain gene, DMY, has been isolated by positional cloning as the sex-determining gene in this species. Previously, we conducted a field survey of genotypic sex and found that approximately 1% of wild medaka are sex-reversed (XX males and XY females). Here, we performed genetic analyses of nine spontaneous XX sex-reversed males to elucidate its genetic basis. In all cases, the F(1) progeny were all females, whereas XX males reappeared in the backcross (BC) progeny, suggesting that XX sex reversal is a recessive trait. Although the incidences of sex reversal in the BC progeny were mostly low, 40% were males derived from one XX male. We performed linkage analysis using 55 BC males and located a single major factor, sda-1 (sex-determining autosomal factor-1), controlling sex reversal in an autosomal linkage group. Thus, genes involved in the sex-determining pathway can be isolated from spontaneous mutants in wild populations.

  16. The behavioural consequences of sex reversal in dragons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Holleley, Clare E.; Elphick, Melanie; Georges, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in morphology, physiology, and behaviour are caused by sex-linked genes, as well as by circulating sex-steroid levels. Thus, a shift from genotypic to environmental sex determination may create an organism that exhibits a mixture of male-like and female-like traits. We studied a lizard species (Central Bearded Dragon, Pogona vitticeps), in which the high-temperature incubation of eggs transforms genetically male individuals into functional females. Although they are reproductively female, sex-reversed dragons (individuals with ZZ genotype reversed to female phenotype) resemble genetic males rather than females in morphology (relative tail length), general behaviour (boldness and activity level), and thermoregulatory tactics. Indeed, sex-reversed ‘females’ are more male-like in some behavioural traits than are genetic males. This novel phenotype may impose strong selection on the frequency of sex reversal within natural populations, facilitating rapid shifts in sex-determining systems. A single period of high incubation temperatures (generating thermally induced sex reversal) can produce functionally female individuals with male-like (or novel) traits that enhance individual fitness, allowing the new temperature-dependent sex-determining system to rapidly replace the previous genetically based one.

  17. Reverse genetics with animal viruses. NSV reverse genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mebatsion, T.

    2005-01-01

    New strategies to genetically manipulate the genomes of several important animal pathogens have been established in recent years. This article focuses on the reverse genetics techniques, which enables genetic manipulation of the genomes of non-segmented negative-sense RNA viruses. Recovery of a negative-sense RNA virus entirely from cDNA was first achieved for rabies virus in 1994. Since then, reverse genetic systems have been established for several pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Based on the reverse genetics technique, it is now possible to design safe and more effective live attenuated vaccines against important viral agents. In addition, genetically tagged recombinant viruses can be designed to facilitate serological differentiation of vaccinated animals from infected animals. The approach of delivering protective immunogens of different pathogens using a single vector was made possible with the introduction of the reverse genetics system, and these novel broad-spectrum vaccine vectors have potential applications in improving animal health in developing countries. (author)

  18. Marburg Virus Reverse Genetics Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Maria Schmidt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The highly pathogenic Marburg virus (MARV is a member of the Filoviridae family and belongs to the group of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses. Reverse genetics systems established for MARV have been used to study various aspects of the viral replication cycle, analyze host responses, image viral infection, and screen for antivirals. This article provides an overview of the currently established MARV reverse genetic systems based on minigenomes, infectious virus-like particles and full-length clones, and the research that has been conducted using these systems.

  19. Reverse Zymography: Overview and Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kanika; Bhattacharyya, Debasish

    2017-01-01

    Reverse zymography is a technique by which protease inhibitor(s) in a sample could be electrophoretically separated in a substrate-impregnated acrylamide gel and their relative abundance could be semi-quantified. The gel after electrophoresis is incubated with a protease when the impregnated substrate and all other proteins of the sample are degraded into small peptides except the inhibitor(s) that show clear bands against a white background. Since reverse zymography cannot distinguish between a protease inhibitor and a protein that is resistant against proteolysis, the results should be confirmed from inhibition of protease activity by solution state assay.

  20. Reverse hybrid total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangen, Helge; Havelin, Leif I.; Fenstad, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose - The use of a cemented cup together with an uncemented stem in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has become popular in Norway and Sweden during the last decade. The results of this prosthetic concept, reverse hybrid THA, have been sparsely described. The Nordic Arthroplasty....... Patients and methods - From the NARA, we extracted data on reverse hybrid THAs from January 1, 2000 until December 31, 2013. 38,415 such hips were studied and compared with cemented THAs. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses were used to estimate the prosthesis survival and the relative risk...

  1. Reference counting for reversible languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2014-01-01

    inverses: Freeing a block of memory is done by running the allocation procedure backwards. Axelsen and Glück use this heap manager to sketch implementation of a simple reversible functional language where pattern matching a constructor is the inverse of construction, so pattern-matching implies......Modern programming languages and operating systems use heap memory that allows allocation and deallocation of memory to be decoupled, so they don't follow a stack discipline. Axelsen and Glück have presented a reversible heap manager where allocation and deallocation are each other's logical...

  2. Dynamic link: user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Hiroo; Asai, Kiyoshi; Kihara, Kazuhisa.

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of dynamic link facility is to link a load module dynamically only when it is used in execution time. The facility is very useful for development, execution and maintenance of a large scale computer program which is too big to be saved as one load module in main memory, or it is poor economy to save it due to many unused subroutines depending on an input. It is also useful for standardization and common utilization of programs. Standard usage of dynamic link facility of FACOM M-200 computer system, a software tool which analyzes the effect of dynamic link facility and application of dynamic link to nuclear codes are described. (author)

  3. Engineering Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters March 3, 2014 Engineering Cartilage Artistic rendering of human stem cells on ... situations has been a major goal in tissue engineering. Cartilage contains water, collagen, proteoglycans, and chondrocytes. Collagens ...

  4. Industrial Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally).......Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally)....

  5. Computer Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncarz, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Looks at computer engineers and describes their job, employment outlook, earnings, and training and qualifications. Provides a list of resources related to computer engineering careers and the computer industry. (JOW)

  6. Engineering _ litteraturliste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillasen, Martin Krabbe; Daugbjerg, Peer; Nielsen, Keld

    2017-01-01

    Litteraturliste udarbejdet som grundlag for artiklen ”Engineering – svaret på naturfagenes udfordringer?”......Litteraturliste udarbejdet som grundlag for artiklen ”Engineering – svaret på naturfagenes udfordringer?”...

  7. A functional language for describing reversible logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal

    2012-01-01

    Reversible logic is a computational model where all gates are logically reversible and combined in circuits such that no values are lost or duplicated. This paper presents a novel functional language that is designed to describe only reversible logic circuits. The language includes high....... Reversibility of descriptions is guaranteed with a type system based on linear types. The language is applied to three examples of reversible computations (ALU, linear cosine transformation, and binary adder). The paper also outlines a design flow that ensures garbage- free translation to reversible logic...... circuits. The flow relies on a reversible combinator language as an intermediate language....

  8. Shape memory heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzbrenner, R.

    1984-06-01

    The mechanical shape memory effect associated with a thermoelastic martensitic transformation can be used to convert heat directly into mechanical work. Laboratory simulation of two types of heat engine cycles (Stirling and Ericsson) has been performed to measure the amount of work available/cycle in a Ni-45 at. pct Ti alloy. Tensile deformations at ambient temperature induced martensite, while a subsequent increase in temperature caused a reversion to the parent phase during which a load was carried through the strain recovery (i.e., work was accomplished). The amount of heat necessary to carry the engines through a cycle was estimated from calorimeter measurements and the work performed/cycle. The measured efficiency of the system tested reached a maximum of 1.4 percent, which was well below the theoretical (Carnot) maximum efficiency of 35.6 percent.

  9. CAPSULE REPORT: REVERSE OSMOSIS PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A failure analysis has been completed for the reverse osmosis (RO) process. The focus was on process failures that result in releases of liquids and vapors to the environment. The report includes the following: 1) A description of RO and coverage of the principles behind the proc...

  10. Time reversal and parity tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terwilliger, K.

    1975-01-01

    A recent review by Henley discusses the present status of Time Reversal and Parity symmetry violations, and comments on the implications for high energy hadron scattering. This note will briefly summarize the situation with particular attention to the sizes of possible effects, relating them to experimental accuracy available or reasonably possible at the ZGS

  11. A Framework for Reverse Logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractReverse Logistics has been stretching out worldwide, involving all the layers of supply chains in various industry sectors. While some actors in the chain have been forced to take products back, others have pro-actively done so, attracted by the value in used products One way or the

  12. Reverse ventilation--perfusion mismatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmaz, J.C.; Barnett, C.A.; Reich, S.B.; Krumpe, P.E.; Farrer, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    Patients having lobar airway obstruction or consolidation usually have decreases of both ventilation and perfusion on lung scans. We report three patients in whom hypoxic vasoconstriction was apparently incomplete, resulting in a ''reversed'' ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Perfusion of the hypoxic lobe on the radionuclide scan was associated with metabolic alkalosis, pulmonary venous and pulmonary arterial hypertension in these patients

  13. Computational engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book presents state-of-the-art works in computational engineering. Focus is on mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, experimental validation and visualization in engineering sciences. In particular, the following topics are presented: constitutive models and their implementation into finite element codes, numerical models in nonlinear elasto-dynamics including seismic excitations, multiphase models in structural engineering and multiscale models of materials systems, sensitivity and reliability analysis of engineering structures, the application of scientific computing in urban water management and hydraulic engineering, and the application of genetic algorithms for the registration of laser scanner point clouds.

  14. Spontaneous breaking of time-reversal symmetry in topological insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnaukhov, Igor N., E-mail: karnaui@yahoo.com

    2017-06-21

    Highlights: • Proposed a new approach for description of phase transitions in topological insulators. • Considered the mechanism of spontaneous breaking of time-reversal symmetry in topological insulators. • The Haldane model can be implemented in real compounds of the condensed matter physics. - Abstract: The system of spinless fermions on a hexagonal lattice is studied. We have considered tight-binding model with the hopping integrals between the nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor lattice sites, that depend on the direction of the link. The links are divided on three types depending on the direction, the hopping integrals are defined by different phases along the links. The energy of the system depends on the phase differences, the solutions for the phases, that correspond to the minimums of the energy, lead to a topological insulator state with the nontrivial Chern numbers. We have analyzed distinct topological states and phase transitions, the behavior of the chiral gapless edge modes, have defined the Chern numbers. The band structure of topological insulator (TI) is calculated, the ground-state phase diagram in the parameter space is obtained. We propose a novel mechanism of realization of TI, when the TI state is result of spontaneous breaking of time-reversal symmetry due to nontrivial stable solutions for the phases that determine the hopping integrals along the links and show that the Haldane model can be implemented in real compounds of the condensed matter physics.

  15. Reverse amblyopia with atropine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainline, Bryan C; Sprunger, Derek C; Plager, David A; Neely, Daniel E; Guess, Matthew G

    2009-01-01

    Occlusion, pharmacologic pernalization and combined therapy have been documented in controlled studies to effectively treat amblyopia with few complications. However, there remain concerns about the effectiveness and complications when, as in this case, there are not standardized treatment protocols. A retrospective chart review of 133 consecutive patients in one community based ophthalmology practice treated for amblyopia was performed. Treatments evaluated were occlusion only, atropine penalization, and combination of occlusion and atropine. Reverse amblyopia was defined as having occured when the visual acuity of the sound eye was 3 LogMar units worse than visual acuity of the amblyopia eye after treatment. Improvement in vision after 6 months and 1 year of amblyopia therapy was similar among all three groups: 0.26 LogMar lines and 0.30 in the atropine group, 0.32 and 0.34 in the occlusion group, and 0.24 and 0.32 in the combined group. Eight (6%) patients demonstrated reverse amblyopia. The mean age of those who developed reverse amblyopia was 3.5 years, 1.5 years younger than the mean age of the study population, 7/8 had strabismic amblyopia, 6/8 were on daily atropine and had a mean refractive error of +4.77 diopters in the amblyopic eye and +5.06 diopters in the sound eye. Reverse amblyopia did not occur with occlusion only therapy. In this community based ophthalmology practice, atropine, patching, and combination therapy appear to be equally effective modalities to treat ambyopia. Highly hyperopic patients under 4 years of age with dense, strabismic amblyopia and on daily atropine appeared to be most at risk for development of reverse amblyopia.

  16. Architectural Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Premer

    engineering is addresses from two perspectives – as an educational response and an occupational constellation. Architecture and engineering are two of the traditional design professions and they frequently meet in the occupational setting, but at educational institutions they remain largely estranged....... The paper builds on a multi-sited study of an architectural engineering program at the Technical University of Denmark and an architectural engineering team within an international engineering consultancy based on Denmark. They are both responding to new tendencies within the building industry where...... the role of engineers and architects increasingly overlap during the design process, but their approaches reflect different perceptions of the consequences. The paper discusses some of the challenges that design education, not only within engineering, is facing today: young designers must be equipped...

  17. Tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, John P; Bronzino, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly viewed as the future of medicine, the field of tissue engineering is still in its infancy. As evidenced in both the scientific and popular press, there exists considerable excitement surrounding the strategy of regenerative medicine. To achieve its highest potential, a series of technological advances must be made. Putting the numerous breakthroughs made in this field into a broad context, Tissue Engineering disseminates current thinking on the development of engineered tissues. Divided into three sections, the book covers the fundamentals of tissue engineering, enabling technologies, and tissue engineering applications. It examines the properties of stem cells, primary cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix as well as their impact on the development of tissue engineered devices. Contributions focus on those strategies typically incorporated into tissue engineered devices or utilized in their development, including scaffolds, nanocomposites, bioreactors, drug delivery systems, and gene t...

  18. Visualisierung von typisierten Links in Linked Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Neubauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Das Themengebiet der Arbeit behandelt Visualisierungen von typisierten Links in Linked Data. Die wissenschaftlichen Gebiete, die im Allgemeinen den Inhalt des Beitrags abgrenzen, sind das Semantic Web, das Web of Data und Informationsvisualisierung. Das Semantic Web, das von Tim Berners Lee 2001 erfunden wurde, stellt eine Erweiterung zum World Wide Web (Web 2.0 dar. Aktuelle Forschungen beziehen sich auf die Verknüpfbarkeit von Informationen im World Wide Web. Um es zu ermöglichen, solche Verbindungen wahrnehmen und verarbeiten zu können sind Visualisierungen die wichtigsten Anforderungen als Hauptteil der Datenverarbeitung. Im Zusammenhang mit dem Sematic Web werden Repräsentationen von zuhammenhängenden Informationen anhand von Graphen gehandhabt. Der Grund des Entstehens dieser Arbeit ist in erster Linie die Beschreibung der Gestaltung von Linked Data-Visualisierungskonzepten, deren Prinzipien im Rahmen einer theoretischen Annäherung eingeführt werden. Anhand des Kontexts führt eine schrittweise Erweiterung der Informationen mit dem Ziel, praktische Richtlinien anzubieten, zur Vernetzung dieser ausgearbeiteten Gestaltungsrichtlinien. Indem die Entwürfe zweier alternativer Visualisierungen einer standardisierten Webapplikation beschrieben werden, die Linked Data als Netzwerk visualisiert, konnte ein Test durchgeführt werden, der deren Kompatibilität zum Inhalt hatte. Der praktische Teil behandelt daher die Designphase, die Resultate, und zukünftige Anforderungen des Projektes, die durch die Testung ausgearbeitet wurden.

  19. NERVE: New Enhanced Reverse Vaccinology Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippini Francesco

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since a milestone work on Neisseria meningitidis B, Reverse Vaccinology has strongly enhanced the identification of vaccine candidates by replacing several experimental tasks using in silico prediction steps. These steps have allowed scientists to face the selection of antigens from the predicted proteome of pathogens, for which cell culture is difficult or impossible, saving time and money. However, this good example of bioinformatics-driven immunology can be further developed by improving in silico steps and implementing biologist-friendly tools. Results We introduce NERVE (New Enhanced Reverse Vaccinology Environment, an user-friendly software environment for the in silico identification of the best vaccine candidates from whole proteomes of bacterial pathogens. The software integrates multiple robust and well-known algorithms for protein analysis and comparison. Vaccine candidates are ranked and presented in a html table showing relevant information and links to corresponding primary data. Information concerning all proteins of the analyzed proteome is not deleted along selection steps but rather flows into an SQL database for further mining and analyses. Conclusion After learning from recent years' works in this field and analysing a large dataset, NERVE has been implemented and tuned as the first available tool able to rank a restricted pool (~8–9% of the whole proteome of vaccine candidates and to show high recall (~75–80% of known protective antigens. These vaccine candidates are required to be "safe" (taking into account autoimmunity risk and "easy" for further experimental, high-throughput screening (avoiding possibly not soluble antigens. NERVE is expected to help save time and money in vaccine design and is available as an additional file with this manuscript; updated versions will be available at http://www.bio.unipd.it/molbinfo.

  20. Linking open vocabularies

    CERN Document Server

    Greifender, Elke; Seadle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Linked Data (LD), Linked Open Data (LOD) and generating a web of data, present the new knowledge sharing frontier. In a philosophical context, LD is an evolving environment that reflects humankinds' desire to understand the world by drawing on the latest technologies and capabilities of the time. LD, while seemingly a new phenomenon did not emerge overnight; rather it represents the natural progression by which knowledge structures are developed, used, and shared. Linked Open Vocabularies is a significant trajectory of LD. Linked Open Vocabularies targets vocabularies that have traditionally b

  1. Reversal agents in anaesthesia and critical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nibedita Pani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the advent of short and ultra-short acting drugs, an in-depth knowledge of the reversal agents used is a necessity for any anaesthesiologist. Reversal agents are defined as any drug used to reverse the effects of anaesthetics, narcotics or potentially toxic agents. The controversy on the routine reversal of neuromuscular blockade still exists. The advent of newer reversal agents like sugammadex have made the use of steroidal neuromuscular blockers like rocuronium feasible in rapid sequence induction situations. We made a review of the older reversal agents and those still under investigation for drugs that are regularly used in our anaesthesia practice.

  2. Reverse osmosis water purification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, H. G.; Hames, P. S.; Menninger, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    A reverse osmosis water purification system, which uses a programmable controller (PC) as the control system, was designed and built to maintain the cleanliness and level of water for various systems of a 64-m antenna. The installation operates with other equipment of the antenna at the Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex. The reverse osmosis system was designed to be fully automatic; with the PC, many complex sequential and timed logic networks were easily implemented and are modified. The PC monitors water levels, pressures, flows, control panel requests, and set points on analog meters; with this information various processes are initiated, monitored, modified, halted, or eliminated as required by the equipment being supplied pure water.

  3. Trend towards reverse leach process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The South African gold mining industry is making notable strides in improving recovery methods for both gold and uranium with significant additions to profits because of higher efficiencies and reductions in costs in the recovery processes. The most notable step on the gold side recently is the adoption of the reverse leach process at Buffelsfontein and Western Deep Levels. This process was pioneered at Hartebeesfontein as far back as 1975 and when introduced there resulted in a two and a half per cent improvement in recovery efficiencies. The essence of reverse leaching under which the uranium is recovered before the gold is the fact that the gold partly coated with iron oxide or locked in uranite, is exposed to be recovered later by cyanidation

  4. Reversible evolution of charged ergoregions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokkotas, K.; Spyrou, N.

    1987-07-01

    The reversible evolution of a charged rotating ergoregion, due to the injection into it of particles with mass-energy and angular momentum, is studied systematically. As in the uncharged case, a bulge always forms on the outer boundary of the ergoregion due to the latter's angular momentum. The behavior of the bulge's position, relative to the black hole's rotation axis and equatorial plane, is studied, on the basis of the cosmic censorship hypothesis, during the ergoregion's reversible evolution. The range of the permitted values of the ergoregion's linear dimensions along the rotation axis and perpendicular to it is specified. Finally the differences with the evolution of an uncharged ergoregion are pointed out and discussed.

  5. How to play Reverse Hex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Bjarne; Hayward, Ryan B.; Henderson, Philip

    2012-01-01

    We present new results on how to play Reverse Hex, also known as Rex, or Misère Hex, on n × n boards. We give new proofs – and strengthened versions – of Lagarias and Sleator’s theorem (for n × n boards, each player can prolong the game until the board is full, so the first/second player can alwa...

  6. Theory of field reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    This final report surveys the results of work conducted on the theory of field reversed configurations. This project has spanned ten years, beginning in early 1980. During this period, Spectra Technology was one of the leading contributors to the advances in understanding FRC. The report is organized into technical topic areas, FRC formation, equilibrium, stability, and transport. Included as an appendix are papers published in archival journals that were generated in the course of this report. 33 refs

  7. Risperidone-induced reversible neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattalai Kailasam, Vasanth; Chima, Victoria; Nnamdi, Uchechukwu; Sharma, Kavita; Shah, Kairav

    2017-01-01

    This case report presents a 44-year-old man with a history of schizophrenia who developed neutropenia on risperidone therapy. The patient's laboratory reports showed a gradual decline of leukocytes and neutrophils after resolution and rechallenging. This was reversed with the discontinuation of risperidone and by switching to olanzapine. In this case report, we also discuss the updated evidence base for management of risperidone-induced neutropenia.

  8. Engineering mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Dietmar; Schröder, Jörg; Wall, Wolfgang A; Rajapakse, Nimal

    Statics is the first volume of a three-volume textbook on Engineering Mechanics. The authors, using a time-honoured straightforward and flexible approach, present the basic concepts and principles of mechanics in the clearest and simplest form possible to advanced undergraduate engineering students of various disciplines and different educational backgrounds. An important objective of this book is to develop problem solving skills in a systematic manner. Another aim of this volume is to provide engineering students as well as practising engineers with a solid foundation to help them bridge the gap between undergraduate studies on the one hand and advanced courses on mechanics and/or practical engineering problems on the other. The book contains numerous examples, along with their complete solutions. Emphasis is placed upon student participation in problem solving. The contents of the book correspond to the topics normally covered in courses on basic engineering mechanics at universities and colleges. Now in i...

  9. Invisible Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Hideo

    Questionnaire to ask “mention three names of scientists you know” and “three names of engineers you know” was conducted and the answers from 140 adults were analyzed. The results indicated that the image of scientists is represented by Nobel laureates and that of engineers by great inventors like Thomas Edison and industry founders like Soichiro Honda. In order to reveal the image of engineers among young generation, questionnaire was conducted for pupils in middle and high schools. Answers from 1,230 pupils were analyzed and 226 names mentioned as engineers were classified. White votes reached 60%. Engineers who are neither big inventors nor company founders collected less than 1% of named votes. Engineers are astonishingly invisible from young generation. Countermeasures are proposed.

  10. Global engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plass, L.

    2001-01-01

    This article considers the challenges posed by the declining orders in the plant engineering and contracting business in Germany, the need to remain competitive, and essential preconditions for mastering the challenge. The change in engineering approach is illustrated by the building of a methanol plant in Argentina by Lurgi with the basic engineering completed in Frankfurt with involvement of key personnel from Poland, completely engineered subsystems from a Brazilian subsupplier, and detailed engineering work in Frankfurt. The production of methanol from natural gas using the LurgiMega/Methanol process is used as a typical example of the industrial plant construction sector. The prerequisites for successful global engineering are listed, and error costs in plant construction, possible savings, and process intensification are discussed

  11. Rapid and reversible epigenome editing by endogenous chromatin regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Simon M G; Kirkland, Jacob G; Chory, Emma J; Husmann, Dylan; Calarco, Joseph P; Crabtree, Gerald R

    2017-09-15

    Understanding the causal link between epigenetic marks and gene regulation remains a central question in chromatin biology. To edit the epigenome we developed the FIRE-Cas9 system for rapid and reversible recruitment of endogenous chromatin regulators to specific genomic loci. We enhanced the dCas9-MS2 anchor for genome targeting with Fkbp/Frb dimerizing fusion proteins to allow chemical-induced proximity of a desired chromatin regulator. We find that mSWI/SNF (BAF) complex recruitment is sufficient to oppose Polycomb within minutes, leading to activation of bivalent gene transcription in mouse embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, Hp1/Suv39h1 heterochromatin complex recruitment to active promoters deposits H3K9me3 domains, resulting in gene silencing that can be reversed upon washout of the chemical dimerizer. This inducible recruitment strategy provides precise kinetic information to model epigenetic memory and plasticity. It is broadly applicable to mechanistic studies of chromatin in mammalian cells and is particularly suited to the analysis of endogenous multi-subunit chromatin regulator complexes.Understanding the link between epigenetic marks and gene regulation requires the development of new tools to directly manipulate chromatin. Here the authors demonstrate a Cas9-based system to recruit chromatin remodelers to loci of interest, allowing rapid, reversible manipulation of epigenetic states.

  12. CONCEPTUAL ISSUES REGARDING REVERSE LOGISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Olariu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As the power of consumers is growing, the product return for customer service and customer retention has become a common practice in the competitive market, which propels the recent practice of reverse logistics in companies. Many firms attracted by the value available in the flow, have proactively participated in handling returned products at the end of their usefulness or from other parts of the product life cycle. Reverse logistics is the flow and management of products, packaging, components and information from the point of consumption to the point of origin. It is a collection of practices similar to those of supply chain management, but in the opposite direction, from downstream to upstream. It involves activities such as reuse, repair, remanufacture, refurbish, reclaim and recycle. For the conventional forward logistics systems, the flow starts upstream as raw materials, later as manufactured parts and components to be assembled and continues downstream to reach customers as final products to be disposed once they reach their economic or useful lives. In reverse logistics, the disposed products are pushed upstream to be repaired, remanufactured, refurbished, and disassembled into components to be reused or as raw material to be recycled for later use.

  13. Proteomic analysis of three gonad types of swamp eel reveals genes differentially expressed during sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yue; Zhao, Wei; Song, Ying; Li, Zhigang; Luo, Majing; Lei, Quan; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2015-05-18

    A variety of mechanisms are engaged in sex determination in vertebrates. The teleost fish swamp eel undergoes sex reversal naturally and is an ideal model for vertebrate sexual development. However, the importance of proteome-wide scanning for gonad reversal was not previously determined. We report a 2-D electrophoresis analysis of three gonad types of proteomes during sex reversal. MS/MS analysis revealed a group of differentially expressed proteins during ovary to ovotestis to testis transformation. Cbx3 is up-regulated during gonad reversal and is likely to have a role in spermatogenesis. Rab37 is down-regulated during the reversal and is mainly associated with oogenesis. Both Cbx3 and Rab37 are linked up in a protein network. These datasets in gonadal proteomes provide a new resource for further studies in gonadal development.

  14. Human engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seong Hwan; Park, Bum; Gang, Yeong Sik; Gal, Won Mo; Baek, Seung Ryeol; Choe, Jeong Hwa; Kim, Dae Sung

    2006-07-01

    This book mentions human engineering, which deals with introduction of human engineering, Man-Machine system like system design, and analysis and evaluation of Man-Machine system, data processing and data input, display, system control of man, human mistake and reliability, human measurement and design of working place, human working, hand tool and manual material handling, condition of working circumstance, working management, working analysis, motion analysis working measurement, and working improvement and design in human engineering.

  15. Engineering Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Se Yun

    2009-01-01

    This book deals with engineering electromagnetics. It contains seven chapters, which treats understanding of engineering electromagnetics such as magnet and electron spin, current and a magnetic field and an electromagnetic wave, Essential tool for engineering electromagnetics on rector and scalar, rectangular coordinate system and curl vector, electrostatic field with coulomb rule and method of electric images, Biot-Savart law, Ampere law and magnetic force, Maxwell equation and an electromagnetic wave and reflection and penetration of electromagnetic plane wave.

  16. Information engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, D.N.

    1997-02-01

    The Information Engineering thrust area develops information technology to support the programmatic needs of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Engineering Directorate. Progress in five programmatic areas are described in separate reports contained herein. These are entitled Three-dimensional Object Creation, Manipulation, and Transport, Zephyr:A Secure Internet-Based Process to Streamline Engineering Procurements, Subcarrier Multiplexing: Optical Network Demonstrations, Parallel Optical Interconnect Technology Demonstration, and Intelligent Automation Architecture.

  17. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The ninth edition of Software Engineering presents a broad perspective of software engineering, focusing on the processes and techniques fundamental to the creation of reliable, software systems. Increased coverage of agile methods and software reuse, along with coverage of 'traditional' plan-driven software engineering, gives readers the most up-to-date view of the field currently available. Practical case studies, a full set of easy-to-access supplements, and extensive web resources make teaching the course easier than ever.

  18. Let's "Downscale" Linked Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gueret, C.D.M.; de Boer, V.; Schlobach, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    Open data policies and linked data publication are powerful tools for increasing transparency, participatory governance, and accountability. The linked data community proudly emphasizes the economic and societal impact such technology shows. But a closer look proves that the design and deployment of

  19. Let's "Downscale" Linked Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gueret, Christophe; de Boer, Victor; Schlobach, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Open data policies and linked data publication are powerful tools for increasing transparency, participatory governance, and accountability. A closer look at linked data technologies, however, proves that their design and deployment exclude the majority of the world’s population. It will take small

  20. Weierstrass polynomials for links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1997-01-01

    There is a natural way of identifying links in3-space with polynomial covering spaces over thecircle. Thereby any link in 3-space can be definedby a Weierstrass polynomial over the circle. Theequivalence relation for covering spaces over thecircle is, however, completely different from...

  1. Computational methods in earthquake engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Plevris, Vagelis; Lagaros, Nikos

    2017-01-01

    This is the third book in a series on Computational Methods in Earthquake Engineering. The purpose of this volume is to bring together the scientific communities of Computational Mechanics and Structural Dynamics, offering a wide coverage of timely issues on contemporary Earthquake Engineering. This volume will facilitate the exchange of ideas in topics of mutual interest and can serve as a platform for establishing links between research groups with complementary activities. The computational aspects are emphasized in order to address difficult engineering problems of great social and economic importance. .

  2. Mechanical Engineering | Classification | College of Engineering & Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  3. Biomedical Engineering | Classification | College of Engineering & Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  4. Materials Science & Engineering | Classification | College of Engineering &

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomedical Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  5. Electrical Engineering | Classification | College of Engineering & Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  6. Engineering tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Stachowiak, Gwidon; Batchelor, A W; Batchelor, Andrew W

    2005-01-01

    As with the previous edition, the third edition of Engineering Tribology provides a thorough understanding of friction and wear using technologies such as lubrication and special materials. Tribology is a complex topic with its own terminology and specialized concepts, yet is vitally important throughout all engineering disciplines, including mechanical design, aerodynamics, fluid dynamics and biomedical engineering. This edition includes updated material on the hydrodynamic aspects of tribology as well as new advances in the field of biotribology, with a focus throughout on the engineering ap

  7. Resolution of Loschmidt's paradox: The origin of irreversible behavior in reversible atomistic dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holian, B.L.; Hoover, W.G.; Posch, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    We show that Nosromane-bar mechanics provides a link between computer simulations of nonequilibrium processes and real-world experiments. Reversible Nose-bar equations of motion, when used to constrain non- equilibrium boundary regions, generate stable dissipative behavior within an adjoining bulk sample governed by Newton's equations of motion. Thus, irreversible behavior consistent with the second law of thermodynamics arises from completely reversible microscopic motion. Loschmidt's reversibility paradox is surmounted by this Nose-bar-Newton system, because the steady-state nonequilibrium probability density in the many-body phase space is confined to a zero-volume attractor

  8. Reverse Genetics Approaches for the Development of Influenza Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogales, Aitor; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics of human respiratory disease. Influenza virus infections represent a serious public health and economic problem, which are most effectively prevented through vaccination. However, influenza viruses undergo continual antigenic variation, which requires either the annual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines or the rapid generation of vaccines against potential pandemic virus strains. The segmented nature of influenza virus allows for the reassortment between two or more viruses within a co-infected cell, and this characteristic has also been harnessed in the laboratory to generate reassortant viruses for their use as either inactivated or live-attenuated influenza vaccines. With the implementation of plasmid-based reverse genetics techniques, it is now possible to engineer recombinant influenza viruses entirely from full-length complementary DNA copies of the viral genome by transfection of susceptible cells. These reverse genetics systems have provided investigators with novel and powerful approaches to answer important questions about the biology of influenza viruses, including the function of viral proteins, their interaction with cellular host factors and the mechanisms of influenza virus transmission and pathogenesis. In addition, reverse genetics techniques have allowed the generation of recombinant influenza viruses, providing a powerful technology to develop both inactivated and live-attenuated influenza vaccines. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of state-of-the-art, plasmid-based, influenza reverse genetics approaches and their implementation to provide rapid, convenient, safe and more effective influenza inactivated or live-attenuated vaccines. PMID:28025504

  9. Magnetic field reversals, polar wander, and core-mantle coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtillot, V; Besse, J

    1987-09-04

    True polar wander, the shifting of the entire mantle relative to the earth's spin axis, has been reanalyzed. Over the last 200 million years, true polar wander has been fast (approximately 5 centimeters per year) most of the time, except for a remarkable standstill from 170 to 110 million years ago. This standstill correlates with a decrease in the reversal frequency of the geomagnetic field and episodes of continental breakup. Conversely, true polar wander is high when reversal frequency increases. It is proposed that intermittent convection modulates the thickness of a thermal boundary layer at the base of the mantle and consequently the core-to-mantle heat flux. Emission of hot thermals from the boundary layer leads to increases in mantle convection and true polar wander. In conjunction, cold thermals released from a boundary layer at the top of the liquid core eventually lead to reversals. Changes in the locations of subduction zones may also affect true polar wander. Exceptional volcanism and mass extinctions at the Cretaceous-Tertiary and Permo-Triassic boundaries may be related to thermals released after two unusually long periods with no magnetic reversals. These environmental catastrophes may therefore be a consequence of thermal and chemical couplings in the earth's multilayer heat engine rather than have an extraterrestrial cause.

  10. Reverse Ecology: from systems to environments and back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Roie; Borenstein, Elhanan

    2012-01-01

    The structure of complex biological systems reflects not only their function but also the environments in which they evolved and are adapted to. Reverse Ecology-an emerging new frontier in Evolutionary Systems Biology-aims to extract this information and to obtain novel insights into an organism's ecology. The Reverse Ecology framework facilitates the translation of high-throughput genomic data into large-scale ecological data, and has the potential to transform ecology into a high-throughput field. In this chapter, we describe some of the pioneering work in Reverse Ecology, demonstrating how system-level analysis of complex biological networks can be used to predict the natural habitats of poorly characterized microbial species, their interactions with other species, and universal patterns governing the adaptation of organisms to their environments. We further present several studies that applied Reverse Ecology to elucidate various aspects of microbial ecology, and lay out exciting future directions and potential future applications in biotechnology, biomedicine, and ecological engineering.

  11. Epigenetic modification and inheritance in sexual reversal of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Changwei; Li, Qiye; Chen, Songlin; Zhang, Pei; Lian, Jinmin; Hu, Qiaomu; Sun, Bing; Jin, Lijun; Liu, Shanshan; Wang, Zongji; Zhao, Hongmei; Jin, Zonghui; Liang, Zhuo; Li, Yangzhen; Zheng, Qiumei; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Guojie

    2014-04-01

    Environmental sex determination (ESD) occurs in divergent, phylogenetically unrelated taxa, and in some species, co-occurs with genetic sex determination (GSD) mechanisms. Although epigenetic regulation in response to environmental effects has long been proposed to be associated with ESD, a systemic analysis on epigenetic regulation of ESD is still lacking. Using half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) as a model-a marine fish that has both ZW chromosomal GSD and temperature-dependent ESD-we investigated the role of DNA methylation in transition from GSD to ESD. Comparative analysis of the gonadal DNA methylomes of pseudomale, female, and normal male fish revealed that genes in the sex determination pathways are the major targets of substantial methylation modification during sexual reversal. Methylation modification in pseudomales is globally inherited in their ZW offspring, which can naturally develop into pseudomales without temperature incubation. Transcriptome analysis revealed that dosage compensation occurs in a restricted, methylated cytosine enriched Z chromosomal region in pseudomale testes, achieving equal expression level in normal male testes. In contrast, female-specific W chromosomal genes are suppressed in pseudomales by methylation regulation. We conclude that epigenetic regulation plays multiple crucial roles in sexual reversal of tongue sole fish. We also offer the first clues on the mechanisms behind gene dosage balancing in an organism that undergoes sexual reversal. Finally, we suggest a causal link between the bias sex chromosome assortment in the offspring of a pseudomale family and the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of sexual reversal in tongue sole fish.

  12. ECOLOGICAL AND EVOLUTIONARY APPLICATIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SEX REVERSAL OF FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnair, Alistair; Lokman, P Mark; Closs, Gerard P; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2015-03-01

    Environmental sex reversal (ESR), which results in a mismatch between genotypic and phenotypic sex, is well documented in numerous fish species and may be induced by chemical exposure. Historically, research involving piscine ESR has been carried out with a view to improving profitability in aquaculture or to elucidate the processes governing sex determination and sexual differentiation. However, recent studies in evolution and ecology suggest research on ESR now has much wider applications and ramifications. We begin with an overview of ESR in fish and a brief review of the traditional applications thereof. We then discuss ESR and its potential demographic consequences in wild populations. Theory even suggests sex-reversed fish may be purposefully released to manipulate population dynamics. We suggest new research directions that may prove fruitful in understanding how ESR at the individual level translates to population-level processes. In the latter portion of the review we focus on evolutionary applications of ESR. Sex-reversal studies from the aquaculture literature provide insight in to the evolvability of determinants of sexual phenotype. Additionally, induced sex reversal can provide information about the evolution of sex chromosomes and sex-linked traits. Recently, naturally occurring ESR has been implicated as a mechanism contributing to the evolution of sex chromosomes.

  13. SELECTED PROBLEMS OF REVERSE LOGISTICS IN POLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Mesjasz-Lech

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the essence of reverse logistics and directions of physical and information flows between logistic network partners. It also analyses effects of implementation of the principles of reverse logistics in Poland in the years 2004-2007

  14. Experimental studies of field-reversed configuration translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rej, D.J.; Armstrong, W.T.; Chrien, R.E.; Klingner, P.L.; Linford, R.K.; McKenna, K.F.; Sherwood, E.G.; Siemon, R.E.; Tuszewski, M.; Milroy, R.D.

    1986-03-01

    In the FRX-C/T experiment (Proceedings of the 9th Symposium for Engineering Problems of Fusion Research (IEEE, New York, 1981), p. 1751), field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas have been formed in, and launched from, a field-reversed theta-pinch source and subsequently trapped in an adjacent confinement region. No destructive instabilities or enhanced losses of poloidal flux, particles, or thermal energy are observed for FRC total trajectories of up to 16 m. The observed translation dynamics agree with two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. When translated into reduced external magnetic fields, FRC's are observed to accelerate, expand, and cool in partial agreement with adiabatic theory. The plasmas reflect from an external mirror and after each reflection, the axial kinetic energy is reduced by approximately 50%. Because of this reduction, FRC's are readily trapped without the need of pulsed gate magnet coils.

  15. Reversible Shaping of Microwells by Polarized Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Pirani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, stimuli-responsive polymeric materials have attracted great interest, due to their low cost and ease of structuration over large areas combined with the possibility to actively manipulate their properties. In this work, we propose a polymeric pattern of soft-imprinted microwells containing azobenzene molecules. The shape of individual elements of the pattern can be controlled after fabrication by irradiation with properly polarized light. By taking advantage of the light responsivity of the azobenzene compound, we demonstrate the possibility to reversibly modulate a contraction-expansion of wells from an initial round shape to very narrow slits. We also show that the initial shape of the microconcavities can be restored by flipping the polarization by 90°. The possibility to reversibly control the final shape of individual elements of structured surfaces offers the opportunity to engineer surface properties dynamically, thus opening new perspectives for several applications.

  16. Periodicity and Immortality in Reversible Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Kari , Jarkko; Ollinger , Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Additional material available on the web at http://www.lif.univ-mrs.fr/~nollinge/rec/gnirut/; We investigate the decidability of the periodicity and the immortality problems in three models of reversible computation: reversible counter machines, reversible Turing machines and reversible one-dimensional cellular automata. Immortality and periodicity are properties that describe the behavior of the model starting from arbitrary initial configurations: immortality is the property of having at le...

  17. Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (RFPR) concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Cort, G.E.

    1979-08-01

    A conceptual engineering design of a fusion reactor based on plasma confinement in a Reversed-Field Pinch (FRP) configuration is presented. A 50% atomic mixture of deuterium and tritium (DT) is ohmically heated to ignition by currents flowing in the toroidal plasma; this plasma current also inherently produces the confining magnetic fields in a toroidal chamber having a major and minor radii of 12.7 and 1.5 m, respectively. The DT plasma ignites in 2 to 3 s and burns at 10 to 20 keV for approx. 20 s to give a fuel burnup of approx. 50%. Tritium breeding occurs in a granular Li 2 O blanket which is packed around an array of radially oriented coolant tubes carrying a mixture of high-pressure steam and water. The slightly superheated steam emerging from this blanket would be used to drive a turbine directly. Low-pressure helium containing trace amounts of oxygen is circulated through the packed Li 2 O bed to extract the tritium. A 20-mm-thick copper first wall serves as a neutron multiplier, acts as a tritium barrier, and supports image currents to provide plasma stabilization on a 0.1-s timescale; external windings provide stability for longer times

  18. Solar Powered Reverse Trash Vendo Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis John M. Rubio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available –The study was conducted with the purpose of developing a Solar Powered Reverse Trash Vendo Machine that aims to encourage people to engage in recycling and to diminish the practice of improper waste disposal in thePhilippines. The device used a Gizduino X ATMega 1281 as its main processing module along with a Gizduino 644 microcontroller board, anda GSM Shield module for communication. Arduino1.6 IDE is used to program the Gizduinoboards. The device is powered by a 15V rechargeable battery, which is charged by a solar panel retrofitted at the roof of the device, this is to promote energy conservation, and green engineering principles in the development of the study.The device can process empty plastic bottles (500ml. max with a base diameter of 3.5 inches, and aluminium cans. These recyclable materials are placed inside the machine and is scanned, then crushed and placed in a bin. An inductive sensor is used to detect either the material is a plastic bottle or an aluminium can. To compensate the user for recycling, an equivalent monetary value will be dispensed. The owner of the device can check the status of the coin dispenser and bins through an Android messaging application developed using the Eclipse IDE and the Java programming language, and when a certain limit is reached by the coin dispenser or the trash bins, an automatic text message notification will be sent to the owner.

  19. Reversed-field pinch fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual engineering design of a fusion reactor based on plasma confinement in a toroidal Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) configuration is described. The plasma is ohmically ignited by toroidal plasma currents which also inherently provide the confining magnetic fields in a toroidal chamber having major and minor radii of 12.7 and 1.5 m, respectively. The DT plasma ignites in 2 to 3 s and undergoes a transient, unrefueled burn at 10 to 20 keV for approx. 20 s to give a DT burnup of approx. 50%. The 5-s dwell period between burn pulses for plasma quench and refueling allows steady-state operation of all thermal systems outside the first wall; no auxiliary thermal capacity is required. Tritium breeding occurs in a granular Li 2 O blanket which is packed around an array of radially oriented water/steam coolant tubes. The slightly superheated steam emerging from this blanket directly drives a turbine that produces electrical power at an efficiency of 30%. A borated-water shield is located immediately outside the thermal blanket to protect the superconducting magnet coils. Both the superconducting poloidal and toroidal field coils are energized by homopolar motor/generators. Accounting for all major energy sinks yields a cost-optimized system with a recirculating power fraction of 0.17; the power output is 750 MWe

  20. Reverse control for humanoid robot task recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hak, Sovannara; Mansard, Nicolas; Stasse, Olivier; Laumond, Jean Paul

    2012-12-01

    Efficient methods to perform motion recognition have been developed using statistical tools. Those methods rely on primitive learning in a suitable space, for example, the latent space of the joint angle and/or adequate task spaces. Learned primitives are often sequential: A motion is segmented according to the time axis. When working with a humanoid robot, a motion can be decomposed into parallel subtasks. For example, in a waiter scenario, the robot has to keep some plates horizontal with one of its arms while placing a plate on the table with its free hand. Recognition can thus not be limited to one task per consecutive segment of time. The method presented in this paper takes advantage of the knowledge of what tasks the robot is able to do and how the motion is generated from this set of known controllers, to perform a reverse engineering of an observed motion. This analysis is intended to recognize parallel tasks that have been used to generate a motion. The method relies on the task-function formalism and the projection operation into the null space of a task to decouple the controllers. The approach is successfully applied on a real robot to disambiguate motion in different scenarios where two motions look similar but have different purposes.

  1. Achievable qualitative parameters of optical wireless links

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolka, Z.; Wilfert, O.; Fišer, Ondřej

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 8 (2007), s. 2419-2423 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/05/0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Free-space optical link * Transmission of atmosphere * Optical communication Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.827, year: 2007 http://inoe.inoe.ro/joam/index.php?option=magazine&op=view&idu=838&catid=16

  2. Food Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Food engineering is a rapidly changing discipline. Traditionally, the main focus was on food preservation and stabilization, whereas trends now are on diversity, health, taste, and sustainable production. Next to a general introduction of the definition of food engineering, this article gives a

  3. Fluids engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Fluids engineering has played an important role in many applications, from ancient flood control to the design of high-speed compact turbomachinery. New applications of fluids engineering, such as in high-technology materials processing, biotechnology, and advanced combustion systems, have kept up unwaining interest in the subject. More accurate and sophisticated computational and measurement techniques are also constantly being developed and refined. On a more fundamental level, nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of fluid flow are no longer an intellectual curiosity and fluid engineers are increasingly interested in finding practical applications for these emerging sciences. Applications of fluid technology to new areas, as well as the need to improve the design and to enhance the flexibility and reliability of flow-related machines and devices will continue to spur interest in fluids engineering. The objectives of the present seminar were: to exchange current information on arts, science, and technology of fluids engineering; to promote scientific cooperation between the fluids engineering communities of both nations, and to provide an opportunity for the participants and their colleagues to explore possible joint research programs in topics of high priority and mutual interest to both countries. The Seminar provided an excellent forum for reviewing the current state and future needs of fluids engineering for the two nations. With the Seminar ear-marking the first formal scientific exchange between Korea and the United States in the area of fluids engineering, the scope was deliberately left broad and general

  4. Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Sang C; Tanik, Murat M

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering: Health Care Systems, Technology and Techniques is an edited volume with contributions from world experts. It provides readers with unique contributions related to current research and future healthcare systems. Practitioners and researchers focused on computer science, bioinformatics, engineering and medicine will find this book a valuable reference.

  5. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John

    1973-01-01

    Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

  6. Corrosion Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles V.

    A description is provided for a Corrosion and Corrosion Control course offered in the Continuing Engineering Education Program at the General Motors Institute (GMI). GMI is a small cooperative engineering school of approximately 2,000 students who alternate between six-week periods of academic study and six weeks of related work experience in…

  7. r-Universal reversible logic gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, A de; Storme, L

    2004-01-01

    Reversible logic plays a fundamental role both in ultra-low power electronics and in quantum computing. It is therefore important to know which reversible logic gates can be used as building block for the reversible implementation of an arbitrary boolean function and which cannot

  8. THEORETICAL FRAMES FOR DESIGNING REVERSE LOGISTICS PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Janusz K. Grabara; Sebastian Kot

    2009-01-01

    Logistics processes of return flow became more and more important in present business practice. Because of better customer satisfaction, environmental and financial aspects many enterprises deal with reverse logistics performance. The paper is a literature review focused on the design principles of reverse logistics processes Keywords: reverse logistics, designing.

  9. Prefix reversals on binary and ternary strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurkens, C.A.J.; van Iersel, L.J.J.; Keijsper, J.C.M.; Kelk, S.M.; Stougie, L.; Tromp, J.T.

    2007-01-01

    Given a permutation $\\pi$, the application of prefix reversal $f^{(i)}$ to $\\pi$ reverses the order of the first $i$ elements of $\\pi$. The problem of sorting by prefix reversals (also known as pancake flipping), made famous by Gates and Papadimitriou (Discrete Math., 27 (1979), pp. 47–57), asks

  10. Prefix reversals on binary and ternary strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurkens, C.A.J.; Iersel, van L.J.J.; Keijsper, J.C.M.; Kelk, S.M.; Stougie, L.; Tromp, J.T.

    2007-01-01

    Given a permutation $\\pi$, the application of prefix reversal $f^{(i)}$ to $\\pi$ reverses the order of the first $i$ elements of $\\pi$. The problem of sorting by prefix reversals (also known as pancake flipping), made famous by Gates and Papadimitriou (Discrete Math., 27 (1979), pp. 47–57), asks for

  11. Appeals court reverses verdict favoring drug companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-02

    An appeals court reversed a verdict favoring drug companies after the widow of a hemophiliac, whose death was linked to HIV-tainted blood products, sued four pharmaceutical companies to pay damages. The four companies, Alpha Therapeutic Corp., Miles Laboratories Inc., Armour Pharmaceutical Co., and Baxter Travenol Laboratories Inc., provided Factor VIII, a clotting concentrate, to [name removed] [name removed], the plaintiff's husband, from 1972 until his death in 1987. [Name removed]'s wife sued the companies, alleging that the defendants negligently solicited blood plasma from paid donors who had a high risk of having HIV, failed to determine whether any lots of Factor VIII contained plasma from an at-risk donor, failed to warn consumers of possible risks, and failed to heat-treat HIV and other viruses in Factor VIII, despite industry-wide knowledge of the risk of infection. The three-judge panel said the trial judge's decision to avoid ruling on the antigenic stimulation theory, based on insufficient evidence, was improper. In addition, the appeals court said a retrial is necessary because of improper remarks made by Alpha's attorney.

  12. Pollution reduction technology program for turboprop engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    The reduction of CO, HC, and smoke emissions while maintaining acceptable NO(x) emissions without affecting fuel consumption, durability, maintainability, and safety was accomplished. Component combustor concept screening directed toward the demonstration of advanced combustor technology required to meet the EPA exhaust emissions standards for class P2 turboprop engines was covered. The combustion system for the Allison 501-D22A engine was used, and three combustor design concepts - reverse flow, prechamber, and staged fuel were evaluated.

  13. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of Engineering Surveying has always been to impart and develop a clear understanding of the basic topics of the subject. The author has fully revised the book to make it the most up-to-date and relevant textbook available on the subject.The book also contains the latest information on trigonometric levelling, total stations and one-person measuring systems. A new chapter on satellites ensures a firm grasp of this vitally important topic.The text covers engineering surveying modules for civil engineering students on degree courses and forms a reference for the engineering surveying module in land surveying courses. It will also prove to be a valuable reference for practitioners.* Simple clear introduction to surveying for engineers* Explains key techniques and methods* Details reading systems and satellite position fixing

  14. Emotional engineering

    CERN Document Server

    In an age of increasing complexity, diversification and change, customers expect services that cater to their needs and to their tastes. Emotional Engineering vol 2. describes how their expectations can be satisfied and managed throughout the product life cycle, if producers focus their attention more on emotion. Emotional engineering provides the means to integrate products to create a new social framework and develops services beyond product realization to create of value across a full lifetime.  14 chapters cover a wide range of topics that can be applied to product, process and industry development, with special attention paid to the increasing importance of sensing in the age of extensive and frequent changes, including: • Multisensory stimulation and user experience  • Physiological measurement • Tactile sensation • Emotional quality management • Mental model • Kansei engineering.   Emotional Engineering vol 2 builds on Dr Fukuda’s previous book, Emotional Engineering, and provides read...

  15. Remote Whispering Applying Time Reversal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Brian Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-16

    The purpose of this project was to explore the use of time reversal technologies as a means for communication to a targeted individual or location. The idea is to have the privacy of whispering in one’s ear, but to do this remotely from loudspeakers not located near the target. Applications of this work include communicating with hostages and survivors in rescue operations, communicating imaging and operational conditions in deep drilling operations, monitoring storage of spent nuclear fuel in storage casks without wires, or clandestine activities requiring signaling between specific points. This technology provides a solution in any application where wires and radio communications are not possible or not desired. It also may be configured to self calibrate on a regular basis to adjust for changing conditions. These communications allow two people to converse with one another in real time, converse in an inaudible frequency range or medium (i.e. using ultrasonic frequencies and/or sending vibrations through a structure), or send information for a system to interpret (even allowing remote control of a system using sound). The time reversal process allows one to focus energy to a specific location in space and to send a clean transmission of a selected signal only to that location. In order for the time reversal process to work, a calibration signal must be obtained. This signal may be obtained experimentally using an impulsive sound, a known chirp signal, or other known signals. It may also be determined from a numerical model of a known environment in which the focusing is desired or from passive listening over time to ambient noise.

  16. Social Engineering Attack Detection Model: SEADMv2

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mouton, F

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available link in the security chain. A social engineering attack targets this weakness by using various manipulation techniques to elicit individuals to perform sensitive requests. The field of social engineering is still in its infancy as far as formal...

  17. Corrosion protected reversing heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawierucha, R.

    1984-01-01

    A reversing heat exchanger of the plate and fin type having multiple aluminum parting sheets in a stacked arrangement with corrugated fins separating the sheets to form multiple flow paths, means for closing the ends of the sheets, an input manifold arrangement of headers for the warm end of of the exchanger and an output manifold arrangement for the cold end of the exchanger with the input air feed stream header and the waste gas exhaust header having an alloy of zinc and aluminum coated on the inside surface for providing corrosion protection to the stack

  18. Presbycusis: reversible with anesthesia drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Carl A

    2009-02-01

    Age-related hearing impairment, or presbycusis, is a degenerative condition not currently treatable by medication. It is therefore significant that the author, as a patient, experienced a reversal of high-frequency hearing loss during a 2-day period following abdominal surgery with general anesthesia. This report documents the surgery and the subsequent restoration of hearing, which was bilateral and is estimated to have exceeded 50dB at 4kHz. A possible role is noted for anesthetic agents such as lidocaine, propofol, or fentanyl. This experience may hold a clue for research toward the development of medical treatments for presbycusis.

  19. Field-reversed mirror reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    The reactor design is a multicell arrangement wherein a series of field-reversed plasma layers are arranged along the axis of a long superconducting solenoid which provides the background magnetic field. Normal copper mirror coils and Ioffe bars placed at the first wall radius provide shallow axial and radial magnetic wells for each plasma layer. Each of 11 plasma layers requires the injection of 3.6 MW of 200 keV deuterium and tritium and produces 20 MW of fusion power. The reactor has a net electric output of 74 MWe and an estimated direct capital cost of $1200/kWe

  20. Reversible pH-controlled DNA-binding peptide nanotweezers: An in-silico study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sharma

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Gaurav Sharma1, Kaushal Rege2,3, David E Budil4, Martin L Yarmush2,5, Constantinos Mavroidis11Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; 4Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 2The Center for Engineering in Medicine (CEM, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 3Department of Chemical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA; 5Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rutgers University, NJ, USAAbstract: We describe the molecular dynamics (MD-aided engineering design of mutant peptides based on the α-helical coiled-coil GCN4 leucine zipper peptide (GCN4-p1 in order to obtain environmentally-responsive nanotweezers. The actuation mechanism of the nanotweezers depends on the modification of electrostatic charges on the residues along the length of the coiled coil. Modulating the solution pH between neutral and acidic values results in the reversible movement of helices toward and away from each other and creates a complete closed-open-closed transition cycle between the helices. Our results indicate that the mutants show a reversible opening of up to 15 Å (1.5 nm; approximately 150% of the initial separation upon pH actuation. Investigation on the physicochemical phenomena that influence conformational properties, structural stability, and reversibility of the coiled-coil peptide-based nanotweezers revealed that a rationale- and design-based approach is needed to engineer stable peptide or macromolecules into stimuli-responsive devices. The efficacy of the mutant that demonstrated the most significant reversible actuation for environmentally responsive modulation of DNA-binding activity was also demonstrated. Our results have significant implications in bioseparations and in the engineering of novel transcription factors.Keywords: bionanotechnology, nanotweezers, coiled-coil, GCN4, leucine zipper, molecular dynamics, environmentally