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Sample records for reversal learning set

  1. Rapid tryptophan depletion improves decision-making cognition in healthy humans without affecting reversal learning or set shifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Peter S; Watson, David R; Barrett, Suzanne L; Cooper, Stephen J

    2006-07-01

    Rapid tryptophan (Trp) depletion (RTD) has been reported to cause deterioration in the quality of decision making and impaired reversal learning, while leaving attentional set shifting relatively unimpaired. These findings have been attributed to a more powerful neuromodulatory effect of reduced 5-HT on ventral prefrontal cortex (PFC) than on dorsolateral PFC. In view of the limited number of reports, the aim of this study was to independently replicate these findings using the same test paradigms. Healthy human subjects without a personal or family history of affective disorder were assessed using a computerized decision making/gambling task and the CANTAB ID/ED attentional set-shifting task under Trp-depleted (n=17; nine males and eight females) or control (n=15; seven males and eight females) conditions, in a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group design. There was no significant effect of RTD on set shifting, reversal learning, risk taking, impulsivity, or subjective mood. However, RTD significantly altered decision making such that depleted subjects chose the more likely of two possible outcomes significantly more often than controls. This is in direct contrast to the previous report that subjects chose the more likely outcome significantly less often following RTD. In the terminology of that report, our result may be interpreted as improvement in the quality of decision making following RTD. This contrast between studies highlights the variability in the cognitive effects of RTD between apparently similar groups of healthy subjects, and suggests the need for future RTD studies to control for a range of personality, family history, and genetic factors that may be associated with 5-HT function.

  2. Multiple reversal olfactory learning in honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Mota

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In multiple reversal learning, animals trained to discriminate a reinforced from a non-reinforced stimulus are subjected to various, successive reversals of stimulus contingencies (e.g. A+ vs. B-, A- vs. B+, A+ vs. B-. This protocol is useful to determine whether or not animals learn to learn and solve successive discriminations faster (or with fewer errors with increasing reversal experience. Here we used the olfactory conditioning of proboscis extension reflex to study how honeybees Apis mellifera perform in a multiple reversal task. Our experiment contemplated four consecutive differential conditioning phases involving the same odors (A+ vs. B- to A- vs. B+ to A+ vs. B- to A- vs. B+. We show that bees in which the weight of reinforced or non-reinforced stimuli was similar mastered the multiple olfactory reversals. Bees which failed the task exhibited asymmetric responses to reinforced and non-reinforced stimuli, thus being unable to rapidly reverse stimulus contingencies. Efficient reversers did not improve their successive discriminations but rather tended to generalize their choice to both odors at the end of conditioning. As a consequence, both discrimination and reversal efficiency decreasedalong experimental phases. This result invalidates a learning-to-learn effect and indicates that bees do not only respond to the actual stimulus contingencies but rather combine these with an average of past experiences with the same stimuli.  

  3. Reverse hypothesis machine learning a practitioner's perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Kulkarni, Parag

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces a paradigm of reverse hypothesis machines (RHM), focusing on knowledge innovation and machine learning. Knowledge- acquisition -based learning is constrained by large volumes of data and is time consuming. Hence Knowledge innovation based learning is the need of time. Since under-learning results in cognitive inabilities and over-learning compromises freedom, there is need for optimal machine learning. All existing learning techniques rely on mapping input and output and establishing mathematical relationships between them. Though methods change the paradigm remains the same—the forward hypothesis machine paradigm, which tries to minimize uncertainty. The RHM, on the other hand, makes use of uncertainty for creative learning. The approach uses limited data to help identify new and surprising solutions. It focuses on improving learnability, unlike traditional approaches, which focus on accuracy. The book is useful as a reference book for machine learning researchers and professionals as ...

  4. Genetic dissection of behavioral flexibility: reversal learning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Rick E; Grant, Tara L; Williams, Robert W; Jentsch, J David

    2011-06-01

    Behavioral inflexibility is a feature of schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and behavior addictions that likely results from heritable deficits in the inhibitory control over behavior. Here, we investigate the genetic basis of individual differences in flexibility, measured using an operant reversal learning task. We quantified discrimination acquisition and subsequent reversal learning in a cohort of 51 BXD strains of mice (2-5 mice/strain, n = 176) for which we have matched data on sequence, gene expression in key central nervous system regions, and neuroreceptor levels. Strain variation in trials to criterion on acquisition and reversal was high, with moderate heritability (∼.3). Acquisition and reversal learning phenotypes did not covary at the strain level, suggesting that these traits are effectively under independent genetic control. Reversal performance did covary with dopamine D2 receptor levels in the ventral midbrain, consistent with a similar observed relationship between impulsivity and D2 receptors in humans. Reversal, but not acquisition, is linked to a locus on mouse chromosome 10 with a peak likelihood ratio statistic at 86.2 megabase (p work demonstrates the clear trait independence between, and genetic control of, discrimination acquisition and reversal and illustrates how globally coherent data sets for a single panel of highly related strains can be interrogated and integrated to uncover genetic sources and molecular and neuropharmacological candidates of complex behavioral traits relevant to human psychopathology. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Memory formation in reversal learning of the honeybee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravit Hadar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In reversal learning animals are first trained with a differential learning protocol, where they learn to respond to a reinforced odor (CS+ and not to respond to a nonreinforced odor (CS-. Once they respond correctly to this rule, the contingencies of the conditioned stimuli are reversed, and animals learn to adjust their response to the new rule. This study investigated the effect of a protein synthesis inhibitor (emetine on the memory formed after reversal learning in the honeybee Apis mellifera. Two groups of bees were studied: summer bees and winter bees, each yielded different results. Blocking protein synthesis in summer bees inhibits consolidation of the excitatory learning following reversal learning whereas it blocked the consolidation of the inhibitory learning in winter bees. These findings suggest that excitatory and inhibitory learning may involve different molecular processes in bees, which are seasonally dependent.

  6. A Flow of Entrepreneurial Learning Elements in Experiential Learning Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard, Michael Breum; Christensen, Marie Ernst

    This paper explored the concept of learning in an experiential learning setting and whether the learning process can be understood as a flow of learning factors influencing the outcome. If many constituting factors lead to the development of learning outcomes, there might need to be developed...... that are a part of experiential learning settings and curriculum development....... a differentiated approach to facilitate experiential learning. Subsequently the paper investigated how facilitators of learning processes can design a learning space where the boundary of what is expected from the learner is challenged. In other words the aim was to explore the transformative learning processes...

  7. Motivational Classroom Climate for Learning Mathematics: A Reversal Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a case is made that affect is central in determining students' experience of learning or not learning mathematics. I show how reversal theory (Apter, 2001), and particularly its taxonomy of motivations and emotions, provides a basis for a thick description of students' experiences of learning in a mathematics classroom. Using data…

  8. Spatial reversal learning in preclinical scrapie-inoculated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysons, A M; Woollard, S J

    1996-04-10

    Acquisition and reversal of a two-choice spatial discrimination were tested in scrapie-inoculated mice. Both acquisition and reversal were normal in mice tested 138 and 103 days prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. At 65 days before onset of clinical symptoms, scrapie-inoculated mice required more trails to criterion in reversal learning, but this effect was not significant in a second experiment (68 days preclinical) and was transient: no effect was seen 33 days before symptoms. However, the course of reversal learning was abnormal in all three late preclinical groups (68, 65 and 33 days before symptoms). Reversal learning in these three groups was characterized by a rapid extinction of the original discrimination, followed by a period, absent in controls, during which performance showed no further improvement. This effect corresponds in time of onset to the appearance of characteristic neuropathological features.

  9. The neural basis of reversal learning: An updated perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Alicia; Brigman, Jonathan L.; Radke, Anna K.; Rudebeck, Peter H.; Holmes, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Reversal learning paradigms are among the most widely used tests of cognitive flexibility and have been used as assays, across species, for altered cognitive processes in a host of neuropsychiatric conditions. Based on recent studies in humans, non-human primates, and rodents, the notion that reversal learning tasks primarily measure response inhibition, has been revised. In this review, we describe how cognitive flexibility is measured by reversal learning and discuss new definitions of the construct validity of the task that are serving as an heuristic to guide future research in this field. We also provide an update on the available evidence implicating certain cortical and subcortical brain regions in the mediation of reversal learning, and an overview of the principle neurotransmitter systems involved. PMID:26979052

  10. Learning User Preferences for Sets of Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    desJardins, Marie; Eaton, Eric; Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2006-01-01

    Most work on preference learning has focused on pairwise preferences or rankings over individual items. In this paper, we present a method for learning preferences over sets of items. Our learning method takes as input a collection of positive examples--that is, one or more sets that have been identified by a user as desirable. Kernel density estimation is used to estimate the value function for individual items, and the desired set diversity is estimated from the average set diversity observed in the collection. Since this is a new learning problem, we introduce a new evaluation methodology and evaluate the learning method on two data collections: synthetic blocks-world data and a new real-world music data collection that we have gathered.

  11. "At Sea": Reversibility in Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavicchi, Elizabeth Mary

    2018-01-01

    An equal-armed balance at equilibrium--the bar is horizontal--tips into disequilibrium upon displacing a weight. Equilibrium is restored by reversing that move--putting the weight back where it was, or doing the same on the other side. Piaget adopted the idea of equilibration to describe how the intellect, in relating to the world, develops.…

  12. Greater mindful eating practice is associated with better reversal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Lieneke K.; Duif, Iris; Loon, Van Ilke; Vries, De Jeanne H.M.; Speckens, Anne E.M.; Cools, Roshan; Aarts, Esther

    2018-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are thought to reduce compulsive behavior such as overeating by promoting behavioral flexibility. Here the main aim was to provide support for mindfulness-mediated improvements in reversal learning, a direct measure of behavioral flexibility. We investigated

  13. Learning course adjustments during arm movements with reversed sensitivity derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tweed Douglas B

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To learn, a motor system needs to know its sensitivity derivatives, which quantify how its neural commands affect motor error. But are these derivatives themselves learned, or are they known solely innately? Here we test a recent theory that the brain's estimates of sensitivity derivatives are revisable based on sensory feedback. In its simplest form, the theory says that each control system has a single, adjustable estimate of its sensitivity derivatives which affects all aspects of its task, e.g. if you learn to reach to mirror-reversed targets then your revised estimate should reverse not only your initial aiming but also your online course adjustments when the target jumps in mid-movement. Methods Human subjects bent a joystick to move a cursor to a target on a computer screen, but the cursor's motion was reversed relative to the joystick's. The target jumped once during each movement. Subjects had up to 4000 trials to practice aiming and responding to target jumps. Results All subjects learned to reverse both initial aiming and course adjustments. Conclusions Our study confirms that sensitivity derivatives can be relearned. It is consistent with the idea of a single, all-purpose estimate of those derivatives; and it suggests that the estimate is a function of context, as one would expect given that the true sensitivity derivatives may vary with the state of the controlled system, the target, and the motor commands.

  14. Reversal learning enhanced by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A.R.; Martin, I.L.; Arabella Melville, K.

    1974-01-01

    1 Small doses of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) (12.5-50 μg/kg) consistently facilitated learning of a brightness discrimination reversal. 2 2-Bromo-lysergic acid diethylamide (BOL-148), a structural analogue of LSD, with similar peripheral anti-5-hydroxytrypamine activity but no psychotomimetic properties, had no effect in this learning situation at a similar dose (25 μg/kg). 3 LSD, but not BOL-148, caused a small but significant increase in brain 5-hydroxytryptamine levels, but had no effect on the levels of catecholamines in the brain at 25 μg/kg. PMID:4458849

  15. Mutual learning and reverse innovation–where next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    There is a clear and evident need for mutual learning in global health systems. It is increasingly recognized that innovation needs to be sourced globally and that we need to think in terms of co-development as ideas are developed and spread from richer to poorer countries and vice versa. The Globalization and Health journal’s ongoing thematic series, “Reverse innovation in global health systems: learning from low-income countries” illustrates how mutual learning and ideas about so-called "reverse innovation" or "frugal innovation" are being developed and utilized by researchers and practitioners around the world. The knowledge emerging from the series is already catalyzing change and challenging the status quo in global health. The path to truly “global innovation flow”, although not fully established, is now well under way. Mobilization of knowledge and resources through continuous communication and awareness raising can help sustain this movement. Global health learning laboratories, where partners can support each other in generating and sharing lessons, have the potential to construct solutions for the world. At the heart of this dialogue is a focus on creating practical local solutions and, simultaneously, drawing out the lessons for the whole world. PMID:24673828

  16. Mutual learning and reverse innovation--where next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Nigel

    2014-03-28

    There is a clear and evident need for mutual learning in global health systems. It is increasingly recognized that innovation needs to be sourced globally and that we need to think in terms of co-development as ideas are developed and spread from richer to poorer countries and vice versa. The Globalization and Health journal's ongoing thematic series, "Reverse innovation in global health systems: learning from low-income countries" illustrates how mutual learning and ideas about so-called "reverse innovation" or "frugal innovation" are being developed and utilized by researchers and practitioners around the world. The knowledge emerging from the series is already catalyzing change and challenging the status quo in global health. The path to truly "global innovation flow", although not fully established, is now well under way. Mobilization of knowledge and resources through continuous communication and awareness raising can help sustain this movement. Global health learning laboratories, where partners can support each other in generating and sharing lessons, have the potential to construct solutions for the world. At the heart of this dialogue is a focus on creating practical local solutions and, simultaneously, drawing out the lessons for the whole world.

  17. Reward/Punishment reversal learning in older suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrovski, Alexandre Y; Clark, Luke; Siegle, Greg J; Butters, Meryl A; Ichikawa, Naho; Sahakian, Barbara J; Szanto, Katalin

    2010-06-01

    Suicide rates are high in old age, and the contribution of cognitive risk factors remains poorly understood. Suicide may be viewed as an outcome of an altered decision process. The authors hypothesized that impairment in reward/punishment-based learning, a component of affective decision making, is associated with attempted suicide in late-life depression. They expected that suicide attempters would discount past reward/punishment history, focusing excessively on the most recent rewards and punishments. The authors further hypothesized that this impairment could be dissociated from executive abilities, such as forward planning. The authors assessed reward/punishment-based learning using the probabilistic reversal learning task in 65 individuals age 60 and older: suicide attempters, suicide ideators, nonsuicidal depressed elderly, and nondepressed comparison subjects. The authors used a reinforcement learning computational model to decompose reward/punishment processing over time. The Stockings of Cambridge test served as a control measure of executive function. Suicide attempters but not suicide ideators showed impaired probabilistic reversal learning compared to both nonsuicidal depressed elderly and nondepressed comparison subjects, after controlling for effects of education, global cognitive function, and substance use. Model-based analyses revealed that suicide attempters discounted previous history to a higher degree relative to comparison subjects, basing their choice largely on reward/punishment received on the last trial. Groups did not differ in their performance on the Stockings of Cambridge test. Older suicide attempters display impaired reward/punishment-based learning. The authors propose a hypothesis that older suicide attempters make overly present-focused decisions, ignoring past experiences. Modification of this "myopia for the past" may have therapeutic potential.

  18. Observing others stay or switch - How social prediction errors are integrated into reward reversal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihssen, Niklas; Mussweiler, Thomas; Linden, David E J

    2016-08-01

    Reward properties of stimuli can undergo sudden changes, and the detection of these 'reversals' is often made difficult by the probabilistic nature of rewards/punishments. Here we tested whether and how humans use social information (someone else's choices) to overcome uncertainty during reversal learning. We show a substantial social influence during reversal learning, which was modulated by the type of observed behavior. Participants frequently followed observed conservative choices (no switches after punishment) made by the (fictitious) other player but ignored impulsive choices (switches), even though the experiment was set up so that both types of response behavior would be similarly beneficial/detrimental (Study 1). Computational modeling showed that participants integrated the observed choices as a 'social prediction error' instead of ignoring or blindly following the other player. Modeling also confirmed higher learning rates for 'conservative' versus 'impulsive' social prediction errors. Importantly, this 'conservative bias' was boosted by interpersonal similarity, which in conjunction with the lack of effects observed in a non-social control experiment (Study 2) confirmed its social nature. A third study suggested that relative weighting of observed impulsive responses increased with increased volatility (frequency of reversals). Finally, simulations showed that in the present paradigm integrating social and reward information was not necessarily more adaptive to maximize earnings than learning from reward alone. Moreover, integrating social information increased accuracy only when conservative and impulsive choices were weighted similarly during learning. These findings suggest that to guide decisions in choice contexts that involve reward reversals humans utilize social cues conforming with their preconceptions more strongly than cues conflicting with them, especially when the other is similar. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B

  19. Cooperative learning in the clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, P L

    1997-01-01

    The modern clinical practice setting presents nurses with challenges about which they must think critically and develop increasingly autonomous problem-solving approaches. It is essential to provide nursing students with opportunities to practice critical thinking so that they can develop this crucial skill. Cooperative learning strategies are interactive teaching methods that stimulate students to think critically, communicate effectively with peers, and accept responsibility for learning through group process activities. Group care planning is one such cooperative strategy that also promotes a positive attitude about care planning and sharpens time management skills. Cooperative assessment and care planning foster the development of critical thinking and effective problem resolution, preparing students for patient care problems they will likely encounter in future positions.

  20. The performance of cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, in a reversal learning task varies across experimental paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gingins

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Testing performance in controlled laboratory experiments is a powerful tool for understanding the extent and evolution of cognitive abilities in non-human animals. However, cognitive testing is prone to a number of potential biases, which, if unnoticed or unaccounted for, may affect the conclusions drawn. We examined whether slight modifications to the experimental procedure and apparatus used in a spatial task and reversal learning task affected performance outcomes in the bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus (hereafter “cleaners”. Using two-alternative forced-choice tests, fish had to learn to associate a food reward with a side (left or right in their holding aquarium. Individuals were tested in one of four experimental treatments that differed slightly in procedure and/or physical set-up. Cleaners from all four treatment groups were equally able to solve the initial spatial task. However, groups differed in their ability to solve the reversal learning task: no individuals solved the reversal task when tested in small tanks with a transparent partition separating the two options, whereas over 50% of individuals solved the task when performed in a larger tank, or with an opaque partition. These results clearly show that seemingly insignificant details to the experimental set-up matter when testing performance in a spatial task and might significantly influence the outcome of experiments. These results echo previous calls for researchers to exercise caution when designing methodologies for cognition tasks to avoid misinterpretations.

  1. The performance of cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, in a reversal learning task varies across experimental paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingins, Simon; Marcadier, Fanny; Wismer, Sharon; Krattinger, Océane; Quattrini, Fausto; Bshary, Redouan; Binning, Sandra A

    2018-01-01

    Testing performance in controlled laboratory experiments is a powerful tool for understanding the extent and evolution of cognitive abilities in non-human animals. However, cognitive testing is prone to a number of potential biases, which, if unnoticed or unaccounted for, may affect the conclusions drawn. We examined whether slight modifications to the experimental procedure and apparatus used in a spatial task and reversal learning task affected performance outcomes in the bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus (hereafter "cleaners"). Using two-alternative forced-choice tests, fish had to learn to associate a food reward with a side (left or right) in their holding aquarium. Individuals were tested in one of four experimental treatments that differed slightly in procedure and/or physical set-up. Cleaners from all four treatment groups were equally able to solve the initial spatial task. However, groups differed in their ability to solve the reversal learning task: no individuals solved the reversal task when tested in small tanks with a transparent partition separating the two options, whereas over 50% of individuals solved the task when performed in a larger tank, or with an opaque partition. These results clearly show that seemingly insignificant details to the experimental set-up matter when testing performance in a spatial task and might significantly influence the outcome of experiments. These results echo previous calls for researchers to exercise caution when designing methodologies for cognition tasks to avoid misinterpretations.

  2. The development of a National set of Physiology learning objectives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Medicine and Health Development ... engagement that can be utilized to design a national set of learning objectives towards improving learning ... Key words: Learning objectives, Nigeria, Medical education, curriculum ...

  3. Reversal Learning in Humans and Gerbils: Dynamic Control Network Facilitates Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvers, Christian; Brosch, Tobias; Brechmann, André; Woldeit, Marie L; Schulz, Andreas L; Ohl, Frank W; Lommerzheim, Marcel; Neumann, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Biologically plausible modeling of behavioral reinforcement learning tasks has seen great improvements over the past decades. Less work has been dedicated to tasks involving contingency reversals, i.e., tasks in which the original behavioral goal is reversed one or multiple times. The ability to adjust to such reversals is a key element of behavioral flexibility. Here, we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying contingency-reversal tasks. We first conduct experiments with humans and gerbils to demonstrate memory effects, including multiple reversals in which subjects (humans and animals) show a faster learning rate when a previously learned contingency re-appears. Motivated by recurrent mechanisms of learning and memory for object categories, we propose a network architecture which involves reinforcement learning to steer an orienting system that monitors the success in reward acquisition. We suggest that a model sensory system provides feature representations which are further processed by category-related subnetworks which constitute a neural analog of expert networks. Categories are selected dynamically in a competitive field and predict the expected reward. Learning occurs in sequentialized phases to selectively focus the weight adaptation to synapses in the hierarchical network and modulate their weight changes by a global modulator signal. The orienting subsystem itself learns to bias the competition in the presence of continuous monotonic reward accumulation. In case of sudden changes in the discrepancy of predicted and acquired reward the activated motor category can be switched. We suggest that this subsystem is composed of a hierarchically organized network of dis-inhibitory mechanisms, dubbed a dynamic control network (DCN), which resembles components of the basal ganglia. The DCN selectively activates an expert network, corresponding to the current behavioral strategy. The trace of the accumulated reward is monitored such that large sudden

  4. The GABAergic Anterior Paired Lateral Neurons Facilitate Olfactory Reversal Learning in "Drosophila"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanying; Ren, Qingzhong; Li, Hao; Guo, Aike

    2012-01-01

    Reversal learning has been widely used to probe the implementation of cognitive flexibility in the brain. Previous studies in monkeys identified an essential role of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in reversal learning. However, the underlying circuits and molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we use the T-maze to investigate the neural…

  5. No trade-off between learning speed and associative flexibility in bumblebees: a reversal learning test with multiple colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel E Raine

    Full Text Available Potential trade-offs between learning speed and memory-related performance could be important factors in the evolution of learning. Here, we test whether rapid learning interferes with the acquisition of new information using a reversal learning paradigm. Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris were trained to associate yellow with a floral reward. Subsequently the association between colour and reward was reversed, meaning bees then had to learn to visit blue flowers. We demonstrate that individuals that were fast to learn yellow as a predictor of reward were also quick to reverse this association. Furthermore, overnight memory retention tests suggest that faster learning individuals are also better at retaining previously learned information. There is also an effect of relatedness: colonies whose workers were fast to learn the association between yellow and reward also reversed this association rapidly. These results are inconsistent with a trade-off between learning speed and the reversal of a previously made association. On the contrary, they suggest that differences in learning performance and cognitive (behavioural flexibility could reflect more general differences in colony learning ability. Hence, this study provides additional evidence to support the idea that rapid learning and behavioural flexibility have adaptive value.

  6. Measuring Cognitive Load in Embodied Learning Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulmowski, Alexander; Rey, Günter Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, research on embodied cognition has inspired a number of studies on multimedia learning and instructional psychology. However, in contrast to traditional research on education and multimedia learning, studies on embodied learning (i.e., focusing on bodily action and perception in the context of education) in some cases pose new problems for the measurement of cognitive load. This review provides an overview over recent studies on embodied learning in which cognitive load was measured using surveys, behavioral data, or physiological measures. The different methods are assessed in terms of their success in finding differences of cognitive load in embodied learning scenarios. At the same time, we highlight the most important challenges for researchers aiming to include these measures into their study designs. The main issues we identified are: (1) Subjective measures must be appropriately phrased to be useful for embodied learning; (2) recent findings indicate potentials as well as problematic aspects of dual-task measures; (3) the use of physiological measures offers great potential, but may require mobile equipment in the context of embodied scenarios; (4) meta-cognitive measures can be useful extensions of cognitive load measurement for embodied learning.

  7. Measuring Cognitive Load in Embodied Learning Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Skulmowski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, research on embodied cognition has inspired a number of studies on multimedia learning and instructional psychology. However, in contrast to traditional research on education and multimedia learning, studies on embodied learning (i.e., focusing on bodily action and perception in the context of education in some cases pose new problems for the measurement of cognitive load. This review provides an overview over recent studies on embodied learning in which cognitive load was measured using surveys, behavioral data, or physiological measures. The different methods are assessed in terms of their success in finding differences of cognitive load in embodied learning scenarios. At the same time, we highlight the most important challenges for researchers aiming to include these measures into their study designs. The main issues we identified are: (1 Subjective measures must be appropriately phrased to be useful for embodied learning; (2 recent findings indicate potentials as well as problematic aspects of dual-task measures; (3 the use of physiological measures offers great potential, but may require mobile equipment in the context of embodied scenarios; (4 meta-cognitive measures can be useful extensions of cognitive load measurement for embodied learning.

  8. How clerkship students learn from real patients in practice settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steven, Kathryn; Wenger, Etienne; Boshuizen, Els; Scherpbier, Albert; Dornan, Tim

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To explore how undergraduate medical students learn from real patients in practice settings, the factors that affect their learning, and how clerkship learning might be enhanced. Method In 2009, 22 medical students in the three clerkship years of an undergraduate medical program in the

  9. The chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel selectively impairs reversal learning while sparing prior learning, new learning and episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panoz-Brown, Danielle; Carey, Lawrence M; Smith, Alexandra E; Gentry, Meredith; Sluka, Christina M; Corbin, Hannah E; Wu, Jie-En; Hohmann, Andrea G; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2017-10-01

    Chemotherapy is widely used to treat patients with systemic cancer. The efficacy of cancer therapies is frequently undermined by adverse side effects that have a negative impact on the quality of life of cancer survivors. Cancer patients who receive chemotherapy often experience chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment across a variety of domains including memory, learning, and attention. In the current study, the impact of paclitaxel, a taxane derived chemotherapeutic agent, on episodic memory, prior learning, new learning, and reversal learning were evaluated in rats. Neurogenesis was quantified post-treatment in the dentate gyrus of the same rats using immunostaining for 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and Ki67. Paclitaxel treatment selectively impaired reversal learning while sparing episodic memory, prior learning, and new learning. Furthermore, paclitaxel-treated rats showed decreases in markers of hippocampal cell proliferation, as measured by markers of cell proliferation assessed using immunostaining for Ki67 and BrdU. This work highlights the importance of using multiple measures of learning and memory to identify the pattern of impaired and spared aspects of chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Goal-Setting Learning Principles: A Lesson From Practitioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainudin bin Abu Bakar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the prominent theory was the goal-setting theory which was widely been used in educational setting. It is an approach than can enhance the teaching and learning activities in the classroom. This is a report paper about a simple study of the implementation of the goal-setting principle in the classroom. A clinical data of the teaching and learning session was then analysed to address several issues highlighted. It is found that the goal-setting principles if understood clearly by the teachers can enhance the teaching and learning activities. Failed to see the needs of the session will revoke the students learning interest. It is suggested that goal-setting learning principles could become a powerful aid for the teachers in the classroom.

  11. E-learning in poly-topic settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nortvig, Anne-Mette

    2014-01-01

    In e-learning settings, technology plays several crucial roles in the teaching. In addition to enabling students to gain remote access to teaching, it can also change the way time, space and presence are perceived by students and teachers. This paper attempts to analyse and discuss the consequences...... of the transparency or visibility of e-learning technology inside and outside the classroom and highlight its opportunities of multiplying the learning spaces. In order to be able to differentiate between learning that occurs in the same place and learning that occurs in more places at the same time across virtual...... and physical spaces, the paper therefore introduces the concepts of idiotopic and polytopic learning settings. Furthermore, it argues that the development of polytopic learning designs could help address a potential e- learning demand for teaching presences in more places at the same time....

  12. Reversal learning as a measure of impulsive and compulsive behavior in addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Alicia; Jentsch, J David

    2012-01-01

    Our ability to measure the cognitive components of complex decision-making across species has greatly facilitated our understanding of its neurobiological mechanisms. One task in particular, reversal learning, has proven valuable in assessing the inhibitory processes that are central to executive control. Reversal learning measures the ability to actively suppress reward-related responding and to disengage from ongoing behavior, phenomena that are biologically and descriptively related to impulsivity and compulsivity. Consequently, reversal learning could index vulnerability for disorders characterized by impulsivity such as proclivity for initial substance abuse as well as the compulsive aspects of dependence. Though we describe common variants and similar tasks, we pay particular attention to discrimination reversal learning, its supporting neural circuitry, neuropharmacology and genetic determinants. We also review the utility of this task in measuring impulsivity and compulsivity in addictions. We restrict our review to instrumental, reward-related reversal learning studies as they are most germane to addiction. The research reviewed here suggests that discrimination reversal learning may be used as a diagnostic tool for investigating the neural mechanisms that mediate impulsive and compulsive aspects of pathological reward-seeking and -taking behaviors. Two interrelated mechanisms are posited for the neuroadaptations in addiction that often translate to poor reversal learning: frontocorticostriatal circuitry dysregulation and poor dopamine (D2 receptor) modulation of this circuitry. These data suggest new approaches to targeting inhibitory control mechanisms in addictions.

  13. Entrepreneurs’ Exploratory Perseverance in Learning Settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muehlfeld, K.S.; Urbig, Diemo; Weitzel, Utz

    We introduce “exploratory perseverance” as a novel construct that captures perseverant behavior in settings in which several alternatives can be explored and evaluated. We suggest that entrepreneurs display exploratory perseverance reflected by a tendency to keep exploring broader sets of

  14. Pilot implementations and learning in CSCW settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Pilot implementations of new technology in organizations have been proposed as a promising approach to uncover emergent knowledge and learning of the specific work practices in which they are implemented. In this research proposal I will discuss how a participatory approach to evaluating CSCW...

  15. School Vision of Learning: Urban Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Tiffany A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the author develops her school vision of learning. She explains the theories she used to help develop the vision. The author then goes into detail on the methods she will use to make her vision for a school that prepares urban students for a successful life after high school. She takes into account all the stakeholders and how they…

  16. Leadership development through action learning sets: an evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Surinder; Marks-Maran, Di

    2014-11-01

    This article examines the use of action learning sets in a leadership module delivered by a university in south east England. An evaluation research study was undertaking using survey method to evaluate student engagement with action learning sets, and their value, impact and sustainability. Data were collected through a questionnaire with a mix of Likert-style and open-ended questions and qualitative and quantitative data analysis was undertaken. Findings show that engagement in the action learning sets was very high. Action learning sets also had a positive impact on the development of leadership knowledge and skills and are highly valued by participants. It is likely that they would be sustainable as the majority would recommend action learning to colleagues and would consider taking another module that used action learning sets. When compared to existing literature on action learning, this study offers new insights as there is little empirical literature on student engagement with action learning sets and even less on value and sustainability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Post-training depletions of basolateral amygdala serotonin fail to disrupt discrimination, retention, or reversal learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Jesus eOchoa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In goal-directed pursuits, the basolateral amygdala (BLA is critical in learning about changes in the value of rewards. BLA-lesioned rats show enhanced reversal learning, a task employed to measure the flexibility of response to changes in reward. Similarly, there is a trend for enhanced discrimination learning, suggesting that BLA may modulate formation of stimulus-reward associations. There is a parallel literature on the importance of serotonin (5HT in new stimulus-reward and reversal learning. Recent postulations implicate 5HT in learning from punishment. Whereas dopaminergic involvement is critical in behavioral activation and reinforcement, 5HT may be most critical for aversive processing and behavioral inhibition, complementary cognitive processes. Given these findings, a 5HT-mediated mechanism in BLA may mediate the facilitated learning observed previously. The present study investigated the effects of selective 5HT lesions in BLA using 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT versus infusions of saline (Sham on discrimination, retention, and deterministic reversal learning. Rats were required to reach an 85% correct pairwise discrimination and single reversal criterion prior to surgery. Postoperatively, rats were then tested on the 1 retention of the pretreatment discrimination pair 2 discrimination of a novel pair and 3 reversal learning performance. We found statistically comparable preoperative learning rates between groups, intact postoperative retention, and unaltered novel discrimination and reversal learning in 5,7-DHT rats. These findings suggest that 5HT in BLA is not required for formation and flexible adjustment of new stimulus-reward associations when the strategy to efficiently solve the task has already been learned. Given the complementary role of orbitofrontal cortex in reward learning and its interconnectivity with BLA, these findings add to the list of dissociable mechanisms for BLA and orbitofrontal cortex in reward learning.

  18. Ageing and spatial reversal learning in humans: findings from a virtual water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, R; Foreman, N; Leplow, B

    2014-08-15

    Deterioration in spatial memory with normal ageing is well accepted. Animal research has shown spatial reversal learning to be most vulnerable to pathological changes in the brain, but this has never been tested in humans. We studied ninety participants (52% females, 20-80 yrs) in a virtual water maze with a reversal learning procedure. Neuropsychological functioning, mood and personality were assessed to control moderator effects. For data analysis, participants were subdivided post hoc into groups aged 20-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-64 and 65-80 yrs. Initial spatial learning occurred in all age groups but 65-80-yrs-olds never reached the level of younger participants. When tested for delayed recall of spatial memory, younger people frequented the target area but those over 65 yrs did not. In spatial reversal learning, age groups over 45 yrs were deficient and the 65-80-yrs-olds showed no evidence of reversal. Spatial measures were associated with neuropsychological functioning. Extraversion and measures of depression moderated the age effect on the learning index with older introverted and non-depressed individuals showing better results. Measures of anxiety moderated the age effect on reversal learning with older people having higher anxiety scores showing a preserved reversal learning capability. Results confirmed age to be a major factor in spatial tasks but further showed neuropsychological functioning, psycho-affective determinants and personality traits to be significant predictors of individual differences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Interactions between estradiol and haloperidol on perseveration and reversal learning in amphetamine-sensitized female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almey, Anne; Arena, Lauren; Oliel, Joshua; Shams, Waqqas M; Hafez, Nada; Mancinelli, Cynthia; Henning, Lukas; Tsanev, Aleks; Brake, Wayne G

    2017-03-01

    There are sex differences associated with schizophrenia, as women exhibit later onset of the disorder, less severe symptomatology, and better response to antipsychotic medications. Estrogens are thought to play a role in these sex differences; estrogens facilitate the effects of antipsychotic medications to reduce the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, but it remains unclear whether estrogens protect against the cognitive symptoms of this disorder. Amphetamine sensitization is used to model some symptoms of schizophrenia in rats, including cognitive deficits like excessive perseveration and slower reversal learning. In this experiment female rats were administered a sensitizing regimen of amphetamine to mimic these cognitive symptoms. They were ovariectomized and administered either low or high estradiol replacement as well as chronic administration of the antipsychotic haloperidol, and were assessed in tests of perseveration and reversal learning. Results of these experiments demonstrated that, in amphetamine-sensitized rats, estradiol alone does not affect perseveration or reversal learning. However, low estradiol facilitates a 0.25mg/day dose of haloperidol to reduce perseveration and improve reversal learning. Combined high estradiol and 0.25mg/day haloperidol has no effect on perseveration or reversal learning, but high estradiol facilitates the effects of 0.13mg/day haloperidol to reduce perseveration and improve reversal learning. Thus, in amphetamine-sensitized female rats, 0.25mg/day haloperidol only improved perseveration and reversal learning when estradiol was low, while 0.13mg/day haloperidol only improved these cognitive processes when estradiol was high. These findings suggest that estradiol facilitates the effects of haloperidol to improve perseveration and reversal learning in a dose-dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Goal-Setting Learning Principles: A Lesson From Practitioner

    OpenAIRE

    Zainudin bin Abu Bakar; Lee Mei Yun; NG Siew Keow; Tan Hui Li

    2014-01-01

    One of the prominent theory was the goal-setting theory which was widely been used in educational setting. It is an approach than can enhance the teaching and learning activities in the classroom. This is a report paper about a simple study of the implementation of the goal-setting principle in the classroom. A clinical data of the teaching and learning session was then analysed to address several issues highlighted. It is found that the goal-setting principles if understood clearly by the te...

  1. Informal Language Learning Setting: Technology or Social Interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

    2012-01-01

    Based on the informal language learning theory, language learning can occur outside the classroom setting unconsciously and incidentally through interaction with the native speakers or exposure to authentic language input through technology. However, an EFL context lacks the social interaction which naturally occurs in an ESL context. To explore…

  2. Collaborative learning in gerontological clinical settings: The students' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suikkala, Arja; Kivelä, Eeva; Käyhkö, Pirjo

    2016-03-01

    This study deals with student nurses' experiences of collaborative learning in gerontological clinical settings where aged people are involved as age-experts in students' learning processes. The data were collected in 2012 using the contents of students' reflective writing assignments concerning elderly persons' life history interviews and the students' own assessments of their learning experiences in authentic elder care settings. The results, analyzed using qualitative content analysis, revealed mostly positive learning experiences. Interaction and collaborative learning activities in genuine gerontological clinical settings contributed to the students' understanding of the multiple age-related and disease-specific challenges as well as the issues of functional decline that aged patients face. Three types of factors influenced the students' collaborative learning experiences in gerontological clinical settings: student-related, patient-related and learning environment-related factors. According to the results, theoretical studies in combination with collaboration, in an authentic clinical environment, by student nurses, elderly patients, representatives of the elder care staff and nurse educators provide a feasible method for helping students transform their experiences with patients into actual skills. Their awareness of and sensitivity to the needs of the elderly increase as they learn. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Identifying Learning Preferences in Vocational Education and Training Classroom Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    This research was designed to assess whether teachers and trainers of vocational learners noted and valued differences in individual learning preferences and, if so, how those differences were observed in natural classroom, workshop or other formal learning settings. Data were collected from six vocational education and training (VET) learning…

  4. Reversible Watermarking Using Prediction-Error Expansion and Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyong Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the research for reversible watermarking focuses on the decreasing of image distortion. Aiming at this issue, this paper presents an improvement method to lower the embedding distortion based on the prediction-error expansion (PE technique. Firstly, the extreme learning machine (ELM with good generalization ability is utilized to enhance the prediction accuracy for image pixel value during the watermarking embedding, and the lower prediction error results in the reduction of image distortion. Moreover, an optimization operation for strengthening the performance of ELM is taken to further lessen the embedding distortion. With two popular predictors, that is, median edge detector (MED predictor and gradient-adjusted predictor (GAP, the experimental results for the classical images and Kodak image set indicate that the proposed scheme achieves improvement for the lowering of image distortion compared with the classical PE scheme proposed by Thodi et al. and outperforms the improvement method presented by Coltuc and other existing approaches.

  5. From a Viewpoint of Clinical Settings: Pharmacoepidemiology as Reverse Translational Research (rTR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Junichi

    2017-01-01

    Clinical pharmacology and pharmacoepidemiology research may converge in practise. Pharmacoepidemiology is the study of pharmacotherapy and risk management in patient groups. For many drugs, adverse reaction(s) that were not seen and/or clarified during research and development stages have been reported in the real world. Pharmacoepidemiology can detect and verify adverse drug reactions as reverse translational research. Recently, development and effective use of medical information databases (MID) have been conducted in Japan and elsewhere for the purpose of post-marketing safety of drugs. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan has been promoting the development of 10-million scale database in 10 hospitals and hospital groups as "the infrastructure project of medical information database (MID-NET)". This project enables estimation of the frequency of adverse reactions, the distinction between drug-induced reactions and basal health-condition changes, and usefulness verification of administrative measures of drug safety. However, because the database information is different from detailed medical records, construction of methodologies for the detection and evaluation of adverse reactions is required. We have been performing database research using medical information system in some hospitals to establish and demonstrate useful methods for post-marketing safety. In this symposium, we aim to discuss the possibility of reverse translational research from clinical settings and provide an introduction to our research.

  6. Splendidly blended: a machine learning set up for CDU control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzny, Clemens

    2017-06-01

    As the concepts of machine learning and artificial intelligence continue to grow in importance in the context of internet related applications it is still in its infancy when it comes to process control within the semiconductor industry. Especially the branch of mask manufacturing presents a challenge to the concepts of machine learning since the business process intrinsically induces pronounced product variability on the background of small plate numbers. In this paper we present the architectural set up of a machine learning algorithm which successfully deals with the demands and pitfalls of mask manufacturing. A detailed motivation of this basic set up followed by an analysis of its statistical properties is given. The machine learning set up for mask manufacturing involves two learning steps: an initial step which identifies and classifies the basic global CD patterns of a process. These results form the basis for the extraction of an optimized training set via balanced sampling. A second learning step uses this training set to obtain the local as well as global CD relationships induced by the manufacturing process. Using two production motivated examples we show how this approach is flexible and powerful enough to deal with the exacting demands of mask manufacturing. In one example we show how dedicated covariates can be used in conjunction with increased spatial resolution of the CD map model in order to deal with pathological CD effects at the mask boundary. The other example shows how the model set up enables strategies for dealing tool specific CD signature differences. In this case the balanced sampling enables a process control scheme which allows usage of the full tool park within the specified tight tolerance budget. Overall, this paper shows that the current rapid developments off the machine learning algorithms can be successfully used within the context of semiconductor manufacturing.

  7. Neural correlates of a reversal learning task with an affectively neutral baseline: an event-related fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remijnse, Peter L.; Nielen, Marjan M. A.; Uylings, Harry B. M.; Veltman, Dick J.

    2005-01-01

    Reversal learning may conceptually be dissected into acquiring stimulus-reinforcement associations and subsequently altering behavior by switching to new associations as stimulus-reinforcement contingencies reverse (i.e., affective switching). Previous imaging studies have found regions of the

  8. Designing for expansive science learning and identification across settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromholt, Shelley; Bell, Philip

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we present a case for designing expansive science learning environments in relation to neoliberal instantiations of standards-based implementation projects in education. Using ethnographic and design-based research methods, we examine how the design of coordinated learning across settings can engage youth from non-dominant communities in scientific and engineering practices, resulting in learning experiences that are more relevant to youth and their communities. Analyses highlight: (a) transformative moments of identification for one fifth-grade student across school and non-school settings; (b) the disruption of societal, racial stereotypes on the capabilities of and expectations for marginalized youth; and (c) how youth recognized themselves as members of their community and agents of social change by engaging in personally consequential science investigations and learning.

  9. E-portfolios in university and blended learning settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke

    2009-01-01

    or case work, if the process of and interaction between the students are prioritised. The paper adds to the existing findings within ePortfolio and their application to formal learning settings. It discusses both the planning of and running the process, psychological barriers, students' motivation as well...... as more technological practical aspects of ePortfolio use, that are relevant for people engaged in IT and learning....

  10. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, escitalopram, enhances inhibition of prepotent responding and spatial reversal learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Holden D.; Amodeo, Dionisio A.; Sweeney, John A.; Ragozzino, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Previous findings indicate treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) facilitates behavioral flexibility when conditions require inhibition of a learned response pattern. The present experiment investigated whether acute treatment with the SSRI, escitalopram, affects behavioral flexibility when conditions require inhibition of a naturally-biased response pattern (elevated conflict test) and/or reversal of a learned response pattern (spatial reversal learning). An additional experiment was carried out to determine whether escitalopram, at doses that affected behavioral flexibility, also reduced anxiety as tested in the elevated plus-maze. In each experiment, Long-Evans rats received an intraperitoneal injection of either saline or escitalopram (0.03, 0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg) 30 minutes prior to behavioral testing. Escitalopram, at all doses tested, enhanced acquisition in the elevated conflict test, but did not affect performance in the elevated plus-maze. Escitalopram (0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg) did not alter acquisition of the spatial discrimination, but facilitated reversal learning. In the elevated conflict and spatial reversal learning test, escitalopram enhanced the ability to maintain the relevant strategy after being initially selected. The present findings suggest that enhancing serotonin transmission with a SSRI facilitates inhibitory processes when conditions require a shift away from either a naturally-biased response pattern or a learned choice pattern. PMID:22219222

  11. Discrimination learning and attentional set formation in a mouse model of Fragile X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casten, Kimberly S; Gray, Annette C; Burwell, Rebecca D

    2011-06-01

    Fragile X Syndrome is the most prevalent genetic cause of mental retardation. Selective deficits in executive function, including inhibitory control and attention, are core features of the disorder. In humans, Fragile X results from a trinucleotide repeat in the Fmr1 gene that renders it functionally silent and has been modeled in mice by targeted deletion of the Fmr1 gene. Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice recapitulate many features of Fragile X syndrome, but evidence for deficits in executive function is inconsistent. To address this issue, we trained wild-type and Fmr1 KO mice on an experimental paradigm that assesses attentional set-shifting. Mice learned to discriminate between stimuli differing in two of three perceptual dimensions. Successful discrimination required attending only to the relevant dimension, while ignoring irrelevant dimensions. Mice were trained on three discriminations in the same perceptual dimension, each followed by a reversal. This procedure normally results in the formation of an attentional set to the relevant dimension. Mice were then required to shift attention and discriminate based on a previously irrelevant perceptual dimension. Wild-type mice exhibited the increase in trials to criterion expected when shifting attention from one perceptual dimension to another. In contrast, the Fmr1 KO group failed to show the expected increase, suggesting impairment in forming an attentional set. Fmr1 KO mice also exhibited a general impairment in learning discriminations and reversals. This is the first demonstration that Fmr1 KO mice show a deficit in attentional set formation.

  12. A Rough Set-Based Model of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Resistome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kierczak

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcriptase (RT is a viral enzyme crucial for HIV-1 replication. Currently, 12 drugs are targeted against the RT. The low fidelity of the RT-mediated transcription leads to the quick accumulation of drug-resistance mutations. The sequence-resistance relationship remains only partially understood. Using publicly available data collected from over 15 years of HIV proteome research, we have created a general and predictive rule-based model of HIV-1 resistance to eight RT inhibitors. Our rough set-based model considers changes in the physicochemical properties of a mutated sequence as compared to the wild-type strain. Thanks to the application of the Monte Carlo feature selection method, the model takes into account only the properties that significantly contribute to the resistance phenomenon. The obtained results show that drug-resistance is determined in more complex way than believed. We confirmed the importance of many resistance-associated sites, found some sites to be less relevant than formerly postulated and— more importantly—identified several previously neglected sites as potentially relevant. By mapping some of the newly discovered sites on the 3D structure of the RT, we were able to suggest possible molecular-mechanisms of drug-resistance. Importantly, our model has the ability to generalize predictions to the previously unseen cases. The study is an example of how computational biology methods can increase our understanding of the HIV-1 resistome.

  13. Learning with Nature and Learning from Others: Nature as Setting and Resource for Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQuarrie, Sarah; Nugent, Clare; Warden, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Nature-based learning is an increasingly popular type of early childhood education. Despite this, children's experiences--in particular, their form and function within different settings and how they are viewed by practitioners--are relatively unknown. Accordingly, the use of nature as a setting and a resource for learning was researched. A…

  14. The Present and Future State of Blended Learning in Workplace Learning Settings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonk, Curtis J.; Kim, Kyong-Jee; Oh, Eun Jung; Teng, Ya-Ting; Son, Su Jin

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports survey findings related to the present and future state of blended learning in workplace learning settings across the U.S. Surveyed in this study are 118 practitioners in corporate training or elearning in various workplace settings. The findings reveal interesting perceptions by respondents regarding the benefits of and…

  15. Mirror reversal and visual rotation are learned and consolidated via separate mechanisms: recalibrating or learning de novo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telgen, Sebastian; Parvin, Darius; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2014-10-08

    Motor learning tasks are often classified into adaptation tasks, which involve the recalibration of an existing control policy (the mapping that determines both feedforward and feedback commands), and skill-learning tasks, requiring the acquisition of new control policies. We show here that this distinction also applies to two different visuomotor transformations during reaching in humans: Mirror-reversal (left-right reversal over a mid-sagittal axis) of visual feedback versus rotation of visual feedback around the movement origin. During mirror-reversal learning, correct movement initiation (feedforward commands) and online corrections (feedback responses) were only generated at longer latencies. The earliest responses were directed into a nonmirrored direction, even after two training sessions. In contrast, for visual rotation learning, no dependency of directional error on reaction time emerged, and fast feedback responses to visual displacements of the cursor were immediately adapted. These results suggest that the motor system acquires a new control policy for mirror reversal, which initially requires extra processing time, while it recalibrates an existing control policy for visual rotations, exploiting established fast computational processes. Importantly, memory for visual rotation decayed between sessions, whereas memory for mirror reversals showed offline gains, leading to better performance at the beginning of the second session than in the end of the first. With shifts in time-accuracy tradeoff and offline gains, mirror-reversal learning shares common features with other skill-learning tasks. We suggest that different neuronal mechanisms underlie the recalibration of an existing versus acquisition of a new control policy and that offline gains between sessions are a characteristic of latter. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3413768-12$15.00/0.

  16. Effect of haptic assistance on learning vehicle reverse parking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Masakazu; Uesugi, Naohisa; Furugori, Satoru; Kitagawa, Tomoko; Suzuki, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Compared to conventional visual- and auditory-based assisted driving technologies, haptic modality promises to be more effective and less disturbing assistance to the driver. However, in most previous studies, haptic assistance systems were evaluated from safety and stability viewpoints. Moreover, the effect of haptic assistance on human driving behavior has not been sufficiently discussed. In this paper, we introduce an assisted driving method based on haptic assistance for driver training in reverse parking, which is considered as an uncertain factor in conventional assisted driving systems. The proposed system assists the driver by applying a torque on the steering wheel to guide proper and well-timed steering. To design the appropriate assistance method, we conducted a measurement experiment to determine the qualitative reverse parking driver characteristics. Based on the determined characteristics, we propose a haptic assistance calculation method that utilizes the receding horizon control algorithm. For a simulation environment to assess the proposed assistance method, we also developed a scaled car simulator comprising a 1/10 scaled robot car and an omnidirectional camera. We used the scaled car simulator to conduct comparative experiments on subjects, and observed that the driving skills of the assisted subjects were significantly better than those of the control subjects.

  17. Learning with nature and learning from others: nature as setting and resource for early childhood education

    OpenAIRE

    MacQuarrie, Sarah; Nugent, Clare; Warden, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Nature-based learning is an increasingly popular type of early childhood education. Despite this, children's experiences-in particular, their form and function within different settings and how they are viewed by practitioners-are relatively unknown. Accordingly, the use of nature as a setting and a resource for learning was researched. A description and an emerging understanding of nature-based learning were obtained through the use of a group discussion and case studies. Practitioners' view...

  18. The Impact of Problem Sets on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeong Hwan; Cho, Moon-Heum; Leonard, Karen Moustafa

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the role of problem sets on student learning in university microeconomics. A total of 126 students participated in the study in consecutive years. independent samples t test showed that students who were not given answer keys outperformed students who were given answer keys. Multiple regression analysis showed that, along with…

  19. Collaborative teacher learning in different primary school settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doppenberg, J.J.; Bakx, A.W.E.A.; Brok, den P.J.

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades there has been a growing awareness of the potentially strong role teacher collaboration can play in relation to teacher and team learning. Teachers collaborate with their colleagues in different formal and informal settings. Because most studies have focused on teacher

  20. Becoming conscious of learning and nursing in clinical settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten; Pedersen, Birthe D.; Helms, Niels Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Literature shows several benefits of implementing ePortfolio and focusing on learning styles within nursing education. However, there is some ambiguity, so the aim was to investigate learning mediated by the mandatory part of ePortfolio in clinical settings. The design takes a phenomenological......-hermeneutic approach. The setting was a ten-week clinical course in Basic Nursing, and participants were 11 first-year students randomly assigned. Data was generated by participant observations, narrative interviews and portfolio documents. The entire data material was interpreted according to the French philosopher...... Paul Ricoeurs theory of interpretation. This paper reports that the mandatory part promotes consciousness of own learning and competencies in clinical nursing and raises students` consciousness of nurse identity. It gives preceptors the opportunity to differentiate their supervision for individual...

  1. Dissociable contributions of the orbitofrontal and infralimbic cortex to pavlovian autoshaping and discrimination reversal learning: further evidence for the functional heterogeneity of the rodent frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudasama, Y; Robbins, Trevor W

    2003-09-24

    To examine possible heterogeneity of function within the ventral regions of the rodent frontal cortex, the present study compared the effects of excitotoxic lesions of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the infralimbic cortex (ILC) on pavlovian autoshaping and discrimination reversal learning. During the pavlovian autoshaping task, in which rats learn to approach a stimulus predictive of reward [conditional stimulus (CS+)], only the OFC group failed to acquire discriminated approach but was unimpaired when preoperatively trained. In the visual discrimination learning and reversal task, rats were initially required to discriminate a stimulus positively associated with reward. There was no effect of either OFC or ILC lesions on discrimination learning. When the stimulus-reward contingencies were reversed, both groups of animals committed more errors, but only the OFC-lesioned animals were unable to suppress the previously rewarded stimulus-reward association, committing more "stimulus perseverative" errors. In contrast, the ILC group showed a pattern of errors that was more attributable to "learning" than perseveration. These findings suggest two types of dissociation between the effects of OFC and ILC lesions: (1) OFC lesions impaired the learning processes implicated in pavlovian autoshaping but not instrumental simultaneous discrimination learning, whereas ILC lesions were unimpaired at autoshaping and their reversal learning deficit did not reflect perseveration, and (2) OFC lesions induced perseverative responding in reversal learning but did not disinhibit responses to pavlovian CS-. In contrast, the ILC lesion had no effect on response inhibitory control in either of these settings. The findings are discussed in the context of dissociable executive functions in ventral sectors of the rat prefrontal cortex.

  2. Algorithms for Learning Preferences for Sets of Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.; desJardins, Marie; Eaton, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A method is being developed that provides for an artificial-intelligence system to learn a user's preferences for sets of objects and to thereafter automatically select subsets of objects according to those preferences. The method was originally intended to enable automated selection, from among large sets of images acquired by instruments aboard spacecraft, of image subsets considered to be scientifically valuable enough to justify use of limited communication resources for transmission to Earth. The method is also applicable to other sets of objects: examples of sets of objects considered in the development of the method include food menus, radio-station music playlists, and assortments of colored blocks for creating mosaics. The method does not require the user to perform the often-difficult task of quantitatively specifying preferences; instead, the user provides examples of preferred sets of objects. This method goes beyond related prior artificial-intelligence methods for learning which individual items are preferred by the user: this method supports a concept of setbased preferences, which include not only preferences for individual items but also preferences regarding types and degrees of diversity of items in a set. Consideration of diversity in this method involves recognition that members of a set may interact with each other in the sense that when considered together, they may be regarded as being complementary, redundant, or incompatible to various degrees. The effects of such interactions are loosely summarized in the term portfolio effect. The learning method relies on a preference representation language, denoted DD-PREF, to express set-based preferences. In DD-PREF, a preference is represented by a tuple that includes quality (depth) functions to estimate how desired a specific value is, weights for each feature preference, the desired diversity of feature values, and the relative importance of diversity versus depth. The system applies statistical

  3. Selective bilateral amygdala lesions in rhesus monkeys fail to disrupt object reversal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Alicia; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2007-01-31

    Neuropsychological studies in nonhuman primates have led to the view that the amygdala plays an essential role in stimulus-reward association. The main evidence in support of this idea is that bilateral aspirative or radiofrequency lesions of the amygdala yield severe impairments on object reversal learning, a task that assesses the ability to shift choices of objects based on the presence or absence of food reward (i.e., reward contingency). The behavioral effects of different lesion techniques, however, can vary. The present study therefore evaluated the effects of selective, excitotoxic lesions of the amygdala in rhesus monkeys on object reversal learning. For comparison, we tested the same monkeys on a task known to be sensitive to amygdala damage, the reinforcer devaluation task. Contrary to previous results based on less selective lesion techniques, monkeys with complete excitotoxic amygdala lesions performed object reversal learning as quickly as controls. As predicted, however, the same operated monkeys were impaired in making object choices after devaluation of the associated food reinforcer. The results suggest two conclusions. First, the results demonstrate that the amygdala makes a selective contribution to stimulus-reward association; the amygdala is critical for guiding object choices after changes in reward value but not after changes in reward contingency. Second, the results implicate a critical contribution to object reversal learning of structures nearby the amygdala, perhaps the subjacent rhinal cortex.

  4. Measuring Discrimination- and Reversal Learning in Mouse Models within 4 Days and without Prior Food Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmelink, Esther; Smit, August B.; Verhage, Matthijs; Loos, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Many neurological and psychiatric disorders are characterized by deficits in cognitive flexibility. Modeling cognitive flexibility in mice enables the investigation of mechanisms underlying these deficits. The majority of currently available behavioral tests targeting this cognitive domain are reversal learning tasks that require scheduled food…

  5. That's not how the learning works - the paradox of Reverse Innovation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Matthew; Weisberger, Emily; Silver, Diana; Dadwal, Viva; Macinko, James

    2016-07-05

    There are significant differences in the meaning and use of the term 'Reverse Innovation' between industry circles, where the term originated, and health policy circles where the term has gained traction. It is often conflated with other popularized terms such as Frugal Innovation, Co-development and Trickle-up Innovation. Compared to its use in the industrial sector, this conceptualization of Reverse Innovation describes a more complex, fragmented process, and one with no particular institution in charge. It follows that the way in which the term 'Reverse Innovation', specifically, is understood and used in the healthcare space is worthy of examination. Between September and December 2014, we conducted eleven in-depth face-to-face or telephone interviews with key informants from innovation, health and social policy circles, experts in international comparative policy research and leaders in the Reverse Innovation space in the United States. Interviews were open-ended with guiding probes into the barriers and enablers to Reverse Innovation in the US context, specifically also informants' experience and understanding of the term Reverse Innovation. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed thematically using the process of constant comparison. We describe three main themes derived from the interviews. First, 'Reverse Innovation,' the term, has marketing currency to convince policy-makers that may be wary of learning from or adopting innovations from unexpected sources, in this case Low-Income Countries. Second, the term can have the opposite effect - by connoting frugality, or innovation arising from necessity as opposed to good leadership, the proposed innovation may be associated with poor quality, undermining potential translation into other contexts. Finally, the term 'Reverse Innovation' is a paradox - it breaks down preconceptions of the directionality of knowledge and learning, whilst simultaneously reinforcing it. We conclude that this term means

  6. Acute effects of cocaine and cannabis on reversal learning as a function of COMT and DRD2 genotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spronk, D.B.; Schaaf, M.E. van der; Cools, R.; Bruijn, E.R. De; Franke, B.; Wel, J.H. van; Ramaekers, J.G.; Verkes, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Long-term cannabis and cocaine use has been associated with impairments in reversal learning. However, how acute cannabis and cocaine administration affect reversal learning in humans is not known. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to establish the acute effects of administration of

  7. Enhancing the Biological Relevance of Machine Learning Classifiers for Reverse Vaccinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley I. Heinson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Reverse vaccinology (RV is a bioinformatics approach that can predict antigens with protective potential from the protein coding genomes of bacterial pathogens for subunit vaccine design. RV has become firmly established following the development of the BEXSERO® vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. RV studies have begun to incorporate machine learning (ML techniques to distinguish bacterial protective antigens (BPAs from non-BPAs. This research contributes significantly to the RV field by using permutation analysis to demonstrate that a signal for protective antigens can be curated from published data. Furthermore, the effects of the following on an ML approach to RV were also assessed: nested cross-validation, balancing selection of non-BPAs for subcellular localization, increasing the training data, and incorporating greater numbers of protein annotation tools for feature generation. These enhancements yielded a support vector machine (SVM classifier that could discriminate BPAs (n = 200 from non-BPAs (n = 200 with an area under the curve (AUC of 0.787. In addition, hierarchical clustering of BPAs revealed that intracellular BPAs clustered separately from extracellular BPAs. However, no immediate benefit was derived when training SVM classifiers on data sets exclusively containing intra- or extracellular BPAs. In conclusion, this work demonstrates that ML classifiers have great utility in RV approaches and will lead to new subunit vaccines in the future.

  8. Enhancing the Biological Relevance of Machine Learning Classifiers for Reverse Vaccinology

    KAUST Repository

    Heinson, Ashley

    2017-02-01

    Reverse vaccinology (RV) is a bioinformatics approach that can predict antigens with protective potential from the protein coding genomes of bacterial pathogens for subunit vaccine design. RV has become firmly established following the development of the BEXSERO® vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. RV studies have begun to incorporate machine learning (ML) techniques to distinguish bacterial protective antigens (BPAs) from non-BPAs. This research contributes significantly to the RV field by using permutation analysis to demonstrate that a signal for protective antigens can be curated from published data. Furthermore, the effects of the following on an ML approach to RV were also assessed: nested cross-validation, balancing selection of non-BPAs for subcellular localization, increasing the training data, and incorporating greater numbers of protein annotation tools for feature generation. These enhancements yielded a support vector machine (SVM) classifier that could discriminate BPAs (n = 200) from non-BPAs (n = 200) with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.787. In addition, hierarchical clustering of BPAs revealed that intracellular BPAs clustered separately from extracellular BPAs. However, no immediate benefit was derived when training SVM classifiers on data sets exclusively containing intra- or extracellular BPAs. In conclusion, this work demonstrates that ML classifiers have great utility in RV approaches and will lead to new subunit vaccines in the future.

  9. Enhancing the Biological Relevance of Machine Learning Classifiers for Reverse Vaccinology

    KAUST Repository

    Heinson, Ashley; Gunawardana, Yawwani; Moesker, Bastiaan; Hume, Carmen; Vataga, Elena; Hall, Yper; Stylianou, Elena; McShane, Helen; Williams, Ann; Niranjan, Mahesan; Woelk, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Reverse vaccinology (RV) is a bioinformatics approach that can predict antigens with protective potential from the protein coding genomes of bacterial pathogens for subunit vaccine design. RV has become firmly established following the development of the BEXSERO® vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. RV studies have begun to incorporate machine learning (ML) techniques to distinguish bacterial protective antigens (BPAs) from non-BPAs. This research contributes significantly to the RV field by using permutation analysis to demonstrate that a signal for protective antigens can be curated from published data. Furthermore, the effects of the following on an ML approach to RV were also assessed: nested cross-validation, balancing selection of non-BPAs for subcellular localization, increasing the training data, and incorporating greater numbers of protein annotation tools for feature generation. These enhancements yielded a support vector machine (SVM) classifier that could discriminate BPAs (n = 200) from non-BPAs (n = 200) with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.787. In addition, hierarchical clustering of BPAs revealed that intracellular BPAs clustered separately from extracellular BPAs. However, no immediate benefit was derived when training SVM classifiers on data sets exclusively containing intra- or extracellular BPAs. In conclusion, this work demonstrates that ML classifiers have great utility in RV approaches and will lead to new subunit vaccines in the future.

  10. Fullrmc, a rigid body Reverse Monte Carlo modeling package enabled with machine learning and artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Bachir

    2016-05-05

    A new Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) package "fullrmc" for atomic or rigid body and molecular, amorphous, or crystalline materials is presented. fullrmc main purpose is to provide a fully modular, fast and flexible software, thoroughly documented, complex molecules enabled, written in a modern programming language (python, cython, C and C++ when performance is needed) and complying to modern programming practices. fullrmc approach in solving an atomic or molecular structure is different from existing RMC algorithms and software. In a nutshell, traditional RMC methods and software randomly adjust atom positions until the whole system has the greatest consistency with a set of experimental data. In contrast, fullrmc applies smart moves endorsed with reinforcement machine learning to groups of atoms. While fullrmc allows running traditional RMC modeling, the uniqueness of this approach resides in its ability to customize grouping atoms in any convenient way with no additional programming efforts and to apply smart and more physically meaningful moves to the defined groups of atoms. In addition, fullrmc provides a unique way with almost no additional computational cost to recur a group's selection, allowing the system to go out of local minimas by refining a group's position or exploring through and beyond not allowed positions and energy barriers the unrestricted three dimensional space around a group. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Narratives of social justice: learning in innovative clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer Kirkham, Sheryl; Van Hofwegen, Lynn; Hoe Harwood, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The nursing profession has renewed its commitment to social and political mandates, resulting in increasing attention to issues pertaining to diversity, vulnerable populations, social determinants of health, advocacy and activism, and social justice in nursing curricula. Narratives from a qualitative study examining undergraduate nursing student learning in five innovative clinical settings (corrections, international, parish, rural, and aboriginal) resonate with these curricular emphases. Data were derived from focus groups and interviews with 65 undergraduate nursing students, clinical instructors, and RN mentors. Findings of this study reveal how students in innovative clinical placements bear witness to poverty, inequities, and marginalization (critical awareness), often resulting in dissonance and soul-searching (critical engagement), and a renewed commitment to social transformation (social change). These findings suggest the potential for transformative learning in these settings.

  12. Using Learning Sets to Support UK Delivery of Off-Shore Learning in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    This account of practice focuses on the delivery of Action Learning Sets in Swaziland and Malawi as part of a UK university's remote Master's degree teaching programme. It draws upon the experience of an Academic delivering the programme and the efforts made to refine the approach to action learning given time, understanding and resource…

  13. Representation learning with deep extreme learning machines for efficient image set classification

    KAUST Repository

    Uzair, Muhammad

    2016-12-09

    Efficient and accurate representation of a collection of images, that belong to the same class, is a major research challenge for practical image set classification. Existing methods either make prior assumptions about the data structure, or perform heavy computations to learn structure from the data itself. In this paper, we propose an efficient image set representation that does not make any prior assumptions about the structure of the underlying data. We learn the nonlinear structure of image sets with deep extreme learning machines that are very efficient and generalize well even on a limited number of training samples. Extensive experiments on a broad range of public datasets for image set classification show that the proposed algorithm consistently outperforms state-of-the-art image set classification methods both in terms of speed and accuracy.

  14. Representation learning with deep extreme learning machines for efficient image set classification

    KAUST Repository

    Uzair, Muhammad; Shafait, Faisal; Ghanem, Bernard; Mian, Ajmal

    2016-01-01

    Efficient and accurate representation of a collection of images, that belong to the same class, is a major research challenge for practical image set classification. Existing methods either make prior assumptions about the data structure, or perform heavy computations to learn structure from the data itself. In this paper, we propose an efficient image set representation that does not make any prior assumptions about the structure of the underlying data. We learn the nonlinear structure of image sets with deep extreme learning machines that are very efficient and generalize well even on a limited number of training samples. Extensive experiments on a broad range of public datasets for image set classification show that the proposed algorithm consistently outperforms state-of-the-art image set classification methods both in terms of speed and accuracy.

  15. Reversal of long-term potentiation-like plasticity processes after motor learning disrupts skill retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Gabriela; Lloyd, Ashley; Celnik, Pablo

    2013-07-31

    Plasticity of synaptic connections in the primary motor cortex (M1) is thought to play an essential role in learning and memory. Human and animal studies have shown that motor learning results in long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity processes, namely potentiation of M1 and a temporary occlusion of additional LTP-like plasticity. Moreover, biochemical processes essential for LTP are also crucial for certain types of motor learning and memory. Thus, it has been speculated that the occlusion of LTP-like plasticity after learning, indicative of how much LTP was used to learn, is essential for retention. Here we provide supporting evidence of it in humans. Induction of LTP-like plasticity can be abolished using a depotentiation protocol (DePo) consisting of brief continuous theta burst stimulation. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation to assess whether application of DePo over M1 after motor learning affected (1) occlusion of LTP-like plasticity and (2) retention of motor skill learning. We found that the magnitude of motor memory retention is proportional to the magnitude of occlusion of LTP-like plasticity. Moreover, DePo stimulation over M1, but not over a control site, reversed the occlusion of LTP-like plasticity induced by motor learning and disrupted skill retention relative to control subjects. Altogether, these results provide evidence of a link between occlusion of LTP-like plasticity and retention and that this measure could be used as a biomarker to predict retention. Importantly, attempts to reverse the occlusion of LTP-like plasticity after motor learning comes with the cost of reducing retention of motor learning.

  16. Age-related similarities and differences in brain activity underlying reversal learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru eNashiro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to update associative memory is an important aspect of episodic memory and a critical skill for social adaptation. Previous research with younger adults suggests that emotional arousal alters brain mechanisms underlying memory updating; however, it is unclear whether this applies to older adults. Given that the ability to update associative information declines with age, it is important to understand how emotion modulates the brain processes underlying memory updating in older adults. The current study investigated this question using reversal learning tasks, where younger and older participants (age ranges 19-35 and 61-78 respectively learn a stimulus–outcome association and then update their response when contingencies change. We found that younger and older adults showed similar patterns of activation in the frontopolar OFC and the amygdala during emotional reversal learning. In contrast, when reversal learning did not involve emotion, older adults showed greater parietal cortex activity than did younger adults. Thus, younger and older adults show more similarities in brain activity during memory updating involving emotional stimuli than during memory updating not involving emotional stimuli.

  17. Effects of acute sleep deprivation on motor and reversal learning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Andrew W; Kang, Mihwa; Ramesh, Priyanka V; Klann, Eric

    2014-10-01

    Sleep supports the formation of a variety of declarative and non-declarative memories, and sleep deprivation often impairs these types of memories. In human subjects, natural sleep either during a nap or overnight leads to long-lasting improvements in visuomotor and fine motor tasks, but rodent models recapitulating these findings have been scarce. Here we present evidence that 5h of acute sleep deprivation impairs mouse skilled reach learning compared to a matched period of ad libitum sleep. In sleeping mice, the duration of total sleep time during the 5h of sleep opportunity or during the first bout of sleep did not correlate with ultimate gain in motor performance. In addition, we observed that reversal learning during the skilled reaching task was also affected by sleep deprivation. Consistent with this observation, 5h of sleep deprivation also impaired reversal learning in the water-based Y-maze. In conclusion, acute sleep deprivation negatively impacts subsequent motor and reversal learning and memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Workplace wellness using online learning tools in a healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Holly; Gartshore, Emily

    2016-09-01

    The aim was to develop and evaluate an online learning tool for use with UK healthcare employees, healthcare educators and healthcare students, to increase knowledge of workplace wellness as an important public health issue. A 'Workplace Wellness' e-learning tool was developed and peer-reviewed by 14 topic experts. This focused on six key areas relating to workplace wellness: work-related stress, musculoskeletal disorders, diet and nutrition, physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption. Each key area provided current evidence-based information on causes and consequences, access to UK government reports and national statistics, and guidance on actions that could be taken to improve health within a workplace setting. 188 users (93.1% female, age 18-60) completed online knowledge questionnaires before (n = 188) and after (n = 88) exposure to the online learning tool. Baseline knowledge of workplace wellness was poor (n = 188; mean accuracy 47.6%, s.d. 11.94). Knowledge significantly improved from baseline to post-intervention (mean accuracy = 77.5%, s.d. 13.71) (t(75) = -14.801, p online learning, indicating scope for development of further online packages relating to other important health parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Incoherent dictionary learning for reducing crosstalk noise in least-squares reverse time migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Bai, Min

    2018-05-01

    We propose to apply a novel incoherent dictionary learning (IDL) algorithm for regularizing the least-squares inversion in seismic imaging. The IDL is proposed to overcome the drawback of traditional dictionary learning algorithm in losing partial texture information. Firstly, the noisy image is divided into overlapped image patches, and some random patches are extracted for dictionary learning. Then, we apply the IDL technology to minimize the coherency between atoms during dictionary learning. Finally, the sparse representation problem is solved by a sparse coding algorithm, and image is restored by those sparse coefficients. By reducing the correlation among atoms, it is possible to preserve most of the small-scale features in the image while removing much of the long-wavelength noise. The application of the IDL method to regularization of seismic images from least-squares reverse time migration shows successful performance.

  20. Reversal learning enhanced by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD): concomitant rise in brain 5-hydroxytryptamine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A R; Martin, I L; Melville, K A

    1974-11-01

    1 Small doses of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) (12.5-50 mug/kg) consistently facilitated learning of a brightness discrimination reversal.2 2-Bromo-lysergic acid diethylamide (BOL-148), a structural analogue of LSD, with similar peripheral anti-5-hydroxytrypamine activity but no psychotomimetic properties, had no effect in this learning situation at a similar dose (25 mug/kg).3 LSD, but not BOL-148, caused a small but significant increase in brain 5-hydroxytryptamine levels, but had no effect on the levels of catecholamines in the brain at 25 mug/kg.

  1. An improved clustering algorithm based on reverse learning in intelligent transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guoqing; Kou, Qianqian; Niu, Ting

    2017-05-01

    With the development of artificial intelligence and data mining technology, big data has gradually entered people's field of vision. In the process of dealing with large data, clustering is an important processing method. By introducing the reverse learning method in the clustering process of PAM clustering algorithm, to further improve the limitations of one-time clustering in unsupervised clustering learning, and increase the diversity of clustering clusters, so as to improve the quality of clustering. The algorithm analysis and experimental results show that the algorithm is feasible.

  2. A functional polymorphism in the prodynorphin gene affects cognitive flexibility and brain activation during reversal learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail eVotinov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Whether the opioid system plays a role in the ability to flexibly adapt behavior is still unclear. We used fMRI to investigate the effect of a nucleotide tandem repeat (68-bp VNTR functional polymorphism of the prodynorphin gene on cerebral activation during a reversal learning task in which participants had to flexibly adapt stimulus-response associations. Past studies suggested that alleles with 3 or 4 repeats (HH genotype of this polymorphism are associated with higher levels of dynorphin peptides than alleles with 1 or 2 repeats (LL genotype. On the behavioral level, the HH group made more perseverative errors than the LL group. On the neural level, the HH group demonstrated less engagement of left orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC and cortico-striatal circuitry, and lower effective connectivity of lOFC with anterior midcingulate cortex and anterior insula/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex during reversal learning and processing negative feedback. This points to a lower ability of the HH genotype to monitor or adapt to changes in reward contingencies. These findings provide first evidence that dynorphins may contribute to individual differences in reversal learning, and that considering the opioid system may shed new light on the neurochemical correlates of decision-making and behavioral regulation.

  3. Reversal learning and resurgence of operant behavior in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Toshikazu; Mizutani, Yuto; Cançado, Carlos R X; Podlesnik, Christopher A

    2017-09-01

    Zebrafish are used extensively as vertebrate animal models in biomedical research for having such features as a fully sequenced genome and transparent embryo. Yet, operant-conditioning studies with this species are scarce. The present study investigated reversal learning and resurgence of operant behavior in zebrafish. A target response (approaching a sensor) was reinforced in Phase 1. In Phase 2, the target response was extinguished while reinforcing an alternative response (approaching a different sensor). In Phase 3, extinction was in effect for the target and alternative responses. Reversal learning was demonstrated when responding tracked contingency changes between Phases 1 and 2. Moreover, resurgence occurred in 10 of 13 fish in Phase 3: Target response rates increased transiently and exceeded rates of an unreinforced control response. The present study provides the first evidence with zebrafish supporting reversal learning between discrete operant responses and a laboratory model of relapse. These findings open the possibility to assessing genetic influences of operant behavior generally and in models of relapse (e.g., resurgence, renewal, reinstatement). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bias-Free Chemically Diverse Test Sets from Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Ellen T; Fernandez, Michael; Coote, Michelle L; Barnard, Amanda S

    2017-08-14

    Current benchmarking methods in quantum chemistry rely on databases that are built using a chemist's intuition. It is not fully understood how diverse or representative these databases truly are. Multivariate statistical techniques like archetypal analysis and K-means clustering have previously been used to summarize large sets of nanoparticles however molecules are more diverse and not as easily characterized by descriptors. In this work, we compare three sets of descriptors based on the one-, two-, and three-dimensional structure of a molecule. Using data from the NIST Computational Chemistry Comparison and Benchmark Database and machine learning techniques, we demonstrate the functional relationship between these structural descriptors and the electronic energy of molecules. Archetypes and prototypes found with topological or Coulomb matrix descriptors can be used to identify smaller, statistically significant test sets that better capture the diversity of chemical space. We apply this same method to find a diverse subset of organic molecules to demonstrate how the methods can easily be reapplied to individual research projects. Finally, we use our bias-free test sets to assess the performance of density functional theory and quantum Monte Carlo methods.

  5. Peer-Assisted Learning in the Athletic Training Clinical Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Jolene M; Weidner, Thomas G; Jones, James

    2006-01-01

    Context: Athletic training educators often anecdotally suggest that athletic training students enhance their learning by teaching their peers. However, peer-assisted learning (PAL) has not been examined within athletic training education in order to provide evidence for its current use or as a pedagogic tool. Objective: To describe the prevalence of PAL in athletic training clinical education and to identify students' perceptions of PAL. Design: Descriptive. Setting: “The Athletic Training Student Seminar” at the National Athletic Trainers' Association 2002 Annual Meeting and Clinical Symposia. Patients or Other Participants: A convenience sample of 138 entry-level male and female athletic training students. Main Outcome Measure(s): Students' perceptions regarding the prevalence and benefits of and preferences for PAL were measured using the Athletic Training Peer-Assisted Learning Assessment Survey. The Survey is a self-report tool with 4 items regarding the prevalence of PAL and 7 items regarding perceived benefits and preferences. Results: A total of 66% of participants practiced a moderate to large amount of their clinical skills with other athletic training students. Sixty percent of students reported feeling less anxious when performing clinical skills on patients in front of other athletic training students than in front of their clinical instructors. Chi-square analysis revealed that 91% of students enrolled in Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs–accredited athletic training education programs learned a minimal to small amount of clinical skills from their peers compared with 65% of students in Joint Review Committee on Educational Programs in Athletic Training–candidacy schools (χ2 3 = 14.57, P < .01). Multiple analysis of variance revealed significant interactions between sex and academic level on several items regarding benefits and preferences. Conclusions: According to athletic training students, PAL is occurring in

  6. Supervised learning with restricted training sets: a generating functional analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimel, J.A.F.; Coolen, A.C.C. [Department of Mathematics, King' s College London, Strand, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-10-26

    We study the dynamics of supervised on-line learning of realizable tasks in feed-forward neural networks. We focus on the regime where the number of examples used for training is proportional to the number of input channels N. Using generating functional techniques from spin glass theory, we are able to average over the composition of the training set and transform the problem for N{yields}{infinity} to an effective single pattern system described completely by the student autocovariance, the student-teacher overlap and the student response function with exact closed equations. Our method applies to arbitrary learning rules, i.e., not necessarily of a gradient-descent type. The resulting exact macroscopic dynamical equations can be integrated without finite-size effects up to any degree of accuracy, but their main value is in providing an exact and simple starting point for analytical approximation schemes. Finally, we show how, in the region of absent anomalous response and using the hypothesis that (as in detailed balance systems) the short-time part of the various operators can be transformed away, one can describe the stationary state of the network successfully by a set of coupled equations involving only four scalar order parameters. (author)

  7. Learning feedback and feedforward control in a mirror-reversed visual environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuga, Shoko; Telgen, Sebastian; Ushiba, Junichi; Nozaki, Daichi; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2015-10-01

    When we learn a novel task, the motor system needs to acquire both feedforward and feedback control. Currently, little is known about how the learning of these two mechanisms relate to each other. In the present study, we tested whether feedforward and feedback control need to be learned separately, or whether they are learned as common mechanism when a new control policy is acquired. Participants were trained to reach to two lateral and one central target in an environment with mirror (left-right)-reversed visual feedback. One group was allowed to make online movement corrections, whereas the other group only received visual information after the end of the movement. Learning of feedforward control was assessed by measuring the accuracy of the initial movement direction to lateral targets. Feedback control was measured in the responses to sudden visual perturbations of the cursor when reaching to the central target. Although feedforward control improved in both groups, it was significantly better when online corrections were not allowed. In contrast, feedback control only adaptively changed in participants who received online feedback and remained unchanged in the group without online corrections. Our findings suggest that when a new control policy is acquired, feedforward and feedback control are learned separately, and that there may be a trade-off in learning between feedback and feedforward controllers. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Optimizing Distributed Machine Learning for Large Scale EEG Data Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bilal Shaikh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Machine Learning (DML has gained its importance more than ever in this era of Big Data. There are a lot of challenges to scale machine learning techniques on distributed platforms. When it comes to scalability, improving the processor technology for high level computation of data is at its limit, however increasing machine nodes and distributing data along with computation looks as a viable solution. Different frameworks   and platforms are available to solve DML problems. These platforms provide automated random data distribution of datasets which miss the power of user defined intelligent data partitioning based on domain knowledge. We have conducted an empirical study which uses an EEG Data Set collected through P300 Speller component of an ERP (Event Related Potential which is widely used in BCI problems; it helps in translating the intention of subject w h i l e performing any cognitive task. EEG data contains noise due to waves generated by other activities in the brain which contaminates true P300Speller. Use of Machine Learning techniques could help in detecting errors made by P300 Speller. We are solving this classification problem by partitioning data into different chunks and preparing distributed models using Elastic CV Classifier. To present a case of optimizing distributed machine learning, we propose an intelligent user defined data partitioning approach that could impact on the accuracy of distributed machine learners on average. Our results show better average AUC as compared to average AUC obtained after applying random data partitioning which gives no control to user over data partitioning. It improves the average accuracy of distributed learner due to the domain specific intelligent partitioning by the user. Our customized approach achieves 0.66 AUC on individual sessions and 0.75 AUC on mixed sessions, whereas random / uncontrolled data distribution records 0.63 AUC.

  9. Reverse inference of memory retrieval processes underlying metacognitive monitoring of learning using multivariate pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiers, Peter; Falbo, Luciana; Goulas, Alexandros; van Gog, Tamara; de Bruin, Anique

    2016-05-15

    Monitoring of learning is only accurate at some time after learning. It is thought that immediate monitoring is based on working memory, whereas later monitoring requires re-activation of stored items, yielding accurate judgements. Such interpretations are difficult to test because they require reverse inference, which presupposes specificity of brain activity for the hidden cognitive processes. We investigated whether multivariate pattern classification can provide this specificity. We used a word recall task to create single trial examples of immediate and long term retrieval and trained a learning algorithm to discriminate them. Next, participants performed a similar task involving monitoring instead of recall. The recall-trained classifier recognized the retrieval patterns underlying immediate and long term monitoring and classified delayed monitoring examples as long-term retrieval. This result demonstrates the feasibility of decoding cognitive processes, instead of their content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. What's statistical about learning? Insights from modelling statistical learning as a set of memory processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, Erik D

    2017-01-05

    Statistical learning has been studied in a variety of different tasks, including word segmentation, object identification, category learning, artificial grammar learning and serial reaction time tasks (e.g. Saffran et al. 1996 Science 274: , 1926-1928; Orban et al. 2008 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: , 2745-2750; Thiessen & Yee 2010 Child Development 81: , 1287-1303; Saffran 2002 Journal of Memory and Language 47: , 172-196; Misyak & Christiansen 2012 Language Learning 62: , 302-331). The difference among these tasks raises questions about whether they all depend on the same kinds of underlying processes and computations, or whether they are tapping into different underlying mechanisms. Prior theoretical approaches to statistical learning have often tried to explain or model learning in a single task. However, in many cases these approaches appear inadequate to explain performance in multiple tasks. For example, explaining word segmentation via the computation of sequential statistics (such as transitional probability) provides little insight into the nature of sensitivity to regularities among simultaneously presented features. In this article, we will present a formal computational approach that we believe is a good candidate to provide a unifying framework to explore and explain learning in a wide variety of statistical learning tasks. This framework suggests that statistical learning arises from a set of processes that are inherent in memory systems, including activation, interference, integration of information and forgetting (e.g. Perruchet & Vinter 1998 Journal of Memory and Language 39: , 246-263; Thiessen et al. 2013 Psychological Bulletin 139: , 792-814). From this perspective, statistical learning does not involve explicit computation of statistics, but rather the extraction of elements of the input into memory traces, and subsequent integration across those memory traces that emphasize consistent information (Thiessen and Pavlik

  11. Physiological Measures of Dopaminergic and Noradrenergic Activity During Attentional Set Shifting and Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Pajkossy

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA and noradrenaline (NA are important neurotransmitters, which are suggested to play a vital role in modulating the neural circuitry involved in the executive control of cognition. One way to investigate the functions of these neurotransmitter systems is to assess physiological indices of DA and NA transmission. Here we examined how variations of spontaneous eye-blink rate and pupil size, as indirect measures of DA and NA activity, respectively, are related to performance in a hallmark aspect of executive control: attentional set shifting. We used the Intra/Extradimensional Set Shifting Task, where participants have to choose between different compound stimuli while the stimulus-reward contingencies change periodically. During such rule shifts, participants have to refresh their attentional set while they reassess which stimulus-features are relevant. We found that both eye-blink rate (EBR and pupil size increased after rule shifts, when explorative processes are required to establish stimulus–reward contingencies. Furthermore, baseline pupil size was related to performance during the most difficult, extradimensional set shifting stage, whereas baseline EBR was associated with task performance prior to this stage. Our results support a range of neurobiological models suggesting that the activity of DA and NA neurotransmitter systems determines individual differences in executive functions (EF, possibly by regulating neurotransmission in prefrontal circuits. We also suggest that assessing specific, easily accessible indirect physiological markers, such as pupil size and blink rate, contributes to the comprehension of the relationship between neurotransmitter systems and EF.

  12. The use of blogging in tertiary healthcare educational settings to enhance reflective learning in nursing leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Theodora C

    2014-01-01

    Web 2.0 technologies such as blogs are increasingly used in academic settings; however, they are not widely used in hospital settings. This project explored the effectiveness of using a blog to enhance reflective learning in a nurse manager leadership development course of a tertiary care hospital setting. Differences in reflective learning between the blog group and traditional learning group were measured post training using a Reflective Learning and Interaction Questionnaire. Although the groups did not differ significantly on any reflective learning dimension (p educators contemplating to incorporate blogs into their learning strategies to enhance reflective learning.

  13. Effects of orbitofrontal cortex lesions on autoshaped lever pressing and reversal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Stephen E

    2014-10-15

    A cue associated with a rewarding event can trigger behavior towards the cue itself due to the cue acquiring incentive value through its pairing with the rewarding outcome (i.e., sign-tracking). For example, rats will approach, press, and attempt to "consume" a retractable lever conditioned stimulus (CS) that signals delivery of a food unconditioned stimulus (US). Attending to food-predictive CSs is important when seeking out food, and it is just as important to be able to modify one's behavior when the relationships between CSs and USs are changed. Using a discriminative autoshaping procedure with lever CSs, the present study investigated the effects of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) lesions on sign-tracking and reversal learning. Insertion of one lever was followed by sucrose delivery upon retraction, and insertion of another lever was followed by nothing. After the acquisition phase, the contingencies between the levers and outcomes were reversed. Bilateral OFC lesions had no effect on the acquisition of sign-tracking. However, OFC-lesioned rats showed substantial deficits in acquiring sign-tracking compared to sham-lesioned rats once the stimulus-outcome contingencies were reversed. Over the course of reversal learning, OFC-lesioned rats were able to reach comparable levels of sign-tracking as sham-lesioned rats. These findings suggest that OFC is not necessary for the ability of a CS to acquire incentive value and provide more evidence that OFC is critical for modifying behavior appropriately following a change in stimulus-outcome contingencies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. E-Learning: Students Input for Using Mobile Devices in Science Instructional Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ozkan

    2016-01-01

    A variety of e-learning theories, models, and strategy have been developed to support educational settings. There are many factors for designing good instructional settings. This study set out to determine functionality of mobile devices, students who already have, and the student needs and views in relation to e-learning settings. The study…

  15. Psychological Climates in Action Learning Sets: A Manager's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeadon-Lee, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Action learning (AL) is often viewed as a process that facilitates professional learning through the creation of a positive psychological climate [Marquardt, M. J. 2000. "Action Learning and Leadership." "The Learning Organisation" 7 (5): 233-240; Schein, E. H. 1979. "Personal Change Through Interpersonal…

  16. Independent effects of age and levodopa on reversal learning in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Andrew; Seergobin, Ken N; MacDonald, Penny A

    2018-05-18

    The dopamine overdose hypothesis has provided an important theoretical framework for understanding cognition in Parkinson's disease. It posits that effects of dopaminergic therapy on cognition in Parkinson's disease depend on baseline dopamine levels in brain regions that support different functions. Although functions performed by more severely dopamine-depleted brain regions improve with medication, those associated with less dopamine deficient areas are actually worsened. It is presumed that medication-related worsening of cognition owes to dopamine overdose. We investigated whether age-related changes in baseline dopamine levels would modulate effects of dopaminergic therapy on reward learning in healthy volunteers. In a double-blind, crossover design, healthy younger and older adults completed a probabilistic reversal learning task after treatment with 100/25 mg of levodopa/carbidopa versus placebo. Older adults learned more poorly than younger adults at baseline, being more likely to shift responses after misleading punishment. Levodopa worsened stimulus-reward learning relative to placebo to the same extent in both groups, irrespective of differences in baseline performance and expected dopamine levels. When order effects were eliminated, levodopa induced response shifts after reward more often than placebo. Our results reveal independent deleterious effects of age group and exogenous dopamine on reward learning, suggesting a more complex scenario than predicted by the dopamine overdose hypothesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Spatial midsession reversal learning in rats: Effects of egocentric Cue use and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn-Reeves, Rebecca M; Moore, Mary K; Smith, Thea E; Crafton, Daniel A; Marden, Kelly L

    2018-07-01

    The midsession reversal task has been used to investigate behavioral flexibility and cue use in non-human animals, with results indicating differences in the degree of control by environmental cues across species. For example, time-based control has been found in rats only when tested in a T-maze apparatus and under specific conditions in which position and orientation (i.e., egocentric) cues during the intertrial interval could not be used to aid performance. Other research in an operant setting has shown that rats often produce minimal errors around the reversal location, demonstrating response patterns similar to patterns exhibited by humans and primates in this task. The current study aimed to reduce, but not eliminate, the ability for rats to utilize egocentric cues by placing the response levers on the opposite wall of the chamber in relation to the pellet dispenser. Results showed that rats made minimal errors prior to the reversal, suggesting time-based cues were not controlling responses, and that they switched to the second correct stimulus within a few trials after the reversal event. Video recordings also revealed highly structured patterns of behavior by the majority of rats, which often differed depending on which response was reinforced. We interpret these findings as evidence that rats are adept at utilizing their own egocentric cues and that these cues, along with memory for the recent response-reinforcement contingencies, aid in maximizing reinforcement over the session. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of MK-801 on vicarious trial-and-error and reversal of olfactory discrimination learning in weanling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbach, G S; Hu, D; Amsel, A

    1998-12-01

    The effects of dizocilpine maleate (MK-801) on vicarious trial-and-error (VTE), and on simultaneous olfactory discrimination learning and its reversal, were observed in weanling rats. The term VTE was used by Tolman (The determiners of behavior at a choice point. Psychol. Rev. 1938;46:318-336), who described it as conflict-like behavior at a choice-point in simultaneous discrimination learning. It takes the form of head movements from one stimulus to the other, and has recently been proposed by Amsel (Hippocampal function in the rat: cognitive mapping or vicarious trial-and-error? Hippocampus, 1993;3:251-256) as related to hippocampal, nonspatial function during this learning. Weanling male rats received systemic MK-801 either 30 min before the onset of olfactory discrimination training and its reversal, or only before its reversal. The MK-801-treated animals needed significantly more sessions to acquire the discrimination and showed significantly fewer VTEs in the acquisition phase of learning. Impaired reversal learning was shown only when MK-801 was administered during the reversal-learning phase, itself, and not when it was administered throughout both phases.

  19. Glutamine/glutamate (Glx) concentration in prefrontal cortex predicts reversal learning performance in the marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacreuse, Agnès; Moore, Constance M; LaClair, Matthew; Payne, Laurellee; King, Jean A

    2018-07-02

    This study used Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) to identify potential neurometabolitic markers of cognitive performance in male (n = 7) and female (n = 8) middle-aged (∼5 years old) common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Anesthetized marmosets were scanned with a 4.7 T/40 cm horizontal magnet equipped with 450 mT/m magnetic field gradients and a 20 G/cm magnetic field gradient insert, within 3 months of completing the CANTAB serial Reversal Learning task. Neurometabolite concentrations of N-Acetyl Asparate, Myo-Inositol, Choline, Phosphocreatine + creatine, Glutamate and Glutamine were acquired from a 3 mm 3 voxel positioned in the Prefrontal Cortex (PFC). Males acquired the reversals (but not simple discriminations) faster than the females. Higher PFC Glx (glutamate + glutamine) concentration was associated with faster acquisition of the reversals. Interestingly, the correlation between cognitive performance and Glx was significant in males, but not in females. These results suggest that MRS is a useful tool to identify biochemical markers of cognitive performance in the healthy nonhuman primate brain and that biological sex modulates the relationship between neurochemical composition and cognition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl pyridine (MPEP reverses maze learning and PSD-95 deficits in Fmr1 knock-out mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réno Michelle Gandhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS is caused by the lack of expression of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP, which results in intellectual disability and other debilitating symptoms including impairment of visual-spatial functioning. FXS is the only single-gene disorder that is highly co-morbid with autism spectrum disorder and can therefore provide insight into its pathophysiology. Lack of FMRP results in altered group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR signalling, which is a target for putative treatments. The Hebb-Williams (H-W mazes are a set of increasingly complex spatial navigation problems that depend on intact hippocampal and thus mGluR-5 functioning. In the present investigation, we examined whether an antagonist of mGluR-5 would reverse previously described behavioural deficits in Fmr1 KO mice. Mice were trained on a subset of the H-W mazes and then treated with either 20 mg/kg of an mGluR-5 antagonist, 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl pyridine (MPEP; n = 11 or an equivalent dose of saline (n = 11 prior to running test mazes. Latency and errors were dependent variables recorded during the test phase. Immediately after completing each test, marble-burying behavior was assessed which confirmed that the drug treatment was pharmacologically active during maze learning. Although latency was not statistically different between the groups, MPEP treated Fmr1 KO mice made significantly fewer errors on mazes deemed more difficult suggesting a reversal of the behavioural deficit. MPEP treated mice were also less perseverative and impulsive when navigating mazes. Furthermore, MPEP treatment reversed PSD-95 protein deficits in Fmr1 KO treated mice, whereas levels of a control protein (β-tubulin remained unchanged. These data further validate MPEP as a potentially beneficial treatment for FXS. Our findings also suggest that adapted H-W mazes may be a useful tool to document alterations in behavioural functioning following pharmacological

  1. Reversal learning in gonadectomized marmosets with and without hormone replacement: are males more sensitive to punishment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaClair, Matthew; Lacreuse, Agnès

    2016-05-01

    This study examined sex differences in executive function in middle-aged gonadectomized marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) with or without hormonal replacement. We tested ten castrated male (mean age 5.5 years) marmosets treated with testosterone cypionate (T, n = 5) or vehicle (n = 5) on Reversal Learning, which contributes to cognitive flexibility, and the Delayed Response task, measuring working memory. Their performance was compared to that of 11 ovariectomized females (mean age = 3.7 years) treated with Silastic capsules filled with 17-β estradiol (E2, n = 6) or empty capsules (n = 5), previously tested on the same tasks (Lacreuse et al. in J Neuroendocrinol 26:296-309, 2014. doi: 10.1111/jne.12147). Behavioral observations were conducted daily. Females exhibited more locomotor behaviors than males. Males and females did not differ in the number of trials taken to reach criterion on the reversals, but males had significantly longer response latencies, regardless of hormone replacement. They also had a greater number of refusals than females. Additionally, both control and T-treated males, but not females, had slower responses on incorrect trials, suggesting that males were making errors due to distraction, lack of motivation or uncertainty. Furthermore, although both males and females had slower responding following an incorrect compared to a correct trial, the sex difference in response latencies was disproportionally large following an incorrect trial. No sex difference was found in the Delayed Response task. Overall, slower response latencies in males than females during Reversal Learning, especially during and following an incorrect trial, may reflect greater sensitivity to punishment (omission of reward) and greater performance monitoring in males, compared to females. Because these differences occurred in gonadectomized animals and regardless of hormone replacement, they may be organized early in life.

  2. A Field Study of a Video Supported Seamless-Learning-Setting with Elementary Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fößl, Thomas; Ebner, Martin; Schön, Sandra; Holzinger, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Seamless Learning shall initiate human learning processes that exceeds lesson and classroom limits. At the same time this approach fosters a self-regulated learning, by means of inspirational, open education settings. Advanced learning materials are easily accessible via mobile digital devices connected to the Internet. In this study it was…

  3. Bidirectional Active Learning: A Two-Way Exploration Into Unlabeled and Labeled Data Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Shupeng; Yun, Xiaochun

    2015-12-01

    In practical machine learning applications, human instruction is indispensable for model construction. To utilize the precious labeling effort effectively, active learning queries the user with selective sampling in an interactive way. Traditional active learning techniques merely focus on the unlabeled data set under a unidirectional exploration framework and suffer from model deterioration in the presence of noise. To address this problem, this paper proposes a novel bidirectional active learning algorithm that explores into both unlabeled and labeled data sets simultaneously in a two-way process. For the acquisition of new knowledge, forward learning queries the most informative instances from unlabeled data set. For the introspection of learned knowledge, backward learning detects the most suspiciously unreliable instances within the labeled data set. Under the two-way exploration framework, the generalization ability of the learning model can be greatly improved, which is demonstrated by the encouraging experimental results.

  4. Keefektifan setting TPS dalam pendekatan discovery learning dan problem-based learning pada pembelajaran materi lingkaran SMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Hidayati

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the effectiveness of setting Think Pair Share (TPS in the approach to discovery learning and problem-based learning in terms of student achievement, mathematical communication skills, and interpersonal skills of the student.  This study was a quasi-experimental study using the pretest-posttest nonequivalent group design. The research population comprised all Year VIII students of SMP Negeri 1 Yogyakarta. The research sample was randomly selected from eight classes, two classes were elected. The instrument used in this study is the learning achievement test, a test of mathematical communication skills, and interpersonal skills student questionnaires. To test the effectiveness of setting Think Pair Share (TPS in the approach to discovery learning and problem-based learning, the one sample t-test was carried out. Then, to investigate the difference in effectiveness between the setting Think Pair Share (TPS in the approach to discovery learning and problem-based learning, the Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA was carried out. The research findings indicate that the setting TPS discovery approach to learning and problem-based approach to learning (PBL is effective in terms of learning achievement, mathematical communication skills, and interpersonal skills of the students. No difference in effectiveness between setting TPS discovery approach to learning and problem-based learning (PBL in terms of learning achievement, mathematical communication skills, and interpersonal skills of the students. Keywords: TPS setting in discovery learning approach, in problem-based learning, academic achievement, mathematical communication skills, and interpersonal skills of the student

  5. Developing mathematics learning set for special-needs junior high school student oriented to learning interest and achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Sadidah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to produce a mathematics learning set for special-needs students (mathematical learning disability and mathematically gifted of Junior High School Grade VIII Second Semester oriented to learning interests and achievement which is valid, practical, and effective. This study was a research and development study using the Four-D development model consisting of four stages: (1 define, (2 design, (3 develop, and (4 disseminate. The quality of learning set consisting of the following three criterions: (1 validity, (2 practicality, and (3 effectiveness.  The data analysis technique used in this study is a descriptive quantitative analysis. The research produced learning set consisting of lesson plans and student worksheets. The result of the research shows that: (1 the learning set fulfill the valid criteria base on experts’ appraisal; (2 the learning set fulfill the practical criterion base on teacher’s and students’ questionnaire, and observation of learning implementation; (3 the learning set fulfill the effectiveness criterion base on learning interest and achievement.

  6. ReMashed – Recommendation Approaches for Mash-Up Personal Learning Environments in Formal and Informal Learning Settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Pecceu, Dries; Arts, Tanja; Hutten, Edwin; Rutledge, Lloyd; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Hummel, Hans; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Drachsler, H., Peccau, D., Arts, T., Hutten, E., Rutledge, L., Van Rosmalen, P., Hummel, H. G. K., & Koper, R. (2009). ReMashed – Recommendation Approaches for Mash-Up Personal Learning Environments in Formal and Informal Learning Settings. Presentation at the 2nd Workshop Mash-Up Personal Learning

  7. Investigating the Relationship between Learning Styles and ESP Reading Strategies in Academic Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Parviz Ajideh; Mohammad Zohrabi; Kazem Pouralvar

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between Art and Science students’ learning styles and their ESP reading strategies in academic settings. Learning styles are defined as general orientations learners take toward their learning experiences. This notion has recently obtained attention in the area of language learning. Strategies are also defined as specific behaviours or techniques learners employ towards leaning in order to achieve their learning goals. The strategies chosen are ...

  8. Altered brain activation in a reversal learning task unmasks adaptive changes in cognitive control in writer's cramp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeuner, Kirsten E; Knutzen, Arne; Granert, Oliver; Sablowsky, Simone; Götz, Julia; Wolff, Stephan; Jansen, Olav; Dressler, Dirk; Schneider, Susanne A; Klein, Christine; Deuschl, Günther; van Eimeren, Thilo; Witt, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Previous receptor binding studies suggest dopamine function is altered in the basal ganglia circuitry in task-specific dystonia, a condition characterized by contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles while performing specific tasks. Dopamine plays a role in reward-based learning. Using fMRI, this study compared 31 right-handed writer's cramp patients to 35 controls in reward-based learning of a probabilistic reversal-learning task. All subjects chose between two stimuli and indicated their response with their left or right index finger. One stimulus response was rewarded 80%, the other 20%. After contingencies reversal, the second stimulus response was rewarded in 80%. We further linked the DRD2/ANKK1-TaqIa polymorphism, which is associated with 30% reduction of the striatal dopamine receptor density with reward-based learning and assumed impaired reversal learning in A + subjects. Feedback learning in patients was normal. Blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in controls increased with negative feedback in the insula, rostral cingulate cortex, middle frontal gyrus and parietal cortex (pFWE based learning. The dACC is connected with the basal ganglia-thalamo-loop modulated by dopaminergic signaling. This finding suggests disturbed integration of reinforcement history in decision making and implicate that the reward system might contribute to the pathogenesis in writer's cramp.

  9. Does individual learning styles influence the choice to use a web-based ECG learning programme in a blended learning setting?

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Mikael; ?stergren, Jan; Fors, Uno; Rickenlund, Anette; Jorfeldt, Lennart; Caidahl, Kenneth; Bolinder, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The compressed curriculum in modern knowledge-intensive medicine demands useful tools to achieve approved learning aims in a limited space of time. Web-based learning can be used in different ways to enhance learning. Little is however known regarding its optimal utilisation. Our aim was to investigate if the individual learning styles of medical students influence the choice to use a web-based ECG learning programme in a blended learning setting. Methods The programme, wi...

  10. Preoperative learning goals set by surgical residents and faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernar, Luise I M; Breen, Elizabeth; Ashley, Stanley W; Peyre, Sarah E

    2011-09-01

    The operating room (OR) remains the main teaching venue for surgical trainees. The OR is considered a pure-discovery learning environment; the downsides of this can be putatively overcome when faculty and trainee arrive at a shared understanding of learning. This study aimed to better understand preoperative learning goals to identify areas of commonalities and potential barrier to intraoperative teaching. Brief, structured preoperative interviews were conducted outside the OR with the resident and faculty member who were scheduled to operate together. Answers were analyzed and grouped using grounded theory. Twenty-seven resident-faculty pairs were interviewed. Nine residents (33.3%) were junior (PGY 1 and 2) and 18 (66.7%) were senior (PGY 3 through 5). Learning goal categories that emerged from the response analysis were anatomy, basic and advanced surgical skills, general and specific procedural tasks, technical autonomy, and pre-, intra-, and postoperative considerations. Residents articulated fewer learning goals than faculty (1.5 versus 2.4; P = 0.024). The most frequently identified learning goal by both groups was one classifiable under general procedural tasks; the greatest divergence was seen regarding perioperative considerations, which were identified frequently by faculty members but rarely by residents. Faculty articulate significantly more learning goals for the residents they will operate with than residents articulate for themselves. Our data suggest that residents and faculty align on some learning goals for the OR but residents tend to be more limited, focusing predominantly on technical aspects of the operation. Faculty members tend to hold a broader view of the learning potential of the OR. These discrepancies may present barriers to effective intraoperative teaching. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatial and reversal learning in the Morris water maze are largely resistant to six hours of REM sleep deprivation following training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christine M.; Booth, Victoria; Poe, Gina R.

    2011-01-01

    This first test of the role of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep in reversal spatial learning is also the first attempt to replicate a much cited pair of papers reporting that REM sleep deprivation impairs the consolidation of initial spatial learning in the Morris water maze. We hypothesized that REM sleep deprivation following training would impair both hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and learning a new target location within a familiar environment: reversal learning. A 6-d protocol was divided into the initial spatial learning phase (3.5 d) immediately followed by the reversal phase (2.5 d). During the 6 h following four or 12 training trials/day of initial or reversal learning phases, REM sleep was eliminated and non-REM sleep left intact using the multiple inverted flowerpot method. Contrary to our hypotheses, REM sleep deprivation during four or 12 trials/day of initial spatial or reversal learning did not affect training performance. However, some probe trial measures indicated REM sleep-deprivation–associated impairment in initial spatial learning with four trials/day and enhancement of subsequent reversal learning. In naive animals, REM sleep deprivation during normal initial spatial learning was followed by a lack of preference for the subsequent reversal platform location during the probe. Our findings contradict reports that REM sleep is essential for spatial learning in the Morris water maze and newly reveal that short periods of REM sleep deprivation do not impair concurrent reversal learning. Effects on subsequent reversal learning are consistent with the idea that REM sleep serves the consolidation of incompletely learned items. PMID:21677190

  12. EFL LEARNERS’ READING LEARNING IN WEB BASED INSTRUCTION SETTING

    OpenAIRE

    Yusup Supriyono

    2018-01-01

    This research is aimed at exploring reading learning performed by English foreign language learners when Web based instruction is integrated into reading classroom. Teaching learning activity follows the steps:  orientation, discussion, material exploration, action, test, and reflection.  Two data collecting methods—journal and interview are administered to three students of the fourth semester of English Department in University of Siliwangi Tasikmalaya Indonesia after the selected individua...

  13. Nursing students' assessment of the learning environment in different clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisholt, Birgitta; Ohlsson, Ulla; Engström, Agneta Kullén; Johansson, Annelie Sundler; Gustafsson, Margareta

    2014-05-01

    Nursing students perform their clinical practice in different types of clinical settings. The clinical learning environment is important for students to be able to achieve desired learning outcomes. Knowledge is lacking about the learning environment in different clinical settings. The aim was to compare the learning environment in different clinical settings from the perspective of the nursing students. A cross-sectional study with comparative design was conducted. Data was collected from 185 nursing students at three universities by means of a questionnaire involving the Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher (CLES + T) evaluation scale. An open-ended question was added in order to ascertain reasons for dissatisfaction with the clinical placement. The nursing students' satisfaction with the placement did not differ between clinical settings. However, those with clinical placement in hospital departments agreed more strongly that sufficient meaningful learning situations occurred and that learning situations were multi-dimensional. Some students reported that the character of the clinical setting made it difficult to achieve the learning objectives. In the planning of the clinical placement, attention must be paid to whether the setting offers the student a meaningful learning situation where the appropriate learning outcome may be achieved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Color Modulates Olfactory Learning in Honeybees by an Occasion-Setting Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Theo; Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    A sophisticated form of nonelemental learning is provided by occasion setting. In this paradigm, animals learn to disambiguate an uncertain conditioned stimulus using alternative stimuli that do not enter into direct association with the unconditioned stimulus. For instance, animals may learn to discriminate odor rewarded from odor nonrewarded…

  15. Monitoring of Students' Interaction in Online Learning Settings by Structural Network Analysis and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammenwerth, Elske; Hackl, Werner O

    2017-01-01

    Learning as a constructive process works best in interaction with other learners. Support of social interaction processes is a particular challenge within online learning settings due to the spatial and temporal distribution of participants. It should thus be carefully monitored. We present structural network analysis and related indicators to analyse and visualize interaction patterns of participants in online learning settings. We validate this approach in two online courses and show how the visualization helps to monitor interaction and to identify activity profiles of learners. Structural network analysis is a feasible approach for an analysis of the intensity and direction of interaction in online learning settings.

  16. Personality Traits and Performance in Online Game-Based Learning: Collaborative versus Individual Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    Extant research indicates that, in face-to-face settings, cooperative learning and game-based learning strategies can be effective. However, in online settings (e.g., in distance education), there is a paucity of research in this area. This study was designed to investigate performance and attitudes of university students who played an educational…

  17. Comparison of Deep Learning With Multiple Machine Learning Methods and Metrics Using Diverse Drug Discovery Data Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotcov, Alexandru; Tkachenko, Valery; Russo, Daniel P; Ekins, Sean

    2017-12-04

    Machine learning methods have been applied to many data sets in pharmaceutical research for several decades. The relative ease and availability of fingerprint type molecular descriptors paired with Bayesian methods resulted in the widespread use of this approach for a diverse array of end points relevant to drug discovery. Deep learning is the latest machine learning algorithm attracting attention for many of pharmaceutical applications from docking to virtual screening. Deep learning is based on an artificial neural network with multiple hidden layers and has found considerable traction for many artificial intelligence applications. We have previously suggested the need for a comparison of different machine learning methods with deep learning across an array of varying data sets that is applicable to pharmaceutical research. End points relevant to pharmaceutical research include absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADME/Tox) properties, as well as activity against pathogens and drug discovery data sets. In this study, we have used data sets for solubility, probe-likeness, hERG, KCNQ1, bubonic plague, Chagas, tuberculosis, and malaria to compare different machine learning methods using FCFP6 fingerprints. These data sets represent whole cell screens, individual proteins, physicochemical properties as well as a data set with a complex end point. Our aim was to assess whether deep learning offered any improvement in testing when assessed using an array of metrics including AUC, F1 score, Cohen's kappa, Matthews correlation coefficient and others. Based on ranked normalized scores for the metrics or data sets Deep Neural Networks (DNN) ranked higher than SVM, which in turn was ranked higher than all the other machine learning methods. Visualizing these properties for training and test sets using radar type plots indicates when models are inferior or perhaps over trained. These results also suggest the need for assessing deep learning further

  18. Seasonal and solar cycle variations in the ionospheric convection reversal boundary location inferred from monthly SuperDARN data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Koustov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Multi-year (1995–2013 velocity data collected by the Super Dual Auroral Network (SuperDARN HF radars are considered to investigate seasonal and solar cycle variations of the convection reversal boundary (CRB location for interplanetary magnetic field (IMF Bz < 0. By considering monthly data sets we show that the CRB is at higher latitudes in summer between 1995 and 2007. The poleward shifts are on the order of 2–5°. After 2007, the seasonal effect weakens, and the highest latitudes for the CRB start to occur during the winter time. We show that the CRB latitudes decrease with an increase of the IMF transverse component at a rate of (1–2°/2 nT. Because of this effect, on average, the CRB latitudes are lower during high solar activity periods with stronger IMFs. We also confirm the effect of the CRB dawn-dusk shifts related to the IMF changes in the IMF By sign.

  19. Feedback-related negativity codes outcome valence, but not outcome expectancy, during reversal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Borries, A K L; Verkes, R J; Bulten, B H; Cools, R; de Bruijn, E R A

    2013-12-01

    Optimal behavior depends on the ability to assess the predictive value of events and to adjust behavior accordingly. Outcome processing can be studied by using its electrophysiological signatures--that is, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300. A prominent reinforcement-learning model predicts an FRN on negative prediction errors, as well as implying a role for the FRN in learning and the adaptation of behavior. However, these predictions have recently been challenged. Notably, studies so far have used tasks in which the outcomes have been contingent on the response. In these paradigms, the need to adapt behavioral responses is present only for negative, not for positive feedback. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of positive as well as negative violations of expectancy on FRN amplitudes, without the usual confound of behavioral adjustments. A reversal-learning task was employed in which outcome value and outcome expectancy were orthogonalized; that is, both positive and negative outcomes were equally unexpected. The results revealed a double dissociation, with effects of valence but not expectancy on the FRN and, conversely, effects of expectancy but not valence on the P300. While FRN amplitudes were largest for negative-outcome trials, irrespective of outcome expectancy, P300 amplitudes were largest for unexpected-outcome trials, irrespective of outcome valence. These FRN effects were interpreted to reflect an evaluation along a good-bad dimension, rather than reflecting a negative prediction error or a role in behavioral adaptation. By contrast, the P300 reflects the updating of information relevant for behavior in a changing context.

  20. The use of Edmodo in teaching writing in a blended learning setting

    OpenAIRE

    Pupung Purnawarman; Susilawati Susilawati; Wachyu Sundayana

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of technology provides education with varioussolutions to create new learning environments. Edmodo as a learning platform is believed to offera solution in the teaching of English, particularly for teaching writing. This research was aimed to investigate how Edmodo as a learning platform,in a blended learning setting, was implemented in teaching writing in its combination with Genre-based Approach, how Edmodo facilitated students’ engagement, and how students perceived the use...

  1. Learning about Inheritance in an Out-of-School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairianathan, Anne; Subramaniam, R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate primary students' learning through participation in an out-of-school enrichment programme, held in a science centre, which focused on DNA and genes and whether participation in the programme led to an increased understanding of inheritance as well as promoted interest in the topic. The sample consisted…

  2. Acoustics in Physical Education Settings: The Learning Roadblock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Stu; Mendel, Lisa Lucks

    2010-01-01

    Background: The audibility of teachers and peers is an essential factor in determining the academic performance of school children. However, acoustic conditions in most classrooms are less than optimal and have been viewed as "hostile listening environments" that undermine the learning of children in school. While research has shown that…

  3. The State of Cooperative Learning in Postsecondary and Professional Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.; Smith, Karl

    2007-01-01

    Modern cooperative learning began in the mid- 1960s (D. W. Johnson & R. Johnson, 1999a). Its use, however, was resisted by advocates of social Darwinism (who believed that students must be taught to survive in a "dog-eat-dog" world) and individualism (who believed in the myth of the "rugged individualist"). Despite the resistance, cooperative…

  4. Designing and Facilitating Learning in a Cooperative Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Bolvig; Rustrup, Louise Lønborg; Mortensen, Helle

    2010-01-01

    the learning of students. Student involvement in research projects appears to be an increasing trend, which is affecting both the practice of research and education. The Danish research project ‘Innodoors’ investigates, through various initiatives, how User-driven innovation can contribute to innovation...... and affect the culture of innovation in the building sector. One of the research initiatives was originally probing hypothesizes through student projects, where the students not only play a practical and performing role, but also engage in a rather equal partnership with the academic. This was also the case...... for the involved industrial design students, but they found it necessary to redefine the initial, given hypothesis, which surprisingly uncovered knowledge deficiencies for both students and academic; yet, it contributed to a mutual learning situation. Educators are facing new challenges with the responsibility...

  5. INVESTIGATING FACTORS INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ LEARNING IN A TEAM TEACHING SETTING

    OpenAIRE

    Brenda L Killingsworth; Yajiong Xue

    2015-01-01

    Team teaching factors, including mission clarity, affiliation, innovativeness, and fairness, are examined to determine how they influence student learning in a team-taught course. The study involved 184 college students enrolled in an Introduction to Computers course delivered in a team-taught format in a large university located in the United States. The collaborative teaching design followed a traditional team teaching approach with an instructor team teaching the same course collaborativel...

  6. The effect of ethanol on reversal learning in honey bees (Apis mellifera anatolica): Response inhibition in a social insect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Charles I; Craig, David Philip Arthur; Varnon, Christopher A; Wells, Harrington

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the effects of ethanol on reversal learning in honey bees (Apis mellifera anatolica). The rationale behind the present experiment was to determine the species generality of the effect of ethanol on response inhibition. Subjects were originally trained to associate either a cinnamon or lavender odor with a sucrose feeding before a reversal of the conditioned stimuli. We administered 15 μL of ethanol at varying doses (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, or 20%) according to group assignment. Ethanol was either administered 5 min before original discrimination training or 5 min before the stimuli reversal. We analyzed the effects of these three manipulations via a recently developed individual analysis that eschews aggregate assessments in favor of a model that conceptualizes learning as occurring in individual organisms. We measured responding in the presence of conditioned stimuli associated with a sucrose feeding, responding in the presence of conditioned stimuli associated with distilled water, and responding in the presence of the unconditioned stimulus (sucrose). Our analyses revealed the ethanol dose manipulation lowered responding for all three measures at increasingly higher doses, which suggests ethanol served as a general behavioral suppressor. Consistent with previous ethanol reversal literature, we found administering ethanol before the original discrimination phase or before the reversal produced inconsistent patterns of responding at varying ethanol doses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. ReMashed – Recommendation Approaches for Mash-Up Personal Learning Environments in Formal and Informal Learning Settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Pecceu, Dries; Arts, Tanja; Hutten, Edwin; Rutledge, Lloyd; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Hummel, Hans; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Drachsler, H., Peccau, D., Arts, T., Hutten, E., Rutledge, L., Van Rosmalen, P., Hummel, H. G. K., & Koper, R. (2009). ReMashed – Recommendation Approaches for Mash-Up Personal Learning Environments in Formal and Informal Learning Settings. In F. Wild, M. Kalz, M. Palmér & D. Müller (Eds.),

  8. Different Modes of Digital Learning Object Use in School Settings: Do We Design for Individual or Collaborative Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Yavuz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the studies reported in this paper is to gain classroom based empirical evidence on the learning effectiveness of learning objects used in two types of study settings: Collaborative and individual. A total of 127 seventh and ninth grade students participated in the experiments. They were assigned into one of the study modes and worked…

  9. Patterns of Limnohabitans Microdiversity across a Large Set of Freshwater Habitats as Revealed by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezbera, Jan; Jezberová, Jitka; Kasalický, Vojtěch; Šimek, Karel; Hahn, Martin W.

    2013-01-01

    Among abundant freshwater Betaproteobacteria, only few groups are considered to be of central ecological importance. One of them is the well-studied genus Limnohabitans and mainly its R-BT subcluster, investigated previously mainly by fluorescence in situ hybridization methods. We designed, based on sequences from a large Limnohabitans culture collection, 18 RLBH (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization) probes specific for different groups within the genus Limnohabitans by targeting diagnostic sequences on their 16 S–23 S rRNA ITS regions. The developed probes covered in sum 92% of the available isolates. This set of probes was applied to environmental DNA originating from 161 different European standing freshwater habitats to reveal the microdiversity (intra-genus) patterns of the Limnohabitans genus along a pH gradient. Investigated habitats differed in various physicochemical parameters, and represented a very broad range of standing freshwater habitats. The Limnohabitans microdiversity, assessed as number of RLBH-defined groups detected, increased significantly along the gradient of rising pH of habitats. 14 out of 18 probes returned detection signals that allowed predictions on the distribution of distinct Limnohabitans groups. Most probe-defined Limnohabitans groups showed preferences for alkaline habitats, one for acidic, and some seemed to lack preferences. Complete niche-separation was indicated for some of the probe-targeted groups. Moreover, bimodal distributions observed for some groups of Limnohabitans, suggested further niche separation between genotypes within the same probe-defined group. Statistical analyses suggested that different environmental parameters such as pH, conductivity, oxygen and altitude influenced the distribution of distinct groups. The results of our study do not support the hypothesis that the wide ecological distribution of Limnohabitans bacteria in standing freshwater habitats results from generalist adaptations of these bacteria

  10. Patterns of Limnohabitans microdiversity across a large set of freshwater habitats as revealed by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Jezbera

    Full Text Available Among abundant freshwater Betaproteobacteria, only few groups are considered to be of central ecological importance. One of them is the well-studied genus Limnohabitans and mainly its R-BT subcluster, investigated previously mainly by fluorescence in situ hybridization methods. We designed, based on sequences from a large Limnohabitans culture collection, 18 RLBH (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization probes specific for different groups within the genus Limnohabitans by targeting diagnostic sequences on their 16 S-23 S rRNA ITS regions. The developed probes covered in sum 92% of the available isolates. This set of probes was applied to environmental DNA originating from 161 different European standing freshwater habitats to reveal the microdiversity (intra-genus patterns of the Limnohabitans genus along a pH gradient. Investigated habitats differed in various physicochemical parameters, and represented a very broad range of standing freshwater habitats. The Limnohabitans microdiversity, assessed as number of RLBH-defined groups detected, increased significantly along the gradient of rising pH of habitats. 14 out of 18 probes returned detection signals that allowed predictions on the distribution of distinct Limnohabitans groups. Most probe-defined Limnohabitans groups showed preferences for alkaline habitats, one for acidic, and some seemed to lack preferences. Complete niche-separation was indicated for some of the probe-targeted groups. Moreover, bimodal distributions observed for some groups of Limnohabitans, suggested further niche separation between genotypes within the same probe-defined group. Statistical analyses suggested that different environmental parameters such as pH, conductivity, oxygen and altitude influenced the distribution of distinct groups. The results of our study do not support the hypothesis that the wide ecological distribution of Limnohabitans bacteria in standing freshwater habitats results from generalist adaptations of

  11. Selective activation of M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors reverses MK-801-induced behavioral impairments and enhances associative learning in rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubser, Michael; Bridges, Thomas M; Dencker, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    PAMs, enabling a more extensive characterization of M4 actions in rodent models. We used VU0467154 to test the hypothesis that selective potentiation of M4 receptor signaling could ameliorate the behavioral, cognitive, and neurochemical impairments induced by the noncompetitive NMDAR antagonist MK-801....... VU0467154 produced a robust dose-dependent reversal of MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion and deficits in preclinical models of associative learning and memory functions, including the touchscreen pairwise visual discrimination task in wild-type mice, but failed to reverse these stimulant...

  12. Effects of MDMA on olfactory memory and reversal learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkey, Andrew; April, L Brooke; Galizio, Mark

    2014-10-01

    The effects of acute and sub-chronic MDMA were assessed using a procedure designed to test rodent working memory capacity: the odor span task (OST). Rats were trained to select an odor that they had not previously encountered within the current session, and the number of odors to remember was incremented up to 24 during the course of each session. In order to separate drug effects on the OST from more general performance impairment, a simple olfactory discrimination was also assessed in each session. In Experiment 1, acute doses of MDMA were administered prior to select sessions. MDMA impaired memory span in a dose-dependent fashion, but impairment was seen only at doses (1.8 and 3.0 mg/kg) that also increased response omissions on both the simple discrimination and the OST. In Experiment 2, a sub-chronic regimen of MDMA (10.0 mg/kg, twice daily over four days) was administered after OST training. There was no evidence of reduced memory span following sub-chronic MDMA, but a temporary increase in omission errors on the OST was observed. In addition, rats exposed to sub-chronic MDMA showed delayed learning when the simple discrimination was reversed. Overall, the disruptive effects of both acute and sub-chronic MDMA appeared to be due to non-mnemonic processes, rather than effects on specific memory functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal obesity caused by overnutrition exposure leads to reversal learning deficits and striatal disturbance in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wu

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity caused by overnutrition during pregnancy increases susceptibility to metabolic risks in adulthood, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes; however, whether and how it affects the cognitive system associated with the brain remains elusive. Here, we report that pregnant obesity induced by exposure to excessive high fatty or highly palatable food specifically impaired reversal learning, a kind of adaptive behavior, while leaving serum metabolic metrics intact in the offspring of rats, suggesting a much earlier functional and structural defects possibly occurred in the central nervous system than in the metabolic system in the offspring born in unfavorable intrauterine nutritional environment. Mechanically, we found that above mentioned cognitive inflexibility might be associated with significant striatal disturbance including impaired dopamine homeostasis and disrupted leptin signaling in the adult offspring. These collective data add a novel perspective of understanding the adverse postnatal sequelae in central nervous system induced by developmental programming and the related molecular mechanism through which priming of risk for developmental disorders may occur during early life.

  14. Working across Disciplines to Understand Playful Learning in Educational Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Aalsvoort, Geerdina; Broadhead, Pat

    2016-01-01

    Educators stress the importance of play for children's cognitive, social, physical, and emotional development. In order to effectively advocate for the inclusion of play in education settings, it is important to fully understand it. Two researchers, one from England and one from the Netherlands, sought common ground for understanding what children…

  15. Investigating physics teaching and learning in a university setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenaro Guisasola, Jenaro; Zuza, Kristina; De Cock, Mieke; Bollen, Laurens; Kanim, Stephen; Ivanjek, Lana; Van Kampen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Most of the initiatives taken by the European Community and by other countries internationally in the field of science education focus on elementary and secondary levels of education, and relatively few reports have analysed the state of science education in higher education. However, research in science education, and in particular in physics education, has shown repeatedly that the way teachers teach in elementary and secondary school is strongly influenced by their own prior experience as university students. The education that future professionals, such as scientists, engineers and science teachers, receive at the university is worthy of study, because it allows us to investigate student learning relatively independently of developmental issues, and because of the more rigorous treatment of physics topics at the university level. For these reasons, it seems appropriate to identify, analyse and provide solutions to the problems of teaching and learning related to the university physics curriculum. In this symposium, we present examples of physics education research from different countries that is focused on physics topics

  16. Vascular Risk Factors and Diseases Modulate Deficits of Reward-Based Reversal Learning in Acute Basal Ganglia Stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla K Seidel

    Full Text Available Besides motor function, the basal ganglia have been implicated in feedback learning. In patients with chronic basal ganglia infarcts, deficits in reward-based reversal learning have previously been described.We re-examined the acquisition and reversal of stimulus-stimulus-reward associations and acquired equivalence in eleven patients with acute basal ganglia stroke (8 men, 3 women; 57.8±13.3 years, whose performance was compared eleven healthy subjects of comparable age, sex distribution and education, who were recruited outside the hospital. Eleven hospitalized patients with a similar vascular risk profile as the stroke patients but without stroke history served as clinical control group.In a neuropsychological assessment 7±3 days post-stroke, verbal and spatial short-term and working memory and inhibition control did not differ between groups. Compared with healthy subjects, control patients with vascular risk factors exhibited significantly reduced performance in the reversal phase (F[2,30] = 3.47; p = 0.044; post-hoc comparison between risk factor controls and healthy controls: p = 0.030, but not the acquisition phase (F[2,30] = 1.01; p = 0.376 and the acquired equivalence (F[2,30] = 1.04; p = 0.367 tasks. In all tasks, the performance of vascular risk factor patients closely resembled that of basal ganglia stroke patients. Correlation studies revealed a significant association of the number of vascular risk factors with reversal learning (r = -0.33, p = 0.012, but not acquisition learning (r = -0.20, p = 0.121 or acquired equivalence (r = -0.22, p = 0.096.The previously reported impairment of reward-based learning may be attributed to vascular risk factors and associated diseases, which are enriched in stroke patients. This study emphasizes the necessity of appropriate control subjects in cognition studies.

  17. Developing a service improvement initiative for people with learning disabilities in hospice settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springall, Fiona

    2018-03-21

    People with learning disabilities are often marginalised in healthcare, including in hospice settings, and as a result may not receive effective end of life care. Research in hospice settings has identified that many staff lack confidence, skills and knowledge in caring for people with learning disabilities, which can have a negative effect on the care these individuals receive. To address these issues, the author has proposed a service improvement initiative, which she developed as part of her learning disability nursing degree programme. This proposed initiative aimed to enhance end of life care for people with learning disabilities through the implementation of a community learning disability link nurse in the hospice setting. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  18. INVESTIGATING FACTORS INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ LEARNING IN A TEAM TEACHING SETTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Team teaching factors, including mission clarity, affiliation, innovativeness, and fairness, are examined to determine how they influence student learning in a team-taught course. The study involved 184 college students enrolled in an Introduction to Computers course delivered in a team-taught format in a large university located in the United States. The collaborative teaching design followed a traditional team teaching approach with an instructor team teaching the same course collaboratively. Students enrolled in the team-taught course filled out an online survey targeted at identifying key factors that influence student-based outcomes (satisfaction and competency in the course. Results showed that instructor team mission clarity, affiliation, and fairness are significantly related to students’ satisfaction while instructor team mission clarity and fairness are significantly related to students’ competency.

  19. How Do Social Networks Influence Learning Outcomes? A Case Study in an Industrial Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglajlic, Seid; Helic, Denis

    2012-01-01

    and Purpose: The purpose of this research is to shed light on the impact of implicit social networks to the learning outcome of e-learning participants in an industrial setting. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents a theoretical framework that allows the authors to measure correlation coefficients between the different affiliations that…

  20. Fostering Collaborative Learning with Mobile Web 2.0 in Semi-Formal Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanza-Simwami, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    Mobile Web 2.0 technologies such as: mobile apps, social networking sites and video sharing sites have become essential drivers for shaping daily activities and meeting learning needs in various settings. However, very few studies link mobile Web 2.0 to supporting collaborative learning in real-life problem solving activities in semi-formal…

  1. Use of Web 2.0 Technologies to Enhance Learning Experiences in Alternative School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    As the learning paradigms are shifting to include various forms of digital technologies such as synchronous, asynchronous, and interactive methods, social networking technologies have been introduced to the educational settings in order to increase the quality of learning environments. The literature suggests that effective application of these…

  2. Making Facilitation Work: The Challenges on an International DBA Action Learning Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    OFarrell, Jack

    2018-01-01

    This account relates my experiences as facilitator of an action learning set on a DBA cohort comprising international students and myself. It outlines the reasons for my selection as facilitator and describes my initial expectations and assumptions of action learning. I chart the difficulty in separating the 'what' of my own research from the…

  3. Motivating Students through Awareness of the Natural Correlation between College Learning and Corporate Work Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aloisio, Anna

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that college students can be motivated to be active participants in their own education if made aware of the direct correlation between college learning and corporate work settings. Students can be shown that through the natural course of college learning, they are acquiring valuable core skills or transferable competencies…

  4. Setting Learning Analytics in Context: Overcoming the Barriers to Large-Scale Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Rebecca; Macfadyen, Leah P.; Clow, Doug; Tynan, Belinda; Alexander, Shirley; Dawson, Shane

    2014-01-01

    A core goal for most learning analytic projects is to move from small-scale research towards broader institutional implementation, but this introduces a new set of challenges because institutions are stable systems, resistant to change. To avoid failure and maximize success, implementation of learning analytics at scale requires explicit and…

  5. Peer assisted learning in the clinical setting: an activity systems analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Deirdre; O?Flynn, Siun; Kelly, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Peer assisted learning (PAL) is a common feature of medical education. Understanding of PAL has been based on processes and outcomes in controlled settings, such as clinical skills labs. PAL in the clinical setting, a complex learning environment, requires fresh evaluation. Socio-cultural theory is proposed as a means to understand educational interventions in ways that are practical and meaningful. We describe the evaluation of a PAL intervention, introduced to support students? transition i...

  6. Learning Domain-Specific Heuristics for Answer Set Solvers

    OpenAIRE

    Balduccini, Marcello

    2010-01-01

    In spite of the recent improvements in the performance of Answer Set Programming (ASP) solvers, when the search space is sufficiently large, it is still possible for the search algorithm to mistakenly focus on areas of the search space that contain no solutions or very few. When that happens, performance degrades substantially, even to the point that the solver may need to be terminated before returning an answer. This prospect is a concern when one is considering using such a solver in an in...

  7. Sex-Dependent Effects of the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Sodium Valproate, on Reversal Learning After Developmental Arsenic Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina R. Steadman Tyler

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated that exposure to arsenic in drinking water adversely affects brain development and cognitive function in adulthood. While the mechanism by which arsenic induces adverse neurological outcomes remains elusive, studies suggest a link between reduced levels of histone acetylation and impaired performance on a variety of behavioral tasks following arsenic exposure. Using our developmental arsenic exposure (DAE paradigm, we have previously reported reduced histone acetylation and associated histone acetyltransferase enzyme expression in the frontal cortex of C57BL/6J adult male mice, with no changes observed in the female frontal cortex. In the present study, we sought to determine if DAE produced sex-dependent deficits in frontal cortical executive function using the Y-maze acquisition and reversal learning tasks, which are specific for assessing cognitive flexibility. Further, we tested whether the administration of valproic acid, a class I–IIa histone deacetylase inhibitor, was able to mitigate behavioral and biochemical changes resulting from DAE. As anticipated, DAE inhibited acquisition and reversal learning performance in adult male, but not female, mice. Valproate treatment for 2 weeks restored reversal performance in the male arsenic-exposed offspring, while not affecting female performance. Protein levels of HDACs 1, 2, and 5 were elevated following behavioral assessment but only in DAE male mice; restoration of appropriate HDAC levels occurred after valproate treatment and was concurrent with improved behavioral performance, particularly during reversal learning. Female frontal cortical levels of HDAC enzymes were not impacted by DAE or valproate treatment. Finally, mRNA expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Bdnf, which has been implicated in the control of frontal cortical flexibility and is regulated by HDAC5, were elevated in DAE male mice and restored to normal levels following HDACi

  8. Whole brain radiation-induced impairments in learning and memory are time-sensitive and reversible by systemic hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junie P Warrington

    Full Text Available Whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT is commonly used for treatment of primary and metastatic brain tumors; however, cognitive impairment occurs in 40-50% of brain tumor survivors. The etiology of the cognitive impairment following WBRT remains elusive. We recently reported that radiation-induced cerebrovascular rarefaction within hippocampal subregions could be completely reversed by systemic hypoxia. However, the effects of this intervention on learning and memory have not been reported. In this study, we assessed the time-course for WBRT-induced impairments in contextual and spatial learning and the capacity of systemic hypoxia to reverse WBRT-induced deficits in spatial memory. A clinical fractionated series of 4.5Gy WBRT was administered to mice twice weekly for 4 weeks, and after various periods of recovery, behavioral analyses were performed. To study the effects of systemic hypoxia, mice were subjected to 11% (hypoxia or 21% oxygen (normoxia for 28 days, initiated 1 month after the completion of WBRT. Our results indicate that WBRT induces a transient deficit in contextual learning, disruption of working memory, and progressive impairment of spatial learning. Additionally, systemic hypoxia completely reversed WBRT-induced impairments in learning and these behavioral effects as well as increased vessel density persisted for at least 2 months following hypoxia treatment. Our results provide critical support for the hypothesis that cerebrovascular rarefaction is a key component of cognitive impairment post-WBRT and indicate that processes of learning and memory, once thought to be permanently impaired after WBRT, can be restored.

  9. Nursing students' perceptions of their clinical learning environment in placements outside traditional hospital settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørk, Ida T; Berntsen, Karin; Brynildsen, Grethe; Hestetun, Margrete

    2014-10-01

    To explore students' opinions of the learning environment during clinical placement in settings outside traditional hospital settings. Clinical placement experiences may influence positively on nursing students attitudes towards the clinical setting in question. Most studies exploring the quality of clinical placements have targeted students' experience in hospital settings. The number of studies exploring students' experiences of the learning environment in healthcare settings outside of the hospital venue does not match the growing importance of such settings in the delivery of health care, nor the growing number of nurses needed in these venues. A survey design was used. The Clinical Learning Environment Inventory was administered to two cohorts of undergraduate nursing students (n = 184) after clinical placement in mental health care, home care and nursing home care. Nursing students' overall contentment with the learning environment was quite similar across all three placement areas. Students in mental health care had significantly higher scores on the subscale individualisation, and older students had significantly higher scores on the total scale. Compared with other studies where the Clinical Learning Environment Inventory has been used, the students' total scores in this study are similar or higher than scores in studies including students from hospital settings. Results from this study negate the negative views on clinical placements outside the hospital setting, especially those related to placements in nursing homes and mental healthcare settings. Students' experience of the learning environment during placements in mental health care, home care and nursing homes indicates the relevance of clinical education in settings outside the hospital setting. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Nursing published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The E-Learning Setting Circle: First Steps toward Theory Development in E-Learning Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüth, Marco; Kaspar, Kai

    2017-01-01

    E-learning projects and related research generate an increasing amount of evidence within and across various disciplines and contexts. The field is very heterogeneous as e-learning approaches are often characterized by rather unique combinations of situational factors that guide the design and realization of e-learning in a bottom-up fashion.…

  11. Jordan-3: measuring visual reversals in children as symptoms of learning disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Brian T; Martin, Nancy; Austin, J Sue

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to establish new norms for the Jordan-3 for children ages 5 to 18 years. The research also investigated the frequency of visual reversals in children previously identified as having reading disability, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and broader learning disabilities. Participants were regular education students, ages 5 through 18 years, and special education students previously diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, reading disability, or broader learning disability. Jordan-3 Accuracy and Error raw scores were compared to assess if there was a significant difference between the two groups. Mean Accuracy and Error scores were compared for males and females. Children with learning disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder had higher reversals when compared to regular education children, which lends continued support to the Jordan-3 as a valid and reliable measure of visual reversals in children and adolescents. This study illustrates the utility of the Jordan-3 when assessing children who may require remediation to reach their academic potential.

  12. The Impact of Institutional Settings on Learning Behavior by Venture Capitalists and Start-Ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gatti, Anna; Vendelø, Morten Thanning

    2005-01-01

    differen-ces in local institutional settings affect learning and adaptation by European venture ca-pitalists and start-ups, and thus, affect the processes of field formation. For example, it has been observed that institutional settings can facilitate or discourage learning from direct experience (Herriot...... is to understand if and how US venture capitalism affect the evolvement of venture capitalism in Europe. We study the emergence of a venture capitalist industry in Denmark and Italy, and thus, by selecting two countries with distinctive differences in cultures and institutions, we study learning and adaptation...

  13. Issues and Considerations regarding Sharable Data Sets for Recommender Systems in Technology Enhanced Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Bogers, Toine; Vuorikari, Riina

    2010-01-01

    This paper raises the issue of missing standardised data sets for recommender systems in Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) that can be used as benchmarks to compare different recommendation approaches. It discusses how suitable data sets could be created according to some initial suggestions...

  14. A socio-cultural approach to learning in the practice setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    White, Ciara

    2010-11-01

    Practice learning is an essential part of the curriculum and accounts for approximately 60% of the current pre-registration nursing programmes in the Republic of Ireland. The nature and quality of the clinical learning environment and the student nurses\\' experience of their practice placements is recognised as being influential in promoting the integration of theory and practice. However, the problem experienced by many learners is how to relate their theoretical knowledge to the situation-at-hand within the practice setting. Socio-cultural or activity theories of learning seek to explain the social nature of learning and propose that knowledge and learning are considered to be contextually situated. Lave and Wenger (1991) argue that learning is integrated with practice and through engagement with a community of practice, by means of sponsorship; students become increasingly competent in their identity as practitioners. This paper examines the changes which have occurred within the pre-registration nursing curriculum in the Republic of Ireland with the transition from the apprenticeship system to the graduate programme, and the resulting reduction in clinical learning hours. It also examines the potential impact on the development of student learning with the implementation of the concepts proposed by Lave and Wenger to learning in the practice setting.

  15. Investigating the Relationship between Learning Styles and ESP Reading Strategies in Academic Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Ajideh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the relationship between Art and Science students’ learning styles and their ESP reading strategies in academic settings. Learning styles are defined as general orientations learners take toward their learning experiences. This notion has recently obtained attention in the area of language learning. Strategies are also defined as specific behaviours or techniques learners employ towards leaning in order to achieve their learning goals. The strategies chosen are often linked to the individual's learning style. The purpose of this study was to identify Art and Science students’ major learning style preferences and their strategies they employ to tackle their reading materials in ESP courses at Tabriz Islamic Art University. To this end, 313 Art and Science students at Tabriz Islamic Art University answered two self-report questionnaires (PLSPQ and SORS to identify their major and minor learning styles as well as their reading strategies in ESP reading. In order to find any relationship between the students’ preferred learning style (s and their reading strategies in ESP, Pearson Product Moment Coefficient r was used to analyze the participants’ answers to the questionnaires. The results showed that Art students favored Kinesthetic, Auditory, Visual and Tactile learning styles as their major learning styles while Science students showed preference to only Kinesthetic Learning style as their major learning style and other learning styles as their minor ones. It was also found that the most dominant reading strategies both Art and Science students apply in reading their ESP texts was cognitive strategies. Correlational analyses of their major learning styles and their reading strategies are discussed.

  16. Meta-Analytic Evidence for a Reversal Learning Effect on the Iowa Gambling Task in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasion, Rita; Gonçalves, Ana R; Fernandes, Carina; Ferreira-Santos, Fernando; Barbosa, Fernando; Marques-Teixeira, João

    2017-01-01

    Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is one of the most widely used tools to assess economic decision-making. However, the research tradition on aging and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been mainly focused on the overall performance of older adults in relation to younger or clinical groups, remaining unclear whether older adults are capable of learning along the task. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine older adults' decision-making on the IGT, to test the effects of aging on reversal learning (45 studies) and to provide normative data on total and block net scores (55 studies). From the accumulated empirical evidence, we found an average total net score of 7.55 (±25.9). We also observed a significant reversal learning effect along the blocks of the IGT, indicating that older adults inhibit the prepotent response toward immediately attractive options associated with high losses, in favor of initially less attractive options associated with long-run profit. During block 1, decisions of older adults led to a negative gambling net score, reflecting the expected initial pattern of risk-taking. However, the shift toward more safe options occurred between block 2 (small-to-medium effect size) and blocks 3, 4, 5 (medium-to-large effect size). These main findings highlight that older adults are able to move from the initial uncertainty, when the possible outcomes are unknown, to decisions based on risk, when the outcomes are learned and may be used to guide future adaptive decision-making.

  17. Perceived impact on student engagement when learning middle school science in an outdoor setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbatiello, James

    Human beings have an innate need to spend time outside, but in recent years children are spending less time outdoors. It is possible that this decline in time spent outdoors could have a negative impact on child development. Science teachers can combat the decline in the amount of time children spend outside by taking their science classes outdoors for regular classroom instruction. This study identified the potential impacts that learning in an outdoor setting might have on student engagement when learning middle school science. One sixth-grade middle school class participated in this case study, and students participated in outdoor intervention lessons where the instructional environment was a courtyard on the middle school campus. The outdoor lessons consisted of the same objectives and content as lessons delivered in an indoor setting during a middle school astronomy unit. Multiple sources of data were collected including questionnaires after each lesson, a focus group, student work samples, and researcher observations. The data was triangulated, and a vignette was written about the class' experiences learning in an outdoor setting. This study found that the feeling of autonomy and freedom gained by learning in an outdoor setting, and the novelty of the outdoor environment did increase student engagement for learning middle school science. In addition, as a result of this study, more work is needed to identify how peer to peer relationships are impacted by learning outdoors, how teachers could best utilize the outdoor setting for regular science instruction, and how learning in an outdoor setting might impact a feeling of stewardship for the environment in young adults.

  18. Chemogenetic locus coeruleus activation restores reversal learning in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorabaugh, Jacki M; Chalermpalanupap, Termpanit; Botz-Zapp, Christian A; Fu, Vanessa M; Lembeck, Natalie A; Cohen, Robert M; Weinshenker, David

    2017-11-01

    See Grinberg and Heinsen (doi:10.1093/brain/awx261) for a scientific commentary on this article. Clinical evidence suggests that aberrant tau accumulation in the locus coeruleus and noradrenergic dysfunction may be a critical early step in Alzheimer’s disease progression. Yet, an accurate preclinical model of these phenotypes that includes early pretangle tau accrual in the locus coeruleus, loss of locus coeruleus innervation and deficits locus coeruleus/norepinephrine modulated behaviours, does not exist, hampering the identification of underlying mechanisms and the development of locus coeruleus-based therapies. Here, a transgenic rat (TgF344-AD) expressing disease-causing mutant amyloid precursor protein (APPsw) and presenilin-1 (PS1ΔE9) was characterized for histological and behavioural signs of locus coeruleus dysfunction reminiscent of mild cognitive impairment/early Alzheimer’s disease. In TgF344-AD rats, hyperphosphorylated tau was detected in the locus coeruleus prior to accrual in the medial entorhinal cortex or hippocampus, and tau pathology in the locus coeruleus was negatively correlated with noradrenergic innervation in the medial entorhinal cortex. Likewise, TgF344-AD rats displayed progressive loss of hippocampal norepinephrine levels and locus coeruleus fibres in the medial entorhinal cortex and dentate gyrus, with no frank noradrenergic cell body loss. Cultured mouse locus coeruleus neurons expressing hyperphosphorylation-prone mutant human tau had shorter neurites than control neurons, but similar cell viability, suggesting a causal link between pretangle tau accrual and altered locus coeruleus fibre morphology. TgF344-AD rats had impaired reversal learning in the Morris water maze compared to their wild-type littermates, which was rescued by chemogenetic locus coeruleus activation via designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs). Our results indicate that TgF344-AD rats uniquely meet several key criteria for a

  19. Learning Agent for a Heat-Pump Thermostat with a Set-Back Strategy Using Model-Free Reinforcement Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Ruelens

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The conventional control paradigm for a heat pump with a less efficient auxiliary heating element is to keep its temperature set point constant during the day. This constant temperature set point ensures that the heat pump operates in its more efficient heat-pump mode and minimizes the risk of activating the less efficient auxiliary heating element. As an alternative to a constant set-point strategy, this paper proposes a learning agent for a thermostat with a set-back strategy. This set-back strategy relaxes the set-point temperature during convenient moments, e.g., when the occupants are not at home. Finding an optimal set-back strategy requires solving a sequential decision-making process under uncertainty, which presents two challenges. The first challenge is that for most residential buildings, a description of the thermal characteristics of the building is unavailable and challenging to obtain. The second challenge is that the relevant information on the state, i.e., the building envelope, cannot be measured by the learning agent. In order to overcome these two challenges, our paper proposes an auto-encoder coupled with a batch reinforcement learning technique. The proposed approach is validated for two building types with different thermal characteristics for heating in the winter and cooling in the summer. The simulation results indicate that the proposed learning agent can reduce the energy consumption by 4%–9% during 100 winter days and by 9%–11% during 80 summer days compared to the conventional constant set-point strategy.

  20. Dopamine D2 receptors mediate two-odor discrimination and reversal learning in C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandy David K

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dopamine modulation of neuronal signaling in the frontal cortex, midbrain, and striatum is essential for processing and integrating diverse external sensory stimuli and attaching salience to environmental cues that signal causal relationships, thereby guiding goal-directed, adaptable behaviors. At the cellular level, dopamine signaling is mediated through D1-like or D2-like receptors. Although a role for D1-like receptors in a variety of goal-directed behaviors has been identified, an explicit involvement of D2 receptors has not been clearly established. To determine whether dopamine D2 receptor-mediated signaling contributes to associative and reversal learning, we compared C57Bl/6J mice that completely lack functional dopamine D2 receptors to wild-type mice with respect to their ability to attach appropriate salience to external stimuli (stimulus discrimination and disengage from inappropriate behavioral strategies when reinforcement contingencies change (e.g. reversal learning. Results Mildly food-deprived female wild-type and dopamine D2 receptor deficient mice rapidly learned to retrieve and consume visible food reinforcers from a small plastic dish. Furthermore, both genotypes readily learned to dig through the same dish filled with sterile sand in order to locate a buried food pellet. However, the dopamine D2 receptor deficient mice required significantly more trials than wild-type mice to discriminate between two dishes, each filled with a different scented sand, and to associate one of the two odors with the presence of a reinforcer (food. In addition, the dopamine D2 receptor deficient mice repeatedly fail to alter their response patterns during reversal trials where the reinforcement rules were inverted. Conclusions Inbred C57Bl/6J mice that develop in the complete absence of functional dopamine D2 receptors are capable of olfaction but display an impaired ability to acquire odor-driven reinforcement contingencies

  1. Blended Learning and Problem Based Learning in a multinational and multidisciplinary setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Lazaro, José; Mank, Lea

    2017-01-01

    , and a project part where the students work in groups across nationalities and disciplines on real-world Projects posed by companies. This paper presents the evaluations carried out by all participating students, and discusses the experiences with the different learning components including different features...... of the Learning Management System Moodle, which was used for the modules. Moreover, it introduces the concept of just-in-time resources for Problem Based Learning, where we tackle the challenge of providing the students with methods and tools to be used in the projects just when they need it....

  2. Building up STEM education professional learning community in school setting: Case of Khon Kaen Wittayayon School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thana, Aduldej; Siripun, Kulpatsorn; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    The STEM education is new issue of teaching and learning in school setting. Building up STEM education professional learning community may provide some suggestions for further collaborative work of STEM Education from grounded up. This paper aimed to clarify the building up STEM education learning community in Khon Kaen Wittayayon (KKW) School setting. Participants included Khon Kaen University researchers, Khon Kaen Wittayayon School administrators and teachers. Methodology regarded interpretative paradigm. The tools of interpretation included participant observation, interview and document analysis. Data was analyzed to categories of condition for building up STEM education professional learning community. The findings revealed that the actions of developing STEM learning activities and research showed some issues of KKW STEM community of inquiry and improvement. The paper will discuss what and how the community learns about sharing vision of STEM Education, supportive physical and social conditions of KKW, sharing activities of STEM, and good things from some key STEM teachers' ambition. The paper may has implication of supporting STEM education in Thailand school setting.

  3. The effectiveness of flipped classroom learning model in secondary physics classroom setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, B. D.; Suprapto, N.; Pudyastomo, R. N.

    2018-03-01

    The research aimed to describe the effectiveness of flipped classroom learning model on secondary physics classroom setting during Fall semester of 2017. The research object was Secondary 3 Physics group of Singapore School Kelapa Gading. This research was initiated by giving a pre-test, followed by treatment setting of the flipped classroom learning model. By the end of the learning process, the pupils were given a post-test and questionnaire to figure out pupils' response to the flipped classroom learning model. Based on the data analysis, 89% of pupils had passed the minimum criteria of standardization. The increment level in the students' mark was analysed by normalized n-gain formula, obtaining a normalized n-gain score of 0.4 which fulfil medium category range. Obtains from the questionnaire distributed to the students that 93% of students become more motivated to study physics and 89% of students were very happy to carry on hands-on activity based on the flipped classroom learning model. Those three aspects were used to generate a conclusion that applying flipped classroom learning model in Secondary Physics Classroom setting is effectively applicable.

  4. Effects of stimulus salience on touchscreen serial reversal learning in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Price E.; Corkill, Beau; McKimm, Eric; Miller, Mellessa M.; Calton, Michele A.; Goldowitz, Daniel; Blaha, Charles D.; Mittleman, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited form of intellectual disability in males and the most common genetic cause of autism. Although executive dysfunction is consistently found in humans with FXS, evidence of executive dysfunction in Fmr1 KO mice, a mouse model of FXS, has been inconsistent. One possible explanation for this is that executive dysfunction in Fmr1 KO mice, similar to humans with FXS, is only evident when cognitive demands are high. Using touchscreen operant conditioning chambers, male Fmr1 KO mice and their male wildtype littermates were tested on the acquisition of a pairwise visual discrimination followed by four serial reversals of the response rule. We assessed reversal learning performance under two different conditions. In the first, the correct stimulus was salient and the incorrect stimulus was non-salient. In the second and more challenging condition, the incorrect stimulus was salient and the correct stimulus was non-salient; this increased cognitive load by introducing conflict between sensory-driven (i.e., bottom-up) and task-dependent (i.e., top-down) signals. Fmr1 KOs displayed two distinct impairments relative to wildtype littermates. First, Fmr1 KOs committed significantly more learning-type errors during the second reversal stage, but only under high cognitive load. Second, during the first reversal stage, Fmr1 KOs committed significantly more attempts to collect a reward during the timeout following an incorrect response. These findings indicate that Fmr1 KO mice display executive dysfunction that, in some cases, is only evident under high cognitive load. PMID:23747611

  5. Studying learning in the healthcare setting: the potential of quantitative diary methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciere, Yvette; Jaarsma, Debbie; Visser, Annemieke; Sanderman, Robbert; Snippe, Evelien; Fleer, Joke

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative diary methods are longitudinal approaches that involve the repeated measurement of aspects of peoples' experience of daily life. In this article, we outline the main characteristics and applications of quantitative diary methods and discuss how their use may further research in the field of medical education. Quantitative diary methods offer several methodological advantages, such as measuring aspects of learning with great detail, accuracy and authenticity. Moreover, they enable researchers to study how and under which conditions learning in the health care setting occurs and in which way learning can be promoted. Hence, quantitative diary methods may contribute to theory development and the optimization of teaching methods in medical education.

  6. Expansive learning in the university setting: the case for simulated clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Jacquelyn

    2007-03-01

    This paper argues that simulated practice in the university setting is not just a second best to learning in the clinical area but one which offers the potential for deliberation and deep learning [Eraut, M., 2000. Non-formal learning, implicit learning and tacit knowledge in professional work. Journal of Educational Psychology, 70, 113-136]. The context of student learning in an undergraduate midwifery programme is analysed using human activity theory [Engeström, Y., 2001. Expansive learning at work: toward an activity theoretical reconceptualization. Journal of Education and Work, 14, 133-156]. The advantages of this approach to student learning as opposed to situated learning theory and the concept of legitimate peripheral participation [Lave, J., Wenger, E., 1991. Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge University Press, New York] are discussed. An activity system changes as a result of contradictions and tensions between what it purports to produce and the views of stakeholders (multi-voicedness) as well as its historical context (Historicity of activity). A focus group with students highlights their expressed need for more simulated practice experience. The views of midwifery lecturers are sought as an alternative voice on this tension in the current programme. Qualitative differences in types of simulated experience are explored and concerns about resources are raised in the analysis. Discussion considers the value of well planned simulations in encouraging the expression of tacit understanding through a group deliberative learning process [Eraut, M., 2000. Non-formal learning, implicit learning and tacit knowledge in professional work. Journal of Educational Psychology, 70, 113-136].

  7. Activity Settings and Daily Routines in Preschool Classrooms: Diverse Experiences in Early Learning Settings for Low-Income Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Huang, Yiching; Hong, Sandra Soliday; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines activity settings and daily classroom routines experienced by 3- and 4-year-old low-income children in public center-based preschool programs, private center-based programs, and family child care homes. Two daily routine profiles were identified using a time-sampling coding procedure: a High Free-Choice pattern in which children spent a majority of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings combined with relatively low amounts of teacher-directed activity, and a Structured-Balanced pattern in which children spent relatively equal proportions of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings and teacher-directed small- and whole-group activities. Daily routine profiles were associated with program type and curriculum use but not with measures of process quality. Children in Structured-Balanced classrooms had more opportunities to engage in language and literacy and math activities, whereas children in High Free-Choice classrooms had more opportunities for gross motor and fantasy play. Being in a Structured-Balanced classroom was associated with children's language scores but profiles were not associated with measures of children's math reasoning or socio-emotional behavior. Consideration of teachers' structuring of daily routines represents a valuable way to understand nuances in the provision of learning experiences for young children in the context of current views about developmentally appropriate practice and school readiness.

  8. Learning Curve for Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plants: Capital Cost Trend of the Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldera, Upeksha; Breyer, Christian

    2017-12-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination is expected to play a pivotal role in helping to secure future global water supply. While the global reliance on SWRO plants for water security increases, there is no consensus on how the capital costs of SWRO plants will vary in the future. The aim of this paper is to analyze the past trends of the SWRO capital expenditures (capex) as the historic global cumulative online SWRO capacity increases, based on the learning curve concept. The SWRO capex learning curve is found based on 4,237 plants that came online from 1977 to 2015. A learning rate of 15% is determined, implying that the SWRO capex reduced by 15% when the cumulative capacity was doubled. Based on SWRO capacity annual growth rates of 10% and 20%, by 2030, the global average capex of SWRO plants is found to fall to 1,580 USD/(m3/d) and 1,340 USD/(m3/d), respectively. A learning curve for SWRO capital costs has not been presented previously. This research highlights the potential for decrease in SWRO capex with the increase in installation of SWRO plants and the value of the learning curve approach to estimate future SWRO capex.

  9. Simulating Category Learning and Set Shifting Deficits in Patients Weight-Restored from Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychology, in press     Simulating Category Learning and Set Shifting Deficits in Patients Weight-Restored from Anorexia Nervosa J...University   Objective: To examine set shifting in a group of women previously diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN) who are now weight-restored (AN-WR...participant fails to switch to the new rule but rather persists with the previously correct rule. Adult patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) are often impaired

  10. Criteria to assess potential reverse innovations: opportunities for shared learning between high- and low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Onil; Wu, Diane; Mossman, Kathryn; Hayden, Leigh; Gill, Pavan; Cheng, Yu-Ling; Daar, Abdallah; Soman, Dilip; Synowiec, Christina; Taylor, Andrea; Wong, Joseph; von Zedtwitz, Max; Zlotkin, Stanley; Mitchell, William; McGahan, Anita

    2017-01-25

    Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are developing novel approaches to healthcare that may be relevant to high-income countries (HICs). These include products, services, organizational processes, or policies that improve access, cost, or efficiency of healthcare. However, given the challenge of replication, it is difficult to identify innovations that could be successfully adapted to high-income settings. We present a set of criteria for evaluating the potential impact of LMIC innovations in HIC settings. An initial framework was drafted based on a literature review, and revised iteratively by applying it to LMIC examples from the Center for Health Market Innovations (CHMI) program database. The resulting criteria were then reviewed using a modified Delphi process by the Reverse Innovation Working Group, consisting of 31 experts in medicine, engineering, management and political science, as well as representatives from industry and government, all with an expressed interest in reverse innovation. The resulting 8 criteria are divided into two steps with a simple scoring system. First, innovations are assessed according to their success within the LMIC context according to metrics of improving accessibility, cost-effectiveness, scalability, and overall effectiveness. Next, they are scored for their potential for spread to HICs, according to their ability to address an HIC healthcare challenge, compatibility with infrastructure and regulatory requirements, degree of novelty, and degree of current collaboration with HICs. We use examples to illustrate where programs which appear initially promising may be unlikely to succeed in a HIC setting due to feasibility concerns. This study presents a framework for identifying reverse innovations that may be useful to policymakers and funding agencies interested in identifying novel approaches to addressing cost and access to care in HICs. We solicited expert feedback and consensus on an empirically-derived set of criteria

  11. Spatial and Reversal Learning in the Morris Water Maze Are Largely Resistant to Six Hours of REM Sleep Deprivation Following Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christine M.; Booth, Victoria; Poe, Gina R.

    2011-01-01

    This first test of the role of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep in reversal spatial learning is also the first attempt to replicate a much cited pair of papers reporting that REM sleep deprivation impairs the consolidation of initial spatial learning in the Morris water maze. We hypothesized that REM sleep deprivation following training would impair…

  12. Meta-Analytic Evidence for a Reversal Learning Effect on the Iowa Gambling Task in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Pasion

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Iowa Gambling Task (IGT is one of the most widely used tools to assess economic decision-making. However, the research tradition on aging and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT has been mainly focused on the overall performance of older adults in relation to younger or clinical groups, remaining unclear whether older adults are capable of learning along the task. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine older adults' decision-making on the IGT, to test the effects of aging on reversal learning (45 studies and to provide normative data on total and block net scores (55 studies. From the accumulated empirical evidence, we found an average total net score of 7.55 (±25.9. We also observed a significant reversal learning effect along the blocks of the IGT, indicating that older adults inhibit the prepotent response toward immediately attractive options associated with high losses, in favor of initially less attractive options associated with long-run profit. During block 1, decisions of older adults led to a negative gambling net score, reflecting the expected initial pattern of risk-taking. However, the shift toward more safe options occurred between block 2 (small-to-medium effect size and blocks 3, 4, 5 (medium-to-large effect size. These main findings highlight that older adults are able to move from the initial uncertainty, when the possible outcomes are unknown, to decisions based on risk, when the outcomes are learned and may be used to guide future adaptive decision-making.

  13. The Interplay of Space, Place and Identity: Transforming Our Learning Experiences in an Outdoor Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Alice L. E. V.; Wright, W. Alan; Strean, William B.; Watson, Gavan P. L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we use a day-long professional development workshop for higher education faculty conducted in an outdoor setting as the starting point for an examination of the value of such activities. We explore the potential benefits, in terms of learning and holistic well-being, of educational activities designed to provide participants with…

  14. Action Learning Sets and Social Capital: Ameliorating the Burden of Clergy Isolation in One Rural Diocese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskett, Judith A.; Village, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Rural clergy often lack colleagues and may struggle with isolation, especially if over-extended in multi-parish benefices. Theory suggests that this sense of isolation could be addressed by launching clergy action learning sets, which have the potential to establish a peer support network through the formation of social capital as a by-product of…

  15. Intuitive Action Set Formation in Learning Classifier Systems with Memory Registers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simões, L.F.; Schut, M.C.; Haasdijk, E.W.

    2008-01-01

    An important design goal in Learning Classifier Systems (LCS) is to equally reinforce those classifiers which cause the level of reward supplied by the environment. In this paper, we propose a new method for action set formation in LCS. When applied to a Zeroth Level Classifier System with Memory

  16. Standard setting in the teaching and learning process in the Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standards are set at different levels to govern different requirements that collectively add up to the ingredients of quality education of a child. This study investigated whether or not there are quantitative standards of achievement for guiding teaching and learning in the school system in Kenya. It also investigated teachers' ...

  17. Using Computational Chemistry Activities to Promote Learning and Retention in a Secondary School General Chemistry Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochterski, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of using state-of-the-art, research-quality software as a learning tool in a general chemistry secondary school classroom setting. I present three activities designed to introduce fundamental chemical concepts regarding molecular shape and atomic orbitals to students with little background in chemistry, such as…

  18. Motivating the Learning of Science Topics in Secondary School: A Constructivist Edutainment Setting for Studying Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertacchini, Francesca; Bilotta, Eleonora; Pantano, Pietro; Tavernise, Assunta

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an Edutainment (education plus entertainment) secondary school setting based on the construction of artifacts and manipulation of virtual contents (images, sound, and music) connected to Chaos. This interactive learning environment also foresees the use of a virtual theatre, by which students can manipulate 3D contents…

  19. Drilling Students’ Communication Skill through Science, Environment, Technology, and Society (SETS)-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farisi, B. L.; Tjandrakirana; Agustini, R.

    2018-01-01

    Student’s communication skill paid less attention in learning activity at school, even though communication skill is needed by students in the 21st century based on the demands of new curriculum in Indonesia (K13). This study focuses on drilling students’ communication skill through science, environment, technology, and society (SETS)-based learning. The research is a pre-experimental design with a one-shot case study model involving 10 students of ninth-grader of SMPN 2 Manyar, Gresik. The research data were collected through observation method using communication observation sheet. The data were analyzed using the descriptive qualitative method. The result showed that students’ communication skill reached the completeness of skills decided both individually and classically in the curriculum. The fundamental result of this research that SETS-based learning can be used to drill students’ communication skill in K13 context.

  20. Upper-Lower Bounds Candidate Sets Searching Algorithm for Bayesian Network Structure Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyi Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bayesian network is an important theoretical model in artificial intelligence field and also a powerful tool for processing uncertainty issues. Considering the slow convergence speed of current Bayesian network structure learning algorithms, a fast hybrid learning method is proposed in this paper. We start with further analysis of information provided by low-order conditional independence testing, and then two methods are given for constructing graph model of network, which is theoretically proved to be upper and lower bounds of the structure space of target network, so that candidate sets are given as a result; after that a search and scoring algorithm is operated based on the candidate sets to find the final structure of the network. Simulation results show that the algorithm proposed in this paper is more efficient than similar algorithms with the same learning precision.

  1. Reverse inference of memory retrieval processes underlying metacognitive monitoring of learning using multivariate pattern analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiers, Peter; Falbo, Luciana; Goulas, Alexandros; van Gog, Tamara; de Bruin, Anique

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of learning is only accurate at some time after learning. It is thought that immediate monitoring is based on working memory, whereas later monitoring requires re-activation of stored items, yielding accurate judgements. Such interpretations are difficult to test because they require

  2. Rapid Association Learning in the Primate Prefrontal Cortex in the Absence of Behavioral Reversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, Jason A.; Machon, Michelle; Miller, Earl K.

    2011-01-01

    The PFC plays a central role in our ability to learn arbitrary rules, such as "green means go." Previous experiments from our laboratory have used conditional association learning to show that slow, gradual changes in PFC neural activity mirror monkeys' slow acquisition of associations. These previous experiments required monkeys to repeatedly…

  3. Adolescent Corticosterone and TrkB Pharmaco-Manipulations Sex-Dependently Impact Instrumental Reversal Learning Later in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth T. Barfield

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Early-life trauma can increase the risk for, and severity of, several psychiatric illnesses. These include drug use disorders, and some correlations appear to be stronger in women. Understanding the long-term consequences of developmental stressor or stress hormone exposure and possible sex differences is critically important. So-called “reversal learning” tasks are commonly used in rodents to model cognitive deficits in stress- and addiction-related illnesses in humans. Here, we exposed mice to the primary stress hormone corticosterone (CORT during early adolescence (postnatal days 31–42, then tested behavioral flexibility in adulthood using an instrumental reversal learning task. CORT-exposed female, but not male, mice developed perseverative errors. Despite resilience to subchronic CORT exposure, males developed reversal performance impairments following exposure to physical stressors. Administration of a putative tyrosine kinase receptor B (trkB agonist, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF, during adolescence blocked CORT-induced errors in females and improved performance in males. Conversely, blockade of trkB by ANA-12 impaired performance. These data suggest that trkB-based interventions could have certain protective benefits in the context of early-life stressor exposure. We consider the implications of our findings in an extended “Discussion” section.

  4. Does individual learning styles influence the choice to use a web-based ECG learning programme in a blended learning setting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The compressed curriculum in modern knowledge-intensive medicine demands useful tools to achieve approved learning aims in a limited space of time. Web-based learning can be used in different ways to enhance learning. Little is however known regarding its optimal utilisation. Our aim was to investigate if the individual learning styles of medical students influence the choice to use a web-based ECG learning programme in a blended learning setting. Methods The programme, with three types of modules (learning content, self-assessment questions and interactive ECG interpretation training, was offered on a voluntary basis during a face to face ECG learning course for undergraduate medical students. The Index of Learning Styles (ILS and a general questionnaire including questions about computer and Internet usage, preferred future speciality and prior experience of E-learning were used to explore different factors related to the choice of using the programme or not. Results 93 (76% out of 123 students answered the ILS instrument and 91 the general questionnaire. 55 students (59% were defined as users of the web-based ECG-interpretation programme. Cronbach's alpha was analysed with coefficients above 0.7 in all of the four dimensions of ILS. There were no significant differences with regard to learning styles, as assessed by ILS, between the user and non-user groups; Active/Reflective; Visual/Verbal; Sensing/Intuitive; and Sequential/Global (p = 0.56-0.96. Neither did gender, prior experience of E-learning or preference for future speciality differ between groups. Conclusion Among medical students, neither learning styles according to ILS, nor a number of other characteristics seem to influence the choice to use a web-based ECG programme. This finding was consistent also when the usage of the different modules in the programme were considered. Thus, the findings suggest that web-based learning may attract a broad variety of medical

  5. Does individual learning styles influence the choice to use a web-based ECG learning programme in a blended learning setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Mikael; Östergren, Jan; Fors, Uno; Rickenlund, Anette; Jorfeldt, Lennart; Caidahl, Kenneth; Bolinder, Gunilla

    2012-01-16

    The compressed curriculum in modern knowledge-intensive medicine demands useful tools to achieve approved learning aims in a limited space of time. Web-based learning can be used in different ways to enhance learning. Little is however known regarding its optimal utilisation. Our aim was to investigate if the individual learning styles of medical students influence the choice to use a web-based ECG learning programme in a blended learning setting. The programme, with three types of modules (learning content, self-assessment questions and interactive ECG interpretation training), was offered on a voluntary basis during a face to face ECG learning course for undergraduate medical students. The Index of Learning Styles (ILS) and a general questionnaire including questions about computer and Internet usage, preferred future speciality and prior experience of E-learning were used to explore different factors related to the choice of using the programme or not. 93 (76%) out of 123 students answered the ILS instrument and 91 the general questionnaire. 55 students (59%) were defined as users of the web-based ECG-interpretation programme. Cronbach's alpha was analysed with coefficients above 0.7 in all of the four dimensions of ILS. There were no significant differences with regard to learning styles, as assessed by ILS, between the user and non-user groups; Active/Reflective; Visual/Verbal; Sensing/Intuitive; and Sequential/Global (p = 0.56-0.96). Neither did gender, prior experience of E-learning or preference for future speciality differ between groups. Among medical students, neither learning styles according to ILS, nor a number of other characteristics seem to influence the choice to use a web-based ECG programme. This finding was consistent also when the usage of the different modules in the programme were considered. Thus, the findings suggest that web-based learning may attract a broad variety of medical students.

  6. [Nursing students' perception of the learning process in a hospital setting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Elcilene Andreíne Terra Durgante; Cogo, Ana Luísa Petersen

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identijf how nursing students perceive and experience the learning process during curricular practice in a hospital setting. A qualitative, retrospective, documentary study was developed in an undergraduate nursing course. Data were comprised of 162 posts made by 34 students in the online discussion forum of the Learning Management System Moodle, during the first half of 2011. The following themes emergedfrom t he thematic content analysis: "nursing students' understanding about the professional practice," and "the teaching and learning process in the perspective of nursing students." The study demonstrated that the forum was a place for reporting experiences such as the description of the physical area, performing procedures, perception of nursing care activities, conJlicts with peers, coping with death and learning evaluation. The online discussion forum needs to be used by professors as a space of interaction so as to contribute to professional training.

  7. Repeated Blockade of NMDA Receptors during Adolescence Impairs Reversal Learning and Disrupts GABAergic Interneurons in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitao eLi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is of particular significance to schizophrenia, since psychosis onset typically occurs in this critical period. Based on the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor hypofunction hypothesis of schizophrenia, in this study, we investigated whether and how repeated NMDA receptor blockade during adolescence would affect GABAergic interneurons in rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and mPFC-mediated cognitive functions. Specifically, adolescent rats were subjected to intraperitoneal administration of MK-801 (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 mg/kg, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, for 14 days and then tested for reference memory and reversal learning in the water maze. The density of parvabumin (PV-, calbindin (CB- and calretinin (CR-positive neurons in mPFC were analyzed at either 24 hours or 7 days after drug cessation. We found that MK-801 treatment delayed reversal learning in the water maze without affecting initial acquisition. Strikingly, MK-801 treatment also significantly reduced the density of PV+ and CB+ neurons, and this effect persisted for 7 days after drug cessation at the dose of 0.2 mg/kg. We further demonstrated that the reduction in PV+ and CB+ neuron densities was ascribed to a downregulation of the expression levels of PV and CB, but not to neuronal death. These results parallel the behavioral and neuropathological changes of schizophrenia and provide evidence that adolescent NMDA receptors antagonism offers a useful tool for unraveling the etiology of the disease.

  8. Using a multi-state Learning Community as an implementation strategy for immediate postpartum long-acting reversible contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSisto, Carla L; Estrich, Cameron; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Goodman, David A; Pliska, Ellen; Mackie, Christine N; Waddell, Lisa F; Rankin, Kristin M

    2017-11-21

    Implementation strategies are imperative for the successful adoption and sustainability of complex evidence-based public health practices. Creating a learning collaborative is one strategy that was part of a recently published compilation of implementation strategy terms and definitions. In partnership with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other partner agencies, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials recently convened a multi-state Learning Community to support cross-state collaboration and provide technical assistance for improving state capacity to increase access to long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) in the immediate postpartum period, an evidence-based practice with the potential for reducing unintended pregnancy and improving maternal and child health outcomes. During 2015-2016, the Learning Community included multi-disciplinary, multi-agency teams of state health officials, payers, clinicians, and health department staff from 13 states. This qualitative study was conducted to better understand the successes, challenges, and strategies that the 13 US states in the Learning Community used for increasing access to immediate postpartum LARC. We conducted telephone interviews with each team in the Learning Community. Interviews were semi-structured and organized by the eight domains of the Learning Community. We coded transcribed interviews for facilitators, barriers, and implementation strategies, using a recent compilation of expert-defined implementation strategies as a foundation for coding the latter. Data analysis showed three ways that the activities of the Learning Community helped in policy implementation work: structure and accountability, validity, and preparing for potential challenges and opportunities. Further, the qualitative data demonstrated that the Learning Community integrated six other implementation strategies from the literature: organize clinician implementation team meetings, conduct

  9. Mobile learning for HIV/AIDS healthcare worker training in resource-limited settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolfo Maria

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present an innovative approach to healthcare worker (HCW training using mobile phones as a personal learning environment. Twenty physicians used individual Smartphones (Nokia N95 and iPhone, each equipped with a portable solar charger. Doctors worked in urban and peri-urban HIV/AIDS clinics in Peru, where almost 70% of the nation's HIV patients in need are on treatment. A set of 3D learning scenarios simulating interactive clinical cases was developed and adapted to the Smartphones for a continuing medical education program lasting 3 months. A mobile educational platform supporting learning events tracked participant learning progress. A discussion forum accessible via mobile connected participants to a group of HIV specialists available for back-up of the medical information. Learning outcomes were verified through mobile quizzes using multiple choice questions at the end of each module. Methods In December 2009, a mid-term evaluation was conducted, targeting both technical feasibility and user satisfaction. It also highlighted user perception of the program and the technical challenges encountered using mobile devices for lifelong learning. Results With a response rate of 90% (18/20 questionnaires returned, the overall satisfaction of using mobile tools was generally greater for the iPhone. Access to Skype and Facebook, screen/keyboard size, and image quality were cited as more troublesome for the Nokia N95 compared to the iPhone. Conclusions Training, supervision and clinical mentoring of health workers are the cornerstone of the scaling up process of HIV/AIDS care in resource-limited settings (RLSs. Educational modules on mobile phones can give flexibility to HCWs for accessing learning content anywhere. However lack of softwares interoperability and the high investment cost for the Smartphones' purchase could represent a limitation to the wide spread use of such kind mLearning programs in RLSs.

  10. Exploring Daily Physical Activity and Nutrition Patterns in Early Learning Settings: Snapshots of Young Children in Head Start, Primary, and After-School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegelin, Dolores A.; Anderson, Denise; Kemper, Karen; Wagner, Jennifer; Evans, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to gain a greater understanding of daily routines of 4-7 year olds regarding physical activity and nutrition practices in typical early learning environments. The settings selected for this observational study included Head Start, primary, and after-school learning environments in a city in the southeast.…

  11. Interactive Multimodal Molecular Set – Designing Ludic Engaging Science Learning Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Tine Pinholt; Christiansen, Kasper Holm Bonde; Jakobsen Sillesen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory study investigating 10 primary school students’ interaction with an interactive multimodal molecular set fostering ludic engaging science learning content in primary schools (8th and 9th grade). The concept of the prototype design was to bridge the physical...... and virtual worlds with electronic tags and, through this, blend the familiarity of the computer and toys, to create a tool that provided a ludic approach to learning about atoms and molecules. The study was inspired by the participatory design and informant design methodologies and included design...

  12. ELT Materials: The Key to Fostering Effective Teaching and Learning Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Núñez Pardo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Our article aims at providing teachers with an overview for materials development, taking into account the experience gained by two teachers in the English Programme of the School of Education at Universidad Externado de Colombia in Bogotá. This experience has helped us achieve better teaching and learning conditions for our university students in their quest to learn a foreign language. This paper addresses the issue of the role of teachers as textbook developers, and how they can meet materials development demands by integrating a clear conceptualisation and set of principles as well as their essential components.

  13. KECEMASAN MATEMATIK SISWA KELAS XI SMK BERDASARKAN MAHMOOD DAN KHATOON DALAM SETTING PROBLEM BASED LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Kumalasari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan kualitas pembelajaran matematika dalam setting problem based learning terhadap kemampuan pemecahan masalah siswa kelas XI SMK, mendeskripsikan tingkat kecemasan matematik siswa dalam mengikuti pelajaran matematika dalam setting problem based learning, dan mendeskripsikan kemampuan pemecahan masalah berdasarkan tingkat kecemasan matematik. Metode penelitian ini adalah mixed methods. Subjek dalam penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas XI TKKB SMKN 10 Semarang. Selanjutnya dipilih 6 siswa dari masing-masing kemampuan pemecahan masalah berdasarkan tingkat kecemasan matematik. Metode pengumpulan data dalam penelitian ini adalah metode observasi, dokumentasi, tes, dan wawancara. Analisis data dalam penelitian ini adalah analisis kualitas pembelajaran, analisis tingkat kecemasan matematik, analisis kemampuan pemecahan masalah, reduksi data, penyajian data, dan menarik kesimpulan dan verifikasi. Hasil penelitian ini diperoleh: kualitas pembelajaran dalam setting problem based learning dalam kategori baik, tingkat kecemasan matematik siswa kelas XI SMKN 10 Semarang sebelum pembelajaran matematika adalah rendah, pada saat kegiatan pembelajaran adalah tinggi, dan setelah kegiatan pembelajaran adalah rendah, untuk tingkat kecemasan sebelum tes kemampuan pemecahan masalah adalah rendah, dan setelah tes kemampuan pemecahan masalah adalah tinggi, dan kemampuan pemecahan masalah matematika siswa yang tingkat kecemasan matematik rendah lebih baik dari pada siswa yang tingkat kecemasan matematiknya tinggi.   This research aimed to describe the quality of  mathematics teaching in the setting of problem based learning to problem­solving ability of class XI student of SMK, the level of mathematics  anxiety  of   students  in  participating  in  the  setting  math  problem  based learning, and the problem­solving abilities by mathematics anxiety levels. This research method is mixed methods. Subjects in this

  14. The use of Edmodo in teaching writing in a blended learning setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pupung Purnawarman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of technology provides education with varioussolutions to create new learning environments. Edmodo as a learning platform is believed to offera solution in the teaching of English, particularly for teaching writing. This research was aimed to investigate how Edmodo as a learning platform,in a blended learning setting, was implemented in teaching writing in its combination with Genre-based Approach, how Edmodo facilitated students’ engagement, and how students perceived the use of Edmodo in teaching and learning activities. This research employed a qualitative approach with case study design. The research involved 17 participants from the eleventh grade of a senior high school in Bandung, Indonesia. The data were collected through observations, document analysis, interviews, and questionnaires. The results showed that in teaching writing,it was possible to integrate Edmodo into GBA writing cycles. Edmodo also facilitated students’ engagement cognitively during classroom sessions. The students showed various responses towards the use of Edmodo based on the Uses and Gratification Theory (UGT framework. Some issues on the use of Edmodo identified in this research were bandwidth, confusion in using Edmodo, incompatibility of smartphone applications, and students’ lack responsibilities for learning. The suggestions for the authority and areas of further research are presented.

  15. The Predictive Value of Ultrasound Learning Curves Across Simulated and Clinical Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette E; Nørgaard, Lone N; Tabor, Ann

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to explore whether learning curves on a virtual-reality (VR) sonographic simulator can be used to predict subsequent learning curves on a physical mannequin and learning curves during clinical training. METHODS: Twenty midwives completed a simulation-based tra......OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to explore whether learning curves on a virtual-reality (VR) sonographic simulator can be used to predict subsequent learning curves on a physical mannequin and learning curves during clinical training. METHODS: Twenty midwives completed a simulation......-based training program in transvaginal sonography. The training was conducted on a VR simulator as well as on a physical mannequin. A subgroup of 6 participants underwent subsequent clinical training. During each of the 3 steps, the participants' performance was assessed using instruments with established...... settings. RESULTS: A good correlation was found between time needed to achieve predefined performance levels on the VR simulator and the physical mannequin (Pearson correlation coefficient .78; P VR simulator correlated well to the clinical performance scores (Pearson...

  16. Do action learning sets facilitate collaborative, deliberative learning?: A focus group evaluation of Graduate Entry Pre-registration Nursing (GEN) students' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, Charlotte; Strang, Gus

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if by participating in action learning sets, Graduate Entry Pre-registration Nursing (GEN) students were able to engage in collaborative and deliberative learning. A single focus group interview involving eleven participants was used to collect data. Data analysis identified five themes; collaborative learning; reflection; learning through case study and problem-solving; communication, and rejection of codified learning. The themes are discussed and further analysed in the context of collaborative and deliberative learning. The evidence from this small scale study suggests that action learning sets do provide an environment where collaborative and deliberative learning can occur. However, students perceived some of them, particularly during year one, to be too 'teacher lead', which stifled learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Adult neurogenesis reduction by a cytostatic treatment improves spatial reversal learning in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brožka, Hana; Pištíková, Adéla; Radostová, Dominika; Valeš, Karel; Svoboda, Jan; Grzyb, A. N.; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 141, May (2017), s. 93-100 ISSN 1074-7427 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03627S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14053 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M200111204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : active avoidance * hippocampus * adult neurogenesis * discrimination * generalization * reversal Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 3.543, year: 2016

  18. An Evaluation of Active Learning Causal Discovery Methods for Reverse-Engineering Local Causal Pathways of Gene Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sisi; Kemmeren, Patrick; Aliferis, Constantin F.; Statnikov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Reverse-engineering of causal pathways that implicate diseases and vital cellular functions is a fundamental problem in biomedicine. Discovery of the local causal pathway of a target variable (that consists of its direct causes and direct effects) is essential for effective intervention and can facilitate accurate diagnosis and prognosis. Recent research has provided several active learning methods that can leverage passively observed high-throughput data to draft causal pathways and then refine the inferred relations with a limited number of experiments. The current study provides a comprehensive evaluation of the performance of active learning methods for local causal pathway discovery in real biological data. Specifically, 54 active learning methods/variants from 3 families of algorithms were applied for local causal pathways reconstruction of gene regulation for 5 transcription factors in S. cerevisiae. Four aspects of the methods’ performance were assessed, including adjacency discovery quality, edge orientation accuracy, complete pathway discovery quality, and experimental cost. The results of this study show that some methods provide significant performance benefits over others and therefore should be routinely used for local causal pathway discovery tasks. This study also demonstrates the feasibility of local causal pathway reconstruction in real biological systems with significant quality and low experimental cost. PMID:26939894

  19. TU-G-303-03: Machine Learning to Improve Human Learning From Longitudinal Image Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeraraghavan, H. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (United States)

    2015-06-15

    ‘Radiomics’ refers to studies that extract a large amount of quantitative information from medical imaging studies as a basis for characterizing a specific aspect of patient health. Radiomics models can be built to address a wide range of outcome predictions, clinical decisions, basic cancer biology, etc. For example, radiomics models can be built to predict the aggressiveness of an imaged cancer, cancer gene expression characteristics (radiogenomics), radiation therapy treatment response, etc. Technically, radiomics brings together quantitative imaging, computer vision/image processing, and machine learning. In this symposium, speakers will discuss approaches to radiomics investigations, including: longitudinal radiomics, radiomics combined with other biomarkers (‘pan-omics’), radiomics for various imaging modalities (CT, MRI, and PET), and the use of registered multi-modality imaging datasets as a basis for radiomics. There are many challenges to the eventual use of radiomics-derived methods in clinical practice, including: standardization and robustness of selected metrics, accruing the data required, building and validating the resulting models, registering longitudinal data that often involve significant patient changes, reliable automated cancer segmentation tools, etc. Despite the hurdles, results achieved so far indicate the tremendous potential of this general approach to quantifying and using data from medical images. Specific applications of radiomics to be presented in this symposium will include: the longitudinal analysis of patients with low-grade gliomas; automatic detection and assessment of patients with metastatic bone lesions; image-based monitoring of patients with growing lymph nodes; predicting radiotherapy outcomes using multi-modality radiomics; and studies relating radiomics with genomics in lung cancer and glioblastoma. Learning Objectives: Understanding the basic image features that are often used in radiomic models. Understanding

  20. TU-G-303-03: Machine Learning to Improve Human Learning From Longitudinal Image Sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veeraraghavan, H.

    2015-01-01

    ‘Radiomics’ refers to studies that extract a large amount of quantitative information from medical imaging studies as a basis for characterizing a specific aspect of patient health. Radiomics models can be built to address a wide range of outcome predictions, clinical decisions, basic cancer biology, etc. For example, radiomics models can be built to predict the aggressiveness of an imaged cancer, cancer gene expression characteristics (radiogenomics), radiation therapy treatment response, etc. Technically, radiomics brings together quantitative imaging, computer vision/image processing, and machine learning. In this symposium, speakers will discuss approaches to radiomics investigations, including: longitudinal radiomics, radiomics combined with other biomarkers (‘pan-omics’), radiomics for various imaging modalities (CT, MRI, and PET), and the use of registered multi-modality imaging datasets as a basis for radiomics. There are many challenges to the eventual use of radiomics-derived methods in clinical practice, including: standardization and robustness of selected metrics, accruing the data required, building and validating the resulting models, registering longitudinal data that often involve significant patient changes, reliable automated cancer segmentation tools, etc. Despite the hurdles, results achieved so far indicate the tremendous potential of this general approach to quantifying and using data from medical images. Specific applications of radiomics to be presented in this symposium will include: the longitudinal analysis of patients with low-grade gliomas; automatic detection and assessment of patients with metastatic bone lesions; image-based monitoring of patients with growing lymph nodes; predicting radiotherapy outcomes using multi-modality radiomics; and studies relating radiomics with genomics in lung cancer and glioblastoma. Learning Objectives: Understanding the basic image features that are often used in radiomic models. Understanding

  1. Depression-biased reverse plasticity rule is required for stable learning at top-down connections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra S Burbank

    Full Text Available Top-down synapses are ubiquitous throughout neocortex and play a central role in cognition, yet little is known about their development and specificity. During sensory experience, lower neocortical areas are activated before higher ones, causing top-down synapses to experience a preponderance of post-synaptic activity preceding pre-synaptic activity. This timing pattern is the opposite of that experienced by bottom-up synapses, which suggests that different versions of spike-timing dependent synaptic plasticity (STDP rules may be required at top-down synapses. We consider a two-layer neural network model and investigate which STDP rules can lead to a distribution of top-down synaptic weights that is stable, diverse and avoids strong loops. We introduce a temporally reversed rule (rSTDP where top-down synapses are potentiated if post-synaptic activity precedes pre-synaptic activity. Combining analytical work and integrate-and-fire simulations, we show that only depression-biased rSTDP (and not classical STDP produces stable and diverse top-down weights. The conclusions did not change upon addition of homeostatic mechanisms, multiplicative STDP rules or weak external input to the top neurons. Our prediction for rSTDP at top-down synapses, which are distally located, is supported by recent neurophysiological evidence showing the existence of temporally reversed STDP in synapses that are distal to the post-synaptic cell body.

  2. Depression-Biased Reverse Plasticity Rule Is Required for Stable Learning at Top-Down Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbank, Kendra S.; Kreiman, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Top-down synapses are ubiquitous throughout neocortex and play a central role in cognition, yet little is known about their development and specificity. During sensory experience, lower neocortical areas are activated before higher ones, causing top-down synapses to experience a preponderance of post-synaptic activity preceding pre-synaptic activity. This timing pattern is the opposite of that experienced by bottom-up synapses, which suggests that different versions of spike-timing dependent synaptic plasticity (STDP) rules may be required at top-down synapses. We consider a two-layer neural network model and investigate which STDP rules can lead to a distribution of top-down synaptic weights that is stable, diverse and avoids strong loops. We introduce a temporally reversed rule (rSTDP) where top-down synapses are potentiated if post-synaptic activity precedes pre-synaptic activity. Combining analytical work and integrate-and-fire simulations, we show that only depression-biased rSTDP (and not classical STDP) produces stable and diverse top-down weights. The conclusions did not change upon addition of homeostatic mechanisms, multiplicative STDP rules or weak external input to the top neurons. Our prediction for rSTDP at top-down synapses, which are distally located, is supported by recent neurophysiological evidence showing the existence of temporally reversed STDP in synapses that are distal to the post-synaptic cell body. PMID:22396630

  3. The influence of negative training set size on machine learning-based virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurczab, Rafał; Smusz, Sabina; Bojarski, Andrzej J

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a thorough analysis of the influence of the number of negative training examples on the performance of machine learning methods. The impact of this rather neglected aspect of machine learning methods application was examined for sets containing a fixed number of positive and a varying number of negative examples randomly selected from the ZINC database. An increase in the ratio of positive to negative training instances was found to greatly influence most of the investigated evaluating parameters of ML methods in simulated virtual screening experiments. In a majority of cases, substantial increases in precision and MCC were observed in conjunction with some decreases in hit recall. The analysis of dynamics of those variations let us recommend an optimal composition of training data. The study was performed on several protein targets, 5 machine learning algorithms (SMO, Naïve Bayes, Ibk, J48 and Random Forest) and 2 types of molecular fingerprints (MACCS and CDK FP). The most effective classification was provided by the combination of CDK FP with SMO or Random Forest algorithms. The Naïve Bayes models appeared to be hardly sensitive to changes in the number of negative instances in the training set. In conclusion, the ratio of positive to negative training instances should be taken into account during the preparation of machine learning experiments, as it might significantly influence the performance of particular classifier. What is more, the optimization of negative training set size can be applied as a boosting-like approach in machine learning-based virtual screening.

  4. How and with What Accuracy Do Children Report Self-Regulated Learning in Contemporary EFL Instructional Settings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, P. Costa; Simão, A. M. Veiga; da Silva, A. Lopes

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to understand how children reflect about learning, report their regulation of learning activity, and develop their performance in contemporary English as a Foreign Language instructional settings. A quasi-experimental design was used with one experimental group working in a self-regulated learning computer-supported instructional…

  5. An Integrative Review of In-Class Activities That Enable Active Learning in College Science Classroom Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, Leilani A.; Kreager, Bailey Zo

    2017-01-01

    Engaging students in active learning is linked to positive learning outcomes. This study aims to synthesise the peer-reviewed literature about "active learning" in college science classroom settings. Using the methodology of an integrative literature review, 337 articles archived in the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) are…

  6. Surface blemish detection from passive imagery using learned fuzzy set concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurbuz, S.; Carver, A.; Schalkoff, R.

    1997-12-01

    An image analysis method for real-time surface blemish detection using passive imagery and fuzzy set concepts is described. The method develops an internal knowledge representation for surface blemish characteristics on the basis of experience, thus facilitating autonomous learning based upon positive and negative exemplars. The method incorporates fuzzy set concepts in the learning subsystem and image segmentation algorithms, thereby mimicking human visual perception. This enables a generic solution for color image segmentation. This method has been applied in the development of ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System), designed to inspect DOE warehouse waste storage drums for rust. In this project, the ARIES vision system is used to acquire drum surface images under controlled conditions and subsequently perform visual inspection leading to the classification of the drum as acceptable or suspect

  7. Fusing a Reversed and Informal Learning Scheme and Space: Student Perceptions of Active Learning in Physical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Julie; Hernández, Florencio E.

    2018-01-01

    Physical chemistry students often have negative perceptions and low expectations for success in physical chemistry, attitudes that likely affect their performance in the course. Despite the results of several studies indicating increased positive perception of physical chemistry when active learning strategies are used, a recent survey of faculty…

  8. Feedback-related negativity codes outcome valence, but not outcome expectancy, during reversal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borries, A.K.L. von; Verkes, R.J.; Bulten, B.H.; Cools, R.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de

    2013-01-01

    Optimal behavior depends on the ability to assess the predictive value of events and to adjust behavior accordingly. Outcome processing can be studied by using its electrophysiological signatures-that is, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300. A prominent reinforcement-learning model

  9. Feedback-related negativity codes outcome valence, but not outcome expectancy, during reversal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borries, A.K.L. von; Verkes, R.J.; Bulten, B.H.; Cools, R.

    2013-01-01

    Optimal behavior depends on the ability to assess the predictive value of events and to adjust behavior accordingly. Outcome processing can be studied by using its electrophysiological signatures--that is, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300. A prominent reinforcement-learning model

  10. LEARNING MODEL OF SCHOOL-BASED ANTI BULLYING INTERVENTION IN EAP (ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES SETTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ririn Ambarini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bilingual learning can be integrated in any subjects in school. One of the subject is Guidance and Couseling subject that provides opportunities for students to develop their social skills and communication. Today, the phenomenon of bullying often occurs in every aspect of life, and one of them is in educational institutions such as schools. School should be a place to establish a positive attitude and character, but the fact the school becomes the scene of bullying practices. The research question is how the bilingual learning of school-based anti bullying intervension integrated with Guidance and Counseling materials by using English for Academic Purposes settings is. This qualitative study used descriptive qualitative method that aims to understand the process and the outcome of bilingual learning process from the viewpoint or perspective of the participants. This research takes the view that since people are instruments, the objects of the research together with the researcher herself, their active involvement in the process is the key to any sustainable efforts. This research is aslo supposed to identify the students‘ understanding of the school-based anti bullying materials that are implemented in EAP settings. The impact of thus program implementation is certainly expected as the strategies to minimize the impacts that will occur in bullying behavior by the integration of anti-bullying bilingual learning model through guidance and counseling materials.

  11. Learning Patient Safety in Academic Settings: A Comparative Study of Finnish and British Nursing Students' Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Susanna; Smith, Nancy-Jane; Partanen, Pirjo; Turunen, Hannele

    2015-06-01

    Globalization of health care demands nursing education programs that equip students with evidence-based patient safety competences in the global context. Nursing students' entrance into clinical placements requires professional readiness. Thus, evidence-based learning activities about patient safety must be provided in academic settings prior to students' clinical placements. To explore and compare Finnish and British nursing students' perceptions of learning about patient safety in academic settings to inform nursing educators about designing future education curriculum. A purpose-designed instrument, Patient Safety in Nursing Education Questionnaire (PaSNEQ) was used to examine the perceptions of Finnish (n = 195) and British (n = 158) nursing students prior to their final year of registration. Data were collected in two Finnish and two English nursing schools in 2012. Logistic regressions were used to analyze the differences. British students reported more inclusion (p motivation" related to patient safety in their programs. Both student groups considered patient safety education to be more valuable for their own learning than what their programs had provided. Training patient safety skills in the academic settings were the strongest predictors for differences (odds ratio [OR] = 34.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.39-162.83), along with work experience in the healthcare sector (OR = 3.02, 95% CI 1.39-6.58). To prepare nursing students for practical work, training related to clear communication, reporting errors, systems-based approaches, interprofessional teamwork, and use of simulation in academic settings requires comprehensive attention, especially in Finland. Overall, designing patient safety-affirming nursing curricula in collaboration with students may enhance their positive experiences on teaching and learning about patient safety. An international collaboration between educators could help to develop and harmonize patient safety education and to better

  12. Attitudes of Staff Nurse Preceptors Related to the Education of Nurses with Learning Disabilities in Clinical Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Ecuyer, Kristine Marie

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation presents a quantitative study of the attitudes of staff nurse preceptors toward nursing students with learning disabilities. There are an increased number of nursing students with learning disabilities. These students may have additional challenges in clinical settings, particularly if clinical settings do not understand or…

  13. Selective Activation of M4 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors Reverses MK-801-Induced Behavioral Impairments and Enhances Associative Learning in Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) represent a novel approach for the treatment of psychotic symptoms associated with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. We recently reported that the selective M4 PAM VU0152100 produced an antipsychotic drug-like profile in rodents after amphetamine challenge. Previous studies suggest that enhanced cholinergic activity may also improve cognitive function and reverse deficits observed with reduced signaling through the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of the glutamate receptor (NMDAR) in the central nervous system. Prior to this study, the M1 mAChR subtype was viewed as the primary candidate for these actions relative to the other mAChR subtypes. Here we describe the discovery of a novel M4 PAM, VU0467154, with enhanced in vitro potency and improved pharmacokinetic properties relative to other M4 PAMs, enabling a more extensive characterization of M4 actions in rodent models. We used VU0467154 to test the hypothesis that selective potentiation of M4 receptor signaling could ameliorate the behavioral, cognitive, and neurochemical impairments induced by the noncompetitive NMDAR antagonist MK-801. VU0467154 produced a robust dose-dependent reversal of MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion and deficits in preclinical models of associative learning and memory functions, including the touchscreen pairwise visual discrimination task in wild-type mice, but failed to reverse these stimulant-induced deficits in M4 KO mice. VU0467154 also enhanced the acquisition of both contextual and cue-mediated fear conditioning when administered alone in wild-type mice. These novel findings suggest that M4 PAMs may provide a strategy for addressing the more complex affective and cognitive disruptions associated with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25137629

  14. THE USE OF NUMBERED HEADS TOGETHER (NHT LEARNING MODEL WITH SCIENCE, ENVIRONMENT, TECHNOLOGY, SOCIETY (SETS APPROACH TO IMPROVE STUDENT LEARNING MOTIVATION OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sutipnyo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to determine the increasing of students' motivation that has been applied by Numbered Heads Together (NHT learning model with Science, Environment, Technology, Society (SETS approach. The design of this study was quasi experiment with One Group Pretest-Posttest Design. The data of students’ learning motivation obtained through questionnaire administered before and after NHT learning model with SETS approach. In this research, the indicators of learning-motivation were facing tasks diligently, showing interest in variety of problems, prefering to work independently, keeping students’ opinions, and feeling happy to find and solve problems. Increasing of the students’ learning motivation was analyzed by using a gain test. The results showed that applying NHT learning model with SETS approach could increase the students’ learning motivation in medium categories.

  15. Alteration of a motor learning rule under mirror-reversal transformation does not depend on the amplitude of visual error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuga, Shoko; Kurata, Makiko; Liu, Meigen; Ushiba, Junichi

    2015-05-01

    Human's sophisticated motor learning system paradoxically interferes with motor performance when visual information is mirror-reversed (MR), because normal movement error correction further aggravates the error. This error-increasing mechanism makes performing even a simple reaching task difficult, but is overcome by alterations in the error correction rule during the trials. To isolate factors that trigger learners to change the error correction rule, we manipulated the gain of visual angular errors when participants made arm-reaching movements with mirror-reversed visual feedback, and compared the rule alteration timing between groups with normal or reduced gain. Trial-by-trial changes in the visual angular error was tracked to explain the timing of the change in the error correction rule. Under both gain conditions, visual angular errors increased under the MR transformation, and suddenly decreased after 3-5 trials with increase. The increase became degressive at different amplitude between the two groups, nearly proportional to the visual gain. The findings suggest that the alteration of the error-correction rule is not dependent on the amplitude of visual angular errors, and possibly determined by the number of trials over which the errors increased or statistical property of the environment. The current results encourage future intensive studies focusing on the exact rule-change mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Advantages of Synthetic Noise and Machine Learning for Analyzing Radioecological Data Sets.

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    Igor Shuryak

    Full Text Available The ecological effects of accidental or malicious radioactive contamination are insufficiently understood because of the hazards and difficulties associated with conducting studies in radioactively-polluted areas. Data sets from severely contaminated locations can therefore be small. Moreover, many potentially important factors, such as soil concentrations of toxic chemicals, pH, and temperature, can be correlated with radiation levels and with each other. In such situations, commonly-used statistical techniques like generalized linear models (GLMs may not be able to provide useful information about how radiation and/or these other variables affect the outcome (e.g. abundance of the studied organisms. Ensemble machine learning methods such as random forests offer powerful alternatives. We propose that analysis of small radioecological data sets by GLMs and/or machine learning can be made more informative by using the following techniques: (1 adding synthetic noise variables to provide benchmarks for distinguishing the performances of valuable predictors from irrelevant ones; (2 adding noise directly to the predictors and/or to the outcome to test the robustness of analysis results against random data fluctuations; (3 adding artificial effects to selected predictors to test the sensitivity of the analysis methods in detecting predictor effects; (4 running a selected machine learning method multiple times (with different random-number seeds to test the robustness of the detected "signal"; (5 using several machine learning methods to test the "signal's" sensitivity to differences in analysis techniques. Here, we applied these approaches to simulated data, and to two published examples of small radioecological data sets: (I counts of fungal taxa in samples of soil contaminated by the Chernobyl nuclear power plan accident (Ukraine, and (II bacterial abundance in soil samples under a ruptured nuclear waste storage tank (USA. We show that the proposed

  17. Incremental Learning of Context Free Grammars by Parsing-Based Rule Generation and Rule Set Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsuhiko; Hoshina, Akemi

    This paper discusses recent improvements and extensions in Synapse system for inductive inference of context free grammars (CFGs) from sample strings. Synapse uses incremental learning, rule generation based on bottom-up parsing, and the search for rule sets. The form of production rules in the previous system is extended from Revised Chomsky Normal Form A→βγ to Extended Chomsky Normal Form, which also includes A→B, where each of β and γ is either a terminal or nonterminal symbol. From the result of bottom-up parsing, a rule generation mechanism synthesizes minimum production rules required for parsing positive samples. Instead of inductive CYK algorithm in the previous version of Synapse, the improved version uses a novel rule generation method, called ``bridging,'' which bridges the lacked part of the derivation tree for the positive string. The improved version also employs a novel search strategy, called serial search in addition to minimum rule set search. The synthesis of grammars by the serial search is faster than the minimum set search in most cases. On the other hand, the size of the generated CFGs is generally larger than that by the minimum set search, and the system can find no appropriate grammar for some CFL by the serial search. The paper shows experimental results of incremental learning of several fundamental CFGs and compares the methods of rule generation and search strategies.

  18. A learning algorithm for adaptive canonical correlation analysis of several data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vía, Javier; Santamaría, Ignacio; Pérez, Jesús

    2007-01-01

    Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is a classical tool in statistical analysis to find the projections that maximize the correlation between two data sets. In this work we propose a generalization of CCA to several data sets, which is shown to be equivalent to the classical maximum variance (MAXVAR) generalization proposed by Kettenring. The reformulation of this generalization as a set of coupled least squares regression problems is exploited to develop a neural structure for CCA. In particular, the proposed CCA model is a two layer feedforward neural network with lateral connections in the output layer to achieve the simultaneous extraction of all the CCA eigenvectors through deflation. The CCA neural model is trained using a recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm. Finally, the convergence of the proposed learning rule is proved by means of stochastic approximation techniques and their performance is analyzed through simulations.

  19. Children’s Cultural Learning in Everyday Family Life Exemplified at the Dinner Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mariane

    2017-01-01

    through participant observations in their everyday activities in two families (Hedegaard & Fleer. 2013. Play, learning and children’s development. Everyday life in families and transition to school. New York: Cambridge University Press). The family members in the two families got an instant camera...... the setting and directly from parents and siblings. Children’s also put demands on the setting and its participants and how these are met leads to children’s development of new forms of social interaction, new motive orientation, and competences. The argument builds on a research project following children...... and were asked to take photos of what were important for them. In this chapter, the focus is on how demands and motives influence both parents and children at the dinner setting....

  20. A storied-identity analysis approach to teacher candidates learning to teach in an urban setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibourk, Amal

    While many studies have investigated the relationship between teachers' identity work and their developing practices, few of these identity focused studies have honed in on teacher candidates' learning to teach in an urban setting. Drawing upon narrative inquiry methodology and a "storied identity" analytic framework, I examined how the storied identities of science learning and becoming a science teacher shape teacher candidates' developing practice. In particular, I examined the stories of three interns, Becky, David, and Ashley, and I tell about their own experiences as science learners, their transitions to science teachers, and the implications this has for the identity work they did as they navigated the challenges of learning to teach in high-needs schools. Initially, each of the interns highlighted a feeling of being an outsider, and having a difficult time becoming a fully valued member of their classroom community in their storied identities of becoming a science teacher in the beginning of their internship year. While the interns named specific challenges, such as limited lab materials and different math abilities, I present how they adapted their lesson plans to address these challenges while drawing from their storied identities of science learning. My study reveals that the storied identities of becoming a science teacher informed how they framed their initial experiences teaching in an urban context. In addition, my findings reveal that the more their storied identities of science learning and becoming a science teacher overlapped, the more they leveraged their storied identity of science learning in order to implement teaching strategies that helped them make sense of the challenges that surfaced in their classroom contexts. Both Becky and Ashley leveraged their storied identities of science learning more than David did in their lesson planning and learning to teach. David's initial storied identity of becoming a science teacher revealed how he

  1. Perceived Frequency of Peer-Assisted Learning in the Laboratory and Collegiate Clinical Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Jolene M.; Weidner, Thomas G.; Snyder, Melissa; Dudley, William N.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Peer-assisted learning (PAL) has been recommended as an educational strategy to improve students' skill acquisition and supplement the role of the clinical instructor (CI). How frequently students actually engage in PAL in different settings is unknown. Objective: To determine the perceived frequency of planned and unplanned PAL (peer modeling, peer feedback and assessment, peer mentoring) in different settings. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Laboratory and collegiate clinical settings. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 933 students, 84 administrators, and 208 CIs representing 52 (15%) accredited athletic training education programs. Intervention(s): Three versions (student, CI, administrator) of the Athletic Training Peer Assisted Learning Survey (AT-PALS) were administered. Cronbach α values ranged from .80 to .90. Main Outcome Measure(s): Administrators' and CIs' perceived frequency of 3 PAL categories under 2 conditions (planned, unplanned) and in 2 settings (instructional laboratory, collegiate clinical). Self-reported frequency of students' engagement in 3 categories of PAL in 2 settings. Results: Administrators and CIs perceived that unplanned PAL (0.39 ± 0.22) occurred more frequently than planned PAL (0.29 ± 0.19) regardless of category or setting (F1,282 = 83.48, P < .001). They perceived that PAL occurred more frequently in the collegiate clinical (0.46 ± 0.22) than laboratory (0.21 ± 0.24) setting regardless of condition or category (F1,282 = 217.17, P < .001). Students reported engaging in PAL more frequently in the collegiate clinical (3.31 ± 0.56) than laboratory (3.26 ± 0.62) setting regardless of category (F1,860 = 13.40, P < .001). We found a main effect for category (F2,859 = 1318.02, P < .001), with students reporting they engaged in peer modeling (4.01 ± 0.60) more frequently than peer mentoring (2.99 ± 0.88) (P < .001) and peer assessment and feedback (2.86 ± 0.64) (P < .001). Conclusions: Participants

  2. Using Machine Learning Methods Jointly to Find Better Set of Rules in Data Mining

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    SUG Hyontai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rough set-based data mining algorithms are one of widely accepted machine learning technologies because of their strong mathematical background and capability of finding optimal rules based on given data sets only without room for prejudiced views to be inserted on the data. But, because the algorithms find rules very precisely, we may confront with the overfitting problem. On the other hand, association rule algorithms find rules of association, where the association resides between sets of items in database. The algorithms find itemsets that occur more than given minimum support, so that they can find the itemsets practically in reasonable time even for very large databases by supplying the minimum support appropriately. In order to overcome the problem of the overfitting problem in rough set-based algorithms, first we find large itemsets, after that we select attributes that cover the large itemsets. By using the selected attributes only, we may find better set of rules based on rough set theory. Results from experiments support our suggested method.

  3. Learning science in a cooperative setting: Academic achievement and affective outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Baird, J. Hugh

    the overall social setting in the classroom as it relates to learning (Bruner, 1986, p. 86) and the central function of social interaction as learning occurs (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 106) seemed to have been ignored. Therefore, group mastery learning (GML), a cooperative learning tech- nique, was suggested as an antithesis to IML for teaching science over short periods. The cooperative mode of instruction considers learning as a cognitive as well as a social process, where students interact with each other as well as the teacher.To bring the social dimension back to science classrooms, the researchers chose to imple- ment GML in Grades 1 I and 12. The goal of the study was to investigate the GML's impact of the method on the individual student's academic achievement, creativity, self-esteem, and number of friends and on the overall learning environment of the classrooms. The researchers were also concerned with the students' attitudes toward earth science, the course being taught at the time of the experiment. Both cognitive and affective outcomes for students who participated in the cooperative GML approach were compared with outcomes for students who studied the same topic in an IML approach.The study addressed a number of questions related to academic and nonacademic outcomes of the two methods of study. First, it sought to determine whether academic achievement of the students taught in the cooperative GML mode would be different from the achievement of students who learned in an individualized method. Second, it sought to determine whether gains or losses would be seen in nonacademic outcomes, such as classroom learning environment, social relations, and students' self-esteem experienced by the students. The results of this study may support more use of cooperative learning in high school science.

  4. Critical Success Factors in The Infusion of Instructional Technologies for Open Learning in Development Settings

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    Philip M. Uys

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to identify critical success factors for the appropriate infusion of instructional technologies to advance open learning in higher education within developing settings. Describe here is a descriptive account of a two-year case study based on the author’s personal analysis of, and reflection on, factors that contributed to the infusion of instructional technologies to advance open learning at the University of Botswana. The first critical success factors identified in this article include: a clear vision, support of committed leadership, and dedicated personnel/ change agents to ensure successful project implementation. The second critical success factor identified was the need for all involved to fully appreciate and understand the systemic nature of the infusion of instructional technologies for open learning purposes, as well as garner the commitment of strategic partners working in related systems. Finally highlighted, are the requirements needed to address the complex nature of the infusion of instructional technologies into the University’s educational offerings. It is hoped that those involved in education in developing countries, and particularly those desirous of advancing open learning through the use of instructional technologies, will find this descriptive analysis useful. Indeed, those of us involved in implementing instructional technologies in developing nations are still in the initial stages of this exciting yet challenging endeavour.

  5. Cognitive aspects of congenital learned helplessness and its reversal by the monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitor deprenyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Daniela; Mirrione, Martine M; Henn, Fritz A

    2010-02-01

    Cognitive processes are assumed to change with learned helplessness, an animal model of depression, but little is known about such deficits. Here we investigated the role of cognitive and related functions in selectively bred helpless (cLH, n=10), non-helpless (cNLH, n=12) and wild type (WT, n=8) Sprague Dawley rats. The animals were exposed to an open field for 10min on each of two test days. On the third day, an object exploration paradigm was carried out. The animals were later tested for helplessness. Both cLH and cNLH rats were more active than WTs on the first day in the open field. Over trials, cNLH and WT rats lowered their activity less than cLH rats. This resistance-to-habituation co-varied with a resistance to develop helplessness. In cLH rats, higher 'anxiety' or less time spent in the center of the open field co-varied with severe helplessness. In WTs, a greater reactivity to novel objects and to a spatially relocated object predicted lower levels of helplessness. In cLH rats (n=4-5 per group), chronic treatment with a high dose of the monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitor deprenyl (10mg/kg; i.p.), an anti-Parkinson, nootropic and antidepressant drug, attenuated helplessness. Remarkably, helplessness reversal required the experience of repeated test trials, reminiscent of a learning process. Chronic deprenyl (10mg/kg; i.p.) did not alter locomotion/exploration or 'anxiety' in the open field. In conclusion, helplessness may be related to altered mechanisms of reinforcement learning and working memory, and to abnormalities in MAO-A and/or MAO-B functioning. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Preservation of Essential Odor-Guided Behaviors and Odor-Based Reversal Learning after Targeting Adult Brain Serotonin Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kaitlin S; Whitney, Meredith S; Gadziola, Marie A; Deneris, Evan S; Wesson, Daniel W

    2016-01-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) is considered a powerful modulator of sensory system organization and function in a wide range of animals. The olfactory system is innervated by midbrain 5-HT neurons into both its primary and secondary odor-processing stages. Facilitated by this circuitry, 5-HT and its receptors modulate olfactory system function, including odor information input to the olfactory bulb. It is unknown, however, whether the olfactory system requires 5-HT for even its most basic behavioral functions. To address this question, we established a conditional genetic approach to specifically target adult brain tryptophan hydroxylase 2 ( Tph2 ), encoding the rate-limiting enzyme in brain 5-HT synthesis, and nearly eliminate 5-HT from the mouse forebrain. Using this novel model, we investigated the behavior of 5-HT-depleted mice during performance in an olfactory go/no-go task. Surprisingly, the near elimination of 5-HT from the forebrain, including the olfactory bulbs, had no detectable effect on the ability of mice to perform the odor-based task. Tph2 -targeted mice not only were able to learn the task, but also had levels of odor acuity similar to those of control mice when performing coarse odor discrimination. Both groups of mice spent similar amounts of time sampling odors during decision-making. Furthermore, odor reversal learning was identical between 5-HT-depleted and control mice. These results suggest that 5-HT neurotransmission is not necessary for the most essential aspects of olfaction, including odor learning, discrimination, and certain forms of cognitive flexibility.

  7. Does personalized goal setting and study planning improve academic performance and perception of learning experience in a developing setting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazeem B. Yusuff, PhD

    2018-06-01

    .٢، والاختبارات النصفية ٢١.٩ (الانحراف المعياري = ٣.٧، والاختبارات النهائية ٤٢.٨ (الانحراف المعياري = ٥.٣، وكانت نسبة الإنجاز لأهداف المقرر أ (٧٧٪ و ب (٧٨٪ أعلى بكثير في مجموعة الدراسة. أظهرت التغذية الراجعة لنهاية المقرر اختلافات رئيسة في إدراك تجربة التعلم بين مجموعة الدراسة والمجموعة الضابطة. الاستنتاجات: يبدو أن تحديد الأهداف الشخصية والتخطيط للدراسة يؤدي إلى تحسن كبير في المشاركة المستمرة للتعلم، والتركيز على الأهداف الأكاديمية والأداء الأكاديمي. Abstract: Objective: The learning process for pharmacists must enable the skillful harnessing of metacognition, critical thinking, and effective application of specialized skills. This study assessed the impact of self-developed academic goals and study plans on pharmacy students' academic performance and perception of learning experience in a developing setting. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted at the College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, KSA, in a compulsory 4th year course (Pharmacy management. The study group was exposed to goal setting and study planning while the control group had only routine teaching and learning activities planned for the course. Academic performance was determined with quizzes, midterm, and final exams, and the percentage achievement for the course objectives. An end-of-course evaluation, with a pre-tested questionnaire, was used to assess the perception of learning experience. Results: The study group constituted 41.4% (29, while 58.6% (41 were in the control group, with a mean ± SD age of 22.9 (SD = 3.2 and 21.6 (SD = 6.1 years, respectively. The mean ± SD scores for quizzes (8.4 (SD = 2

  8. Edaravone injection reverses learning and memory deficits in a rat model of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Lu, Fen; Li, Wei; Qin, Lingzhi; Yao, Yong; Ge, Xuerong; Yu, Qingkai; Liang, Xinliang; Zhao, Dongmei; Li, Xiaohong; Zhang, Jiewen

    2017-01-01

    Edaravone is a novel free radical scavenger that exerts neuroprotective effects by inhibiting endothelial injury and by ameliorating neuronal damage in brain ischemia. Recently, it was reported that edaravone could alleviate the pathology and cognitive deficits of Alzheimer's disease patients. However, its relevance to vascular dementia (VaD) is not clear. In this study, we partially occluded the bilateral carotid arteries of rats surgically to induce chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), a well-known rat model of VaD. Water maze and step-down inhibitory test were used to evaluate the memory deficit. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total reactive oxygen species were measured to evaluate the oxidative stress level. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate the synaptic protein expression. It was found that treatment with edaravone for a 5-week period was able to reverse both spatial and fear-memory deficits in rats with CCH. Edaravone significantly reduced the level of oxidative stress in the brains of rats with CCH by increasing SOD activity and decreasing the content of MDA, LDH, and total reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, edaravone treatment also restored the levels of multiple synaptic proteins in the hippocampi of rats with CCH. Our data provide direct evidence supporting the neuroprotective effects of edaravone in VaD. We propose that the alleviation of oxidative stress and restoration of synaptic proteins play important roles in neuroprotection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Linking public health nursing competencies and service-learning in a global setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cynthia L

    2017-09-01

    Nurse educators in baccalaureate programs are charged with addressing student competence in public health nursing practice. These educators are also responsible for creating nursing student opportunities for civic engagement and development of critical thinking skills. The IOM report (2010) on the Future of Nursing emphasizes the nurse educator's role in promoting collaborative partnerships that incorporate interdisciplinary and intraprofessional efforts to promote health. The purpose of this article is to describe an innovative approach to address public health nursing competencies and to improve the health and well-being of indigenous populations in a global setting through promotion of collaboration and service- learning principles. As part of a hybrid elective course, baccalaureate nursing students from various nursing tracks participated in a 2 week immersion experience in Belize that included preimmersion preparation. These students were to collaborate among themselves and with Belizean communities to address identified health knowledge deficits and health-related needs for school-aged children and adult populations. Students successfully collaborated in order to meet health-related needs and to engage in health promotion activities in the Toledo district of Belize. They also gained practice in developing public health nursing competencies for entry-level nursing practice. Implementation of service-learning principles provided students with opportunities for civic engagement and self-reflection. Some challenges existed from the students', faculty, and global community's perspectives. Lack of culturally appropriate and country specific health education materials was difficult for students and the community. Faculty encountered challenges in communicating and collaborating with the Belizean partners. Commonalities exist between entry-level public health nursing competencies and service-learning principles. Using service-learning principles in the development of

  10. Detecting representative data and generating synthetic samples to improve learning accuracy with imbalanced data sets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der-Chiang Li

    Full Text Available It is difficult for learning models to achieve high classification performances with imbalanced data sets, because with imbalanced data sets, when one of the classes is much larger than the others, most machine learning and data mining classifiers are overly influenced by the larger classes and ignore the smaller ones. As a result, the classification algorithms often have poor learning performances due to slow convergence in the smaller classes. To balance such data sets, this paper presents a strategy that involves reducing the sizes of the majority data and generating synthetic samples for the minority data. In the reducing operation, we use the box-and-whisker plot approach to exclude outliers and the Mega-Trend-Diffusion method to find representative data from the majority data. To generate the synthetic samples, we propose a counterintuitive hypothesis to find the distributed shape of the minority data, and then produce samples according to this distribution. Four real datasets were used to examine the performance of the proposed approach. We used paired t-tests to compare the Accuracy, G-mean, and F-measure scores of the proposed data pre-processing (PPDP method merging in the D3C method (PPDP+D3C with those of the one-sided selection (OSS, the well-known SMOTEBoost (SB study, and the normal distribution-based oversampling (NDO approach, and the proposed data pre-processing (PPDP method. The results indicate that the classification performance of the proposed approach is better than that of above-mentioned methods.

  11. Report on accreditation learning sets in the West Midlands region of the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, G

    2000-12-01

    This article reports on the evaluation of the first year of a project, which utilized learning sets to support librarians undergoing the accreditation process, in the health libraries in the West Midlands region of the NHS. The West Midlands Health region is divided up into education consortia patches. Each group of patch librarians was allocated a local accreditation facilitator. The groups met regularly to discuss problems and progress relating to their library's accreditation. The results of the evaluation suggest that this is a valuable approach to use. The recommendations state that regular, frequent meetings are needed. Extra training and guidance would help the facilitators to be more effective in their role.

  12. Dissociable effects of 5-HT2C receptor antagonism and genetic inactivation on perseverance and learned non-reward in an egocentric spatial reversal task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon R O Nilsson

    Full Text Available Cognitive flexibility can be assessed in reversal learning tests, which are sensitive to modulation of 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR function. Successful performance in these tests depends on at least two dissociable cognitive mechanisms which may separately dissipate associations of previous positive and negative valence. The first is opposed by perseverance and the second by learned non-reward. The current experiments explored the effect of reducing function of the 5-HT2CR on the cognitive mechanisms underlying egocentric reversal learning in the mouse. Experiment 1 used the 5-HT2CR antagonist SB242084 (0.5 mg/kg in a between-groups serial design and Experiment 2 used 5-HT2CR KO mice in a repeated measures design. Animals initially learned to discriminate between two egocentric turning directions, only one of which was food rewarded (denoted CS+, CS-, in a T- or Y-maze configuration. This was followed by three conditions; (1 Full reversal, where contingencies reversed; (2 Perseverance, where the previous CS+ became CS- and the previous CS- was replaced by a novel CS+; (3 Learned non-reward, where the previous CS- became CS+ and the previous CS+ was replaced by a novel CS-. SB242084 reduced perseverance, observed as a decrease in trials and incorrect responses to criterion, but increased learned non-reward, observed as an increase in trials to criterion. In contrast, 5-HT2CR KO mice showed increased perseverance. 5-HT2CR KO mice also showed retarded egocentric discrimination learning. Neither manipulation of 5-HT2CR function affected performance in the full reversal test. These results are unlikely to be accounted for by increased novelty attraction, as SB242084 failed to affect performance in an unrewarded novelty task. In conclusion, acute 5-HT2CR antagonism and constitutive loss of the 5-HT2CR have opposing effects on perseverance in egocentric reversal learning in mice. It is likely that this difference reflects the broader impact of 5HT2CR loss

  13. A Review on the Use and Perceived Effects of Mobile Blogs on Learning in Higher Educational Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norman, Helmi; Din, Rosseni; Nordin, Norazah

    2014-01-01

    Mobile technology is affecting the way we learn and teach in higher education. An interesting mobile tool for supporting learning and instruction is by using mobile blogs or “moblogs”. This review focuses on existing studies implementing moblogs for learning purposes in higher educational settings...... for moblog usage were identified, namely: (i) moblogs were used for context-sensitive learning; (ii) for collaboration in groups; (iii) as a tool for interaction and communication for learning; (iv) as personal learning diaries; (v) to facilitate learning at students’ own time and pace; (vi) as a tool...... for feedback on instruction; and (vii) for reflections in learning. Meanwhile, three categories were discovered for perceived effects of moblogs, which are: (i) perceived affective effects in terms of satisfaction and attitude; (ii) perceived social effects on students; and (iii) negative perception of moblog...

  14. Developing Research Collaborations in an Academic Clinical Setting: Challenges and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahs, John A; Nicasio, Andel V; Storey, Joan E; Guarnaccia, Peter J; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    Research collaboration in "real world" practice settings may enhance the meaningfulness of the findings and reduce barriers to implementation of novel intervention strategies. This study describes an initiative to integrate research into a hospital-based outpatient psychiatric clinic within an academic medical center, focusing on collaborative processes across three research projects. We report on the varied outcomes of the projects and utilize data from two focus groups to identify the key elements that contributed to the challenges and successes. We identify barriers to practice-research collaborations that emerged even when the initial circumstances of the partnership were favorable. These barriers include the presence of varied agendas across clinicians and investigators, resource constraints, limited staff buy-in, and staff turnover. In highlighting the lessons learned in this collaborative process, we hope to facilitate successful partnerships in other clinical settings.

  15. Reversal of Trimethyltin-Induced Learning and Memory Deficits by 3,5-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yong Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antiamnesic effect of 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,5-diCQA as the main phenolic compound in Artemisia argyi H. extract on cognitive dysfunction induced by trimethyltin (TMT (7.1 μg/kg of body weight; intraperitoneal injection was investigated in order to assess its ameliorating function in mice. In several behavioral tests, namely, the Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze (MWM test, 3,5-diCQA significantly ameliorated learning and memory deficits. After the behavioral tests, brain tissues from the mice were analyzed to characterize the basis of the neuroprotective effect. Acetylcholine (ACh levels increased, whereas the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE decreased upon administration of 3,5-diCQA. In addition, 3,5-diCQA effectively protected against an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA content, an increase in the oxidized glutathione (GSH ratio, and a decline of total superoxide dismutase (SOD level. 3,5-diCQA may prevent neuronal apoptosis through the protection of mitochondrial activities and the repression of apoptotic signaling molecules such as p-Akt, BAX, and p-tau (Ser 404.

  16. PENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR PKN KELAS V MELALUI MODEL ACTIVE LEARNING (TIPE ROLE REVERSAL QUESTION SDN 4 DOPLANG KECAMATAN JATI KABUPATEN BLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambar Susilo Murti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Constitution No. 20 of 2003, concerning Citizenship Education (PKN is a compulsory subject for primary education, secondary, and compulsory subjects for higher education. The purpose of this study is to improve learning outcomes Civics using Active Learning Model Type Question Role Reversal in Class V SDN 4 Doplang Jati district of  Blora. This research was a class action (classroom action research. The stages as follows: (1 planning, (2 implementation, (3 observation and (4 reflection. The result of research indicating that students who received grades ≥70 the first cycle increased by 25%  from the initial 44% to 69%. Then students who scored ≥70 on the second cycle increased 28% to 97%. The average value of the first cycle increased by 8.75% from 66.53 into 75.28 early in the first cycle and then the second cycle of the average value increased again by 10.97% to 86.25. Researchers suggest teachers should encourage students to be more daring in expressing opinions, questions and ideas that are not held only in Civics alone but on other subjects. In addition, teachers are expected to use active learning model of the type of role reversal question in improving student learning outcomes in other subjects. As for the school is expected to provide training to teachers on implementing learning activities are innovative and creative. Keywords: active learning, civic education, learning outcomes.

  17. Interests-in-motion in an informal, media-rich learning setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ty Hollett

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Much of the literature related to connected learning approaches youth interests as fixed on specific disciplines or activities (e.g. STEM, music production, or game design. As such, mentors design youth-focused programs to serve those interests. Through a micro-ethnographic analysis of two youth’s Minecraft-centered gameplay in a public library, this article makes two primary contributions to research on learning within, and the design of, informal, media-rich settings. First, rather than approach youth interests as fixed on specific disciplines or activities (e.g. STEM, music production, or video games, this article traces youth interests as they spark and emerge among individuals and groups. Then, it follows those interests as they subsequently spread over time, becoming interests-in-motion. Second, recognition of these interests-in-motion can lead mentors to develop program designs that enable learners to work with artifacts (digital and physical that learners can progressively configure and re-configure over time. Mentors, then, design-in-time as they harness the energy surrounding those emergent interests, creating extending learning opportunities in response.

  18. Stereoscopy in Astronomical Visualizations to Support Learning at Informal Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Aaron; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2015-08-01

    Stereoscopy has been used in science education for 100 years. Recent innovations in low cost technology as well as trends in the entertainment industry have made stereoscopy popular among educators and audiences alike. However, experimental studies addressing whether stereoscopy actually impacts science learning are limited. Over the last decade, we have conducted a series of quasi-experimental and experimental studies on how children and adult visitors in science museums and planetariums learned about the structure and function of highly spatial scientific objects such as galaxies, supernova, etc. We present a synthesis of the results from these studies and implications for stereoscopic visualization development. The overall finding is that the impact of stereoscopy on perceptions of scientific objects is limited when presented as static imagery. However, when presented as full motion films, a significantly positive impact was detected. To conclude, we present a set of stereoscopic design principles that can help design astronomical stereoscopic films that support deep and effective learning. Our studies cover astronomical content such as the engineering of and imagery from the Mars rovers, artistic stereoscopic imagery of nebulae and a high-resolution stereoscopic film about how astronomers measure and model the structure of our galaxy.

  19. Learning Needs Analysis of Collaborative E-Classes in Semi-Formal Settings: The REVIT Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mavroudi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis, the first phase of the typical instructional design process, is often downplayed. This paper focuses on the analysis concerning a series of e-courses for collaborative adult education in semi-formal settings by reporting and generalizing results from the REVIT project. REVIT, an EU-funded research project, offered custom e-courses to learners in several remote European areas and received a ‘best practice’ distinction in social inclusion. These e-courses were designed and developed for the purpose of providing training in aspects of the learners’ professional domains related to the utilization of information and communication technologies. The main challenge was to prove that it is possible and economically feasible to provide meaningful training opportunities via distance education, by utilizing existing infrastructure (“revitalizing schools” and by making use of modern digital technology affordances coupled with suitable distance learning techniques and Web 2.0 tools. ADDIE, the generic instructional systems design model, enhanced with a rapid prototyping phase, was put forth in order to allow stakeholders to interact with a prototypical e-course, which served as an introductory lesson and as a reference point, since its evaluation informed the design choices of all subsequent e-courses. The learning needs approach adopted in REVIT combined learner analysis, context analysis, and needs analysis into a coherent analysis framework in which several methods (observation, estimation, document analysis, survey, and dialogue were exploited. Putting emphasis on the analysis phase and decoupling the design from the delivery of the e-courses facilitated adaptation and localization. Adaptation and localization issues concerning the adoption of the REVIT distance learning framework, taking into account the socio-cultural and pedagogical context, are discussed. A central result reported is that the analysis phase was crucial for the

  20. Finite Action-Set Learning Automata for Economic Dispatch Considering Electric Vehicles and Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junpeng Zhu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The coming interaction between a growing electrified vehicle fleet and the desired growth in renewable energy provides new insights into the economic dispatch (ED problem. This paper presents an economic dispatch model that considers electric vehicle charging, battery exchange stations, and wind farms. This ED model is a high-dimensional, non-linear, and stochastic problem and its solution requires powerful methods. A new finite action-set learning automata (FALA-based approach that has the ability to adapt to a stochastic environment is proposed. The feasibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated in a modified IEEE 30 bus system. It is compared with continuous action-set learning automata and particle swarm optimization-based approaches in terms of convergence characteristics, computational efficiency, and solution quality. Simulation results show that the proposed FALA-based approach was indeed capable of more efficiently obtaining the approximately optimal solution. In addition, by using an optimal dispatch schedule for the interaction between electric vehicle stations and power systems, it is possible to reduce the gap between demand and power generation at different times of the day.

  1. Evaluation of students' perceptions on game based learning program using fuzzy set conjoint analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofian, Siti Siryani; Rambely, Azmin Sham

    2017-04-01

    An effectiveness of a game based learning (GBL) can be determined from an application of fuzzy set conjoint analysis. The analysis was used due to the fuzziness in determining individual perceptions. This study involved a survey collected from 36 students aged 16 years old of SMK Mersing, Johor who participated in a Mathematics Discovery Camp organized by UKM research group called PRISMatik. The aim of this research was to determine the effectiveness of the module delivered to cultivate interest in mathematics subject in the form of game based learning through different values. There were 11 games conducted for the participants and students' perceptions based on the evaluation of six criteria were measured. A seven-point Likert scale method was used to collect students' preferences and perceptions. This scale represented seven linguistic terms to indicate their perceptions on each module of GBLs. Score of perceptions were transformed into degree of similarity using fuzzy set conjoint analysis. It was found that Geometric Analysis Recreation (GEAR) module was able to increase participant preference corresponded to the six attributes generated. The computations were also made for the other 10 games conducted during the camp. Results found that interest, passion and team work were the strongest values obtained from GBL activities in this camp as participants stated very strongly agreed that these attributes fulfilled their preferences in every module. This was an indicator of efficiency for the program. The evaluation using fuzzy conjoint analysis implicated the successfulness of a fuzzy approach to evaluate students' perceptions toward GBL.

  2. Lack of Pannexin 1 Alters Synaptic GluN2 Subunit Composition and Spatial Reversal Learning in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajardo, Ivana; Salazar, Claudia S; Lopez-Espíndola, Daniela; Estay, Carolina; Flores-Muñoz, Carolina; Elgueta, Claudio; Gonzalez-Jamett, Arlek M; Martínez, Agustín D; Muñoz, Pablo; Ardiles, Álvaro O

    2018-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are two forms of synaptic plasticity that have been considered as the cellular substrate of memory formation. Although LTP has received considerable more attention, recent evidences indicate that LTD plays also important roles in the acquisition and storage of novel information in the brain. Pannexin 1 (Panx1) is a membrane protein that forms non-selective channels which have been shown to modulate the induction of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Animals lacking Panx1 or blockade of Pannexin 1 channels precludes the induction of LTD and facilitates LTP. To evaluate if the absence of Panx1 also affects the acquisition of rapidly changing information we trained Panx1 knockout (KO) mice and wild type (WT) littermates in a visual and hidden version of the Morris water maze (MWM). We found that KO mice find the hidden platform similarly although slightly quicker than WT animals, nonetheless, when the hidden platform was located in the opposite quadrant (OQ) to the previous learned location, KO mice spent significantly more time in the previous quadrant than in the new location indicating that the absence of Panx1 affects the reversion of a previously acquired spatial memory. Consistently, we observed changes in the content of synaptic proteins critical to LTD, such as GluN2 subunits of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), which changed their contribution to synaptic plasticity in conditions of Panx1 ablation. Our findings give further support to the role of Panx1 channels on the modulation of synaptic plasticity induction, learning and memory processes.

  3. Lack of Pannexin 1 Alters Synaptic GluN2 Subunit Composition and Spatial Reversal Learning in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajardo, Ivana; Salazar, Claudia S.; Lopez-Espíndola, Daniela; Estay, Carolina; Flores-Muñoz, Carolina; Elgueta, Claudio; Gonzalez-Jamett, Arlek M.; Martínez, Agustín D.; Muñoz, Pablo; Ardiles, Álvaro O.

    2018-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are two forms of synaptic plasticity that have been considered as the cellular substrate of memory formation. Although LTP has received considerable more attention, recent evidences indicate that LTD plays also important roles in the acquisition and storage of novel information in the brain. Pannexin 1 (Panx1) is a membrane protein that forms non-selective channels which have been shown to modulate the induction of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Animals lacking Panx1 or blockade of Pannexin 1 channels precludes the induction of LTD and facilitates LTP. To evaluate if the absence of Panx1 also affects the acquisition of rapidly changing information we trained Panx1 knockout (KO) mice and wild type (WT) littermates in a visual and hidden version of the Morris water maze (MWM). We found that KO mice find the hidden platform similarly although slightly quicker than WT animals, nonetheless, when the hidden platform was located in the opposite quadrant (OQ) to the previous learned location, KO mice spent significantly more time in the previous quadrant than in the new location indicating that the absence of Panx1 affects the reversion of a previously acquired spatial memory. Consistently, we observed changes in the content of synaptic proteins critical to LTD, such as GluN2 subunits of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), which changed their contribution to synaptic plasticity in conditions of Panx1 ablation. Our findings give further support to the role of Panx1 channels on the modulation of synaptic plasticity induction, learning and memory processes. PMID:29692709

  4. Lack of Pannexin 1 Alters Synaptic GluN2 Subunit Composition and Spatial Reversal Learning in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Gajardo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD are two forms of synaptic plasticity that have been considered as the cellular substrate of memory formation. Although LTP has received considerable more attention, recent evidences indicate that LTD plays also important roles in the acquisition and storage of novel information in the brain. Pannexin 1 (Panx1 is a membrane protein that forms non-selective channels which have been shown to modulate the induction of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Animals lacking Panx1 or blockade of Pannexin 1 channels precludes the induction of LTD and facilitates LTP. To evaluate if the absence of Panx1 also affects the acquisition of rapidly changing information we trained Panx1 knockout (KO mice and wild type (WT littermates in a visual and hidden version of the Morris water maze (MWM. We found that KO mice find the hidden platform similarly although slightly quicker than WT animals, nonetheless, when the hidden platform was located in the opposite quadrant (OQ to the previous learned location, KO mice spent significantly more time in the previous quadrant than in the new location indicating that the absence of Panx1 affects the reversion of a previously acquired spatial memory. Consistently, we observed changes in the content of synaptic proteins critical to LTD, such as GluN2 subunits of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs, which changed their contribution to synaptic plasticity in conditions of Panx1 ablation. Our findings give further support to the role of Panx1 channels on the modulation of synaptic plasticity induction, learning and memory processes.

  5. "May We Please Have Sex Tonight?"--People with Learning Difficulties Pursuing Privacy in Residential Group Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollomotz, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Many residential group settings for people with learning difficulties do not provide individuals with the private space in which they can explore their sexual relationships in a safe and dignified manner. Lack of agreed private spaces seriously infringes the individual's human rights. Many people with learning difficulties who lack privacy have no…

  6. Ariadne's Thread: Using Social Presence Indices to Distinguish Learning Events in Face-to-Face and ICT-Rich Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Colin; Henderson, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Drawing on ancient Greek mythology, this article traces the learning experiences of 164 pre-service education students as they make the transition from a conventional face-to-face (f-2-f) learning environment to an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) rich setting. Influenced by Social Presence Theory (Short, Williams & Christie,…

  7. Beliefs about and Intention to Learn a Foreign Language in Face-to-Face and Online Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamami, Munassir

    2018-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigates language learners' intention to attend a class and learn a foreign language in face-to-face and online settings using Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB). The data were collected using interviews, questionnaires, and treatments with participants in two groups: a face-to-face language learning (FLL) group…

  8. Effect of Modifying Intervention Set Size with Acquisition Rate Data among Students Identified with a Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Katherine; Burns, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    The amount of information that students can successfully learn and recall at least 1 day later is called an acquisition rate (AR) and is unique to the individual student. The current study extended previous drill rehearsal research with word recognition by (a) using students identified with a learning disability in reading, (b) assessing set sizes…

  9. A Correlation Study among Achievement Motivation, Goal-Setting and L2 Learning Strategy in EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Lu, Qingsheng

    2018-01-01

    Achievement motivation as one of the most important parts in learning motivation indicates a concern with success in competition with some standard of excellence. Learners who are highly motivated to learn a language are likely to use a variety of strategies. Besides achievement motivation, goal setting, a very important cognitive mediator between…

  10. Learning strategy refinement reverses early sensory cortical map expansion but not behavior: Support for a theory of directed cortical substrates of learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Gabriel A; Bieszczad, Kasia M; Weinberger, Norman M

    2015-12-01

    Primary sensory cortical fields develop highly specific associative representational plasticity, notably enlarged area of representation of reinforced signal stimuli within their topographic maps. However, overtraining subjects after they have solved an instrumental task can reduce or eliminate the expansion while the successful behavior remains. As the development of this plasticity depends on the learning strategy used to solve a task, we asked whether the loss of expansion is due to the strategy used during overtraining. Adult male rats were trained in a three-tone auditory discrimination task to bar-press to the CS+ for water reward and refrain from doing so during the CS- tones and silent intertrial intervals; errors were punished by a flashing light and time-out penalty. Groups acquired this task to a criterion within seven training sessions by relying on a strategy that was "bar-press from tone-onset-to-error signal" ("TOTE"). Three groups then received different levels of overtraining: Group ST, none; Group RT, one week; Group OT, three weeks. Post-training mapping of their primary auditory fields (A1) showed that Groups ST and RT had developed significantly expanded representational areas, specifically restricted to the frequency band of the CS+ tone. In contrast, the A1 of Group OT was no different from naïve controls. Analysis of learning strategy revealed this group had shifted strategy to a refinement of TOTE in which they self-terminated bar-presses before making an error ("iTOTE"). Across all animals, the greater the use of iTOTE, the smaller was the representation of the CS+ in A1. Thus, the loss of cortical expansion is attributable to a shift or refinement in strategy. This reversal of expansion was considered in light of a novel theoretical framework (CONCERTO) highlighting four basic principles of brain function that resolve anomalous findings and explaining why even a minor change in strategy would involve concomitant shifts of involved brain

  11. LEARNING STRATEGY REFINEMENT REVERSES EARLY SENSORY CORTICAL MAP EXPANSION BUT NOT BEHAVIOR: SUPPORT FOR A THEORY OF DIRECTED CORTICAL SUBSTRATES OF LEARNING AND MEMORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Gabriel A.; Bieszczad, Kasia M.; Weinberger, Norman M.

    2015-01-01

    Primary sensory cortical fields develop highly specific associative representational plasticity, notably enlarged area of representation of reinforced signal stimuli within their topographic maps. However, overtraining subjects after they have solved an instrumental task can reduce or eliminate the expansion while the successful behavior remains. As the development of this plasticity depends on the learning strategy used to solve a task, we asked whether the loss of expansion is due to the strategy used during overtraining. Adult male rats were trained in a three-tone auditory discrimination task to bar-press to the CS+ for water reward and refrain from doing so during the CS− tones and silent intertrial intervals; errors were punished by a flashing light and time-out penalty. Groups acquired this task to a criterion within seven training sessions by relying on a strategy that was “bar-press from tone-onset-to-error signal” (“TOTE”). Three groups then received different levels of overtraining: Group ST, none; Group RT, one week; Group OT, three weeks. Post-training mapping of their primary auditory fields (A1) showed that Groups ST and RT had developed significantly expanded representational areas, specifically restricted to the frequency band of the CS+ tone. In contrast, the A1 of Group OT was no different from naïve controls. Analysis of learning strategy revealed this group had shifted strategy to a refinement of TOTE in which they self-terminated bar-presses before making an error (“iTOTE”). Across all animals, the greater the use of iTOTE, the smaller was the representation of the CS+ in A1. Thus, the loss of cortical expansion is attributable to a shift or refinement in strategy. This reversal of expansion was considered in light of a novel theoretical framework (CONCERTO) highlighting four basic principles of brain function that resolve anomalous findings and explaining why even a minor change in strategy would involve concomitant shifts of

  12. On-campus or online: examining self-regulation and cognitive transfer skills in different learning settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miri Barak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was set to identify self-regulation skills required for online learning and to characterize cognitive transfer of on-campus and online students. The study included two groups of undergraduate students who studied the same course, but in different settings: online and on-campus. Data collected via an online survey and semi-structured interviews indicated that cognitive strategies and regulation of cognition are significant for successful online learning. Findings also indicated that the online students were more aware of mastery learning and information processing strategies than the on-campus peers. The online students specified the importance of planning, controlling, and evaluation skills for meaningful learning; whereas the on-campus students asserted lack of self-discipline and limited communication skills as barriers for distance learning. Near- and far-transfer components were identified, showing a significant positive correlation with self-regulation skills for both groups of learners.

  13. Early Childhood Educators' Use of Natural Outdoor Settings as Learning Environments: An Exploratory Study of Beliefs, Practices, and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Julie

    2014-01-01

    In efforts to encourage use of natural outdoor settings as learning environments within early childhood education, survey research was conducted with 46 early childhood educators from northern Minnesota (United States) to explore their beliefs and practices regarding natural outdoor settings, as well investigate predictors of and barriers to the…

  14. Systemic impediments to the implementation of Project Based Learning in middle and high school settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouilly, Delphine

    This study examines the potential structural impediments to the reform movement of Project Based Learning (PBL) that are presented to teachers by the inherent nature of the school system, as well as the ways in which teachers address these systemic barriers when attempting to implement PBL in their classrooms. Much of the current research that is aimed at investigating the transition from traditional teacher-centered learning to student-centered PBL---whether PBL as problem based or project based learning---has focused on the transition issues at the level of individual teacher/student. Systemic barriers, on the other hand, are those features that are inherent to the structure of the system, and that pose---by their very nature---physical and/or political circumstances that are inconsistent with the student-centered and collaborative goals of PBL. It is not enough for teachers, parents, students, and administrators to be philosophically aligned with PBL, if the encompassing school system is structurally incompatible with the method. This study attempts to make the structural impediments to PBL explicit, to determine whether or not the existing school system is amenable to the successful implementation of PBL. Because the universal features of PBL coupled with the ubiquity of factory-model schools is likely to create recurring themes, it is plausible that this study may in fact be analytically generalizable to situations beyond those described by the populations and contexts in this set of purposive, multiple cases. One of the themes that emerged from this study was the role of rural poverty as an underlying cause of student apathy. More research may be needed to see whether science, as taught through PBL and in collaboration with practical arts courses, might be able to address some of the social, gendered, and educational needs of impoverished rural students and their families.

  15. Ethical violations in the clinical setting: the hidden curriculum learning experience of Pakistani nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafree, Sara Rizvi; Zakar, Rubeena; Fischer, Florian; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria

    2015-03-19

    The importance of the hidden curriculum is recognised as a practical training ground for the absorption of medical ethics by healthcare professionals. Pakistan's healthcare sector is hampered by the exclusion of ethics from medical and nursing education curricula and the absence of monitoring of ethical violations in the clinical setting. Nurses have significant knowledge of the hidden curriculum taught during clinical practice, due to long working hours in the clinic and front-line interaction with patients and other practitioners. The means of inquiry for this study was qualitative, with 20 interviews and four focus group discussions used to identify nurses' clinical experiences of ethical violations. Content analysis was used to discover sub-categories of ethical violations, as perceived by nurses, within four pre-defined categories of nursing codes of ethics: 1) professional guidelines and integrity, 2) patient informed consent, 3) patient rights, and 4) co-worker coordination for competency, learning and patient safety. Ten sub-categories of ethical violations were found: nursing students being used as adjunct staff, nurses having to face frequent violence in the hospital setting, patient reluctance to receive treatment from nurses, the near-absence of consent taken from patients for most non-surgical medical procedures, the absence of patient consent taking for receiving treatment from student nurses, the practice of patient discrimination on the basis of a patient's socio-demographic status, nurses withdrawing treatment out of fear for their safety, a non-learning culture and, finally, blame-shifting and non-reportage of errors. Immediate and urgent attention is required to reduce ethical violations in the healthcare sector in Pakistan through collaborative efforts by the government, the healthcare sector, and ethics regulatory bodies. Also, changes in socio-cultural values in hospital organisation, public awareness of how to conveniently report ethical

  16. Activity Settings and Daily Routines in Preschool Classrooms: Diverse Experiences in Early Learning Settings for Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Huang, Yiching; Hong, Sandra Soliday; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines activity settings and daily classroom routines experienced by 3- and 4-year-old low-income children in public center-based preschool programs, private center-based programs, and family child care homes. Two daily routine profiles were identified using a time-sampling coding procedure: a High Free-Choice pattern in which…

  17. Impact of problem-based learning in a large classroom setting: student perception and problem-solving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klegeris, Andis; Hurren, Heather

    2011-12-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) can be described as a learning environment where the problem drives the learning. This technique usually involves learning in small groups, which are supervised by tutors. It is becoming evident that PBL in a small-group setting has a robust positive effect on student learning and skills, including better problem-solving skills and an increase in overall motivation. However, very little research has been done on the educational benefits of PBL in a large classroom setting. Here, we describe a PBL approach (using tutorless groups) that was introduced as a supplement to standard didactic lectures in University of British Columbia Okanagan undergraduate biochemistry classes consisting of 45-85 students. PBL was chosen as an effective method to assist students in learning biochemical and physiological processes. By monitoring student attendance and using informal and formal surveys, we demonstrated that PBL has a significant positive impact on student motivation to attend and participate in the course work. Student responses indicated that PBL is superior to traditional lecture format with regard to the understanding of course content and retention of information. We also demonstrated that student problem-solving skills are significantly improved, but additional controlled studies are needed to determine how much PBL exercises contribute to this improvement. These preliminary data indicated several positive outcomes of using PBL in a large classroom setting, although further studies aimed at assessing student learning are needed to further justify implementation of this technique in courses delivered to large undergraduate classes.

  18. The Development Of Learning Sets And Research Methodology Module Using Problem Based Learning For Accounting Education Students

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Partono; Nurkhin, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Improving the learning process is very important for every lecturer by implement innovative learning methods or media. The purpose of this study is to develop a research methodology learning instruction and module based of problem based learning for accounting education students. This research applied research and development design in the research methodology course in Economics Education (Accounting) Department, Faculty Of Economics, Semarang State University. Data analysis was used to test...

  19. Heuristic Evaluation of E-Learning Courses: A Comparative Analysis of Two E-Learning Heuristic Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharias, Panagiotis; Koutsabasis, Panayiotis

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss heuristic evaluation as a method for evaluating e-learning courses and applications and more specifically to investigate the applicability and empirical use of two customized e-learning heuristic protocols. Design/methodology/approach: Two representative e-learning heuristic protocols were chosen…

  20. Advancing the skill set of SCM graduates – An active learning approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Kirstin; Dubois, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Drawing on a novel approach to active learning in supply chain management, the purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze how the students’ learning process as well as their learning outcomes are influenced by the learning and teaching contexts. Design/methodology/approach A case study

  1. Animals, Emperors, Senses: Exploring a Story-Based Learning Design in a Museum Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmann, Mai; Avraamidou, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative case study was to explore the use of stories as tools for learning within formal and informal learning environments. The design was based on three areas of interest: (a) the story as a tool for learning; (b) the student as subjects engaging with the story; and (c) the context in which the story learning activity takes…

  2. Advancing the skill set of SCM graduates – An active learning approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Kirstin; Dubois, Anna

    Purpose Drawing on a novel approach to active learning in supply chain management, the purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze how the students’ learning process as well as their learning outcomes are influenced by the learning and teaching contexts. Design/methodology/approach A case study

  3. Coaching and feedback: enhancing communication teaching and learning in veterinary practice settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Cindy L; Kurtz, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Communication is a critical clinical skill closely linked to clinical reasoning, medical problem solving, and significant outcomes of care such as accuracy, efficiency, supportiveness, adherence to treatment plans, and client and veterinarian satisfaction. More than 40 years of research on communication and communication education in human medicine and, more recently, in veterinary medicine provide a substantive rationale for formal communication teaching in veterinary education. As a result, veterinary schools are beginning to invest in communication training. However, if communication training is to result in development of veterinary communication skills to a professional level of competence, there must be follow-through with effective communication modeling and coaching in practice settings. The purpose of this article is to move the communication modeling and coaching done in the "real world" of clinical practice to the next level. The development of skills for communication coaching and feedback is demanding. We begin by comparing communication coaching with what is required for teaching other clinical skills in practice settings. Examining both, what it takes to teach others (whether DVM students or veterinarians in practice for several years) and what it takes to enhance one's own communication skills and capacities, we consider the why, what, and how of communication coaching. We describe the use of teaching instruments to structure this work and give particular attention to how to engage in feedback sessions, since these elements are so critical in communication teaching and learning. We consider the preconditions necessary to initiate and sustain communication skills training in practice, including the need for a safe and supportive environment within which to implement communication coaching and feedback. Finally we discuss the challenges and opportunities unique to coaching and to building and delivering communication skills training in practice

  4. Rough Sets as a Knowledge Discovery and Classification Tool for the Diagnosis of Students with Learning Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Chi Lin; Tung-Kuang Wu; Shian-Chang Huang; Ying-Ru Meng; Wen-Yau Liang

    2011-01-01

    Due to the implicit characteristics of learning disabilities (LDs), the diagnosis of students with learning disabilities has long been a difficult issue. Artificial intelligence techniques like artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) have been applied to the LD diagnosis problem with satisfactory outcomes. However, special education teachers or professionals tend to be skeptical to these kinds of black-box predictors. In this study, we adopt the rough set theory (RST)...

  5. Process and impact evaluation of the Romp & Chomp obesity prevention intervention in early childhood settings: lessons learned from implementation in preschools and long day care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva-Sanigorski, Andrea M; Bell, Andrew C; Kremer, Peter; Park, Janet; Demajo, Lisa; Smith, Michael; Sharp, Sharon; Nichols, Melanie; Carpenter, Lauren; Boak, Rachel; Swinburn, Boyd

    2012-06-01

    The Romp & Chomp controlled trial, which aimed to prevent obesity in preschool Australian children, was recently found to reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity and improve children's dietary patterns. The intervention focused on capacity building and policy implementation within various early childhood settings. This paper reports on the process and impact evaluation of this trial and the lessons learned from this complex community intervention. Process data was collected throughout and audits capturing nutrition and physical activity-related environments and practices were completed postintervention by directors of Long Day Care (LDC) centers (n = 10) and preschools (n = 41) in intervention and comparison (n = 161 LDC and n = 347 preschool) groups. The environmental audits demonstrated positive impacts in both settings on policy, nutrition, physical activity opportunities, and staff capacity and practices, although results varied across settings and were more substantial in the preschool settings. Important lessons were learned in relation to implementation of such community-based interventions, including the significant barriers to implementing health-promotion interventions in early childhood settings, lack of engagement of for-profit LDC centers in the evaluation, and an inability to attribute direct intervention impacts when the intervention components were delivered as part of a health-promotion package integrated with other programs. These results provide confidence that obesity prevention interventions in children's settings can be effective; however, significant efforts must be directed toward developing context-specific strategies that invest in policies, capacity building, staff support, and parent engagement. Recognition by funders and reviewers of the difficulties involved in implementing and evaluating such complex interventions is also critical to strengthening the evidence base on the effectiveness of such public health

  6. The Geomagnetic Field During a Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirtzler, James R.

    2003-01-01

    By modifying the IGRF it is possible to learn what may happen to the geomagnetic field during a geomagnetic reversal. If the entire IGRF reverses then the declination and inclination only reverse when the field strength is zero. If only the dipole component of the IGRF reverses a large geomagnetic field remains when the dipole component is zero and he direction of the field at the end of the reversal is not exactly reversed from the directions at the beginning of the reversal.

  7. Effects of subchronic phencyclidine (PCP treatment on social behaviors, and operant discrimination and reversal learning in C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan L Brigman

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Subchronic treatment with the psychotomimetic phencyclidine (PCP has been proposed as a rodent model of the negative and cognitive/executive symptoms of schizophrenia. There has, however, been a paucity of studies on this model in mice, despite the growing use of the mouse as a subject in genetic and molecular studies of schizophrenia. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of subchronic PCP treatment (5 mg/kg twice daily x 7 days, followed by 7 days withdrawal in C57BL/6J mice on 1 social behaviors using a sociability/social novelty-preference paradigm, and 2 pairwise visual discrimination and reversal learning using a touchscreen-based operant system. Results showed that mice subchronically treated with PCP made more visits to (but did not spend more time with a social stimulus relative to an inanimate one, and made more visits and spent more time investigating a novel social stimulus over a familiar one. Subchronic PCP treatment did not significantly affect behavior in either the discrimination or reversal learning tasks. These data encourage further analysis of the potential utility of mouse subchronic PCP treatment for modeling the social withdrawal component of schizophrenia. They also indicate that the treatment regimen employed was insufficient to impair our measures of discrimination and reversal learning in the C57BL/6J strain. Further work will be needed to identify alternative methods (e.g., repeated cycles of subchronic PCP treatment, use of different mouse strains that produce discrimination and/or reversal impairment, as well as other cognitive/executive measures that are sensitive to chronic PCP treatment in mice.

  8. Reverse Algols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, K. C.

    1989-01-01

    Reverse Algols, binary systems with a semidetached configuration in which the more massive component is in contact with the critical equipotential surface, are examined. Observational evidence for reverse Algols is presented and the parameters of seven reverse Algols are listed. The evolution of Algols and reverse Algols is discussed. It is suggested that, because reverse Algols represent the premass-reversal semidetached phase of close binary evolution, the evolutionary time scale between regular and reverse Algols is the ratio of the number of confirmed systems of these two Algol types.

  9. Blended Learning Tools in Geosciences: A New Set of Online Tools to Help Students Master Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, S.; Spohrer, J.; Natarajan, S.; Chin, M.

    2013-12-01

    In most geoscience courses, students are expected to develop specific skills. To master these skills, students need to practice them repeatedly. Unfortunately, few geosciences courses have enough class time to allow students sufficient in-class practice, nor enough instructor attention and time to provide fast feedback. To address this, we have developed an online tool called an Instant Feedback Practice (IFP). IFPs are low-risk, high-frequency exercises that allow students to practice skills repeatedly throughout a semester, both in class and at home. After class, students log onto a course management system (like Moodle or Blackboard), and click on that day's IFP exercise. The exercise might be visually identifying a set of minerals that they're practicing. After answering each question, the IFP tells them if they got it right or wrong. If they got it wrong, they try again until they get it right. There is no penalty - students receive the full score for finishing. The goal is low-stakes practice. By completing dozens of these practices throughout the semester, students have many, many opportunities to practice mineral identification with quick feedback. Students can also complete IFPs during class in groups and teams, with in-lab hand samples or specimens. IFPs can also be used to gauge student skill levels as the semester progresses, as they can be set up to provide the instructor feedback on specific skills or students. When IFPs were developed for and implemented in a majors-level mineralogy class, students reported that in-class and online IFPs were by far the most useful technique they used to master mineral hand sample identification. Final grades in the course were significantly higher than historical norms, supporting students' anecdotal assessment of the impact of IFPs on their learning.

  10. Setting up and functioning of an Emergency Medicine Department: Lessons learned from a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Asish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Tertiary care teaching hospitals remain referral centres for victims of trauma and mass casualty. Often specialists from various disciplines manage these crowded casualty areas. These age old casualty areas are being replaced, throughout the country by Emergency Medicine Departments (EMDs, presumed to be better planned to confront a crisis. We aimed to gather basic data contributive in setting up of an EMD at a tertiary care teaching hospital from the lessons learned from functioning existent systems. Methods: This is primarily a questionnaire-based descriptive study at tertiary care referral centres across the country, which was purposively selected.The study models included one from a hospital without designated EMD and the other four from hospitals with established EMDs. Direct observation and focus group meetings with experienced informants at these hospitals contributed to the data. In the absence of a validated hospital preparedness assessment scale, comparison was done with regard to quantitative, qualitative and corroborative parameters using descriptive analysis. Results: The EMDs at best practice models were headed by specialist in Emergency Medicine assisted by organised staff, had protocols for managing mass casualty incident (MCI, separate trauma teams, ergonomic use of infrastructure and public education programmes. In this regard, these hospitals seemed well organised to manage MCIs and disasters. Conclusion: The observation may provide a preliminary data useful in setting up an EMD. In the absence of published Indian literature, this may facilitate further research in this direction. Anaesthesiologists, presently an approved Faculty in Emergency Medicine training can provide creative input with regard to its initial organisation and functioning, thus widening our horizons in a country where there is a severe dearth of trained emergency physicians.

  11. Interprofessional learning, impression management, and spontaneity in the acute healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Elaine; McAllister, Sue; Ward, Paul R; Russell, Alison

    2016-09-01

    Spontaneous learning is integral to definitions of interprofessional learning (IPL) because it has been suggested that spontaneous learning can be deeply connected with the work that people do in collaboration with colleagues via their professional networks. However, its nature and the processes involved are not well understood. Goffman's theory of impression management offers a useful theoretical framework to consider the way in which interaction in the workplace connects to spontaneous learning. This article explores the current literature to investigate the usefulness of this framework to better understand and identify spontaneous learning in the workplace. Aspects such as the connections between spontaneous learning occurring in formal and informal work activities, the spaces in which it occurs, and the influence of professional networking are considered. It is proposed that research directed to developing a better understanding of the nature of spontaneous learning in IPL will assist in connecting this learning to formal IPL curricula, enhancing IPL and patient outcomes.

  12. Awake, long-term intranasal insulin treatment does not affect object memory, odor discrimination, or reversal learning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Genevieve A; Fadool, Debra Ann

    2017-05-15

    Intranasal insulin delivery is currently being used in clinical trials to test for improvement in human memory and cognition, and in particular, for lessening memory loss attributed to neurodegenerative diseases. Studies have reported the effects of short-term intranasal insulin treatment on various behaviors, but less have examined long-term effects. The olfactory bulb contains the highest density of insulin receptors in conjunction with the highest level of insulin transport within the brain. Previous research from our laboratory has demonstrated that acute insulin intranasal delivery (IND) enhanced both short- and long-term memory as well as increased two-odor discrimination in a two-choice paradigm. Herein, we investigated the behavioral and physiological effects of chronic insulin IND. Adult, male C57BL6/J mice were intranasally treated with 5μg/μl of insulin twice daily for 30 and 60days. Metabolic assessment indicated no change in body weight, caloric intake, or energy expenditure following chronic insulin IND, but an increase in the frequency of meal bouts selectively in the dark cycle. Unlike acute insulin IND, which has been shown to cause enhanced performance in odor habituation/dishabituation and two-odor discrimination tasks in mice, chronic insulin IND did not enhance olfactometry-based odorant discrimination or olfactory reversal learning. In an object memory recognition task, insulin IND-treated mice did not perform differently than controls, regardless of task duration. Biochemical analyses of the olfactory bulb revealed a modest 1.3 fold increase in IR kinase phosphorylation but no significant increase in Kv1.3 phosphorylation. Substrate phosphorylation of IR kinase downstream effectors (MAPK/ERK and Akt signaling) proved to be highly variable. These data indicate that chronic administration of insulin IND in mice fails to enhance olfactory ability, object memory recognition, or a majority of systems physiology metabolic factors - as reported to

  13. Reverse Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Kulikova, Olga

    2016-01-01

    This thesis was focused on the analysis of the concept of reverse logistics and actual reverse processes which are implemented in mining industry and finding solutions for the optimization of reverse logistics in this sphere. The objective of this paper was the assessment of the development of reverse logistics in mining industry on the example of potash production. The theoretical part was based on reverse logistics and mining waste related literature and provided foundations for further...

  14. The Effects of Reflective Activities on Skill Adaptation in a Work-Related Instrumental Learning Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    In work-related instrumental learning contexts, the role of reflective activities is unclear. Kolb's experiential learning theory and Mezirow's transformative learning theory predict skill adaptation as an outcome. This prediction was tested by manipulating reflective activities and assessing participants' response and error rates during novel…

  15. The Affordance of Speech Recognition Technology for EFL Learning in an Elementary School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Meei-Ling

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the use of speech recognition (SR) technology to support a group of elementary school children's learning of English as a foreign language (EFL). SR technology has been used in various language learning contexts. Its application to EFL teaching and learning is still relatively recent, but a solid understanding of its…

  16. Case-Based Reasoning in Mixed Paradigm Settings and with Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-30

    Learning Prototypical Cases OFF-BROADWAY, MCI and RMHC -* are three CBR-ML systems that learn case prototypes. We feel that methods that enable the...at Irvine Machine Learning Repository, including heart disease and breast cancer databases. OFF-BROADWAY, MCI and RMHC -* made the following notable

  17. An Analysis Of Personalized Learning Systems For Navy Training And Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    student engagement and learning outcomes in higher education. The survey showed that, although 70 percent of students do prefer a learning environment...believable pedagogical agents. These intelligent agents can enhance student engagement with learning material by creating rapport, inciting enthusiasm

  18. How Successful Learners Employ Learning Strategies in an EFL Setting in the Indonesian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyadi, Ag. Bambang; Sukirlan, Muhammad; Mahpul

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted to correlate the use of language learning strategies and language performance and the studies have contributed to different perspectives of teaching and learning a foreign language. Some studies have also revealed that the students learning a foreign language in Asian contexts have been proved to use different…

  19. The M-Learning Experience of Language Learners in Informal Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendurur, Emine; Efendioglu, Esra; Çaliskan, Neslihan Yondemir; Boldbaatar, Nomin; Kandin, Emine; Namazli, Sevinç

    2017-01-01

    This study is designed to understand the informal language learners' experiences of m-learning applications. The aim is two-folded: (i) to extract the reasons why m-learning applications are preferred and (ii) to explore the user experience of Duolingo m-learning application. We interviewed 18 voluntary Duolingo users. The findings suggest that…

  20. The effects of self-controlled video feedback on the learning of the basketball set shot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Adam Aiken

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Allowing learners to control some aspect of instructional support (e.g., augmented feedback appears to facilitate motor skill acquisition. No studies, however, have examined self-controlled (SC video feedback without the provision of additional attentional cueing. The purpose of this study was to extend previous SC research using video feedback about movement form for the basketball set shot without explicitly directing attention to specific aspects of the movement. The SC group requested video feedback of their performance following any trial during the acquisition phase. The yoked (YK group received feedback according to a schedule created by a SC counterpart. During acquisition participants were also allowed to view written instructional cues at any time. Results revealed that the SC group had significantly higher form scores during the transfer phase and utilized the instructional cues more frequently during acquisition. Post-training questionnaire responses indicated no preference for requesting or receiving feedback following good trials as reported by Chiviacowsky and Wulf (2002, 2005. The nature of the task was such that participants could have assigned both positive and negative evaluations to different aspects of the movement during the same trial. Thus, the lack of preferences along with the similarity in scores for feedback and no-feedback trials may simply have reflected this complexity. Importantly, however, the results indicated that SC video feedback conferred a learning benefit without the provision of explicit additional attentional cueing.

  1. Providing Simulated Online and Mobile Learning Experiences in a Prison Education Setting: Lessons Learned from the PLEIADES Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Helen; Murphy, Angela; Bedford, Tasman

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the preliminary findings, design criteria and lessons learned while developing and piloting an alternative to traditional print-based education delivery within a prison environment. PLEIADES (Portable Learning Environments for Incarcerated Distance Education Students), was designed to provide incarcerated students with…

  2. Improving reading and writing learning in underprivileged pluri-ethnic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armand, Françoise; Lefrançois, Pascale; Baron, Agnès; Gomez, Maria-Cécilia; Nuckle, Sylvie

    2004-09-01

    benefited from language skills development activities, also progressed in that they obtained significantly better results than the control group in the word recognition task. Moreover, at the end of grade one, there was no difference in the scores obtained by the groups on a comprehension questionnaire administered after the reading of the narrative text. The word reading skills of first-grade children in underprivileged pluriethnic settings can be improved through activities aimed at metaphonological abilities development or language skills development by means of active story listening and production. On the other hand, in order to develop word spelling abilities, the development of metaphonological abilities was more effective. Lastly, further research should seek to improve understanding of the absence of effects of either learning programme on narrative text comprehension.

  3. In the Context of Multiple Intelligences Theory, Intelligent Data Analysis of Learning Styles Was Based on Rough Set Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narli, Serkan; Ozgen, Kemal; Alkan, Huseyin

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to identify the relationship between individuals' multiple intelligence areas and their learning styles with mathematical clarity using the concept of rough sets which is used in areas such as artificial intelligence, data reduction, discovery of dependencies, prediction of data significance, and generating decision…

  4. Being the Bridge: The Lived Experience of Educating with Online Courseware in the High School Blended Learning Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo, Anna Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation explores the lived experiences of educators who teach in flex model blended learning settings using online, vendor-provided courseware. The tradition of hermeneutic phenomenology grounds this inquiry (Heidegger, 1927/2008). Phenomenological research activities designed by van Manen (1990, 2002) provide the methodological…

  5. Impact of Vicarious Learning Experiences and Goal Setting on Preservice Teachers' Self-Efficacy for Technology Integration: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    This pilot study was designed to explore how vicarious learning experiences and goal setting influence preservice teachers' self-efficacy for integrating technology into the classroom. Twenty undergraduate students who were enrolled in an introductory educational technology course at a large midwestern university participated and were assigned…

  6. Multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction combined with on-chip electrophoresis as a rapid screening tool for candidate gene sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittig, Rainer; Salowsky, Rüdiger; Blaich, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    Combining multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) with microfluidic amplicon analysis, we developed an assay for the rapid and reliable semiquantitative expression screening of 11 candidate genes for drug resistance in human malignant melanoma. The functionality of thi...

  7. Comparison of the efficacy of two anticonvulsants, phenytoin and valproate to improve PCP and d-amphetamine induced deficits in a reversal learning task in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagi F Idris

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in our laboratory have shown that PCP (phencyclidine and d-amphetamine induce a cognitive deficit in rats, in a paradigm of potential relevance for the pathology of schizophrenia. Atypical, but not classical antipsychotics and the anticonvulsant, lamotrigine have been shown to prevent a selective reversal learning deficit induced by PCP. In contrast, only haloperidol reversed the d-amphetamine-induced deficit. The present study aimed to explore the ability of two anticonvulsants with differing mechanism of action, valproate and phenytoin to attenuate the cognitive deficits induced by PCP and d-amphetamine in the reversal learning paradigm. PCP at 1.5mg/kg and d-amphetamine at 0.5mg/kg both produced a selective and significant reduction in performance of the reversal phase with no effect on the initial phase of the task in female-hooded Lister rats. Valproate (25-200mg/kg and phenytoin (25-50mg/kg had no effect on performance when administered alone. Valproate (100-200mg/kg, whose principle action is thought to be the enhancement of GABA transmission, was unable to prevent the cognitive deficit induced by either PCP or d-amphetamine. Conversely, phenytoin (50mg/kg, a use-dependent sodium channel inhibitor, significantly prevented the deficit induced by PCP, but not d-amphetamine. These results add to our earlier work with lamotrigine, and suggest that sodium channel blockade may be a mechanism by which some anticonvulsant drugs can prevent the PCP-induced deficit. These data have implications for the use of anticonvulsant drugs in the treatment of cognitive or psychotic disorders.

  8. Learning of pitch and time structures in an artificial grammar setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Jon B; Stevens, Catherine J; Jones, Mari Riess; Tillmann, Barbara

    2018-04-12

    Despite the empirical evidence for the power of the cognitive capacity of implicit learning of structures and regularities in several modalities and materials, it remains controversial whether implicit learning extends to the learning of temporal structures and regularities. We investigated whether (a) an artificial grammar can be learned equally well when expressed in duration sequences as when expressed in pitch sequences, (b) learning of the artificial grammar in either duration or pitch (as the primary dimension) sequences can be influenced by the properties of the secondary dimension (invariant vs. randomized), and (c) learning can be boosted when the artificial grammar is expressed in both pitch and duration. After an exposure phase with grammatical sequences, learning in a subsequent test phase was assessed in a grammaticality judgment task. Participants in both the pitch and duration conditions showed incidental (not fully implicit) learning of the artificial grammar when the secondary dimension was invariant, but randomizing the pitch sequence prevented learning of the artificial grammar in duration sequences. Expressing the artificial grammar in both pitch and duration resulted in disproportionately better performance, suggesting an interaction between the learning of pitch and temporal structure. The findings are relevant to research investigating the learning of temporal structures and the learning of structures presented simultaneously in 2 dimensions (e.g., space and time, space and objects). By investigating learning, the findings provide further insight into the potential specificity of pitch and time processing, and their integrated versus independent processing, as previously debated in music cognition research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. The issues of goal setting, interest, and reward in self-regulated learning

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki, Makiko; 岡崎, 万紀子

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) is the theory developed in the field of educational psychology. SRL is based on the idea that behaviours are regulated by the self-concept. This self-concept is the basis of the social cognitive theory which does not depend on students' innate motivation (intrinsic motivation) at the initial stage of learning. This study examines three motivation-related factors in the concept of SRL: goals, interest, and rewards followed by the suggestion of a students' learning...

  10. Reinforcement learning modulates the stability of cognitive control settings for object selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony William Sali

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive flexibility reflects both a trait that reliably differs between individuals and a state that can fluctuate moment-to-moment. Whether individuals can undergo persistent changes in cognitive flexibility as a result of reward learning is less understood. Here, we investigated whether reinforcing a periodic shift in an object selection strategy can make an individual more prone to switch strategies in a subsequent unrelated task. Participants completed two different choice tasks in which they selected one of four objects in an attempt to obtain a hidden reward on each trial. During a training phase, objects were defined by color. Participants received either consistent reward contingencies in which one color was more often rewarded, or contingencies in which the color that was more often rewarded changed periodically and without warning. Following the training phase, all participants completed a test phase in which reward contingencies were defined by spatial location and the location that was more often rewarded remained constant across the entire task. Those participants who received inconsistent contingencies during training continued to make more variable selections during the test phase in comparison to those who received the consistent training. Furthermore, a difference in the likelihood to switch selections on a trial-by-trial basis emerged between training groups: participants who received consistent contingencies during training were less likely to switch object selections following an unrewarded trial and more likely to repeat a selection following reward. Our findings provide evidence that the extent to which priority shifting is reinforced modulates the stability of cognitive control settings in a persistent manner, such that individuals become generally more or less prone to shifting priorities in the future.

  11. English language learners with learning disabilities interacting in a science class within an inclusion setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Vivian Luz

    In today's schools there are by far more students identified with learning disabilities (LD) than with any other disability. The U.S. Department of Education in the year 1997--98 reported that there are 38.13% students with LD in our nations' schools (Smith, Polloway, Patton, & Dowdy, 2001; U.S. Department of Education, 1999). Of those, 1,198,200 are considered ELLs with LD (Baca & Cervantes. 1998). These figures which represent an increase evidence the need to provide these students with educational experiences geared to address both their academic and language needs (Ortiz, 1997; Ortiz, & Garcia, 1995). English language learners with LD must be provided with experiences in the least restrictive environment (LRE) and must be able to share the same kind of social and academic experiences as those students from the general population (Etscheidt & Bartlett, 1999; Lloyd, Kameenui, & Chard, 1997) The purpose of this research was to conduct a detailed qualitative study on classroom interactions to enhance the understanding of the science curriculum in order to foster the understanding of content and facilitate the acquisition of English as a second language (Cummins, 2000; Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2000). This study was grounded on the theories of socioconstructivism, second language acquisition, comprehensible input, and classroom interactions. The participants of the study were fourth and fifth grade ELLS with LD in a science elementary school bilingual inclusive setting. Data was collected through observations, semi-structured interviews (students and teacher), video and audio taping, field notes, document analysis, and the Classroom Observation Schedule (COS). The transcriptions of the video and audio tapes were coded to highlight emergent patterns on the type of interactions and language used by the participants. The findings of the study intend to provide information for teachers of ELLs with LD about the implications of using classroom interactions point to

  12. Errorless learning for training individuals with schizophrenia at a community mental health setting providing work experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Robert S; Liberman, Robert P; Becker, Deborah R; Drake, Robert E; Sugar, Catherine A; Green, Michael F

    2009-07-01

    The effects of errorless learning (EL) on work performance, tenure, and personal well-being were compared with conventional job training in a community mental health fellowship club offering 12-week time-limited work experience. Participants were 40 clinically stable schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder outpatients randomly assigned to EL vs conventional instruction (CI) at a thrift-type clothing store. EL participants received training on how to perform their assigned job tasks based on principles of EL, such as error reduction and automation of task performance. CI participants received training common to other community-based entry-level jobs that included verbal instruction, a visual demonstration, independent practice, and corrective feedback. Participants were scheduled to work 2 hours per week for 12 weeks. For both groups, job training occurred during the first 2 weeks at the worksite. Work performance (assessed using the Work Behavior Inventory, WBI) and personal well-being (self-esteem, job satisfaction, and work stress) were assessed at weeks 2, 4, and 12. Job tenure was defined as the number of weeks on the job or total number of hours worked prior to quitting or study end. The EL group performed better than the CI group on the Work Quality Scale from the WBI, and the group differences were relatively consistent over time. Results from the survival analyses of job tenure revealed a non-significant trend favoring EL. There were no group differences on self-esteem, job satisfaction, or work stress. The findings provide modest support for the extensions of EL to community settings for enhancing work performance.

  13. An integrative review of in-class activities that enable active learning in college science classroom settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, Leilani A.; Kreager, Bailey Zo

    2017-10-01

    Engaging students in active learning is linked to positive learning outcomes. This study aims to synthesise the peer-reviewed literature about 'active learning' in college science classroom settings. Using the methodology of an integrative literature review, 337 articles archived in the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) are examined. Four categories of in-class activities emerge: (i) individual non-polling activities, (ii) in-class polling activities, (iii) whole-class discussion or activities, and (iv) in-class group activities. Examining the collection of identified in-class activities through the lens of a theoretical framework informed by constructivism and social interdependence theory, we synthesise the reviewed literature to propose the active learning strategies (ALSs) model and the instructional decisions to enable active learning (IDEAL) theory. The ALS model characterises in-class activities in terms of the degrees to which they are designed to promote (i) peer interaction and (ii) social interdependence. The IDEAL theory includes the ALS model and provides a framework for conceptualising different levels of the general concept 'active learning' and how these levels connect to instructional decision-making about using in-class activities. The proposed ALS model and IDEAL theory can be utilised to inform instructional decision-making and future research about active learning in college science courses.

  14. How Emotional Intelligence and Language Learning Strategies Interact in an EFL Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shakarami

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Looking at learning procedure in general and language learning in particular, variations abound in learning processes and styles.  Along this journey, some learners travel/move ahead smoothly and some others are faced with challenges of different sorts.  Among the significant factors contributing to more effective and efficient language learning output, motivation, attitude, and personality traits play major roles. However, the role played by the intelligence seems to be critical in any language learning tasks and activities. Emotional Intelligence, which is believed to harmonize cognitive and emotional dispositions, seems to be indispensable to the interrelation between the learner’s Multiple Intelligence makeup and respective preferred learning strategies.   This can be used to develop materials and teaching tasks to become more or less compatible with the learners’ varying preferences and abilities, thereby promoting their achievements. The findings of the study pertaining to the interrelation of students’ Multiple Intelligence profile and their preferred Language Learning Strategies can be used to plan and categorize language learning and teaching tasks and materials in order to modify them more in accordance with the choice of the students. The educators might use the findings to choose from among various teaching materials to satisfy the needs of their learners with different illiteracies through conducting need analysis prior to choosing any learning and teaching content materials.

  15. A SEMI-AUTOMATIC RULE SET BUILDING METHOD FOR URBAN LAND COVER CLASSIFICATION BASED ON MACHINE LEARNING AND HUMAN KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Gu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Classification rule set is important for Land Cover classification, which refers to features and decision rules. The selection of features and decision are based on an iterative trial-and-error approach that is often utilized in GEOBIA, however, it is time-consuming and has a poor versatility. This study has put forward a rule set building method for Land cover classification based on human knowledge and machine learning. The use of machine learning is to build rule sets effectively which will overcome the iterative trial-and-error approach. The use of human knowledge is to solve the shortcomings of existing machine learning method on insufficient usage of prior knowledge, and improve the versatility of rule sets. A two-step workflow has been introduced, firstly, an initial rule is built based on Random Forest and CART decision tree. Secondly, the initial rule is analyzed and validated based on human knowledge, where we use statistical confidence interval to determine its threshold. The test site is located in Potsdam City. We utilised the TOP, DSM and ground truth data. The results show that the method could determine rule set for Land Cover classification semi-automatically, and there are static features for different land cover classes.

  16. Modelamento of osmosis system reverse set in motion by a photovoltaic generator; Modelamento de sistema de osmose reversa acionado por um gerador fotovoltaico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraidenraich, N.; Vilela, O. C.; Lima, G. A.

    2008-07-01

    A theoretical model to study the operational conditions of Reverse Osmosis systems (RO) is presented. The model is applied to simulate the behavior of a Photovoltaic-Powered Reverse Osmosis System (PV-RO) monitored with sensors for measuring water flow, salinity, pressure voltage and current of operation. the system is powered by a PV generator with peak power of 0.81 kW. The interface of the PV generator and the motor-pump is a frequency converter, programmed to maintain the array working at a fixed voltage, chosen within the region of the maximum power. Considering the relation given by the load curve (pressure vs. feed flow rate) the permeated flow rate was determined theoretically for a given membrane length. The deviation between calculated and experimental results is smaller than 14.5%. The model can be used to determine parameters important in the sizing of those systems. (Author)

  17. Study of Machine-Learning Classifier and Feature Set Selection for Intent Classification of Korean Tweets about Food Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeom, Ha-Neul

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies have proposed making use of the Twitter micro-blogging service to track various trends in online media and discussion. In this study, we specifically examine the use of Twitter to track discussions of food safety in the Korean language. Given the irregularity of keyword use in most tweets, we focus on optimistic machine-learning and feature set selection to classify collected tweets. We build the classifier model using Naive Bayes & Naive Bayes Multinomial, Support Vector Machine, and Decision Tree Algorithms, all of which show good performance. To select an optimum feature set, we construct a basic feature set as a standard for performance comparison, so that further test feature sets can be evaluated. Experiments show that precision and F-measure performance are best when using a Naive Bayes Multinomial classifier model with a test feature set defined by extracting Substantive, Predicate, Modifier, and Interjection parts of speech.

  18. Reverse Osmosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    many applications, one of which is desalination of seawater. The inaugural Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded in 1901 to van 't Hoff for his seminal work in this area. The present article explains the principle of osmosis and reverse osmosis. Osmosis and Reverse Osmosis. As the name suggests, reverse osmosis is the ...

  19. Using Mobile Learning in Free-Choice Educational Settings to Enhance Ecological Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Claudio; Eames, Chris

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the case for using mobile technologies to facilitate the integration of classroom and outside-of-classroom learning experiences designed to enhance the ecological literacy of primary school students and their parents. There is growing evidence supporting the transformative potential of mobile learning technologies and tools…

  20. The "Double-Bind of Dependency": Early Relationships in Men with Learning Disabilities in Secure Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Kelly; Wood, Harry; Beail, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Although the development of secure attachments has been shown to be more problematic for people with learning disabilities, there is a shortage of research into the attachment experience of people with learning disabilities who have broken the law. The present study used thematic analysis to explore the attachment experiences of 10 men with…

  1. Women's Leadership Development in Sport Settings: Factors Influencing the Transformational Learning Experience of Female Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megheirkouni, Majd; Roomi, Muhammad Azam

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores the positive and negative factors influencing transformational learning experiences of female leaders in women's leadership development programmes in sports and examines the differences in learning/change factors cited by those who successfully addressed them and those who failed. Design/methodology/approach: The study…

  2. Critical Thinking Assessment across Four Sustainability-Related Experiential Learning Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, William F.; Habron, Geoffrey B.; Johnson, Heather L.; Goralnik, Lissy

    2015-01-01

    Today's complex societal problems require both critical thinking and an engaged citizenry. Current practices in higher education, such as service learning, suggest that experiential learning can serve as a vehicle to encourage students to become engaged citizens. However, critical thinking is not necessarily a part of every experiential learning…

  3. Insider Research as Part of a Master's Programme: Opportunities Lost and Found within Action Learning Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Chloe; Lawless, Aileen; Eades, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    This account explores the role of action learning during and after an educational programme. We focus on the final stage of a master's programme and the insider research that is a key feature in many UK universities. Researching within one's own organization should lead to individual and organizational learning. However, there is relatively little…

  4. Foregrounding Knowledge in E-Learning Design: An Illustration in a Museum Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Lucila; Dong, Andy; Maton, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The nature of knowledge, and the various forms knowledge may take, is a neglected aspect of the development of e-learning environments. This paper uses Legitimation Code Theory (LCT) to conceptualise the organising principles of knowledge practices. As we will illustrate, when it comes to the design of e-learning, the organising principles of the…

  5. Identifying Instructional Strategies Used to Design Mobile Learning in a Corporate Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Butler, Uletta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative embedded multiple case study was to describe what instructional strategies corporate instructional designers were using to design mobile learning and to understand from their experiences which instructional strategies they believed enhance learning. Participants were five instructional designers who were actively…

  6. Defining a Set of Architectural Requirements for Service-Oriented Mobile Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Nemésio Freitas Duarte; Barbosa, Ellen Francine

    2014-01-01

    Even providing several benefits and facilities with regard to teaching and learning, mobile learning environments present problems and challenges that must be investigated, especially with respect to the definition and standardization of architectural aspects. Most of these environments are still built in isolation, with particular structures and…

  7. An Interactive Robotic Fish Exhibit for Designed Settings in Informal Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phamduy, Paul; Leou, Mary; Milne, Catherine; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Informal science learning aims to improve public understanding of STEM. Free-choice learners can be engaged in a wide range of experiences, ranging from watching entertaining educational videos to actively participating in hands-on projects. Efforts in informal science learning are often gauged by their ability to elicit interaction, to foster…

  8. Future goal setting, task motivation and learning of minority and non-minority students in Dutch schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriessen, Iris; Phalet, Karen; Lens, Willy

    2006-12-01

    Cross-cultural research on minority school achievement yields mixed findings on the motivational impact of future goal setting for students from disadvantaged minority groups. Relevant and recent motivational research, integrating Future Time Perspective Theory with Self-Determination Theory, has not yet been validated among minority students. To replicate across cultures the known motivational benefits of perceived instrumentality and internal regulation by distant future goals; to clarify when and how the future motivates minority students' educational performance. Participants in this study were 279 minority students (100 of Turkish and 179 of Moroccan origin) and 229 native Dutch students in Dutch secondary schools. Participants rated the importance of future goals, their perceptions of instrumentality, their task motivation and learning strategies. Dependent measures and their functional relations with future goal setting were simultaneously validated across minority and non-minority students, using structural equation modelling in multiple groups. As expected, Positive Perceived Instrumentality for the future increases task motivation and (indirectly) adaptive learning of both minority and non-minority students. But especially internally regulating future goals are strongly related to more task motivation and indirectly to more adaptive learning strategies. Our findings throw new light on the role of future goal setting in minority school careers: distant future goals enhance minority and non-minority students' motivation and learning, if students perceive positive instrumentality and if their schoolwork is internally regulated by future goals.

  9. Spatial reversal learning in chronically sensitized rats and in undrugged sensitized rats with dopamine D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hatalová, Hana; Radostová, Dominika; Pištíková, Adéla; Valeš, Karel; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, APR 11 (2014), s. 122 ISSN 1662-5153 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13386; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03627S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : flexibility * reversal * rats * quinpirol * obsessive-compulsive disorder Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.270, year: 2014

  10. Reversal of cognitive deficits by an ampakine (CX516) and sertindole in two animal models of schizophrenia--sub-chronic and early postnatal PCP treatment in attentional set-shifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Brian Villumsen; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Dias, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    RATIONALE: Therapies treating cognitive impairments in schizophrenia especially deficits in executive functioning are not available at present. OBJECTIVE: The current study evaluated the effect of ampakine CX516 in reversing deficits in executive functioning as represented in two animal models of...... that direct glutamatergic interventions could improve these, when assessed in the ID-ED attentional set-shifting task....... of schizophrenia and assessed by a rodent analog of the intradimensional-extradimensional (ID-ED) attentional set-shifting task. The second generation antipsychotic, sertindole, provided further validation of the schizophrenia-like disease models. METHODS: Animals were subjected to (a) sub-chronic or (b) early...

  11. The Semi-opened Infrastructure Model (SopIM): A Frame to Set Up an Organizational Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstein, Michel

    In this paper, we introduce the "Semi-opened Infrastructure Model (SopIM)" implemented to deploy Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge-based Systems within a large industrial company. This model illustrates what could be two of the operating elements of the Model for General Knowledge Management within the Enterprise (MGKME) that are essential to set up the organizational learning process that leads people to appropriate and use concepts, methods and tools of an innovative technology: the "Ad hoc Infrastructures" element, and the "Organizational Learning Processes" element.

  12. Learning orientation, motivation and self-efficacy as triggers for teachers to engage in a new teaching setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. DAVID

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The research question asked if is there a difference regarding learning orientation of the teachers, their motifs and their self-efficacy level between teachers that engage in a new teaching setting and those who don’t. 168 Romanian teachers were questioned using: Learning orientation, Selfefficacy, work motifs and personal motivation to engage in a new project.The results show, that leaning approach differs between teacher who choose to be part in a program that require to change from classic teaching methods to more dynamic, student centred methods. Motivation and self-efficacy did not differentiate between teachers.

  13. Lifelong disturbance of serotonin transporter functioning results in fear learning deficits : Reversal by blockade of CRF1 receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Elisabeth Y; Hendriksen, Hendrikus; Baas, Johanna M P; Millan, Mark J; Groenink, Lucianne

    2015-01-01

    The inability to associate aversive events with relevant cues (i.e. fear learning) may lead to maladaptive anxiety. To further study the role of the serotonin transporter (SERT) in fear learning, classical fear conditioning was studied in SERT knockout rats (SERT(-/-)) using fear potentiation of the

  14. When stage setting a success gets in the way of real learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Berger, Jesper Bull

    2016-01-01

    Learning is important to improvement. But how do you make sure that the right lessons are learned? In a case of Digital Post digitalization from Denmark the project of coercive e-government was presented as a success but when taking a closer look a very different story emerges. We present...... and discuss the case using project management theory and IT project success theory as a lens for understanding. Our conclusion being that you need to do a thorough and extensive analysis to elicit the real learning from a large and complex e-government project....

  15. Implementing Action Research and Professional Learning Communities in a Professional Development School Setting to Support Teacher Candidate Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Joyce

    2016-01-01

    The paper reviews teacher candidates' use of action research and the Professional Learning Community (PLC) concept to support their work in their pre-student teaching field experience. In this research study, teacher candidates are involved in a professional development school relationship that uses action research and PLCs to support candidate…

  16. Identifying College Students at Risk for Learning Disabilities: Evidence for Use of the Learning Difficulties Assessment in Postsecondary Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Steven T.; Roy, Soma; Medina, Steffanie

    2013-01-01

    This article describes research supporting the use of the Learning Difficulties Assessment (LDA), a normed and no-cost, web-based survey that assesses difficulties with reading, writing, spelling, mathematics, listening, concentration, memory, organizational skills, sense of control, and anxiety in college students. Previous research has supported…

  17. Interprofessional service-learning in a community setting: findings from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buff, Scotty M; Jenkins, Kelli; Kern, Donna; Worrall, Cathy; Howell, David; Martin, Kelley; Brown, Debora; White, Andrea; Blue, Amy

    2015-03-01

    Interprofessional education is becoming more popular in higher education and service-learning has been a successful method to facilitate experiences that foster teamwork between professions. This report shares the results from an interprofessional service-learning project (ISLP) targeting students across eight disciplines (physician assistant, medicine, pharmacy, dietetic internship, physical therapy, master in health administration, nursing and biomedical science). The project used an existing resource, the South Carolina Area Health Education Consortium (SC-AHEC), to coordinate student learning across multiple regions and an established health promotion program curriculum for student outreach content. Participating students (n = 149) were evaluated to determine how the activity affected student appreciation and knowledge of their own and other professions, their interaction with other professional students, and student teamwork skills. Students found the most value in learning with students from other professions as part of the activity with lesser value placed on students increasing their knowledge about their profession's role in interprofessional work.

  18. How do out-of-school activities support science learning in informal settings ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyllested, Trine

    2005-01-01

    An analysis of out-of -school learning in a naturecenter, in a secondary school and a public school.The teacher is a key-person in the use of out of school.......An analysis of out-of -school learning in a naturecenter, in a secondary school and a public school.The teacher is a key-person in the use of out of school....

  19. A case of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in the setting of post-partum preeclampsia with suppressed plasma aldosterone levels and plasma renin activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Negro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES is characterized by headache, altered mental status, visual loss, and seizures. PRES is associated with neuroradiological findings: white matter abnormalities, predominantly in the parieto-occipital regions of the brain. PRES has been described in association with hypertensive encephalopathy, eclampsia, renal failure, or following immunosuppressive or anticancer therapy. We report a case of PRES in a severe preeclampsia occurring in the late postpartum period, with suppressed plasma aldosterone levels and plasma renin activity. These laboratory abnormalities may be due to an apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome.

  20. Laboratory activities and physics learning at high school: an exploratory study in portuguese settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Saraiva-Neves

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present findings of an exploratory study, included in a wider investigation which intends to promote meaningful learning of physics concepts, based on experimental work and supported by metacognition tools. The aim of this research was to recognize promoting learning situations in Physics lab. Interviews and questionnaires were applied to teachers and students from four Lisbon high schools. Results show that lab work in physics has a low frequency and, generally, has a demonstration format. Both teachers and students recognize potentialities of lab work to promote learning. Learning is poor when students just observe and/or accomplish commands. Both teachers and students consider the relation theory/experimentation and students doing themselves as fundamental to achieve better learning. In addition to pointing out several problems concerning lab work, teachers envisage it in a very traditional way. So, innovative strategies and methodologies, such as computer use and open-ended problems, pointed by research in science investigation as promoting learning, are left aside.

  1. A fast-response production-inventory model for deteriorating seasonal products with learning in set-ups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibraheem Abdul

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The classical production-inventory model assumes that both demand and set-up costs are constant. However, in real manufacturing environment, managers usually embark on continuous improvement programmes that often lead to more effective use of tools and machineries and consequently reduction in set-up costs. In fact, constant emphasis on reduction of set-up costs is usually cited as one of the factors responsible for the efficiency of Japanese manufacturing methods. On the other hand, the demand for seasonal product is often characterized by a mixture of time-dependent patterns over the entire season. This paper investigates the effect of learning-based reduction in set-up costs on the optimal schedules and costs of a production-inventory system for deteriorating seasonal products. The demand pattern is a general three-phase ramp-type demand function that represents the various phases of demand commonly observed in many seasonal products in the market. A two-parameter Weibull-distribution function is used for the deterioration of items in order to make the model more generalized and realistic. The study further presents two different multi-period production strategies that can ensure a fast-response to customers’ demand and compare them with the usual single period strategy. The Numerical example and sensitivity analysis shows that learning-based reduction in set-up costs leads to higher production frequency and shorter production runs which are vital aspects of the just-in-time (JIT philosophy.

  2. A new intelligent classifier for breast cancer diagnosis based on a rough set and extreme learning machine: RS + ELM

    OpenAIRE

    KAYA, Yılmaz

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death among women all around the world. Therefore, true and early diagnosis of breast cancer is an important problem. The rough set (RS) and extreme learning machine (ELM) methods were used collectively in this study for the diagnosis of breast cancer. The unnecessary attributes were discarded from the dataset by means of the RS approach. The classification process by means of ELM was performed using the remaining attributes. The Wisconsin B...

  3. Using mobile technologies to give health students access to learning resources in the UK community setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Graham; Childs, Susan; Blenkinsopp, Elizabeth

    2005-12-01

    This article describes a project which explored the potential for mobile technologies to give health students in the community access to learning resources. The purpose included the need to identify possible barriers students could face in using mobile technologies. Another focus was to assess the students perceptions of the importance of being able to access learning resources in the community. This 1-year project used two main approaches for data collection. A review of the literature on mobile technologies in the health context was conducted. This was used in a systematic way to identify key issues and trends. The literature review was used to inform the design and production of a questionnaire. This was distributed to and completed by a group of community health students at Northumbria University, UK. The questionnaire was piloted and there was a 100% completion rate with 49 returned forms. The literature review indicated that most mobile technology applications were occurring in the US. At the time of the review the most prevalent mobile technologies were PDAs, laptops, WAP phones and portable radios with use being concentrated around doctors in the acute sector. A range of advantages and disadvantages to the technology were discovered. Mobile technologies were mainly being used for clinical rather than learning applications. The students showed a low level of awareness of the technology but placed great importance to accessing learning resources from the community. Significant development and changes are taking place in mobile technologies. Since the data collection for this work was completed in 2004 podcasting and videocasting have become significant in mobile learning for health professionals. Librarians will need to address the relevance and implications of m-learning for their practice. Care and consideration needs to be given on the time and resources librarians allocate for the necessary development work around mobile technologies. Collaboration and

  4. Exploring perceptions of a learning organization by RNs and relationship to EBP beliefs and implementation in the acute care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Nicolette

    2009-01-01

    Health care professionals are expected to provide patient care based on best evidence. The context of the acute care setting presents a challenging environment for registered nurses (RNs) to utilize research and implement best evidence in practice. No organizational infrastructure has been identified that offers acute care RNs the support needed for evidence-based practice (EBP). The value of "learning organizations" has long been understood by corporate leaders. Potentially, the dimensions of a "learning organization" may offer a supportive EBP infrastructure for acute care RNs. (1) What is the relationship of the characteristics of the learning organization to registered nurses' beliefs regarding EBP? (2) Is there an impact of EBP beliefs on RNs' implementation of EBP? A descriptive, survey design study was conducted. Three established questionnaires were distributed to 1,750 RNs employed within six acute care hospitals. There were 594 questionnaires returned for a response rate of 34%. RNs rated their organizations in the mid-range on the dimensions of learning organization. Perceptions of the learning organization were found to be significant, although relatively small, predictors explaining 6% of knowledge beliefs, 11% of value beliefs, and 14% of resource beliefs. EBP beliefs explained 23% of EBP implementation reported by RNs. The study results indicate relationships between RNs' reported perception of a learning organization and EBP beliefs, and between EBP beliefs and implementation. However, findings were mixed. Overall, nurses rated their organizations the lowest in the dimensions of "promote inquiry and dialogue" and "empower people toward a collective vision." Leaders have an opportunity to offer a more supportive infrastructure through improving their organization in these two areas. RN beliefs explained 23% of EBP implementation in this study with a residual 77% yet to be identified. Acute care hospitals were perceived mid-range on learning

  5. Learning Data Set Influence on Identification Accuracy of Gas Turbine Neural Network Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, A. V.; Makaryants, G. M.

    2018-01-01

    There are many gas turbine engine identification researches via dynamic neural network models. It should minimize errors between model and real object during identification process. Questions about training data set processing of neural networks are usually missed. This article presents a study about influence of data set type on gas turbine neural network model accuracy. The identification object is thermodynamic model of micro gas turbine engine. The thermodynamic model input signal is the fuel consumption and output signal is the engine rotor rotation frequency. Four types input signals was used for creating training and testing data sets of dynamic neural network models - step, fast, slow and mixed. Four dynamic neural networks were created based on these types of training data sets. Each neural network was tested via four types test data sets. In the result 16 transition processes from four neural networks and four test data sets from analogous solving results of thermodynamic model were compared. The errors comparison was made between all neural network errors in each test data set. In the comparison result it was shown error value ranges of each test data set. It is shown that error values ranges is small therefore the influence of data set types on identification accuracy is low.

  6. A comparison of the cooperative learning and traditional learning methods in theory classes on nursing students' communication skill with patients at clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghcheghi, Nayereh; Koohestani, Hamid Reza; Rezaei, Koresh

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of traditional learning and cooperative learning methods on nursing students' communication skill with patients. This was an experimental study in which 34 nursing students in their 2nd semester of program participated. They were divided randomly into two groups, a control group who were taught their medical/surgical nursing course by traditional learning method and an experimental group, who were taught the same material using cooperative learning method. Before and after the teaching intervention, the students' communication skills with patients at clinical settings were examined. The results showed that no significant difference between the two groups in students' communication skills scores before the teaching intervention, but did show a significant difference between the two groups in the interaction skills and problem follow up sub-scales scores after the teaching intervention. This study provides evidence that cooperative learning is an effective method for improving and increasing communication skills of nursing students especially in interactive skills and follow up the problems sub-scale, thereby it is recommended to increase nursing students' participation in arguments by applying active teaching methods which can provide the opportunity for increased communication skills. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Learning Physics Down a Slide: A Set of Experiments to Measure Reality Through Smartphone Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lander Martínez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, the use of smartphones among teenagers in their daily life has grown significantly. Despite the efforts to use tablets in learning processes, these teenagers are often prompted to switch off their personal devices before entering a classroom. Moreover, most mobile learning applications do not take advantage of the device sensors (e.g., touchscreen, accelerometer, or gyroscope. In order to overcome this situation, we have developed Serious Physics, a free mobile app that allows using smartphones as measuring tools to conduct experiments on Physics.

  8. Engineering Encounters: Reverse Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Veronica Cassone; Ventura, Marcia; Bell, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue shares information on how students' everyday experiences can support science learning through engineering design. In this article, the authors outline a reverse-engineering model of instruction and describe one example of how it looked in our fifth-grade…

  9. VITEX 2016 : Evaluation of learning objectives and exercise set-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijk, R. van; Stubbé-Alberts, H.E.

    2016-01-01

    To strengthen awareness of the need for cooperation, between public and private partners, and between countries, a new exercise set-up was developed. The VITEX exercise set-up is a table top exercise that aims to bring relevant networks together, and supports cooperation and collaboration between

  10. The Processes that Promote Learning in Adult Mentoring and Coaching Dyadic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This is a study of 10 adults participating in one-to-one mentoring and/or coaching. Participants were selected for interviewing through a purposive sampling process from leading international mentoring and coaching organizations. Selection criteria included (a) being an adult, (b) participating in a dyadic learning, and (c) regarding that…

  11. Simultaneous and Sequential Feature Negative Discriminations: Elemental Learning and Occasion Setting in Human Pavlovian Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeyens, Frank; Vervliet, Bram; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Beckers, Tom; Hermans, Dirk; Eelen, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Using a conditioned suppression task, we investigated simultaneous (XA-/A+) vs. sequential (X [right arrow] A-/A+) Feature Negative (FN) discrimination learning in humans. We expected the simultaneous discrimination to result in X (or alternatively the XA configuration) becoming an inhibitor acting directly on the US, and the sequential…

  12. Measuring Responsibility and Cooperation in Learning Teams in the University Setting: Validation of a Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-del-Barco, Benito; Mendo-Lázaro, Santiago; Felipe-Castaño, Elena; Fajardo-Bullón, Fernando; Iglesias-Gallego, Damián

    2018-01-01

    Cooperative learning are being used increasingly in the university classroom, in order to promote teamwork among students, improve performance and develop interpersonal competences. Responsibility and cooperation are two fundamental pillars of cooperative learning. Team members’ responsibility is a necessary condition for the team’s success in the assigned tasks. Students must be aware that they depend on each other and should make their maximum effort. On the other hand, in efficient groups, the members cooperate and pool their efforts to achieve the proposed goals. In this research, we propose to create a Questionnaire of Group Responsibility and Cooperation in Learning Teams (CRCG). Participants in this work were 375 students from the Faculty of Teacher Training of the University of Extremadura (Spain). The CRCG has very acceptable psychometric characteristics, good internal consistency, and temporal reliability. Moreover, structural equation analysis allowed us to verify that the latent variables in the two factors found are well defined and, therefore, their assessment is adequate. Besides, we found high significant correlations between the Learning Team Potency Questionnaire (CPEA) and the total score and the factors of the CRCG. This tool will evaluate cooperative skills and offer faculty information in order to prepare students for teamwork and conflict resolution. PMID:29593622

  13. Risk, unexpected uncertainty, and estimation uncertainty: Bayesian learning in unstable settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Payzan-LeNestour

    Full Text Available Recently, evidence has emerged that humans approach learning using Bayesian updating rather than (model-free reinforcement algorithms in a six-arm restless bandit problem. Here, we investigate what this implies for human appreciation of uncertainty. In our task, a Bayesian learner distinguishes three equally salient levels of uncertainty. First, the Bayesian perceives irreducible uncertainty or risk: even knowing the payoff probabilities of a given arm, the outcome remains uncertain. Second, there is (parameter estimation uncertainty or ambiguity: payoff probabilities are unknown and need to be estimated. Third, the outcome probabilities of the arms change: the sudden jumps are referred to as unexpected uncertainty. We document how the three levels of uncertainty evolved during the course of our experiment and how it affected the learning rate. We then zoom in on estimation uncertainty, which has been suggested to be a driving force in exploration, in spite of evidence of widespread aversion to ambiguity. Our data corroborate the latter. We discuss neural evidence that foreshadowed the ability of humans to distinguish between the three levels of uncertainty. Finally, we investigate the boundaries of human capacity to implement Bayesian learning. We repeat the experiment with different instructions, reflecting varying levels of structural uncertainty. Under this fourth notion of uncertainty, choices were no better explained by Bayesian updating than by (model-free reinforcement learning. Exit questionnaires revealed that participants remained unaware of the presence of unexpected uncertainty and failed to acquire the right model with which to implement Bayesian updating.

  14. Profiling Perceptual Learning Styles of Chinese as a Second Language Learners in University Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peijian Paul; Teng, Lin Sophie

    2017-12-01

    This study revisited Reid's (1987) perceptual learning style preference questionnaire (PLSPQ) in an attempt to answer whether the PLSPQ fits in the Chinese-as-a-second-language (CSL) context. If not, what are CSL learners' learning styles drawing on the PLSPQ? The PLSPQ was first re-examined through reliability analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with 224 CSL learners. The results showed that Reid's six-factor PLSPQ could not satisfactorily explain the CSL learners' learning styles. Exploratory factor analyses were, therefore, performed to explore the dimensionality of the PLSPQ in the CSL context. A four-factor PLSPQ was successfully constructed including auditory/visual, kinaesthetic/tactile, group, and individual styles. Such a measurement model was cross-validated through CFAs with 118 CSL learners. The study not only lends evidence to the literature that Reid's PLSPQ lacks construct validity, but also provides CSL teachers and learners with insightful and practical guidance concerning learning styles. Implications and limitations of the present study are discussed.

  15. A narrative approach to studying the diversification of inquiry learning across instructional settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, N.P.G.; van Joolingen, W.R.; Haverkamp-Hermans, Gerdi G.N.; Bogner, Franz X.; Kretschmer, Thomas; Stracke, Christian M.; Lameras, Petros; Chioccariello, Augusto; Doran, Rosa; Tiemann, Rüdiger; Kastrinogiannis, Timotheos; Maravic, Jasminka; Crotty, Yvonne; Kelly, Claire; Markaki, Vassiliki; Lazoudis, Angelos; Koivula, Jani; Polymatidis, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    In this study we used a narrative approach to investigate the function that digital, interactive tools can fulfill in inquiry teaching and learning. Such a narrative can be conceived of as 'talking through' a lesson in which a teacher supports inquiry with technology. By subsequently coding these

  16. An Assessment of Resource Availability for Problem Based Learning in a Ghanaian University Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okyere, Gabriel Asare; Tawiah, Richard; Lamptey, Richard Bruce; Oduro, William; Thompson, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the differences pertaining to the resources presently accessible for problem-based learning (PBL) among six colleges of Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) in Ghana. Design/methodology/approach: Data for the study are the cross-sectional type drawn from 1,020 students. Poisson…

  17. Skill Sets Required for Environmental Engineering and Where They Are Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kathaleen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge, skills, abilities and traits environmental engineers need. Two questions were asked: what skills are considered important, and where are they learned? Dreyfus and Dreyfus' novice-to-expert model, which describes a progressive, five-step process of skill development that occurs over time…

  18. Leaders Behaving Badly: Using Power to Generate Undiscussables in Action Learning Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Paul Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    "Undiscussables" are topics associated with threat or embarrassment that are avoided by groups, where that avoidance is also not discussed. Their deleterious effect on executive groups has been a point of discussion for several decades. More recently critical action learning (AL) has brought a welcome focus to power relations within AL…

  19. Using Goal Setting and Task Analysis to Enhance Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching has received sustained attention from teachers and researchers for over thirty years. It is a well-established pedagogy that includes the following characteristics: major focus on authentic and real-world tasks, choice of linguistic resources by learners, and a clearly defined non-linguistic outcome. This…

  20. Challenges and Opportunities for Learning Biology in Distance-Based Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallyburton, Chad L.; Lunsford, Eddie

    2013-01-01

    The history of learning biology through distance education is documented. A review of terminology and unique problems associated with biology instruction is presented. Using published research and their own teaching experience, the authors present recommendations and best practices for managing biology in distance-based formats. They offer ideas…

  1. Classroom Audio Distribution in the Postsecondary Setting: A Story of Universal Design for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flagg-Williams, Joan B.; Bokhorst-Heng, Wendy D.

    2016-01-01

    Classroom Audio Distribution Systems (CADS) consist of amplification technology that enhances the teacher's, or sometimes the student's, vocal signal above the background noise in a classroom. Much research has supported the benefits of CADS for student learning, but most of it has focused on elementary school classrooms. This study investigated…

  2. Measuring Responsibility and Cooperation in Learning Teams in the University Setting: Validation of a Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito León-del-Barco

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative learning are being used increasingly in the university classroom, in order to promote teamwork among students, improve performance and develop interpersonal competences. Responsibility and cooperation are two fundamental pillars of cooperative learning. Team members’ responsibility is a necessary condition for the team’s success in the assigned tasks. Students must be aware that they depend on each other and should make their maximum effort. On the other hand, in efficient groups, the members cooperate and pool their efforts to achieve the proposed goals. In this research, we propose to create a Questionnaire of Group Responsibility and Cooperation in Learning Teams (CRCG. Participants in this work were 375 students from the Faculty of Teacher Training of the University of Extremadura (Spain. The CRCG has very acceptable psychometric characteristics, good internal consistency, and temporal reliability. Moreover, structural equation analysis allowed us to verify that the latent variables in the two factors found are well defined and, therefore, their assessment is adequate. Besides, we found high significant correlations between the Learning Team Potency Questionnaire (CPEA and the total score and the factors of the CRCG. This tool will evaluate cooperative skills and offer faculty information in order to prepare students for teamwork and conflict resolution.

  3. An Investigation of Students' Acceptance of Moodle in a Blended Learning Setting Using Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeou, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Moodle and other web-based learning systems have become very popular in higher education. Their success will not be achieved if students fail to use such systems. The present study investigates university student's attitudes regarding the use of Moodle. Forty-seven students from a Moroccan university were involved in the study. The students…

  4. Measuring Responsibility and Cooperation in Learning Teams in the University Setting: Validation of a Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Del-Barco, Benito; Mendo-Lázaro, Santiago; Felipe-Castaño, Elena; Fajardo-Bullón, Fernando; Iglesias-Gallego, Damián

    2018-01-01

    Cooperative learning are being used increasingly in the university classroom, in order to promote teamwork among students, improve performance and develop interpersonal competences. Responsibility and cooperation are two fundamental pillars of cooperative learning. Team members' responsibility is a necessary condition for the team's success in the assigned tasks. Students must be aware that they depend on each other and should make their maximum effort. On the other hand, in efficient groups, the members cooperate and pool their efforts to achieve the proposed goals. In this research, we propose to create a Questionnaire of Group Responsibility and Cooperation in Learning Teams (CRCG) . Participants in this work were 375 students from the Faculty of Teacher Training of the University of Extremadura (Spain). The CRCG has very acceptable psychometric characteristics, good internal consistency, and temporal reliability. Moreover, structural equation analysis allowed us to verify that the latent variables in the two factors found are well defined and, therefore, their assessment is adequate. Besides, we found high significant correlations between the Learning Team Potency Questionnaire (CPEA) and the total score and the factors of the CRCG. This tool will evaluate cooperative skills and offer faculty information in order to prepare students for teamwork and conflict resolution.

  5. Explaining Helping Behavior in a Cooperative Learning Classroom Setting Using Attribution Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahles, Paula M.; Contento, Jann M.

    2006-01-01

    This recently completed study examined whether attribution theory can explain helping behavior in an interdependent classroom environment that utilized a cooperative-learning model. The study focused on student participants enrolled in 6 community college communication classes taught by the same instructor. Three levels of cooperative-learning…

  6. Tech-Assisted Language Learning Tasks in an EFL Setting: Use of Hand phone Recording Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shakarami

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Technology with its speedy great leaps forward has undeniable impact on every aspect of our life in the new millennium. It has supplied us with different affordances almost daily or more precisely in a matter of hours. Technology and Computer seems to be a break through as for their roles in the Twenty-First century educational system. Examples are numerous, among which CALL, CMC, and Virtual learning spaces come to mind instantly. Amongst the newly developed gadgets of today are the sophisticated smart Hand phones which are far more ahead of a communication tool once designed for. Development of Hand phone as a wide-spread multi-tasking gadget has urged researchers to investigate its effect on every aspect of learning process including language learning. This study attempts to explore the effects of using cell phone audio recording feature, by Iranian EFL learners, on the development of their speaking skills. Thirty-five sophomore students were enrolled in a pre-posttest designed study. Data on their English speaking experience using audio–recording features of their Hand phones were collected. At the end of the semester, the performance of both groups, treatment and control, were observed, evaluated, and analyzed; thereafter procured qualitatively at the next phase. The quantitative outcome lent support to integrating Hand phones as part of the language learning curriculum. Keywords:

  7. Creating Personal Meaning through Technology-Supported Science Inquiry Learning across Formal and Informal Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastopoulou, Stamatina; Sharples, Mike; Ainsworth, Shaaron; Crook, Charles; O'Malley, Claire; Wright, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach to engaging students in personal inquiry learning is described, whereby they carry out scientific investigations that are personally meaningful and relevant to their everyday lives. The learners are supported by software that guides the inquiry process, extending from the classroom into the school grounds, home, or…

  8. Science Learning for ALL Young Scientists: Exploring, Investigating, Learning, and Growing Together with Ramps and Pathways in Diverse Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counsell, Shelly L.; Wright, Brian L.

    2016-01-01

    Physical science activities provide multiple and varied opportunities for young children to actively observe, engage in, interact with, and interpret experiences in the physical world within diverse, inclusive settings. If all learners are to gain access to, fully participate in, and achieve maximum profit from early science opportunities,…

  9. A Fast Logdet Divergence Based Metric Learning Algorithm for Large Data Sets Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangyuan Mei

    2014-01-01

    the basis of classifiers, for example, the k-nearest neighbors classifier. Experiments on benchmark data sets demonstrate that the proposed algorithm compares favorably with the state-of-the-art methods.

  10. Fostering Reading Comprehension and Self-Directed Learning in a Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Mendieta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research project was carried out at five public educational institutions by a group of English teacher-researchers based in different regions of Colombia. Due to a shared concern about the development of reading skills and self-regulation in the L2 classroom, a multiple case action research study was designed to examine whether the use of Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR (Klingner, Vaughn & Schumm, 1998; Klingner & Vaughn, 1998 could foster reading comprehension in learners and at the same time help them become self-directed learners. Student pre and post questionnaires, reading tests and learning logs, as well as teacher's journals constituted the data collection methods used during the study. Results indicate that the use of CSR impacted participants' learning attitudes and habits positively.

  11. Melding Environmental Education and Creative Learning in Elementary and Middle-school Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S.; Baker, T.; Crofton-Macdonald, J.; Scott, M.

    2017-12-01

    Teaching environmental topics, such as sustainability and ecosystem management, to students through the lens of computational thinking provides unique educational opportunities. Environmental topics are an excellent source for multidisciplinary learning, as questions concerning human well-being, environmental policy, science, and mathematics can naturally be incorporated into educational discussions and activities. The use of computational modeling allows students to critically reason about and explore environmental concepts by envisioning complexity, and asking and investigating a series of "what if" questions. Students can furthermore reflect on their own relationship with their local ecology. For the past five years, we have tested and developed activities for middle school students. Through in-class activities, workshop, and summer clubs, we have explored these ideas. We plan to present examples from our work and a tentative framework for a new approach to environmental education, one reinforced by computational thinking and creative learning.

  12. The Development of Inclusive Learning Relationships\\ud in Mainstream Settings: A Multimodal Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Efthymiou, E.; Kington, Alison

    2017-01-01

    The debate regarding the inclusion of children with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities (SEND) in mainstream education in the UK partly revolves around what makes the classroom environment inclusive. Through the potential\\ud offered by the specific qualitative methodologies employed, this study aimed to explore the development of teachers’ pedagogical practices and learning relationships upon the inclusive education of children with special educational needs and disabilities in two pri...

  13. Mining Fashion Outfit Composition Using An End-to-End Deep Learning Approach on Set Data

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuncheng; Cao, LiangLiang; Zhu, Jiang; Luo, Jiebo

    2016-01-01

    Composing fashion outfits involves deep understanding of fashion standards while incorporating creativity for choosing multiple fashion items (e.g., Jewelry, Bag, Pants, Dress). In fashion websites, popular or high-quality fashion outfits are usually designed by fashion experts and followed by large audiences. In this paper, we propose a machine learning system to compose fashion outfits automatically. The core of the proposed automatic composition system is to score fashion outfit candidates...

  14. Decisional Procrastination in Academic Settings: The Role of Metacognitions and Learning Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    de Palo, Valeria; Monacis, Lucia; Miceli, Silvana; Sinatra, Maria; Di Nuovo, Santo

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, university students suffer from a broad range of problems, such as educational underachievement or the inability to control themselves, that lead to procrastination as a consequence. The present research aimed at analyzing the determinants of decisional procrastination among undergraduate students and at assessing a path model in which self regulated learning strategies mediated the relationship between metacognitive beliefs about procrastination and decisional procrastination. 273 ...

  15. Can learning in informal settings mitigate disadvantage and promote urban sustainability? School gardens in Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Maltese, Carley; Fisher, Dana R.; Ray, Rashawn

    2017-09-01

    This article explores how school gardens provide learning opportunities for school-aged children while concurrently helping cities achieve sustainability. The authors analyse this process in Washington, DC, a particularly innovative metropolis in the United States. This national capital city boasts two of the most progressive examples of legislation aimed at improving environmental awareness and inciting citizens to engage in environmental stewardship, both of which focus on school-aged children: (1) the Healthy Schools Act of 2010 and (2) the Sustainable DC Act of 2012. Together these policies focus on bringing healthy lifestyles and environmental awareness, including meaningful outdoor learning experiences, to students and families in the District of Columbia. This article is organised into three parts. The first part discusses how Washington, DC became a sustainable learning city through the implementation of these specific policies. The next part presents the results of a pilot study conducted in one kindergarten to Grade 5 (K-5) elementary school located in Ward 8, the poorest part of the city. The authors' analysis considers the support and the obstacles teachers and principals in the District of Columbia (DC) are experiencing in their efforts to integrate school gardens into the curriculum and the culture of their schools. Exploring the impacts of the school garden on the students, the local community, and the inter-generational relationships at and beyond schools, the authors aim to shed light on the benefits and the challenges. While Washington, DC is fostering its hope that the benefits prevail as it provides a model for other cities to follow, the authors also candidly present the challenges of implementing these policies. In the final part, they discuss the implications of their findings for school gardens and sustainable learning cities more broadly. They encourage further research to gain more insights into effective ways of promoting environmental

  16. Impact of ICTs on Open and Distance Learning in a Developing Country Setting: The Philippine experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda dela Pena Bandalaria

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the information and communication technologies (ICTs in open and distance learning (ODL in a developing country, the Philippines, is critically evaluated in this paper. Specifically, this paper examines how ICTs have influenced or shaped the development of ODL in this country. Also examined are the different stages or generations of distance education (DE in the Philippines, which are characterized mainly by the dominant technology used for the delivery of instructional content and student support services. The different ICTs being used in ODL and their specific applications to the various facets of this mode of delivery are also described. Also included is an examination on how quality of education is ensured in a technology-driven system of teaching and learning, which includes, among others, the employment of the ‘quality circle approach’ in the development of courses and learning packages, and the provision of appropriate technologies to perform academic processes and achieve institutional goals. Experiences of the various universities in the Philippines are also cited in this paper. Lessons have been drawn from the ODL experience to guide educators from other developing countries.

  17. Decisional Procrastination in Academic Settings: The Role of Metacognitions and Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria de Palo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, university students suffer from a broad range of problems, such as educational underachievement or the inability to control themselves, that lead to procrastination as a consequence. The present research aimed at analyzing the determinants of decisional procrastination among undergraduate students and at assessing a path model in which self regulated learning strategies mediated the relationship between metacognitive beliefs about procrastination and decisional procrastination. 273 students from Southern Italy filled out a questionnaire composed by: the socio-demographic section, the Metacognitive Beliefs About Procrastination Questionnaire, the procrastination subscale of the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire, and the Anxiety, the Time Management, and the Information Processing subscales of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory. Results showed that the relationship between negative and positive metacognitive beliefs about procrastination and decisional procrastination was mediated only by time management and anxiety. Such findings underlined the crucial role played by learning strategies in predicting the tendency to delay decisional situations and in mediating the relationship between metacognitive beliefs about procrastination and decisional procrastination.

  18. Decisional Procrastination in Academic Settings: The Role of Metacognitions and Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Palo, Valeria; Monacis, Lucia; Miceli, Silvana; Sinatra, Maria; Di Nuovo, Santo

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, university students suffer from a broad range of problems, such as educational underachievement or the inability to control themselves, that lead to procrastination as a consequence. The present research aimed at analyzing the determinants of decisional procrastination among undergraduate students and at assessing a path model in which self regulated learning strategies mediated the relationship between metacognitive beliefs about procrastination and decisional procrastination. 273 students from Southern Italy filled out a questionnaire composed by: the socio-demographic section, the Metacognitive Beliefs About Procrastination Questionnaire, the procrastination subscale of the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire, and the Anxiety, the Time Management, and the Information Processing subscales of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory. Results showed that the relationship between negative and positive metacognitive beliefs about procrastination and decisional procrastination was mediated only by time management and anxiety. Such findings underlined the crucial role played by learning strategies in predicting the tendency to delay decisional situations and in mediating the relationship between metacognitive beliefs about procrastination and decisional procrastination.

  19. Lessons learned from setting up the NOWESP research data base: Experiences in an interdisciplinary research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radach, Günther; Gekeler, Jens

    1996-09-01

    Research carried out within the framework of the MAST project NOWESP (North-West European Shelf Programme) was based on a multi-parameter data set of existing marine data, relevant for estimating trends, variability and fluxes on the Northwest European Shelf. The data sets were provided by the partners of the project. Additional data sets were obtained from several other institutions. During the project, the data were organized in the NOWESP Research Data Base (NRDB), for which a special data base scheme was defined that was capable of storing different types of marine data. Data products, like time series and interpolated fields, were provided to the partners for analysis (Radach et al. [1997]). After three years of project time, the feasibility of such an approach is discussed. Ways of optimizing data access and evaluation are proposed. A project-oriented Research Data Base is a useful tool because of its flexibility and proximity to the research being carried out. However, several requirements must be met to derive optimum benefits from this type of service unit. Since this task usually is carried out by a limited number of staff, an early start of project data management is recommended. To enable future projects to succeed in an analogous compilation of relevant data for their use, as performed in NOWESP, the task of organizing the data sets for any short-term project should be shared between a research data base group and a national or international data centre whose experience and software could be used. It must be ensured that only quality controlled data sets from the individual data-produ cing projects are delivered to the national data centres. It is recommended that data quality control should be performed by the originators and/or data centres before delivering any data sets to the research data base. Delivery of the (full) data sets should be checked and their quality should be approved by authorized data centres.

  20. Reciprocal Education Experiences In Two GK-12 Programs: Teachers Learning And Students Teaching In Diverse Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, M.; Williams, C.; Rodriguez, T.; Greely, T.; Pyrtle, A. J.; Rivera-Rentas, A. L.; Vilches, M.

    2004-12-01

    The National Science Foundation's Graduate Teaching Fellows in K-12 Education (GK-12) Program has enabled science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) graduate schools across the country to become more active in local area K-12 schools. An overview of a graduate student's experiences, insights gained and lessons learned as a Fellow in the 2003-2004 Universidad Metropolitana's (UMET) environmental science and the 2004-2005 University of South Florida's (USF) ocean science GK-12 Programs is presented. The major goals of the 2003-2004 UMET GK-12 Program were 1) to enrich environmental science teaching and learning via a thematic approach in eight local public schools and 2) to provide UMET graduate students with exposure to teaching methodologies and practical teaching experience. Utilizing examples from local environments in and nearby Carolina, Puerto Rico to teach key science principles at Escuela de la Comunidad Juana Rodriguez Mundo provided numerous opportunities to relate science topics to students' daily life experiences. By 2004, the UMET GK-12 Program had successfully engaged the entire student body (primarily comprised of bilingual minority kindergarten to sixth graders), teachers and school administrators in environment-focused teaching and learning activities. Examples of such activities include tree planting projects to minimize local erosion, conducting a science fair for the first time in many years, and numerous opportunities to experience what "real scientists do" while conducting environmental science investigations. During the 2004-2005 academic year, skills, insights and lessons learned as a UMET GK-12 Fellow are being further enhanced through participation in the USF GK-12 OCEANS Program. The overall objectives of the 2004-2005 USF GK-12 OCEANS assignment at Madeira Beach Elementary School in Saint Petersburg, Florida are to 1) engage students from various ethnic backgrounds and cultures in hands-on science activities, 2) enhance the

  1. Mining big data sets of plankton images: a zero-shot learning approach to retrieve labels without training data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orenstein, E. C.; Morgado, P. M.; Peacock, E.; Sosik, H. M.; Jaffe, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    Technological advances in instrumentation and computing have allowed oceanographers to develop imaging systems capable of collecting extremely large data sets. With the advent of in situ plankton imaging systems, scientists must now commonly deal with "big data" sets containing tens of millions of samples spanning hundreds of classes, making manual classification untenable. Automated annotation methods are now considered to be the bottleneck between collection and interpretation. Typically, such classifiers learn to approximate a function that predicts a predefined set of classes for which a considerable amount of labeled training data is available. The requirement that the training data span all the classes of concern is problematic for plankton imaging systems since they sample such diverse, rapidly changing populations. These data sets may contain relatively rare, sparsely distributed, taxa that will not have associated training data; a classifier trained on a limited set of classes will miss these samples. The computer vision community, leveraging advances in Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), has recently attempted to tackle such problems using "zero-shot" object categorization methods. Under a zero-shot framework, a classifier is trained to map samples onto a set of attributes rather than a class label. These attributes can include visual and non-visual information such as what an organism is made out of, where it is distributed globally, or how it reproduces. A second stage classifier is then used to extrapolate a class. In this work, we demonstrate a zero-shot classifier, implemented with a CNN, to retrieve out-of-training-set labels from images. This method is applied to data from two continuously imaging, moored instruments: the Scripps Plankton Camera System (SPCS) and the Imaging FlowCytobot (IFCB). Results from simulated deployment scenarios indicate zero-shot classifiers could be successful at recovering samples of rare taxa in image sets. This

  2. Negative mood reverses devaluation of goal-directed drug-seeking favouring an incentive learning account of drug dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Lee; He, Zhimin; Chase, Henry W; Wills, Andy J; Troisi, Joseph; Leventhal, Adam M; Mathew, Amanda R; Hitsman, Brian

    2015-09-01

    Two theories explain how negative mood primes smoking behaviour. The stimulus-response (S-R) account argues that in the negative mood state, smoking is experienced as more reinforcing, establishing a direct (automatic) association between the negative mood state and smoking behaviour. By contrast, the incentive learning account argues that in the negative mood state smoking is expected to be more reinforcing, which integrates with instrumental knowledge of the response required to produce that outcome. One differential prediction is that whereas the incentive learning account anticipates that negative mood induction could augment a novel tobacco-seeking response in an extinction test, the S-R account could not explain this effect because the extinction test prevents S-R learning by omitting experience of the reinforcer. To test this, overnight-deprived daily smokers (n = 44) acquired two instrumental responses for tobacco and chocolate points, respectively, before smoking to satiety. Half then received negative mood induction to raise the expected value of tobacco, opposing satiety, whilst the remainder received positive mood induction. Finally, a choice between tobacco and chocolate was measured in extinction to test whether negative mood could augment tobacco choice, opposing satiety, in the absence of direct experience of tobacco reinforcement. Negative mood induction not only abolished the devaluation of tobacco choice, but participants with a significant increase in negative mood increased their tobacco choice in extinction, despite satiety. These findings suggest that negative mood augments drug-seeking by raising the expected value of the drug through incentive learning, rather than through automatic S-R control.

  3. Negative mood reverses devaluation of goal-directed drug-seeking favouring an incentive learning account of drug dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Hogarth, L; Zhimin, H; Chase, HW; Wills, AJ; Troisi II, J; Leventhal, M; Mathew, AR; Hitsman, B

    2015-01-01

    Background Two theories explain how negative mood primes smoking behaviour. The stimulus?response (S-R) account argues that in the negative mood state, smoking is experienced as more reinforcing, establishing a direct (automatic) association between the negative mood state and smoking behaviour. By contrast, the incentive learning account argues that in the negative mood state smoking is expected to be more reinforcing, which integrates with instrumental knowledge of the response required to ...

  4. Traditional Versus Online Biology Courses: Connecting Course Design and Student Learning in an Online Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel, Rachel; Brame, Cynthia J

    2016-12-01

    Online courses are a large and growing part of the undergraduate education landscape, but many biology instructors are skeptical about the effectiveness of online instruction. We reviewed studies comparing the effectiveness of online and face-to-face (F2F) undergraduate biology courses. Five studies compared student performance in multiple course sections at community colleges, while eight were smaller scale and compared student performance in particular biology courses at a variety of types of institutions. Of the larger-scale studies, two found that students in F2F sections outperformed students in online sections, and three found no significant difference; it should be noted, however, that these studies reported little information about course design. Of the eight smaller scale studies, six found no significant difference in student performance between the F2F and online sections, while two found that the online sections outperformed the F2F sections. In alignment with general findings about online teaching and learning, these results suggest that well-designed online biology courses can be effective at promoting student learning. Three recommendations for effective online instruction in biology are given: the inclusion of an online orientation to acclimate students to the online classroom; student-instructor and student-student interactions facilitated through synchronous and asynchronous communication; and elements that prompt student reflection and self-assessment. We conclude that well-designed online biology courses can be as effective as their traditional counterparts, but that more research is needed to elucidate specific course elements and structures that can maximize online students' learning of key biology skills and concepts.

  5. Traditional Versus Online Biology Courses: Connecting Course Design and Student Learning in an Online Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Biel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Online courses are a large and growing part of the undergraduate education landscape, but many biology instructors are skeptical about the effectiveness of online instruction. We reviewed studies comparing the effectiveness of online and face-to-face (F2F undergraduate biology courses. Five studies compared student performance in multiple course sections at community colleges, while eight were smaller scale and compared student performance in particular biology courses at a variety of types of institutions. Of the larger-scale studies, two found that students in F2F sections outperformed students in online sections, and three found no significant difference; it should be noted, however, that these studies reported little information about course design. Of the eight smaller scale studies, six found no significant difference in student performance between the F2F and online sections, while two found that the online sections outperformed the F2F sections. In alignment with general findings about online teaching and learning, these results suggest that well-designed online biology courses can be effective at promoting student learning. Three recommendations for effective online instruction in biology are given: the inclusion of an online orientation to acclimate students to the online classroom; student-instructor and student-student interactions facilitated through synchronous and asynchronous communication; and elements that prompt student reflection and self-assessment. We conclude that well-designed online biology courses can be as effective as their traditional counterparts, but that more research is needed to elucidate specific course elements and structures that can maximize online students’ learning of key biology skills and concepts.

  6. Application of a repetitive process setting to design of monotonically convergent iterative learning control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boski, Marcin; Paszke, Wojciech

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with the problem of designing an iterative learning control algorithm for discrete linear systems using repetitive process stability theory. The resulting design produces a stabilizing output feedback controller in the time domain and a feedforward controller that guarantees monotonic convergence in the trial-to-trial domain. The results are also extended to limited frequency range design specification. New design procedure is introduced in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI) representations, which guarantee the prescribed performances of ILC scheme. A simulation example is given to illustrate the theoretical developments.

  7. Assessing the Effectiveness of Inquiry-based Learning Techniques Implemented in Large Classroom Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, D. N.; McConnell, D. A.; Owens, K.

    2001-12-01

    Geoscience and education faculty at The University of Akron jointly developed a series of inquiry-based learning modules aimed at both non-major and major student populations enrolled in introductory geology courses. These courses typically serve 2500 students per year in four to six classes of 40-160 students each per section. Twelve modules were developed that contained common topics and assessments appropriate to Earth Science, Environmental Geology and Physical Geology classes. All modules were designed to meet four primary learning objectives agreed upon by Department of Geology faculty. These major objectives include: 1) Improvement of student understanding of the scientific method; 2) Incorporation of problem solving strategies involving analysis, synthesis, and interpretation; 3) Development of the ability to distinguish between inferences, data and observations; and 4) Obtaining an understanding of basic processes that operate on Earth. Additional objectives that may be addressed by selected modules include: 1) The societal relevance of science; 2) Use and interpretation of quantitative data to better understand the Earth; 3) Development of the students' ability to communicate scientific results; 4) Distinguishing differences between science, religion and pseudo-science; 5) Evaluation of scientific information found in the mass media; and 6) Building interpersonal relationships through in-class group work. Student pre- and post-instruction progress was evaluated by administering a test of logical thinking, an attitude toward science survey, and formative evaluations. Scores from the logical thinking instrument were used to form balanced four-person working groups based on the students' incoming cognitive level. Groups were required to complete a series of activities and/or exercises that targeted different cognitive domains based upon Bloom's taxonomy (knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation of information). Daily

  8. A bilingual child learns social communication skills through video modeling-a single case study in a norwegian school setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Özerk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Video modeling is one of the recognized methods used in the training and teaching of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. The model’s theoretical base stems from Albert Bandura's (1977; 1986 social learning theory in which he asserts that children can learn many skills and behaviors observationally through modeling. One can assume that by observing others, a child with ASD can construct an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this mentally and visually constructed information will serve as a guide for his/her way of behaving. There are two types of methods for model learning: 1 In Vivo Modeling and 2 Video Modeling. These can be used a to teach children with ASD skills that are not yet in their behavioral repertoire and / or b to improve the children's emerging behaviors or skills. In the case of linguistic minority children at any stage of their bilingual development, it has been presumed that some of their behaviors that can be interpreted as attitude or culture-related actions. This approach, however, can sometimes delay referral, diagnosis, and intervention. In our project, we used Video Modeling and achieved positive results with regard to teaching social communication skills and target behavior to an eleven year-old bilingual boy with ASD. Our study also reveals that through Video Modeling, children with ASD can learn desirable behavioral skills as by-products. Video Modeling can also contribute positively to the social inclusion of bilingual children with ASD in school settings. In other words, bilingual children with ASD can transfer the social communication skills and targeted behaviors they learn through second-language at school to a first-language milieu.

  9. Promoting the health, safety and welfare of adults with learning disabilities in acute care settings: a structured literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Rattray, Janice; Jones, Martyn; Macgillivray, Stephen

    2013-06-01

    To present the findings of a structured literature review that aimed to identify the influences on the health, safety and welfare of adults with learning disabilities in acute hospitals. There is increasing evidence regarding the inadequacy of care for people with learning disabilities in acute care settings. However, few studies have specifically addressed their health, safety and welfare in such contexts. Four key electronic databases (Medline; PsycINFO; British Nursing Index and archive; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) were searched for relevant literature published between 2000 and 2011. Publications assessed as meeting the inclusion criteria were retrieved in full. Data were extracted regarding methods used; primary aims of the study being reported; and key findings. Of the 3505 papers identified in the initial search, eight met the inclusion criteria. Analysis revealed six areas of influence on the health, safety and welfare of adults with learning disabilities in acute hospitals: care provision (meeting health and personal needs); communication; staff attitudes; staff knowledge; supporters; and carers (valuing their role); physical environment. We represent these six areas diagrammatically, as concentric rings. These influence on health, safety and welfare form an inner (direct) layer and an outer (indirect) layer consisting of liaison services and education/training. This new conceptualisation of influences as being multi-layered assists in the identification of similarly multi-layered improvement strategies. Adults with learning disabilities can exert their own influence on health, safety and welfare and should be supported to make decisions about their own care. More broadly they should be involved with policy development, nurse education and research. This can be achieved through inclusive approaches, for example, inviting people with learning disabilities to input into nursing curricula or to engage in research as

  10. Mobile-IT Education (MIT.EDU): M-Learning Applications for Classroom Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, M.; Gips, J.; Eagle, N.; Madan, A.; Caneel, R.; DeVaul, R.; Bonsen, J.; Pentland, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the Mobile-IT Education (MIT.EDU) system, which demonstrates the potential of using a distributed mobile device architecture for rapid prototyping of wireless mobile multi-user applications for use in classroom settings. MIT.EDU is a stable, accessible system that combines inexpensive, commodity hardware, a flexible…

  11. Learning from the Experts: A Study of Free-Improvisation Pedagogues in University Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Maud

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in alternative forms of pedagogy for students in K-12 settings. Free improvisation, a relatively new and unfamiliar genre, offers potential as an ensemble for teachers to provide in order to offer more egalitarian and creative music experiences for their students. The purpose of this multiple case study was to determine…

  12. Augmenting Reality and Formality of Informal and Non-Formal Settings to Enhance Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sanagustin, Mar; Hernández-Leo, Davinia; Santos, Patricia; Kloos, Carlos Delgado; Blat, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Visits to museums and city tours have been part of higher and secondary education curriculum activities for many years. However these activities are typically considered "less formal" when compared to those carried out in the classroom, mainly because they take place in informal or non-formal settings. Augmented Reality (AR) technologies…

  13. How to set up an effective national primary angioplasty network: lessons learned from five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knot, Jiri; Widimsky, Petr; Wijns, William

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) are used to treat acute and chronic forms of coronary artery disease. While in chronic forms the main goal of PCI is to improve the quality of life, in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) timely PCI is a life-saving procedure - especially in the setting ...

  14. The Categorical Facilitation Effects on L2 Vocabulary Learning in a Classroom Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Yuko

    2010-01-01

    In the field of vocabulary acquisition, there have been many studies on the efficacy of word lists. However, very few of these were based on research in a classroom setting, and therefore, their results may not be applicable to standard classroom situations. This study investigated which of the five types of word lists (synonyms, antonyms,…

  15. Student Achievement Goal Setting: Using Data to Improve Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronge, James H.; Grant, Leslie W.

    2009-01-01

    The first book in the James H. Stronge Research-to-Practice series focuses on improving student achievement through academic goal setting. It offers the tools and plan of action to use performance data to improve instructional practice and increase student achievement. The book is divided into three parts: (1) How Student Achievement Data Can Be…

  16. Learning from Friends: Measuring Influence in a Dyadic Computer Instructional Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn; Hartl, Amy C.; Laursen, Brett; Denner, Jill; Werner, Linda; Campe, Shannon; Ortiz, Eloy

    2014-01-01

    Data collected from partners in a dyadic instructional setting are, by definition, not statistically independent. As a consequence, conventional parametric statistical analyses of change and influence carry considerable risk of bias. In this article, we illustrate a strategy to overcome this obstacle: the longitudinal actor-partner interdependence…

  17. Engineering students’ instrumental motivation and positive attitude towards learning English in a trilingual tertiary setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseba González Ardeo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory small-scale study focuses on the attitude towards learning English and levels of motivation of 132 engineering students from the University of the Basque Country (Spain. The extent to which they consider themselves competent in three languages (Basque/Spanish/English is also evaluated. For assessing these variables, a 35-item questionnaire is used. The participants were taking an ESP (English for Specific Purposes course and were familiar with English as a vehicular language through CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning and/or EMI (English Medium Instruction courses. The results demonstrate that their attitude is positive, and it has improved since 2003, despite certain historical events concerning the minority language (Basque. With regard to motivation, the students show a high level of instrumental orientation but a low level of extrinsic-integrative motivation. Relatively high levels of intrinsic motivation are also observed, not far from extrinsic-instrumental motivation levels. The students’ mother tongue (Basque vs. Spanish vs. Basque/Spanish does not affect results significantly. Finally, high levels of self-perceived confidence with respect to their command of English are observed.

  18. Peer mentoring supports the learning needs of nurses providing palliative care in a rural acute care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbetts, Lyn

    2017-06-02

    A specific set of assessment scales can underpin the management of distressing symptoms of patients requiring palliative care. A research assistant supported nurses working in a rural hospital setting during the introduction of these scales. A secondary analysis was conducted to further explore the qualitative data of a previously reported mixed-method study. In particular, the experiences of nurses working alongside a research assistant in the facilitation of using a new assessment form. Purposeful sampling was employed: participating nurses were invited to attend one of three focus group meetings. Data analysis revealed three main themes: a contact person, coach/mentor and extra help initiatives. Three to four subthemes corresponded with each main theme. Findings suggest nurses benefit from having someone to assist in learning about new documentation. Nurses respond positively to mentorship and practical guidance when integrating a new assessment form into routine evidence-based practice.

  19. Collaborative adaptations in social work intervention research in real-world settings: lessons learned from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank Wilson, Amy; Farkas, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Social work research has identified the crucial role that service practitioners play in the implementation of evidence-based practices. This has led some researchers to suggest that intervention research needs to incorporate collaborative adaptation strategies in the design and implementation of studies focused on adapting evidence-based practices to real-world practice settings. This article describes a collaborative approach to service adaptations that was used in an intervention study that integrated evidence-based mental health and correctional services in a jail reentry program for people with serious mental illness. This description includes a discussion of the nature of the collaboration engaged in this study, the implementation strategies that were used to support this collaboration, and the lessons that the research team has learned about engaging a collaborative approach to implementing interventions in research projects being conducted in real-world social service delivery settings.

  20. Pioglitazone improves reversal learning and exerts mixed cerebrovascular effects in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease with combined amyloid-β and cerebrovascular pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayiota Papadopoulos

    Full Text Available Animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD are invaluable in dissecting the pathogenic mechanisms and assessing the efficacy of potential new therapies. Here, we used the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist pioglitazone in an attempt to rescue the pathogenic phenotype in adult (12 months and aged (>18 months bitransgenic A/T mice that overexpress a mutated human amyloid precursor protein (APPSwe,Ind and a constitutively active form of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1. A/T mice recapitulate the AD-related cognitive deficits, amyloid beta (Aβ and cerebrovascular pathologies, as well as the altered metabolic and vascular coupling responses to increased neuronal activity. Pioglitazone normalized neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling responses to sensory stimulation, and reduced cortical astroglial and hippocampal microglial activation in both age groups. Spatial learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze were not rescued by pioglitazone, but reversal learning was improved in the adult cohort notwithstanding a progressing Aβ pathology. While pioglitazone preserved the constitutive nitric oxide synthesis in the vessel wall, it unexpectedly failed to restore cerebrovascular reactivity in A/T mice and even exacerbated the dilatory deficits. These data demonstrate pioglitazone's efficacy on selective AD hallmarks in a complex AD mouse model of comorbid amyloidosis and cerebrovascular pathology. They further suggest a potential benefit of pioglitazone in managing neuroinflammation, cerebral perfusion and glucose metabolism in AD patients devoid of cerebrovascular pathology.

  1. The Post-mating Switch in the Pheromone Response of Nasonia Females Is Mediated by Dopamine and Can Be Reversed by Appetitive Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lenschow

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory sense is of crucial importance for animals, but their response to chemical stimuli is plastic and depends on their physiological state and prior experience. In many insect species, mating status influences the response to sex pheromones, but the underlying neuromodulatory mechanisms are poorly understood. After mating, females of the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis are no longer attracted to the male sex pheromone. Here we show that this post-mating behavioral switch is mediated by dopamine (DA. Females fed a DA-receptor antagonist prior to mating maintained their attraction to the male pheromone after mating while virgin females injected with DA became unresponsive. However, the switch is reversible as mated females regained their pheromone preference after appetitive learning. Feeding mated N. vitripennis females with antagonists of either octopamine- (OA or DA-receptors prevented relearning of the pheromone preference suggesting that both receptors are involved in appetitive learning. Moreover, DA injection into mated females was sufficient to mimic the oviposition reward during odor conditioning with the male pheromone. Our data indicate that DA plays a key role in the plastic pheromone response of N. vitripennis females and reveal some striking parallels between insects and mammals in the neuromodulatory mechanisms underlying olfactory plasticity.

  2. Comparison of combinatorial clustering methods on pharmacological data sets represented by machine learning-selected real molecular descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Borroto, Oscar Miguel; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; García-de la Vega, José Manuel; Grau-Ábalo, Ricardo del Corazón

    2011-12-27

    Cluster algorithms play an important role in diversity related tasks of modern chemoinformatics, with the widest applications being in pharmaceutical industry drug discovery programs. The performance of these grouping strategies depends on various factors such as molecular representation, mathematical method, algorithmical technique, and statistical distribution of data. For this reason, introduction and comparison of new methods are necessary in order to find the model that best fits the problem at hand. Earlier comparative studies report on Ward's algorithm using fingerprints for molecular description as generally superior in this field. However, problems still remain, i.e., other types of numerical descriptions have been little exploited, current descriptors selection strategy is trial and error-driven, and no previous comparative studies considering a broader domain of the combinatorial methods in grouping chemoinformatic data sets have been conducted. In this work, a comparison between combinatorial methods is performed,with five of them being novel in cheminformatics. The experiments are carried out using eight data sets that are well established and validated in the medical chemistry literature. Each drug data set was represented by real molecular descriptors selected by machine learning techniques, which are consistent with the neighborhood principle. Statistical analysis of the results demonstrates that pharmacological activities of the eight data sets can be modeled with a few of families with 2D and 3D molecular descriptors, avoiding classification problems associated with the presence of nonrelevant features. Three out of five of the proposed cluster algorithms show superior performance over most classical algorithms and are similar (or slightly superior in the most optimistic sense) to Ward's algorithm. The usefulness of these algorithms is also assessed in a comparative experiment to potent QSAR and machine learning classifiers, where they perform

  3. Occasion setting, inhibition, and the contextual control of extinction in Pavlovian and instrumental (operant) learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Sydney; Thrailkill, Eric A; Bouton, Mark E

    2017-04-01

    An occasion setter is a stimulus that modulates the ability of another stimulus to control behavior. A rich history of experimental investigation has identified several important properties that define occasion setters and the conditions that give rise to occasion setting. In this paper, we first consider the basic hallmarks of occasion setting in Pavlovian conditioning. We then review research that has examined the mechanisms underlying the crucial role of context in Pavlovian and instrumental extinction. In Pavlovian extinction, evidence suggests that the extinction context can function as a negative occasion setter whose role is to disambiguate the current meaning of the conditioned stimulus; the conditioning context can also function as a positive occasion setter. In operant extinction, in contrast, the extinction context may directly inhibit the response, and the conditioning context can directly excite it. We outline and discuss the key results supporting these distinctions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Using Office Simulation Software in Teaching Computer Literacy Using Three Sets of Teaching/Learning Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Ali

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The most common course delivery model is based on teacher (knowledge provider - student (knowledge receiver relationship. The most visible symptom of this situation is over-reliance on textbook’s tutorials. This traditional model of delivery reduces teacher flexibility, causes lack of interest among students, and often makes classes boring. Especially this is visible when teaching Computer Literacy courses. Instead, authors of this paper suggest a new active model which is based on MS Office simulation. The proposed model was discussed within the framework of three activities: guided software simulation, instructor-led activities, and self-directed learning activities. The model proposed in the paper of active teaching based on software simulation was proven as more effective than traditional.

  5. Investing in organisational culture: nursing students' experience of organisational learning culture in aged care settings following a program of cultural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grealish, Laurie; Henderson, Amanda

    2016-10-01

    Concerns around organisational learning culture limit nursing student placements in aged care settings to first year experiences. Determine the impact of an extended staff capacity building program on students' experiences of the organisational learning culture in the aged care setting. Pre and post-test design. A convenience sample of first, second and third year Bachelor of Nursing students attending placements at three residential aged care facilities completed the Clinical Learning Organisational Culture Survey. Responses between the group that attended placement before the program (n = 17/44; RR 38%) and the group that attended following the program (n = 33/72; RR 45%) were compared. Improvements were noted in the areas of recognition, accomplishment, and influence, with decreases in dissatisfaction. Organisational investment in building staff capacity can produce a positive learning culture. The aged care sector offers a rich learning experience for students when staff capacity to support learning is developed.

  6. The effect of Problem/Project-Based Learning on a desired skill set for construction professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotiak, Todd L.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if a Problem/Project-Based Learning (PBL) approach can affect certain non-technical, "soft" skills of construction engineers. Such skills include leadership, adaptability, and stress management. In mixed design research, quantitative and qualitative data are assembled and analyzed collectively. For this study, two separate assessment tools were used for the quantitative portion, while open-ended written reflections and a partially closed-ended senior questionnaire were implemented for the qualitative portion. A hypothetical model was used to investigate certain soft skills based on prior research documenting need. Skills investigated were confidence, stress coping, leadership, communication skills, adaptability, and management skills. Descriptive statistics, open-ended final written reflections, and a partially closed-ended senior questionnaire were used to analyze the data. PBL is a process in which the students are challenged to develop realistic solutions on open, less structured, real world type problems. The results of this study performed with the combined count of nearly 60 students suggest that PBL can influence several soft skills of senior construction engineers. Specifically, these findings demonstrate the following: (a) PBL appears to affect students' soft skills; (b) students appear to recognize the realism and "real world" applicability that PBL brings to their skill development; and (c) the data suggest that the experience is holistic and offers opportunities for balanced growth in several ways. Some key competencies such as communication and leadership indicated significant enhancements. Although this study was limited to one academic year of the university's construction engineering program, it provides interesting insight to changes within the time period investigated. This study should be replicated in other construction engineering environments to investigate a larger population sample. In addition

  7. Implementing total quality management in an academic surgery setting: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townes, C; Petit, B; Young, B

    1995-01-01

    Total Quality Management, a philosophy developed by W. Edwards Deming, has been used successfully in many countries and in many types of organizations to improve the quality of processes. The system is based upon the scientific method and provides the ability to solve long-standing, recalcitrant problems. The application of the TQM philosophy to health care, although recommended by many medical economists, is still in its infancy. At our medical center, three departments (Surgery, Anesthesiology, and Operating Room Services) joined forces to implement TQM. Critical activities early in implementation included establishing a Steering Committee, training key employees, providing systems for communicating TQM activities, and developing the leadership, facilitator, and other resources needed to support teams. Two of our first teams studied very different processes (one in the Operating Room, the other in outpatient Surgery clinics), providing many useful insights regarding keys to successful application of the TQM philosophy. We have learned strategies for increasing acceptance of and participation in TQM efforts on the part of staff members and, in particular, physicians, and for initiating the cultural change needed for TQM. Although the teams have met with resistance to behavioral changes and a lack of full support from some upper-level administrators in the Medical Center and the Hospital, most of them have been quite successful in improving the processes under study. We conclude that, with the proper leadership and facilitation, the TQM philosophy can be successfully implemented in the health care environment. Total Quality Management (TQM) as a system for improving the quality of processes has been successful in many countries throughout the world for organizations offering a wide variety of products and services. This article will describe specific TQM endeavors, both successful and unsuccessful, undertaken in an academic surgery department in the United States

  8. Critical care in resource-poor settings: lessons learned and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riviello, Elisabeth D; Letchford, Stephen; Achieng, Loice; Newton, Mark W

    2011-04-01

    Critical care faces the same challenges as other aspects of healthcare in the developing world. However, critical care faces an additional challenge in that it has often been deemed too costly or complicated for resource-poor settings. This lack of prioritization is not justified. Hospital care for the sickest patients affects overall mortality, and public health interventions depend on community confidence in healthcare to ensure participation and adherence. Some of the most effective critical care interventions, including rapid fluid resuscitation, early antibiotics, and patient monitoring, are relatively inexpensive. Although cost-effectiveness studies on critical care in resource-poor settings have not been done, evidence from the surgical literature suggests that even resource-intensive interventions can be cost effective in comparison to immunizations and human immunodeficiency virus care. In the developing world, where many critically ill patients are younger and have fewer comorbidities, critical care presents a remarkable opportunity to provide significant incremental benefit, arguably much more so than in the developed world. Key areas of consideration in developing critical care in resource-poor settings include: Personnel and training, equipment and support services, ethics, and research. Strategies for training and retaining skilled labor include tying education to service commitment and developing protocols for even complex processes. Equipment and support services need to focus on technologies that are affordable and sustainable. Ethical decision making must be based on data when possible and on transparent articulated policies always. Research should be performed in resource-poor settings and focus on needs assessment, prognostication, and cost effectiveness. The development of critical care in resource-poor settings will rely on the stepwise introduction of service improvements, leveraging human resources through training, a focus on sustainable

  9. Successful language learning in a corporate setting: The role of attribution theory and its relation to intrinsic and extrinsic motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Kálmán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Attribution theory (Weiner, 1985 and self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985 have been explored as contributors to L2 motivation (cf. Dörnyei, 2001 but have never been studied quantitatively in concert. In addition, students’ attributions for success in learning a foreign language have never been measured through the use of a questionnaire. The aim of this paper is therefore (a to develop a questionnaire with reliable constructs that allows to measure adult learners’ attributions for their success in learning English in a corporate setting, (b to investigate these learners’ attributions, and (c to investigate the relationship between students’ attributions and the constructs of Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivation central to self-determination theory. Our main results show that among the attributions measured, interest, effort and corporate culture seemed to be the main causes that students recognised as directly involved in their success in learning English. Of all the attributional scales, interest and ability appeared to importantly contribute to intrinsic motivation, while corporate culture, encounters with foreign professionals and ability contributed to a lower extent to extrinsic motivation. It must be noted, however, that attributions for success to teacher and task were so consistently high that they could not be reliably measured with the questionnaire.

  10. Effects of novelty-reducing preparation on exploratory behavior and cognitive learning in a science museum setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Carole A.; Olstad, Roger G.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between (a) novelty and exploratory behavior, (b) novelty and cognitive learning, and (c) exploratory behavior and cognitive learning in science museums. Sixty-four sixth-grade public school students participated in a posttest-only control group design. The control group received a treatment designed to decrease the novelty of a field trip setting through a vicarious exposure while the placebo group received an informative but not novelty-reducing treatment. Both groups then visited the field site where they were videotaped. Statistical analyses were conducted on both dependent variables with socioeconomic status and academic achievement as covariates, novelty-reducing preparation as the independent variable, and gender as moderator variable. Exploratory behavior was shown to be positively correlated with cognitive learning. Significant differences were detected for exploratory behavior. For both dependent variables, gender by treatment group interaction was significant with novelty-reducing preparation shown to be highly effective on boys but having no effect on girls.

  11. Effects of hippocampal lesions on the monkey's ability to learn large sets of object-place associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Annabelle M; Harrington, Rebecca A; Malkova, Ludise; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2006-01-01

    Earlier studies found that recognition memory for object-place associations was impaired in patients with relatively selective hippocampal damage (Vargha-Khadem et al., Science 1997; 277:376-380), but was unaffected after selective hippocampal lesions in monkeys (Malkova and Mishkin, J Neurosci 2003; 23:1956-1965). A potentially important methodological difference between the two studies is that the patients were required to remember a set of 20 object-place associations for several minutes, whereas the monkeys had to remember only two such associations at a time, and only for a few seconds. To approximate more closely the task given to the patients, we trained monkeys on several successive sets of 10 object-place pairs each, with each set requiring learning across days. Despite the increased associative memory demands, monkeys given hippocampal lesions were unimpaired relative to their unoperated controls, suggesting that differences other than set size and memory duration underlie the different outcomes in the human and animal studies. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Rough Sets as a Knowledge Discovery and Classification Tool for the Diagnosis of Students with Learning Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chi Lin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the implicit characteristics of learning disabilities (LDs, the diagnosis of students with learning disabilities has long been a difficult issue. Artificial intelligence techniques like artificial neural network (ANN and support vector machine (SVM have been applied to the LD diagnosis problem with satisfactory outcomes. However, special education teachers or professionals tend to be skeptical to these kinds of black-box predictors. In this study, we adopt the rough set theory (RST, which can not only perform as a classifier, but may also produce meaningful explanations or rules, to the LD diagnosis application. Our experiments indicate that the RST approach is competitive as a tool for feature selection, and it performs better in term of prediction accuracy than other rulebased algorithms such as decision tree and ripper algorithms. We also propose to mix samples collected from sources with different LD diagnosis procedure and criteria. By pre-processing these mixed samples with simple and readily available clustering algorithms, we are able to improve the quality and support of rules generated by the RST. Overall, our study shows that the rough set approach, as a classification and knowledge discovery tool, may have great potential in playing an essential role in LD diagnosis.

  13. Water exchange method for colonoscopy: learning curve of an experienced colonoscopist in a U.S. community practice setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Leonard S; Lumsden, Antoinette; Leung, Felix W

    2012-07-01

    Water exchange colonoscopy has been reported to reduce examination discomfort and to provide salvage cleansing in unsedated or minimally sedated patients. The prolonged insertion time and perceived difficulty of insertion associated with water exchange have been cited as a barrier to its widespread use. To assess the feasibility of learning and using the water exchange method of colonoscopy in a U.S. community practice setting. Quality improvement program in nonacademic community endoscopy centers. Patients undergoing sedated diagnostic, surveillance, or screening colonoscopy. After direct coaching by a knowledgeable trainer, an experienced colonoscopist initiated colonoscopy using the water method. Whenever >5 min elapsed without advancing the colonoscope, conversion to air insufflation was made to ensure timely completion of the examination. Water Method Intention-to-treat (ITT) cecal intubation rate (CIR). Female patients had a significantly higher rate of past abdominal surgery and a significantly lower ITTCIR. The ITTCIR showed a progressive increase over time in both males and females to 85-90%. Mean insertion time was maintained at 9 to 10 min. The overall CIR was 99%. Use of water exchange did not preclude cecal intubation upon conversion to usual air insufflation in sedated patients examined by an experienced colonoscopist. With practice ITTCIR increased over time in both male and female patients. Larger volumes of water exchanged were associated with higher ITTCIR and better quality scores of bowel preparation. The data suggest that learning water exchange by a busy colonoscopist in a community practice setting is feasible and outcomes conform to accepted quality standards.

  14. Barriers in the implementation of a physical activity intervention in primary care settings: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josyula, Lakshmi K; Lyle, Roseann M

    2013-01-01

    Barriers encountered in implementing a physical activity intervention in primary health care settings, and ways to address them, are described in this paper. A randomized comparison trial was designed to examine the impact of health care providers' written prescriptions for physical activity, with or without additional physical activity resources, to adult, nonpregnant patients on preventive care or chronic disease monitoring visits. Following abysmal recruitment outcomes, the research protocol was altered to make it more appealing to all the participants, i.e., health care providers, office personnel, and patients. Various barriers--financial, motivational, and executive--to the implementation of health promotion interventions in primary health care settings were experienced and identified. These barriers have been classified by the different participants in the research process, viz., healthcare providers, administrative personnel, researchers, and patients. Some of the barriers identified were lack of time and reimbursement for health promotion activities, and inadequate practice capacity, for health care providers; increased time and labor demands for administrative personnel; constrained access to participants, and limited funding, for researchers; and superseding commitments, and inaccurate comprehension of the research protocol, for patients. Solutions suggested to overcome these barriers include financial support, e.g., funding for researchers, remuneration for health care organization personnel, reimbursement for providers, payment for participants, and free or subsidized postage, and use of health facilities; motivational strategies such as inspirational leadership, and contests within health care organizations; and partnerships, with other expert technical and creative entities, to improve the quality, efficiency, and acceptability of health promotion interventions.

  15. Pediatric Critical Care in Resource-Limited Settings-Overview and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusher, Tina M; Kiragu, Andrew W; Day, Louise T; Bjorklund, Ashley R; Shirk, Arianna; Johannsen, Colleen; Hagen, Scott A

    2018-01-01

    Pediatric critical care is an important component of reducing morbidity and mortality globally. Currently, pediatric critical care in low middle-income countries (LMICs) remains in its infancy in most hospitals. The majority of hospitals lack designated intensive care units, healthcare staff trained to care for critically ill children, adequate numbers of staff, and rapid access to necessary medications, supplies and equipment. In addition, most LMICs lack pediatric critical care training programs for healthcare providers or certification procedures to accredit healthcare providers working in their pediatric intensive care units (PICU) and high dependency areas. PICU can improve the quality of pediatric care in general and, if properly organized, can effectively treat the severe complications of high burden diseases, such as diarrhea, severe malaria, and respiratory distress using low-cost interventions. Setting up a PICU in a LMIC setting requires planning, specific resources, and most importantly investment in the nursing and permanent medical staff. A thoughtful approach to developing pediatric critical care services in LMICs starts with fundamental building blocks: training healthcare professionals in skills and knowledge, selecting resource appropriate effective equipment, and having supportive leadership to provide an enabling environment for appropriate care. If these fundamentals can be built on in a sustainable manner, an appropriate critical care service will be established with the potential to significantly decrease pediatric morbidity and mortality in the context of public health goals as we reach toward the sustainable development goals.

  16. Learning from incident reports in the Australian medical imaging setting: handover and communication errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannaford, N; Mandel, C; Crock, C; Buckley, K; Magrabi, F; Ong, M; Allen, S; Schultz, T

    2013-02-01

    To determine the type and nature of incidents occurring within medical imaging settings in Australia and identify strategies that could be engaged to reduce the risk of their re-occurrence. 71 search terms, related to clinical handover and communication, were applied to 3976 incidents in the Radiology Events Register. Detailed classification and thematic analysis of a subset of incidents that involved handover or communication (n=298) were undertaken to identify the most prevalent types of error and to make recommendations about patient safety initiatives in medical imaging. Incidents occurred most frequently during patient preparation (34%), when requesting imaging (27%) and when communicating a diagnosis (23%). Frequent problems within each of these stages of the imaging cycle included: inadequate handover of patients (41%) or unsafe or inappropriate transfer of the patient to or from medical imaging (35%); incorrect information on the request form (52%); and delayed communication of a diagnosis (36%) or communication of a wrong diagnosis (36%). The handover of patients and clinical information to and from medical imaging is fraught with error, often compromising patient safety and resulting in communication of delayed or wrong diagnoses, unnecessary radiation exposure and a waste of limited resources. Corrective strategies to address safety concerns related to new information technologies, patient transfer and inadequate test result notification policies are relevant to all healthcare settings. Handover and communication errors are prevalent in medical imaging. System-wide changes that facilitate effective communication are required.

  17. Evaluation of a social skills program based on social learning theory, implemented in a school setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Beth A; MacDonald, Douglas A; Donlon, Mark; Kuhn, Beth; McGovern, Katie; Friedman, Harris

    2011-04-01

    Using a sample of 647 Canadian children in kindergarten to Grade 3 (325 boys, 322 girls), the present study evaluated the perceived effectiveness of Skillstreaming (McGinnis & Goldstein, 2003), a widely known social skills program implemented to target the development of four skill sets, i.e., listening, following directions, problem-solving, and knowing when to tell. Results indicated significant postprogram improvements in all skills as well as in ratings of overall prosociality obtained from both classroom teachers and mental health staff, with medium to large effect sizes obtained from teachers' and mental health professionals' ratings, respectively. Additional analyses yielded significant but weak moderator effects of grade and preprogram prosocial functioning for teacher ratings but no consistent moderator effects for children's sex or school location (i.e., urban versus rural) regardless of rater.

  18. Team safety and innovation by learning from errors in long-term care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buljac-Samardžić, Martina; van Woerkom, Marianne; Paauwe, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    Team safety and team innovation are underexplored in the context of long-term care. Understanding the issues requires attention to how teams cope with error. Team managers could have an important role in developing a team's error orientation and managing team membership instabilities. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of team member stability, team coaching, and a team's error orientation on team safety and innovation. A cross-sectional survey method was employed within 2 long-term care organizations. Team members and team managers received a survey that measured safety and innovation. Team members assessed member stability, team coaching, and team error orientation (i.e., problem-solving and blaming approach). The final sample included 933 respondents from 152 teams. Stable teams and teams with managers who take on the role of coach are more likely to adopt a problem-solving approach and less likely to adopt a blaming approach toward errors. Both error orientations are related to team member ratings of safety and innovation, but only the blaming approach is (negatively) related to manager ratings of innovation. Differences between members' and managers' ratings of safety are greater in teams with relatively high scores for the blaming approach and relatively low scores for the problem-solving approach. Team coaching was found to be positively related to innovation, especially in unstable teams. Long-term care organizations that wish to enhance team safety and innovation should encourage a problem-solving approach and discourage a blaming approach. Team managers can play a crucial role in this by coaching team members to see errors as sources of learning and improvement and ensuring that individuals will not be blamed for errors.

  19. TGF-β Signaling in Dopaminergic Neurons Regulates Dendritic Growth, Excitatory-Inhibitory Synaptic Balance, and Reversal Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah X. Luo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuits involving midbrain dopaminergic (DA neurons regulate reward and goal-directed behaviors. Although local GABAergic input is known to modulate DA circuits, the mechanism that controls excitatory/inhibitory synaptic balance in DA neurons remains unclear. Here, we show that DA neurons use autocrine transforming growth factor β (TGF-β signaling to promote the growth of axons and dendrites. Surprisingly, removing TGF-β type II receptor in DA neurons also disrupts the balance in TGF-β1 expression in DA neurons and neighboring GABAergic neurons, which increases inhibitory input, reduces excitatory synaptic input, and alters phasic firing patterns in DA neurons. Mice lacking TGF-β signaling in DA neurons are hyperactive and exhibit inflexibility in relinquishing learned behaviors and re-establishing new stimulus-reward associations. These results support a role for TGF-β in regulating the delicate balance of excitatory/inhibitory synaptic input in local microcircuits involving DA and GABAergic neurons and its potential contributions to neuropsychiatric disorders.

  20. “He was learning to read, but he wasn’t learning to live”: Socially inclusive learning in a community setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Marston

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available People with mental health problems, learning difficulties and poor literacy and numeracy are at risk of social exclusion, including homelessness. They are often disconnected from the formal education systems, with few opportunities for education and employment. Academic research has demonstrated a link between literacy and numeracy and social connectedness, however the pathways to enact this are not well understood. This paper presents insights into how a community based adult literacy program in Brisbane, Australia provides a successful model of socially inclusive learning. The paper is based on a 12-month action research project conducted by the Queensland University of Technology in conjunction with Anglicare Southern Queensland 2013-2014. The methodology for the project was qualitative in nature, involving participant observation of lessons, and semi-structured interviews with former and present students, volunteer tutors and the teacher.  The central research focus was how literacy education can act as an instrument of social connection to the community.

  1. Lessons learned in the trenches: facilitating exercise adherence among breast cancer survivors in a group setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Laura Q; Vicari, Sandy; Courneya, Kerry S

    2010-01-01

    Improving effectiveness of group exercise counseling for breast cancer survivors is needed. The objective of this study was to describe clinical observations, with research and translation implications, derived during group exercise counseling for breast cancer survivors. While implementing group session components of an effective social cognitive theory-based exercise intervention, observations were made through verbal discussion with study staff, review of participant feedback, and prospective journaling by the group facilitator. The intervention has been implemented 11 times (ie, 63 survivors; 66 group sessions). Thematic consistency, application to intervention goals and design, and implications were reconciled between 2 investigators. Breast cancer diagnosis was a strong source of commonality among group participants. Participant age, time since diagnosis, and expectation for group sessions (eg, group support vs health education) hindered group commonality. Barriers unique to the breast cancer experience were infrequent, but people-pleasing behavior was often identified as a barrier to adherence. Feeling at risk for cancer recurrence was a major concern. Some participants required referral for mental health evaluation for preexisting conditions (eg, depression). Although participants easily understood time management, application of other behavioral modification techniques was more difficult. A breast cancer diagnosis alone is not sufficient for commonality among group members. Teaching time management and positive reframing is essential. Protocols for appropriate mental health referrals are needed. Our observations will assist group facilitators in enhancing group dynamics and addressing obstacles hindering counseling effectiveness. Moreover, our results suggest hypotheses related to enhancing behavior change in a group setting worthy of future study.

  2. Setting up a parathyroid multidisciplinary team meeting: one year's experience, outcomes and learning points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancox, S H; Sinnott, J D; Kirkland, P; Lipscomb, D; Owens, E; Howlett, D C

    2018-03-01

    A parathyroid multidisciplinary team meeting was set up at East Sussex Healthcare Trust, from November 2014 to November 2015, in order to improve and streamline services for patients with parathyroid pathology. Data were collected on all new referrals for hyperparathyroidism, and on the outcomes for each patient discussed at the meeting, including the number of operations and management outcomes. A survey was sent out to the members of the multidisciplinary team meeting to determine their perception of its effectiveness. Seventy-nine new referrals were discussed throughout the year; 43 per cent were recommended for surgery, 41 per cent had a trial of conservative or medical management before re-discussion, and 16 per cent required further imaging. Ninety-two per cent of patients underwent an ultrasound, single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography or nuclear medicine (sestamibi) scan prior to the meeting. All ultrasound scans were performed by a consultant radiologist. The multidisciplinary team meeting has been successful, with perceived benefits for patients, improved imaging evaluation and efficiency of referral pathways, leading to more appropriate patient management.

  3. Portfolio of automated trading systems: complexity and learning set size issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudys, Sarunas

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we consider using profit/loss histories of multiple automated trading systems (ATSs) as N input variables in portfolio management. By means of multivariate statistical analysis and simulation studies, we analyze the influences of sample size (L) and input dimensionality on the accuracy of determining the portfolio weights. We find that degradation in portfolio performance due to inexact estimation of N means and N(N - 1)/2 correlations is proportional to N/L; however, estimation of N variances does not worsen the result. To reduce unhelpful sample size/dimensionality effects, we perform a clustering of N time series and split them into a small number of blocks. Each block is composed of mutually correlated ATSs. It generates an expert trading agent based on a nontrainable 1/N portfolio rule. To increase the diversity of the expert agents, we use training sets of different lengths for clustering. In the output of the portfolio management system, the regularized mean-variance framework-based fusion agent is developed in each walk-forward step of an out-of-sample portfolio validation experiment. Experiments with the real financial data (2003-2012) confirm the effectiveness of the suggested approach.

  4. Different modes of data processing and statistical testing applied to the same set of pharmaco-EEG recordings: effects on the evaluation of a selective and reversible MAO A inhibitor (brofaromine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, I W; Jobert, M; Gleiter, C H; Turri, M; Bieck, P R; Herrmann, W M

    1996-01-01

    The comparison of two different modes of data processing and two different approaches to statistical testing both applied to the same set of EEG recordings was the main objective of this pharmacological study. Brofaromine (CGP 11,305 A), a new selective and reversible monoamine oxidase type A inhibitor was used as an example for investigating a potentially antidepressant drug in clinical development. The two modes of pharmaco-EEG (PEEG) data processing differed mainly in the sampling frequency and definition of spectral parameters. Patterns of significant changes were noted in terms of descriptive data analysis using either a nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test or an ANOVA of transformed data, as suggested by Conover and Iman. These data clearly demonstrate that slight discrepancies in the results may simply arise from differences in data processing and statistical approach applied. In spite of these discrepancies, the pattern of brofaromine-induced PEEG changes was very similar regardless of the mode of data handling used.

  5. Generating evidence on a risk-based monitoring approach in the academic setting – lessons learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda von Niederhäusern

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of efforts to employ risk-based strategies to increase monitoring efficiency in the academic setting, empirical evidence on their effectiveness remains sparse. This mixed-methods study aimed to evaluate the risk-based on-site monitoring approach currently followed at our academic institution. Methods We selected all studies monitored by the Clinical Trial Unit (CTU according to Risk ADApted MONitoring (ADAMON at the University Hospital Basel, Switzerland, between 01.01.2012 and 31.12.2014. We extracted study characteristics and monitoring information from the CTU Enterprise Resource Management system and from monitoring reports of all selected studies. We summarized the data descriptively. Additionally, we conducted semi-structured interviews with the three current CTU monitors. Results During the observation period, a total of 214 monitoring visits were conducted in 43 studies resulting in 2961 documented monitoring findings. Our risk-based approach predominantly identified administrative (46.2% and patient right findings (49.1%. We identified observational study design, high ADAMON risk category, industry sponsorship, the presence of an electronic database, experienced site staff, and inclusion of vulnerable study population to be factors associated with lower numbers of findings. The monitors understand the positive aspects of a risk-based approach but fear missing systematic errors due to the low frequency of visits. Conclusions We show that the factors mostly increasing the risk for on-site monitoring findings are underrepresented in the current risk analysis scheme. Our risk-based on-site approach should further be complemented by centralized data checks, allowing monitors to transform their role towards partners for overall trial quality, and success.

  6. Simulated settings; powerful arenas for learning patient safety practices and facilitating transference to clinical practice. A mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reime, Marit Hegg; Johnsgaard, Tone; Kvam, Fred Ivan; Aarflot, Morten; Breivik, Marit; Engeberg, Janecke Merethe; Brattebø, Guttorm

    2016-11-01

    Poor teamwork is an important factor in the occurrence of critical incidents because of a lack of non-technical skills. Team training can be a key to prevent these incidents. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of nursing and medical students after a simulation-based interprofessional team training (SBITT) course and its impact on professional and patient safety practices, using a concurrent mixed-method design. The participants (n = 262) were organized into 44 interprofessional teams. The results showed that two training sequences the same day improved overall team performance. Making mistakes during SBITT appeared to improve the quality of patient care once the students returned to clinical practice as it made the students more vigilant. Furthermore, the video-assisted oral debriefing provided an opportunity to strengthen interprofessional teamwork and share situational awareness. SBITT gave the students an opportunity to practice clinical reasoning skills and to share professional knowledge. The students conveyed the importance of learning to speak up to ensure safe patient practices. Simulated settings seem to be powerful arenas for learning patient safety practices and facilitating transference of this awareness to clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Developing nursing and midwifery students' capacity for coping with bullying and aggression in clinical settings: Students' evaluation of a learning resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Rosemarie; Orr, Fiona; Fox, Deborah; Cummins, Allison; Foureur, Maralyn

    2018-03-01

    An innovative blended learning resource for undergraduate nursing and midwifery students was developed in a large urban Australian university, following a number of concerning reports by students on their experiences of bullying and aggression in clinical settings. The blended learning resource included interactive online learning modules, comprising film clips of realistic clinical scenarios, related readings, and reflective questions, followed by in-class role-play practice of effective responses to bullying and aggression. On completion of the blended learning resource 210 participants completed an anonymous survey (65.2% response rate). Qualitative data was collected and a thematic analysis of the participants' responses revealed the following themes: 'Engaging with the blended learning resource'; 'Responding to bullying' and 'Responding to aggression'. We assert that developing nursing and midwifery students' capacity to effectively respond to aggression and bullying, using a self-paced blended learning resource, provides a solution to managing some of the demands of the clinical setting. The blended learning resource, whereby nursing and midwifery students were introduced to realistic portrayals of bullying and aggression in clinical settings, developed their repertoire of effective responding and coping skills for use in their professional practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Promoting interdisciplinary project-based learning to build the skill sets for research and development of medical devices in academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Shankar

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide need for rapid expansion and diversification of medical devices and the corresponding requirements in industry pose arduous challenges for educators to train undergraduate biomedical engineering (BME) students. Preparing BME students for working in the research and development (R&D) in medical device industry is not easily accomplished by adopting traditional pedagogical methods. Even with the inclusion of the design and development elements in capstone projects, medical device industry may be still experience a gap in fulfilling their needs in R&D. This paper proposes a new model based on interdisciplinary project-based learning (IDPBL) to address the requirements of building the necessary skill sets in academia for carrying out R&D in medical device industry. The proposed model incorporates IDPBL modules distributed in a stepwise fashion through the four years of a typical BME program. The proposed model involves buy-in and collaboration from faculty as well as students. The implementation of the proposed design in an undergraduate BME program is still in process. However, a variant of the proposed IDPBL method has been attempted at a limited scale at the postgraduate level and has shown some success. Extrapolating the previous results, the adoption of the IDPBL to BME training seems to suggest promising outcomes. Despite numerous implementation challenges, with continued efforts, the proposed IDPBL will be valuable n academia for skill sets building for medical device R&D.

  9. Blended learning versus traditional teaching-learning-setting: Evaluation of cognitive and affective learning outcomes for the inter-professional field of occupational medicine and prevention / Blended Learning versus traditionelles Lehr-Lernsetting: Evaluierung von kognitiven und affektiven Lernergebnissen für das interprofessionelle Arbeitsfeld Arbeitsmedizin und Prävention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckler Ursula

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Blended learning is characterised as a combination of face-to-face teaching and e-learning in terms of knowledge transfer, students’ learning activities and reduced presence at the teaching facility. The present cohort study investigated long-term effects of blended learning regarding cognitive outcomes as well as self-indicated estimates of immediate learning effects on the affective domain in the inter-professional field of occupational medicine. Physiotherapy students (bachelor degree at FH Campus Wien – University of Applied Sciences completed the course Occupational Medicine/Prevention either in a traditional teaching-learning setting entirely taught face-to-face (control-group, n=94, or with a blended learning model (intervention-group, n=93. Long-term effects (1.5 year follow-up on the cognitive learning outcomes were assessed according to four levels of Bloom’s learning objectives. In addition, students estimated potential benefits resulting from blended learning based on four Krathwohl’s learning objectives for the affective domain by means of a six-option Likert scale (n=282. Concerning cognitive outcomes, significant results favouring both groups were found with effect sizes from small to medium. The traditional teaching-learning setting resulted in significantly better results in the upmost aspired learning objective (analysis at the long-term (p<0,01; r=-0,33. In contrast, the intervention group resulted in significantly better long-term results on learning objective levels 1 (knowledge and 2 (understanding (p=0,01; r=-0,20 and, p=0,02; r=-0,17, respectively. Hence, no general recommendation favouring either the classical setting or blending learning can be drawn regarding the cognitive domain. However, students’ self-indications on the affective domain give preference to blended learning, particularly if inter-professional teamwork is a course objective.

  10. Immersive Virtual Reality in a University Setting: Creating an Authentic Learning Environment Through the Virtual Golden Foods Corporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ros A. Yahaya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An authentic learning environment is learning that involves real world problems that are relevant to the learners and relate to their real life experience. Research indicates that Information and Communication Technology (ICT tools can facilitate in creating authentic learning environment, thus improving student learning, interaction and satisfaction. Previous research has focused on using various forms of ICT such as online learning and web-based learning into the classroom. However, little attempt has been made to investigate the effectiveness of incorporating immersive Virtual Reality (VR technology into the university classroom. Virtual Golden Foods Corporation (VGFC is a simulated Virtual Reality (VR organization being developed for use in teaching and learning at a large technology based university in Australia. This study focuses on authentic learning environment where students learn about decision making in complex business contexts throughout the semester which culminates in immersive VR exposure. The findings report that immersive VR environment helps to increase students’ understanding of decision making concepts.

  11. Facility with the English language and problem-based learning group interaction: findings from an Arabic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, D J; Lanphear, J; Stewart, T; Das, M; Ridding, P; Dunn, E

    1998-09-01

    The Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences (FMHS), United Arab Emirates (UAE) University is in a unique position to explore issues related to English language proficiency and medical student performance. All students entering the FMHS have English as a second language. This study focused on the issues of students' proficiency in English as measured by the TOEFL test, student background factors and interaction in problem-based learning (PBL) groups. Using a modification of Bales Interaction Process Analysis, four problem-based learning groups were observed over four thematic units, to measure the degree of student interaction within PBL groups and to compare this to individual TOEFL scores and key background variables. The students' contributions correlated highly with TOEFL test results in the giving of information (range r = 0.67-0.74). The female students adhered to interacting in English during group sessions, whereas the male students were more likely to revert to using Arabic in elaborating unclear phenomena (p TOEFL scores for the male students, but not for female students. Multivariate analysis was undertaken to analyse the relative contribution of the TOEFL, parental education and years of studying in English. The best predictor of students' contributions in PBL groups was identified as TOEFL scores. The study demonstrates the importance of facilitating a locally acceptable level of English proficiency prior to admission to the FMHS. However, it also highlights the importance of not focusing only on English proficiency but paying attention to additional factors in facilitating medical students in maximizing benefits from interactions in PBL settings.

  12. Reversible machine code and its abstract processor architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert; Yokoyama, Tetsuo

    2007-01-01

    A reversible abstract machine architecture and its reversible machine code are presented and formalized. For machine code to be reversible, both the underlying control logic and each instruction must be reversible. A general class of machine instruction sets was proven to be reversible, building...

  13. Investigating the Impact of Formal Reflective Activities on Skill Adaptation in a Work-Related Instrumental Learning Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    In work-related, instrumental learning contexts the role of reflective activities is unclear. Kolb's (1985) experiential learning theory and Mezirow's transformative learning theory (2000) predict skill-adaptation as a possible outcome. This prediction was experimentally explored by manipulating reflective activities and assessing participants'…

  14. PIMA Point of Care CD4+ Cell Count Machines in Remote MNCH Settings: Lessons Learned from Seven Districts in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtapuri-Zinyowera, Sekesai; Chiyaka, Edward T.; Mushayi, Wellington; Musuka, Godfrey; Naluyinda-Kitabire, Florence; Mushavi, Angella; Chikwasha, Vasco

    2013-01-01

    An evaluation was commissioned to generate evidence on the impact of PIMA point-of-care CD4+ count machines in maternal and new-born child health settings in Zimbabwe; document best practices, lessons learned, challenges, and recommendations related to scale up of this new technology. A mixed methodology approach that included 31 in-depth interviews with stakeholders involved in procurement, distribution, and use of the POC machines was employed. Additionally, data was also abstracted from 207 patient records from 35 sites with the PIMA POC CD4+ count machines and 10 other comparative sites without the machine. A clearer training strategy was found to be necessary. The average time taken to initiate clients on antiretroviral treatment (ART) was substantially less, 15 days (IQR-1-149) for sites with a PIMA POC machine as compared to 32.7 days (IQR-1-192) at sites with no PIMA POC machine. There was general satisfaction because of the presence of the PIMA POC CD4+ count machine at sites that also initiated ART. PMID:24847177

  15. Reversible Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2004-01-01

    The study aims is to describe how the inclusion and exclusion of materials and calculative devices construct the boundaries and distinctions between statistical facts and artifacts in economics. My methodological approach is inspired by John Graunt's (1667) Political arithmetic and more recent work...... within constructivism and the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The result of this approach is here termed reversible statistics, reconstructing the findings of a statistical study within economics in three different ways. It is argued that all three accounts are quite normal, albeit...... in different ways. The presence and absence of diverse materials, both natural and political, is what distinguishes them from each other. Arguments are presented for a more symmetric relation between the scientific statistical text and the reader. I will argue that a more symmetric relation can be achieved...

  16. Testing the scalar expectancy theory (SET) and the learning-to-time model (LeT) in a double bisection task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Armando; Pata, Paulo

    2005-02-01

    Two theories of timing, scalar expectancy theory (SET) and learning-to-time (LeT), make substantially different assumptions about what animals learn in temporal tasks. In a test of these assumptions, pigeons learned two temporal discriminations. On Type 1 trials, they learned to choose a red key after a 1-sec signal and a green key after a 4-sec signal; on Type 2 trials, they learned to choose a blue key after a 4-sec signal and a yellow key after either an 8-sec signal (Group 8) or a 16-sec signal (Group 16). Then, the birds were exposed to signals 1 sec, 4 sec, and 16 sec in length and given a choice between novel key combinations (red or green vs. blue or yellow). The choice between the green key and the blue key was of particular significance because both keys were associated with the same 4-sec signal. Whereas SET predicted no effect of the test signal duration on choice, LeT predicted that preference for green would increase monotonically with the length of the signal but would do so faster for Group 8 than for Group 16. The results were consistent with LeT, but not with SET.

  17. Anti-amyloid beta protein antibody passage across the blood-brain barrier in the SAMP8 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease: an age-related selective uptake with reversal of learning impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William A; Farr, Susan A; Morley, John E; Wolf, Kathy M; Geylis, Valeria; Steinitz, Michael

    2007-08-01

    Amyloid beta protein (Abeta) levels are elevated in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. Anti-Abeta antibodies can reverse the histologic and cognitive impairments in mice which overexpress Abeta. Passive immunization appears safer than vaccination and treatment of patients will likely require human rather than xenogenic antibodies. Effective treatment will likely require antibody to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Unfortunately, antibodies typically cross the BBB very poorly and accumulate less well in brain than even albumin, a substance nearly totally excluded from the brain. We compared the ability of two anti-Abeta human monoclonal IgM antibodies, L11.3 and HyL5, to cross the BBB of young CD-1 mice to that of young and aged SAMP8 mice. The SAMP8 mouse has a spontaneous mutation that induces an age-related, Abeta-dependent cognitive deficit. There was preferential uptake of intravenously administered L11.3 in comparison to HyL5, albumin, and a control human monoclonal IgM (RF), especially by hippocampus and olfactory bulb in aged SAMP8 mice. Injection of L11.3 into the brains of aged SAMP8 mice reversed both learning and memory impairments in aged SAMP8 mice, whereas IgG and IgM controls were ineffective. Pharmacokinetic analysis predicted that an intravenous dose 1000 times higher than the brain injection dose would reverse cognitive impairments. This predicted intravenous dose reversed the impairment in learning, but not memory, in aged SAMP8 mice. In conclusion, an IgM antibody was produced that crosses the BBB to reverse cognitive impairment in a murine model of Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Developing weighted criteria to evaluate lean reverse logistics through analytical network process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagloel, Teuku Yuri M.; Hakim, Inaki Maulida; Krisnawardhani, Rike Adyartie

    2017-11-01

    Reverse logistics is a part of supply chain that bring materials from consumers back to manufacturer in order to gain added value or do a proper disposal. Nowadays, most companies are still facing several problems on reverse logistics implementation which leads to high waste along reverse logistics processes. In order to overcome this problem, Madsen [Framework for Reverse Lean Logistics to Enable Green Manufacturing, Eco Design 2009: 6th International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing, Sapporo, 2009] has developed a lean reverse logistics framework as a step to eliminate waste by implementing lean on reverse logistics. However, the resulted framework sets aside criteria used to evaluate its performance. This research aims to determine weighted criteria that can be used as a base on reverse logistics evaluation by considering lean principles. The resulted criteria will ensure reverse logistics are kept off from waste, thus implemented efficiently. Analytical Network Process (ANP) is used in this research to determine the weighted criteria. The result shows that criteria used for evaluation lean reverse logistics are Innovation and Learning (35%), Economic (30%), Process Flow Management (14%), Customer Relationship Management (13%), Environment (6%), and Social (2%).

  19. How do Millennial Engineering and Technology Students Experience Learning Through Traditional Teaching Methods Employed in the University Setting?

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Elizabeth A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to document and analyze how Millennial engineering and technology students experience learning in large lecture classrooms. To help achieve this purpose, perceptions Millennials have toward traditional teaching methods employed in large lecture classes were analyzed and discussed. Additionally, this study documented how Millennials experienced technology within large lecture classrooms. A learning model depicting how Millennials experience learning within the larg...

  20. A survey of university students' perceptions of learning management systems in a low-resource setting using a technology acceptance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipps, Jennifer; Kerr, Jane; Brysiewicz, Petra; Walters, Fiona

    2015-02-01

    Learning management systems have been widely advocated for the support of distance learning. In low-resource settings, the uptake of these systems by students has been mixed. This study aimed to identify, through the use of the Technology Acceptance Model, the individual, organizational, and technological factors that could be influencing the use of learning management systems. A simple quantitative descriptive survey was conducted of nursing and health science students at a university in South Africa as part of their first exposure to a learning management system. A total of 274 respondents (56.7%) completed the survey questionnaire, made up of 213 nursing respondents (87.7%) and 61 health sciences respondents (25%). Overall, the respondents found the learning management system easy to use and useful for learning. There were significant differences between the two groups of respondents, with the respondents from health sciences being both younger and more computer literate. The nursing respondents, who received more support and orientations, reported finding the learning management system more useful. Recommendations are made for training and support to ensure uptake.

  1. Virtue reversed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2014-01-01

    Contributing to an understanding of the true virtues of argumentation, this paper sketches and exemplifies a theoretically reasoned but simple typology of argumentative vices or ‘malpractices’ that are rampant in political debate in modern democracies. The typology reflects, in negative, a set of...

  2. Resistance in Action Learning: Struggling with Self-Efficacy and the Social Self--and What about the Set Advisor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    This account of practice explores the concept of resistance in action learning. Resistance is conceptualized as an attempt of self-protection that is manifested in action learners' struggles with their sense of self-efficacy and their social Self. These struggles are an inherent part of the action learning process and may elicit defensive…

  3. A Bilingual Child Learns Social Communication Skills through Video Modeling--A Single Case Study in a Norwegian School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özerk, Meral; Özerk, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    "Video modeling" is one of the recognized methods used in the training and teaching of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The model's theoretical base stems from Albert Bandura's (1977; 1986) social learning theory in which he asserts that children can learn many skills and behaviors observationally through modeling. One can…

  4. Undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students' self-reported confidence in learning about patient safety in the classroom and clinical settings: an annual cross-sectional study (2010-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukewich, Julia; Edge, Dana S; Tranmer, Joan; Raymond, June; Miron, Jennifer; Ginsburg, Liane; VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth

    2015-05-01

    Given the increasing incidence of adverse events and medication errors in healthcare settings, a greater emphasis is being placed on the integration of patient safety competencies into health professional education. Nurses play an important role in preventing and minimizing harm in the healthcare setting. Although patient safety concepts are generally incorporated within many undergraduate nursing programs, the level of students' confidence in learning about patient safety remains unclear. Self-reported patient safety competence has been operationalized as confidence in learning about various dimensions of patient safety. The present study explores nursing students' self-reported confidence in learning about patient safety during their undergraduate baccalaureate nursing program. Cross-sectional study with a nested cohort component conducted annually from 2010 to 2013. Participants were recruited from one Canadian university with a four-year baccalaureate of nursing science program. All students enrolled in the program were eligible to participate. The Health Professional Education in Patient Safety Survey was administered annually. The Health Professional Education in Patient Safety Survey captures how the six dimensions of the Canadian Patient Safety Institute Safety Competencies Framework and broader patient safety issues are addressed in health professional education, as well as respondents' self-reported comfort in speaking up about patient safety issues. In general, nursing students were relatively confident in what they were learning about the clinical dimensions of patient safety, but they were less confident about the sociocultural aspects of patient safety. Confidence in what they were learning in the clinical setting about working in teams, managing adverse events and responding to adverse events declined in upper years. The majority of students did not feel comfortable speaking up about patient safety issues. The nested cohort analysis confirmed these

  5. Kinetic Line Voronoi Operations and Their Reversibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mioc, Darka; Anton, François; Gold, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    In Geographic Information Systems the reversibility of map update operations has not been explored yet. In this paper we are using the Voronoi based Quad-edge data structure to define reversible map update operations. The reversibility of the map operations has been formalised at the lowest level...... mechanisms and dynamic map visualisations. In order to use the reversibility within the kinetic Voronoi diagram of points and open oriented line segments, we need to assure that reversing the map commands will produce exactly the changes in the map equivalent to the previous map states. To prove...... that reversing the map update operations produces the exact reverse changes, we show an isomorphism between the set of complex operations on the kinetic Voronoi diagram of points and open oriented line segments and the sets of numbers of new / deleted Voronoi regions induced by these operations, and its...

  6. Retracted: Nurses learning in the workplace: a comparison of workplace attributes in acute care settings in Australia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S W; Chan, M F; Lee, S-Y; Henderson, A

    2014-03-01

    Workplaces need to foster teaching and learning interactions so staff collaborate and learn from each other. Internationally, many countries provide support to graduates and experienced staff to foster engagement necessary for learning and quality care. Workplace attributes can differ across countries depending on managerial, contextual, social and policy issues. This study compared workplace attributes of two Australian hospitals with a Singaporean hospital. A representative sample of nurses in two acute care facilities in Australia (n = 203) and a comparable facility in Singapore (n = 154) during 2010 and 2011 responded to a survey requesting demographic data and responses about workplace attributes. Attributes were determined through validated tools that measure staff perception of support when facilitating others learning (Support Instrument for Nurses Facilitating the Learning of Others) and the clinical learning organizational culture (Clinical Learning Organizational Culture Survey). Results indicated Singaporean nurses rated perception of acknowledgement, workload management and teamwork support in facilitating learners in their hospital as significantly better than the Australian cohort despite similar provisions for support and development. There were no significant differences across the two sites in the clinical learning culture. Analysis across three health facilities only provides a snapshot. Targeting more facilities would assist in confirming the extent of reported trends. Findings indicate differences in nurses' perceptions of support when facilitating learners. Further exploration of Singaporean nurses' increased perceptions of support is worthy. Clinical learning organizational culture findings across Australian and Singaporean acute care facilities suggest common attributes within the nursing profession that transcend contextual factors, for example, a strong sense of task accomplishment. Nurses across both countries demonstrate

  7. The significance of 'facilitator as a change agent'--organisational learning culture in aged care home settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grealish, Laurie; Henderson, Amanda; Quero, Fritz; Phillips, Roslyn; Surawski, May

    2015-04-01

    To explore the impact of an educational programme focused on social behaviours and relationships on organisational learning culture in the residential aged care context. The number of aged care homes will continue to rise as the frail older elderly live longer, requiring more formal care and support. As with other small- to medium-sized health services, aged care homes are faced with the challenge of continuous development of the workforce and depend upon registered nurses to lead staff development. A mixed-method evaluation research design was used to determine the impact of an educational programme focused on social aspects of learning on organisational learning culture. One hundred and fifty-nine (pre) and 143 (post) participants from three aged care homes completed the Clinical Learning Organisational Culture survey, and three participant-researcher registered nurse clinical educators provided regular journal entries for review. While each site received the same educational programme over a six-month period, the change in organisational learning culture at each site was notably different. Two aged care homes had significant improvements in affiliation, one in accomplishment and one in recognition. The educators' journals differed in the types of learning observed and interventions undertaken, with Eucalyptus focused on organisational change, Grevillea focused on group (student) change and the Wattle focused on individual or situational change. Clinical educator activities appear to have a significant effect on organisational learning culture, with a focus on the organisational level having the greatest positive effect on learning culture and on individual or situational level having a limited effect. Clinical educator facilitation that is focused on organisational rather than individual interests may offer a key to improving organisational learning culture. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. GigaPan Technology to Enhance In-Class and In-Field Learning in Community College Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, J. I.; Bentley, C.

    2014-12-01

    Community college students account for over 40% of all undergraduates in the United States as well as the majority of minority and non-traditional students attending undergraduate courses. Implementing innovative, cost effective, and formative pedagogies to the diverse backgrounds of students that typically enroll at a community is often a challenge. Interactive pedagogies in geology pose a unique challenge considering that students gain the most long-term knowledge when topics covered in a course are exposed to them in outdoor settings where they are allowed to explore and make connections. The ability to expose students to real world examples is challenging to many community college faculty considering that that many; lack funds or means for transportation of students, do not have administrative support on such endeavors, teach evening or night classes, or have a high percentage of students who are physically limited or have obligations to work and family. A joint collaborative between El Paso Community College (EPCC) and Northern Virginia Community College (NOVA) has explored the usage of GigaPan technology to create multi-layered online material to minimize these issues faced by many community college faculty and students. The primary layer of the online material is GigaPans of local geological sites that highlight large-scale structures in the El Paso, Texas region that are commonly used in local field trips and lab book material. The second layer is of Macro-GigaPans of hand samples of key outcrops from the primarily GigaPans which facilitate student learning, exploration, and ability to make connections by exploring smaller scale features of the primary layer. A third layer of online material, GigaPans of thin sections of hand samples (from secondary layers), and curriculum based on the GigaPans was then created to assist students in evaluating proposed hypotheses on the primary layers' geological origin. GigaPan cirriculum was utilized in introductory

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF SCIENCE LEARNING SET USING SCIENTIFIC APPROACH AND PROBLEM SOLVING MODEL ON LEARNING OUTCOMES OF JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THE SUBJECT OF HEAT AND TEMPERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    T. Triyuni

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to produce the scientific approach for science learning using a problem solving model on the topic of heat and temperatureon the junior high school learning outcome. The curriculum used during the study was curriculum 2013 (valid, practical and effective). The development of the learning setfollowed the four-D model which was reduced to three-D model (without dissemination). The study was tested in Class VIIA, VIIB, and VIIC in SMP Negeri 5 Academic Year 2015/2016. The data...

  10. Setting the foundations for international and crossdisciplinary learning: The US-Denmark Summer School "Renewable Energy: In Practice"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favaloro, Tela; Jenkins, Bryan M.; Lehmann, Martin

    The grand challenges posed by global climate change, scarce natural resources, and the volatility of the international energy market require targeted action towards finding technologically, economically, and socially viable solutions based on renewable energy generation and sustainable practice...... conferencing and other tools to facilitate interaction between the international participants and learn more about the communities and technologies involved. A primary focus of the program is experiential learning through diverse and cross-cultural interactions, with participants coming not only from the US...... engaging across disciplines cultivates entrepreneurially-minded and complex systems thinking necessary for innovation. Over the eight years of the summer school, a number of lessons have been learned regarding effective program design and assessment. In this proceeding, we will elaborate on these learnings...

  11. Interprofessional Workplace Learning in Primary Care: Students from Different Health Professions Work in Teams in Real-Life Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Bondevik, Gunnar Tschudi; Holst, Lone; Haugland, Mildrid; Bærheim, Anders; Raaheim, Arild

    2015-01-01

    Interprofessional education may be defined as an occasion when two or more professions learn with, from, and about each other in order to improve collaboration and quality of care. We studied the self-reported experiences from Norwegian health care students participating in interprofessional workplace learning in primary care. We discuss the results particularly in light of self-determination theory. During 2012, 24 students from eight different health educations at the University of Bergen a...

  12. English Language Learning in the Malaysian School Setting: Where Can We Find 10,000 Hours? A Theoretical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Iber

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In these days of standardized assessments in education  that seek to measure the rate of learning in all subject matters, the question is seldom asked, “Just how long does it take to become proficient?” No matter the subject, we all agree that some amount of practice is necessary for basic proficiency and that more will be needed to really master a skill or subject area.  But how much is difficult to say because different individuals come to the task with different levels of motivation and opportunity to learn.  In the case of learning a second or foreign language different theories predict that a two to five year “structured exposure” is needed for either a basic communication or an academic level of proficiency (Cummins, 1980 respectively. This paper proposes that the range can be described in terms of hours. Based on the concept from Outliers by Gladwell (2008, this paper proposes that 10,000 hours is the target “time-on-task” required for academic proficiency in second language learning.  The implications for school language study is readily apparent. If we want academically proficient second language speakers, those individuals will need to have access to the target language in numbers vastly greater than school can provide in its standard curriculum. Keywords:  Second language learning, curriculum development, foreign language learning, time-on-task, international education, exchange programs, English as a foreign language 1. Introduction

  13. Role Models and Teachers: medical students perception of teaching-learning methods in clinical settings, a qualitative study from Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya-Illesinghe, Vathsala; Nazeer, Ishra; Athauda, Lathika; Perera, Jennifer

    2016-02-09

    Medical education research in general, and those focusing on clinical settings in particular, have been a low priority in South Asia. This explorative study from 3 medical schools in Sri Lanka, a South Asian country, describes undergraduate medical students' experiences during their final year clinical training with the aim of understanding the teaching-learning experiences. Using qualitative methods we conducted an exploratory study. Twenty eight graduates from 3 medical schools participated in individual interviews. Interview recordings were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative content analysis method. Emergent themes reveled 2 types of teaching-learning experiences, role modeling, and purposive teaching. In role modelling, students were expected to observe teachers while they conduct their clinical work, however, this method failed to create positive learning experiences. The clinical teachers who predominantly used this method appeared to be 'figurative' role models and were not perceived as modelling professional behaviors. In contrast, purposeful teaching allowed dedicated time for teacher-student interactions and teachers who created these learning experiences were more likely to be seen as 'true' role models. Students' responses and reciprocations to these interactions were influenced by their perception of teachers' behaviors, attitudes, and the type of teaching-learning situations created for them. Making a distinction between role modeling and purposeful teaching is important for students in clinical training settings. Clinical teachers' awareness of their own manifest professional characterizes, attitudes, and behaviors, could help create better teaching-learning experiences. Moreover, broader systemic reforms are needed to address the prevailing culture of teaching by humiliation and subordination.

  14. Further tests of the Scalar Expectancy Theory (SET) and the Learning-to-Time (LeT) model in a temporal bisection task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Armando; Arantes, Joana

    2006-06-01

    To contrast two models of timing, Scalar Expectancy Theory (SET) and Learning to Time (LeT), pigeons were exposed to a double temporal bisection procedure. On half of the trials, they learned to choose a red key after a 1s signal and a green key after a 4s signal; on the other half of the trials, they learned to choose a blue key after a 4-s signal and a yellow key after a 16-s signal. This was Phase A of an ABA design. On Phase B, the pigeons were divided into two groups and exposed to a new bisection task in which the signals ranged from 1 to 16s and the choice keys were blue and green. One group was reinforced for choosing blue after 1-s signals and green after 16-s signals and the other group was reinforced for the opposite mapping (green after 1-s signals and blue after 16-s signals). Whereas SET predicted no differences between the groups, LeT predicted that the former group would learn the new discrimination faster than the latter group. The results were consistent with LeT. Finally, the pigeons returned to Phase A. Only LeT made specific predictions regarding the reacquisition of the four temporal discriminations. These predictions were only partly consistent with the results.

  15. The role of emergency medicine clerkship e-Portfolio to monitor the learning experience of students in different settings: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Arif Alper; Shaban, Sami; El Zubeir, Margret; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2018-04-12

    Although emergency departments provide acute care learning opportunities for medical students, student exposure to recommended curriculum presentations and procedures are limited. In this perspective, clinical environments providing learning opportunities for students should be monitored as part of an ongoing quality improvement process. This study aims to analyze student exposures and their involvement levels in two different hospitals (Tawam and Al Ain) so as to improve the teaching and learning activities. This is a prospective study on all 76 final year medical students' electronic logbooks (e-Portfolio) of the academic year 2016/2017. Students recorded 5087 chief complaints and 3721 procedures. The average patient and procedure exposure in a shift per student in Al Ain Hospital compared with Tawam Hospital were 7.2 vs 6.4 and 5.8 vs 4.3, respectively. The highest full involvement with presentations was seen in the pediatric unit (67.1%, P portfolio has proven to be a very useful tool in defining the learning activities of final year medical students during their emergency medicine clerkship and in comparing activities in two different clinical settings. Data collected and analyzed using this e-Portfolio has the potential to help medical educators and curriculum designers improve emergency medicine teaching and learning activities.

  16. Assessment in the Private Studio Setting: Supporting Student Learning, Providing Effective Instruction, and Building Faculty-Student Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubenthal, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    A significant amount of literature exists about how to design and implement an effective assessment process for students in a music program, specifically in the classroom setting. This article suggests a framework for incorporating individualized assessment in the private-lesson setting based on effective classroom assessment practices. Many…

  17. Serotonin Transporter Knockout Rats Show Improved Strategy Set-Shifting and Reduced Latent Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonkes, Lourens J. P.; van de Vondervoort, Ilse I. G. M.; de Leeuw, Mark J. C.; Wijlaars, Linda P.; Maes, Joseph H. R.; Homberg, Judith R.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is a cognitive process depending on prefrontal areas allowing adaptive responses to environmental changes. Serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT[superscript -/-]) rodents show improved reversal learning in addition to orbitofrontal cortex changes. Another form of behavioral flexibility, extradimensional strategy set-shifting…

  18. Using Mobile Devices for Learning in Clinical Settings: A Mixed-Methods Study of Medical Student, Physician and Patient Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Karen M.; Nerminathan, Arany; Alexander, Shirley; Phelps, Megan; Harrison, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted with medical students, physicians, patients and carers in a paediatric and an adult hospital to determine use of mobile devices for learning, and beliefs and attitudes about others' use. Awareness of ethical, patient privacy and data security concerns was explored. The research was conducted using a mixed-methods…

  19. Setting Learning Objectives in Translation at the Department of Foreign Language Teaching through the Concept of Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eser, Oktay

    2014-01-01

    At the department of foreign language teaching, a variety of courses are offered in order for students to acquire translation competence. The courses are often carried out by translating a text from one language into the other. Learning by experience is an effective approach. However, it is inevitable that there are some aspects that we need to…

  20. Adult Trade Apprentices: Exploring the Significance of Recognition of Prior Learning and Skill Sets for Earlier Completion. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Jo; Blomberg, Davinia

    2015-01-01

    The nature of apprenticeships is changing. Increasing proportions of adult apprentices are prompting demand for various alternative pathways to completion. One option for an alternative pathway to accelerate completion is the use of recognition of prior learning (RPL) to identify existing skills and knowledge in combination with gap training. This…

  1. Successful Language Learning in a Corporate Setting: The Role of Attribution Theory and Its Relation to Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kálmán, Csaba; Eugenio, Esther Gutierrez

    2015-01-01

    Attribution theory (Weiner, 1985) and self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) have been explored as contributors to L2 motivation (cf. Dörnyei, 2001) but have never been studied quantitatively in concert. In addition, students' attributions for success in learning a foreign language have never been measured through the use of a…

  2. Applying activity theory to computer-supported collaborative learning and work-based activities in corporate settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty; Margaryan, A.

    2004-01-01

    Business needs in many corporations call for learning outcomes that involve problem solutions, and creating and sharing new knowledge within worksplace situation that may involve collaboration among members of a team. We argue that work-based activities (WBA) and computer-supported collaborative

  3. The Use of an Educational Social Networking Site for English Language Learning beyond the Classroom in a Japanese University Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    This study describes an attempt of using an educational social networking platform, which is called Edmodo, for English language learning outside classrooms at tertiary level. Considering the notion of communicative competence, the instructor incorporated Edmodo into his English classes as a project which is a formal assignment. In the project,…

  4. Development of an Instrument to Measure Perceived Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Learning in Traditional and Virtual Classroom Higher Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, Alfred P.; Wighting, Mervyn J.; Baker, Jason D.; Grooms, Linda D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a self-report instrument that can be used to measure learning in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. The study underwent three phases, each with its own data collection and analysis. Phase I featured the development, testing, and factor analysis of an 80-item instrument that…

  5. Advancing Mobile Learning in Formal and Informal Settings via Mobile App Technology: Where to from Here, and How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaddage, Ferial; Müller, Wolfgang; Flintoff, Kim

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a brief review of the framework that addressed mobile learning implementation challenges (pedagogical, technological, policy and research) that was developed by Khaddage et al. (2015) is briefly discussed, followed by possible solutions that could be deployed to tackle those challenges. A unique approach is then applied to bridge the…

  6. The Impact of Video Length on Learning in a Middle-Level Flipped Science Setting: Implications for Diversity Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemmons, Krista; Anyanwu, Kele; Hames, Josh; Grabski, Dave; Mlsna, Jeffery; Simkins, Eric; Cook, Perry

    2018-05-01

    Popularity of videos for classroom instruction has increased over the years due to affordability and user-friendliness of today's digital video cameras. This prevalence has led to an increase in flipped, K-12 classrooms countrywide. However, quantitative data establishing the appropriate video length to foster authentic learning is limited, particularly in middle-level classrooms. We focus on this aspect of video technology in two flipped science classrooms at the middle school level to determine the optimal video length to enable learning, increase retention and support student motivation. Our results indicate that while assessments directly following short videos were slightly higher, these findings were not significantly different from scores following longer videos. While short-term retention of material did not seem to be influenced by video length, longer-term retention for males and students with learning disabilities was higher following short videos compared to long as assessed on summative assessments. Students self-report that they were more engaged, had enhanced focus, and had a perceived higher retention of content following shorter videos. This study has important implications for student learning, application of content, and the development of critical thinking skills. This is particularly paramount in an era where content knowledge is just a search engine away.

  7. A Classification Model and an Open E-Learning System Based on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets for Instructional Design Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güyer, Tolga; Aydogdu, Seyhmus

    2016-01-01

    This study suggests a classification model and an e-learning system based on this model for all instructional theories, approaches, models, strategies, methods, and technics being used in the process of instructional design that constitutes a direct or indirect resource for educational technology based on the theory of intuitionistic fuzzy sets…

  8. Evolving Learning Paradigms: Re-Setting Baselines and Collection Methods of Information and Communication Technology in Education Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, David; Broadley, Tania; Downie, Jill; Wallet, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) has been measuring ICT in education since 2009, but with such rapid change in technology and its use in education, it is important now to revise the collection mechanisms to focus on how technology is being used to enhance learning and teaching. Sustainable development goal (SDG) 4, for example, moves…

  9. An exploratory study of knowledge brokering in hospital settings: facilitating knowledge sharing and learning for patient safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Justin; Currie, Graeme; Crompton, Amanda; Bishop, Simon

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory study of intra-organisational knowledge brokers working within three large acute hospitals in the English National Health Services. Knowledge brokering is promoted as a strategy for supporting knowledge sharing and learning in healthcare, especially in the diffusion of research evidence into practice. Less attention has been given to brokers who support knowledge sharing and learning within healthcare organisations. With specific reference to the need for learning around patient safety, this paper focuses on the structural position and role of four types of intra-organisational brokers. Through ethnographic research it examines how variations in formal role, location and relationships shape how they share and support the use of knowledge across organisational and occupational boundaries. It suggests those occupying hybrid organisational roles, such as clinical-managers, are often best positioned to support knowledge sharing and learning because of their 'ambassadorial' type position and legitimacy to participate in multiple communities through dual-directed relationships. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Future goal setting, task motivation and learning of minority and non-minority students in Dutch schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, I.; Phalet, K.; Lens, W.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Cross-cultural research on minority school achievement yields mixed findings on the motivational impact of future goal setting for students from disadvantaged minority groups. Relevant and recent motivational research, integrating Future Time Perspective Theory with Self-Determination

  11. Performance of the reverse Helmbold universal portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Choon Peng; Kuang, Kee Seng; Lee, Yap Jia

    2017-04-01

    The universal portfolio is an important investment strategy in a stock market where no stochastic model is assumed for the stock prices. The zero-gradient set of the objective function estimating the next-day portfolio which contains the reverse Kullback-Leibler order-alpha divergence is considered. From the zero-gradient set, the explicit, reverse Helmbold universal portfolio is obtained. The performance of the explicit, reverse Helmbold universal portfolio is studied by running them on some stock-price data sets from the local stock exchange. It is possible to increase the wealth of the investor by using these portfolios in investment.

  12. Comparison of Scalar Expectancy Theory (SET) and the Learning-to-Time (LeT) model in a successive temporal bisection task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, Joana

    2008-06-01

    The present research tested the generality of the "context effect" previously reported in experiments using temporal double bisection tasks [e.g., Arantes, J., Machado, A. Context effects in a temporal discrimination task: Further tests of the Scalar Expectancy Theory and Learning-to-Time models. J. Exp. Anal. Behav., in press]. Pigeons learned two temporal discriminations in which all the stimuli appear successively: 1s (red) vs. 4s (green) and 4s (blue) vs. 16s (yellow). Then, two tests were conducted to compare predictions of two timing models, Scalar Expectancy Theory (SET) and the Learning-to-Time (LeT) model. In one test, two psychometric functions were obtained by presenting pigeons with intermediate signal durations (1-4s and 4-16s). Results were mixed. In the critical test, pigeons were exposed to signals ranging from 1 to 16s and followed by the green or the blue key. Whereas SET predicted that the relative response rate to each of these keys should be independent of the signal duration, LeT predicted that the relative response rate to the green key (compared with the blue key) should increase with the signal duration. Results were consistent with LeT's predictions, showing that the context effect is obtained even when subjects do not need to make a choice between two keys presented simultaneously.

  13. How experiential learning in an informal setting promotes class equity and social and economic justice for children from "communities at promise": An Australian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyngier, David

    2017-02-01

    Educational research often portrays culturally, linguistically and economically disenfranchised (CLED) children's disengagement from school learning as individual behaviour, ignoring the contribution of race, gender, socio-cultural, ethnic and social class factors. This paper analyses a specific community engagement programme in Australia which uses experiential learning in an informal setting. The programme, which has been running for seven years, partners pre-service teachers, volunteer high school students and volunteers from a national bank with primary schools where many pupils are experiencing learning difficulties and school engagement problems as a result of their socio-economic status, their poverty, and their ethnic and cultural diversity. Drawing on the perspectives of the children and volunteers participating in the pilot study, and privileging their voices, this paper illustrates how community partnerships may be developed and sustained. The programme's conceptual framework of Connecting-Owning-Responding-Empowering (CORE) pedagogy is explored for its potential to enhance student engagement, achievement and empowerment through focused community involvement. The findings show that when students feel connected to and involved in their community, all participants are empowered in their learning and teaching.

  14. Managing Reverse Logistics or Reversing Logistics Management?

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Marisa

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the past, supply chains were busy fine-tuning the logistics from raw material to the end customer. Today an increasing flow of products is going back in the chain. Thus, companies have to manage reverse logistics as well.This thesis contributes to a better understanding of reverse logistics. The thesis brings insights on reverse logistics decision-making and it lays down theoretical principles for reverse logistics as a research field.In particular it puts together a framework ...

  15. CaPOW! Using Problem Sets in a Capstone Course to Improve Fourth-Year Medical Students' Confidence in Self-Directed Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Alison S; Ming, David Y; Knudsen, Nancy W; Engle, Deborah L; Grochowski, Colleen O'Connor; Andolsek, Kathryn M; Chudgar, Saumil M

    2017-03-01

    Despite the importance of self-directed learning (SDL) in the field of medicine, individuals are rarely taught how to perform SDL or receive feedback on it. Trainee skill in SDL is limited by difficulties with self-assessment and goal setting. Ninety-two graduating fourth-year medical students from Duke University School of Medicine completed an individualized learning plan (ILP) for a transition-to-residency Capstone course in spring 2015 to help foster their skills in SDL. Students completed the ILP after receiving a personalized report from a designated faculty coach detailing strengths and weaknesses on specific topics (e.g., pulmonary medicine) and clinical skills (e.g., generating a differential diagnosis). These were determined by their performance on 12 Capstone Problem Sets of the Week (CaPOWs) compared with their peers. Students used transitional-year milestones to self-assess their confidence in SDL. SDL was successfully implemented in a Capstone course through the development of required clinically oriented problem sets. Coaches provided guided feedback on students' performance to help them identify knowledge deficits. Students' self-assessment of their confidence in SDL increased following course completion. However, students often chose Capstone didactic sessions according to factors other than their CaPOW performance, including perceived relevance to planned specialty and session timing. Future Capstone curriculum changes may further enhance SDL skills of graduating students. Students will receive increased formative feedback on their CaPOW performance and be incentivized to attend sessions in areas of personal weakness.

  16. Reversibly Bistable Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2015-05-01

    Introducing the notion of transformational silicon electronics has paved the way for integrating various applications with silicon-based, modern, high-performance electronic circuits that are mechanically flexible and optically semitransparent. While maintaining large-scale production and prototyping rapidity, this flexible and translucent scheme demonstrates the potential to transform conventionally stiff electronic devices into thin and foldable ones without compromising long-term performance and reliability. In this work, we report on the fabrication and characterization of reversibly bistable flexible electronic switches that utilize flexible n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The transistors are fabricated initially on rigid (100) silicon substrates before they are peeled off. They can be used to control flexible batches of light-emitting diodes, demonstrating both the relative ease of scaling at minimum cost and maximum reliability and the feasibility of integration. The peeled-off silicon fabric is about 25 µm thick. The fabricated devices are transferred to a reversibly bistable flexible platform through which, for example, a flexible smartphone can be wrapped around a user’s wrist and can also be set back to its original mechanical position. Buckling and cyclic bending of such host platforms brings a completely new dimension to the development of flexible electronics, especially rollable displays.

  17. Managing Reverse Logistics or Reversing Logistics Management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the past, supply chains were busy fine-tuning the logistics from raw material to the end customer. Today an increasing flow of products is going back in the chain. Thus, companies have to manage reverse logistics as well.This thesis contributes to a better understanding of reverse

  18. Using Peer Discussion Facilitated by Clicker Questions in an Informal Education Setting: Enhancing Farmer Learning of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michelle K.; Annis, Seanna L.; Kaplan, Jennifer J.; Drummond, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Blueberry growers in Maine attend annual Cooperative Extension presentations given by university faculty members. These presentations cover topics, such as, how to prevent plant disease and monitor for insect pests. In 2012, in order to make the sessions more interactive and promote learning, clicker questions and peer discussion were incorporated into the presentations. Similar to what has been shown at the undergraduate level, after peer discussion, more blueberry growers gave correct answers to multiple-choice questions than when answering independently. Furthermore, because blueberry growers are characterized by diverse levels of education, experience in the field etc., we were able to determine whether demographic factors were associated with changes in performance after peer discussion. Taken together, our results suggest that clicker questions and peer discussion work equally well with adults from a variety of demographic backgrounds without disadvantaging a subset of the population and provide an important learning opportunity to the least formally educated members. Our results also indicate that clicker questions with peer discussion were viewed as a positive addition to university-related informal science education sessions. PMID:23077638

  19. Using peer discussion facilitated by clicker questions in an informal education setting: enhancing farmer learning of science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle K Smith

    Full Text Available Blueberry growers in Maine attend annual Cooperative Extension presentations given by university faculty members. These presentations cover topics, such as, how to prevent plant disease and monitor for insect pests. In 2012, in order to make the sessions more interactive and promote learning, clicker questions and peer discussion were incorporated into the presentations. Similar to what has been shown at the undergraduate level, after peer discussion, more blueberry growers gave correct answers to multiple-choice questions than when answering independently. Furthermore, because blueberry growers are characterized by diverse levels of education, experience in the field etc., we were able to determine whether demographic factors were associated with changes in performance after peer discussion. Taken together, our results suggest that clicker questions and peer discussion work equally well with adults from a variety of demographic backgrounds without disadvantaging a subset of the population and provide an important learning opportunity to the least formally educated members. Our results also indicate that clicker questions with peer discussion were viewed as a positive addition to university-related informal science education sessions.

  20. Using peer discussion facilitated by clicker questions in an informal education setting: enhancing farmer learning of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michelle K; Annis, Seanna L; Kaplan, Jennifer J; Drummond, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Blueberry growers in Maine attend annual Cooperative Extension presentations given by university faculty members. These presentations cover topics, such as, how to prevent plant disease and monitor for insect pests. In 2012, in order to make the sessions more interactive and promote learning, clicker questions and peer discussion were incorporated into the presentations. Similar to what has been shown at the undergraduate level, after peer discussion, more blueberry growers gave correct answers to multiple-choice questions than when answering independently. Furthermore, because blueberry growers are characterized by diverse levels of education, experience in the field etc., we were able to determine whether demographic factors were associated with changes in performance after peer discussion. Taken together, our results suggest that clicker questions and peer discussion work equally well with adults from a variety of demographic backgrounds without disadvantaging a subset of the population and provide an important learning opportunity to the least formally educated members. Our results also indicate that clicker questions with peer discussion were viewed as a positive addition to university-related informal science education sessions.

  1. Telemedicine and E-Learning in a Primary Care Setting in Sudan: The Experience of the Gezira Family Medicine Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, K G; Hunskaar, S; Abdelrahman, S H; Malik, E M

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) is progressively used in the health sector (e-health), to provide health care in a distance (telemedicine), facilitate medical education (e-learning), and manage patients' information (electronic medical records, EMRs). Gezira Family Medicine Project (GFMP) in Sudan provides a 2-year master's degree in family medicine, with ICT fully integrated in the project. This cross-sectional study describes ICT implementation and utilization at the GFMP for the years 2011-2012. Administrative data was used to describe ICT implementation, while questionnaire-based data was used to assess candidates' perceptions and satisfaction. In the period from April 2011 to December 2012, 3808 telemedicine online consultations were recorded and over 165000 new patients' EMRs were established by the study subjects (125 candidates enrolled in the program). Almost all respondents confirmed the importance of telemedicine. The majority appreciated also the importance of using EMRs. Online lectures were highly rated by candidates in spite of the few challenges encountered by combining service provision with learning activity. Physicians highlighted some patients' concerns about the use of telemedicine and EMRs during clinical consultations. Results from this study confirmed the suitability of ICT use in postgraduate training in family medicine and in service provision.

  2. A comparison of Lewis and Fischer rat strains on autoshaping (sign-tracking), discrimination reversal learning and negative auto-maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, David N; Gomez-Serrano, Maria A; Weiss, Stanley J; Riley, Anthony L

    2006-05-15

    Lewis (LEW) and Fischer (F344) rat strains differ on a number of physiological characteristics, such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, as well as on behavioral tasks, including those that measure impulsivity and drug reward. Since autoshaping, the phenomenon where animals approach and contact reward-paired conditioned stimuli, has been linked to HPA axis functioning, impulsivity and drug taking, the present study compared LEW and F344 rats on the rate of acquisition and performance of the autoshaping response. Rats were trained on an autoshaping procedure where insertions of one retractable lever (CS(+)) were paired response-independently with food, while insertions of another lever (CS(-)) were not paired with food. LEW rats acquired the autoshaping response more rapidly and also performed the autoshaping response at a higher rate than F344 rats. No differences between the strains were observed when rats were trained on a discrimination reversal where the CS(+) and CS(-) levers were reversed or during a negative auto-maintenance phase where CS(+) lever contacts cancelled food delivery. Potential physiological mechanisms that might mediate the present results, including strain differences in HPA axis and monoamine neurotransmitter activity, are discussed. The finding that LEW (as compared to F344 rats) more readily acquire autoshaping and perform more responses is consistent with research indicating that LEW rats behave more impulsively and more readily self-administer drugs of abuse.

  3. Reverse innovation in maternal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoz, Tabassum; Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Nathan, Hannah L; Payne, Beth; Magee, Laura A

    2017-09-01

    Reverse innovation, defined as the flow of ideas from low- to high-income settings, is gaining traction in healthcare. With an increasing focus on value, investing in low-cost but effective and innovative solutions can be of mutual benefit to both high- and low-income countries. Reverse innovation has a role in addressing maternal health challenges in high-income countries by harnessing these innovative solutions for vulnerable populations especially in rural and remote regions. In this paper, we present three examples of 'reverse innovation' for maternal health: a low-cost, easy-to-use blood pressure device (CRADLE), a diagnostic algorithm (mini PIERS) and accompanying mobile app (PIERS on the Move), and a novel method for mapping maternal outcomes (MOM).

  4. Reversible Thermoset Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Murray, Benjamin C. (Inventor); Tong, Tat H. (Inventor); Hreha, Richard D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Embodiments of a reversible thermoset adhesive formed by incorporating thermally-reversible cross-linking units and a method for making the reversible thermoset adhesive are provided. One approach to formulating reversible thermoset adhesives includes incorporating dienes, such as furans, and dienophiles, such as maleimides, into a polymer network as reversible covalent cross-links using Diels Alder cross-link formation between the diene and dienophile. The chemical components may be selected based on their compatibility with adhesive chemistry as well as their ability to undergo controlled, reversible cross-linking chemistry.

  5. Reverse control for humanoid robot task recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hak, Sovannara; Mansard, Nicolas; Stasse, Olivier; Laumond, Jean Paul

    2012-12-01

    Efficient methods to perform motion recognition have been developed using statistical tools. Those methods rely on primitive learning in a suitable space, for example, the latent space of the joint angle and/or adequate task spaces. Learned primitives are often sequential: A motion is segmented according to the time axis. When working with a humanoid robot, a motion can be decomposed into parallel subtasks. For example, in a waiter scenario, the robot has to keep some plates horizontal with one of its arms while placing a plate on the table with its free hand. Recognition can thus not be limited to one task per consecutive segment of time. The method presented in this paper takes advantage of the knowledge of what tasks the robot is able to do and how the motion is generated from this set of known controllers, to perform a reverse engineering of an observed motion. This analysis is intended to recognize parallel tasks that have been used to generate a motion. The method relies on the task-function formalism and the projection operation into the null space of a task to decouple the controllers. The approach is successfully applied on a real robot to disambiguate motion in different scenarios where two motions look similar but have different purposes.

  6. Maternal supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid in the setting of diet-induced obesity normalises the inflammatory phenotype in mothers and reverses metabolic dysfunction and impaired insulin sensitivity in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, Stephanie A; Vickers, Mark H; Zhang, Xiaoyuan D; Gray, Clint; Reynolds, Clare M

    2015-12-01

    Maternal consumption of a high-fat diet significantly impacts the fetal environment and predisposes offspring to obesity and metabolic dysfunction during adulthood. We examined the effects of a high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation on metabolic and inflammatory profiles and whether maternal supplementation with the anti-inflammatory lipid conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) could have beneficial effects on mothers and offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control (CD; 10% kcal from fat), CLA (CLA; 10% kcal from fat, 1% total fat as CLA), high-fat (HF; 45% kcal from fat) or high fat with CLA (HFCLA; 45% kcal from fat, 1% total fat as CLA) diet ad libitum 10days prior to and throughout gestation and lactation. Dams and offspring were culled at either late gestation (fetal day 20, F20) or early postweaning (postnatal day 24, P24). CLA, HF and HFCLA dams were heavier than CD throughout gestation. Plasma concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and tumour necrosis factor-α were elevated in HF dams, with restoration in HFCLA dams. Male and female fetuses from HF dams were smaller at F20 but displayed catch-up growth and impaired insulin sensitivity at P24, which was reversed in HFCLA offspring. HFCLA dams at P24 were protected from impaired insulin sensitivity as compared to HF dams. Maternal CLA supplementation normalised inflammation associated with consumption of a high-fat diet and reversed associated programming of metabolic dysfunction in offspring. This demonstrates that there are critical windows of developmental plasticity in which the effects of an adverse early-life environment can be reversed by maternal dietary interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Interprofessional, simulation-based technology-enhanced learning to improve physical health care in psychiatry: The recognition and assessment of medical problems in psychiatric settings course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akroyd, Mike; Jordan, Gary; Rowlands, Paul

    2016-06-01

    People with serious mental illness have reduced life expectancy compared with a control population, much of which is accounted for by significant physical comorbidity. Frontline clinical staff in mental health often lack confidence in recognition, assessment and management of such 'medical' problems. Simulation provides one way for staff to practise these skills in a safe setting. We produced a multidisciplinary simulation course around recognition and assessment of medical problems in psychiatric settings. We describe an audit of strategic and design aspects of the recognition and assessment of medical problems in psychiatric settings course, using the Department of Health's 'Framework for Technology Enhanced Learning' as our audit standards. At the same time as highlighting areas where recognition and assessment of medical problems in psychiatric settings adheres to these identified principles, such as the strategic underpinning of the approach, and the means by which information is collected, reviewed and shared, it also helps us to identify areas where we can improve. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Development of the Human Factors Skills for Healthcare Instrument: a valid and reliable tool for assessing interprofessional learning across healthcare practice settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, Gabriel B; Lavelle, Mary; Simpson, Thomas; Anderson, Janet E

    2017-10-01

    A central feature of clinical simulation training is human factors skills, providing staff with the social and cognitive skills to cope with demanding clinical situations. Although these skills are critical to safe patient care, assessing their learning is challenging. This study aimed to develop, pilot and evaluate a valid and reliable structured instrument to assess human factors skills, which can be used pre- and post-simulation training, and is relevant across a range of healthcare professions. Through consultation with a multi-professional expert group, we developed and piloted a 39-item survey with 272 healthcare professionals attending training courses across two large simulation centres in London, one specialising in acute care and one in mental health, both serving healthcare professionals working across acute and community settings. Following psychometric evaluation, the final 12-item instrument was evaluated with a second sample of 711 trainees. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 12-item, one-factor solution with good internal consistency (α=0.92). The instrument had discriminant validity, with newly qualified trainees scoring significantly lower than experienced trainees ( t (98)=4.88, pSkills for Healthcare Instrument provides a reliable and valid method of assessing trainees' human factors skills self-efficacy across acute and mental health settings. This instrument has the potential to improve the assessment and evaluation of human factors skills learning in both uniprofessional and interprofessional clinical simulation training.

  9. Unpacking Docent Practice in Free Choice Science Learning Settings: A Qualitative Study Documenting the What and Whys of Docent Interpretive Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Laura H.

    Museum settings including aquariums, zoos and science centers rely heavily on their volunteer docent populations to interact with and communicate science and conservation concepts to the visiting public. The interactions docents have with museum visitors are important to meeting the educational expectations of museums and improving public science literacy as a whole, yet research to date is limited around docent practice, docents' reflections on that practice nor the sources for docents to learn that practice. Thus, we have little understanding of the interpretive practice docents actually undertake whilst interacting with visitors, why they choose to enact particular strategies, and how they came to learn those practices. Using a grounded qualitative approach within a framework of mediated action and cultural historical activity theory, this case study utilized video observations of docent practice at a science center, pre and post observation interviews, and focus groups to 1) document docent practices for engaging visitors, 2) explain those practices from the docents' own perspectives, and 3) examine those practices from the point of view of how they align with teaching and learning theories and interpretive practice. Thematic analysis using constant comparative methods demonstrate four claims about docent practice: 1) docents view teaching in the museum as opportunities to spark interest with these new experiences. Practices are chosen to engage visitors in these experiences. Docents choose to highlight these experiences as they believe they are reasons to be engaged; 2) docents as teachers are perceptive about their audience. They pay attention to patterns and provide information in response to those patterns. Docents utilize a shared repertoire of practice and information in their community developed from understanding visitor patterns of interest; 3) docents care about their setting and the exhibits within it. They also care about the visitor experience as a

  10. Tubal Ligation Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seal off the fallopian tubes, such as the Essure or Adiana systems, generally aren't reversible. Why ... electrocautery). Some types of sterilization, such as the Essure or Adiana systems, aren't considered reversible. Risks ...

  11. Can motto-goals outperform learning and performance goals? Influence of goal setting on performance and affect in a complex problem solving task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam S. Rohe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we bring together research on complex problem solving with that on motivational psychology about goal setting. Complex problems require motivational effort because of their inherent difficulties. Goal Setting Theory has shown with simple tasks that high, specific performance goals lead to better performance outcome than do-your-best goals. However, in complex tasks, learning goals have proven more effective than performance goals. Based on the Zurich Resource Model (Storch & Krause, 2014, so-called motto-goals (e.g., "I breathe happiness" should activate a person’s resources through positive affect. It was found that motto-goals are effective with unpleasant duties. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that motto-goals outperform learning and performance goals in the case of complex problems. A total of N = 123 subjects participated in the experiment. In dependence of their goal condition, subjects developed a personal motto, learning, or performance goal. This goal was adapted for the computer-simulated complex scenario Tailorshop, where subjects worked as managers in a small fictional company. Other than expected, there was no main effect of goal condition for the management performance. As hypothesized, motto goals led to higher positive and lower negative affect than the other two goal types. Even though positive affect decreased and negative affect increased in all three groups during Tailorshop completion, participants with motto goals reported the lowest rates of negative affect over time. Exploratory analyses investigated the role of affect in complex problem solving via mediational analyses and the influence of goal type on perceived goal attainment.

  12. Comparison of Reversal Test Pictures among Three Groups of Students: Normal, Education Mental Retarded and Students with Learning Disabilities in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Koushesh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Riversal visual perception discrimination test is one of the dyslexia diagnostic tests in children which can be performed in the group (group-based and it is reliable to detect these disorders in students of the primary schools especially those who spend their first educational weeks or months. The aim of this survey is comparison of Riversal test pictures among three groups of students: normal, educable mental retarded students and students with learning disabilities, aged 8-12 years old that were under coverage of Tehran Welfare Department. Materials & Methods: This Comparative cross – sectional study has performed on 150 girls and boys of mentioned groups that were selected by simple randomize selection. Results: The findings suggested that there was significant difference between surveyed groups (P=0.001. The highest scores were related to normal students and the lowest scores to educable mental retarded. The interval of negative scores of educable mental retarded from normal students was more than that of between educable mental retarded and learning disabilities. Conclusion: This survey indicates that students with learning disabilities (dyslexia have problems in their visual perception and this test can help to diagnose and determine abnormal children as soon as possible in order to better treatment.

  13. Pupils' Activities in a Multimaterial Learning Environment in Craft subject A Pilot Study using an Experience Sampling Method based on a Mobile Application in Classroom Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Jaatinen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates holistic craft processes in craft education with an instrument for data-collection and self-assessment. Teaching in a study context is based on co-teaching and a design process, highlighted by the Finnish Basic Education Core Curriculum 2014. The school architecture and web-based learning environment is combined. Division for textiles and technical work is no longer supported in this multimaterial learning environment. The aim of the study is to 1 make pupils’ holistic craft processes visible in everyday classroom practices with information collected by a mobile-application and 2 point out the curriculum topics that are covered during everyday classroom practices as defined by the teachers. The data is collected using an Experience Sampling Method with a gamified learning analytics instrument. Teachers’ classroom activities were used as the backbone for the thematic mapping of the craft curriculum. Preliminary measurements were carried out in a Finnish primary school in grades 5–6 (age 10–12, n = 125 during a four-week period in October-November 2016. The list of classroom activities was updated after the four weeks’ experiment and was tested in March-May 2017 with all the pupils of the pilot school (N = 353. The key findings were that a for pupils the self-assessment was easy as a technical process but there were several factors in the everyday classroom settings that made the process challenging and b it was relatively difficult for teachers to describe the classroom activities in terms of the new curriculum; however, after four weeks they could not only described the activities in more details but had also developed new activities that supported the ideas of the new curriculum better.Keywords: multi-material craft, learning environment, holistic craft process, experience sampling method

  14. Reverse logistics - a framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we define and compare Reverse Logistics definitions. We start by giving an understanding framework of Reverse Logistics: the why-what-how. By this means, we put in context the driving forces for Reverse Logistics, a typology of return reasons, a classification of

  15. 'They hear "Africa" and they think that there can't be any good services'--perceived context in cross-national learning: a qualitative study of the barriers to Reverse Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Matthew; Weisberger, Emily; Silver, Diana; Macinko, James

    2015-11-19

    Country-of-origin of a product can negatively influence its rating, particularly if the product is from a low-income country. It follows that how non-traditional sources of innovation, such as low-income countries, are perceived is likely to be an important part of a diffusion process, particularly given the strong social and cognitive boundaries associated with the healthcare professions. Between September and December 2014, we conducted eleven in-depth face-to-face or telephone interviews with key informants from innovation, health and social policy circles, experts in international comparative policy research and leaders in Reverse Innovation in the United States. Interviews were open-ended with guiding probes into the barriers and enablers to Reverse Innovation in the US context, specifically also to understand whether, in their experience translating or attempting to translate innovations from low-income contexts into the US, the source of the innovation matters in the adopter context. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed thematically using the process of constant comparison. Our findings show that innovations from low-income countries tend to be discounted early on because of prior assumptions about the potential for these contexts to offer solutions to healthcare problems in the US. Judgments are made about the similarity of low-income contexts with the US, even though this is based oftentimes on flimsy perceptions only. Mixing levels of analysis, local and national, leads to country-level stereotyping and missed opportunities to learn from low-income countries. Our research highlights that prior expectations, invoked by the Low-income country cue, are interfering with a transparent and objective learning process. There may be merit in adopting some techniques from the cognitive psychology and marketing literatures to understand better the relative importance of source in healthcare research and innovation diffusion. Counter

  16. Setting the foundations for international and crossdisciplinary learning: The US-Denmark Summer School "Renewable Energy: In Practice"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favaloro, Tela; Jenkins, Bryan M.; Lehmann, Martin

    The grand challenges posed by global climate change, scarce natural resources, and the volatility of the international energy market require targeted action towards finding technologically, economically, and socially viable solutions based on renewable energy generation and sustainable practice...... and foster a holistic and creative mind set. The three-week workshop takes place annually, alternating each summer between California and Denmark, and is open to selected students from US and European Universities. The program is preceded by a week of online preparation, where students utilize video...... and Denmark, but also over a dozen other countries. The program introduces and reinforces a holistic approach to sustainable development by offering access to leading experts in politics, economics, science, and technology in parallel with multi-disciplinary, client-oriented projects. Participants are either...

  17. Lessons learned from curriculum changes and setting curriculum objectives at the University of Pennsylvania's Earth and Environmental Science Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowski, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    Recent restructuring of the University of Pennsylvania’s curriculum, including a revised multi-disciplinary Environmental Studies major and a proposed Environmental Science major has led to several changes, including a mandatory junior research seminar. Feedback from students indicates that a more structured curriculum has helped guide them through the multi-disciplinary Environmental Studies major. The addition of mandatory courses in Statistics, Geographical and Environmental Modeling, as well as Economics and Policy has ensured that students have important skills needed to succeed after graduation. We have compiled a curriculum objective matrix to clarify both the broad and focused objectives of our curriculum and how each course helps to fulfill these objectives. An important aspect of both majors is the Senior Thesis. The junior research seminar was recently revised to help students prepare for their thesis research. Topic selection, library research, data presentation, basic research methods, advisor identification, and funding options are discussed. Throughout the course, faculty from within the department lecture about their research and highlight opportunities for undergraduates. In one assignment, students are given a few types of datasets and asked to present the data and error analysis in various formats using different software (SPSS and Excel). The final paper was a research proposal outlining the student’s Senior Thesis. Based on both the university and instructor written course evaluations, students felt they benefited most from writing their senior thesis proposal; doing assignments on data analysis, library research and critical analysis; and the faculty research lectures. The lessons learned in restructuring this flexible major and providing a research seminar in the junior year may benefit other departments considering such changes.

  18. Effects of Regular Classes in Outdoor Education Settings: A Systematic Review on Students' Learning, Social and Health Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Christoph; Lauterbach, Gabriele; Spengler, Sarah; Dettweiler, Ulrich; Mess, Filip

    2017-05-05

    Participants in Outdoor Education Programmes (OEPs) presumably benefit from these programmes in terms of their social and personal development, academic achievement and physical activity (PA). The aim of this systematic review was to identify studies about regular compulsory school- and curriculum-based OEPs, to categorise and evaluate reported outcomes, to assess the methodological quality, and to discuss possible benefits for students. We searched online databases to identify English- and German-language peer-reviewed journal articles that reported any outcomes on a student level. Two independent reviewers screened studies identified for eligibility and assessed the methodological quality. Thirteen studies were included for analysis. Most studies used a case-study design, the average number of participants was moderate (mean valued (M) = 62.17; standard deviation (SD) = 64.12), and the methodological quality was moderate on average for qualitative studies (M = 0.52; SD = 0.11), and low on average for quantitative studies (M = 0.18; SD = 0.42). Eight studies described outcomes in terms of social dimensions, seven studies in learning dimensions and four studies were subsumed under additional outcomes, i.e., PA and health. Eleven studies reported positive, one study positive as well as negative, and one study reported negative effects. PA and mental health as outcomes were underrepresented. Tendencies were detected that regular compulsory school- and curriculum-based OEPs can promote students in respect of social, academic, physical and psychological dimensions. Very little is known concerning students' PA or mental health. We recommend conducting more quasi-experimental design and longitudinal studies with a greater number of participants, and a high methodological quality to further investigate these tendencies.

  19. Effects of Regular Classes in Outdoor Education Settings: A Systematic Review on Students’ Learning, Social and Health Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Christoph; Lauterbach, Gabriele; Spengler, Sarah; Dettweiler, Ulrich; Mess, Filip

    2017-01-01

    Background: Participants in Outdoor Education Programmes (OEPs) presumably benefit from these programmes in terms of their social and personal development, academic achievement and physical activity (PA). The aim of this systematic review was to identify studies about regular compulsory school- and curriculum-based OEPs, to categorise and evaluate reported outcomes, to assess the methodological quality, and to discuss possible benefits for students. Methods: We searched online databases to identify English- and German-language peer-reviewed journal articles that reported any outcomes on a student level. Two independent reviewers screened studies identified for eligibility and assessed the methodological quality. Results: Thirteen studies were included for analysis. Most studies used a case-study design, the average number of participants was moderate (mean valued (M) = 62.17; standard deviation (SD) = 64.12), and the methodological quality was moderate on average for qualitative studies (M = 0.52; SD = 0.11), and low on average for quantitative studies (M = 0.18; SD = 0.42). Eight studies described outcomes in terms of social dimensions, seven studies in learning dimensions and four studies were subsumed under additional outcomes, i.e., PA and health. Eleven studies reported positive, one study positive as well as negative, and one study reported negative effects. PA and mental health as outcomes were underrepresented. Conclusion: Tendencies were detected that regular compulsory school- and curriculum-based OEPs can promote students in respect of social, academic, physical and psychological dimensions. Very little is known concerning students’ PA or mental health. We recommend conducting more quasi-experimental design and longitudinal studies with a greater number of participants, and a high methodological quality to further investigate these tendencies. PMID:28475167

  20. Application of Incident Command Structure to clinical trial management in the academic setting: principles and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Penny S; Michael, Mary J; Spiess, Bruce D

    2017-02-09

    Clinical trial success depends on appropriate management, but practical guidance to trial organisation and planning is lacking. The Incident Command System (ICS) is the 'gold standard' management system developed for managing diverse operations in major incident and public health arenas. It enables effective and flexible management through integration of personnel, procedures, resources, and communications within a common hierarchical organisational structure. Conventional ICS organisation consists of five function modules: Command, Planning, Operations, Logistics, and Finance/Administration. Large clinical trials will require a separate Regulatory Administrative arm, and an Information arm, consisting of dedicated data management and information technology staff. We applied ICS principles to organisation and management of the Prehospital Use of Plasma in Traumatic Haemorrhage (PUPTH) trial. This trial was a multidepartmental, multiagency, randomised clinical trial investigating prehospital administration of thawed plasma on mortality and coagulation response in severely injured trauma patients. We describe the ICS system as it would apply to large clinical trials in general, and the benefits, barriers, and lessons learned in utilising ICS principles to reorganise and coordinate the PUPTH trial. Without a formal trial management structure, early stages of the trial were characterised by inertia and organisational confusion. Implementing ICS improved organisation, coordination, and communication between multiple agencies and service groups, and greatly streamlined regulatory compliance administration. However, unfamiliarity of clinicians with ICS culture, conflicting resource allocation priorities, and communication bottlenecks were significant barriers. ICS is a flexible and powerful organisational tool for managing large complex clinical trials. However, for successful implementation the cultural, psychological, and social environment of trial participants must be

  1. SSP-002392, a new 5-HT4 receptor agonist, dose-dependently reverses scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairments in C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Adrian C; De Maeyer, Joris H; Vermaercke, Ben; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Schuurkes, Jan A J; D'Hooge, Rudi

    2014-10-01

    5-HT4 receptors (5-HT4R) are suggested to affect learning and memory processes. Earlier studies have shown that animals treated with 5-HT4R agonists, often with limited selectivity, show improved learning and memory with retention memory often being assessed immediately after or within 24 h after the last training session. In this study, we characterized the effect of pre-training treatment with the selective 5-HT4R agonist SSP-002392 on memory acquisition and the associated long-term memory retrieval in animal models of impaired cognition. Pre-training treatment with SSP-002392 (0.3 mg/kg, 1.5 mg/kg and 7.5 mg/kg p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited the cognitive deficits induced by scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg s.c.) in two different behavioral tasks: passive avoidance and Morris water maze. In the Morris water maze, spatial learning was significantly improved after treatment with SSP-002392 translating in an accelerated and more efficient localization of the hidden platform compared to scopolamine-treated controls. Moreover, retention memory was assessed 24 h (passive avoidance) and 72 h (Morris water maze) after the last training session of cognitive-impaired animals and this was significantly improved in animals treated with SSP-002392 prior to the training sessions. Furthermore, the effects of SSP-002392 were comparable to galanthamine hydrobromide. We conclude that SSP-002392 has potential as a memory-enhancing compound. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reversal of age-related learning deficiency by the vertebrate PACAP and IGF-1 in a novel invertebrate model of aging: the pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirger, Zsolt; Naskar, Souvik; László, Zita; Kemenes, György; Reglődi, Dóra; Kemenes, Ildikó

    2014-11-01

    With the increase of life span, nonpathological age-related memory decline is affecting an increasing number of people. However, there is evidence that age-associated memory impairment only suspends, rather than irreversibly extinguishes, the intrinsic capacity of the aging nervous system for plasticity (1). Here, using a molluscan model system, we show that the age-related decline in memory performance can be reversed by administration of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP). Our earlier findings showed that a homolog of the vertebrate PACAP38 and its receptors exist in the pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis) brain (2), and it is both necessary and instructive for memory formation after reward conditioning in young animals (3). Here we show that exogenous PACAP38 boosts memory formation in aged Lymnaea, where endogenous PACAP38 levels are low in the brain. Treatment with insulin-like growth factor-1, which in vertebrates was shown to transactivate PACAP type I (PAC1) receptors (4) also boosts memory formation in aged pond snails. Due to the evolutionarily conserved nature of these polypeptides and their established role in memory and synaptic plasticity, there is a very high probability that they could also act as "memory rejuvenating" agents in humans. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  3. Reversible flowchart languages and the structured reversible program theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Many irreversible computation models have reversible counterparts, but these are poorly understood at present. We introduce reversible flowcharts with an assertion operator and show that any reversible flowchart can be simulated by a structured reversible flowchart using only three control flow...... operators. Reversible flowcharts are r- Turing-complete, meaning that they can simuluate reversible Turing machines without garbage data. We also demonstrate the injectivization of classical flowcharts into reversible flowcharts. The reversible flowchart computation model provides a theoretical...

  4. A Set of English Instructional Materials Using Task-Based Learning for News Production Management Study Program in STMM “MMMTC” Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanna Gistha Wicita

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The News Production Management Study Program (NPMSP in STMM “MMTC” Yogyakarta is a study program that has an English subject in the third semester. Due to the lack of time and materials for the students, English, which they will use a lot in journalism, becomes their barrier in learning. Therefore, this research attempted to develop a set of English instructional materials using task-based learning for the third semester students of the NPMSP STMM “MMTC” Yogyakarta. This research aimed to answer how the materials are developed and what the materials look like. To gather the information, the researcher adopted Borg & Gall’s (1986 Research and Development (R&D method which was combined with Kemp’s instructional design model (1977 covering eight flexible steps. Due to time and financial constraints, only five steps of R&D were conducted in designing the materials. To gather the information, the researcher conducted some interviews. After designing the materials, the interview was conducted. The interview results showed that the designed materials were good, appropriate, and applicable. Nine suggestions were obtained to revise the materials which covered the level of difficulty of the text, the content of the exercises, the overview of the learning materials, teaching media, lesson plans, instructions, layout, and material implementation. The materials consist of six units. Each unit contains five sessions, namely “What’s Up?”, “Entering the Newsroom”, “Journalists’ Project”, “Entering the News Editor Room”, and “Lesson Learned”.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2015.180107

  5. Influenza risk management: lessons learned from an A(H1N1) pdm09 outbreak investigation in an operational military setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Margaret; Sebeny, Peter; Klena, John D; Demattos, Cecilia; Pimentel, Guillermo; Turner, Mark; Joseph, Antony; Espiritu, Jennifer; Zumwalt, John; Dueger, Erica

    2013-01-01

    At the onset of an influenza pandemic, when the severity of a novel strain is still undetermined and there is a threat of introduction into a new environment, e.g., via the deployment of military troops, sensitive screening criteria and conservative isolation practices are generally recommended. In response to elevated rates of influenza-like illness among U.S. military base camps in Kuwait, U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3 partnered with local U.S. Army medical units to conduct an A(H1N1) pdm09 outbreak investigation. Initial clinical data and nasal specimens were collected via the existent passive surveillance system and active surveillance was conducted using a modified version of the World Health Organization/U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention influenza-like illness case definition [fever (T > 100.5˚F/38˚C) in addition to cough and/or sore throat in the previous 72 hours] as the screening criteria. Samples were tested via real-time reverse-transcription PCR and sequenced for comparison to global A(H1N1) pdm09 viruses from the same time period. The screening criteria used in Kuwait proved insensitive, capturing only 16% of A(H1N1) pdm09-positive individuals. While still not ideal, using cough as the sole screening criteria would have increased sensitivity to 73%. The results of and lessons learned from this outbreak investigation suggest that pandemic influenza risk management should be a dynamic process (as information becomes available regarding true attack rates and associated mortality, screening and isolation criteria should be re-evaluated and revised as appropriate), and that military operational environments present unique challenges to influenza surveillance.

  6. Classification of breast masses in ultrasound images using self-adaptive differential evolution extreme learning machine and rough set feature selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabusankarlal, Kadayanallur Mahadevan; Thirumoorthy, Palanisamy; Manavalan, Radhakrishnan

    2017-04-01

    A method using rough set feature selection and extreme learning machine (ELM) whose learning strategy and hidden node parameters are optimized by self-adaptive differential evolution (SaDE) algorithm for classification of breast masses is investigated. A pathologically proven database of 140 breast ultrasound images, including 80 benign and 60 malignant, is used for this study. A fast nonlocal means algorithm is applied for speckle noise removal, and multiresolution analysis of undecimated discrete wavelet transform is used for accurate segmentation of breast lesions. A total of 34 features, including 29 textural and five morphological, are applied to a [Formula: see text]-fold cross-validation scheme, in which more relevant features are selected by quick-reduct algorithm, and the breast masses are discriminated into benign or malignant using SaDE-ELM classifier. The diagnosis accuracy of the system is assessed using parameters, such as accuracy (Ac), sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), Matthew's correlation coefficient (MCC), and area ([Formula: see text]) under receiver operating characteristics curve. The performance of the proposed system is also compared with other classifiers, such as support vector machine and ELM. The results indicated that the proposed SaDE algorithm has superior performance with [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] compared to other classifiers.

  7. Participants' engagement with and reactions to the use of on-line action learning sets to support advanced nursing role development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Kay; Biggam, John; Palmer, Janette; Corcoran, Terry

    2012-04-01

    Professional role development in nursing is occurring at a rapid pace in the UK as elsewhere. Internationally, finding relevant, flexible, sustainable educational solutions to support the preparation of nurses for new roles presents significant challenges for Higher Education Institutions, health service managers and the clinical practitioners who are would-be students. The use of on-line learning is frequently advocated as one means of resolving these difficulties. This paper discusses participants' engagement with, and reactions to, the use of on-line Action Learning Sets (ALS) as part of a national pilot development pathway for Advanced Nursing Practice in Scotland. Data collection included: survey of participants' views of on-line ALS; survey comparing perceptions of ALS with other educational experiences within the pathway; in-depth interviews with case-site participants. A range of benefits and limitations of on-line ALS was identified. The benefit of flexible access and sharing experiences with others was emphasised. Conversely, multiple commitments and lack of group cohesiveness significantly interfered with the effectiveness of this process. Key recommendations for future implementation acknowledge participants' preference for a blended approach, with face-to-face sessions to provide 'getting-to-know-you' opportunities, enhancing commitment to the group process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Introduction to reversible computing

    CERN Document Server

    Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2013-01-01

    Few books comprehensively cover the software and programming aspects of reversible computing. Filling this gap, Introduction to Reversible Computing offers an expanded view of the field that includes the traditional energy-motivated hardware viewpoint as well as the emerging application-motivated software approach. Collecting scattered knowledge into one coherent account, the book provides a compendium of both classical and recently developed results on reversible computing. It explores up-and-coming theories, techniques, and tools for the application of rever

  9. Reversibility of female sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, A M; Hulka, J; Peretz, A

    1985-04-01

    The discussion considers the current status of reversibility of sterilization in the US and describes clinical and experimental efforts for developing techniques designed for reversibility. It focuses on regret following sterilization, reversal potential of current sterilization techniques, patient selection, current reversal techniques, results of sterilization procedures, experimental approaches to reversal of current techniques of sterilization, and sterilization procedures devised for reversibility, in humans and in animals. Request is the 1st stage of reversal, but a request for sterilization reversal (SR) does not always mean regret for a decision made at the time. Frequently it is a wish to restore fertility because life circumstances have changed after a sterilization that was ppropriate at the time it was performed. Schwyhart and Kutner reviewed 22 studies published between 1949-69 in which they found that the percentage of patients regretting the procedure ranged from 1.3-15%. Requests for reversal remain low in most countries, but if sterilization becomes a more popular method of contraception, requests will also increase. The ideal operation considered as a reversaible method of sterilization should include an easy, reliable outpatient method of tubal occlusion with miniml risk or patient discomfort that subsequently could be reversed without the need for a major surgical intervention. Endoscopic methods have progressed toward the 1st objective. A recent search of the literature uncovered few series of SR of more than 50 cases. The 767 operations found were analyzed with regard to pregnancy outcome. The precent of live births varied from 74-78.8%, and the occurance of tubal pregnancies ranged from 1.7-6.5%. All of the confounding variables in patient selection and small numbers of reported procedures preclude any conclusion about the different techniques or the number of operations that give a surgeon a level of expertise. Few authors classify their

  10. Parallelization of Reversible Ripple-carry Adders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Axelsen, Holger Bock

    2009-01-01

    The design of fast arithmetic logic circuits is an important research topic for reversible and quantum computing. A special challenge in this setting is the computation of standard arithmetical functions without the generation of \\emph{garbage}. Here, we present a novel parallelization scheme...... wherein $m$ parallel $k$-bit reversible ripple-carry adders are combined to form a reversible $mk$-bit \\emph{ripple-block carry adder} with logic depth $\\mathcal{O}(m+k)$ for a \\emph{minimal} logic depth $\\mathcal{O}(\\sqrt{mk})$, thus improving on the $mk$-bit ripple-carry adder logic depth $\\mathcal...

  11. Reverse osmosis water purification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, H. G.; Hames, P. S.; Menninger, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    A reverse osmosis water purification system, which uses a programmable controller (PC) as the control system, was designed and built to maintain the cleanliness and level of water for various systems of a 64-m antenna. The installation operates with other equipment of the antenna at the Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex. The reverse osmosis system was designed to be fully automatic; with the PC, many complex sequential and timed logic networks were easily implemented and are modified. The PC monitors water levels, pressures, flows, control panel requests, and set points on analog meters; with this information various processes are initiated, monitored, modified, halted, or eliminated as required by the equipment being supplied pure water.

  12. Constraining the reversing and non-reversing modes of the geodynamo. New insights from magnetostratigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallet, Y.; Pavlov, V.; Shatsillo, A.; Hulot, G.

    2015-12-01

    Constraining the evolution in the geomagnetic reversal frequency over hundreds of million years is not a trivial matter. Beyond the fact that there are long periods without reversals, known as superchrons, and periods with many reversals, the way the reversal frequency changes through time during reversing periods is still debated. A smooth evolution or a succession of stationary segments have both been suggested to account for the geomagnetic polarity time scale since the Middle-Late Jurassic. Sudden changes from a reversing mode to a non-reversing mode of the geodynamo may also well have happened, the switch between the two modes having then possibly been controlled by the thermal conditions at the core-mantle boundary. There is, nevertheless, a growing set of magnetostratigraphic data, which could help decipher a proper interpretation of the reversal history, in particular in the early Paleozoic and even during the Precambrian. Although yielding a fragmentary record, these data reveal the occurrence of both additional superchrons and periods characterized by extremely high, not to say extraordinary, magnetic reversal frequencies. In this talk, we will present a synthesis of these data, mainly obtained from Siberia, and discuss their implication for the magnetic reversal behavior over the past billion years.

  13. Quantum reverse hypercontractivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubitt, Toby [Department of Computer Science, University College London, London, United Kingdom and Centre for Quantum Information and Foundations, DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kastoryano, Michael [NBIA, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Montanaro, Ashley [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Temme, Kristan [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    We develop reverse versions of hypercontractive inequalities for quantum channels. By generalizing classical techniques, we prove a reverse hypercontractive inequality for tensor products of qubit depolarizing channels. We apply this to obtain a rapid mixing result for depolarizing noise applied to large subspaces and to prove bounds on a quantum generalization of non-interactive correlation distillation.

  14. Atrioventricular Pacemaker Lead Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet K Aktas, MD

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During cardiac surgery temporary epicardial atrial and ventricular leads are placed in case cardiac pacing is required postoperatively. We present the first reported series of patients with reversal of atrioventricular electrodes in the temporary pacemaker without any consequent deleterious hemodynamic effect. We review the electrocardiographic findings and discuss the findings that lead to the discovery of atrioventricular lead reversal.

  15. Sodium p-Aminosalicylic Acid Reverses Sub-Chronic Manganese-Induced Impairments of Spatial Learning and Memory Abilities in Rats, but Fails to Restore γ-Aminobutyric Acid Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shao-Jun; Ou, Chao-Yan; He, Sheng-Nan; Huang, Xiao-Wei; Luo, Hai-Lan; Meng, Hao-Yang; Lu, Guo-Dong; Jiang, Yue-Ming; Vieira Peres, Tanara; Luo, Yi-Ni; Deng, Xiang-Fa

    2017-01-01

    Excessive manganese (Mn) exposure is not only a health risk for occupational workers, but also for the general population. Sodium para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS-Na) has been successfully used in the treatment of manganism, but the involved molecular mechanisms have yet to be determined. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of PAS-Na on sub-chronic Mn exposure-induced impairments of spatial learning and memory, and determine the possible involvements of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism in vivo. Sprague-Dawley male rats received daily intraperitoneal injections MnCl2 (as 6.55 mg/kg Mn body weight, five days per week for 12 weeks), followed by daily subcutaneous injections of 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg PAS-Na for an additional six weeks. Mn exposure significantly impaired spatial learning and memory ability, as noted in the Morris water maze test, and the following PAS-Na treatment successfully restored these adverse effects to levels indistinguishable from controls. Unexpectedly, PAS-Na failed to recover the Mn-induced decrease in the overall GABA levels, although PAS-Na treatment reversed Mn-induced alterations in the enzyme activities directly responsible for the synthesis and degradation of GABA (glutamate decarboxylase and GABA-transaminase, respectively). Moreover, Mn exposure caused an increase of GABA transporter 1 (GAT-1) and decrease of GABA A receptor (GABAA) in transcriptional levels, which could be reverted by the highest dose of 300 mg/kg PAS-Na treatment. In conclusion, the GABA metabolism was interrupted by sub-chronic Mn exposure. However, the PAS-Na treatment mediated protection from sub-chronic Mn exposure-induced neurotoxicity, which may not be dependent on the GABA metabolism. PMID:28394286

  16. "Ready, Set, FLOW!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Wesley

    2018-01-01

    All educators want their classrooms to be inviting areas that support investigations. However, a common mistake is to fill learning spaces with items or objects that are set up by the teacher or are simply "for show." This type of setting, although it may create a comfortable space for students, fails to stimulate investigations and…

  17. Developmental reversals in recognition memory in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Julien; Gardiner, Beatrix; Hayne, Harlene

    2016-01-01

    Older members of a given species typically exhibit superior learning and memory abilities relative to younger members, however, the developmental difference does not always occur in this younger-to-older direction. Developmental reversals are thought to reflect adaptive responses to the unique challenges imposed by the infant's niche. In humans, identification of developmental reversals has largely been precluded because infants, children, and adults are rarely tested using the same experimental procedures. Here, we adapted the visual recognition memory task and tested 3-year-olds and adults using one set of child-oriented stimuli and one set of adult-orientated stimuli. When tested immediately, children and adults exhibited recognition memory for both stimuli. When tested after a 1-week delay, children exhibited recognition memory for the child-oriented stimuli, but not for the adult-oriented stimuli and adults exhibited recognition memory for the adult-oriented stimuli, but not for the child-oriented stimuli. These data have important implications for current theories of memory development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Elements of set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Enderton, Herbert B

    1977-01-01

    This is an introductory undergraduate textbook in set theory. In mathematics these days, essentially everything is a set. Some knowledge of set theory is necessary part of the background everyone needs for further study of mathematics. It is also possible to study set theory for its own interest--it is a subject with intruiging results anout simple objects. This book starts with material that nobody can do without. There is no end to what can be learned of set theory, but here is a beginning.

  19. An algebra of reversible computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    We design an axiomatization for reversible computation called reversible ACP (RACP). It has four extendible modules: basic reversible processes algebra, algebra of reversible communicating processes, recursion and abstraction. Just like process algebra ACP in classical computing, RACP can be treated as an axiomatization foundation for reversible computation.

  20. APPLICATION OF ROUGH SET THEORY TO MAINTENANCE LEVEL DECISION-MAKING FOR AERO-ENGINE MODULES BASED ON INCREMENTAL KNOWLEDGE LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆晓华; 左洪福; 蔡景

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of an aero-engine usually includes three levels ,and the maintenance cost and period greatly differ depending on the different maintenance levels .To plan a reasonable maintenance budget program , airlines would like to predict the maintenance level of aero-engine before repairing in terms of performance parame-ters ,which can provide more economic benefits .The maintenance level decision rules are mined using the histori-cal maintenance data of a civil aero-engine based on the rough set theory ,and a variety of possible models of upda-ting rules produced by newly increased maintenance cases added to the historical maintenance case database are in-vestigated by the means of incremental machine learning .The continuously updated rules can provide reasonable guidance suggestions for engineers and decision support for planning a maintenance budget program before repai-ring .The results of an example show that the decision rules become more typical and robust ,and they are more accurate to predict the maintenance level of an aero-engine module as the maintenance data increase ,which illus-trates the feasibility of the represented method .