WorldWideScience

Sample records for revenue adjustment mechanisms

  1. Net lost revenue adjustment (NLRA) mechanisms for utility DSM programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, L.W.

    1995-01-01

    We examine the experiences that states and utilities are having with the NLRA approach. Contrary to concerns raised by some industry analysts, our results indicate the NLRA is a feasible approach to the lost-revenue disincentive. Seven of the 10 states we studied report no substantial problems with their approach. We observe several conditions linked to effective NLRA implementation and, for those states reporting problems, conditions linked to implementation difficulties. Finally, observed changes in utility-investment behavior occur after implementation of DSM rate reforms, which include deployment of NLRA mechanisms. We find that utilities in states with lost revenue recovery invest more than twice as much in DSM as do utilities in other states. (Author)

  2. Assessment of net lost revenue adjustment mechanisms for utility DSM programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.W.

    1995-01-01

    Utility shareholders can lose money on demand-side management (DSM) investments between rate cases. Several industry analysts argue that the revenues lost from utility DSM programs are an important financial disincentive to utility DSM investment. A key utility regulatory reform undertaken since 1989 allows utilities to recover the lost revenues incurred through successful operation of DSM programs. Explicitly defined net lost revenue adjustment (NLRA) mechanisms are states` preferred approach to lost revenue recovery from DSM programs. This report examines the experiences states and utilities are having with the NLRA approach. The report has three objectives. First, we determine whether NLRA is a feasible and successful approach to removing the lost-revenue disincentive to utility operation of DSM programs. Second, we identify the conditions linked to successful implementation of NLRA mechanisms in different states and assess whether NLRA has changed utility investment behavior. Third, we suggest improvements to NLRA mechanisms. We first identify states with NLRA mechanisms where utilities are recovering lost revenues from DSM programs. We interview staff at regulatory agencies in all these states and utility staff in four states. These interviews focus on the status of NLRA, implementation issues, DSM measurement issues, and NLRA results. We also analyze regulatory agency orders on NLRA, as well as associated testimony, reports, and utility lost revenue recovery filings. Finally, we use qualitative and quantitative indicators to assess NLRA`s effectiveness. Contrary to the concerns raised by some industry analysts, our results indicate NLRA is a feasible approach to the lost-revenue disincentive.

  3. Mechanism of laser micro-adjustment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Hong

    2008-01-01

    Miniaturization is a requirement in engineering to produce competitive products in the field of optical and electronic industries. Laser micro-adjustment is a new and promising technology for sheet metal actuator systems. Efforts have been made to understand the mechanisms of metal plate forming using a laser heating source. Three mechanisms have been proposed for describing the laser forming processes in different scenarios, namely the temperature gradient mechanism (TGM), buckling mechanism and upsetting mechanism (UM). However, none of these mechanisms can fully describe the deformation mechanisms involved in laser micro-adjustment. Based on the thermal and elastoplastic analyses, a coupled TGM and UM are presented in this paper to illustrate the thermal mechanical behaviours of two-bridge actuators when applying a laser forming process. To validate the proposed coupling mechanism, numerical simulations are carried out and the corresponding results demonstrate the mechanism proposed. The mechanism of the micro-laser adjustment could be taken as a supplement to the laser forming process.

  4. Kinematic synthesis of adjustable robotic mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuenchom, Thatchai

    1993-01-01

    Conventional hard automation, such as a linkage-based or a cam-driven system, provides high speed capability and repeatability but not the flexibility required in many industrial applications. The conventional mechanisms, that are typically single-degree-of-freedom systems, are being increasingly replaced by multi-degree-of-freedom multi-actuators driven by logic controllers. Although this new trend in sophistication provides greatly enhanced flexibility, there are many instances where the flexibility needs are exaggerated and the associated complexity is unnecessary. Traditional mechanism-based hard automation, on the other hand, neither can fulfill multi-task requirements nor are cost-effective mainly due to lack of methods and tools to design-in flexibility. This dissertation attempts to bridge this technological gap by developing Adjustable Robotic Mechanisms (ARM's) or 'programmable mechanisms' as a middle ground between high speed hard automation and expensive serial jointed-arm robots. This research introduces the concept of adjustable robotic mechanisms towards cost-effective manufacturing automation. A generalized analytical synthesis technique has been developed to support the computational design of ARM's that lays the theoretical foundation for synthesis of adjustable mechanisms. The synthesis method developed in this dissertation, called generalized adjustable dyad and triad synthesis, advances the well-known Burmester theory in kinematics to a new level. While this method provides planar solutions, a novel patented scheme is utilized for converting prescribed three-dimensional motion specifications into sets of planar projections. This provides an analytical and a computational tool for designing adjustable mechanisms that satisfy multiple sets of three-dimensional motion specifications. Several design issues were addressed, including adjustable parameter identification, branching defect, and mechanical errors. An efficient mathematical scheme for

  5. A new revenue sharing mechanism for coordinating multi-echelon supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhee, van der B.; Venugopal, V.; Veen, van der J.A.A.; Nalla, V.R.

    2009-01-01

    One of the key issues in Supply Chain Management is to prevent sub-optimization caused by the distribution of decision power over the various entities. Over the last decade, various contract mechanisms such as Revenue Sharing (RS) have been used to overcome such difficulties. Typically, a contract

  6. Manage costs and revenues by achieving continuous measurement certainty with the Auto-Adjust Turbo Meter; Gerez les couts et les recettes en acquerant une certitude continuelle de mesure grace au Auto-Adjust Turbo Meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D. [Invensys Energy Metering, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Uncertainty in flow measurement and its consequent ramifications are accepted as normal costs of transporting and distributing natural gas. However, a notable advancement in turbine meter technology, pioneered by Invensys Energy Metering, uses two rotors in a tandem configuration to offer unique capabilities beyond those of the tried-and-proven, single-rotor turbine. A flow meter, which monitors its own performance and adjusts its measurement, on a real-time basis, for any deviations from its initial calibration, could largely eliminate many of the costs and lost revenue associated with flow metering and measurement uncertainty. The dual-rotor turbine, trade named the Auto-Adjust Turbo Meter (AAT), is such a flow meter; it provides Continuous Measurement Certainty, with the accompanying potential for enhanced management of costs and revenues. Proprietary algorithms in the AAT's secondary electronics correlate the velocities of the main rotor and the downstream sensing rotor, over the full range of the meter's rated capacity and pressure, such that a real-time adjustment to the indicated volume corrects it to the actual volume. Improved gas accountability results, and substantial savings related to meter site visits, meter testing and repair, preventive maintenance programs, and measurement disputes can be realized. Test data and case histories from a broad range of end users are related to demonstrate areas of potential savings and revenue recovery. (author)

  7. Controlling chaos based on an adaptive adjustment mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yongai

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the ideas and techniques developed by Huang [Huang W. Stabilizing nonlinear dynamical systems by an adaptive adjustment mechanism. Phys Rev E 2000;61:R1012-5] for controlling discrete-time chaotic system using adaptive adjustment mechanism to continuous-time chaotic system. Two control approaches, namely adaptive adjustment mechanism (AAM) and modified adaptive adjustment mechanism (MAAM), are investigated. In both case sufficient conditions for the stabilization of chaotic systems are given analytically. The simulation results on Chen chaotic system have verified the effectiveness of the proposed techniques

  8. Electric sales and revenue, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. Previous publications presented data on typical electric bills at specified consumption levels as well as sales, revenues, and average revenue. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1990. The electric revenue reported by each electric utility includes the revenue billed for the amount of kilowatthours sold, revenue from income, unemployment and other State and local taxes, energy or demand charges, consumer services charges, environmental surcharges, franchise fees, fuel adjustments, and other miscellaneous charges. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels

  9. LABOUR MOBILITY AS AN ADJUSTMENT MECHANISM IN THE EURO AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Puiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the capacity of labour mobility in the euro area to act as an adjustment mechanism in the event of an asymmetric shock. According to the optimum currency area theory, labour mobility has been emphasized as one of the main adjustment mechanism. Given the present situation, where there are major concerns about the future of the euro area, it is necessary to study if the mechanism for stability works and if it can be improved. Considering the difficulty of quantifying the labour mobility, we have analyzed the net migration and the regulations regarding labour market. The empirical evidence shows that labour mobility does not act as a sufficient adjustment mechanism.

  10. Electric sales and revenue: 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1993. Operating revenue includes energy charges, demand charges, consumer service charges, environmental surcharges, fuel adjustments, and other miscellaneous charges. The revenue does not include taxes, such as sales and excise taxes, that are assessed on the consumer and collected through the utility. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. Because electric rates vary based on energy usage, average revenue per kilowatthour are affected by changes in the volume of sales. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour data provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels.

  11. Mechanical design of a power-adjustable spectacle lens frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Asuncion; Barbero, Sergio

    2011-05-01

    Power-adjustable spectacle lenses, based on the Alvarez-Lohmann principle, can be used to provide affordable spectacles for subjective refractive errors measurement and its correction. A new mechanical frame has been designed to maximize the advantages of this technology. The design includes a mechanism to match the interpupillary distance with that of the optical centers of the lenses. The frame can be manufactured using low cost plastic injection molding techniques. A prototype has been built to test the functioning of this mechanical design.

  12. Personality, emotional adjustment, and cardiovascular risk: marriage as a mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W; Baron, Carolynne E; Grove, Jeremy L

    2014-12-01

    A variety of aspects of personality and emotional adjustment predict the development and course of coronary heart disease (CHD), as do indications of marital quality (e.g., satisfaction, conflict, strain, disruption). Importantly, the personality traits and aspects of emotional adjustment that predict CHD are also related to marital quality. In such instances of correlated risk factors, traditional epidemiological and clinical research typically either ignores the potentially overlapping effects or examines independent associations through statistical controls, approaches that can misrepresent the key components and mechanisms of psychosocial effects on CHD. The interpersonal perspective in personality and clinical psychology provides an alternative and integrative approach, through its structural and process models of interpersonal behavior. We present this perspective on psychosocial risk and review research on its application to the integration of personality, emotional adjustment, and marital processes as closely interrelated influences on health and disease. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Balance of payments adjustment mechanisms in the Euro area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel HNÁT

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at analysing the current situation in the Euro area with respect to the balance of payments adjustment mechanism that should normally be at place. Internally, the Euro area membership represents a combination of the fixed exchange rate, capital mobility and no monetary policy autonomy; externally, the Euro area countries apply floating exchange rates with high capital mobility, and autonomous monetary policy. Member states thus cannot use the monetary instruments to prevent external influences; they can only use fiscal policies, which are limited by the Stability and Growth Pact and debt constraint. When external imbalance occurs (such as today, the economies of member states are exposed to the price and income adjustment processes as well as to their own fiscal and ECB policy impacts. This article shows that all these factors interfere and influence real effects of automatic adjustment mechanisms which in some cases cannot come forth at all. Factors within domestic economic policies that limit the restoration of external balance within the Euro area thus create an important outcome of this paper.

  14. Research Facility for Mechanical Press Closed Gap Adjuster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ancifirov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes an example of the research facility for closed gap adjustment mechanism based on the KD2128 closed-die forging press. Its rated force with a servo drive used is 630kN. The servo drive consists of a motor with nominal power of 1.57kW and a frequency converter with power of 7.5kW, which has functions of the programmable logic controller.The article notes that such a facility is expedient and useful for practical classes on forging-andstamping machines at the BMSTU Department of «Technology processing by pressure» to demonstrate the capabilities of existing technological facility, learn a design of forging-andstamping machine units, solve the problems of automatic control, monitoring, and diagnostics in blank manufacturing.The article presents a detailed facility diagram of the closed gap adjustment mechanism and its photograph, describes the mechanism and its basic parameters, gives characteristics of the synchronous motor to drive the mechanism, reviews practical works, which the research facility may provide.Based on the four experiments the article estimates an efficiency of the research facilityuse under consideration, especially when modeling a servo motor shaft under the maximum load. The relevant diagrams confirm experimental results, namely: control current, angle of motor shaft and its speed versus time. Thus, upon the diagram analysis it can be noted that the research facility design allows providing kinematics and dynamics of the press closed gap adjuster.This article describes how to determine the closed gap adjusting accuracy of the press. Eight experiments have been conducted to evaluate a working out control signal to the linear movement of the press punch when using the research facility. It is noted that the linear positioning accuracy of the press punch reaches the hundredth parts of a millimeter of the adjustment value that is sufficient to achieve the required precision when performing operations such as

  15. Demographic mechanisms of inbreeding adjustment through extra-pair reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jane M; Duthie, A Bradley; Wolak, Matthew E; Arcese, Peter

    2015-07-01

    One hypothesis explaining extra-pair reproduction is that socially monogamous females mate with extra-pair males to adjust the coefficient of inbreeding (f) of extra-pair offspring (EPO) relative to that of within-pair offspring (WPO) they would produce with their socially paired male. Such adjustment of offspring f requires non-random extra-pair reproduction with respect to relatedness, which is in turn often assumed to require some mechanism of explicit pre-copulatory or post-copulatory kin discrimination. We propose three demographic processes that could potentially cause mean f to differ between individual females' EPO and WPO given random extra-pair reproduction with available males without necessarily requiring explicit kin discrimination. Specifically, such a difference could arise if social pairings formed non-randomly with respect to relatedness or persisted non-randomly with respect to relatedness, or if the distribution of relatedness between females and their sets of potential mates changed during the period through which social pairings persisted. We used comprehensive pedigree and pairing data from free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) to quantify these three processes and hence investigate how individual females could adjust mean offspring f through instantaneously random extra-pair reproduction. Female song sparrows tended to form social pairings with unrelated or distantly related males slightly less frequently than expected given random pairing within the defined set of available males. Furthermore, social pairings between more closely related mates tended to be more likely to persist across years than social pairings between less closely related mates. However, these effects were small and the mean relatedness between females and their sets of potential extra-pair males did not change substantially across the years through which social pairings persisted. Our framework and analyses illustrate how demographic and social structuring within

  16. The Imputed Valuation and Adjusted Tax Base Concept: A System to Incorporate in Lieu of Property Tax Revenues in Definition of Wealth for Equalization Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Richard L.; Torgeson, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    Outlines how the state of North Dakota is developing a system for incorporating the revenue from the coal and petroleum industries into the tax base for local school support as part of an equalization plan for supporting basic services during a depressed economic period. (MD)

  17. Piracy and Movie Revenues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peukert, Christian; Claussen, Jörg; Kretschmer, Tobias

    difference-in-differences approach. We compare box office revenues before and after the shutdown to a matched control group of movies unaffected by the shutdown. We find that the shutdown had a negative, yet insignificant effect on box office revenues.This counterintuitive result may suggest support...... for the theoretical perspective of (social) network effects where file-sharing acts as a mechanism to spread information about a good from consumers with zero or low willingness to pay to users with high willingness to pay....

  18. Electric sales and revenue 1992, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-20

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1992. The electric revenue reported by each electric utility includes the applicable revenue from kilowatthours sold; revenue from income; unemployment and other State and local taxes; energy, demand, and consumer service charges; environmental surcharges; franchise fees; fuel adjustments; and other miscellaneous charges. The revenue does not include taxes, such as sales and excise taxes, that are assessed on the consumer and collected through the utility. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels.

  19. Electric sales and revenue 1992, April 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1992. The electric revenue reported by each electric utility includes the applicable revenue from kilowatthours sold; revenue from income; unemployment and other State and local taxes; energy, demand, and consumer service charges; environmental surcharges; franchise fees; fuel adjustments; and other miscellaneous charges. The revenue does not include taxes, such as sales and excise taxes, that are assessed on the consumer and collected through the utility. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels

  20. Study on a mechanical snubber with an adjustment mechanism for resisting force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmata, Kenichiro; Miyanaga, Hiroyuki.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanical snubber is an earthquakeproof device for a piping system under particular circumstances such as high temperature and radioactivity. It restrains the piping system by a strong resisting force during an earthquake. This strong force can cause elastic failure of grooves on a brake disk, where steel balls are placed. In this report, an improved mechanical snubber having an adjustment mechanism for resisting force is proposed in order to obtain a mechanical snubber which has almost the same restraint effect and less resisting force in comparison with a conventional mechanical snubber. The resisting force characteristics and the restraint effect of the improved mechanical snubber applied to a simple beam are discussed both numerically and experimentally. The digital simulations are carried out using the Continuous System Simulation Language (CSSL). (author)

  1. Financial mechanism to invest in knowledge from natural resource revenues: Experiences from Bolivia, Chile, Colombia and Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iizuka, Michiko; Vargas, Fernando; Baumann, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    In resource-rich emerging countries, management of revenues from natural resources (NR) plays a critical role in transforming their economies. In this paper, a conceptual framework is constructed for an institution to promote the economic diversification through investing in knowledge, based on the

  2. Net lost revenue from DSM: State policies that work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.W.

    1995-07-01

    A key utility regulatory reform undertaken since 1989 allows utilities to recover the lost revenue incurred through successful operation of demand-side management (DSM) programs. Net lost revenue adjustment (NLRA) mechanisms are states preferred approach to lost revenue recovery from DSM programs. This paper examines the experiences states and utilities are having with the NLRA approach. The paper has three objectives: (1) determine whether NLRA is a feasible and effective approach to the lost-revenue disincentive for utility DSM programs, (2) identify the conditions linked to effective implementation of NLRA mechanisms and assess whether NLRA has changed utility investment behavior, and (3) suggest improvements to NLRA mechanisms. Contrary to the concerns raised by some industry analysts, our results indicate NLRA is a feasible approach. Seven of the ten states we studied report no substantial problems with their approach. We observe several conditions linked to effective NLRA implementation. Observed changes in utility investment behavior occur after implementation of DSM rate reforms, which include deployment of NLRA mechanisms. Utilities in states with lost revenue recovery invest more than twice as much in DSM as do utilities in other states.

  3. Nevada state revenues analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This report analyzes the major sources of revenue to the Nevada State General Fund for purposes of estimating impacts associated with the siting of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada. Each major revenue source is analyzed to identify relationships among the economic or demographic base, the revenue base, and the revenues generated. Trends and changes in the rates and/or base are highlighted. A model is developed for each revenue source to allow impact estimation

  4. Asymmetric cell division requires specific mechanisms for adjusting global transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Adriana; Medina, Daniel A; García-Martínez, José; Begley, Victoria; Singh, Abhyudai; Chávez, Sebastián; Muñoz-Centeno, Mari C; Pérez-Ortín, José E

    2017-12-01

    Most cells divide symmetrically into two approximately identical cells. There are many examples, however, of asymmetric cell division that can generate sibling cell size differences. Whereas physical asymmetric division mechanisms and cell fate consequences have been investigated, the specific problem caused by asymmetric division at the transcription level has not yet been addressed. In symmetrically dividing cells the nascent transcription rate increases in parallel to cell volume to compensate it by keeping the actual mRNA synthesis rate constant. This cannot apply to the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where this mechanism would provoke a never-ending increasing mRNA synthesis rate in smaller daughter cells. We show here that, contrarily to other eukaryotes with symmetric division, budding yeast keeps the nascent transcription rates of its RNA polymerases constant and increases mRNA stability. This control on RNA pol II-dependent transcription rate is obtained by controlling the cellular concentration of this enzyme. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Positioning accuracy analysis of adjusting target mechanism of three-dimensional attitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Li; Wang Kun; Sun Linzhi; Zhou Shasha

    2012-01-01

    A novel adjusting target mechanism of three-dimensional attitude is presented according to the characteristics of the target transport subsystem in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The mechanism consists of a tangent mechanism adjusting rotation angle and a set of orthogonal tangent mechanism adjusting two-dimensional deflection angles. The structural parameters of the adjusting target mechanism are analyzed according to principle errors, structure errors and motion errors of following. The analysis results indicate that the system error of the adjusting target mechanism is influenced by the displacement of the linear actuators, the actuator ball radius, the working radius of the tangent mechanism, the angle error of the inclined installation hole, the centralization error of the actuators, the orthogonal error of the two tangent mechanism, and the angle errors of the inclined target rod inclined rotation shaft. The errors of the inclined target rod and inclined rotation shaft are the two greatest impact factors, the spherical contact error is the next. By means of precise assembly and control system compensation, the accuracy of the adjusting target mechanism can be less than 0.1 mrad. (authors)

  6. Jackson Revenue Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This dataset shows the City of Jackson's FY2017 revenue budget, revenue collected to date, and the balance remaining to be collected. The data can be broken down by...

  7. Dealing with friction in a reusable 6 degrees of freedom adjustment mechanism with sliding contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkhamer, J.F.F.

    2003-01-01

    Although the possibility of a 6 degrees of freedom adjustment based on a single body pulled onto on six adjustable supports follows directly from the kinematic theory, such mechanisms are seldom used in actual products. Two major drawbacks for the use of this solution are: Due to the sliding contact

  8. Why Revenue Diversification Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuhusen, Fredrik Carl Axel Peter

    2017-01-01

    Revenue diversification is a term that becomes more relevant as higher education institutions are confronted with increased regulation, competition, declining enrollments, and strained finances. A challenge that many institutions face is that expenditures are higher than revenues and increase faster than them. The term Revenue diversification…

  9. Achieving Revenue Benchmarks Conditional on Growth Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun Son

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether certain firm characteristics, specifically growth properties, are associated with the likelihood of achieving market expectations for revenues, as well as which mechanism (revenue manipulation or expectation management growth firms utilize in order to avoid missing these expectations. The results show that growth firms are more likely to meet or exceed analyst revenue forecasts than non-growth firms. We also find that growth firms are more inclined to manipulate their reported revenues upwards, and less inclined to guide market expectations for revenues downward, in order to meet or beat expected revenues relative to non-growth firms. These findings suggest that window-dressing activities by growth firms may not be sustainable in the long-run and can misguide users of financial statements in their decision-making.

  10. An Approach to Implementing A Threshold Adjusting Mechanism in Very Complex Negotiations : A Preliminary Result

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Katsuhide; Ito, Takayuki; Hattori, Hiromitsu; Klein, Mark

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a threshold adjusting mechanism in very complex negotiations among software agents. The proposed mechanism can facilitate agents to reach an agreement while keeping their private information as much as possible. Multi-issue negotiation protocols have been studied widely and represent a promising field since most negotiation problems in the real world involve interdependent multiple issues. We have proposed negotiation protocols where a bidding-based mechanism is used...

  11. airline revenue management

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, K.; Piersma, Nanda

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWith the increasing interest in decision support systems and the continuous advance of computer science, revenue management is a discipline which has received a great deal of interest in recent years. Although revenue management has seen many new applications throughout the years, the main focus of research continues to be the airline industry. Ever since Littlewood (1972) first proposed a solution method for the airline revenue management problem, a variety of solution methods ha...

  12. Philippines - Revenue Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Challenge Account-Philippines' (MCA-P) implementation of the Revenue Administration Reform Project (RARP) is expected to improve tax administration,...

  13. Characterization of revenue equivalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydenreich, B.; Müller, R.; Uetz, Marc Jochen; Vohra, R.

    2009-01-01

    The property of an allocation rule to be implementable in dominant strategies by a unique payment scheme is called revenue equivalence. We give a characterization of revenue equivalence based on a graph theoretic interpretation of the incentive compatibility constraints. The characterization holds

  14. Characterization of Revenue Equivalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydenreich, Birgit; Müller, Rudolf; Uetz, Marc Jochen; Vohra, Rakesh

    2008-01-01

    The property of an allocation rule to be implementable in dominant strategies by a unique payment scheme is called \\emph{revenue equivalence}. In this paper we give a characterization of revenue equivalence based on a graph theoretic interpretation of the incentive compatibility constraints. The

  15. Design amp Validation Of E-Rpm Adjustment Assembly For Mechanical Governor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi kumar manhotra

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper detailing the problem of speed fluctuation of IDI engine Rpm i.e. hunting and dipping. It is due to E-RPM adjustment assembly for mechanical centrifugal flyweight governor system. E-RPM adjustment assembly works mainly for high speed adjustment ampidle speed adjustment. In mechanical centrifugal flyweight governor system of IDI engine issue at idle rpm hunting and dipping issue was reported in field.New designs of plunger type stopper cover with compressed coil spring are proposed for E-RPM adjustment assembly for mechanical centrifugal fly-weight governor system. 3D-Modeling of new design is done on Seimens NX. Kinematic simulation was done with the help of Altairs Motion-View amp Motion-Solver. Based on the results from MBD the prototype is made and tested in engine. As per the test results from engine testing with new design there is no hunting and dipping problem is reported at idle rpm.

  16. Risk-adjusted survival after tissue versus mechanical aortic valve replacement: a 23-year assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaca, Jeffrey G; Clare, Robert M; Rankin, J Scott; Daneshmand, Mani A; Milano, Carmelo A; Hughes, G Chad; Wolfe, Walter G; Glower, Donald D; Smith, Peter K

    2013-11-01

    Detailed analyses of risk-adjusted outcomes after mitral valve surgery have documented significant survival decrements with tissue valves at any age. Several recent studies of prosthetic aortic valve replacement (AVR) also have suggested a poorer performance of tissue valves, although analyses have been limited to small matched series. The study aim was to test the hypothesis that AVR with tissue valves is associated with a lower risk-adjusted survival, as compared to mechanical valves. Between 1986 and 2009, primary isolated AVR, with or without coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), was performed with currently available valve types in 2148 patients (1108 tissue valves, 1040 mechanical). Patients were selected for tissue valves to be used primarily in the elderly. Baseline and operative characteristics were documented prospectively with a consistent variable set over the entire 23-year period. Follow up was obtained with mailed questionnaires, supplemented by National Death Index searches. The average time to death or follow up was seven years, and follow up for survival was 96.2% complete. Risk-adjusted survival characteristics for the two groups were evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards model with stepwise selection of candidate variables. Differences in baseline characteristics between groups were (tissue versus mechanical): median age 73 versus 61 years; non-elective surgery 32% versus 28%; CABG 45% versus 35%; median ejection fraction 55% versus 55%; renal failure 6% versus 1%; diabetes 18% versus 7% (pvalves; however, after risk adjustment for the adverse profiles of tissue valve patients, no significant difference was observed in survival after tissue or mechanical AVR. Thus, the hypothesis did not hold, and risk-adjusted survival was equivalent, of course qualified by the fact that selection bias was evident. With selection criteria that employed tissue AVR more frequently in elderly patients, tissue and mechanical valves achieved similar survival

  17. Modeling and Control of the Redundant Parallel Adjustment Mechanism on a Deployable Antenna Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Tian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of developing multiple input and multiple output (MIMO coupling systems with a redundant parallel adjustment mechanism on the deployable antenna panel, a structural control integrated design methodology is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the modal information from the finite element model of the structure of the antenna panel is extracted, and then the mathematical model is established with the Hamilton principle; Secondly, the discrete Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR controller is added to the model in order to control the actuators and adjust the shape of the panel. Finally, the engineering practicality of the modeling and control method based on finite element analysis simulation is verified.

  18. Health insurance in Croatia: dynamics and politics of balancing revenues and expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voncina, Luka; Kehler, Jenni; Evetovits, Tamas; Bagat, Mario

    2010-04-01

    Since 2002, the Croatian social health insurance system has undergone substantial reforms, initiated for the most part with the aim of addressing the perpetual financial deficits of the state health insurance fund. While the reforms focussed heavily on increasing the inflow of private funds into the health care system, underlying inefficiencies contributing significantly to poor financial performance have been largely ignored. Furthermore, contrary to demographic trends and developments in social health insurance schemes in other countries, funding health care became even more dependent on its main collection mechanism-payroll tax-and consequently on the employment ratio and wage level. Little effort has been made to diversify the revenue base or to increase the efficiency of revenue collection. Like other countries, Croatia is facing difficulties in adjusting its 'Bismarck' system to its changing demographic and socioeconomic context. Instead of targetting a comprehensive effort at improving revenue collection and limitating unnecessary expenditure and system inefficiencies, simplified approaches to balance the budget have been implemented at a high price to users and with limited effect. As a result, the Croatian health insurance system now offers a lower level of financial protection, while still facing the problem of spending more than can be collected through the current mix of revenue collection mechanisms. The authors suggest that, in order to meet the sustainability requirement of the health financing system, measures affecting both revenue and expenditure should be considered and implemented. On the revenue collection side, the Croatian government must make further efforts to improve collection from the informally employed to broaden the base of contributing members; equally important is the diversification of revenue sources by increasing transfers from general taxation revenues. On the expenditure side, exploring inefficiencies of the delivery system can

  19. City Revenues and Expenses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — City Revenues and Expenses from the Operating Budget from 2012 to Present, updated every night from the City's JD Edwards ledger.

  20. Resource revenues report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary forecasts of resource revenues that may be forthcoming with the lifting of the moratorium on the west coast of British Columbia were presented. The forecasts are based on the development scenarios of one natural gas project in the Hecate Strait, and one oil project in the Queen Charlotte Sound. Both projects were assessed in an effort to demonstrate some of the potential resource revenues and public benefits that may be possible from offshore development in the province. Resource revenues provide the return-on-investments to the resource developer and public benefits in the form of taxes, royalties, lease payments and related fees to all levels of governments. Much of the revenues generated from the British Columbia offshore oil and gas development will accrue as income taxes. A public energy trust offers a way to transform non-renewable resource revenues into a renewable source of wealth for citizens of the province. The report presents estimates of project investment, pipeline capacity limitation, operating costs for offshore platforms, and earnings. It was estimated that about $2.0 billion in public benefits would be generated from combined project revenues of $6.9 billion. Information was obtained from offshore leaseholders as well as pipeline and engineering companies. refs., tabs., figs

  1. [Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA). A new mode of assisted mechanical ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerer, O; Barwing, J; Quintel, M

    2008-10-01

    The aim of mechanical ventilation is to assure gas exchange while efficiently unloading the respiratory muscles and mechanical ventilation is an integral part of the care of patients with acute respiratory failure. Modern lung protective strategies of mechanical ventilation include low-tidal-volume ventilation and the continuation of spontaneous breathing which has been shown to be beneficial in reducing atelectasis and improving oxygenation. Poor patient-ventilator interaction is a major issue during conventional assisted ventilation. Neurally adjusted ventilator assist (NAVA) is a new mode of mechanical ventilation that uses the electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi) to control the ventilator. First experimental studies showed an improved patient-ventilator synchrony and an efficient unloading of the respiratory muscles. Future clinical studies will have to show that NAVA is of clinical advantage when compared to conventional modes of assisted mechanical ventilation. This review characterizes NAVA according to current publications on this topic.

  2. Radon mitigation with mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation adjusted by a pressure control unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokotti, H.; Keskikuru, T.; Kalliokoski, P.

    1993-01-01

    Effective ventilation and positive or low negative pressure indoors are suggested to low indoor radon levels. The aim of this study is to develop and to test an equipment, which makes it possible to achieve simultaneously effective ventilation and minimum outdoor-pressure difference. The unit includes mechanical supply and exhaust air fans, a exchanger and a pressure control unit in direct digital control (DDC), which adjusts continuously air exchange based on the pressure difference transmitter information. (orig.). (8 refs., 6 figs.)

  3. 78 FR 69938 - Internal Revenue Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Employment Tax... consideration. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Yvette Lawrence, Internal Revenue Service, Room 6129... [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Employment Tax Adjustments. OMB Number: 1545...

  4. The Connection Between House Price Appreciation and Property Tax Revenues*

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, Byron F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores two aspects of the connection between property tax revenues and house prices. First, I estimate the elasticity of property tax revenues with respect to house prices. This elasticity does not necessarily equal one as governments may adjust effective tax rates to offset changes in property values. Second, I examine the timing of the relationship. Institutional features of the property tax make it unlikely that changes in house prices will immediately influence tax revenues. ...

  5. A fine adjustment mechanism of the second crystal in a double-crystal monochromator with a 3-PS parallel manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Chongzhen; Gao, X.; Ma, P.; Yu, H.; Wang, F.; Huang, Y.; Liu, P.

    2005-01-01

    A novel fine adjustment mechanism of the second crystal in a double-crystal monochromator is put forward, which is based on a 3-PS parallel manipulator and the magnetic force. Not only is the principle of fine adjusting the pitch angle and the roll angle analyzed, but also optimization of the structure parameters of the permanent magnet, a key part of the fine adjustment mechanism. The fine adjustment mechanism with the 3-PS parallel manipulator has been applied successfully in the double-crystal monochromator of 4W1B beam line in the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF)

  6. Electric sales and revenue 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. Previous publications presented data on typical electric bills at specified consumption levels as well as sales, revenue, and average revenue. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels

  7. A simple mechanism for measuring and adjusting distraction forces during maxillary advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Eduardo Yugo; Suzuki, Boonsiva

    2009-10-01

    Direct measurement of distraction forces on the craniofacial skeleton has never been reported. The present report describes the development of a method of assessing and adjusting traction forces applied through maxillary distraction osteogenesis. A simple mechanism to measure and adjust tension force during maxillary distraction osteogenesis was developed and connected bilaterally to the traction screws of a rigid external distraction device. Measurements were carried out before and after activation using a Shimpo (Nidec-Shimpo America Corporation, Itasca, IL) force gauge in 4 patients (2 with unilateral cleft lip and/or palate, 1 with bilateral cleft lip and palate, and 1 with noncleft) during the distraction process. Activation was performed twice a day at a rate of 1 mm/day. The average maximum force applied throughout the distraction period was 42.5 N (range 16.4 to 65.3 N), with increments, after activation, averaging 10.5 N (range 7.9 to 15.7 N). In patients with unilateral cleft lip and/or palate, distraction forces on the larger segment were 65.1% higher than on the lesser segment. A differential pattern of forces was also observed in the patients with asymmetric noncleft. However, the differential forces between lateral segments were not observed in the patient with bilateral cleft lip and palate. During the activation period, distraction forces progressively increased, whereas the amount of maxillary movement decreased. Pain and discomfort were reported with high forces. Through this mechanism, direct measurement and adjustment of distraction forces during maxillary advancement was possible. The unbalanced pattern of forces observed in patients with cleft suggests the necessity of individual adjustments for controlling pain and clinical symptoms. Accordingly, assessment of distraction forces during maxillary distraction osteogenesis is extremely helpful in understanding the biomechanics of the distraction process.

  8. Revenue cap regulation in a deregulated electricity market : effects on a grid company

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørndal, Mette; Jörnsten, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    In 1997 an incentive-based regulation was introduced for Norwegian transmission and distribution companies. Under the following revenue regulation regime, the permissible revenue of a grid company is adjusted annually, and during the first regulation period, the new revenue cap was determined on the basis of last year’s revenue cap, adjusting for inflation, productivity improvement, and load growth. The idea behind the load growth compensation factor was that the grid companies should be comp...

  9. A New and Versatile Adjustable Rigidity Actuator with Add-on Locking Mechanism (ARES-XL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Cestari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Adjustable compliant actuators are being designed and implemented in robotic devices because of their ability to minimize large forces due to impacts, to safely interact with the user, and to store and release energy in passive elastic elements. Conceived as a new force-controlled compliant actuator, an adjustable rigidity with embedded sensor and locking mechanism actuator (ARES-XL is presented in this paper. This compliant system is intended to be implemented in a gait exoskeleton for children with neuro muscular diseases (NMDs to exploit the intrinsic dynamics during locomotion. This paper describes the mechanics and initial evaluation of the ARES-XL, a novel variable impedance actuator (VIA that allows the implementation of an add-on locking mechanism to this system, and in combination with its zero stiffness capability and large deflection range, provides this novel joint with improved properties when compared to previous prototypes developed by the authors and other state-of-the-art (SoA devices. The evaluation of the system proves how this design exceeds the main capabilities of a previous prototype as well as providing versatile actuation that could lead to its implementation in multiple joints.

  10. Modeling and Dynamic Simulation of the Adjust and Control System Mechanism for Reactor CAREM-25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larreteguy, A.E; Mazufri, C.M

    2000-01-01

    The adjust and control system mechanism, MSAC, is an advanced, and in some senses unique, hydromechanical device.The efforts in modeling this mechanism are aimed to: Get a deep understanding of the physical phenomena involved,Identify the set of parameters relevant to the dynamics of the system,Allow the numerical simulation of the system,Predict the behavior of the mechanism in conditions other than that obtainable within the range of operation of the experimental setup (CEM), and Help in defining the design of the CAPEM (loop for testing the mechanism under high pressure/high temperature conditions).Thanks to the close interaction between the mechanics, the experimenters, and the modelists that compose the MSAC task force, it has been possible to suggest improvements, not only in the design of the mechanism, but also in the design and the operation of the pulse generator (GDP) and the rest of the CEM.This effort has led to a design mature enough so as to be tested in a high-pressure loop

  11. Hospitality services generate revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizouati, S

    1993-01-01

    An increasing number of hospitals are undertaking external revenue-generating activities to supplement their shrinking budgets. Written at the request of Leadership, this article outlines an example of a successful catering service -- a money-generating business that more Canadian hospitals could profitably consider.

  12. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  13. Defense Logistics Agency Revenue Eliminations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    The issue of revenue eliminations was identified during our work on the Defense Logistics Agency portion of the Audit of Revenue Accounts in the FY 1996 Financial Statements of the Defense Business Operations Fund...

  14. revenue management–sales relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Noone, B. M; Hultberg, T.

    2011-01-01

    Revenue management and sales staffs collaborate substantially in making decisions regarding rate setting, accepting group business, and forecasting. However, according to a survey of 82 sales and revenue management executives at three hotel chains (47 revenue managers and 35 sales executives), hotels could foster even better coordination between revenue management and sales by educating each group regarding the other group’s responsibilities. This might reduce sales staff frustrations about t...

  15. Electric sales and revenue 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the US. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1996. 16 figs., 20 tabs.

  16. The Newton constant and gravitational waves in some vector field adjusting mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillán, Osvaldo P. [IMAS (UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Scornavacche, Marina, E-mail: firenzecita@hotmail.com, E-mail: marina.scorna@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina)

    2017-10-01

    At the present, there exist some Lorentz breaking scenarios which explain the smallness of the cosmological constant at the present era [1]–[2]. An important aspect to analyze is the propagation of gravitational waves and the screening or enhancement of the Newton constant G {sub N} in these models. The problem is that the Lorentz symmetry breaking terms may induce an unacceptable value of the Newton constant G {sub N} or introduce longitudinal modes in the gravitational wave propagation. Furthermore this breaking may spoil the standard dispersion relation ω= ck . In [3] the authors have presented a model suggesting that the behavior of the gravitational constant is correct for asymptotic times. In the present work, an explicit checking is made and we finally agree with these claims. Furthermore, it is suggested that the gravitational waves are also well behaved for large times. In the process, some new models with the same behavior are obtained, thus enlarging the list of possible adjustment mechanisms.

  17. Nevada local government revenues analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This report analyzes the major sources of revenue for Nevada local government for purposes of estimating the impacts associated with the siting of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Each major revenue source is analyzed separately to identify relationships between the economic or demographic base, the revenue base and the revenues generated. Trends and changes in the rates and/or base are highlighted. A model is developed for each component to allow impact estimation. This report is a companion to the report Nevada State Revenues Analysis

  18. Revenue Potential for Inpatient IR Consultation Services: A Financial Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misono, Alexander S; Mueller, Peter R; Hirsch, Joshua A; Sheridan, Robert M; Siddiqi, Assad U; Liu, Raymond W

    2016-05-01

    Interventional radiology (IR) has historically failed to fully capture the value of evaluation and management services in the inpatient setting. Understanding financial benefits of a formally incorporated billing discipline may yield meaningful insights for interventional practices. A revenue modeling tool was created deploying standard financial modeling techniques, including sensitivity and scenario analyses. Sensitivity analysis calculates revenue fluctuation related to dynamic adjustment of discrete variables. In scenario analysis, possible future scenarios as well as revenue potential of different-size clinical practices are modeled. Assuming a hypothetical inpatient IR consultation service with a daily patient census of 35 patients and two new consults per day, the model estimates annual charges of $2.3 million and collected revenue of $390,000. Revenues are most sensitive to provider billing documentation rates and patient volume. A range of realistic scenarios-from cautious to optimistic-results in a range of annual charges of $1.8 million to $2.7 million and a collected revenue range of $241,000 to $601,000. Even a small practice with a daily patient census of 5 and 0.20 new consults per day may expect annual charges of $320,000 and collected revenue of $55,000. A financial revenue modeling tool is a powerful adjunct in understanding economics of an inpatient IR consultation service. Sensitivity and scenario analyses demonstrate a wide range of revenue potential and uncover levers for financial optimization. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Punishment Mechanism with Self-Adjusting Rules in Spatial Voluntary Public Goods Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhong-Wei; Xu, Zhao-Jin; Zhang, Lian-Zhong

    2014-11-01

    The phenomena of cooperation in animal and human society are ubiquitous, but the selfish outcome that no player contributes to the public good will lead to the “tragedy of the commons”. The recent research shows that high punishment can improve the cooperation of the population. In this paper, we introduce a punishment mechanism into spatial voluntary public goods games with every individual only knowing his own payoff in each round. Using the self-adjusting rules, we find that the different cost for punishment can lead to different effects on the voluntary public goods games. Especially, when the cost for punishment is decreased, a higher contribution region will appear in the case of low r value. It means even for the low r value, individuals can form the contributing groups in large quantities to produce a more efficient outcome than that in moderate r value. In addition, we also find the players' memory can have effects on the average outcome of the population.

  20. Electric sales and revenue 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the United States. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1994.

  1. Electric sales and revenue 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the US. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1997. 16 figs., 17 tabs.

  2. Validation of the force and frequency characteristics of the activator adjusting instrument: effectiveness as a mechanical impedance measurement tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, T S; Colloca, C J; Fuhr, A W

    1999-02-01

    To determine the dynamic force-time and force-frequency characteristics of the Activator Adjusting Instrument and to validate its effectiveness as a mechanical impedance measurement device; in addition, to refine or optimize the force-frequency characteristics of the Activator Adjusting Instrument to provide enhanced dynamic structural measurement reliability and accuracy. An idealized test structure consisting of a rectangular steel beam with a static stiffness similar to that of the human thoracolumbar spine was used for validation of a method to determine the dynamic mechanical response of the spine. The Activator Adjusting Instrument equipped with a load cell and accelerometer was used to measure forces and accelerations during mechanical excitation of the steel beam. Driving point and transfer mechanical impedance and resonant frequency of the beam were determined by use of a frequency spectrum analysis for different force settings, stylus masses, and stylus tips. Results were compared with beam theory and transfer impedance measurements obtained by use of a commercial electronic PCB impact hammer. The Activator Adjusting Instrument imparted a very complex dynamic impact comprising an initial high force (116 to 140 N), short duration pulse (analysis of the Activator Adjusting Instrument impulse indicated that the Activator Adjusting Instrument has a variable force spectrum and delivers its peak energy at a frequency of 20 Hz. Added masses and different durometer stylus tips had very little influence on the Activator Adjusting Instrument force spectrum. The resonant frequency of the beam was accurately predicted by both the Activator Adjusting Instrument and electronic PCB impact hammer, but variations in the magnitude of the driving point impedance at the resonant frequency were high (67%) compared with the transfer impedance measurements obtained with the electronic PCB impact hammer, which had a more uniform force spectrum and was more repeatable (frequency

  3. Towards sustainable oil revenue management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Challenges to oil revenue management in existing and emerging African oil economies are examined, with a special emphasis on countries in UNDP's Central and Eastern Africa (CEA) Region. It is part of the first phase of UNDP/CEA's Oil Revenue Initiative (ml)

  4. Towards sustainable oil revenue management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Challenges to oil revenue management in existing and emerging African oil economies are examined, with a special emphasis on countries in UNDP's Central and Eastern Africa (CEA) Region. It is part of the first phase of UNDP/CEA's Oil Revenue Initiative (ml)

  5. Antecedents, Consequences, and Mechanisms: On the Longitudinal Interplay Between Academic Self-Enhancement and Psychological Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufner, Michael; Reitz, Anne K; Zander, Lysann

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the reciprocal associations between academic self-enhancement and key indicators of intra- and interpersonal adjustment as well as the role of self-esteem as a mediator. This longitudinal study involved three assessments in a sample of 709 German children and adolescents (Mage  = 11.83; 54% female) over the course of one academic year. We assessed self-reported subjective well-being as an indicator of intrapersonal adjustment and peer-reported popularity as an indicator of interpersonal adjustment. We computed cross-lagged and longitudinal mediational analyses. Academic self-enhancement prospectively predicted high subsequent well-being and popularity. Vice versa, well-being and popularity prospectively predicted high subsequent levels of self-enhancement. High self-esteem mediated the longitudinal associations between self-enhancement and well-being in both directions, but not the links between self-enhancement and popularity. Self-enhancement and adjustment are bidirectionally linked: Self-enhancement entails intrapersonal and interpersonal benefits; at the same time, adjustment in both domains fosters self-enhancement. In terms of intrapersonal, but not interpersonal adjustment, self-esteem seems to serve as a linchpin, accounting for all longitudinal associations. Furthermore, we present evidence indicating that self-enhancement indicators that are based on difference scores (instead of residuals) are problematic and might have led to negatively biased results in the literature. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The Flexible Acceleration Mechanism of China’s Capital Adjustment with the Goal of Consumption-Driven Sustainable Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Su

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available China has had an investment-led growth pattern that is unsustainable. It is struggling to shift to a consumption-driven economy, and capital adjustment is crucial to the transition. In response, the principal objective of this study is to analyze the internal market mechanism of China’s capital adjustment. Due to the imperfections of the market, we use the flexible acceleration model, which we put in an IS (Investment – Saving equation–LM (Liquidity preference – Money supply equation framework in order to reflect the guiding role of demand. The results show that the flexible acceleration model fits China’s investment well, and the demand-oriented market mechanism of capital adjustment has been formed; however, China’s market adjustment ability is not strong. The adjustment coefficient is only 0.22, and shows a decreasing trend. So, in the capital optimization process, relying on the market alone is not realistic. Furthermore, the calculated replacement rate is up to 0.429, which indicates that China’s capital is less efficient, and there are duplicated assets, idle assets, and wasted investments. The error correction model’s results show that the impact of the interest rate on the investments is not significant in the short term, so the existence of invalid capital is more likely to stem from the soft budget constraints, which require attention.

  7. Construction contract revenue recording comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Bohušová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Publicly traded companies prepare their consolidated accounts in conformity with the international accounting standards (IAS/IFRS in accordance with the Regulation No. 1606/2002. This is obliged for all publicly traded joint-stock companies in the Czech Republic. Other companies prepare financial statements in accordance with national accounting standards. There are Accounting Act No. 563/1991 of Coll. and Regulation No. 500/2002 of Coll., Czech Accounting Standards in the Czech Republic. Both systems are based on different principles so there are many differences. The Czech Accounting System (CAS is based on the rules while IAS/IFRS are based on principles (Kovanicová, 2005. These differences are mainly caused by the different philosophy. CAS prefers the fiscal policy to the economic substance while IAS/IFRS prefere the economic substance. One of the most significant dif­fe­ren­ces is in the field of revenue recording. There are two standards concerning the revenues recording (IAS 18 − Revenue, IAS 11 – Construction Contracts in IAS/IFRS. CAS 019 – Expenses and Revenue are dealing with the revenue recording in the Czech Republic. The paper is aimed at the comparison of the methodical approaches for revenue recording used by IAS/IFRS and by CAS. The most important differences are caused by the different approach to the long term contracts (construction contracts, software development contracts revenues recording.

  8. 26 CFR 1.996-5 - Adjustment to basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment to basis. 1.996-5 Section 1.996-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.996-5 Adjustment to basis. (a) Addition to...

  9. Alignment Adjustment Procedures. Automotive Mechanics. Steering & Suspension. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automotive steering and suspension, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with automobile alignment and adjustment procedures. Covered in the module are identifying positive and negative cambers, positive and negative casters, and toe-ins;…

  10. "Revenue Management" Effects Related to Financial Flows Generated by Climate Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, Jon

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses possible macroeconomic implications for low-income countries of increased revenue inflows that may follow from implementing certain global greenhouse gas mitigation policies. Such revenue sources include revenue from emissions offset mechanisms, direct investments, and financial transfers that form parts of possible future mitigation treaties. In the short run such rev...

  11. 3. quarter 2006 sales revenue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    This document presents the sales revenue of the 3. quarter 2006 for the Group AREVA. The sales revenues for the first nine months of 2006 are up by 8,1% to 7,556 millions euros; the nuclear operations are up by 5,2% reflecting strong performance in the front end division; the transmission and distribution division is up by 14%. (A.L.B.)

  12. Design procedure for a wind-wheel with self-adjusting blade mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady A. Oborsky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Developed is a wind-wheel design equipped with the self-adjusting blade. The blade is positioned eccentrically to the balance wheel and can freely rotate around its axis. Elaborated is the method of calculating the energy characteristics for a wind-wheel with the self-adjusting blade, considering not only the wind force but the force of air counter flow resistance to the blade’s rotation. Initially, the blade being located at an angle α = 45 to the wheel rotation plane, the air flow rotates the wheel with the maximum force. Thus, the speed of rotation increases that involves the increase in air counter flow resistance and results in blade turning with respective angle α reduction. This, consequently, reduces the torque. When the torsional force and the resistance enter into equilibrium, the blade takes a certain angle α, and the wheel speed becomes constant. This wind-wheel design including a self-adjusting blade allows increasing the air flow load ratio when compared to the wind-wheel equipped with a jammed blade.

  13. The Unemployed Workers’ Perceptions of Stress and Employment Prospects in Macedonia: The Role of Alternative Adjustment Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoloski Dimitar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Depressed labour market conditions in Macedonia manifested by high and persistent unemployment rate, strong segmentation and prevailing long-term unemployment is considered as a heritage of more than two decades long period of transition. Unemployment has a number of negative consequences such a decreased income which is assumed to influence the subjective experience of unemployment. The negative macroeconomic shocks in Macedonia have been mitigated due to the strengthened role of alternative labour market adjustment mechanisms such as: employment in the informal sector, emigration and inactivity. However, their impact on the unemployed workers’ perceptions of stress and future labour market prospects is less clear-cut. In this paper we use results from a survey carried out on a sample of unemployed workers in Macedonia in order to identify the psychological implications of unemployment by assessing the perceived stress and employment prospects with particular reference to the role of alternative labour market adjustment mechanisms.

  14. Gasoline taxes and revenue volatility: An application to California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madowitz, M.; Novan, K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how applying different combinations of excise and sales taxes on motor fuels impact the volatility of retail fuel prices and tax revenues. Two features of gasoline and diesel markets make the choice of tax mechanism a unique problem. First, prices are very volatile. Second, demand for motor fuels is extremely inelastic. As a result, fuel expenditures vary substantially over time. Tying state revenues to these expenditures, as is the case with a sales tax, results in a volatile stream of revenue which imposes real costs on agents in an economy. On July 1, 2010, California enacted Assembly Bill x8-6, the “Gas Tax Swap”, increasing the excise tax and decreasing the sales tax on gasoline purchases. While the initial motivation behind the revenue neutral swap was to provide the state with greater flexibility within its budget, we highlight that this change has two potentially overlooked benefits; it reduces retail fuel price volatility and tax revenue volatility. Simulating the monthly fuel prices and tax revenues under alternative tax policies, we quantify the potential reductions in revenue volatility. The results reveal that greater benefits can be achieved by going beyond the tax swap and eliminating the gasoline sales tax entirely. - Highlights: • We examine how gasoline taxes affect government revenue volatility. • We simulate the impact of California's Gasoline Tax Swap policy. • Sales taxes are shown to magnify price volatility and government revenue volatility. • A pure excise tax policy results in less volatile fuel prices and state revenues. • We argue that reductions in both forms of volatility are welfare enhancing

  15. Design and Optimal Research of a Non-Contact Adjustable Magnetic Adhesion Mechanism for a Wall-Climbing Welding Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wall-climbing welding robots (WCWRs can replace workers in manufacturing and maintaining large unstructured equipment, such as ships. The adhesion mechanism is the key component of WCWRs. As it is directly related to the robot's ability in relation to adsorbing, moving flexibly and obstacle-passing. In this paper, a novel non-contact adjustably magnetic adhesion mechanism is proposed. The magnet suckers are mounted under the robot's axils and the sucker and wall are in non-contact. In order to pass obstacles, the sucker and the wheel unit can be pulled up and pushed down by a lifting mechanism. The magnetic adhesion force can be adjusted by changing the height of the gap between the sucker and the wall by the lifting mechanism. In order to increase the adhesion force, the value of the sucker's magnetic energy density (MED is maximized by optimizing the magnet sucker's structure parameters with a finite element method. Experiments prove that the magnetic adhesion mechanism has enough adhesion force and that the WCWR can complete wall-climbing work within a large unstructured environment.

  16. Data as a revenue model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Anja; Bilgrav-Nielsen, Kristine; Korsgaard Jensen, Anne-Louise

    2016-01-01

    Does data solve the crisis in legacy news companies? This article discusses data as a revenue model and the use of editorial algorithms to curate content and still meet public values. Furthermore, the article criticizes the news companies for using data in traditional advertisement revenue models......, which have proved difficult to uphold. Instead we need to focus on public values along with micro segment data in what are here termed social responsible algorithms. We also need to continue the discussion on the very concept of news and to experiment with news ‘packaging’ that are not derived from...

  17. Six sigma for revenue retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonien, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Deficiencies in revenue retrieval due to failures in obtaining charges have contributed to a negative bottom line for numerous hospitals. Improving documentation practices through a Six Sigma process improvement initiative can minimize opportunities for errors through reviews and instill structure for compliance and consistency. Commitment to the Six Sigma principles with continuous monitoring of outcomes and constant communication of results to departments, management, and payers is a strong approach to reducing the financial impact of denials on an organization's revenues and expenses. Using Six Sigma tools can help improve the organization's financial performance not only for today, but also for health care's uncertain future.

  18. INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING TREATMENT REGARDING REVENUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ECOBICI NICOLAE

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the news on international accounting treatments of revenue arising from the extensive process of convergence between IASB and FASB that began in 2002. The starting point of this approach is to identify the treatments currently applicable to income. Finally we presented a summary of the main provisions of the new standard IFRS 15 “Revenue from Contracts with Customers”, which replaces IAS 11 and IAS 18 (as well as a number of SIC and IFRIC interpretations required to be applied from January 1, 2017, emphasizing the potential impact on entities.

  19. Detection of a bad mechanical adjustment of a stator through a CEPSTRALE analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Reverend, D.

    1985-01-01

    After the failure of the stator of the CRUAS 2 nuclear power plant, a full check up was necessary before restarting the engine. In spite of examinations and repairs, a defect could remain. Thereby, an on line surveillance system is usefull, especially during the first months after start up. The ''Mecanique appliquee'' division developed a device for the surveillance of the mechanical integrity of the stator. This equipment is based on the analysis of the vibration [fr

  20. Problems of state adjustment the telecommunications industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tregub Ilona Vladimirovna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the mechanism of state adjustment of the telecommunications industry companies, providing the additional mobile services (VAS-services, by determining the optimal rates of tax and non-tax payments to the budget. Method is based on the approach of A. Laffer, who showed the possibility of existence an optimal tax rate, which provides, on the one hand, the maximum flow of funds in the budget, on the other hand, preserves the incentives of entrepreneurship. In the present paper, we study the dependence of revenues to the Reserve Fund on the size of the contribution rate and the coefficient of profitability of enterprises providing VAS-services.

  1. How To Increase Advertising Revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Carmen

    1995-01-01

    Describes advertising sales strategies to help faculty advisers of community college newspapers increase revenues. Argues that sales representatives should know their product well and maintain demographic information on the paper's readership. Includes strategies for organizing advertising staff, searching for potential clients, and taking charge…

  2. Recycling carbon revenues: transforming costs into opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidyula, Manasvini; Alberola, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Governments worldwide generated $26 billion in 2015 in carbon pricing revenues. The benefits and co-benefits of carbon pricing can be enhanced by recycling carbon revenues. Revenue allocation decisions made by governments are vital as these revenues can help shift the narrative on carbon pricing from 'burden to benefit'. Existing carbon pricing schemes can provide useful feedback on revenue recycling. A well-positioned decision-making and governing framework is required to ensure the efficient recycling of carbon revenues

  3. Multipathway Integrated Adjustment Mechanism of Glycyrrhiza Triterpenes Curing Gastric Ulcer in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Shuai; Bao, Yongrui; Li, Tianjiao; Chang, Xin; Yang, Guanlin; Meng, Xiansheng

    2017-01-01

    Gastric ulcer is a common chronic disease in human digestive system, which is difficult to cure, easy to relapse, and endangers human health seriously. Compared with western medicine, traditional Chinese medicine has a unique advantage in improving the general situation, stablizing medical condition, and with little side effects. Glycyrrhiza known as "king of all the medicine", has a range of pharmacological activities and is commonly used in a variety of proprietary Chinese medicines and formulations. On the basis of explicit antiulcer effect of Glycyrrhiza triterpenes, the molecular mechanisms of its therapeutic effect on acetic acid induced gastric ulcer in rats were explored. Acetic acid induced gastric ulcer model in rats was established to evaluate the curing effect of G. triterpenes and all of the rats were randomised into six groups: Control group, model group, omeprazole group (0.8 mg/mL), triterpenes high dose group (378.0 mg/mL), triterpenes middle dose group (126.0 mg/mL), and triterpenes low dose group (42.0 mg/mL). All rats in groups were orally administered the active group solution 1.5 mL once daily (model and control groups with saline) for 7 days. HPLC-TOF-MS analysis method was performed to obtain the plasma metabolites spectrums of control group, model group, triterpenes high, middle and low dose groups. A total of 11 differential endogenous metabolites related to the therapeutic effect of G. triterpenes were identified, including tryptophan, phingosine-1-phosphate, pantothenic acid, and so on, among which tryptophan and phingosine-1-phosphate are related with the calcium signaling pathway and arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. At the same time, in order to verify the above results, quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction were performed to evaluate the expression of H + -K + -ATPase alpha mRNA and phospholipase a 2 mRNA in relational signaling pathways. Combined with statistical analysis of plasma metabolic spectrum and gene expression

  4. DIANA: A Machine Learning Mechanism for Adjusting the TDD Uplink-Downlink Configuration in XG-PON-LTE Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Sarigiannidis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern broadband hybrid optical-wireless access networks have gained the attention of academia and industry due to their strategic advantages (cost-efficiency, huge bandwidth, flexibility, and mobility. At the same time, the proliferation of Software Defined Networking (SDN enables the efficient reconfiguration of the underlying network components dynamically using SDN controllers. Hence, effective traffic-aware schemes are feasible in dynamically determining suitable configuration parameters for advancing the network performance. To this end, a novel machine learning mechanism is proposed for an SDN-enabled hybrid optical-wireless network. The proposed architecture consists of a 10-gigabit-capable passive optical network (XG-PON in the network backhaul and multiple Long Term Evolution (LTE radio access networks in the fronthaul. The proposed mechanism receives traffic-aware knowledge from the SDN controllers and applies an adjustment on the uplink-downlink configuration in the LTE radio communication. This traffic-aware mechanism is capable of determining the most suitable configuration based on the traffic dynamics in the whole hybrid network. The introduced scheme is evaluated in a realistic environment using real traffic traces such as Voice over IP (VoIP, real-time video, and streaming video. According to the obtained numerical results, the proposed mechanism offers significant improvements in the network performance in terms of latency and jitter.

  5. Decoupling Revenue from Energy Sales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    2011-01-01

    Energy sector based on the fossil fuels combustion has the largest greenhouse gases emissions, causing the actual climate change with numerous negative impacts. Therefore, different measures for the climate change mitigation are performed, mostly by increasing ENEF-energy efficiency (saving), and by substituting fossil fuels with renewable energy (RE), mainly with limited results. One of the most serious obstacles for implementation of these measures is an opposition of the energy utilities (power and natural gas), whose energy sales, revenue and profit are thus reduced. Consequently, new solutions are asked to decouple utilities revenues from energy sales. Decoupling has started in the US, where most states have at least one utility with some decoupling experience. California has pioneering role since 1982., with impressive results. (author)

  6. Confiscatory equalization : the intriguing case of Saskatchewan's vanishing energy revenues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courchene, T.J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examined fiscal policies and factors that affect economic growth. In particular, it examined Saskatchewan's equalization entitlements for energy revenues and how Canada's equalization program confiscated the province's energy revenues for the fiscal year 2000-2001. It included an equalization primer that familiarized readers with the theory and practice of equalization. Several equations and tables relating to the mechanics of equalization were included along with a summary of equalization and tax-back rates that address the nature of tax-back rates that accompany the equalization formula. The author proposed alternative ways to reduce tax-backs such as the generic solution that applies to offshore energy revenues in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. He also suggested ways in which some important fiscal inequities can be redressed. A remedy that can be applied immediately involves an equitable approach which allows the province to retain at least 30 per cent of its energy revenues. A long term remedy would require the implementation of comprehensive reform such as restoring equalization to its national average standard (NAS) roots, but where only 25 per cent of resource revenues would be eligible for equalization. It was suggested that the maximum equalization tax-back rate for each of Saskatchewan's energy revenue categories should not exceed 70 per cent. refs., tabs., figs

  7. Unexperienced mechanical effects of muscular fatigue can be predicted by the Central Nervous System as revealed by anticipatory postural adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monjo, Florian; Forestier, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    Muscular fatigue effects have been shown to be compensated by the implementation of adaptive compensatory neuromuscular strategies, resulting in modifications of the initial motion coordination. However, no studies have focused on the efficiency of the feedforward motor commands when muscular fatigue occurs for the first time during a particular movement. This study included 18 healthy subjects who had to perform arm-raising movements in a standing posture at a maximal velocity before and after a fatiguing procedure involving focal muscles. The arm-raising task implies the generation of predictive processes of control, namely Anticipatory Postural Adjustments (APAs), whose temporal and quantitative features have been shown to be dependent on the kinematics of the upcoming arm-raising movement. By altering significantly the kinematic profile of the focal movement with a fatiguing procedure, we sought to find out whether APAs scaled to the lower mechanical disturbance. APAs were measured using surface electromyography. Following the fatiguing procedure, acceleration peaks of the arm movement decreased by ~27%. APAs scaled to this lower fatigue-related disturbance during the very first trial post-fatigue, suggesting that the Central Nervous System can predict unexperienced mechanical effects of muscle fatigue. It is suggested that these results are accounted for by prediction processes in which the central integration of the groups III and IV afferents leads to an update of the internal model by remapping the relationship between focal motor command magnitude and the actual mechanical output.

  8. 46 CFR Sec. 3 - Accounting for revenues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting for revenues. Sec. 3 Section 3 Shipping... FINANCIAL TRANSACTIONS UNDER AGENCY AGREEMENTS Accounting for Revenues Sec. 3 Accounting for revenues. (a... shipper, consignee, weight or measurement, freight rate and basis (whether the freight rate applies on...

  9. Cost per QALY (quality-adjusted life year and lifetime cost of prolonged mechanical ventilation in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Chuan Hung

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patients who require prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV are increasing and producing financial burdens worldwide. This study determines the cost per QALY (quality-adjusted life year, out-of-pocket expenses, and lifetime costs for PMV patients stratified by underlying diseases and cognition levels. METHODS: A nationwide sample of 50,481 patients with continual mechanical ventilation for more than 21 days was collected during 1997-2007. After stratifying the patients according to specific diagnoses, a latent class analysis (LCA was performed to categorise PMV patients with multiple co-morbidities into several homogeneous groups. The survival functions were estimated for individual groups using the Kaplan-Meier method and extrapolated to 300 months through a semi-parametric method. The survival functions were adjusted using an EQ-5D utility value derived from a convenience sample of 142 PMV patients to estimate quality-adjusted life expectancies (QALE. Another convenience sample of 165 patients was used to estimate the out-of-pocket expenses. The lifetime expenditures paid by the single-payer National Health Insurance (NHI system and patients' families were estimated by multiplying average monthly expenditures by the survival probabilities and summing the values over lifetime. RESULTS: PMV therapy costs more than 100,000 U.S. dollars (USD per QALY for all patients with poor cognition. For patients with partial cognition, PMV therapy costs less than 56,000 USD per QALY for those with liver cirrhosis, intracranial or spinal cord injuries, and 57,000-69,000 USD for patients with multiple co-morbidities under age of 65. The average lifetime cost of PMV was usually below 56,000 USD. The out-of-pocket expenses were often more than one-third of the total cost of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: PMV treatment for patients with poor cognition would cost more than 5 times Taiwan's GDP (gross domestic products, or less cost-effective. The out

  10. NEW APPROACHES ON REVENUE RECOGNITION AND MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Aurora, BUNEA-BONTAȘ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Revenue is an important indicator to users of financial statements in assessing an entity's financial performance and position. International Financial Reporting Standard 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers (IFRS 15 issued in May 2014 provides a robust framework for addressing revenue issues. The standard establishes principles for reporting useful information to users of financial statements about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from an entity's contracts with customers. This article outlines the basic principles that an entity should must apply to measure and recognise revenue and the related cash flows.

  11. Building Hotel Revenues through Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Murtha, CHA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When evaluating ways to maximize revenues, hotel executives should consider supporting the efforts of local destination marketing organizations. Helping to build and sustain travel to a city or region can benefit individual hotels, by combining resources and energy on marketing tactics that would otherwise be too ambitious or costly for a single property to pursue on its own. The market in Boston and adjacent Cambridge, Massachusetts offers an interesting case study for understanding the interaction of hotels and destination marketing organizations. The author includes action steps for hoteliers who would like to become more involved in such efforts.

  12. Forecasting the Revenues of Local Public Health Departments in the Shadows of the "Great Recession".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschovsky, Andrew; Zahner, Susan J

    2016-01-01

    The ability of local health departments (LHD) to provide core public health services depends on a reliable stream of revenue from federal, state, and local governments. This study investigates the impact of the "Great Recession" on major sources of LHD revenues and develops a fiscal forecasting model to predict revenues to LHDs in one state over the period 2012 to 2014. Economic forecasting offers a new financial planning tool for LHD administrators and local government policy makers. This study represents a novel research application for these econometric methods. Detailed data on revenues by source for each LHD in Wisconsin were taken from annual surveys conducted by the Wisconsin Department of Health Services over an 8-year period (2002-2009). A forecasting strategy appropriate for each revenue source was developed resulting in "base case" estimates. An analysis of the sensitivity of these revenue forecasts to a set of alternative fiscal policies by the federal, state, and local governments was carried out. The model forecasts total LHD revenues in 2012 of $170.5 million (in 2010 dollars). By 2014, inflation-adjusted revenues will decline by $8 million, a reduction of 4.7%. Because of population growth, per capita real revenues of LHDs are forecast to decline by 6.6% between 2012 and 2014. There is a great deal of uncertainty about the future of federal funding in support of local public health. A doubling of the reductions in federal grants scheduled under current law would result in an additional $4.4 million decline in LHD revenues in 2014. The impact of the Great Recession continues to haunt LHDs. Multiyear revenue forecasting offers a new financial tool to help LHDs better plan for an environment of declining resources. New revenue sources are needed if sharp drops in public health service delivery are to be avoided.

  13. Capacity Allocation and Revenue Sharing in Airline Alliances: A Combinatorial Auction-Based Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-jing Gu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to establish a framework to help airline alliances effectively allocate their seat capacity with the purpose of maximizing alliances’ revenue. By assuming the airline alliance as the auctioneer and seat capacity in an itinerary as lots, the combinatorial auction model is constructed to optimize the allocation of the seat, and the revenue sharing method is established to share revenue between partners by Vickrey-Clarke-Groves (VCG mechanism. The result of the numerical study shows that the seat capacity allocation is effective even without information exchanging completely and the twofold revenue shares method shows more excitation for the airlines.

  14. Adjustable, physiological ventricular restraint improves left ventricular mechanics and reduces dilatation in an ovine model of chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanta, Ravi K; Rangaraj, Aravind; Umakanthan, Ramanan; Lee, Lawrence; Laurence, Rita G; Fox, John A; Bolman, R Morton; Cohn, Lawrence H; Chen, Frederick Y

    2007-03-13

    Ventricular restraint is a nontransplantation surgical treatment for heart failure. The effect of varying restraint level on left ventricular (LV) mechanics and remodeling is not known. We hypothesized that restraint level may affect therapy efficacy. We studied the immediate effect of varying restraint levels in an ovine heart failure model. We then studied the long-term effect of restraint applied over a 2-month period. Restraint level was quantified by use of fluid-filled epicardial balloons placed around the ventricles and measurement of balloon luminal pressure at end diastole. At 4 different restraint levels (0, 3, 5, and 8 mm Hg), transmural myocardial pressure (P(tm)) and indices of myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) were determined in control (n=5) and ovine heart failure (n=5). Ventricular restraint therapy decreased P(tm) and MVO2, and improved mechanical efficiency. An optimal physiological restraint level of 3 mm Hg was identified to maximize improvement without an adverse affect on systemic hemodynamics. At this optimal level, end-diastolic P(tm) and MVO2 indices decreased by 27% and 20%, respectively. The serial longitudinal effects of optimized ventricular restraint were then evaluated in ovine heart failure with (n=3) and without (n=3) restraint over 2 months. Optimized ventricular restraint prevented and reversed pathological LV dilatation (130+/-22 mL to 91+/-18 mL) and improved LV ejection fraction (27+/-3% to 43+/-5%). Measured restraint level decreased over time as the LV became smaller, and reverse remodeling slowed. Ventricular restraint level affects the degree of decrease in P(tm), the degree of decrease in MVO2, and the rate of LV reverse remodeling. Periodic physiological adjustments of restraint level may be required for optimal restraint therapy efficacy.

  15. The Benefits of Goal Adjustment Capacities for Well-Being Among Women With Breast Cancer: Potential Mechanisms of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mens, Maria G; Scheier, Michael F

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer can seriously disrupt a person's important life goals. As such, the ability to adjust one's goals may be critical for well-being. The present study investigated the relationships between disengagement/reengagement capacity and well-being among women with breast cancer, as well as several potential mechanisms (intrusive thoughts, life purpose, and physical activity) that could explain these relationships. The sample consisted of 230 women with early-stage (n = 172) or late-stage (n = 58) breast cancer, who were followed prospectively for 8 months. Well-being measures consisted of global mental health, perceived physical health, positive/negative affect, and sleep efficiency. Disengagement capacity did not predict any outcome variable. In contrast, reengagement capacity prospectively predicted changes in global mental health, positive affect, negative affect, sleep efficiency, life purpose, and physical activity. Life purpose mediated the prospective relationship between reengagement capacity and multiple aspects of well-being. The relationships between purpose and positive/negative affect were reciprocal over time. Results also suggested that physical activity is not a mediator, but is in fact a result of the effect of reengagement capacity on well-being. The results demonstrate that reengagement capacity is important for well-being among women with breast cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Strategies for successful revenue cycle outsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisowski, Duane A; Sanderson, Brian

    2013-09-01

    Revenue cycle outsourcing can offer hospitals and health systems many advantages, including cost savings and revenue gains, but it also carries risks. Some organizations may choose to outsource revenue cycle to third-party service providers; others may opt to develop internal centers of excellence. Hospitals and health systems should consider IT system compatibility, payment arrangements, and incentive and value alignment when selecting an outsourcing partner.

  17. Evolution of tax revenue in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Mihaela Florea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to analyze the dynamics of tax revenues in Romania in the period 2008 - 2013, following the installation of austerity caused by the global economic crisis. There are highlighted the earned revenues at the general consolidated budget by revenue category, according to the annual budget execution. The article deals mainly with the evolution of profit tax, income and salaries tax, value added tax and excise. .

  18. Developing a revenue integrity improvement plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Kate

    2010-11-01

    A revenue integrity plan should address five key areas: Accuracy of patient information. Verification of payer information and policies. Accuracy of documentation. Processing of claims. Accuracy of payment.

  19. Tax revenue in Mississippi communities following implementation of smoke-free ordinances: an examination of tourism and economic development tax revenues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Robert; Shackelford, Signe

    2012-10-01

    There is no safe level of exposure to tobacco smoke. More than 60 Mississippi communities have passed smoke-free ordinances in the past six years. Opponents claim that these ordinances harm local businesses. Mississippi law allows municipalities to place a tourism and economic development (TED) tax on local restaurants and hotels/motels. The objective of this study is to examine the impact of these ordinances on TED tax revenues. This study applies a pre/post quasi-experimental design to compare TED tax revenue before and after implementing ordinances. Descriptive analyses indicated that inflation-adjusted tax revenues increased during the 12 months following implementation of smoke-free ordinances while there was no change in aggregated control communities. Multivariate fixed-effects analyses found no statistically significant effect of smoke-free ordinances on hospitality tax revenue. No evidence was found that smoke-free ordinances have an adverse effect on the local hospitality industry.

  20. A projection of motor fuel tax revenue and analysis of alternative revenue sources in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Motor fuel tax revenue currently supplies the majority of funding for : transportation agencies at the state and federal level. Georgia uses excise and sales taxes : to generate revenue for the Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT). Inflation a...

  1. Revenue Recognition Challenges and Financial Statement Reporting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was also revealed in this study that the financial reporting objectives of an enterprise will determine the choice of revenue recognition policy to be taken. The study equally revealed some subtle manipulations that can vitiate the true position of financial statements hence the revenue to be recognised by a business ...

  2. 14 CFR 271.5 - Carrier revenues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR SUBSIDIZING AIR CARRIERS PROVIDING ESSENTIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION § 271.5 Carrier revenues. (a) The projected passenger revenue for a carrier providing essential air service at an eligible...

  3. Managing resource revenues in developing economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collier, Paul; Van Der Ploeg, Rick; Spence, Michael; Venables, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the efficient management of natural resource revenues in capital-scarce developing economies. It departs from usual prescriptions based on the permanent income hypothesis and argues that capital-scarce countries should prioritize domestic investment. Because revenue streams are

  4. A review of the literature pertaining to the efficacy, safety, educational requirements, uses and usage of mechanical adjusting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Shane H; Arnold, Nicole D; Biggs, Lesley; Colloca, Christopher J; Mierau, Dale R; Symons, Bruce P; Triano, John J

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, mechanical adjusting devices (MADs) were a major source of debate within the Chiropractors’ Association of Saskatchewan (CAS). Since Saskatchewan was the only jurisdiction in North America to prohibit the use of MADs, the CAS established a committee in 2001 to review the literature on MADs. The committee evaluated the literature on the efficacy, safety, and uses of moving stylus instruments within chiropractic practice, and the educational requirements for chiropractic practice. Following the rating criteria for the evaluation of evidence, as outlined in the Clinical Guidelines for Chiropractic Practice in Canada (1994), the committee reviewed 55 articles – all of which pertained to the Activator. Of the 55 articles, 13 were eliminated from the final study. Of the 42 remaining articles, 6 were rated as class 1 evidence; 11 were rated as class 2 evidence and 25 were rated as class 3 evidence. In this article – the second in a series of two – we review the results of uses and usage, safety and educational requirements. Of the 30 articles designated under the category of usage, 3 were rated as Class 1 evidence; 9 studies were classified as Class 2 evidence and 18 were rated as Class 3 evidence. Overall the committee reached consensus that in clinical practice, there is broad application of these procedures. A minority report was written arguing that the reviewer was unable to reach a conclusion about the use of the Activator Instrument other than it is used as a clinical and research tool. Of the 16 studies that dealt either explicitly or implicitly with safety, 4 were Class 1 evidence; 3 were Class 2 evidence and 9 were Class 3 evidence. Overall the committee reached consensus that the evidence supports that the Activator instrument is safe and has no more relative risk than do manual HVLA procedures. A minority report was written arguing that there is no evidence either to support or refute the view that MAD is safe. Of the 5 studies

  5. Resource revenue management and wealth neutrality in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohn, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    An important idea behind the Norwegian oil fund mechanism and the fiscal spending rule is to protect the non-oil economy from the adverse effects of excessive spending of resource revenues over the Government budget. A critical assumption in this respect is that public sector saving is not being offset by private sector dis-saving, which is at stake with the hypothesis of Ricardian equivalence. Based on a framework of co-integrating saving rates, this model provides an empirical test of the Ricardian equivalence hypothesis on Norwegian time series data. Although the model rejects the strong-form presence of Ricardian equivalence, results indicate that the Norwegian approach does not fully succeed in separating spending of resource revenues from the accrual of the same revenues. - Highlights: •A review of resource revenue management in Norway is presented. •A model of Ricardian equivalence is formulated for a resource-rich economy. •Econometric results are provided for LT equilibrium ST dynamics. •Results suggest modest substitution between government and household saving.

  6. 26 CFR 1.1368-2 - Accumulated adjustments account (AAA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Accumulated adjustments account (AAA). 1.1368-2... adjustments account (AAA). (a) Accumulated adjustments account—(1) In general. The accumulated adjustments account is an account of the S corporation and is not apportioned among shareholders. The AAA is relevant...

  7. A Flexure-Based Mechanism for Precision Adjustment of National Ignition Facility Target Shrouds in Three Rotational Degrees of Freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, K.-J.; Gibson, C. R.; Hollaway, J. R.; Espinoza-Loza, F.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the design of a flexure-based mount allowing adjustment in three rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) through high-precision set-screw actuators. The requirements of the application called for small but controlled angular adjustments for mounting a cantilevered beam. The proposed design is based on an array of parallel beams to provide sufficiently high stiffness in the translational directions while allowing angular adjustment through the actuators. A simplified physical model in combination with standard beam theory was applied to estimate the deflection profile and maximum stresses in the beams. A finite element model was built to calculate the stresses and beam profiles for scenarios in which the flexure is simultaneously actuated in more than one DOF.

  8. Study on Gas Field Optimization Distribution with Parameters Adjustment of the Air Duct Outlet for Mechanized Heading Face in Coal Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Xin-Yi; Wu, Yue; Xia, Zhi-Xin; Li, Ying

    2017-12-01

    At present, as the increasingly drilling dimensions with cross-section expansion and distance prolong in coal mine, the situation of gas accumulation in mechanized heading face becomes severe. In this paper, optimization research of gas distribution was carried out by adjusting parameters of the air duct outlet, including angle, caliber and the front and rear distance of air duct outlet. Mechanized heading face of Ningtiaota coal mine was taken as the research object, simulated and analyzed the problems of original gas field, the reasonable parameters range of the air duct outlet was determined according to the allowable range of wind speed and the effect of gas dilution, the adjustment range of each parameter of the air duct outlet is preliminarily determined. Base on this, the distribution of gas field under different parameters adjustment of air duct outlet was simulated. The specific parameters under the different distance between the air duct outlet and the mechanized heading face were obtained, and a new method of optimizing the gas distribution by adjusting parameters of the air duct outlet was provided.

  9. Taxing Stock Options: Efficiency, Fairness and Revenue Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack M. Mintz

    2015-10-01

    means also allowing the same deduction to an employer allowed for other forms of compensation. Changing only the personal side merely replaces one type of distortion with another, and discourage employers from granting options, by making it a more expensive form of compensation compared to any other. The NDP predicts that its proposal to impose full personal taxation on stock options will raise annually $500 million leading to a tax revenue collection of $ 2 billion in the next four years. The Liberals also predict that their similar proposal will actually raise more: approximately $560 million annually. But neither proposal acknowledges the necessary symmetrical adjustment for corporations — the tax deductibility of stock-option benefits. If we estimate the federal and provincial revenue effect from the full taxation of stock options using data from recent years reflecting the options granted by the largest 100 public corporations in Canada, projected forward to 2015, we find that the tax revenue gain is actually $1.168 billion. But the tax revenue loss, by allowing corporate tax deductions for stock-option benefits, is $1.318 billion. After one more adjustment for the gain from the personal tax on corporate tax saving on the dividend received by the investor, the net effect for federal and provincial governments is a slight net loss of $12 million. The NDP and the Liberals are onto a good idea in proposing a more efficient way to tax stock options. Regardless of who wins the election, it is the right approach. But it cannot be done fairly, or successfully, without also including a deduction for the employer. And once that is accounted for, as sensible as their proposals may be, neither party should expect any extra spending money to come from implementing this change.

  10. Operating revenue changes in a demutualized stock exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hesham Abdel-Hafez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Stock exchanges were traditionally run as cooperative venues. The globalization, the development of technology, and the increase of competition among stock exchanges forced these venues to change their structure and adopt a new one-demutualization- that can be a lifeline in facing these environmental changes in regards to stock exchanges. This new trend enables the exchange to expand their activities and supply the market with new products and services, therefore enhancing the value of the exchange itself. The main sources of revenue for traditional exchanges have been listing fees, transaction fees, membership fees and the sale of information services such as market data, quotations, and trade data. Due to the environmental changes the stock exchanges' services are now executed electronically, and in turn, this has led to an increase in the competition among exchanges. Furthermore, this increased competition has led to the re-adjustment of the regulation structure which gradually erodes the sources of revenues provided by the conventional stock exchanges. The paper divided the research plan into two sections: the first section is to highlight the concept of demutualization process; the phases of demutualization, the factors that push the stock exchanges to demutualize and the benefits of demutualization. The second section was based on statistical comparative analysis of the stock exchanges' revenues prior and after demutualization. The researcher used the regression analysis tool on seven demutualized stock exchanges during the period from 1997-2012. The paper aims to prove that demutualization has a positive effect on the revenues of the stock exchange, thus it enhances the value of the exchange.

  11. 10 CFR 904.5 - Revenue requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.5 Revenue requirements. (a) Western shall collect all electric service... September 30, 1987. (g) If integrated operation of the Boulder Canyon Project with other Boulder City Area...

  12. Revenue-cycle redesign: honing the details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForge, Richard W; Tureaud, Johnny S

    2003-01-01

    To minimize claim denials and ensure optimum payment for delivered services, many hospitals must fundamentally change their approach to managing the revenue cycle. The revenue cycle should be conceptualized as a continuum rather than as a set of isolated events, such as submitting bills or collecting payment. Cross-functional teams composed of representatives from clinical and financial areas should be created to systematically address recurrent breakdowns detected in the revenue cycle. PFS staff should be better compensated based on their value to revenue-cycle performance and receive adequate training on data collection and billing requirements to ensure the submission of clean claims. Medical-necessity screening software tools should be used at initial patient-access points to help identify scheduled services not covered by Medicare.

  13. 35 ASSESSMENT OF TOURISTS FLOW AND REVENUE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deji

    Federal College of Wildlife Management, New Bussa, Forestry Research ... Key words: Kainji Lake National Park, Ecotourism, Tourist flow, Revenue generation ... well as any cultural features found therein (Boo, ..... Modern technologies. 2. 1.5.

  14. 78 FR 16915 - Internal Revenue Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... activities of certain taxpayers under the passive activity loss and credit limitations of Internal Revenue... request for OMB approval. All comments will become a matter of public record. Comments are invited on: (a...

  15. Poweo 9-month revenue up 40%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-11-01

    POWEO, an electricity and gas alternative operator in France, presents in this document its key business indicators for the third quarter of 2007. POWEO recorded another strong increase in revenue in the third quarter of 2007, up 63% year-on-year to euro 77.0 million. As a result, revenue year-to-date increased to euro 233.2 million, up 40% compared with the first 9 months of 2006. Active customer sites reached 87,815 at September 30, 2007, up from 86,200 at June 30, 2007. As of September 30, 2007, this number breaks down into 80,257 electricity sites, of which 78,921 for professional customers and 1,336 for residential customers, and 7,558 gas sites, of which 7,313 for professional customers and 245 for residential customers. Since October 1, 2007, 3,224 new residential customer sites have confirmed their subscription to one of POWEO's gas or electricity offers, which means that as at December 1, 2007, more than 4,500 customers will have changed suppliers since the liberalization of the residential market on July 1 of this year. Contracts signed before the summer with several large accounts in the private and public sectors started to generate revenue in the third quarter. Over 130 GWh of electricity was supplied under these contracts. In application of POWEO's tariff pegging clause, the rise in regulated tariffs decided in August by the French authorities was passed on to the company's customers. This led to a very moderate increase in their energy bills of around 1% on average. The upturn in forward electricity prices seen since September resulted in a euro 1.4 million marked-to-market adjustment to the value of the forward contracts and options held in the Energy Management portfolio. On the other hand, the settlement of certain contracts before the price upturn resulted in realised losses of euro 2.3 million. The rise in market prices has accelerated since the end of the third quarter in the wake of the increase in prices for coal and gas. Were prices to hold

  16. Public Investment, Revenue Shocks, and Borrowing Restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Büttner, Thiess; Wildasin, David E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper lays out a theory of taxation and public investment in an intertemporal setting under conditions of revenue shocks. Without borrowing restrictions, the optimal policy is characterized by smooth time paths of taxes and public investment. While the introduction of formal borrowing restrictions leads to some precautionary savings, it gives rise to fluctuations in public investment in response to adverse but also favorable revenue shocks. This theoretical result is tested empirically u...

  17. Inadequate Revenue Threatens Afghanistan’s Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Sternlieb, Steve

    2014-01-01

    If Afghanistan is to maintain some semblance of stability in 2014 and beyond it must prepare for a substantial donor funding reduction and seek to grow its domestic revenue. Funding for the Afghan government’s operating expenses as well as further development projects is heavily dependent on donor support. Unfortunately for Afghanistan, its fiscal position is eroding as domestic revenues decline, expenses rise, and donor aid falls. Security gains as well as public services and economic develo...

  18. New FASB standard addresses revenue recognition considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Thomas E

    2015-12-01

    Healthcare organizations are expected to apply the following steps in revenue recognition under the new standard issued in May 2014 by the Financial Accounting Standards Board: Identify the customer contract. Identify the performance obligations in the contract. Determine the transaction price. Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract. Recognize revenue when--or in some circumstances, as--the entity satisfies the performance obligation.

  19. Spec Rekindled-A Simple Torque Correction Mechanics for Transposed Teeth in Conjunction with Pre-adjusted Edgewise Appliance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpreet; Maurya, Raj Kumar; Thakkar, Surbhi

    2016-12-01

    Complete transposition of teeth is a rather rare phenomenon. After correction of transposed and malaligned lateral incisor and canine, attainment of appropriate individual antagonistic tooth torque is indispensable, which many orthodontists consider to be a herculean task. Here, a novel method is proposed which demonstrates the use of Spec reverse torquing auxillary as an effective adjunctive aid in conjunction with pre-adjusted edgewise brackets.

  20. The changing imperative for revenue assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalbec, L.; Downey, F.

    1994-01-01

    In the past, electric utilities have developed revenue protection programs using anecdotal experience and instinct. The adoption of different programs by different utilities has made assessing the effectiveness of a particular program difficult. The cost/benefit ratio is generally invoked when implementing revenue protection, yet the economy available through sound revenue protection practices is not self evident since the problem has not yet been characterized. In Canada, this situation will change with the Canadian Electrical Association survey of electrical power theft. Details provided by the survey, such as incidence per customer class, popularity of various theft methods, and the deterrent value of seal programs will enable utility managers to make informed choices on labor and capital commitment and to establish benchmarks for the revenue protection function. The results of the survey will also generate regulatory interest with regard to such matters as quantification of any losses and the role of rate structure in encouraging energy theft. The formulation of a revenue protection program is outlined in such categories as training, quantification of the problem, prevention, detection, incentives, revenue recovery, and prosecution. A policy statement on equipment damage and meter interference is appended. 1 tab

  1. The Effects of Mechanical Transparency on Adjustment to a Complex Visuomotor Transformation at Early and Late Working Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Herbert; Hegele, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical tools are transparent in the sense that their input-output relations can be derived from their perceptible characteristics. Modern technology creates more and more tools that lack mechanical transparency, such as in the control of the position of a cursor by means of a computer mouse or some other input device. We inquired whether an…

  2. Convexity Adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Gaspar, Raquel; Murgoci, Agatha

    2010-01-01

    A convexity adjustment (or convexity correction) in fixed income markets arises when one uses prices of standard (plain vanilla) products plus an adjustment to price nonstandard products. We explain the basic and appealing idea behind the use of convexity adjustments and focus on the situations...

  3. Make the Alberta Carbon Levy Revenue Neutral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. McKenzie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The new carbon levy of $30 per tonne, announced in November 2015 as part of the report issued by the Alberta government’s Climate Leadership Panel, is a positive move in the direction of pricing carbon emissions. The levy is expected to generate $3 billion in net revenue by 2018, and possibly as much as $5 billion by 2030. While there is some discussion in the report of what should be done with the revenues generated by the carbon levy, it is somewhat vague on the details, leaving a number of options open to the government. The purpose of this briefing paper is to argue that the revenues from the carbon levy should be used to lower existing taxes – the carbon tax should be revenue neutral, generating no new net revenue for the government. The basic argument is that the carbon levy can be viewed through two lenses. The first lens is the imposition of a price on carbon emissions which (at least partly reflects the social costs of emissions. Viewed through this price lens, the carbon levy plays an important role in incenting firms and individuals to change their behaviour and move towards less carbon intensive activities. The second lens is the role of a carbon tax as a part of the broad revenue system. Viewed through this tax lens, a carbon tax is not a very good, or efficient, way of generating revenue. The reason for this is somewhat nuanced, but the basic idea is that the carbon tax is applied to a narrower base than broader-based taxes. Broad based taxes generally impose lower costs on the economy than narrow based taxes. Moreover, carbon taxes interact with other taxes in the economy, exacerbating the economic costs associated with those taxes. And those costs are quite high – research shows that the total cost to the economy of raising an additional $1 in revenue through the corporate income tax in Alberta is $3.79; for the personal income tax the cost is $1.71. These taxes therefore impose higher costs on the economy than they raise

  4. Overcoming the drawbacks of a Revenue Sharing Contract in a marketing channel through a coop program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Giovanni, P.; Roselli, M.

    2012-01-01

    In a marketing channel governed by goodwill dynamics, players adjust their pricing and advertising strategies when shifting from a wholesale price contract (WPC) to a revenue sharing contract (RSC). We demonstrate that this shift is not payoff-Pareto-improving when the retailer, who is the player

  5. 14 CFR Sec. 2-5 - Revenue and accounting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Revenue and accounting practices. Sec. 2-5... General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-5 Revenue and accounting practices. (a) Revenue accounting practices... physically verify the reliability of its passenger revenue accounting practice at least once each accounting...

  6. 47 CFR 32.5003 - Cellular mobile revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cellular mobile revenue. 32.5003 Section 32... SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions For Revenue Accounts § 32.5003 Cellular mobile revenue. This account shall include message revenue derived from cellular mobile...

  7. A poly(glycerol sebacate)-coated mesoporous bioactive glass scaffold with adjustable mechanical strength, degradation rate, controlled-release and cell behavior for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dan; Yang, Kai; Tang, Wei; Liu, Yutong; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Changsheng

    2015-07-01

    Various requirements in the field of tissue engineering have motivated the development of three-dimensional scaffold with adjustable physicochemical properties and biological functions. A series of multiparameter-adjustable mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) scaffolds with uncrosslinked poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) coating was prepared in this article. MBG scaffold was prepared by a modified F127/PU co-templating process and then PGS was coated by a simple adsorption and lyophilization process. Through controlling macropore parameters and PGS coating amount, the mechanical strength, degradation rate, controlled-release and cell behavior of the composite scaffold could be modulated in a wide range. PGS coating successfully endowed MBG scaffold with improved toughness and adjustable mechanical strength covering the bearing range of trabecular bone (2-12MPa). Multilevel degradation rate of the scaffold and controlled-release rate of protein from mesopore could be achieved, with little impact on the protein activity owing to an "ultralow-solvent" coating and "nano-cavity entrapment" immobilization method. In vitro studies indicated that PGS coating promoted cell attachment and proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, without affecting the osteogenic induction capacity of MBG substrate. These results first provide strong evidence that uncrosslinked PGS might also yield extraordinary achievements in traditional MBG scaffold. With the multiparameter adjustability, the composite MBG/PGS scaffolds would have a hopeful prospect in bone tissue engineering. The design considerations and coating method of this study can also be extended to other ceramic-based artificial scaffolds and are expected to provide new thoughts on development of future tissue engineering materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Trade Policy Reform and the Missing Revenue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Thomas Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    into a computable general equilibrium model of an African economy (Mozambique) to study the implications of trade policy reform. Model simulations indicate that lowering tariff rates and reducing duty-free importation in a manner that maintains official revenue benefit nearly everyone. The main exception is those......In many African countries, large discrepancies exist between revenues implied by published tariff rates multiplied by estimated import volumes and actual receipts. We develop a stylised trade model where average and marginal tariff rates diverge and incorporate insights from this model...

  9. Global climate regulation and border adjustment mechanisms: the case of carbon importers inclusion in the european trading scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-06-01

    The creation of an inclusion mechanism applied to imports whose production process increases significantly the global climate risk is looked upon as a solution to a collective-action problem. Such a mechanism would provide those States that will sign the next United Nations Convention on Climate Change with a potential remedy if and when gaps between quantified objects, to which all are committed, entail significant competition distortions. Whether this mechanism assumes the form of an external carbon tax or consists in including importers in the European system of CO 2 quota exchanges, it would surely respond to the re-distributive need generated by global warming, provided that the proceeds are used to help bring industrial production in developing countries up to standard. These restrictive measures aimed at preserving the planet are probably compatible with the extraordinary regimes applied by the WTO, which already uses exogenous non-trade norms to arbitrate conflicts. This would validate further the legitimacy of authority transfers onto the WTO, whose scope of legal authority increases constantly, along with that of conflicts that stem from collective preferences. (author)

  10. A NOTE ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CORRUPTION AND GOVERNMENT REVENUE

    OpenAIRE

    Jinyoung Hwang

    2002-01-01

    This paper empirically traces out the impacts of corruption on government revenue. The total amount of government revenue decreases as corruption reduces tax revenues if it contributes to tax evasion, improper tax exemptions or weak tax administration. In addition, corruption may distort the composition of government revenue: that is, a country with a higher level of corruption increases the proportion of international tax revenue rather than domestic tax one as the source of government reven...

  11. 78 FR 21008 - Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... products) for calendar year 2012. DATES: The 2012 inflation adjustment factor, nonconventional source fuel... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference Price for Calendar Year 2012 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...

  12. 76 FR 19524 - Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... products) for calendar year 2010. DATES: The 2010 inflation adjustment factor, nonconventional source fuel... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference Price for Calendar Year 2010 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...

  13. 77 FR 22067 - Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... calendar year 2011. DATES: The 2011 inflation adjustment factor and nonconventional source fuel credit... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference Price for Calendar Year 2011 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...

  14. 47 CFR 32.5200 - Miscellaneous revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) The performance of customer operations services for others incident to the company's regulated... telecommunications services rendered by the company (this revenue includes taxes when borne by the lessee). It...) Contract services (plant maintenance) performed for others incident to the company's regulated...

  15. Biodiesel intercity passenger rail revenue service test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Amtrak, with the support of the Federal Railroad Administration, operated a P-32 passenger locomotive in revenue service for a : period of 12 months, on a blend of 20 percent pure biodiesel and 80 percent #2 ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. The G...

  16. 77 FR 35475 - Internal Revenue Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... contributions, consideration does not include de minimis goods or services. It also provides guidance on how..., maintenance, and purchase of services to provide information. Approved: June 6, 2012. Allan Hopkins, Tax... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for...

  17. Piracy and Box Office Movie Revenues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peukert, Christian; Claussen, Jörg; Kretschmer, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the heterogeneous effects of online copyright enforcement. We ask whether the unexpected shutdown of the popular file hosting platform Megaupload had a differential effect on box office revenues of wide-release vs. niche movies. Identification comes from a comparison...

  18. 78 FR 25358 - Internal Revenue Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... 1995, Public Law 104-13(44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning... OMB control number. Books or records relating to a collection of information must be retained as long as their contents may become material in the administration of any internal revenue law. Generally...

  19. 78 FR 25359 - Internal Revenue Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ..., Public Law 104-13(44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form... number. Books or records relating to a collection of information must be retained as long as their contents may become material in the administration of any internal revenue law. Generally, tax returns and...

  20. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how

  1. 77 FR 59455 - Internal Revenue Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ...-37 describes documentation and information a taxpayer that uses the fair market value method of... elections to use the fair market value method. Current Actions: There are no changes being made to the... Revenue Procedure 2003-37, Documentation Provisions for Certain Taxpayers Using the Fair Market Value...

  2. 25 CFR 502.16 - Net revenues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net revenues. 502.16 Section 502.16 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502... consistent with professional accounting pronouncements, excluding management fees. [74 FR 36932, July 27...

  3. Alberta books big revenues in 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, R.

    1996-01-01

    A 17.9 per cent increase over 1995 in oil and gas revenues were reported for Alberta through August 1996. Revenues from crude oil were up 12.6 per cent and from natural gas 30.7 per cent. The level of increase in revenues is expected to hold for the remainder of the year, save for the prospects of Iraq re-entering the market in force. This would cause a steep decline in prices and some panic trading in energy stocks. Nevertheless, producers are well positioned for the year ahead, as capital spending and drilling activity are based on lower price forecasts. Oil production over 1995 was down slightly through August. Light and medium crude production was down 4.5 per cent. Synthetic production fell by 0.8 per cent. Natural gas production will have a record year. Through August output was up 4.6 per cent over 1995, sales were up 19.3 per cent, and exports were ahead by just under one per cent. Natural gas liquids were the biggest revenue booster, increasing by 46.3 per cent over 1995

  4. 75 FR 29818 - Internal Revenue Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... Voluntary Closing Agreement Program for Tax-Exempt, Tax Credit and Direct Pay Bonds Exempt Organizations... Tax Exempt and Government Entities Division (TE/GE); Meeting AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Advisory Committee on Tax Exempt and Government Entities (ACT) will...

  5. How to share the oil revenue - Lessons from an African experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikama, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    This document proposes a brief presentation of a book in which the author addresses the issue of oil revenues which are at the root of conflicts in almost all oil producing countries, and comments the fact that the distribution of oil revenues between producing States and oil companies is still a matter of discussion and questions. The author aims at defining these revenues and at clarifying questions related to their appropriation, at revealing the basic reason for the sharing of this revenue and at explaining the distribution mechanisms, at analyzing the results of this distribution and at noticing some effects like despoilment, at examining the tax pressure on oil companies and at assessing its actual level, and at proposing a simple, flexible and fair sharing model. The author notably relies on his knowledge of Congo

  6. Modelling Oil‑Sector Dependency of Tax Revenues in a Resource Rich Country: Evidence from Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akif Musayev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting tax revenues is an important issue in budget planning. As a resource rich country, Azerbaijan’s budget revenues is severely depend on oil price and production levels. This study investigates oil sector dependency of state budget tax revenues in case of Azerbaijan by employing FMOLS, DOLS and CCR cointegration methods for the period of 2000Q1 – 2015Q2. Empirical results indicate statistically and economically significant positive long‑run impact of both oil related factors on tax revenues. Considering current fiscal challenges in the country, research findings are very useful for policy purposes and fills the gap in the literature by drawing mechanism of the association and estimating the relationship empirically.

  7. AREVA first half 2007 sales revenue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The AREVA group's backlog as of June 30, 2007 was euros 33.5 billion, up 31% compared with that of December 31, 2006. On average, the Group's backlog increased by more than 20% annually over the last three years. It is now at the highest level since AREVA was established in 2001. All divisions contributed to this performance: - The Front End division signed in particular a major enrichment contract with KHNP (South Korea), a fuel supply contract with EDF covering the 2008-2012 period and other significant contracts with Japanese and Swedish utilities. - The Reactors and Services division added the Flamanville 3 EPR, ordered by EDF, to the backlog. Flamanville 3 is AREVA's 100. reactor order. - The Back End division also concluded a major contract with Sogin to treat used fuel stored at Italian nuclear sites. - The Transmission and Distribution division continued to record strong growth. New orders were up 24% compared with the first half of 2006 (+25.1% like-for-like). Important contracts were signed in the Middle East, Russia and with large industrial users of electricity. First half 2007 sales revenue was up 6.7% (+6.4% like-for-like) to euros 5373 million, compared with euros 5036 million for the first half of 2006. Major developments in the first half of 2007 include: - Sales revenue was down 2.8% to euros 1342 million in the Front End division (-3.6% like-for- like) due to uneven distribution of deliveries in the Fuel business unfavorable during the period. This timing issue has no impact on projected annual growth. The division continues to benefit from a gradual price increase for long-term uranium supply contracts. - Sales revenue was up 4.8% to euros 1154 million in the Reactors and Services division (+3% like-for-like). The Services business unit, especially, was a major contributor to growth on all its markets after a 2006 fiscal year marked by a weak demand. The start of construction of a second EPR reactor for EDF, Flamanville 3, also contributed to

  8. Research on the energy-saving and revenue sharing strategy of ESCOs under the uncertainty of the value of Energy Performance Contracting Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Dong; Guo, Ju’e

    2014-01-01

    Under the uncertainty of the value of Energy Performance Contracting Projects (EPCPs), this paper develops a revenue-sharing bargaining model between an Energy Service Company (ESCO) and an Energy-Using Organization (EU). Based on the model the paper analyzes the impacts of energy prices, risk-adjusted discount rates and accidents on the ESCO’s bargaining strategies. The research shows that the greater the probability of adverse circumstances is, the higher is the revenue share (of the EU), and the more disadvantageous is the ESCO’s position in the game. Furthermore, we design a forecast–commitment contract between an ESCO and an EU and analyze the optimal product’s energy savings commitment strategy of the ESCO to cope with uncertain energy savings and contract risk. The research illustrates that by introducing penalties and commitments, the contract can eliminate the impact of the uncertain energy savings on the contract execution to a certain extent; when the EU takes a greater commitment risk, the ESCO is willing to provide a higher commitment, thus enhancing the strategy value of the bilateral relationship and reducing the contract risk. Finally, the policy recommendations about improving shared savings contract standard, third-party energy savings measurement and verification mechanism and arbitration mechanism of EPCs are provided. - Highlights: • We provide a method for determining the revenue-sharing bargaining strategy space in a finite bargaining game of the ESCO. • The increase of the probability of adverse circumstances will increase the revenue share (of the EU). • We design a forecast–commitment contract between an ESCO and an EU. • The forecast–commitment contract can eliminate the impact of the uncertain energy savings on the contract execution to a certain extent. • When the EU takes a greater commitment risk, the ESCO is willing to provide a higher commitment

  9. Parental Incarceration, Transnational Migration, and Military Deployment: Family Process Mechanisms of Youth Adjustment to Temporary Parent Absence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Aubrey J.; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    The temporary absence of a parent (e.g., due to incarceration, migration, or military deployment) is experienced by many youth and can have profound effects. Available research within these disparate literatures primarily has catalogued contextual and individual variables that influence youth adaptation, which are integrated and summarized here. In addition, we present a systematic review of proximal family process mechanisms by which youth and their family members adapt to periods of temporary parent absence. This systematic review across the different types of parent absence produced four themes: communication among family members, parenting characteristics during absence, negotiation of decision-making power and authority, and shifts in family roles. By juxtaposing the three types of temporary parent absence, we aim to bridge the separate research silos of parent absence due to incarceration, deployment, and migration, and to bring wide-ranging characteristics and processes of temporary parent-absent families into sharper focus. The review highlights possibilities for fuller integration of these literatures, and emphasizes the clinical value of considering these types of experiences from a family and relational perspective, rather than an individual coping perspective. PMID:25304163

  10. OPEC's production under fluctuating oil prices. Further test of the target revenue theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramcharran, H.

    2001-01-01

    Oil production cutbacks in recent years by OPEC members to stabilize price and to increase revenues warrant further empirical verification of the target revenue theory (TRT). We estimate a modified version of Griffin (1985) target revenue model using data from 1973 to 2000. The sample period, unlike previous investigations, includes phases of both price increase (1970s) and price decrease (1980s-1990s), thus providing a better framework for examining production behavior. The results, like the earlier study, are not supportive of the strict version of the TRT, however, evidence (negative and significant elasticity of supply) of the partial version are substantiated. Further empirical estimates do not support the competitive pricing model, hypothesizing a positive elasticity of supply. OPEC's loss of market share and the drop in the share of oil-based energy should signal an adjustment in pricing and production strategies

  11. Impact of cigarette taxation policy on excise revenues and cigarette consumption in Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin S. Krasovsky

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2012, Uzbekistan ratified the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which states that price and tax measures are an effective means of reducing tobacco consumption. We aimed to explore the effect of taxation policies on revenues and cigarette consumption. METHODS: Data on tax rates, revenues, cigarette sales were taken from national reports. To forecast potential revenues, a scenario analysis was performed. RESULTS: In 1991-2004, ad valorem excise system was in place in Uzbekistan, which was later replaced by the specific excise system. In 1997-2011, the nominal average excise has increased by a factor of twenty, but in real terms, after a sharp increase in 1999, average excise declined annually and increased only in 2010-2011. Annual cigarette sales per capita of adult population in 1999-2007 constituted 17-25 cigarette packs, while in 2008-2011 it increased to 30-37 packs. Four scenarios of excise tax increases in 2012 were developed: one actual scenario based on the rates effective in Uzbekistan in 2012, and three hypothetical ones anticipating excise rates increase by 1.5, 2 and 3-fold. With actual excise increase in 2012, the inflation-adjusted budget revenues would grow by 5%, and with three hypothetical - by 17%, 35% and 66% respectively, despite the decline of tax-paid cigarette sales. CONCLUSION: Stabilization or reduction in cigarette excises in Uzbekistan in 2002-2008 led to a decline in real excise revenues and the growth of cigarette sales. In 1999 and 2010-2011, excises were significantly increased and the real revenues have risen, despite the decline in cigarette sales. As cigarette prices are low, the illegal outflow of cigarettes from Uzbekistan apparently exceeds the illegal inflow. A significant increase in cigarette excise (1.5-3 fold can both increase budget revenues and reduce cigarette consumption, with greater increase yielding more benefits.

  12. Revenue rules when environmental regulation agencies collude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaarn Hansen, L.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the welfare implications of earmarking of revenues from environmental taxes in analyzed using a principal-agent model in the incomplete contracting tradition of constitutional design. In the model the public has very limited knowledge of the emissions problem to be regulated. Government has full knowledge and is given a general mandate to regulate, however government may be biased toward an interested party. To curb the welfare effects of government bias the public may either earmark revenues from environmental taxes for environmental expenditures or for transfers to the polluters. We find that earmarking for transfers to the polluters (under certain conditions) can be expected to maximize welfare when government bias is strong and the direction of bias is uncertain. (au) 10 refs

  13. The effect of smoke-free policies on hospitality industry revenues in Cyprus: an econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talias, Michael A; Savva, Christos S; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Lazuras, Lambros

    2015-10-01

    Smoke-free policies aiming to improve quality of indoor air and significantly reduce exposure to secondhand smoke in the hospitality industry are faced with strong opposition from the tobacco industry and hospitality venue owners claiming that they lead to reductions of revenues. The objective of our study was to examine the impact of a recently introduced smoke-free legislation on the revenues of the hospitality industry in Cyprus. Anonymous information on revenues was obtained from the Cyprus government value added tax office for the entire hospitality industry in Cyprus including hotels, bars, restaurants and cafeterias between 2005 and 2011. Panel data methodology was used to examine the effect of a smoke-free legislation, on tourism, businesses' revenues adjusting for gross domestic product, inflation, unemployment rate, tourists' arrivals, seasonal variation and the economic crisis. Our study showed that the implementation of the smoke-free policy did not have negative effects on the hospitality industry profitability. We conclude that even in regions with relatively high smoking rates, pro-smoking societal attitudes and weak social norms against tobacco control, and even during periods of economic crisis, smoke-free legislation does not impact negatively on hospitality industry revenues and if anything may lead to a small positive increase. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. CBO’s Revenue Forecasting Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    by squaring the errors, it places a greater weight on larger deviations. The mean absolute error is an easier measure to understand , but the RMSE... macroeconomic measures like GDP as a guide because that relationship has been significantly altered over time by changes to provisions of tax law. Instead...CBO projects revenues largely by identifying the macroeconomic variables in its economic forecasts that constitute the bases on which the various

  15. Does financial system influence tax revenue? The case of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We examined the influence of financial system activities on tax revenue ... our analysis showed that financial system activities influence tax revenue ... causality test and variance decomposition results corroborate our regression results.

  16. Automated Internal Revenue Processing System: A Panacea For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automated Internal Revenue Processing System: A Panacea For Financial ... for the collection and management of internal revenue which is the financial ... them, computational errors, high level of redundancy and inconsistencies in record, ...

  17. The dynamic stability of OPEC's oil price mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammoudeh, S.; Madan, V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines OPEC's long-lived mechanism which targets the oil price and adjusts the quality ceiling to meet the target. The stability of this controversial mechanism is compared to that of two alternatives: one requires quantity control without any price targeting and the other is a synthesis of quantity control and the OPEC mechanisms. All three mechanisms passed the stability test and the two alternatives give rise to some interesting policy implications. Practicality considerations which involve the availability of specific information make OPEC's mechanism the most appropriate in terms of achieved targeted revenues. The paper also offers a convergence strategy that speeds up the achievement of targeted revenues under OPEC's current mechanism. (author)

  18. Effect of adjustable molecular chain structure and pure silica zeolite nanoparticles on thermal, mechanical, dielectric, UV-shielding and hydrophobic properties of fluorinated copolyimide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Liao, Guangfu; Zhang, Shulai; Pang, Long; Tong, Hao; Zhao, Wenzhe; Xu, Zushun

    2018-01-01

    A series of polyimide (PI) films, polyimide/pure silica zeolite nanoparticles (PSZN) blend films and polyimide/amine-functionalized pure silica zeolite nanoparticles (APSZN) composite films were successfully prepared by random copolycondensation. Thereinto, PSZN were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The polyimides were derived from 4,4‧-diaminodiphenyl ether (ODA), and three adjustable molar ratios (3:1, 1:1, 1:3) of 2,2-bis[4-(3,4-dicarboxyphenoxy)phenyl] propane dianhydride (BPADA) and 4,4‧-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) diphthalic anhydride (6FDA). The effects of PSZN, APSZN and different chain structure on PI films were specifically evaluated in terms of morphology, thermal, mechanical, dielectric and UV-shielding properties, etc. Comparison was given among pure PI flims, PI/PSZN blend films and PI/APSZN composite flims. The results showed that the thermal and mechanical properties of PI films were drastically impaired after adding PSZN. On the contrary, the strength, toughness and thermal stability were improved after adding APSZN. Moreover, the dielectric constants of the PI/APSZN composite flims were lowered but UV-shielding properties were enhanced. Interestingly, we found that the greatest effects were obtained through introducing APSZN in PI derived by the 1:1 ratio of BPADA:6FDA. The corresponding PI/APSZN composite flim exhibited the most reinforced and toughened properties, the largest decrement of dielectric constant and the best UV-shielding efficiency, which made the composite flim be used as ultraviolet shielding material in outer space filled with high temperature and intensive ultraviolet light. Meanwhile, this work also provided a facile way to synthesize composite materials with adjustable performance.

  19. Increasing revenues for protected areas. A wealth of financing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verweij, P.

    2004-12-01

    This paper aims at giving an overview of traditional and new financing mechanisms in support of protected areas. The web of life is breaking down: our world is facing biodiversity loss at unprecedented rates. Human impacts are causing the acceleration of species loss, at rates of several hundreds up to 1000 times the natural rate of species extinction, depending on the type of organisms. Habitat degradation and loss, introduction of invasive species, pollution, and overexploitation of resources are factors that determine the process of mass extinction. Protected areas obviously play a critical role in biodiversity conservation. Article 8 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) obliges Parties to establish a system of protected areas to-conserve biodiversity, to develop guidelines for protected areas management and to promote appropriate development adjacent to protected areas. Besides agreeing on this global mandate for protected areas, through Article 8m of the CBD Parties committed themselves to cooperate in providing financial support for protected area systems: 'Each contracting party (...) shall cooperate in providing financial and other support for in-situ conservation (...) particularly to developing countries'. Current revenues for maintaining existing protected areas and the creation of new ones are insufficient. Annually, approximately USD 7 billion is spent on the creation and maintenance of protected areas around the world (Balmford, 2003). The amount required to adequately protect biodiversity is estimated to be about five times higher. The flow of revenues from traditional and new financing mechanisms should clearly be increased to mitigate the financing deficit for protected areas. As part of the solution, innovative financing mechanisms are being developed aimed at increasing the global revenues for protected areas, thus capturing the multiple values of ecosystem goods and services provided by protected areas to mankind. This scoping paper

  20. Asymmetric adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A method of adjusting a signal processing parameter for a first hearing aid and a second hearing aid forming parts of a binaural hearing aid system to be worn by a user is provided. The binaural hearing aid system comprises a user specific model representing a desired asymmetry between a first ear

  1. THE IMPACT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON THE FISCAL REVENUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inceu Adrian

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to evaluate the situation of the fiscal revenues in Romania in the context of economic and financial crisis, because the fiscal revenues are the major source of financing the public expenditure. The evolution of the level of fiscal revenu

  2. Print Media Objectivity and Advertising Revenue: An Appraisal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an analysis of the interface between objectivity of print media and advertising revenue. It adopts the analytical approach in analyzing the perceptual influence of sources of advert revenue on print media content. The primary objective is to ascertain whether the source of advert revenue influences media content ...

  3. A Revenue Planning Tool for Charter School Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Eric; Hayes, Cheryl D.

    2009-01-01

    This revenue planning tool aims to help charter school operators develop a sound revenue base that can meet their school's current and future funding needs. It helps identify and assess potential public (federal, state, and local) and private funding sources. The tool incorporates a four-step revenue planning process which includes: (1)…

  4. Revenue potential, tax space, and tax gap : a comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Khwaja, Munawer Sultan; Iyer, Indira

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the empirical literature on the key determinants of the revenue generating potential in 61 countries. The paper uses a broad set of data and econometric methods to conduct analyses that are of relevance to revenue potential. Earlier studies have not distinguished between the revenue potential based on economic fundamentals of countries and that based on what the l...

  5. On the Core of Routing Games with Revenues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Estévez-Fernandéz (Arantza); P. Borm; M. Meertens; H. Reijnierse

    2006-01-01

    htmlabstract Traveling salesman problems with revenues form a generalization of traveling salesman problems. Here, next to travel costs an explicit revenue is generated by visiting a city. We analyze routing problems with revenues, where a predetermined route on all cities determines the tours

  6. On the core of routing games with revenues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estevez Fernandez, M.A.; Borm, P.; Meertens, M.; Reijnierse, H.

    2009-01-01

    Traveling salesman problems with revenues form a generalization of traveling salesman problems. Here, next to travel costs an explicit revenue is generated by visiting a city. We analyze routing problems with revenues, where a predetermined route on all cities determines the tours along subgroups.

  7. On the Core of Routing Games with Revenues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estevez Fernandez, M.A.; Borm, P.E.M.; Meertens, M.; Reijnierse, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Traveling salesman problems with revenues form a generalization of traveling salesman problems.Here, next to travel costs an explicit revenue is generated by visiting a city.We analyze routing problems with revenues, where a predetermined route on all cities determines the tours along

  8. Revenue Management under Customer Choice Behaviour with Cancellations and Overbooking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.D. Sierag (Dirk); G.M. Koole (Ger); R.D. van der Mei (Rob); JP.I. van der Rest (Jean-Pierre); A.P. Zwart (Bert)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractRevenue management is the practice of pricing perishable goods to optimise revenue. A realistic revenue management model allows overbooking and incorporates customer buying behaviour and cancellations. The latter is motivated by our research using real data, which shows that for a

  9. 39 CFR 3050.25 - Volume and revenue data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Volume and revenue data. 3050.25 Section 3050.25 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.25 Volume and revenue... billing determinants, broken out by quarter, within 90 days of the close of each fiscal year; (c) Revenue...

  10. 26 CFR 1.806-1 - Adjustment for certain reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... unearned premiums, however, are less than 25 percent of the net premiums written during the taxable year on such other contracts, then the adjustment shall be 3 1/4 percent of 25 percent of the net premiums... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment for certain reserves. 1.806-1 Section...

  11. Salary adjustments

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, following elements do not increase: a) Family Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3). b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be implemented, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and the rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  12. Salary adjustments

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, the following elements do not increase: a)\tFamily Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3); b)\tReimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be applied, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  13. Shaft adjuster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  14. Adjustable collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.; Covic, J.; Leininger, G.

    1981-01-01

    In a rotating fan beam tomographic scanner there is included an adjustable collimator and shutter assembly. The assembly includes a fan angle collimation cylinder having a plurality of different length slots through which the beam may pass for adjusting the fan angle of the beam. It also includes a beam thickness cylinder having a plurality of slots of different widths for adjusting the thickness of the beam. Further, some of the slots have filter materials mounted therein so that the operator may select from a plurality of filters. Also disclosed is a servo motor system which allows the operator to select the desired fan angle, beam thickness and filter from a remote location. An additional feature is a failsafe shutter assembly which includes a spring biased shutter cylinder mounted in the collimation cylinders. The servo motor control circuit checks several system conditions before the shutter is rendered openable. Further, the circuit cuts off the radiation if the shutter fails to open or close properly. A still further feature is a reference radiation intensity monitor which includes a tuning-fork shaped light conducting element having a scintillation crystal mounted on each tine. The monitor is placed adjacent the collimator between it and the source with the pair of crystals to either side of the fan beam

  15. Poverty and Share Revenue in the Cameroon Cocoa Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folefack, DP.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the revenue level and unequal poverty revenue in the Cameroonian cocoa zone. The results show a great variability on the revenues generating activities to producers of cocoa in Cameroon. These activities generate an average revenue of 1 215 622 FCFA per year, with an annual average revenue of 145 933 FCFA per person. We realize through the indice of Gini 0.61 that the concentration of these revenues is most strong in Cameroon and the poverty rate is still affecting 69% of the population. We observe as well that the average revenue of 228 263 FCFA per year and per person for the producers of South West. They are thus the richest, inspite of the high degree of concentration. In the Centre, the population have a high average annual revenue of 87 257 FCFA per person and the concentration seems to be in a lower degree. Finally, in the South we find the poorest with a revenue of 53 504 FCFA per year and per person and the concentration is more important. An analysis based on unequal indicators shows in general that the revenue per person is relatively low and the degree of concentration of revenue is stronger in the Cameroonian cocoa zone.

  16. Facet-dependent photocatalytic mechanisms of anatase TiO2: A new sight on the self-adjusted surface heterojunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Shujun; Wang, Wei; Ni, Yaru; Lu, Chunhua; Xu, Zhongzi

    2015-01-01

    Efficient separation of photo-generated electrons and holes is crucial for improving the photocatalytic activity of semiconductor photocatalysts. In the present study, we show surface heterojunction is existed on anatase TiO 2 with exposed {101}, {010}, {001}, and {110} facets. With the help of selective Pt deposition, it is found the Schottky junction together with proper surface heterojunction is helpful to separate the photo-generated electrons and holes. Moreover, the photo-reduction and photo-oxidation activities of the facets are depended on the reaction systems, resulting in self-adjusted surface heterojunction. The as-prepared photocatalyst will give the highest phenol degradation efficiency when Pt nanoparticles are only deposited on the {101} and {010} facets. In contrast, more Pt deposited on the {001} and {110} facets will decrease the photocatalytic activity. The average phenol degradation rate, which will gradually reduce along with the increased phenol concentration, of TiO 2 (20 mg) is ca. 1.59 mg/min when its concentration is lower than 8 mg/L. However, similar results have not been observed in P25-based reaction systems, evidencing the great influence of self-adjusted surface heterojunction. This study may be helpful to understand the photocatalytic mechanisms of semiconductor photocatalysts with exposed different facets. Thus more efficient practical application of the photocatalysts for environment protection can be reached. - Highlights: • Surface heterojunction is systematically discussed on TiO 2 with various facets. • The surface heterojunction is found to be closely related to the reaction systems. • Proper surface heterojunction and Schottky junction is positive for photocatalysis. • A new sight is given to sufficiently unleash the fascinating properties of TiO 2 . • More efficient practical application can be reached

  17. Inadequate Revenue Threatens Afghanistan’s Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Sternlieb

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available If Afghanistan is to maintain some semblance of stability in 2014 and beyond it must prepare for a substantial donor funding reduction and seek to grow its domestic revenue. Funding for the Afghan government’s operating expenses as well as further development projects is heavily dependent on donor support. Unfortunately for Afghanistan, its fiscal position is eroding as domestic revenues decline, expenses rise, and donor aid falls. Security gains as well as public services and economic development are at risk due to this mismatch. Afghanistan’s challenge in the coming years will be how to deal with this mismatch without fueling instability. It cannot simply assume that donor funding will continue to cover its funding gap. This paper assesses Afghanistan’s deteriorating fiscal situation and concludes with some observations on what the Afghan government and the donor community must do, preferably in concert, to address it. It assumes that Afghanistan and the United States will ultimately sign a bilateral security agreement allowing a continued coalition military presence, without which the country’s fiscal situation could rapidly deteriorate.

  18. Revenue in reverse? An examination of reverse supply chain enabled revenue streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Samuel; Jacobsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    When original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) examine whether to implement a reverse supply chain (RSC) for their products, oftentimes the motive is cost savings or regulatory compliance. However, a frequently overlooked but equally important benefit is the possibility for creating new revenue...

  19. A uniform price auction with locational price adjustments for competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethier, R.; Mount, T.; Schulze, W.; Zimmerman, R.; Thomas, R.

    1999-01-01

    Competitive electricity markets which rely on centralized dispatch require a mechanism to solicit offers from competing generators. Ideally, such an auction mechanism, provides incentives to submit offers equal to the marginal cost of generation for each generator. Economic theory suggests that the Uniform Price auction is an appropriate institution. However, an efficient implementation of this auction in an electricity context requires that the offers used in the auction reflect the appropriate locational price adjustments for transmission losses and congestion. This paper describes a uniform price auction that incorporates locational price adjustments on a Web-based platform suitable for experimentation. Preliminary results show dramatically different price and revenue results when compared with a simple continuous Discriminative auction. (author)

  20. Long-Term Resource Adequacy, Long-Term Flexibility Requirements, and Revenue Sufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ela, Erik [Electric Power Research Institute; Botterud, Audun [Argonne National Laboratory; Levin, Todd [Argonne National Laboratory

    2018-02-15

    Variable generation (VG) can reduce market prices over time and also the energy that other suppliers can sell in the market. The suppliers that are needed to provide capacity and flexibility to meet the long-term reliability requirements may, therefore, earn less revenue. This chapter discusses the topics of resource adequacy and revenue sufficiency - that is, determining and acquiring the quantity of capacity that will be needed at some future date and ensuring that those suppliers that offer the capacity receive sufficient revenue to recover their costs. The focus is on the investment time horizon and the installation of sufficient generation capability. First, the chapter discusses resource adequacy, including newer methods of determining adequacy metrics. The chapter then focuses on revenue sufficiency and how suppliers have sufficient opportunity to recover their total costs. The chapter closes with a description of the mechanisms traditionally adopted by electricity markets to mitigate the issues of resource adequacy and revenue sufficiency and discusses the most recent market design changes to address these issues.

  1. The asymmetric relationship between oil revenues and economic activities: The case of oil-exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrara, Mohsen

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the nonlinear or asymmetric relationship between oil revenues and output growth in oil-exporting countries, applying a dynamic panel framework and two different measures of oil shocks. The main results in this paper confirm the stylized facts that in heavily oil-dependent countries lacking the institutional mechanisms de-linking fiscal expenditure from current revenue, oil revenue shocks tend to affect the output in asymmetric and nonlinear ways. The findings suggest that output growth is adversely affected by the negative oil shocks, while oil booms or the positive oil shocks play a limited role in stimulating economic growth. The findings have practical policy implications for decision makers in the area of macroeconomic planning. The use of stabilization and savings funds and diversification of the real sector seems crucial to minimize the harmful effects of oil booms and busts

  2. 75 FR 51191 - Great Lakes Pilotage Rates-2011 Annual Review and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... the Great Lakes to generate sufficient revenue to cover allowable expenses, target pilot compensation, and return on investment. The proposed update reflects a projected August 1, 2011, increase in... adjusting the pilotage rates for the 2011 shipping season to generate sufficient revenue to cover allowable...

  3. Turning wood residues into wood revenues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.G.; Kravetz, Don

    1996-01-01

    Ensyn is a profitable commercial company which derives its revenues from the conversion of wood residues into liquid biofuel and chemicals. The technology, Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP (TM) )is based on extremely fast ''cracking'' of biomass which results in light liquid yields exceeding 70% by weight, from wood. Whether producing chemicals or liquid biofuel, the RTP plant is configured identically and operated essentially in the same mode. Chemicals production simply allows economical production to occur at a lower plant capacity, as low as 2 tonnes/day, than is feasible for a dedicated fuel plant (typically greater than 100 tonnes/day). Ensyn has developed the commercialisation of RTP TM from bench to industrial scale in 10 years. A variety of crative funding initiatives in the early years allowed for capital to be raised for R and D without the loss of intellectual property (IP). The transition years of technology demonstration, prior to full commercialisation, were funded by a blend of revenues from venture capital and public sources, and by quickly tapping into a niche market for RTP TM . The utilisation of the technology at the niche market scale opened the doors to the larger fuel and commodity markets. Once, again, both IP and control of the company were maintained during these years. Flexibility, creativity and expertise are necessary to understand the significance of various financing options (private investments, commercial banking and bond issues) and to integrate these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives. Understanding these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives is necessary. Understanding both the core and peripheral needs of the customer are essential in successfully advancing a commercial wood energy venture. Ensyn's experience in these areas is the focus of the paper. (Author)

  4. 76 FR 31013 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Revenue Procedure 99-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Revenue Procedure 99-17 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for... information collection requirements related to Revenue Procedure 99-17, Mark to Market Election for.... OMB Number: 1545-1641. Revenue Procedure Number: Revenue Procedure 99-17. Abstract: This revenue...

  5. STUDY CONCERNING THE EXECUTION OF LOCAL BUDGETS REVENUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel ICHIM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of local budget revenues is a very important sub-phase of the local budgetary process its correct accomplishment ensures regularity and efficiency in revenue collection, which will cover the local budget expenditures. Through this scientific approach we intended to achieve an analysis of the implementation of revenues mobilized to the local budgets in Romania. The study started with fixing the concept of execution of budget revenues and defining its phases, and followed with the analysis of the implementation of local budget revenues in three levels, namely: the overall local budgets in Romania, at the city level and at the community level. We have to mention that the analysis of the execution of local budgets was done in 2011, based on existing data in the last occurrence of the Romanian Statistical Yearbook for 2012. The paper concluded with some considerations regarding the execution of local budgets revenues and some proposals for improving the collection of local income.

  6. Revenue management: a cost saver, not a cost center

    OpenAIRE

    Grier, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Any hotelier operating today without the support of an automated revenue management system is working at a competitive disadvantage. Advanced revenue management solutions allow hotels to better predict demand, price their product offerings competitively and achieve the optimal business mix for their property as a result. Simply put, revenue management systems allow a hotel to attract the ideal guest, at the ideal price and via the ideal channel. November 2nd, 2017

  7. Oil and gas production equals jobs and revenue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aimes, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of oil and gas production on jobs and revenue are discussed. Some suggestions are presented that should provide the climate to increase jobs, add revenue and increase efficiency in state agencies within the producing states. Some of the ideas and suggestions are summarized. Some of these ideas include: how to extend the economic limits of marginal properties; how the states can encourage additional drilling without incurring loss of revenue; and the use of investment tax credits

  8. London-type congestion tax with revenue-recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Yukihiro Kidokoro

    2005-01-01

    Road pricing in London attracts a great deal of interest. A challenging aspect of the London scheme is that congestion tax revenue is used to upgrade public transit networks. Although Parry and Bento (2001) show that the total social surplus would increase if congestion tax revenues are used to cut labor taxes, political difficulties exist in implementing revenue-recycling between congestion taxes and labor taxes. Given such political difficulties, the London scheme seems to be very attractiv...

  9. Bridging the gap between financial reporting and the revenue cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kari; Bang, Derek A

    2012-09-01

    Implementing a standardized financial reporting and revenue cycle monitoring platform can help healthcare organizations improve their net revenue reporting and budgeting processes. Consistent, standardized data help the finance office estimate accounts receivable reserves more accurately, streamline the month-end closing process, and strengthen internal controls. The benefits of standardizing the finance and revenue cycle functions are particularly significant in large organizations with multiple facilities, but even single-facility providers can benefit from improved communication between the business office and finance.

  10. Avoiding revenue loss due to 'lesser of' contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodolak, Frederick; Gutierrez, Henry

    2014-08-01

    Finance managers seeking to avoid lost revenue attributable to lesser-of-charge-or-fixed-fee (lesser-of) clauses in their contracts should: Identify payer contracts that contain lesser-of clauses. Prepare lesser-of lost-revenue reports for non-bundled and bundled rates. For claims with covered charges below the bundled rate, identify service codes associated with the greatest proportion of total gross revenue and determine new, higher charge levels for those codes. Establish an approach for setting charges for non-bundled fee schedules to address lost-revenue-related issues. Incorporate changes into overall strategic or hospital zero-based pricing modeling and parameters.

  11. Sales revenue and data for the first quarter of 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    This document presents the Areva Group sales revenue and data for the first quarter of 2007: sales revenue stable at 2.47 billion Euro and anticipation of a significant increase in sales revenue for 2007. Other information concerns: the business trends (reform of the nuclear sector in Russia, Toshiba's acquisition of Westinghouse, reopening of the debate on the need to build new nuclear reactors by more than 60 countries), key events concerning Areva's operations during the first quarter (major marketing events, contracts and agreements, strategic developments), and detailed first quarter 2007 sales revenues (front-end division, reactors and services, back-end division, transmission and distribution division). (J.S.)

  12. Revenue comparisons for auctions when bidders have arbitrary types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Koo Che

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a methodology for characterizing expected revenue from auctions when bidders' types come from an arbitrary distribution. In particular, types may be multidimensional, and there may be mass points in the distribution. One application extends existing revenue equivalence results. Another application shows that first-price auctions yield higher expected revenue than second-price auctions when bidders are risk averse and face financial constraints. This revenue ranking extends to risk-averse bidders with general forms of non-expected utility preferences.

  13. Spending Natural Resource Revenues in an Altruistic Growth Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Elisabeth Hermann

    This paper examines how revenues from a natural resource interact with growth and welfare in an overlapping generations model with altruism. The revenues are allocated between public productive services and direct transfers to members of society by spending policies. We analyze how these policies...... influence the dynamics, and how the dynamics are influenced by the abundance of the revenue. Abundant revenues may harm growth, but growth and welfare can be oppositely affected. We also provide the socially optimal policy. Overall, the analysis suggests that variation in the strength of altruism...

  14. Forecasting gaming revenues in Clark County, Nevada: Issues and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.K.; Bando, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the Western Area Gaming and Economic Response Simulator (WAGERS), a forecasting model that emphasizes the role of the gaming industry in Clark County, Nevada. Is is designed to generate forecasts of gaming revenues in Clark County, whose regional economy is dominated by the gaming industry. The model is meant to forecast Clark County gaming revenues and identifies the exogenous variables that affect gaming revenues. It will provide baseline forecasts of Clark County gaming revenues in order to assess changes in gaming-related economic activity resulting from changes in regional economic activity and tourism.

  15. Forecasting gaming revenues in Clark County, Nevada: Issues and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.K.; Bando, A.

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes the Western Area Gaming and Economic Response Simulator (WAGERS), a forecasting model that emphasizes the role of the gaming industry in Clark County, Nevada. Is is designed to generate forecasts of gaming revenues in Clark County, whose regional economy is dominated by the gaming industry. The model is meant to forecast Clark County gaming revenues and identifies the exogenous variables that affect gaming revenues. It will provide baseline forecasts of Clark County gaming revenues in order to assess changes in gaming-related economic activity resulting from changes in regional economic activity and tourism.

  16. Economic turmoil, new administration to affect revenue cycle in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Healthcare revenue cycle leaders willface some pressing issues in 2009, including continuing economic turmoil, increasing numbers of underinsured patients, avoiding unreimbursable medical errors, and implementation of ICD-10.

  17. Cash Management, Revenue Sources and Cost Effective Methods of Revenue Collection at Local Government Level

    OpenAIRE

    Mustapha Gimba Kumshe; Kagu Bukar

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this paper was to focus on the elements, objectives, goals and importance of cash management; and also to examine the sources of revenue and cost effective collections for local governments. The elements of cash management are identified as establishing bank relations, preparing cash flow statements, estimating collection receipts and analyzing cash flow and preparing a budget. Amongst the objectives of cash management is to ensure availability of cash resources at all t...

  18. Mechanisms of physiological adjustment of N2 fixation in Cicer arietinum L. (chickpea) during early stages of water deficit: single or multi-factor controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr Esfahani, Maryam; Sulieman, Saad; Schulze, Joachim; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2014-09-01

    Drought negatively impacts symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) in Cicer arietinum L. (chickpea), thereby limiting yield potential. Understanding how drought affects chickpea nodulation will enable the development of strategies to biotechnologically engineer chickpea varieties with enhanced SNF under drought conditions. By analyzing carbon and nitrogen metabolism, we studied the mechanisms of physiological adjustment of nitrogen fixation in chickpea plants nodulated with Mesorhizobium ciceri during both drought stress and subsequent recovery. The nitrogenase activity, levels of several key carbon (in nodules) and nitrogen (in both nodules and leaves) metabolites and antioxidant compounds, as well as the activity of related nodule enzymes were examined in M. ciceri-inoculated chickpea plants under early drought stress and subsequent recovery. Results indicated that drought reduced nitrogenase activity, and that this was associated with a reduced expression of the nifK gene. Furthermore, drought stress promoted an accumulation of amino acids, mainly asparagine in nodules (but not in leaves), and caused a cell redox imbalance in nodules. An accumulation of organic acids, especially malate, in nodules, which coincided with the decline of nodulated root respiration, was also observed under drought stress. Taken together, our findings indicate that reduced nitrogenase activity occurring at early stages of drought stress involves, at least, the inhibition of respiration, nitrogen accumulation and an imbalance in cell redox status in nodules. The results of this study demonstrate the potential that the genetic engineering-based improvement of SNF efficiency could be applied to reduce the impact of drought on the productivity of chickpea, and perhaps other legume crops. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Areva - First half 2008 sales revenue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    As of June 30, 2008, AREVA's backlog stood at 38.1 billion euro, for 13.6% growth since June 30, 2007, with 9.9% growth in Nuclear and 40.7% growth in Transmission and Distribution. In Nuclear, the backlog came to 32.3 billion euro as of the end of June 2008. In the front end of the cycle, AREVA signed multi-year contracts in the first half of the year with Japanese and American utilities and with EDF, for a combined total of more than 1 billion euro. Of note in the back end of the cycle is the contract AREVA signed with the U.S. Department of Energy to build a MOX fuel fabrication facility. In Transmission and Distribution, the backlog came to 5.8 billion euro as of the end of period. A total of 3.2 billion euro in orders was booked in the first half, an increase of 20.0% year-on-year. The division won several important contracts, most notably a contract with Dubai Electricity (more than 130 million euro), a contract with National Grid and RTE for the renovation of the IFA 2000 grid interconnection between France and Great Britain (more than 60 million euro), and, in the industrial field, a contract with Rio Tinto Alcan (close to 65 million euro). The group cleared revenue of 6.2 billion euro in the first half of 2008, up 14.8% (+16.4% like-for-like) compared with the first half of 2007. Sales outside France were up 14.3% to 4.2 billion euro or 68.6% of total sales; the latter were stable compared with the first half of 2007. All businesses were up, with growth of 15.9% in Nuclear operations (+19.1% LFL1) - particularly in Reactors and Services (+31.3% LFL1) - and 13.0% growth in Transmission and Distribution operations (+12.0% LFL T 1). Foreign exchange had a negative impact of 155 million euro, primarily due to the change in the U.S. dollar in relation to the euro. Changes in the consolidated group had a positive impact of 97 million euro, mainly reflecting acquisitions in the Transmission and Distribution division and in Renewable Energies. Sales revenue for

  20. Resource and revenue potential of California residential load participation in ancillary services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, Johanna L.; Dyson, Mark E.H.; Callaway, Duncan S.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing penetrations of intermittent renewable energy resources will require additional power system services. California recently adopted an energy storage mandate to support its renewable portfolio standard, which requires 33% of delivered energy from renewables by 2020. The objective of this paper is to estimate the amount of energy storage that could be provided by residential thermostatically controlled loads, such as refrigerators and air conditioners, and the amount of revenue that could be earned by loads participating in ancillary services markets. We model load aggregations as virtual energy storage, and use simple dynamical system models and publicly available data to generate our resource and revenue estimates. We find that the resource potential is large: 10–40 GW/8–12 GWh, which is significantly more than that required by the mandate. We also find that regulation and spinning/non-spinning reserve revenues vary significantly depending upon type of load and, for heat pumps and air conditioners, climate zone. For example, mean regulation revenues for refrigerators are $11/year, for electric water heaters are $24/year, for air conditioners are $0-32/year, and for heat pumps are $22–56/year. Both consumer choices, such as appliance settings, and policy, such as the design of ancillary service compensation and appliance standards, could increase revenue potentials. - Highlights: • California's energy storage mandate requires 1.325 GW of energy storage by 2020. • Residential loads such as refrigerators have thermal energy storage. • California's residential loads could provide 10-40 GW/8-12 GWh of storage. • Loads participating in ancillary services markets could earn up to $56/load/year. • Consumer choices and policy mechanisms could increase revenue potentials

  1. Demographic change and income tax revenue in Germany: a microsimulation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Beznoska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a result of high net migration, both Germany’s overall population and its workforce potential are currently growing. However, within a few years this demographic trend will be reversed, leading to a decline in population as a whole and especially in the number of those gainfully employed. In this paper, we use a population projection to apply a static ageing approach to German micro data. Then, we simulate income tax revenue with a microsimulation model for the future population. In 20 years’ time the annual price-adjusted income tax loss is estimated to be equal to € 18 billion or almost 7 per cent. This fall in income tax revenue resulting from a shrinking and ageing society will place a huge strain on public finances in Germany, an effect further enhanced by the shift of the tax burden from pension contributions to pension benefits.

  2. Optimizing revenue at a cosmetic surgery centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Joanna M; Verheyden, Charles N; Mahabir, Raman C

    2011-01-01

    The demand for cosmetic surgery and services has diminished with recent fluctuations in the economy. To stay ahead, surgeons must appreciate and attend to the fiscal challenges of private practice. A key component of practice economics is knowledge of the common methods of payment. To review methods of payment in a five-surgeon group practice in central Texas, USA. A retrospective chart review of the financial records of a cosmetic surgery centre in Texas was conducted. Data were collected for the five-year period from 2003 to 2008, and included the method of payment, the item purchased (product, service or surgery) and the dollar amount. More than 11,000 transactions were reviewed. The most common method of payment used for products and services was credit card, followed by check and cash. For procedures, the most common form of payment was personal check, followed by credit card and financing. Of the credit card purchases for both products and procedures, an overwhelming majority of patients (more than 75%) used either Visa (Visa Inc, USA) or MasterCard (MasterCard Worldwide, USA). If the amount of the individual transaction surpassed US$1,000, the most common method of payment transitioned from credit card to personal check. In an effort to maximize revenue, surgeons should consider limiting the credit cards accepted by the practice and encourage payment through personal check.

  3. 14 CFR Section 9 - Functional Classification-Operating Revenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIR CARRIERS Profit and Loss Classification Section 9 Functional Classification—Operating Revenues... shall be included in profit and loss classification 8100, Nonoperating Income and Expense-Net, and the... for all air carrier groups and shall include all revenues from the United States Government as direct...

  4. Taxation and Revenues for Education. Education Partners Working Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Faith; Whitney, Terry

    Funding education with property taxes has always been controversial. This paper examines taxation and the sources of revenue for education. The historical context in which tax and revenue sources have supported education in the United States is described. Also discussed are state tax-policy goals and education funding, and the embattled role of…

  5. Revenue Risk Modelling and Assessment on BOT Highway Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novianti, T.; Setyawan, H. Y.

    2018-01-01

    The infrastructure project which is considered as a public-private partnership approach under BOT (Build-Operate-Transfer) arrangement, such as a highway, is risky. Therefore, assessment on risk factors is essential as the project have a concession period and is influenced by macroeconomic factors and consensus period. In this study, pre-construction risks of a highway were examined by using a Delphi method to create a space for offline expert discussions; a fault tree analysis to map intuition of experts and to create a model from the underlying risk events; a fuzzy logic to interpret the linguistic data of risk models. The loss of revenue for risk tariff, traffic volume, force majeure, and income were then measured. The results showed that the loss of revenue caused by the risk tariff was 10.5% of the normal total revenue. The loss of revenue caused by the risk of traffic volume was 21.0% of total revenue. The loss of revenue caused by the force majeure was 12.2% of the normal income. The loss of income caused by the non-revenue events was 6.9% of the normal revenue. It was also found that the volume of traffic was the major risk of a highway project because it related to customer preferences.

  6. Costs and revenues of investment in enterprise-related schooling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.; Groot, W.J.N.; Oosterbeek, H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, a general specification of the wage equation is used to derive a marginal revenue equation for enterprise-related schooling. The optimal amount of investment in enterprise-related schooling is found by equating the marginal revenues and marginal costs. For the empirical analysis, the

  7. Wasted millions: Revenue management in Dutch culinary restaurants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research in Hospitality Management is co-published by NISC (Pty) Ltd and ... The concept of revenue management is widely adopted in various industries including the hospitality industry. ... of three main areas: firstly, pricing strategy; secondly, inventory ... essence of revenue management, however, is in many cases.

  8. 75 FR 9359 - Drawback of Internal Revenue Excise Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... Drawback of Internal Revenue Excise Tax AGENCY: Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... substitution drawback claim for internal revenue excise tax paid on imported merchandise in situations where no excise tax was paid upon the substituted merchandise or where the substituted merchandise is the subject...

  9. Seeing Potential, Pushing Possibilities: Thinking Creatively about Revenue Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Betsy; Fulcher, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Revenue generation is a challenge faced by museums in today's economy. The authors encourage educators to take on a larger role in establishing new revenue streams. By applying Jim Collins' "Hedgehog Concept," their unique knowledge of audiences, and their strong ability to work in teams, educators can rethink what they've always done to influence…

  10. Revenue management under customer choice behaviour with cancellations and overbooking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierag, D.D.; Koole, G.M.; Mei, van der R.D.; Zwart, B.; Rest, van der J.I.

    2015-01-01

    In many application areas such as airlines and hotels a large number of bookings are typically cancelled. Explicitly taking into account cancellations creates an opportunity for increasing revenue. Motivated by this we propose a revenue management model based on Talluri and van Ryzin (2004) that

  11. 47 CFR 32.5060 - Other basic area revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accounts in the settlement process. (See also § 32.4999(e)). To the extent that the charges and credits resulting from a settlement process can be identified by Local Network Services Revenue account they shall... SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions For Revenue Accounts § 32.5060 Other...

  12. 47 CFR 32.5082 - Switched access revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions For Revenue Accounts § 32.5082 Switched access revenue. (a) This account shall consist of federally and state tariffed charges assessed to... and state tariffed charges. Such subsidiary record categories shall be reported as required by part 43...

  13. 76 FR 6313 - Asparagus Revenue Market Loss Assistance Payment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... Revenue Market Loss Assistance Payment Program AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation and Farm Service Agency, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule implements the Asparagus Revenue Market Loss Assistance Payment (ALAP) Program authorized by the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008 (the 2008 Farm...

  14. 75 FR 41397 - Asparagus Revenue Market Loss Assistance Payment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... Revenue Market Loss Assistance Payment Program AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation and Farm Service... to implement the new Asparagus Revenue Market Loss Assistance Payment (ALAP) Program authorized by the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (the 2008 Farm Bill). The purpose of the program is to...

  15. Revenue Sharing: An Assessment of Current Policies at UK Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzard, James; Brown, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    The transfer of academic technologies to industry is an important process underpinning innovation and economic development. Various approaches have been adopted by universities to encourage academics to participate in commercial activities. Many have implemented revenue sharing policies, through which the revenues generated from university-owned…

  16. Funding California Schools: The Revenue Limit System. Technical Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the technical appendices accompanying the report, "Funding California Schools: The Revenue Limit System." Included are: (1) Revenue Limit Calculation and Decomposition; (2) Data and Methods; and (3) Base Funding Alternative Simulation Results. (Contains 5 tables and 26 footnotes.) [For the main report,…

  17. Impedes to effective collection of local government revenue and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the inability of these institutions to effectively collect revenue in Cameroon has hampered service delivery. Following the case of the Wum Central Council, the study holds that tax evasion and defaulting, migration and the diversion of revenue to other Local Government areas as well as underpayments of court ...

  18. Vertical integration strategies: revenue effects in hospital and Medicare markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, M

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the revenue effects of seven vertically integrated strategies on California hospitals. The strategies investigated were managed care contracts, physician affiliations, ambulatory care, ambulatory surgery, home health services, inpatient rehabilitation, and skilled nursing care. The study population included 242 not-for-profit hospitals in continuous operation from 1983 to 1990. Many hospitals developed vertically integrated programs in the 1980s as inpatient utilization fell in response to the Medicare Prospective Payment program. Net revenue rose on average by $2,080 from 1983 to 1990, but fell by $2,421 from the Medicare program. On the whole, the more physicians affiliated with a hospital, the higher the net revenue. However, in the Medicare population, the number of managed care contracts was significant. The pre-hospital strategies generated significant revenue, while the post-hospital strategies did not. In the Medicare program, inpatient rehabilitation significantly reduced revenue.

  19. 75 FR 78804 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Revenue Procedure 2003-45 and Revenue Procedure 2004-48

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently... Corporations, and Revenue Procedure 2004-48, Deemed Corporate Election for Late Electing S Corporations. DATES...-45, Late Election Relief for S Corporations, and Revenue Procedure 2004-48, Deemed Corporate Election...

  20. Time-adjusted variable resistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyser, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Timing mechanism was developed effecting extremely precisioned highly resistant fixed resistor. Switches shunt all or portion of resistor; effective resistance is varied over time interval by adjusting switch closure rate.

  1. Measuring the impact of marginal tax rate reform on the revenue base of South Africa using a microsimulation tax model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolande Jordaan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is primarily concerned with the revenue and tax efficiency effects of adjustments to marginal tax rates on individual income as an instrument of possible tax reform. The hypothesis is that changes to marginal rates affect not only the revenue base, but also tax efficiency and the optimum level of taxes that supports economic growth. Using an optimal revenue-maximising rate (based on Laffer analysis, the elasticity of taxable income is derived with respect to marginal tax rates for each taxable-income category. These elasticities are then used to quantify the impact of changes in marginal rates on the revenue base and tax efficiency using a microsimulation (MS tax model. In this first paper on the research results, much attention is paid to the structure of the model and the way in which the database has been compiled. The model allows for the dissemination of individual taxpayers by income groups, gender, educational level, age group, etc. Simulations include a scenario with higher marginal rates which is also more progressive (as in the 1998/1999 fiscal year, in which case tax revenue increases but the increase is overshadowed by a more than proportional decrease in tax efficiency as measured by its deadweight loss. On the other hand, a lowering of marginal rates (to bring South Africa’s marginal rates more in line with those of its peers improves tax efficiency but also results in a substantial revenue loss. The estimated optimal individual tax to gross domestic product (GDP ratio in order to maximise economic growth (6.7 per cent shows a strong response to changes in marginal rates, and the results from this research indicate that a lowering of marginal rates would also move the actual ratio closer to its optimum level. Thus, the trade-off between revenue collected and tax efficiency should be carefully monitored when personal income tax reform is being considered.

  2. On Revenue-Optimal Dynamic Auctions for Bidders with Interdependent Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Florin; Parkes, David C.

    In a dynamic market, being able to update one's value based on information available to other bidders currently in the market can be critical to having profitable transactions. This is nicely captured by the model of interdependent values (IDV): a bidder's value can explicitly depend on the private information of other bidders. In this paper we present preliminary results about the revenue properties of dynamic auctions for IDV bidders. We adopt a computational approach to design single-item revenue-optimal dynamic auctions with known arrivals and departures but (private) signals that arrive online. In leveraging a characterization of truthful auctions, we present a mixed-integer programming formulation of the design problem. Although a discretization is imposed on bidder signals the solution is a mechanism applicable to continuous signals. The formulation size grows exponentially in the dependence of bidders' values on other bidders' signals. We highlight general properties of revenue-optimal dynamic auctions in a simple parametrized example and study the sensitivity of prices and revenue to model parameters.

  3. SOLUTIONS FOR INCREASING PUBLIC BUDGET REVENUE IN BULGARIA, CROATIA, CZECH REPUBLIC, POLAND AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcisa Roxana MOSTEANU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The research paper is a comparative analysis of the budget revenue in Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Poland and Romania, taking into account the main features in light of the contribution of indirect and direct taxes and social contributions to the achievement of public revenues. Theme presents a topic of great interest, both theoretically and practically, given possible solution to increase public budget revenue in these countries, most of them being new member stated of European Union and who wants to catch up all the lost period within socialism time. As a common conclusion it can be seen that all countries need to improve their judicial system and combating crime and tax evasion. It is necessary to increase the independence of the judiciary, reducing bribery, reducing undeclared work and the establishment of independent anti-corruption institutions. Also the analyzed countries must improve public expenditure system, reducing bureaucracy and pay attention on profitable investments in order to increase budget revenues and encourage employment and unemployed university graduates, this is possible also by improving the mechanism of attraction and use of EU funds for investment within public and private sector.

  4. Financial and technical feasibility of dynamic congestion pricing as a revenue generation source in Indiana : exploiting the availability of real-time information and dynamic pricing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    "Highway stakeholders continue to support research studies that address critical issues of the current era, including congestion mitigation and revenue generation. A mechanism that addresses both concerns is congestion pricing which establishes a dir...

  5. Mechanism for Corrective Action on Budget Imbalances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Lucian CATRINA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The European Fiscal Compact sets the obligation for the signatory states to establish an automatic mechanism for taking corrective action on budget imbalances. Nevertheless, the European Treaty says nothing about the tools that should be used in order to reach the desired equilibrium of budgets, but only that it should aim at correcting deviations from the medium-term objective or the adjustment path, including their cumulated impact on government debt dynamics. This paper is aiming at showing that each member state has to build the correction mechanism according to the impact of the chosen tools on economic growth and on general government revenues. We will also emphasize that the correction mechanism should be built not only exacerbating the corrective action through spending/ tax based adjustments, but on a high quality package of economic policies as well.

  6. 77 FR 6862 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Revenue Procedure 99-50

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... Revenue Procedure 99-50 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for... Revenue Procedure 99-50, Combined Information Reporting. DATES: Written comments should be received on or... Number: Revenue Procedure 99-50. Abstract: Revenue Procedure 99-50 permits combined information reporting...

  7. 76 FR 30428 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Revenue Procedure 99-21

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... Revenue Procedure 99-21 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for...: Disability Suspension. OMB Number: 1545-1649. Revenue Procedure Number: Revenue Procedure 99-21. Abstract: Revenue Procedure 99-21 describes the information that is needed to establish a claim that a taxpayer was...

  8. 26 CFR 1.856-0 - Revenue Act of 1978 amendments not included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revenue Act of 1978 amendments not included. 1.856-0 Section 1.856-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.856-0 Revenue Act of 1978...

  9. 26 CFR 601.102 - Classification of taxes collected by the Internal Revenue Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Rules § 601.102 Classification of taxes collected by the Internal Revenue Service. (a) Principal... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification of taxes collected by the Internal Revenue Service. 601.102 Section 601.102 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  10. A forecasting model of gaming revenues in Clark County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, B.; Bando, A.; Basset, G.; Rosen, A.; Meenan, C.; Carlson, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the Western Area Gaming and Economic Response Simulator (WAGERS), a forecasting model that emphasizes the role of the gaming industry in Clark County, Nevada. It is designed to generate forecasts of gaming revenues in Clark County, whose regional economy is dominated by the gaming industry, and identify the exogenous variables that affect gaming revenues. This model will provide baseline forecasts of Clark County gaming revenues in order to assess changes in gaming related economic activity resulting from future events like the siting of a permanent high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain

  11. A forecasting model of gaming revenues in Clark County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, B.; Bando, A.; Bassett, G.; Rosen, A.; Carlson, J.; Meenan, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the Western Area Gaining and Economic Response Simulator (WAGERS), a forecasting model that emphasizes the role of the gaming industry in Clark County, Nevada. It is designed to generate forecasts of gaming revenues in Clark County, whose regional economy is dominated by the gaming industry, an identify the exogenous variables that affect gaming revenues. This model will provide baseline forecasts of Clark County gaming revenues in order to assess changes in gaming related economic activity resulting from future events like the siting of a permanent high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain

  12. A forecasting model of gaming revenues in Clark County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.; Bando, A.; Bassett, G.; Rosen, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Carlson, J.; Meenan, C. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1992-04-01

    This paper describes the Western Area Gaming and Economic Response Simulator (WAGERS), a forecasting model that emphasizes the role of the gaming industry in Clark County, Nevada. It is designed to generate forecasts of gaming revenues in Clark County, whose regional economy is dominated by the gaming industry, an identify the exogenous variables that affect gaming revenues. This model will provide baseline forecasts of Clark County gaming revenues in order to assess changes in gaming related economic activity resulting from future events like the siting of a permanent high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain.

  13. Financial sustainability in municipal solid waste management--costs and revenues in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohri, Christian Riuji; Camenzind, Ephraim Joseph; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2014-02-01

    chain by sales of organic waste recycling products; (iii) diversifying revenue streams and financing mechanisms (polluter-pays-, cross-subsidy- and business-principles); and (iv) cost reduction and improved cost-effectiveness. We argue that in a PPP setup such as in Bahir Dar, a strong alliance between the municipality and private enterprise is important so that appropriate solutions for improved financial sustainability of a SWM system can be sought and implemented. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Revenue Improvement Through Demand-Dependent Pricing of Network Services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanders, David

    2000-01-01

    ... of the expectation of rewards based upon variable demands. This work shows that revenue improvement can occur in this network environment when a dynamic pricing policy is applied as opposed to optimal static pricing...

  15. Revenue stream: How state taxes fund public services, amenities

    OpenAIRE

    Brye Steeves

    2009-01-01

    Each state has a portfolio with a varying assortment of revenue sources, such as income tax and sales tax, which are affected by the health of the economy. In down times, services get cut or taxes are raised.

  16. Costs and revenues associated with overweight trucks in Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This study estimated highway pavement and bridge damage costs, and analyzed the adequacy of permit revenues to cover these : costs. The study began with an extensive review of the literature on the subject, thus facilitating identification of the gap...

  17. 77 FR 34125 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... (1992), raised the revenue classification level for Class I railroads from $50 million (1978 dollars) to..., William F. Huneke, Director, Office of Economics. Jeffrey Herzig, Clearance Clerk. [FR Doc. 2012-13938...

  18. 75 FR 57553 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... (1992) raised the revenue classification level for Class I railroads from $50 million (1978 dollars) to... the Board, William F. Huneke, Director, Office of Economics. Jeffrey Herzig, Clearance Clerk. [FR Doc...

  19. 78 FR 21007 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... Rulemaking With Respect to 49 CFR 1201, 8 I.C.C. 2d 625 (1992), raised the revenue classification level for...- 8339] By the Board, William F. Huneke, Director, Office of Economics. Jeffrey Herzig, Clearance Clerk...

  20. Revisiting the relevance of economic theory to hotel revenue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: economic theory, hotels, revenue management, Big Data, hospitality education ... and the ease and quality in which pricing information is delivered to ...... Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 25(2), 27–40.

  1. Fishing Revenue-Intensity Raster Database, 2007-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These revenue-intensity rasters were built as part of an effort to improve upon the spatial precision of self-reported Vessel Trip Report (VTR) fishing locations....

  2. Dynamic room pricing model for hotel revenue management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Abdel Aziz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of room pricing in hotels. We propose a hotel revenue management model based on dynamic pricing to provide hotel managers with a flexible and efficient decision support tool for room revenue maximization. The two pillars of the proposed framework are a novel optimization model, and a multi-class scheme similar to the one implemented in airlines. Our hypothesis is that this framework can overcome the limitations associated with the research gaps in pricing literature; and can also contribute significantly in increasing the revenue of hotels. We test this hypothesis on three different approaches, and the results show an increase in revenue compared to the classical model used in literature.

  3. Update on State and Local Revenue Loss From Internet Sales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, James

    2001-01-01

    ... sales and use tax revenues. The scenarios showed that there is considerable uncertainty about the size of the impacts and how various assumptions about sales, compliance, and other factors contribute to that uncertainty...

  4. Determinants of Revenue Derived from Pineapple Marketing in Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of Revenue Derived from Pineapple Marketing in Edo State, Nigeria. ... The results showed that an average pineapple marketer has a mean volume of 98 dozens and incurred a variable ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  5. Oil Economy and the Revenue Allocation Debacle in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil Economy and the Revenue Allocation Debacle in Nigeria. ... This paper delves into one of the most controversial issues in the political economy of Nigeria. ... The paper conclude that, the drive for financial autonomy and sustainable ...

  6. Tax Limitations and Revenue Shifting Strategies in Local Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom-Hansen, Jens; Bækgaard, Martin; Serritzlew, Søren

    2014-01-01

    subjected to tax limitations employ revenue-shifting strategies. In Denmark, however, these strategies are contingent on the specifics of the Danish intergovernmental system, which render central government grants an attractive object of revenue-shifting strategies. Our analysis thus helps identify......The literature on tax and expenditure limitations (TELs) shows how limiting the freedom of local governments to levy taxes may have considerable unexpected effects. Entities subjected to such limitations may, as their proponents hope, react by cutting expenditures and revenue, but they may also...... strategically change their revenue structure and increase reliance on income sources not subjected to limitations. However, these findings are overwhelmingly based on studies of state and local governments in the USA. Their relevance outside this empirical setting remains unclear. A study of Denmark, where...

  7. Estimated revenues of VAT and fuel tax on aviation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korteland, M.; Faber, J.

    2013-07-15

    International aviation is exempt from VAT, both on their inputs (e.g. on fuel or aircraft) and on their revenues (e.g. on tickets). In the EU, aviation fuel is also exempt from the minimum fuel excise tariffs. This report calculates the potential revenues of VAT on tickets and fuel tax on jet fuel. If VAT were to be levied on tickets while other aviation taxes were simultaneously abolished, this would yield revenues in the order of EUR 7 billion. Excise duty on jet fuel would raise revenues in the order of EUR 20 billion. These figures do not take into account the impact of the cost increases on demand for aviation into account. Since higher costs will reduce demand, the estimates can be considered an upper bound.

  8. Which type of government revenue leads government expenditure?

    OpenAIRE

    Abdi, Zeinab; Masih, Mansur

    2014-01-01

    This Malaysia is a developing Islamic state that faced government budget deficit since 1998. It is undeniable that a budget deficit or inability to cover government spending is not positively seen by external parties. The optimum level of government budget is the state where government spending is totally offset by government revenue and that can be achieved through an increase in tax revenue or decrease in spending. The paper aims to discover the existence of a theoretical relationship betwe...

  9. State Government Revenue Recovery from the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    James Alm; David L. Sjoquist

    2014-01-01

    The "Great Recession" lasted from December 2007 to June 2009, and it wreaked havoc on the revenues of state (and local) governments. While the U.S. economy has improved since the end of the Great Recession, state government revenues have in most cases still not completely recovered. We use various indicators to measure how different states have -- or have not -- recovered in the aftermath of the Great Recession, and we also attempt to explain why these different patterns of recovery have emer...

  10. Soil fertility, crop biodiversity, and farmers' revenues: Evidence from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Falco, Salvatore; Zoupanidou, Elisavet

    2017-03-01

    This paper analyzes the interplay between soil fertility, crop biodiversity, and farmers' revenues. We use a large, original, farm-level panel dataset. Findings indicate that both crop biodiversity and soil fertility have positive effects on farmers' revenues. It is also shown that crop biodiversity and soil fertility may act as substitutes. These results provide evidence for the important role of diversity in the resilience of agroecosystems. Crop diversification can be a potential strategy to support productivity when soils are less fertile.

  11. Newspapers and Parties: How Advertising Revenues Created an Independent Press

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Petrova

    2009-01-01

    Does economic development promote media freedom? Do higher advertising revenues tend to make media outlets independent of political groups?in?uence? Using data on the 19th century American newspapers, I show that in places with higher advertising revenues, newspapers were more likely to be independent from political parties. Similar results hold when local advertising rates are instrumented by regulations on outdoor advertising and newspaper distribution. I also show that newly created newspa...

  12. 19 CFR 10.3 - Drawback; internal-revenue tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drawback; internal-revenue tax. 10.3 Section 10.3... and Returned § 10.3 Drawback; internal-revenue tax. (a) Except as prescribed in § 10.1(f) or in... tax is imposed on the importation of like articles not previously exported from the United States or...

  13. India’s Revenue Deficit: A Challenge Ahead

    OpenAIRE

    Sivakumar, Marimuthu; Venkatesh, K; Ayyasamy, M

    2001-01-01

    A developing country like India needs revenue surplus for the capital investment at the same time to pursue the economic development through demand expansion it needs expenditure especially in the social sectors such as health, education etc,. The recent global economic crisis also compels India to induce the expenditure for sustainability of the growth that it has achieved recently. This also needs enormous expenditure. On the other hand, current expenditure over current revenue of an econom...

  14. Tax Revenue, Stock Market and Economic Growth of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Irfan Javaid Attari; Roshaiza Taha; Muhammad Imran Farooq

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of capital market and fiscal policy influences in determining the nexus of economic growth in Pakistan from July 2003 to July 2012. The authors utilize ADF unit root test, Johansen Cointegration test, VECM test, Granger causality test and variance decomposition analysis to test the relationship among tax revenue, stock market and economic growth in Pakistan. Granger causality analysis is used to answer questions whether “Does tax revenue cau...

  15. Tax Revenue and Macroeconomic Growth in Nigeria: A Contextual Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Miftahu Idris; Tunku Salhabinti Tunku Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims at evaluating the influence of tax revenue on the macroeconomic management of the Nigerian economy using a conceptual approach. By so doing, a comprehensive review of the literature as well as in-depth analysis of tax structure are critically conducted. Undeniably, an insight that shows a precise influence or relationship between tax revenue and the nation’s growth can be regarded as a working tool for policymakers particularly in developing countries. In view of that, this pa...

  16. Determinants of value added tax revenue in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    WAWIRE, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. Past studies that have been undertaken on the responsiveness of Value Added Tax revenues to changes in GDP in Kenya have found a positive relationship. However, the studies omit key determinants of tax revenues, such as the nature of the tax system, institutional, demographic and structural features of the economy. Due to this omission, the estimated income elasticities are unreliable for planning purposes, a situation that might be responsible for the recurring budget deficits. The...

  17. Tax policy: The fiscal revenue effects of international tax planning

    OpenAIRE

    Beznoska, Martin; Hentze, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In the course of the 'Panama Papers' discussion, questions arise concerning the fiscal effects of international profit shifting and tax avoidance. A recent OECD study estimates the worldwide corporate tax losses to lie between 4 and 10 percent of the revenues. Applied to Germany, this would reflect between 3 and 7 billion Euro or maximum 1 percent of total tax revenues. However, the estimation underlies questionable assumptions and therefore severe uncertainties.

  18. Areva. Nine-month 2007 sales revenue and data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-10-01

    The main information concerning the nine-month 2007 financial data of the Areva group is a steady growth of 9-month sales revenue, at euro 8.066 billion (+6.8% like-for-like), including euro 2.692 billion in the 3. quarter, i.e. +7.6% like-for-like. The group confirms its strong sales revenue growth objective for 2007

  19. An Improved Dynamic Programming Decomposition Approach for Network Revenue Management

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Zhang

    2011-01-01

    We consider a nonlinear nonseparable functional approximation to the value function of a dynamic programming formulation for the network revenue management (RM) problem with customer choice. We propose a simultaneous dynamic programming approach to solve the resulting problem, which is a nonlinear optimization problem with nonlinear constraints. We show that our approximation leads to a tighter upper bound on optimal expected revenue than some known bounds in the literature. Our approach can ...

  20. An examination of ongoing trends in airline ancillary revenues

    OpenAIRE

    Warnock-Smith, David; O'Connell, John Frankie; Maleki, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    The airline industry seems permanently embedded in producing thin margins and continuously combatting downward pressure on yields. To perpetuate the problem, the industry remains eclipsed with high cost structures and low barriers to entry. However, a new sizzling concept continues to counterbalance these effects in the form of ancillary revenues. Globally, these revenues have increased by 121% from 2010 to 2014 – and the trend is set to continue as carriers are quickly implementing structura...

  1. 136 Tax Revenue, Stock Market and Economic Growth of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan Javaid Attari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of capital market and fiscal policy influences in determining the nexus of economic growth in Pakistan from July 2003 to July 2012. The authors utilize ADF unit root test, Johansen Cointegration test, VECM test, Granger causality test and variance decomposition analysis to test the relationship among tax revenue, stock market and economic growth in Pakistan. Granger causality analysis is used to answer questions whether “Does tax revenue cause the economic growth?” or “Does tax revenue cause the capital market?”. The results demonstrate that there is a bidirectional casualty between tax revenue and economic growth; and a unidirectional causality from capital market to tax revenue. The estimated result shows that growth of Pakistan economy is strongly contributed from the high collection of direct tax revenue and the development of financial market activity. The findings of this paper have important implications to current and potential investors in Pakistan economy to understand the economic condition of Pakistan and to assist them in making their investment decision.

  2. The Existence Of Revenue Gap In South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamae Retselisitsoe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an empirical analysis of the macroeconomic factors that enhance revenue gap in South Africa using the multivariate cointegration techniques for the period 1965 to 2012. The results from the cointegration analysis indicate that the revenue gap in South Africa is negatively associated with the level of imports while positively related to external debt and underground economy. The former finding is consistent with the notion that imports are subjected to more taxation than domestic activities because of certain features of international trade that tend to make tax evasion difficult. On the other hand, the positive relationship between external debt and tax gap shows that the South African government relies upon external debt to finance its budget deficit resulting from missing revenues. Furthermore, the observed negative effect of the post-apartheid dummy confirms that the tax policy reforms that South Africa introduced following the liberation in 1994 have led to a reduction in missing revenues. The results from the Granger causality test also show that there is a unidirectional causality running from imports and underground economy to revenue gap, while revenue gap on the other hand is found to Granger-cause national income and external debt in South Africa.

  3. Effect of smoke-free legislation on Ticino gastronomy revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Peter J; Hartung, Uwe; Fiordelli, Maddalena

    2012-12-01

    To provide evidence on the effects of smoke-free laws on gastronomy revenue in a European setting based on objective data. Damage to gastronomy revenue is a widely used argument against smoke-free legislation. Gastronomy revenue in Ticino is compared with the rest of Switzerland before and after Ticino banned smoking from gastronomy in April 2007, being the first (and at the time of the study only) Swiss canton to do that. The study uses breakdowns by cantons of taxable revenue of gastronomy branches and retailers (for comparison) provided by the Swiss tax authorities for the years 2005-2008. Revenues of restaurants and bars were not damaged by the Ticino smoke-free law. Decreases in Ticino happened before the smoke-free law came into effect. Evidence for night clubs is inconclusive. The absence of detrimental effects on restaurant and bar revenue corroborates the gist of research on the subject from other countries. The argument that the decline of bar and restaurant sales prior to the implementation of the ban might have occurred in anticipation of the new regulation is not considered tenable.

  4. Blueprint and Approach to Grow Revenue in Small Technology Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Bailetti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines a new approach to grow the revenue of small technology companies and technology startups. We name this new approach the business ecosystem approach. The article is organized into five sections. The first section provides a blueprint to grow revenue and an inventory of growth formulas that top management teams of small technology companies and founders of startups find useful. The second section briefly defines business ecosystems, keystones and platforms. The third section describes the business ecosystem approach to grow the revenue of small technology companies and technology startups. It compares the traditional and business ecosystem approaches to growing revenue; identifies when the business ecosystem approach works better than the traditional approach; explains what small companies and startups need to do to grow revenue using the business ecosystem approach; and describes the benefits and risks of implementing the business ecosystem approach. The fourth section compares three approaches to growing revenue and highlights the differences between i business ecosystems and development communities and ii the business ecosystem approach and outsourcing. The fifth section identifies the key decisions a small technology company or technology startup needs to make to become the keystone that anchors a business ecosystem.

  5. Financial sustainability in municipal solid waste management – Costs and revenues in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohri, Christian Riuji, E-mail: christian.lohri@eawag.ch; Camenzind, Ephraim Joseph, E-mail: ephraimcamenzind@hotmail.com; Zurbrügg, Christian, E-mail: christian.zurbruegg@eawag.ch

    2014-02-15

    financial deficit could else endanger the public-private partnership (PPP) and lead to failure of this setup in the medium to long term, thus also endangering the now existing improved and currently reliable service. We present four options on how financial sustainability of the SWM system in Bahir Dar might be enhanced: (i) improved fee collection efficiency by linking the fees of solid waste collection to water supply; (ii) increasing the value chain by sales of organic waste recycling products; (iii) diversifying revenue streams and financing mechanisms (polluter-pays-, cross-subsidy- and business-principles); and (iv) cost reduction and improved cost-effectiveness. We argue that in a PPP setup such as in Bahir Dar, a strong alliance between the municipality and private enterprise is important so that appropriate solutions for improved financial sustainability of a SWM system can be sought and implemented.

  6. Financial sustainability in municipal solid waste management – Costs and revenues in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohri, Christian Riuji; Camenzind, Ephraim Joseph; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2014-01-01

    financial deficit could else endanger the public-private partnership (PPP) and lead to failure of this setup in the medium to long term, thus also endangering the now existing improved and currently reliable service. We present four options on how financial sustainability of the SWM system in Bahir Dar might be enhanced: (i) improved fee collection efficiency by linking the fees of solid waste collection to water supply; (ii) increasing the value chain by sales of organic waste recycling products; (iii) diversifying revenue streams and financing mechanisms (polluter-pays-, cross-subsidy- and business-principles); and (iv) cost reduction and improved cost-effectiveness. We argue that in a PPP setup such as in Bahir Dar, a strong alliance between the municipality and private enterprise is important so that appropriate solutions for improved financial sustainability of a SWM system can be sought and implemented

  7. A self-driven temperature and flow rate co-adjustment mechanism based on Shape-Memory-Alloy (SMA) assembly for an adaptive thermal control coldplate module with on-orbit service characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Wei; Li, Yunhua; Li, Yun-Ze; Zhong, Ming-Liang; Wang, Sheng-Nan; Wang, Ji-Xiang; Zhang, Jia-Xun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A self-driven temperature and flow rate co-adjustment mechanism based on SMA assembly is proposed. • An adaptive thermal control coldplate module (TCCM) is introduced. • A testbed is set up to investigate the TCCM adaptive thermal management performances. • The TCCM has the potential for spacecrafts on-orbit services. - Abstract: An adaptive thermal control coldplate module (TCCM) was proposed in this paper to fulfill the requirements of modular thermal control systems for spacecrafts on-orbit services. The TCCM could provide flow rate and temperature co-adjustment by using Shape-Memory-Alloy (SMA) assembly which possesses self-driven abilities. In this paper, the adaptive thermal management mechanism of the TCCM integrated with a single phase mechanically pumped fluid loop (SPMPFL) is described in detail, a verification testbed was established to examine the TCCM dynamic characteristics. Various working conditions such as inlet temperature, flow rate and thermal load disturbances were imposed on the TCCM to inspect its startup and transient performance. It was observed that the TCCM may present robust temperature control results with low overshoot (maximum 16.8%) and small temperature control error (minimum 0.18%), fast time response (minimum 600 s) was also revealed. The results demonstrated that the well-designed TCCM provided effective autonomous flow-rate and temperature co-adjustment operations, which may be a promising candidate for realizing modular level adaptive thermal management for spacecrafts on-orbit services.

  8. Pollution taxes as a source of budgetary revenues in economies in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zylicz, T.

    1995-01-01

    In environmental policy, as in other fields, the best is often the enemy of the good. Poland's pollution tax system, as described in this chapter is an example of this dictum. In violation of the usual tenets of public economics (Pigovian taxes, no earmarking), the country imposes a wide variety of pollution taxes (at lower than Pigovian levels) whose revenues feed various environmental funds that finance abatement, conservation projects, and the clean-up of past environmental neglect. The earmarking mechanism shields the revenues from being diverted to other 'worthy' purposes. Although the funds have not brought about an ecological miracle, the pollution tax system has become an effective mechanism for funding environmental investment and ecological recovery - despite some doubts as to the system's efficiency. The system accounts for some 1.6% of the state budget, too little to entertain the idea of making it a source of general budgetary revenue and substantially reducing the traditional distortionary taxes on labor and capital. For the time being, the case for continuing the present arrangements, although not perfect, seems self-evident. 11 refs

  9. Effect of the Smoke-Free Illinois Act on casino admissions and revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Moor, Gregg; Henderson, Patricia Nez; Leischow, Scott J

    2018-01-19

    As part of the Smoke-Free Illinois Act, smoking on the gambling floors of all commercial casinos in Illinois became prohibited. This study examined the effects of the Smoke-Free Illinois Act on casino admissions per-capita and real per-capita adjusted gross receipts using 18 years of data (10 years before and 8 years after the Illinois law went into effect). We employed a difference-in-difference regression technique using monthly data for the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa and Missouri and control for numerous determinants expected to affect casino admissions and revenue. The Smoke-free Illinois Act was found not to be a statistically significant determinant of per-capita casino admissions and of real per-capita gross adjusted receipts in all the models we estimated. The estimates from this study clearly indicated that the Illinois law that banned smoking in casinos has had no significant negative economic consequences for casinos in terms of per-capita admissions or revenues. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Estimating the maximum potential revenue for grid connected electricity storage :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto.

    2012-12-01

    The valuation of an electricity storage device is based on the expected future cash flow generated by the device. Two potential sources of income for an electricity storage system are energy arbitrage and participation in the frequency regulation market. Energy arbitrage refers to purchasing (stor- ing) energy when electricity prices are low, and selling (discharging) energy when electricity prices are high. Frequency regulation is an ancillary service geared towards maintaining system frequency, and is typically procured by the independent system operator in some type of market. This paper outlines the calculations required to estimate the maximum potential revenue from participating in these two activities. First, a mathematical model is presented for the state of charge as a function of the storage device parameters and the quantities of electricity purchased/sold as well as the quantities o ered into the regulation market. Using this mathematical model, we present a linear programming optimization approach to calculating the maximum potential revenue from an elec- tricity storage device. The calculation of the maximum potential revenue is critical in developing an upper bound on the value of storage, as a benchmark for evaluating potential trading strate- gies, and a tool for capital nance risk assessment. Then, we use historical California Independent System Operator (CAISO) data from 2010-2011 to evaluate the maximum potential revenue from the Tehachapi wind energy storage project, an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) energy storage demonstration project. We investigate the maximum potential revenue from two di erent scenarios: arbitrage only and arbitrage combined with the regulation market. Our analysis shows that participation in the regulation market produces four times the revenue compared to arbitrage in the CAISO market using 2010 and 2011 data. Then we evaluate several trading strategies to illustrate how they compare to the

  11. Effects of revenue from tourism on Montenegro's balance of payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Maja R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the most important industries in Montenegro, having several multiplier effects. Direct contribution of tourism to economic growth and development of Montenegro became even more important in the period after the outbreak of the global economic crisis. Due to low export competitiveness and high dependence of its economy on import, Montenegro has been facing high deficit in foreign trade and balance of payments for years. The article aims to analyze the trend of revenue from foreign tourists and to assess the effects of such revenue on overall changes to the current account of Montenegro's balance of payment. The results of the study show that in the period from 2008 onwards, growth of tourism revenue has lead to increased deficit in balance of payments. Since needs of tourists cannot be met from own sources, Montenegro has increased import of goods and services in the same period, which reduced total effects of tourism. In the years after the outbreak of the global economic crisis, the direct influence of tourism on increased surplus on the services subaccount within the current account of the balance of payments becomes even more important. Growth of tourism revenue leads to significantly higher surplus in the services subaccount, and therefore reduces the balance of payments deficit. Negative effects of tourism on goods import have been significantly reduced over the period, which allowed for a higher degree of coverage of trade deficit by tourism revenue. Increased revenue from foreign tourists at the same time causes higher growth of revenues from transport services, which has indirect positive effect on general changes in the current account of Montenegro's balance of payments.

  12. Government revenue-expenditure nexus: Evidence from several transitional economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konukcu-Önal Debi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Budget deficits and the debate on the sources of deficit finance have been on the agenda of public economics ever since the 1980s. However recently in the post-communist countries fiscal imbalances appear to be an important problem due to prolonged periods of growing poverty resulting from the transition process. Poverty alleviation policies considerably affect the revenue and expenditure decisions of governments, which are subject to hard budget constraints in an open transitional economy and do not have room for departing from sound fiscal policies. The public finance literature provides a vast number of studies analyzing the relationship between public revenues and expenditures. These studies are mostly characterized by efforts to reveal the attitude of the fiscal authority towards maintaining the budget balance. In this respect, budgetary dynamics in which past government revenues have predictive power on the current level of government expenditures are accepted as evidence of the so-called tax-and-spend hypothesis. On the other hand, the revenue-expenditure nexus running from expenditures to revenues is known in the literature as the spend-and-tax hypothesis. The objective of this study is to analyze empirically the relationship between government revenues and expenditures in four of the transitional economies, i.e. Belarus, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic and the Russian Federation. The empirical findings of this study, which are based on Granger causality tests, indicate evidence supporting the tax-and-spend hypothesis in Belarus and the Russian Federation and fiscal synchronization in Kazakhstan and the Kyrgyz Republic. The empirical support for the tax-and-spend hypothesis in these economies implies that increasing government revenues may not end up with lower budget deficits due to their stimulating effect on the demand for public goods and services.

  13. Alcohol industry and governmental revenue from young Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ian W; Si, Jiawei

    2016-11-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to estimate the revenues collected by government and industry from alcohol consumption by young Australians in 2010. Methods Statistical analyses were performed on data from the Australian National Drug Strategy Household Survey 2010 and alcohol data collected from an online retailer to calculate the proportion, frequency, quantity and revenues from alcohol consumption by young Australians. Results One-third of adolescents (12-17 years old) and 85% of young adults (18-25 years old) consume alcohol. More than half the adolescents' alcohol consumption is from ready-to-drink spirits. Revenue generated from alcohol consumption by 12-25 year olds is estimated at $4.8 billion in 2010 (2014 Australian dollars): $2.8 billion to industry (sales) and $2.0 billion to government (taxes). Conclusions Alcohol consumption by young Australians is prevalent, and young Australian drinkers consume alcohol in substantial amounts. The industry and taxation revenue from young drinkers is also considerable. It would be in the public interest to divert some of this revenue towards health initiatives to reduce drinking by young people, especially given the high societal costs of alcohol consumption. What is known about the topic? Australian adolescents aged 12-17 years consume substantial amounts of alcohol, and substantial amounts of revenue are generated from alcohol sales to them. What does this paper add? This paper provides recent estimates of alcohol consumption and revenue generated by Australian adolescents, and extends estimates to young adults aged 18-25 years. What are the implications for practitioners? A substantial proportion of Australian young people consume alcohol. The sales and taxation revenue generated from young people's drinking is substantial at A$4.8 billion in 2010 and is higher in real terms than estimates from previous studies. Some of the alcohol taxation revenue could be diverted to health promotion and education for

  14. Revenue, welfare and trade effects of European Union Free Trade Agreement on South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kore M.A. Guei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using the partial equilibrium WITS-SMART Simulation model to assess the impact of liberalisation under the Trade Development and Cooperation Agreement (TDCA of a free trade area between the European Union and South Africa. The identification of the impact of such agreement allows for trade policy negotiation adjustment that can be beneficial for South Africa. Aim: The aim of the study is to estimate and discuss the impact of a Free Trade Agreement (FTA with the European Union and South Africa. More specifically, the study intends to estimate the impact of revenue, welfare, imports, exports, trade creation and to come up with policies options for South Africa that can be used in negotiations and policy formulations. Setting: The study used international trade data (2012 available in the WITS-SMART model to assess bilateral trade agreement between the European Union and South Africa. Methods: To identify the impact on revenue, welfare, imports, exports and trade creation, the study simulated an FTA (0% tariff rate for all goods exchanged between the European Union and South Africa. Also, the elasticity of substitution used for the simulation model was 99%. Results: The findings of the study reveal that total trade effects in South Africa are likely to surge by US$ 1.036 billion with a total welfare valued at US$ 134 million. Dismantling tariffs on all European Union (EU goods would be beneficial to consumers through net trade creation. Total trade creation would be US$ 782 million. However, South African producers are likely to contribute a trade diversion of US$ 254 million which has a negative impact on consumer welfare. The country might also experience a revenue loss amounting to US$ 562 million because of the removal of tariffs. In trade, the country’s exports and imports to the EU are expected to increase by US$ 12.419 million and US$ 1.266 million, respectively. Conclusion: The European Union–South Africa FTA would

  15. Dutch Gas Revenues and Fiscal Policy. Theory versus practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierts, P.; Schotten, G.

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch government's revenues from natural gas fluctuate heavily and will dry up within several decades. According to the academic literature, only the permanent return on gas wealth should be included as income on the government's annual budget. This would prevent a deterioration in net wealth, and provide the budget with a stable source of income from which future generations can also benefit. On the basis of conservative estimates, it follows from our calculations that the Netherlands could count on a permanent annual flow of receipts of around eur 2.5 billion. In practice, however, gas revenues are included directly in the budget, while a part is reserved for investment via the Economic Structure Reinforcement Fund (Fonds Economische Structuurversterking). Using gas revenues for debt reduction, higher spending or lower taxes are political choices made anew by every new government. Our estimation results for the period 1975-2007 show that of a 1% of GPD rise/fall in gas revenues, 0.8 percentage point goes to easing/tightening policy and 0.2 percentage point to an increase/decrease of the budget balance. In the light of the recent fluctuations in oil and gas prices, preserving the stock of wealth from natural gas resources should become more important for the budgetary treatment of gas revenues in the Netherlands [nl

  16. Tax Revenues in the Context of Economic Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Andrejovská

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the general recognition that taxes are generally a strong policy tool for assessing the macroeconomic impact of the country's alternative tax policies, taxes are often weakened by restrictions on tax revenue measurement. The aim of the contribution is to quantify the impact of selected macroeconomic indicators (gross domestic product, level of employment, public debt, foreign direct investments, effective tax rate, statutory tax rate on the total amount of tax revenues, taking into account the tax competitiveness of the 28 EU member states. There was used methods of three models of regression analysis: the pooling model, the fixed effects model and the random effects model. The hypothesis that the gross domestic product has the greatest impact on tax revenue has been tested. In conclusion, the analysis confirmed that the strongest correlation is between tax revenues and employment rate. Followed by foreign direct investment and gross domestic product. Increasing these determinants by 1 mil. € (increase in employment by 1% would increase tax revenues by 10 072 mil. € at the employment rate, by 383.1 thousand € for gross domestic product and by 434.2 thousand € for foreign direct investment.

  17. 26 CFR 1.312-4 - Examples of adjustments provided in section 312(c).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examples of adjustments provided in section 312... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Corporation § 1.312-4 Examples of adjustments... examples: Example 1. On December 2, 1954, Corporation X distributed to its sole shareholder, A, an...

  18. 26 CFR 25.2701-5 - Adjustments to mitigate double taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustments to mitigate double taxation. 25....2701-5 Adjustments to mitigate double taxation. (a) Reduction of transfer tax base—(1) In general. This... − $187,500). (g) Double taxation otherwise avoided. No reduction is available under this section if— (1...

  19. 75 FR 67165 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Revenue Procedure2007-XX (RP-155430-05)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... Revenue Procedure 2007- XX (RP-155430-05) AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice... soliciting comments concerning Revenue Procedure 2007-XX (RP-155430-05), Section 6707/6707A Accelerated... Procedure 2007-XX (RP-155430-05). Abstract: The collection of information this revenue procedure requires is...

  20. Revenue opportunities for gas plants arising from electricity deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, G.C.

    1999-01-01

    A brief overview of deregulation in the electric power industry and an explanation of how these changes can be used to increase revenues of gas processing plants is provided. Deregulation in the electric power industry provides the potential to significantly reduce energy costs for the gas plant and allows technology to be applied to make a better use of a valuable commodity. Owners and operators of gas processing plants increase their operating income by taking advantage of co-generation systems which provide heat and electrical energy to the gas plant. Such an application has three revenue streams, the main one being the power sales to the gas plant, the second one heat sales, and the third increased revenues from the gas plant through a reduction of overall costs, not to mention significantly reduced downtime. Further savings are possible through diversion of excess energy produced to other facilities owned by the gas plant owner

  1. Pollution taxation and revenue recycling under monopoly unions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.

    1996-04-01

    This paper discusses a model in which a given number of firms decide on a pollution reducing production technology, and then hire workers who subsequently form a monopoly union which sets the wage. The paper discusses the possibility of ``double dividends``. By this is meant simultaneous pollution reductions and employment increase when the pollution tax is increased and tax revenues recycled, in alternative ways. In all cases overall pollution is then reduced. When pollution tax revenues are used to subsidize output, the effect on employment of a marginal pollution tax increase is neutral in all cases studied. When employment is subsidized, it is increased in one case, implying a ``double dividend``. When instead investments in pollution reducing equipment are subsidized, increasing the pollution tax reduces employment. On the whole, employment subsidies are the most efficient way of recycling pollution tax revenues, with respect to simultaneous environmental and employment objectives. 19 refs.

  2. THE CHALLENGES OF RAISING REVENUES AND RESTRUCTURING SUBSIDIES IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Narayanan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia has run deficit budgets in all but five years since 1970 but past deficits have been managed thanks to substantial oil revenues and high domestic savings. However, the slow growth or decline of several traditional sources of revenue and the rising subsidy bill since 2007 have given pause for reflection on the traditional approach to fiscal management. In this paper, it is argued that fiscal management must not only centre around reducing non-productive expenditures and wasteful leakages but must also confront the problem of reducing and restructuring subsidies, particularly to petrol and petroleum-related products. The global dip in petroleum process has fortuitously provided the respite needed for such an exercise and should not lull policy makersinto complacency. When the economy recovers from the currentdownswing, a solid revenue raising instrument such as the value-addedtax must be introduced in order to wean the economy away from thecurrent over reliance on petroleum-based taxes.

  3. Implement the medical group revenue function. Create competitive advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, C

    1998-01-01

    This article shows medical groups how they can employ new financial management and information technology techniques to safeguard their revenue and income streams. These managerial techniques stem from the application of the medical group revenue function, which is defined herein. This article also describes how the medical group revenue function can be used to create value by employing a database and a decision support system. Finally, the article describes how the decision support system can be used to create competitive advantage. Through the wise use of internally generated information, medical groups can negotiate better contract terms, improve their operations, cut their costs, embark on capital investment programs and improve market share. As medical groups gain market power by improving in these areas, they will be more attractive to potential strategic allies, payers and investment bankers.

  4. Evaluation the Role of Securities Market in Increasing the Regional Budget Revenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Yemelyanovich Miller

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the relevant problem of increasing the regional budget revenues is investigated. The subject matter of the research is the securities market as a mechanism for the redistribution of financial resources. The purpose of the research is justification of the effective scheme feasible in the current environment of the interaction of the securities market and the regional budget. In the study of the above-mentioned subject, the hypothesis of a close relationship between state and non-state finance system was taken as a basis. The theoretical principle of the research supports the theory of the stock market; to achieve the purpose, the institutionally-functional approach to the study of state finances is applied. As the result of the research, possible common grounds of the securities market and the regional financial system are identified; the reserve of improving efficiency of the securities market in the Western Siberia regions are revealed; the model reflecting the dependence of tax revenues from the pace of regional economic development is constructed; promising areas for development of the securities market for the benefit of the regional economy and regional financial system are formulated; the possible effect from the development of regional securities market on regional budget revenues is estimated. The results mentioned above are recommended to be apllied when developing regional financial policies and programmes of region socio-economic development. A long-term stimulation of the growth in incomes of regional budgets is a very complex process, but with the proper elaboration of organizational issues, the implementation of the proposed scheme for interaction of the securities market and the regional financial system is capable to provide a steady increase in tax revenue in the short term and alleviate the problem of financing costs of the regional budget.

  5. Revenue and Attendance Simultaneous Optimization in Performing Arts Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldin, Andrea; Bille, Trine; Ellero, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Performing arts organizations are characterized by different objectives other than revenue. Even if, on the one hand, theaters aim to increase revenue from box office as a consequence of the systematic reduction in public funds; on the other hand, they pursue the objective to increase its attenda...... and the demand forecast, taking into account the impact of heterogeneity among customer categories in both choice and demand. The proposed model is validated with booking data referring to the Royal Danish theater during the period 2010–2015....

  6. CAUSALITY BETWEEN TAX REVENUE AND GOVERNMENT SPENDING IN MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Roshaiza Taha; Nanthakumar Loganathan

    2008-01-01

    The trend of tax collection in Malaysia is inconsistent, changing upward and downward depending upon economic conditions. However, over a 30 year period, most years show an increasing increment in total collection. The exceptions are when there is an abnormal economic condition such as financial crisis, war or increase in world oil prices. Total tax revenue has always been a major contribution to Malaysia’s federal government revenue. Income tax is one of the surest ways to fund the governm...

  7. On the Revenue Implication of Trade Liberalization under Bertrand Competition

    OpenAIRE

    OKAWA, Masayuki; IGUCHI, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we set up a simple model of a small open economy in which the government imposes an import tariff on intermediate goods and a profit tax on the profits of domestic oligopoly firms that produce final goods by using the intermediate goods. We examine whether the government can collect enough profit tax revenue to compensate the loss of government revenue caused by a tariff reduction when firms produce differentiated goods and compete in a Bertrand-Nash fashion. We will show that, ...

  8. REVENUE DIVERSIFICATION, PERFORMANCE, AND BANK RISK: EVIDENCE FROM INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiara Nur Hafidiyah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of revenue diversification on bank performance and bank risk by studying 101 conventional commercial banks in Indonesia over the period of 2010-2014 resulting in 505 observations. By employing panel least square technique, our results show that revenue diversification negatively affects bank performance. Moreover, it is found that diversified banks are riskier than specialized banks. The risk is diminished when state-owned banks diversify their business. Joint venture banks are riskier than other banks when they engage in non-interest income activities.

  9. Decomposing Revenue Effects of Tax Evasion, Base Broadening and Tax Rate Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Ira N. Gang; Arindam Das-Gupta

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for evaluating the impact of tax reform on tax revenues and the distribution of the tax burden. The technique consists of decomposing actual revenue relative to potential revenue into components attributable to (i) changes in the tax rate structure (ii) deductions and (iii) tax evasion. If the standard reform package is successful, revenue loss from deductions should be curtailed by base broadening. Furthermore, revenues lost by lowering tax rates should be more t...

  10. A Recovery Program for Alberta: A 10-Year Plan to End the Addiction to Resource Revenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald D. Kneebone

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Alberta has a substance-abuse problem. The substance is fossil fuels, and the province has become hooked on the revenues from oil and gas sales to fund its spending on health, education and social services. As we are so often told, the first step in beating an addiction is admitting that a compulsion has gotten out of control. Recent announcements suggest that Alberta’s leaders appear to have finally taken that first crucial step. We applaud them for doing so. But if they plan to get this addiction under control and so ward off the sort of financial turmoil that has tormented Alberta in the past, they will have to do more. In this note we provide a menu of policy choices all of which take the government to a sustainable budget by 2023. They all involve reductions in what we identify as the government’s Budget Gap — that is, the difference between its spending and all its revenue besides the revenue it earns from nonrenewable resources. The size of that gap summarizes just how much provincial government spending on health care, education and social services is at the mercy of commodity-market swings. If current trajectories of government spending continue, then in another 10 years the gap will be nearly 4 times what it was in 1999. Reducing the size of the Budget Gap is necessary to protect Albertans from repeatedly suffering wide swings in levels of public service, shifting tax rates and plunges into deficit and debt. We identify a variety of ways to achieve fiscal sustainability over 10 years. Our investigation highlights two key results. First, provincial spending on health care currently comprises 40 per cent of provincial expenditures and is growing at a rate that causes it to double every 20 years. Exempting health care spending from cuts comes at the price of draconian cuts to education and social services of over 30% even after adjusting for inflation and population growth. It is therefore hard to fathom that constraints on health

  11. Is it All About the Money? Not All Surgical Subspecialization Leads to Higher Lifetime Revenue when Compared to General Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baimas-George, Maria; Fleischer, Brian; Slakey, Douglas; Kandil, Emad; Korndorffer, James R; DuCoin, Christopher

    It is believed that spending additional years gaining expertise in surgical subspecialization leads to higher lifetime revenue. Literature shows that more surgeons are pursuing fellowship training and dedicated research years; however, there are no data looking at the aggregate economic impact when training time is accounted for. It is hypothesized that there will be a discrepancy in lifetime income when delay to practice is considered. Data were collected from the Medical Group Management Association's 2015 report of average annual salaries. Fixed time of practice was set at 30 years, and total adjusted revenue was calculated based on variable years spent in research and fellowship. All total revenue outcomes were compared to general surgery and calculated in US dollars. The financial data on general surgeons and 9 surgical specialties (vascular, pediatric, plastic, breast, surgical oncology, cardiothoracic, thoracic primary, transplant, and trauma) were examined. With fellowship and no research, breast and surgical oncology made significantly less than general surgery (-$1,561,441, -$1,704,958), with a difference in opportunity cost equivalent to approximately 4 years of work. Pediatric and cardiothoracic surgeons made significantly more than general surgeons, with an increase of opportunity cost equivalent to $5,301,985 and $3,718,632, respectively. With 1 research year, trauma surgeons ended up netting less than a general surgeon by $325,665. With 2 research years, plastic and transplant surgeons had total lifetime revenues approximately equivalent to that of a general surgeon. Significant disparities exist in lifetime total revenue between surgical subspecialties and in comparison, to general surgery. Although most specialists do gross more than general surgeons, breast and surgical oncologists end up netting significantly less over their lifetime as well as trauma surgeons if they do 1 year of research. Thus, the economic advantage of completing additional

  12. Assessing alternative options for allocating oil revenue in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkhordar, Zahra A.; Saboohi, Yadollah

    2013-01-01

    The present paper focuses on medium-term effects of alternative windfall management strategies for a resource abundant country where the resource revenues are expected to last over a prolonged period. In particular, the trade-off between spending and saving is analyzed within the framework of a recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium model. The model is further validated against historical data available for 2001–2010. The total factor productivity is calculated endogenously in the model based on a function that reflects the changes in factor productivity. The results suggest that saving oil revenues, whether in an oil fund or through physical investment in domestic sectors, leads to a higher economic growth. However, physical investment is superior in the short to medium term based on the resultant GDP while creating an oil fund might be more beneficial in the post oil era. - Highlights: • A recursive dynamic general equilibrium model is applied for Iran. • The total factor productivity is calculated endogenously. • Alternative revenue allocation options are investigated. • Physical investment of oil windfalls leads to higher economic growth in medium run. • Financial investment of oil revenues leads to higher economic growth in long run

  13. HEALTHY Study School Food Service Revenue and Expense Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Roberto P.; Pham, Trang; Mobley, Connie; Hartstein, Jill; El Ghormli, Laure; Songer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background: Food service directors have a concern that federal reimbursement is not meeting the demands of increasing costs of healthier meals. The purpose of this article is to report the food option changes and the annual revenues and expenses of the school food service environment.

  14. Did School Finance Equalization Increase Revenue Instability for School Districts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Rekha

    2011-01-01

    This study uses an Interrupted Time Series analysis with a non-equivalent comparison group to estimate the causal effect of school finance equalization on district revenue instability. The author applies a microeconomic framework to an understudied problem in education finance and policy. In so doing, she illustrates how policies can sometimes…

  15. The distribution price control and the 'revenue driver'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    The recent review by the UK electricity Regulator of the electricity companies' distribution price control is analysed. The revenue driver is related to sales volume and number of customers with fifty fifty weighting. This article argues that these are not the appropriate weightings and that peak demand rather than sales is more important. Without such changes, energy efficiency will be disadvantaged. (UK)

  16. Increasing Medicaid Revenue Generation for Services by School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybza, Megan M.; Stokes, Trevor F.; Hayman, Marilee; Schatzberg, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    We examined a performance improvement package with components of feedback, goal setting, and prompting to generate additional revenue by improving the consistency of Medicaid billing submitted by 74 school psychologists serving 102 schools. A multiple baseline design across three service areas of a county school system demonstrated the…

  17. Revenue and Health Impacts of Restructuring Tobacco Excise Tax ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Revenue and Health Impacts of Restructuring Tobacco Excise Tax in the Philippines. A proposed law in the Philippines to increase the excise tax on tobacco by 215% will likely have implications for tobacco control and consumption, and public health, not just for that country but for the region. Although half of deaths due to ...

  18. Revenue Sharing and its Impact on Civil Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Marvin A.

    1975-01-01

    A discussion by the Assistant to the Director, Office of Revenue Sharing, U.S. Treasury Department, of the four part approach of that agency to extending the ability of the federal government to combat discrimination in the state and local sector; human rights workers should focus on the monetary and economic impact these funds have on the…

  19. Jurisdiction Impact of Revenue Allocation on States and Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is descriptive in nature and it tries to ascertain the variousformulas used by federal government of Nigeria to allocate Revenue from federation account and their socio-economic impact on the states and local government councils. Primary and secondary data were adequately made use of in the study. Analysis ...

  20. 77 FR 20884 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Revenue Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). The IRS is soliciting comments concerning information collection requirements related to guidance for qualification as an acceptance agent, and execution of an agreement between an acceptance agent and the Internal Revenue Service relating to the...

  1. Revenue generation strategies in sub-Saharan African universities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebreyes, F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Financial sustainability is one of the key challenges for public universities in both developed and developing countries. Using a resource dependence approach, this study explores the issue of revenue generation in Sub-Saharan African universities. It analyses the diversification strategies that

  2. Revenue Management and Demand Fulfillment: Matching Applications, Models, and Software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Quante (Rainer); H. Meyr (Herbert); M. Fleischmann (Moritz)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractRecent years have seen great successes of revenue management, notably in the airline, hotel, and car rental business. Currently, an increasing number of industries, including manufacturers and retailers, are exploring ways to adopt similar concepts. Software companies are taking an

  3. Magazine and Newspaper Prices: The Effect of Advertising Revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Vincent P.

    A review of the literature reveals that publishers have suggested that magazines would cost twice as much and newspapers five times as much if they were not supported by advertising revenues. However, recent research indicates that this is not true. Although statistics regarding magazine publication are easier to obtain than those regarding…

  4. Resource Control and The Politics of Revenue Allocation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian state became a federation in 1954 by virtue of the Lyttleton Constitution. Since then, it has witnessed so much vicissitudes. At inception, agriculture was the mainstay of the country's economy and the principle of derivation featured prominently in revenue allocation. This principle was downplayed when crude ...

  5. Generation of Tax Revenue in the Nigeria Private Sector | Ezeagba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    employed people has always posed a problem. Millions of Naira have been lost due to prevalence of .tax evasion and avoidance among the .self-employed people. Consequently, taxation cannot be used as a. major instrument for revenue generation ...

  6. Fixing the Net Tuition Revenue Dilemma: The Dickinson College Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Robert J.; Parker, Annette S.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes how Dickinson College, guided by a strategic plan, addressed its net tuition revenue problem through effective decision support, marketing and branding approaches, and pricing and financial aid strategies. The college's strategic plan guides allocation of resources toward fulfilling the college's purpose of providing an…

  7. Revisiting the relevance of economic theory to hotel revenue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the role of economics in hospitality education and industry practice, with a particular focus on revenue management, and puts forward an argument for a return to the inclusion of economic theory in UK hospitality education, not seen since the 1990s. Given the increasing amounts of pricing data available ...

  8. Determinants of the revenue and productivity of Fadama farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, labor, farm size, planting materials, cost of fertilizer and amount of water used significantly influenced net revenue of the farmers. The result shows further that maize was the most productive planting material while land clearing was the most productive labor used by the farmers. Farm size was also found to be the ...

  9. State policy change: Revenue decoupling in the electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Kytson L.

    The study seeks to answer the question, why are states adopting revenue decoupling in the electricity market, by investigating the relationship between policy adoption and attributes of the electricity market, the structure of the state utility commissions, and the political climate of the state. The study examines the period 1978-2008. Two econometric models, the marginal risk set model and the conditional risk set model, are estimated to predict the influence of covariates on the probability of the state adopting revenue decoupling in the electricity market. The models are both variants of the Cox proportional hazard model and use different underlying assumptions about the nature of adoption of revenue decoupling and when the states are considered to be at risk of adoption. Results suggest that market attributes, such as the source of electricity generation in the state, state energy intensity, and the distribution of non-public and public utilities, significantly influence the adoption of the policy. Also, the method of selecting commissioners and the party affiliation of elected officials in the state are important factors. The study concludes by suggestions to improve the implementation and evaluation of revenue decoupling in the electricity markets.

  10. Application of Pattern of Islamic State Revenue Policy to Improve the Ability of Indonesia’s Fiscal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Any Setyaningrum

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the possibility of Islamic state revenue to improve the ability of Indonesia’s fiscal. This thing is important in the way to diversify the fiscal instruments in Indonesia. The result shows that several Islamic revenues instruments still relevant to applied in Indonesia, exclude the ghanimah and Jizya. But, it is necessary to adjust the nomenclature and connectivity with state financial regulations. The application does not have to be exclusive and labels associated with Islam, but should be more focused on the exploration of universal values and utility, which is inherent in all of Islam income instruments.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v7i2.1702

  11. Areva revenue and data for the first quarter of 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    First quarter 2008 revenue was up 12.1% year-on-year, to 2.769 billion euros. Like-for-like (at constant exchange rates and consolidation scope), growth came to 14.5%. Foreign exchange had a negative impact of 2.5%, or -69 million euros, mainly due to currency translation tied to the US dollar drop compared with the euro. The consolidation scope had a positive impact of +0.7% or 18 million euros, chiefly as a result of the consolidation of VEI Distribution (specializing in medium voltage distribution) and Passoni and Villa (world leader in the manufacture of high voltage bushings) in the Transmission and Distribution division. The main growth engines for first quarter revenue were the Reactors and Services division and the Back End division, with growth of 29.7% (+36.8% LFL1) and 13.8% (+14.1% LFL1) respectively. Outside France, revenue rose to 1.857 billion euros, compared with 1.753 billion euros in the first quarter of 2007. This represents 67% of total revenue. As a reminder, the group points out that: - revenue can vary significantly from one quarter to the next in the nuclear businesses, and quarterly operations should therefore not be taken as a reliable basis for annual projections; - the foreign exchange impact mentioned in this release comes from the translation of subsidiary accounts into the group's unit of account, and primarily reflects the US dollar in relation to the euro. AREVA also points out that its foreign exchange hedging policy for commercial operations aims to shield profitability from fluctuations in exchange rates in relation to the euro

  12. NATURE AND CLASSIFICATION ASPECTS OF LOCAL BUDGET REVENUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Vinnytska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to determine the essential characteristics of local budgets and justify their classification aspects. Methodology. In the course of writing used general scientific and special methods of knowledge: dialectical and systemic-functional – to summarize the theoretical concepts of income of local budgets; analysis and synthesis – to detail the subject of research and study its components; logic synthesis – to justify approaches and proposals for the formulation of local budgets. Results. Proved that today there is no single view on the interpretation of economic categories “revenues of local budgets.” A refined concept of “local budget revenues” from the standpoint of material content, form, organizational structure and nature of local budgets. Local budget revenues determined as part of the financial resources of society, which is accumulated by local authorities to enforce their tasks and functions to implement current and future challenges of social infrastructure in the regions. Proved that the revenues of local budgets are derived from their own, and assigned to the established order of state taxes, fees and other mandatory payments. The main feature of their own revenues is the direct subordination of local government. The main feature is the fixed income long-term nature of their attachment to the appropriate budget. Value/originality. Proved that the presence in the economic literature of different classification criteria of local budget on various grounds provides multi classification that reflects all the features of the formation, use and functional differences revenues of local budgets. This approach provides the basis for improving the functioning of the theoretical foundations of the budget process in Ukraine at the level of local authorities.

  13. An ergonomics prototype of adjustable chin stands aid for visual mechanical inspection at electronic manufacturing-based company in Kuantan, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Nurainaa; Mat Yahya, Nafrizuan

    2018-04-01

    Chin stands aid is a device designed to reduce fatigue on the chin during the Visual Mechanical Inspection (VMI) task for operators in TT Electronic Sdn Bhd, Kuantan, Malaysia. It is also used to reduce cycle time and also improve employee well-being in terms of comfort. In this project, a 3D model of chin stands aid with an ergonomics approach is created using SOLIDWORKS software. Two different concepts were designed and the best one is chosen based on the Pugh concept selection method, concept screening and also concept scoring. After the selection of concepts is done, a prototype of chin stands aid will be developed and a simulation of the prototype is performed. The simulation has been executed by using Workbench ANSYS software as a tool. Stress analysis, deformation analysis, and fatigue analysis have been done to know the strength and lifespan of the product. The prototype also has been tested to know the functionality and also comfortability for the user to use the chin stands aid.

  14. Mind the Gap: Dealing with Resource Revenue in Three Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald D. Kneebone

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alberta, Saskatchewan, Newfoundland and Labrador have each enjoyed a “rags to riches” story. Each of these provinces entered Confederation as poor cousins relative to the rest of the country; Alberta and Saskatchewan in 1905 and Newfoundland and Labrador in 1949. Rather remarkably, almost exactly four decades after entering Confederation each province began to enjoy the strong economic growth resulting from the development of their natural resources; Alberta and Saskatchewan in the late 1940s with the discovery of large pools of oil and Newfoundland and Labrador in the early 1990s with the development of off-shore oil. The governments of these provinces have similarly enjoyed the benefits of large amounts of revenue realized from the sale of these natural resources. In 2013-14, resource revenues accounted for 21 per cent, 22 per cent and 32 per cent of provincial revenues in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Newfoundland and Labrador, respectively. Unfortunately, the benefit of receiving large amounts of resource revenue must be weighed against two costs. The first is that these revenues, having flowed into provincial coffers without the need to impose high tax rates on citizens, are easily spent. The second cost is that the prices of resources are determined in international markets and so a significant amount of the revenues of these provinces is largely unpredictable and often volatile. All three provinces have fallen prey to the temptation to allow a large fiscal gap to open between the costs of providing health care, education, social assistance and other areas of provincial responsibility and the taxes imposed on citizens to pay for these services. Doing so has put all three provinces at financial risk should resource prices fall. Using a newly constructed data set spanning the period 1970 to 2014, I review the history of how Alberta and Saskatchewan have dealt with commodity price shocks and what this has meant for provincial finances. With that

  15. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  16. Marginal revenue transformation in airline seat inventory control with two fare families and two markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallehauge, Brian

    to not offering any lower classes for sale. Furthermore, let Q(S) denote the total probability of purchase of set S and R(S) the total expected revenue from offering set S. The application of the MR transformation to the scenario with two fare families and two markets can be described in three overall principles....... 1) MR transformation from fare families to fare classes The first principle is that given a specific market the adjusted fare defined by the MR transformation is calculated for the subsets of fare classes on the efficient frontier of the set of points {Q(S),R(S)}, for all S. In the case of two fare...... families the sets on the efficient frontier does not necessarily represent nested policies. 2) Nesting of fare family policies The second principle is that given a specific market the subsets on the efficient frontier are forced to be nested. The primary purpose of this principle is that it enables...

  17. NET SALARY ADJUSTMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Finance Division

    2001-01-01

    On 15 June 2001 the Council approved the correction of the discrepancy identified in the net salary adjustment implemented on 1st January 2001 by retroactively increasing the scale of basic salaries to achieve the 2.8% average net salary adjustment approved in December 2000. We should like to inform you that the corresponding adjustment will be made to your July salary. Full details of the retroactive adjustments will consequently be shown on your pay slip.

  18. The impact of hospital revenue on the increase in Caesarean sections in Norway. A panel data analysis of hospitals 1976-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen Terje P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a marked increase in the number of Caesarean sections in many countries during the last decades. In several countries, Caesarean sections are carried out in more than 20 per cent of births. These high Caesarean section rates give cause for concern, both from an economic and a medical perspective. A general opinion among epidemiologists is that the increase in the number of Caesarean sections during the last decade has been greater than could be expected in relation to medical risk factors. Therefore, other explanations must be sought. We studied one potential explanation; the effect that the increase in hospital revenue per bed during the period 1976-2005 has had on the Caesarean section rate in Norway. During this period, hospital revenue increased by about 260% (adjusted for inflation. Methods The analyses were carried out using data from the Medical Birth Registry 1976-2005 from Norway. The data were merged with data about hospital revenue, which were obtained from Statistics Norway. The analyses were carried out using annual data from 46 hospitals. A fixed effect regression model was estimated. Relevant medical control variables were included. Results The elasticity of the Caesarean section rate with respect to hospital revenue per bed was 0.13 (p Conclusion The increase in hospital revenue explains only a small part of the increase in the Caesarean section rate in Norway during the last three decades. The increase in the Caesarean section rate is considerably greater than could be expected, based on the increase in hospital revenue alone. The strength of our study is that we have estimated a cause and effect relationship. This was done by using fixed effects for hospitals, a lagged revenue variable and by including an extensive set of control variables for the risk factors of the mother and the baby.

  19. 26 CFR 1.338-2 - Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. 1.338-2 Section 1.338-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. (a) Scope. This section prescribes rules relating to...

  20. Import Base and Revenue Improvement Possibilities in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulgence Dominick Waryoba

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes buoyancy and elasticity estimates of different tax items on import base. Using the Divisia Index approach, the buoyancy estimates have been used to estimate elasticity estimates. The findings reveal positive buoyancy and elasticity estimates. Since the Divisia Index values are positive but less than unit, their logarithm values are negative, making the discretionary portion of the buoyancy estimate to be negative. The negative discretionary portion of the buoyancy estimates resulted into higher values of elasticity compared to buoyancy estimates. The government should broaden the tax base, reduce tax rates and reduce tax exemption in order to improve revenue collection without resorting to higher tax rates. With lower tax rates and higher penalties on tax evasion and tax avoidance, higher government revenue can be realized to meet growing government expenditure.

  1. Sharing oil revenues. Current status and good practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmois, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    This document briefly presents a book in which the author analyzes and comments the evolution of the sharing of oil revenues at a time when producing countries can obtain better conditions from oil companies to exploit their resources. The author first describes the operation of the oil exploration-production industry and its three types of oil revenue. He introduces the issue of reserves with its technical, economic and political aspects. He describes the two main modalities of relationship between an oil State and an international company, discusses the organization options for an oil producing country to take the best out of its oil potential, comments the developments of contracting modalities. He proposes recommendations for States about benefits and drawbacks of the various contract options

  2. Reviews, Reputation, and Revenue: The Case of Yelp.com

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Luca

    2011-01-01

    Do online consumer reviews affect restaurant demand? I investigate this question using a novel dataset combining reviews from the website Yelp.com and restaurant data from the Washington State Department of Revenue. Because Yelp prominently displays a restaurant's rounded average rating, I can identify the causal impact of Yelp ratings on demand with a regression discontinuity framework that exploits Yelp's rounding thresholds. I present three findings about the impact of consumer reviews on ...

  3. Tax revenue and innovations in natural gas supply: New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulibarri, C.A.; Marsh, T.L.

    1994-10-01

    This paper develops an econometric model of natural gas supply at the state-level using New Mexico as a case study. The supply model is estimated using annual time series observations on production levels, delivered prices, proved reserves, existing wells, and extraction costs. The authors validate the model against historical data and then use it to consider the fiscal impacts on state tax revenue from innovations in extraction technologies

  4. 136 Tax Revenue, Stock Market and Economic Growth of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Irfan Javaid Attari; Roshaiza Taha; Muhammad Imran Farooq

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of capital market and fiscal policy influences in determining the nexus of economic growth in Pakistan from July 2003 to July 2012. The authors utilize ADF unit root test, Johansen Cointegration test, VECM test, Granger causality test and variance decomposition analysis to test the relationship among tax revenue, stock market and economic growth in Pakistan. Granger causality analysis is used to answer questions whether “Does ...

  5. Seigniorage Revenue and Inflation Tax in Turkish economy

    OpenAIRE

    doğru, bülent

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to test the implication of optimal seigniorage theory that in the long run higher tax rates are associated with higher inflation rates and higher nominal interest rates. For this purpose, we examine the long run relationship between nominal interest rates, inflation and tax revenue using time series dataset for Turkish Economy for the period 1980-2011. We estimate the Mankiw’s (1987) optimal seigniorage model for Turkish Economy with the cointegration and vector erro...

  6. Indirect tax reforms and revenue mobilization in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Saahdong, Choifor I.

    2008-01-01

    As most developing countries strive to achieve Economic growth and development, it has been quite a challenging issue to attain a balance in their fiscal policy management. Most of these countries have faced a prolonged (persistence) budgetary deficit caused by the increasing growth in their public expenditures more than in their incomes. The most important puzzling question has been why is there a slow revenue mobilization in developing countries? It was realized in the mid 1980s by the Wor...

  7. An analysis of ongoing trends in airline ancillary revenues

    OpenAIRE

    Warnock-Smith, David; O'Connell, John F.; Maleki, Mahnaz

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of the two core classifications of airline ancillary revenues, which are unbundled products and commission based income. It also investigates the willingness of passengers to pay (WTP) for these services together with what type of ancillary items are acceptable at a particular price point. The study found that passengers value a narrow range of perceived ‘necessity’ products and services such as food and drink, checked baggage and seat assignment as opposed...

  8. 77 FR 25105 - Reporting of Ancillary Airline Passenger Revenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ...This document announces a public meeting on a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) issued on July 15, 2011. The NPRM proposed changes regarding reporting of airline ancillary passenger revenues, computation of mishandled baggage rates, and collection of separate statistics for mishandled wheelchairs and scooters used by passengers with disabilities. During the public meeting, DOT staff will provide a summary of the proposals in the NPRM and seek input on costs and benefits associated with the implementation of the proposals.

  9. HEALTHY study school food service revenue and expense report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño, Roberto P; Pham, Trang; Mobley, Connie; Hartstein, Jill; El Ghormli, Laure; Songer, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    Food service directors have a concern that federal reimbursement is not meeting the demands of increasing costs of healthier meals. The purpose of this article is to report the food option changes and the annual revenues and expenses of the school food service environment. The HEALTHY study was a 3-year (2006 to 2009) randomized, cluster-designed trial conducted in 42 middle schools at 7 field centers. The schools selected had at least 50% of students who were eligible for free or reduced-price lunch or who belonged to a minority group. A randomly assigned half of the HEALTHY schools received a school health intervention program consisting of 4 integrated components: nutrition, physical activity, behavioral knowledge and skills, and social marketing. The nutrition component consisted of changing the meal plans to meet 5 nutrition goals. Revenue and expense data were collected from income statements, federal meal records, à la carte sale sheets, school store sale sheets, donated money/food records, and vending machines. Although more intervention schools reached the nutritional goals than control schools, revenues and expenses were not significantly different between groups. The HEALTHY study showed no adverse effect of school food policies on food service finances. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  10. Innovation in Hospital Revenues: Developing Retail Sales Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Edward W; Marvel, Jon; Wright, Matthew K

    Hospitals are facing increasing cost pressures due to cutbacks by Medicare, Medicaid, and managed-care organizations. There are also rising concerns that public policy may exacerbate the problem. In lieu of these concerns, nascent innovative ways of generating increased revenues are beginning to appear. In particular, a few hospitals have adopted retail sales practices to generate significant nonmedical services revenues. The hospital retail sales opportunity has been compared with that of the airport industry where nearly 50% of revenues are generated by sales of retail products as opposed to aeronautical-related transactions. This initial investigation included a qualitative interview of a health care retail sales expert and a pilot survey of 100 hospital senior executives to gauge the current state of this phenomenon. The industry expert suggested that only 2% of US hospitals have pursued this initiative in a meaningful way. Of the 44 survey responses, only 9 institutions were engaged in e-commerce or retail sales activities. Questions remain as to why this opportunity remains unrealized, and additional research is proposed.

  11. Revenue management of air cargo service in theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiarto, S.; Putro, H. P.; Pradono, P.; Yudoko, G.

    2018-05-01

    This study examines the air cargo service by comparing existing theories from previous research with the conditions on the ground. The object of the study is focused on the freight forwarder and the airport management. This study reviews the models and results of previous research that will be summarized and used to identify any issues related to the characteristics of air cargo operational services, as well as observing and monitoring literature with airlines, shipping companies, and airport management to explore and see the gap between prior research and implementation of its process in the air cargo service. The first phase in this study is to provide an overview of the air cargo industry. The second phase analyzes the characteristic differences between air cargo services and air passenger operating services. And the third phase is a literary bibliography study of air cargo operations, where the focus is on the studies using quantitative models from the perspective of the object of the study, which is the optimization of revenue management on air cargo services. From the results of the study, which is based on the gap between theory and practice, new research opportunities which are related to management of air cargo service revenue in the form of model development are found by adding booking timelines aspects of cargo that can affect the revenue of cargo airline companies and airports.

  12. Natural resource revenues: a test of federalism. [18 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, A [ed.

    1976-01-01

    This volume centers on the concept of an economic rent; particularly rent yielded by mineral resources. The editor, in the Introduction, divides the 18 conference papers into three groups. The first group was concerned with the taxation of the mining and energy industries and its connection with natural resource policy. The introductory chapter attempts to indicate ways of linking the choice of tax collector with the likely effects of the alternative collector's chosen system of taxation. The linkage depends on whether the taxes are on resource ''rent'' and so are ''neutral,'' or on whether they are on costs or prices and so likely to distort or affect private output and timing decisions. A second group of revenue-oriented papers started at an earlier stage: instead of assuming that certain methods of raising revenue tended to be neutral, they showed their recognition that the general literature says little or nothing that is authoritative on this subject. This recognition impelled them to make careful case studies of the effect of certain taxes and agnostic conclusions about their general tendency (that is, their tendency to distort the plans and production programs that would exist without taxation). While maintaining an interest in the neutrality distortion problem, a third group reserved their force for the problem of entitlement to resource revenues. Mr. Scott senses that the authors split their verdicts: pointing to their support for a particular compromise policy. (MCW)

  13. 77 FR 41371 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... policy questions related to foreign airline operators' revenues and expenses in the United States. There... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Economic Analysis Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and Expenses in the United States ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY...

  14. The Relationship Between Federal Government Revenue and Spending: Empirical Evidence from Asean-5 Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Karim, Zulkefly Abdul; Asri, Norain Mod; Abdullah, Azrina Al-Hadi; Antoni, Antoni; Mohd.Yusoff, Zetty Zahureen

    2009-01-01

    The main objectives of this paper is to examine the long run relationship between total expenditure, revenue (tax and nontax) and economic growth in ASEAN-5 countries namely by Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore and Philippines. According to the prior studies, there are several hypotheses to explain the relationship between revenue and spend-ing such as (1) spend-revenue hypotheses, (2) revenue-spend hypotheses and (3)bi-directional causality hypotheses. To test the validity of these hy...

  15. The Relationship Between Federal Government Revenue and Spending: Empirical Evidence From Asean-5 Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd.Yusoff, Zetty Zahureen; Antoni, Antoni; Abdullah, Azrina Al-Hadi; Asri, Norain Mod; Karim, Zulkefly Abdul

    2006-01-01

    The main objectives of this paper is to examine the long run relationship between total expenditure, revenue (tax and nontax) and economic growth in ASEAN-5 countries namely by Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore and Philippines. According to the prior studies, there are several hypotheses to explain the relationship between revenue and spend-ing such as (1) spend-revenue hypotheses, (2) revenue-spend hypotheses and (3)bi-directional causality hypotheses. To test the validity of these hy...

  16. On the origins and evolution of the Revenue Rule: the quest for certainty

    OpenAIRE

    O'HANLON, NIALL

    2017-01-01

    APPROVED The thesis advanced in this work is that the Revenue Rule, which stipulates that whilst forum courts may recognise a foreign tax law, they will not enforce it, does not meet the criteria of certainty. Uncertainties arise in relation to the origins, taxonomy and extent of the Rule, to what constitutes a revenue law, to the distinction between revenue and penal laws, to the supposed distinction between recognition and indirect enforcement of foreign revenue law and to what constitut...

  17. A Dynamic Coordination Mechanism Using Adjustable Autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neef, R.M.; Vecht, B. van der; Dignum, F.; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Agents in an organization need to coordinate their actions in order to reach the organizational goals. This research describes the relation between types of coordination and the autonomy of actors. In an experimental setting we show that there is not one best way to coordinate in all situations. The

  18. A Dynamic Coordination Mechanism Using Adjustable Autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecht, B. van der; Dignum, F.; Meyer, J.J.C.; Neef, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Agents in an organization need to coordinate their actions in order to reach the organizational goals. This research describes the relation between types of coordination and the autonomy of actors. In an experimental setting we show that there is not one best way to coordinate in all situations. The

  19. Financing the Public Schools in the Great Lake States: Declining Revenues in the 1980s?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Terry G.

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes data on the economic prospects of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin--including demographic and economic trends, trends in taxation systems, school revenue and expenditure trends, and future revenue prospects--and offers prognoses for individual states. Generally, short-range revenue prospects are bleak, and long-range…

  20. 78 FR 15406 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Revenue Procedure 2013-XX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... Revenue Procedure 2013- XX AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request... comments concerning Revenue Procedure 2013-XX, Disaster Relief. DATES: Written comments should be received... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Disaster Relief. OMB Number: 1545-2237. Form Number: Rev. Proc. 2013-XX...

  1. 26 CFR 302.1-3 - Protection of internal revenue prior to tax determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION TAXES UNDER THE INTERNATIONAL CLAIMS SETTLEMENT ACT, AS AMENDED AUGUST 9, 1955 § 302.1-3 Protection of internal revenue prior to tax determination. (a) Suits and claims... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protection of internal revenue prior to tax...

  2. 76 FR 71276 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ...-0008] RIN 0563-AC35 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY... Corporation (FCIC) proposes to amend the Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance... Regulations (7 CFR part 457) by revising Sec. 457.167 Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions, to be effective...

  3. 27 CFR 479.191 - Applicability of other provisions of internal revenue laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Other Laws Applicable § 479.191 Applicability of other provisions of internal revenue laws. All of the provisions of the internal revenue laws not... provisions of internal revenue laws. 479.191 Section 479.191 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU...

  4. Tobacco affordability, sales and excise revenues in the 28 European Union countries in 2011-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Krasovsky

    2017-05-01

    Tobacco taxation can ensure both tobacco consumption decline and revenue increase only if taxation is a key factor of tobacco affordability reduction. Otherwise, in years of economic recession consumption declines, but revenue does not increase; while in years of economic growth revenue increases, but consumption does not decline.

  5. 47 CFR 54.413 - Reimbursement for revenue forgone in offering a Link Up program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement for revenue forgone in offering a... § 54.413 Reimbursement for revenue forgone in offering a Link Up program. (a) Eligible telecommunications carriers may receive universal service support reimbursement for the revenue they forgo in...

  6. 30 CFR 285.540 - How will MMS equitably distribute revenues to States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS equitably distribute revenues to... Financial Assurance Requirements Revenue Sharing with States § 285.540 How will MMS equitably distribute revenues to States? (a) The MMS will distribute among the eligible coastal States 27 percent of the...

  7. Shoulder Dislocation in the course of Revenue Collection: A Need to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    Revenue collection. Correspondence: R.C. Echem and extension by a fall onto an outstretched arm or by direct force applied to the posterior aspect of the humeral ... utilization of tax consultant and revenue agents. This paper aims to report a case of shoulder dislocation that occurred in the course of revenue collection and.

  8. Repatriation Adjustment: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Arman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Expatriation is a widely studied area of research in work and organizational psychology. After expatriates accomplish their missions in host countries, they return to their countries and this process is called repatriation. Adjustment constitutes a crucial part in repatriation research. In the present literature review, research about repatriation adjustment was reviewed with the aim of defining the whole picture in this phenomenon. Present research was classified on the basis of a theoretical model of repatriation adjustment. Basic frame consisted of antecedents, adjustment, outcomes as main variables and personal characteristics/coping strategies and organizational strategies as moderating variables.

  9. A Stochastic Market Design With Revenue Adequacy and Cost Recovery by Scenario: Benefits and Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazempour, Jalal; Pinson, Pierre; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

    2018-01-01

    Two desirable properties of electricity market mechanisms include: i) revenue adequacy for the market, and ii) cost recovery for all generators. Previously proposed stochastic market-clearing mechanisms satisfy both properties in expectation only, or satisfy one property by scenario and another...... scheme that ensures both properties by scenario. However, this approach is cost-inefficient in general and may sacrifice other desirable market attributes. Undesirable consequences include: one group of participants will have to pay more to ensure that all other participants have their costs covered......, and thus their prices will not be equilibrium supporting; and day-ahead and real-time prices are not arbitraged in expectation, although this can be fixed by allowing virtual bidders to arbitrage but at the potential cost of increased market inefficiency. Considering these pros and cons, we propose our...

  10. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartog, J P Den

    1961-01-01

    First published over 40 years ago, this work has achieved the status of a classic among introductory texts on mechanics. Den Hartog is known for his lively, discursive and often witty presentations of all the fundamental material of both statics and dynamics (and considerable more advanced material) in new, original ways that provide students with insights into mechanical relationships that other books do not always succeed in conveying. On the other hand, the work is so replete with engineering applications and actual design problems that it is as valuable as a reference to the practicing e

  11. ADJUSTABLE CHIP HOLDER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    An adjustable microchip holder for holding a microchip is provided having a plurality of displaceable interconnection pads for connecting the connection holes of a microchip with one or more external devices or equipment. The adjustable microchip holder can fit different sizes of microchips...

  12. Poweo 2006 consolidated revenue at euro 244 million, up 121%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    POWEO, the leading independent energy operator in France, presents in this document its key business indicators for the 4. quarter of 2006 and the full year: POWEO records again a strong rise of its annual revenue, exceeding its euro 220 million target. This progression relates to all the business components. The particularly soft climatic conditions recorded in France at the end of the year did not result in a significant fall of revenue compared to initial forecasts. The number of customer sites amounts to 80.300 at December 31, 2006, in progression of 23% compared to the end of 2005. The customer base remained overall stable during the second half of 2006, POWEO limiting voluntarily the acquisition of customers in electricity during the preparation of the opening to competition of the residential market due to take place on July 1, 2007. The gas customer base for its part more than doubled compared to end June 2006, with more than 5.000 customer sites transferred as at December 31, 2006. The Energy Management net margin, realised or un-realised, amounted to euro 49.7 million in 2006, recognised as revenue under IFRS standards. This includes the euro 22 million exceptional capital gain mentioned in previous financial releases in 2006, as well as a euro 7.9 million un-realised capital gain resulting from the transfer of some contracts into the Energy Management portfolio further to the capacity swap agreement with EDF announced publicly on January 3, 2007. The services provided by POWEO to its customers enjoy a high level of acceptance and represented revenue of euro 2.9 million in 2006. As from 2007, the revenue realised through these services will be presented separately from other components of revenue in order to better reflect its expected growth. The services offering will be indeed a key element of the marketing strategy of POWEO in the years to come, with a potentially significant impact on the results taking into account their level of gross margin which

  13. The Dark Side of the Economy: A Comparative Analysis of the Islamic State's Revenue Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wes H Cooper

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Islamic State’s ambitious goals have led to the organization obtaining a large amount of costs. However, the Islamic State does not have adequate revenue streams to maintain these expenditures. This paper compares the Islamic State’s costs and revenue streams with two similar organizations, Hizballah and Al Qaeda. The comparison will explain that the Islamic State’s revenue streams are not as efficient and diversified as Hizballah and Al Qaeda’s revenue streams have historically been. As a result of inefficient and unvaried revenue streams, the Islamic State will be forced to structurally change.

  14. The market equilibrium of OPEC's pricing mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammoudeh, S.; Madan, V.

    1990-01-01

    At least twice a year, oil ministers of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) meet in Vienna or Geneva to adjust the group's output ceiling to eliminate discrepancies between the market price and the target price. If the market imbalances are persistent, then the target price is also adjusted. Often, OPEC's members differ in their assessment of future market demand for their oil and, thus, present different views on the need to adjust the output celing and the target price. During periods of downward pressures on oil prices, the high absorbers of capital (i.e., oil revenues) prefer a speedy downward adjustment to the celing, while the low absorbers are slow to react. However, in the event of tightening markets, the low absorbers usually respond by exceeding their quotas before agreeing on a ceiling adjustment. Therefore, OPEC nations have different desirable speeds of adjustment. This paper specifies and examines the stability of OPEC's pricing mechanism. It presents a strategy which would enable the organization to achieve a target price-based market equilibrium with increased rapidity through the appropriate manipulation of the speed of output ceiling adjustment. This strategy is applied using data on market and target prices, actual output, and output ceilings for the first quarter of 1991. The main finding is that, given the target price, OPEC's equilibrium market demand is significantly lower than the assigned output ceiling. Production should have been reduced by at least 3 million barrels a day for OPEC to realize the $21 per barrel target price in the first quarter of 1991. Seasonal factors can cause slight variations in this output but would not bring out compatibility between the target price and the output ceiling within a reasonable period of time unless OPEC follows an activist policy of output adjustment. 3 figs., 1 tab

  15. Wages and employment in a repeated game with revenue fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    1997-01-01

    Empirical investigations suggests that the real wage is surprisingly flat over the business cycle. This paper analyses a repeated game between a union and a firm which can contribute to explaining the flat wage. The parties cannot enter binding contracts, and revenue is fluctuating. The paper...... focuses on the best subgame-perfect equilibrium among those sharing the expected surplus in given fixed shares - e.g. equal shares. It is shown that (for moderate discount factors) this equilibrium has a more counter-cyclical wage, than what would be the case if the parties shared the surplus in each...

  16. How automation helps steer the revenue cycle process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpas, Phil

    2013-06-01

    If there's one aspect of healthcare that's omnipresent - that is connected in some way to virtually every component of the medical trade - it's the revenue cycle; and vendors' solutions to manage it are as varied as the experts we queried on this topic. The revenue cycle actually touches on nearly everything related to healthcare - from the time a patient books an appointment with a healthcare facility, until the patient and insurance company provide final payments for services rendered to the healthcare provider. Over the past several decades, software programs and computers have replaced ledger books and calculators. And while the goal of revenue cycle management (RCM) remains essentially the same, healthcare reform will make this process infinitely more complex, due to reduced reimbursements and the onset of ICD-10 in October 2014. Additionally, reimbursement will be tied to quality, rather than quantity. According to an Information Week article by Ken Terry, outsourcing of billing and collections continues to grow, "because hospitals and physician groups are not very good at these non-core tasks." Think writers and math: I know a great many writers, including yours truly, who possess truly weak math skills. Granted, both skills involve opposite brain hemispheres - different parts of the brain. But what may be even more important is the fact that math is not generally an integral component of the main function of writing. A similar situation exists in healthcare facilities; just replace writing with providing care for people. A 2012 Black Book Rankings survey states 96 percent of organizations are in the process of acquiring several crucial accountable care organization (ACO) data solutions, including clinical decision support, RCM, health information exchange (HIEs), electronic health records (EHRs), e-prescribing, data center security and storage solutions, business intelligence and care coordination management. So it's clear that RCM will continue to remain a

  17. Guidelines for Implementing Revenue Management in the Restaurant Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ammunet, Mika

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to draw an outline of how to implement revenue management in the restaurant industry. The practice well-known in the hotel and airline industry is proven to be suitable for the food and beverage businesses. First of all, the key strategic levers, price and duration, are presented and defined. Based on the basic principle that the demand for a product varies according to its price, the application of modern pricing and dynamic pricing is introduced in this thesis....

  18. 'Virtual' central business office: how UMMS improved revenue cycle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henciak, Bill; Fontaine, Christine; Fields, Keith; Parks, Stacy

    2010-06-01

    Based on its experience with implementing a virtual central business office, UMMS recommends the following steps to ensure the success of such an initiative: Define the process flow for the organization's day-today revenue cycle operations prior to implementation. Then select best practices and milestones for managing accounts. Identify any possible technology issues that could arise during implementation prior to go live. Hold a midproject debriefing with staff. Develop an organizational chart that details who is responsible for handling issues that arise during implementation and afterward.

  19. Nuclear facilities. Revenue Act for 2000 (no. 99-1172)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The article no. 43 of the Revenue Act for 2000 modifies the existing system of tax for basic nuclear facilities. The articles no. 17 and no. 121 are abrogated. The basic nuclear facilities subjected to an authorization procedure (article no. 8, act no. 61-842 of the 2. of August 1961 concerning the abatement of air pollution and odors) have to pay an annual tax with effect from January 1. 2000. For nuclear reactors, tax has to be paid for each unit of the plant. (O.M.)

  20. The economic efficiency impacts of alternatives for revenue reconciliation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.H.; Baughman, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    About a dozen electric utilities in the US offer rates that possess real-time characteristics. In these implementations the real-time prices are updated at half-hourly intervals and in no case are the prices spatially differentiated. The implemented rates are based upon marginal generating costs with markups to account for system transmission and distribution costs or other revenue reconciliation needs. This paper analyzes how great is the impact of alternative price markup methods on measures of social welfare and the time pattern of real-time prices. A case study and sensitivity results are also presented

  1. Hotel revenue management – a critical literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Stanislav; Zhechev, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a literature review of the main concepts of hotel revenue management (RM) and current state-of-the-art of its theoretical research. The article emphasises on the different directions of hotel RM research and is structured around the elements of the hotel RM system and the stages of RM process. The elements of the hotel RM system discussed in the paper include hotel RM centres (room division, F&B, function rooms, spa & fitness facilities, golf courses, casino and gambling fa...

  2. Tobacco taxation: the importance of earmarking the revenue to health care and tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Filippidis, Filippos T; Agaku, Israel; Mytaras, Vasileios; Bertic, Monique; Connolly, Gregory N; Tountas, Yannis; Behrakis, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    Increases in tobacco taxation are acknowledged to be one of the most effective tobacco control interventions. This study aimed at determining the mediating role of socioeconomical status (SES) and the earmarking of revenue to healthcare and tobacco control, in influencing population support for the adoption of a 2 Euro tobacco tax increase in Greece, amid the challenging economic environment and current austerity measures. Data was collected from two national household surveys, the "Hellas Health III" survey, conducted in October 2010 and the "Hellas Tobacco survey" conducted in September 2012. Data was analyzed from 694 and 1066 respondents aged 18 years or more, respectively. Logistic regression models were fitted to measure the adjusted relationship between socio-economic factors for the former, and support for increased taxation on tobacco products for the latter. In 2012 amidst the Greek financial crisis, population support for a flat two euro tax increase reached 72.1%, if earmarked for health care and tobacco control, a percentage high both among non-smokers (76%) and smokers (64%) alike. On the contrary, when not earmarked, only 43.6% of the population was in support of the equivalent increase. Women were more likely to change their mind and support a flat two-euro increase if the revenue was earmarked for health care and tobacco control (aOR = 1.70; 95% C.I: 1.22-2.38, p = 0.002). Furthermore, support for an increase in tobacco taxation was not associated with SES and income. Despite dire austerity measures in Greece, support for an increase in tobacco taxation was high among both smokers and non-smokers, however, only when specifically earmarked towards health care and tobacco control. This should be taken into account not only in Greece, but within all countries facing social and economic reform.

  3. Estimated impacts of alternative Australian alcohol taxation structures on consumption, public health and government revenues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Christopher M; Byrnes, Joshua M; Cobiac, Linda J; Vandenberg, Brian; Vos, Theo

    2013-11-04

    To examine health and economic implications of modifying taxation of alcohol in Australia. Economic and epidemiological modelling of four scenarios for changing the current taxation of alcohol products, including: replacing the wine equalisation tax (WET) with a volumetric tax; applying an equal tax rate to all beverages equivalent to a 10% increase in the current excise applicable to spirits and ready-to-drink products; applying an excise tax rate that increases exponentially by 3% for every 1% increase in alcohol content above 3.2%; and applying a two-tiered volumetric tax. We used annual sales data and taxation rates for 2010 as the base case. Alcohol consumption, taxation revenue, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted and health care costs averted. In 2010, the Australian Government collected close to $8.6 billion from alcohol taxation. All four of the proposed variations to current rates of alcohol excise were shown to save money and more effectively reduce alcohol-related harm compared with the 2010 base case. Abolishing the WET and replacing it with a volumetric tax on wine would increase taxation revenue by $1.3 billion per year, reduce alcohol consumption by 1.3%, save $820 million in health care costs and avert 59 000 DALYs. The alternative scenarios would lead to even higher taxation receipts and greater reductions in alcohol use and harm. Our research findings suggest that any of the proposed variations to current rates of alcohol excise would be a cost-effective health care intervention; they thus reinforce the evidence that taxation is a cost-effective strategy. Of all the scenarios, perhaps the most politically feasible policy option at this point in time is to abolish the WET and replace it with a volumetric tax on wine. This analysis supports the recommendation of the National Preventative Health Taskforce and the Henry Review towards taxing alcohol according to alcohol content.

  4. 26 CFR 1.9001 - Statutory provisions; Retirement-Straight Line Adjustment Act of 1958.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statutory provisions; Retirement-Straight Line... provisions; Retirement-Straight Line Adjustment Act of 1958. Section 94 of the Technical Amendments Act of 1958 (72 Stat. 1669) provides as follows: Sec. 94. Change from retirement to straight line method of...

  5. 26 CFR 1.743-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of partnership property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Effect on partnership of the failure of the transferee to comply. If the transferee fails to provide the... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional adjustment to basis of partnership... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Transfers of Interests in A Partnership § 1.743-1 Optional...

  6. 77 FR 45539 - Great Lakes Pilotage Rates-2013 Annual Review and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Multiplier for Basic Rates and Charges in 46 CFR 401.420 and 401.428 Ratemaking Projections Total Revenue... and are made in accordance with a required full ratemaking procedure. The proposed update reflects... adjusted each year, not later than March 1. Base rates must be established by a full ratemaking at least...

  7. Saving Alberta's resource revenues: Role of intergenerational and liquidity funds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremer, Ton S. van den; Ploeg, Frederick van der

    2016-01-01

    We use a welfare-based intertemporal stochastic optimization model and historical data to estimate the size of the optimal intergenerational and liquidity funds and the corresponding resource dividend available to the government of the Canadian province Alberta. To first-order of approximation, this dividend should be a constant fraction of total above- and below-ground wealth, complemented by additional precautionary savings at initial times to build up a small liquidity fund to cope with oil price volatility. The ongoing dividend equals approximately 30 per cent of government revenue and requires building assets of approximately 40 per cent of GDP in 2030, 100 per cent of GDP in 2050 and 165 per cent in 2100. Finally, the effect of the recent plunge in oil prices on our estimates is examined. Our recommendations are in stark contrast with historical and current government policy. - Highlights: • Volatile natural resource income requires an intergenerational and liquidity fund. • We use intertemporal stochastic optimization and historical data for Alberta. • The ongoing dividend is 30 per cent of government revenue. • This requires assets of 100 per cent of GDP in 2050 and initial precautionary saving. • The effect of the 2014 plunge in oil prices on our estimates of the funds is examined.

  8. Service Provider Revenue Dependence of Offered Number of Service Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Aćimović-Raspopović

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper possible applications of responsive pricing scheme and Stackelberg game for pricing telecommunication services with service provider as a leader and users acting as followers are analyzed. We have classified users according to an elasticity criterion into inelastic, partially elastic and elastic users. Their preferences are modelled through utility functions, which describe users’ sensitivity to changes in the quality of service and price. In the proposed algorithm a bandwidth management server is responsible for performing automatic optimal bandwidth allocation to each user’s session while maximizing its expected utility and the overall service provider’s revenue. The pricing algorithm is used for congestion control and more efficient network capacity utilization. We have analyzed different scenarios of the proposed usage-based pricing algorithm. Particularly, the influence of the number of service classes on price setting in terms of service provider’s revenue and total users’ utility maximization are discussed. The model is verified through numerous simulations performed by software that we have developed for that purpose.

  9. Natural resources and government revenue : recent trends in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnock, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    This document discusses recent trends in Saskatchewan regarding natural resources and government revenue. It discusses the history of politics in terms of government expenditure and investment in natural resources; the polarization between urban and rural areas; natural resources and capital accumulation and economic rent and royalties from resource extraction. The document also discusses several industries in Saskatchewan including petroleum, natural gas discovery and extraction. Uranium and coal mining activities were also documented along with other minerals such as gold, diamonds, and sodium sulphate. The article focused on the share of economic rent going to the general public compared to the amount going to private corporations. The author argued that with rising prices for natural resources, the provincial government has been transferring billions of dollars of resources rent to private investors by reducing royalties, fees and taxes. This has resulted in less revenue for the provincial government to spend on programs such as health, education and public services. The author suggested that concerted efforts must be put forward to put the issue of the public role in resource development back on the government agenda. 99 refs., 7 tabs

  10. Investing EU ETS auction revenues into energy savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sijm, J.P.M.; Boonekamp, P.G.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Summerton, P.; Pollitt, H.; Billington, S. [Cambridge Econometrics CE, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    The overall objective of this study is to analyse the effects of using EU ETS auction revenues to stimulate investments in energy savings in three key target sectors, i.e. Households, Tertiary and Industry (including both ETS and non-ETS industrial installations). The scenarios used refer basically to the situation before the recent agreement on the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) and include (a mixture of) different policy options to enhance energy savings in the target sectors, in particular (1) reducing the ETS cap, (2) introducing an Energy Efficiency Obligation (EEO) for energy suppliers or distributors, and/or (3) using ETS auction revenues to support additional (private) investments in raising energy efficiency. In order to meet this objective a variety of different policy scenarios have been defined and analysed by means of the 'Energy-Environment-Economy Model for Europe (E3ME)'. The study presents and discusses a large variety of scenario modelling results by the year 2020 at the EU27 level. These results refer to, among others, energy savings, GHG emissions, the ETS carbon price, household electricity bills and to changes in some macro- or socio-economic outcomes such as GDP, inflation, employment or international trade. Finally, the study discusses some policy findings and implications, including options to enhance the effectiveness of some EE policies, in particular those having a potential adverse effect on the ETS carbon price.

  11. Adjusting estimative prediction limits

    OpenAIRE

    Masao Ueki; Kaoru Fueda

    2007-01-01

    This note presents a direct adjustment of the estimative prediction limit to reduce the coverage error from a target value to third-order accuracy. The adjustment is asymptotically equivalent to those of Barndorff-Nielsen & Cox (1994, 1996) and Vidoni (1998). It has a simpler form with a plug-in estimator of the coverage probability of the estimative limit at the target value. Copyright 2007, Oxford University Press.

  12. Adjustable Pitot Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, George C., Jr.; Robbins, W. Eugene; Horsley, Lewis A.

    1991-01-01

    Probe readily positionable in core of uniform flow in hypersonic wind tunnel. Formed of pair of mating cylindrical housings: transducer housing and pitot-tube housing. Pitot tube supported by adjustable wedge fairing attached to top of pitot-tube housing with semicircular foot. Probe adjusted both radially and circumferentially. In addition, pressure-sensing transducer cooled internally by water or other cooling fluid passing through annulus of cooling system.

  13. Revenue Risk of U.S. Tight-Oil Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Mª Abadie

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available American U.S. crude oil prices have dropped significantly of late down to a low of less than $30 a barrel in early 2016. At the same time price volatility has increased and crude in storage has reached record amounts in the U.S. America. Low oil prices in particular pose quite a challenge for the survival of U.S. America’s tight-oil industry. In this paper we assess the current profitability and future prospects of this industry. The question could be broadly stated as: should producers stop operation immediately or continue in the hope that prices will rise in the medium term? Our assessment is based on a stochastic volatility model with three risk factors, namely the oil spot price, the long-term oil price, and the spot price volatility; we allow for these sources of risk to be correlated and display mean reversion. We then use information from spot and futures West Texas Intermediate (WTI oil prices to estimate this model. Our aim is to show how the development of the oil price in the future may affect the prospective revenues of firms and hence their operation decisions at present. With the numerical estimates of the model’s parameters we can compute the value of an operating tight-oil field over a certain time horizon. Thus, the present value (PV of the prospective revenues up to ten years from now is $37.07/bbl in the base case. Consequently, provided that the cost of producing a barrel of oil is less than $37.07 production from an operating field would make economic sense. Obviously this is just a point estimate. We further perform a Monte Carlo (MC simulation to derive the risk profile of this activity and calculate two standard measures of risk, namely the value at risk (VaR and the expected shortfall (ES (for a given confidence level. In this sense, the PV of the prospective revenues will fall below $22.22/bbl in the worst 5% of the cases; and the average value across these worst scenarios is $19.77/bbl. Last we undertake two

  14. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Chester, W

    1979-01-01

    When I began to write this book, I originally had in mind the needs of university students in their first year. May aim was to keep the mathematics simple. No advanced techniques are used and there are no complicated applications. The emphasis is on an understanding of the basic ideas and problems which require expertise but do not contribute to this understanding are not discussed. How­ ever, the presentation is more sophisticated than might be considered appropri­ ate for someone with no previous knowledge of the subject so that, although it is developed from the beginning, some previous acquaintance with the elements of the subject would be an advantage. In addition, some familiarity with element­ ary calculus is assumed but not with the elementary theory of differential equations, although knowledge of the latter would again be an advantage. It is my opinion that mechanics is best introduced through the motion of a particle, with rigid body problems left until the subject is more fully developed. Howev...

  15. Hospital revenue cycle management and payer mix: do Medicare and Medicaid undermine hospitals' ability to generate and collect patient care revenue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Simone; Wheeler, John R C

    2010-01-01

    The continuing efforts of government payers to contain hospital costs have raised concerns among hospital managers that serving publicly insured patients may undermine their ability to manage the revenue cycle successfully. This study uses financial information from two sources-Medicare cost reports for all US hospitals for 2002 to 2007 and audited financial statements for all bond-issuing, not-for-profit hospitals for 2000 to 2006 to examine the relationship between hospitals' shares of Medicare and Medicaid patients and the amount of patient care revenue they generate as well as the speed with which they collect their revenue. Hospital-level fixed effects regression analysis finds that hospitals with higher Medicare and Medicaid payer mix collect somewhat higher average patient care revenues than hospitals with more privately insured and self-pay patients. Hospitals with more Medicare patients also collect on this revenue faster; serving more Medicaid patients is not associated with the speed of patient revenue collection. For hospital managers, these findings may represent good news. They suggest that, despite increases in the number of publicly insured patients served, managers have frequently been able to generate adequate amounts of patient revenue and collect it in a timely fashion.

  16. Interactive Multimedia Reports: Innovation, Production and Advertising Revenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane de Lucena Ito

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Interactive multimedia reporting is an innovative format in web journalism which has been generating substantial advertising revenue. As of 2013, major media organizations have been investing in this kind of production. Its sophisticated layout and audiovisual and interactive elements have led us to investigate how this production process works. Through in-depth interviews with editors from the Folha Group and Estado Group, we were able to determine that there is a different production process at work here, one conducted by teams of journalists proficient in multiple mediums, working together with other techno-actors. These teams and their work are in turn influenced by factors outside of journalism itself such as the increase in mobile device usage for user consumption, and monitoring specific audience approval ratings for this type of production.

  17. Prompt payment depends on revenue-cycle diligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Robert L

    2002-12-01

    How effectively you manage the revenue cycle is reflected in the cycle's outcome-whether you receive full and timely payment for all services billed to payers. To ensure prompt and full payment, you should: Educate your patient financial services (PFS) staff on all relevant laws and regulations regarding payment for healthcare services. Make sure your staff is well versed in all of the provisions of your payer contracts. Implement a state-of-the-art patient accounting system that is capable of producing drill-down reports of all aspects of contract performance by payer. Enforce payer compliance by maintaining complete records of dates of service, final billing dates, dates claims were mailed or electronically submitted to the payer, all actions performed by your staff regarding claims, and all communications with the payer.

  18. Using cytology to increase small animal practice revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Joanne

    2013-11-01

    Diagnostic cytology is a useful, noninvasive test with practical foundations in high-quality medicine and applications to practice building. Cytology will generate practice revenue whether assessed in-house or sent to a clinical pathologist. Thorough in-house evaluation is adequate in some cases, but expert opinion is important in many cases. Specimen slides should at least be reviewed in-house for assessment of cellularity and potential artifacts before submission to a reference laboratory. Reference laboratories also provide special stains and advanced molecular diagnostics to help further characterize many neoplastic processes, search for organisms, identify pigments, and address other important aspects of the lesion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Techniques Applied for Accounting of Revenues with Deferred Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian Cristin Nicolae

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In accounting of the entities it is not always clear difference between income and gains. Gainsarising from transactions that are associated with the operations that are not ordinary and thatcan sometimes be significant. For example, the headquarters of a company in wich it operates canbe sold later to realize a profit from the sale. An investment company can own because they cangenerate revenue through sales. When properties are sold, the resulting gain will be included in thetotal turnover. Such a society will include properties held in current assets category. Normally,other business records and property and property held any gain from their sale will be reflected inan account that is not part of the turnover. The paper describes specific aspects of accounting ofrevenues from sales with deferred payments.

  20. Reverse supply chain coordination by revenue sharing contract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Popiuc, M.N.

    2014-01-01

    implementation of revenue sharing contract. We define customer willingness to return obsolete units as a function of the discount offered by the retailer in exchange for recycling devices with a remanufacturing value. The results show that performance measures and total supply chain profits improve through......Products that are not recycled at the end of their life increasingly damage the environment. In a collection - remanufacturing scheme, these end-of-life products can generate new profits. Designed on the personal computers industry, this study defines an analytical model used to explore...... the implications of recycling on the reverse supply chain from an efficiency perspective for all participants in the process. The cases considered for analysis are the two- and three-echelon supply chains, where we first look at the decentralized reverse setting followed by the coordinated setting through...

  1. Management of Oil Revenues: Has That of Azerbaijan Been Prudent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvar Gurbanov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To help explain the common failure of oil or other natural resource exporting countries to diversify into industry, it has been common to trace this failure to real exchange rate appreciation. This has also been done in Azerbaijan. However, because Azerbaijan has devoted so much of its oil revenues to government investment, Azerbaijan provides a suitable case for examining an alternative link through government investment. This study applies the ARDL cointegration method to quarterly time series data on oil prices, government capital formation, non-oil exports and non-oil GDP to estimate the long run relationships linking oil prices to government investment expenditures and further to generation of non-oil GDP. The results show that despite the massive government investment expenditures, extremely little non-oil production of the tradable type has been generated, calling attention to the need for policy reform.

  2. Dynamic Pricing for Airline Revenue Management under Passenger Mental Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusheng Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental accounting is a far-reaching concept, which is often used to explain various kinds of irrational behaviors in human decision making process. This paper investigates dynamic pricing problems for single-flight and multiple flights settings, respectively, where passengers may be affected by mental accounting. We analyze dynamic pricing problems by means of the dynamic programming method and obtain the optimal pricing strategies. Further, we analytically show that the passenger mental accounting depth has a positive effect on the flight’s expected revenue for the single flight and numerically illustrate that the passenger mental accounting depth has a positive effect on the optimal prices for the multiple flights.

  3. Fiscal Revenues in the European Union. A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Hurduzeu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze fiscal revenues registered by the European Union member states in order to determine groups with similar fiscal structures, their composition and to identify the similarities that characterize European countries in this respect. The research conducted in this paper is relevant especially for countries as Romania, which is in the process of adopting the European single currency, as is allows us to determine which countries are similar in terms of fiscal structure so that the comparison is carried out mainly with those countries. The analysis of European fiscal structures allows a better identification of tax preferences within the European Union and highlights the types of taxation that would allow leeway in implementing long term fiscal strategies, which could lead to improvements in macroeconomic dynamics registered by each member state and also at Union level.

  4. Digital vs conventional radiography: cost and revenue analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Palma, L.; Cuttin, R.; Rimondini, A.; Grisi, G.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse and compare the operating and investment costs of two radiographic systems, a conventional and a digital one, and to evaluate the cost/revenue ratio of the two systems. The radiological activity over 1 year for chest and skeletal exams was evaluated: 13,401 chest and 7,124 skeletal exams were considered. The following parameters of variable costs were evaluated: the difference between variable proportional costs of the two technologies, the effective variable cost of any size film, including the chemicals, and for different sizes of digital film, variable costs of chest plus skeletal exams performed with the two techniques. Afterwards the economical effect was considered taking into account depreciation during a time of utilization ranging between 8 and 4 years. In the second part of the analysis the total cost and the revenues of the two technologies were determined. The comparison between the digital and conventional systems has shown the following aspects: 1. Digital radiography system has a much higher investment cost in comparison with the conventional one. 2. Operating costs of digital equipment are higher or lower depending on the film size used. Evaluating chest X-ray we reach a breakeven point after 1 year and 10,000 exams only if displayed over 8 x 10-in. film and after 30,000 if displayed over a 11 x 14-in. film. 3. The total cost (variable cost, technology cost, labour cost) of digital technology is lower than that of the conventional system by 20 % on average using 8 x 10-in. film size. 4. Digital technology also allows lesser film waste and lesser film per exam (orig.)

  5. Do parties matter for local revenue policies? A comparison of Denmark and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom-Hansen, Jens; Monkerud, Lars Christian; Sørensen, Rune

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of party ideology on revenue politics. Theoretically, claims can be made that party ideology should matter for revenue policies. First, leftist governments are more favorable towards government intervention and a large public sector. To accomplish this, leftist...... governments need more revenue than bourgeois governments. Second, revenue policy is a redistributive policy area well suited for ideological positioning. However, the claim that party ideology does not matter can also be made since raising revenue is unpopular, and politicians may shy away from new...... initiatives. Empirically, the question is unsettled. The paper investigates the problem by looking at three revenue policy areas (income and property taxation and user charges) in two countries (Denmark and Norway). It uses data from the municipal level and thus has several hundreds of units to compare...

  6. Do parties matter for local revenue policies? A comparison of Denmark and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom-Hansen, Jens; Monkerud, Lars Christian; Sørensen, Rune

    2006-01-01

    initiatives. Empirically, the question is unsettled. The paper investigates the problem by looking at three revenue policy areas (income and property taxation and user charges) in two countries (Denmark and Norway). It uses data from the municipal level and thus has several hundreds of units to compare......This paper investigates the impact of party ideology on revenue politics. Theoretically, claims can be made that party ideology should matter for revenue policies. First, leftist governments are more favorable towards government intervention and a large public sector. To accomplish this, leftist...... governments need more revenue than bourgeois governments. Second, revenue policy is a redistributive policy area well suited for ideological positioning. However, the claim that party ideology does not matter can also be made since raising revenue is unpopular, and politicians may shy away from new...

  7. Comprehensive Revenue and Expense Data Collection Methodology for Teaching Health Centers: A Model for Accountable Graduate Medical Education Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenstein, Marsha; Snyder, John E; Jewers, Mariellen Malloy; Nocella, Kiki; Mullan, Fitzhugh

    2018-04-01

    Despite considerable federal investment, graduate medical education financing is neither transparent for estimating residency training costs nor accountable for effectively producing a physician workforce that matches the nation's health care needs. The Teaching Health Center Graduate Medical Education (THCGME) program's authorization in 2010 provided an opportunity to establish a more transparent financing mechanism. We developed a standardized methodology for quantifying the necessary investment to train primary care physicians in high-need communities. The THCGME Costing Instrument was designed utilizing guidance from site visits, financial documentation, and expert review. It collects educational outlays, patient service expenses and revenues from residents' ambulatory and inpatient care, and payer mix. The instrument was fielded from April to November 2015 in 43 THCGME-funded residency programs of varying specialties and organizational structures. Of the 43 programs, 36 programs (84%) submitted THCGME Costing Instruments. The THCGME Costing Instrument collected standardized, detailed cost data on residency labor (n = 36), administration and educational outlays (n = 33), ambulatory care visits and payer mix (n = 30), patient service expenses (n =  26), and revenues generated by residents (n = 26), in contrast to Medicare cost reports, which include only costs incurred by residency programs. The THCGME Costing Instrument provides a model for calculating evidence-based costs and revenues of community-based residency programs, and it enhances accountability by offering an approach that estimates residency costs and revenues in a range of settings. The instrument may have feasibility and utility for application in other residency training settings.

  8. Sell honestly, never sell your honesty: revenue management and corporate reputation management

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xuan Lorna

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the link between corporate reputation and revenue management practice in the hospitality and tourism industries. It seeks answers to two key questions: first, whether or not there is a link between corporate reputation and revenue management, and second, how revenue management practice may affect corporate reputation, and vice versa. More specifically, it examines whether the negative effects of sales-driven RevM practice has had on customers, such as unfair perception, re...

  9. A Study of Revenue Cost Dynamics in Large Data Centers: A Factorial Design Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sampatrao, Gambhire Swati; Dey, Sudeepa Roy; Goswami, Bidisha; S, Sai Prasanna M.; Saha, Snehanshu

    2016-01-01

    Revenue optimization of large data centers is an open and challenging problem. The intricacy of the problem is due to the presence of too many parameters posing as costs or investment. This paper proposes a model to optimize the revenue in cloud data center and analyzes the model, revenue and different investment or cost commitments of organizations investing in data centers. The model uses the Cobb-Douglas production function to quantify the boundaries and the most significant factors to gen...

  10. Norway's petroleum revenues. What is done, what to be done, and how to do it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaanland, H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the petroleum revenues in Norway. Themes dealt with are components of the petroleum revenues, concentration on the State''s revenues, relevance of risk elements for the recovery rate, influence of recovery rate on the rate of application of funds, rate of application of funds - the greatest socio-economic risk by recovery, risk elements by investment, administration, strategic management, and connection to the National Insurance. 3 figs

  11. Využitie revenue managementu v oblasti Food and Beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Džambová, Adela

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to introduce theoretical basis and practical review of actual revenue management usage in hospitality, espacially in the Food&Beverage Department. First chapter brings out the concept of revenue management from the view of its origin, development and integration into other industries. The second and third chapter describes different tools and approaches between the Rooms and Food&Beverage Department. The purpose of the last chapter is to compare revenue management us...

  12. Analyzing the Effect of Economic Variables on Total Tax Revenues in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Basirat; Fatemeh Aboodi; Abdulmajid Ahangari

    2014-01-01

    As the government’s source of revenue, taxes play a major role in the construction and economic development of a country. Accurate knowledge of factors affecting tax revenues provides the policymakers with a clear horizon for economic planning. This study mainly aimed to examine the effect of economic variables on total tax revenues between 1974 and 2011. Accordingly, the Auto regression Distributed Lag (ARDL) Model was used. Results indicated that exchange rate with 0.71398, import with 0.53...

  13. Determining Bakrie Telecom's Business Strategy to Boost the Revenue From Internet Data Business

    OpenAIRE

    Prajunianto, Prajunianto; Titus, Amol

    2013-01-01

    The study is aim to explore & analyze business model and business strategy for Bakrie Telecom (BTEL) in order to increase the revenue from internet data business. Trend of internet/telecommunication such as the use of smartphone (Android, IPhone, and BlackBerry) are giving significant revenue for operator. But total revenue earned by Bakrie Telecom, not quite able to offset current funds out. Issues facing Bakrie Telecom in internet data business can be overcome by applying a Business Mod...

  14. A study of the Indonesian's income tax reforms and the development of income tax revenues

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Eureka

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the Indonesian's income tax reforms and the development of Indonesian's income tax revenues in the period of 1983-2011. It points out two key features of the Indonesian's income tax reforms: 1) the tax reforms have embraced tax rates cutting and tax bases broadening apcomprehensive income tax system toward the schedular tax system. Then, regarding tax revenues, data shows that the Indonesian's nominal income tax revenues have increased considerably during that period; howev...

  15. Online revenue models in the media sector: an exploratory study on their success factors and adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Stienstra, Martin R.; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Boerrigter, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Especially for companies in the media sector such as publishers, the Internet has created new strategic and commercial opportunities. However, many companies in the media sector are struggling with how to adapt their business and revenue model for doing profitable business online. This exploratory study goes into the success factors and the level of adoption of online revenue models by media sector companies. We use Chaffey (2002) in determining online revenue models in which we included Oste...

  16. Revenue-sharing analysis in the mobile value-added services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bing; TANG Shou-lian

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a framework e within which the revenue-sharing in mobile value-added services can be analyzed.It shows that the revenue-sharing ratio between a network operator and a content provider (CP) has no significant effect on prices, market shares or social welfare in the case of nonstandardization. This implies that the revenue-sharing ratio cannot be used as a policy variable.

  17. Global distribution of revenue loss from tax avoidance: Re-estimation and country results

    OpenAIRE

    Cobham, Alex; Janský, Petr

    2017-01-01

    International corporate tax is an important source of government revenue, especially in lower-income countries. An important recent study of the scale of this problem was carried out by International Monetary Fund researchers Ernesto Crivelli, Ruud De Mooij, and Michael Keen. We first re-estimate their innovative model, and then explore the effects of introducing higher-quality revenue data from the ICTD-WIDER Government Revenue Database. Whereas Crivelli et al. report results for two country...

  18. 76 FR 70225 - Advisory Council to the Internal Revenue Service; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... discussed include, but not limited to: Remote Work, Commercial Awareness, Schedule UTP, Distance Learning... people, IRSAC members and Internal Revenue Service officials inclusive. Due to limited seating, please...

  19. The effects of average revenue regulation on electricity transmission investment and pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, Isamu

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the long-run effects of average revenue regulation on an electricity transmission monopolist who applies a two-part tariff comprising a variable congestion price and a non-negative fixed access fee. A binding constraint on the monopolist's expected average revenue lowers the access fee, promotes transmission investment, and improves consumer surplus. In a case of any linear or log-linear electricity demand function with a positive probability that no congestion occurs, average revenue regulation is allocatively more efficient than a Coasian two-part tariff if the level of capacity under average revenue regulation is higher than that under a Coasian two-part tariff. (author)

  20. Income Tax Revenue as an Indicator of Regional Development in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ijaz Hussain; Sumbal Rana

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to highlight the use of income tax revenue as an indicator of regional development in Pakistan. Initially, we identify a dramatic shift in income tax revenue trends at the provincial level for the period 1992/93 to 2005/06. We develop a simple model of income tax revenue and estimate the relationship between growth of income tax revenue and gross regional product (GRP). Based on the estimated relationship, Punjab appears to have been the fastest growing province...

  1. 77 FR 60743 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Revenue Procedure 2006-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... comments concerning Revenue Procedure 2006-16, Renewal Community Depreciation Provisions. DATES: Written..., at [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Renewal Community Depreciation...

  2. On revenue and welfare dominance of ad valorem taxes in two-sided markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kind, Hans Jarle; Köthenbürger, Marko; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2009-01-01

    A benchmark result in public economics is that it is possible to increase both tax revenue and welfare by making a monopoly subject to ad valorem taxes rather than unit taxes. We show that such revenue and welfare dominance does not hold in two-sided markets.......A benchmark result in public economics is that it is possible to increase both tax revenue and welfare by making a monopoly subject to ad valorem taxes rather than unit taxes. We show that such revenue and welfare dominance does not hold in two-sided markets....

  3. REVENUE RELATED TO ORDINARY ACTIVITIES ACCORDING TO IFRS AND ROMANIAN REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ECOBICI NICOLAE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I present the differences and similarities between IFRS and Romanian GAAP regarding revenue, respectively between IAS 18 and other standards and MPF Order no. 3055 from 2009. A major problem is the recognition of revenue. In this matter IASB and Minister of Public Finance from Romania have similar, yet some different opinions. For example, IFRS has three revenue standards and four revenue interpretations. In the end I shall debate and investigate the convergence process and the similarities and differences between national and international provisions.

  4. Convexity Adjustments for ATS Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murgoci, Agatha; Gaspar, Raquel M.

    . As a result we classify convexity adjustments into forward adjustments and swaps adjustments. We, then, focus on affine term structure (ATS) models and, in this context, conjecture convexity adjustments should be related of affine functionals. In the case of forward adjustments, we show how to obtain exact...

  5. Sustainable urban regime adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Jensen, Jens Stissing; Elle, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The endogenous agency that urban governments increasingly portray by making conscious and planned efforts to adjust the regimes they operate within is currently not well captured in transition studies. There is a need to acknowledge the ambiguity of regime enactment at the urban scale. This direc...

  6. Real purchasing power of oil revenues for OPEC Member Countries: a broad currency basket and dynamic trade pattern approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazraati, M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the real purchasing power of OPEC Member Countries' oil revenues, which are subject to 'the value of the US dollar vis-a-vis other major currencies' and 'world imported inflation'. The exponential weighting average formula with a broad basket of currencies is suggested. The basket of currencies is labelled as a broad currency basket and includes the major trading partners of OPEC Member Countries. The weights are normalized OPEC import shares of the countries of the basket and are updated and adjusted every year to incorporate a gradual change in the trade pattern. In other words, the dynamic trade pattern approach is incorporated in the calculations. The nominal dollar oil revenues of OPEC Member Countries are about $5,099 billion during 1970 to 2004, of which $3,725 bn (73 per cent) have been lost due to imported inflation and the dollar's depreciation. Imported inflation and dollar depreciation have had a respective 78.6 per cent and 21.4 per cent contribution to the losses of the purchasing power of OPEC Member Countries. The imported inflation rate approaches a stable low level, but OPEC still has a lot of concerns on dollar swings. The euro offers opportunities for many oil-exporting nations that have extensive trade relations with Euro-zone countries. Payments for oil exports can be invoked in euros at the prevailing dollar-euro rate on the day of a given contract, or any other trigger formula. This would immunize a major portion of OPEC oil revenues from dollar depreciation. (author)

  7. Pricing Mechanism in Information Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xinming; Wang, Huaqing

    2018-01-01

    We study three pricing mechanisms' performance and their effects on the participants in the data industry from the data supply chain perspective. A win-win pricing strategy for the players in the data supply chain is proposed. We obtain analytical solutions in each pricing mechanism, including the decentralized and centralized pricing, Nash Bargaining pricing, and revenue sharing mechanism.

  8. Healthier Standards for School Meals and Snacks: Impact on School Food Revenues and Lunch Participation Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F W; Gorski, Mary T; Hoffman, Jessica A; Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Chaffee, Ruth; Smith, Lauren; Catalano, Paul J; Rimm, Eric B

    2016-10-01

    In 2012, the updated U.S. Department of Agriculture school meals standards and a competitive food law similar to the fully implemented version of the national Smart Snack standards went into effect in Massachusetts. This study evaluated the impact of these updated school meal standards and Massachusetts' comprehensive competitive food standards on school food revenues and school lunch participation. Revenue and participation data from 11 Massachusetts school districts were collected from 2011 to 2014 and analyzed in 2015 using multilevel modeling. The association between the change in compliance with the competitive food standards and revenues/participation was assessed using linear regression. Schools experienced declines in school food revenues of $15.40/student in Year 1 from baseline (p=0.05), due to competitive food revenue losses. In schools with 3 years of data, overall revenues rebounded by the second year post-implementation. Additionally, by Year 2, school lunch participation increased by 15% (p=0.0006) among children eligible for reduced-price meals. Better competitive food compliance was inversely associated with school food revenues in the first year only; an absolute change in compliance by 10% was associated with a $9.78/student decrease in food revenues over the entire school year (p=0.04). No association was seen between the change in compliance and school meal participation. Schools experienced initial revenue losses after implementation of the standards, yet longer-term school food revenues were not impacted and school meal participation increased among children eligible for reduced-price meals. Weakening the school meal or competitive food guidelines based on revenue concerns appears unwarranted. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hasilpedia: Transforming knowledge management at Inland Revenue Board of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Soraya Rosdi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a working example of how technology plays an important role in knowledge management for the Malaysia’s federal tax collection agency, Inland Revenue Board of Malaysia (IRBM. The IRBM had successfully gone through a five year organizational transformation process that had resulted in significant performance improvements duly recognized by the Malaysian government. Led by its visionary Chief Executive Officer (CEO, various initiatives had been implemented, including those which placed technology as a key driver in its operations. The focus of this paper is on the organization’s ‘knowledge base’ system, or the ‘k-base’. A computerized database for internal use, the k-base was developed in-house and currently managed by IRBM’s Information Technology Department. Originally created to support information sharing among the organization’s auditors, the k-base today features a myriad of information and is accessible by all employees. This paper will trace the journey of the k-base from its original version to being IRBM’s prized possession today as well as the organization’s plans for its future.

  10. Revenue Sufficiency and Reliability in a Zero Marginal Cost Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany A.

    2017-04-17

    Features of existing wholesale electricity markets, such as administrative pricing rules and policy-based reliability standards, can distort market incentives from allowing generators sufficient opportunities to recover both fixed and variable costs. Moreover, these challenges can be amplified by other factors, including (1) inelastic demand resulting from a lack of price signal clarity, (2) low- or near-zero marginal cost generation, particularly arising from low natural gas fuel prices and variable generation (VG), such as wind and solar, and (3) the variability and uncertainty of this VG. As power systems begin to incorporate higher shares of VG, many questions arise about the suitability of the existing marginal-cost-based price formation, primarily within an energy-only market structure, to ensure the economic viability of resources that might be needed to provide system reliability. This article discusses these questions and provides a summary of completed and ongoing modelling-based work at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to better understand the impacts of evolving power systems on reliability and revenue sufficiency.

  11. Revenue maximisation and storage utilisation for the Ocean Grazer wave energy converter : A sensitivity analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barradas Berglind, Jose de Jesus; Dijkstra, H.T.; Wei, Yanji; van Rooij, Marijn; Meijer, Harmen; Prins, Wouter; Vakis, Antonis I.; Jayawardhana, Bayu

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a revenue maximisation strategy for market integration of a novel wave energy converter (WEC), part of the Ocean Grazer platform. In particular, we evaluate and validate the aforementioned revenue maximisation model predictive control (MPC) strategy through extensive simulations

  12. Simulating Revenue and Expenditure Limit Projections for a Community College in Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gose, Frank J.

    In 1980, the Constitution of the State of Arizona was amended to establish expenditure limits for a number of political entities, including community colleges. Limits were also established on revenue derived from local tax levies. Concern that limitations on revenue and expenditures could place real constraints on community college operations…

  13. 77 FR 19525 - National School Lunch Program: School Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... National School Lunch Program: School Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related to the Healthy... Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related to the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010'' on June... sold in a school and purchased with funds from the nonprofit school food service account, other than...

  14. 47 CFR 36.378 - Category 2-Customer services (revenue accounting).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category 2-Customer services (revenue... Operating Expenses and Taxes Customer Operations Expenses § 36.378 Category 2—Customer services (revenue... CARRIER SERVICES JURISDICTIONAL SEPARATIONS PROCEDURES; STANDARD PROCEDURES FOR SEPARATING...

  15. Revenue-sharing contracts across an extended supply chain supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhee, van der B.; Schmidt, G.; Venugopal, V.; Veen, van der J.A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Revenue-sharing contracts have been heavily researched and promoted in the academic literature. However, despite some well-documented examples (e.g., the way Blockbuster and film studios were able to increase availability of the latest video releases in rental shops through a revenue-sharing

  16. The Changing Role of the School Attorney: Protecting and Exploiting Sources of Revenue for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simiele, Thomas C.

    This paper describes ways in which the public school district can cut costs, similar to those utilized by the private sector in a shrinking economy. One strategy is to generate new revenue and protect old revenue from erosion through "ad valorem" taxation of real property. Between appraisal years, schools districts can actively seek out…

  17. 30 CFR 201.100 - Responsibilities of the Associate Director for Minerals Revenue Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities of the Associate Director for Minerals Revenue Management. 201.100 Section 201.100 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT GENERAL Oil and Gas, Onshore § 201.100...

  18. Impact of stand diameter and product markets on revenue gains from multiproduct harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Baumgras; Chris B. LeDoux

    1988-01-01

    Data from 113 sample thinning plots and a microcomputer program called APTHIN were used to demonstrate the impact of mean stand diameter and product markets on revenue gains from multiproduct versus single-product pulpwood harvests in poletimber and small sawtimber stands of Appalachian hardwoods. The analysis of revenue gains included product mix as a function of the...

  19. AREVA revenue and data for the first nine months of 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This public information sheet presents financing data of the group AREVA for the first nine months of 2008. It shows a high increase of the revenue (12,9%). The data are detailed for each activity sector, front end, reactors and services, back end, transmission and distribution. Consolidated revenue for the years 2007 are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  20. Federal offshore statistics: 1995 - leasing, exploration, production, and revenue as of December 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaechter, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides data on federal offshore operations for 1995. Information is included for leasing activities, development, petroleum and natural gas production, sales and royalties, revenue from federal offshore leasing, disbursement of federal revenues, reserves and resource estimates, and oil pollution in U.S. and international waters

  1. 49 CFR 1242.45 - Passenger and other revenue equipment (account XX-27-45).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger and other revenue equipment (account XX-27-45). 1242.45 Section 1242.45 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.45 Passenger and other revenue equipment (account XX-27-45...

  2. International developments in revenues and incomes of general practitioners from 2000 to 2010.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroneman, M.; Meeus, P.; Kringos, D.S.; Groot, W.; Zee, J. van der

    2013-01-01

    Background: The remuneration system of General Practitioners (GPs) has changed in several countries in the past decade. The aim of our study was: to establish the effect of these changes on the revenues and income of GPs in the first decade of the 21st century. Methods: Annual GP revenue and

  3. International developments in revenues and incomes of general practitioners from 2000 to 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroneman, Madelon; Meeus, Pascal; Kringos, Dionne Sofia; Groot, Wim; van der Zee, Jouke

    2013-01-01

    The remuneration system of General Practitioners (GPs) has changed in several countries in the past decade. The aim of our study was: to establish the effect of these changes on the revenues and income of GPs in the first decade of the 21st century. Annual GP revenue and practice costs were

  4. Computer software to estimate timber harvesting system production, cost, and revenue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. John E. Baumgras; Dr. Chris B. LeDoux

    1992-01-01

    Large variations in timber harvesting cost and revenue can result from the differences between harvesting systems, the variable attributes of harvesting sites and timber stands, or changing product markets. Consequently, system and site specific estimates of production rates and costs are required to improve estimates of harvesting revenue. This paper describes...

  5. 7 CFR 400.141 - Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Tax Refund Offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Tax Refund Offset. 400...-Regulations for the 1986 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.141 Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Tax Refund Offset... debt owing to any Federal agency by offset against a taxpayer's Federal income tax refund. This section...

  6. 78 FR 39437 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Revenue Procedure 98-32

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... Revenue Procedure 98-32, Electronic Federal Tax Payment System (EFTPS) Programs for Reporting Agents.... ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Yvette Lawrence, Internal Revenue Service, Room 6129, 1111... Internet at [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Electronic Federal Tax Payment...

  7. The revenue raising capabilities of a VAT system in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NT Azaria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to elaborate on the revenue-raising capabilities (economic efficiency and viability of a value-added tax (VAT system, particularly in developing countries.  The analysis concentrates on the effect of a VAT on tax revenues raised, and the main objective is to determine whether a VAT system generates greater benefits than previously utilised sales taxes, i.e. pre-existing sales taxes (PEST. Using a panel data regression analysis, our results indicate that while all countries gain revenue from the presence of VAT, it is significantly more in developed countries, although the dummy VAT variable interacted with trace openness enters positively for the lower- and upper middle-income groups.  This proves the importance of trade for VAT revenues, but also that VAT combined with interaction variables is conducive to higher tax revenues.

  8. Analysis of a wind farm's revenue in the British and Spanish markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angarita-Marquez, Jorge L.; Hernandez-Aramburo, Carlos A.; Usaola-Garcia, Julio

    2007-01-01

    The composition of the revenue of a wind generation company (WGENCO) under two different European markets is estimated in this paper. The two markets under consideration (British and Spanish) have a very different structure; the Spanish market is a pool-based system while the British market encourages bilateral trading. These markets have also different ways to provide incentives to wind farms, and deal with the trading imbalances to which they are particularly susceptible given the variability of the resource. All these conditions are explained and accounted for in our study of a hypothetical WGENCO that can participate in the two markets. Real wind profiles, two wind-speed forecasting tools and market rules and conditions are used to estimate the WGENCO's revenue over a period of 3 months. Our results show that the net revenue would have been fairly similar under the two market structures; however, the composition of this revenue shows significant differences in terms of renewable incentives and generation revenue

  9. Application of Data Envelopment Analysis to Measure Cost, Revenue and Profit Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Kočišová

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The literature analysing efficiency of financial institutions has enveloped rapidly over the last years. Most studies have focused on the input side analysing input technical and cost efficiency. Only few studies have examined the output side evaluating output technical and revenue efficiency. We know that both sides are relevant when evaluating efficiency of financial institutions. Therefore the primary purpose of this paper is to review a number of approaches for efficiency measurement. In particular, the concepts of cost, revenue and profit functions are discussed. We apply Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA to a sample of Slovak and Czech commercial banks during years 2009–2013 comparing the efficiencies by either minimizing cost or maximizing revenue and profit. The results showed that the level of average revenue efficiency was the highest and the average profit efficiency was the lowest one. As can be seen the Czech banks were more cost, revenue and profit efficient than Slovak ones during the whole analysed period.

  10. Commissioner for Inland Revenue v Lever Brothers and Unilever Ltd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    21Key words: Lever Brothers and Unilever; South African income tax; source of income; interest; the “practical man”; the .... facilities, and he housed his employees in a model village of well-built homes on the factory site. ... be cancelled and any excess of the value of the shares over the debt would be adjusted by a money.

  11. Downhole adjustable bent assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askew, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes downhole adjustable apparatus for creating a bend angle in order to affect the inclination of a drilled borehole. It comprises an upper tubular member having an upper portion and a lower portion; lower tubular member having an upper portion and a lower portion; one of the portions being received within the other for relative rotational movement about an axis that is inclined with respect to the the longitudinal axes of the members, whereby in a first rotational position the longitudinal axes have one geometrical relationship, and in a second rotational position the longitudinal axes have a second, different geometrical relationship

  12. Adjusting water resources management to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riebsame, W E

    1988-01-01

    The nature of climate impacts and adjustment in water supply and flood management is discussed, and a case study of water manager response to climate fluctuation in California's Sacramento Basin is presented. The case illuminates the effect on climate impact and response of traditional management approaches, the dynamic qualities of maturing water systems, socially imposed constraints, and climate extremes. A dual pattern of crisis-response and gradual adjustment emerges, and specific mechanisms for effecting adjustment of water management systems are identified. The case study, and broader trends in US water development, suggest that oversized structural capacity, the traditional adjustment to climate variability in water resources, may prove less feasible in the future as projects become smaller and new facilities are delayed by economic and environmental concerns.

  13. Illicit cigarette consumption and government revenue loss in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Abdillah; Wiyono, Nur Hadi; Setyonaluri, Diahhadi; Denniston, Ryan; So, Anthony D

    2014-11-19

    Illicit cigarettes comprise more than 11% of tobacco consumption and 17% of consumption in low- and middle-income countries. Illicit cigarettes, defined as those that evade taxes, lower consumer prices, threaten national tobacco control efforts, and reduce excise tax collection. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette consumption within Indonesia using two methods: the discrepancies between legal cigarette sales and domestic consumption estimated from surveys, and discrepancies between imports recorded by Indonesia and exports recorded by trade partners. Smuggling plays a minor role in the availability of illicit cigarettes because Indonesians predominantly consume kreteks, which are primarily manufactured in Indonesia. Looking at the period from 1995 to 2013, illicit cigarettes first emerged in 2004. When no respondent under-reporting is assumed, illicit consumption makes up 17% of the domestic market in 2004, 9% in 2007, 11% in 2011, and 8% in 2013. Discrepancies in the trade data indicate that Indonesia was a recipient of smuggled cigarettes for each year between 1995 and 2012. The value of this illicit trade ranges from less than $1 million to nearly $50 million annually. Singapore, China, and Vietnam together accounted for nearly two-thirds of trade discrepancies over the period. Tax losses due to illicit consumption amount to between Rp 4.1 and 9.3 trillion rupiah, 4% to 13% of tobacco excise revenue, in 2011 and 2013. Due to the predominance of kretek consumption in Indonesia and Indonesia's status as the predominant producer of kreteks, illicit domestic production is likely the most important source for illicit cigarettes, and initiatives targeted to combat this illicit production carry the promise of the greatest potential impact.

  14. Adjustment disorder: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelviene P

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Paulina Zelviene, Evaldas Kazlauskas Department of Clinical and Organizational Psychology, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania Abstract: Adjustment disorder (AjD is among the most often diagnosed mental disorders in clinical practice. This paper reviews current status of AjD research and discusses scientific and clinical issues associated with AjD. AjD has been included in diagnostic classifications for over 50 years. Still, the diagnostic criteria for AjD remain vague and cause difficulties to mental health professionals. Controversies in definition resulted in the lack of reliable and valid measures of AjD. Epidemiological data on prevalence of AjD is scarce and not reliable because prevalence data are biased by the diagnostic algorithm, which is usually developed for each study, as no established diagnostic standards for AjD are available. Considerable changes in the field of AjD could follow after the release of the 11th edition of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11. A new AjD symptom profile was introduced in ICD-11 with 2 main symptoms as follows: 1 preoccupation and 2 failure to adapt. However, differences between the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition and ICD-11 AjD diagnostic criteria could result in diverse research findings in the future. The best treatment approach for AjD remains unclear, and further treatment studies are needed to provide AjD treatment guidelines to clinicians. Keywords: adjustment disorder, review, diagnosis, prevalence, treatment, DSM, ICD

  15. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  16. Adjustment Criterion and Algorithm in Adjustment Model with Uncertain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONG Yingchun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty often exists in the process of obtaining measurement data, which affects the reliability of parameter estimation. This paper establishes a new adjustment model in which uncertainty is incorporated into the function model as a parameter. A new adjustment criterion and its iterative algorithm are given based on uncertainty propagation law in the residual error, in which the maximum possible uncertainty is minimized. This paper also analyzes, with examples, the different adjustment criteria and features of optimal solutions about the least-squares adjustment, the uncertainty adjustment and total least-squares adjustment. Existing error theory is extended with new observational data processing method about uncertainty.

  17. Role of Osmotic Adjustment in Plant Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebre, G.M.

    2001-01-11

    Successful implementation of short rotation woody crops requires that the selected species and clones be productive, drought tolerant, and pest resistant. Since water is one of the major limiting factors in poplar (Populus sp.) growth, there is little debate for the need of drought tolerant clones, except on the wettest of sites (e.g., lower Columbia River delta). Whether drought tolerance is compatible with productivity remains a debatable issue. Among the many mechanisms of drought tolerance, dehydration postponement involves the maintenance of high leaf water potential due to, for example, an adequate root system. This trait is compatible with productivity, but requires available soil moisture. When the plant leaf water potential and soil water content decline, the plant must be able to survive drought through dehydration tolerance mechanisms, such as low osmotic potential or osmotic adjustment. Osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potential are considered compatible with growth and yield because they aid in the maintenance of leaf turgor. However, it has been shown that turgor alone does not regulate cell expansion or stomatal conductance and, therefore, the role of osmotic adjustment is debated. Despite this finding, osmotic adjustment has been correlated with grain yield in agronomic crop species, and gene markers responsible for osmotic adjustment are being investigated to improve drought tolerance in productive progenies. Although osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potentials have been investigated in several forest tree species, few studies have investigated the relationship between osmotic adjustment and growth. Most of these studies have been limited to greenhouse or container-grown plants. Osmotic adjustment and rapid growth have been specifically associated in Populus and black spruce (Picea mariuna (Mill.) B.S.P.) progenies. We tested whether these relationships held under field conditions using several poplar clones. In a study of two hybrid poplar

  18. Least-Present-Value-of-Revenue Auctions and Highway Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo M.R.A. Engel; Ronald D. Fischer; Alexander Galetovic

    1998-01-01

    In recent years several countries have started massive highway franchising programs auctioned to private firms. In these auctions, the regulator typically sets the franchise term and firms bid on tolls, or, alternatively, the regulator sets tolls and the winner is the firm that asks for the shortest franchise term. In this paper we argue that many of the problems that highway franchises have encountered are due to the fact that the franchise term cannot adjust to demand realizations. We propo...

  19. 26 CFR 1.6655-7 - Addition to tax on account of excessive adjustment under section 6425.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Additions to the Tax, Additional... section 6655(a) for failure to pay estimated income tax, the excessive adjustment under section 6425 is... section 6425. (a) Section 6655(h) imposes an addition to the tax under chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue...

  20. 26 CFR 1.754-1 - Time and manner of making election to adjust basis of partnership property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... general. A partnership having an election in effect under this section may revoke such election with the... required to be filed. A partnership which wishes to revoke such an election shall file with the district... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time and manner of making election to adjust...

  1. Local government finance: challenges in revenue-raising at the Municipal Corporation of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simanti Bandyopadhyay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to examine the extent to which the capital city of Delhi has gained financial autonomy over the years. In order to better understand its progress, the paper compares the periods before and after the submission of the Third State Finance Commission Report of Delhi. The main findings suggest there have been some efforts to reduce reliance on transfers from upper tiers of government and to strengthen ‘own revenues’ atthe Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD. A greater diversification of tax and non-tax revenue sources is responsible for this improvement. In the second period, other tax sources such as corporation tax and electricity tax gained in importance.  Non-tax revenues were also strengthened by higher collection of certain components such as conversion charges. However, own revenues have been inadequate to meet growing expenditure requirements, resulting in high revenue expenditure gaps. Further, the growth in Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP has not led to a rise in own revenues for MCD.Rather, the paper finds that higher GSDP and its tertiary sector components are associated with higher expenditures in MCD. As far as local revenues are concerned, higher GSDP is associated with higher transfers, but has no discernible impact on own revenues

  2. Tax revenue and inflation rate predictions in Banda Aceh using Vector Error Correction Model (VECM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulia, Eva; Miftahuddin; Sofyan, Hizir

    2018-05-01

    A country has some important parameters to achieve the welfare of the economy, such as tax revenues and inflation. One of the largest revenues of the state budget in Indonesia comes from the tax sector. Besides, the rate of inflation occurring in a country can be used as one measure, to measure economic problems that the country facing. Given the importance of tax revenue and inflation rate control in achieving economic prosperity, it is necessary to analyze the relationship and forecasting tax revenue and inflation rate. VECM (Vector Error Correction Model) was chosen as the method used in this research, because of the data used in the form of multivariate time series data. This study aims to produce a VECM model with optimal lag and to predict the tax revenue and inflation rate of the VECM model. The results show that the best model for data of tax revenue and the inflation rate in Banda Aceh City is VECM with 3rd optimal lag or VECM (3). Of the seven models formed, there is a significant model that is the acceptance model of income tax. The predicted results of tax revenue and the inflation rate in Kota Banda Aceh for the next 6, 12 and 24 periods (months) obtained using VECM (3) are considered valid, since they have a minimum error value compared to other models.

  3. Do smoke-free laws affect revenues in pubs and restaurants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melberg, Hans Olav; Lund, Karl E

    2012-02-01

    In the debate about laws regulating smoking in restaurants and pubs, there has been some controversy as to whether smoke-free laws would reduce revenues in the hospitality industry. Norway presents an interesting case for three reasons. First, it was among the first countries to implement smoke-free laws, so it is possible to assess the long-term effects. Second, it has a cold climate so if there is a negative effect on revenue one would expect to find it in Norway. Third, the data from Norway are detailed enough to distinguish between revenue from pubs and restaurants. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) intervention analysis of bi-monthly observations of revenues in restaurants and pubs show that the law did not have a statistically significant long-term effect on revenue in restaurants or on restaurant revenue as a share of personal consumption. Similar analysis for pubs shows that there was no significant long-run effect on pub revenue.

  4. 26 CFR 31.6051-2 - Information returns on Form W-3 and Internal Revenue Service copies of Forms W-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information returns on Form W-3 and Internal Revenue Service copies of Forms W-2. 31.6051-2 Section 31.6051-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... returns on Form W-3 and Internal Revenue Service copies of Forms W-2. (a) In general. Every employer who...

  5. Annual impact of scribes on physician productivity and revenue in a cardiology clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Alan J; Gage, Ryan M

    2015-01-01

    Scribes are increasingly being used in clinics to assist physicians with documentation during patient care. The annual effect of scribes in a real-world clinic on physician productivity and revenue has not been evaluated. We performed a retrospective study comparing the productivity during routine clinic visits of ten cardiologists using scribes vs 15 cardiologists without scribes. We tracked patients per hour and patients per year seen per physician. Average direct revenue (clinic visit) and downstream revenue (cardiovascular revenue in the 2 months following a clinic visit) were measured in 486 patients and used to calculate annual revenue generated as a result of increased productivity. Physicians with scribes saw 955 new and 4,830 follow-up patients vs 1,318 new and 7,150 follow-up patients seen by physicians without scribes. Physicians with scribes saw 9.6% more patients per hour (2.50±0.27 vs 2.28±0.15, Pproductivity resulted in 84 additional new and 423 additional follow-up patients seen, 3,029 additional work relative value units (wRVUs) generated, and an increased cardiovascular revenue of $1,348,437. Physicians with scribes also generated an additional revenue of $24,257 by producing clinic notes that were coded at a higher level. Total additional revenue generated was $1,372,694 at a cost of $98,588 for the scribes. Physician productivity in a cardiology clinic was ∼10% higher for physicians using scribes. This improved productivity resulted in 84 additional new and 423 additional follow-up patients seen in 1 year. The use of scribes resulted in the generation of 3,029 additional wRVUs and an additional annual revenue of $1,372,694 at a cost of $98,588.

  6. Struggles over patriarchal structural adjustment in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbilinyi, M

    1993-10-01

    Within the space of 7 years (1986-93), structural adjustment policies have contributed to a reversal of the gains in economic development achieved in Tanzania in the 1960s and 1970s. Structural adjustment policies have helped large-scale producers and ordinary citizens but have led to a decline in social services which is reflected in drops in primary school enrollment and increases in medical costs. Government revenues are absorbed by foreign debt servicing. The reduction of support for social services has increased women's work; bolstered gender division of labor; and reduced women's access to education, formal employment, and health services. On the other hand, increased participation in market-oriented activities has increased women's mobility and exposure to modern ideas. This has led to changing gender relations which on the positive side can lead to shared decision-making but on the negative side may cause men to abdicate their familial responsibilities. Women suffer, however, from a lack of investment in ways to lighten their household responsibilities and have lost their ability to control food production because of the shift to cash crop production for export. The combination of hard work, low income, and stress has taken a toll on women's health, and both the maternal mortality rate and incidence of HIV infections among teenage girls has increased. In response to this situation, Tanzanian women have formed the Tanzania Gender Networking Programme (TGNP) which seeks to empower women and transform society through such activities as education and training, research, and lobbying and networking. Workshops sponsored by the TGNP have resulted in recommendations for adoption of a people-centered development strategy.

  7. Adjustable continence balloons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Line; Fode, Mikkel; Nørgaard, Nis

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the results of the Danish experience with the ProACT urinary continence device inserted in men with stress urinary incontinence. Material and methods. The ProACT was inserted in 114 patients. Data were registered prospectively. The main endpoints...... in urinary leakage > 50% was seen in 72 patients (80%). Complications were seen in 23 patients. All of these were treated successfully by removal of the device in the outpatient setting followed by replacement of the device. Another eight patients had a third balloon inserted to improve continence further....... Fourteen patients (12%) ended up with an artificial sphincter or a urethral sling. Sixty patients (63%) experienced no discomfort and 58 (61%) reported being dry or markedly improved. Overall, 50 patients (53%) reported being very or predominantly satisfied. Conclusions. Adjustable continence balloons seem...

  8. Metric adjusted skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    ) that vanishes for observables commuting with the state. We show that the skew information is a convex function on the manifold of states. It also satisfies other requirements, proposed by Wigner and Yanase, for an effective measure-of-information content of a state relative to a conserved observable. We...... establish a connection between the geometrical formulation of quantum statistics as proposed by Chentsov and Morozova and measures of quantum information as introduced by Wigner and Yanase and extended in this article. We show that the set of normalized Morozova-Chentsov functions describing the possible......We extend the concept of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information to something we call "metric adjusted skew information" (of a state with respect to a conserved observable). This "skew information" is intended to be a non-negative quantity bounded by the variance (of an observable in a state...

  9. Changed Role of Service Sector And Enhanced Service Tax Revenue An Introspection

    OpenAIRE

    Balachandran, Dr. V; Malini, K Hema

    2013-01-01

    The present paper attempts to evaluate the performance of service tax in India in terms of revenue generation, assessee base and its share in the total tax kitty of India. In addition, the relative position of the share of service sector and service tax in relation to GDP and total tax revenue of the country has also analyzed. The analysis of data reveals that service tax in India is progressing faster in terms of revenue collection, assesse base and even service tax collection per assesse an...

  10. Measuring the importance of oil-related revenues in total fiscal income for Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Loya, Manuel Lorenzo; Blanco, Lorenzo [Facultad de Economia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Loma Redonda 1515 Pte., Col. Loma Larga, C.P. 64710, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2008-09-15

    Revenues from oil exports are an important part of government budgets in Mexico. A time-series analysis is conducted using monthly data from 1990 to 2005 examining three different specifications to determine how international oil price fluctuations and government income generated from oil exports influence fiscal policy in Mexico. The behavior of government spending and taxation is consistent with the spend-tax hypothesis. The results show that there is an inverse relationship between oil-related revenues and tax revenue from non-oil sources. Fiscal policy reform is urgently needed in order to improve tax collection as oil reserves in Mexico become more and more depleted. (author)

  11. Measuring the importance of oil-related revenues in total fiscal income for Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Loya, Manuel Lorenzo; Blanco, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    Revenues from oil exports are an important part of government budgets in Mexico. A time-series analysis is conducted using monthly data from 1990 to 2005 examining three different specifications to determine how international oil price fluctuations and government income generated from oil exports influence fiscal policy in Mexico. The behavior of government spending and taxation is consistent with the spend-tax hypothesis. The results show that there is an inverse relationship between oil-related revenues and tax revenue from non-oil sources. Fiscal policy reform is urgently needed in order to improve tax collection as oil reserves in Mexico become more and more depleted. (author)

  12. The Parallel Economy in Malawi: Size, Effect on Tax Revenue and Policy Options

    OpenAIRE

    Chiumya, Chiza

    2007-01-01

    This study looks at the dynamics of the Parallel Economy. I estimate the size of the Parallel Economy in Malawi and its relationship with Tax Revenues. The Parallel Economy in Malawi was 12.3%, 23.1% and 17.3% of GDP in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s respectively. Income Taxes were a major driver of the Parallel Economy as compared to Import and Consumption Taxes. An increase in Tax Revenue led to an increase in the Parallel Economy and a decrease in tax Revenue led to a decrease in the Parallel...

  13. The welfare cost of a global carbon tax when tax revenues are recycled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, William K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper assesses the welfare cost of a global carbon tax when tax revenues finance reductions in existing revenue-raising taxes. The analysis finds that by lowering the excess burden from existing taxes, a revenue-neutral carbon tax policy has a positive net welfare effect in the range required to aggressively slow climate change. Based on tax efficiency considerations alone, the optimal reduction in emissions is 37 percent. When benefits from avoiding greenhouse damages are included in the model, the optimal reduction is 40 percent. Even more stringent restraints, avoiding more than 90 percent of greenhouse damages, are shown to have positive net benefits

  14. The Compensative Effects of Tobacco Leaf Price Changes on Tax Revenue in China

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Hailong; Kinnucan, Henry W.

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco production in China is influenced by a government-set procurement price for tobacco leaf, and an excise tax on tobacco leaf revenue. This study examines the increase in the procurement price needed to keep tax revenue constant in the face of a 50% reduction in the tax rate. This “compensative effect” is important because reductions in the tax rate are contemplated and tobacco tax revenue is a major source of funding for rural communities. Based on an equilibrium-displacement model of ...

  15. The effect of fiscal policy on oil revenue fund: The case of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Azhgaliyeva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Setting an optimal fiscal policy in oil-producing countries is challenging, due to the exhaustibility of oil resources and unpredictability of oil prices. Recently it has become popular among oil-producing countries to establish oil revenue funds, which are believed to stabilize the economy and provide inter-generational redistribution of oil wealth. The effectiveness of oil revenue funds and their design have received considerable attention from researchers and policymakers recently. Using empirical model, it is found that an oil revenue fund in Kazakhstan stabilized the government expenditure, but did not stabilize real effective exchange rates.

  16. [OR minute myth : Guidelines for calculation of DRG revenues per OR minute].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waeschle, R M; Hinz, J; Bleeker, F; Sliwa, B; Popov, A; Schmidt, C E; Bauer, M

    2016-02-01

    The economic situation in German Hospitals is tense and needs the implementation of differentiated controlling instruments. Accordingly, parameters of revenue development of different organizational units within a hospital are needed. This is particularly necessary in the revenue and cost-intensive operating theater field. So far there are only barely established productivity data for the control of operating room (OR) revenues during the year available. This article describes a valid method for the calculation of case-related revenues per OR minute conform to the diagnosis-related groups (DRG).For this purpose the relevant datasets from the OR information system and the § 21 productivity report (DRG grouping) of the University Medical Center Göttingen were combined. The revenues defined in the DRG browser of the Institute for Hospital Reimbursement (InEK) were assigned to the corresponding process times--incision-suture time (SNZ), operative preparation time and anesthesiology time--according to the InEK system. All full time stationary DRG cases treated within the OR were included and differentiated according to the surgical department responsible. The cost centers "OR section" and "anesthesia" were isolated to calculate the revenues of the operating theater. SNZ clusters and cost type groups were formed to demonstrate their impact on the revenues per OR minute. A surgical personal simultaneity factor (GZF) was calculated by division of the revenues for surgeons and anesthesiologists. This factor resembles the maximum DRG financed personnel deployment for surgeons in German hospitals.The revenue per OR minute including all cost types and DRG was 16.63 €/min. The revenues ranged from 10.45 to 24.34 €/min depending on the surgical field. The revenues were stable when SNZ clusters were analyzed. The differentiation of cost type groups revealed a revenue reduction especially after exclusion of revenues for implants and infrastructure. The calculated GZF over

  17. How do changes in media consumption affect newspaper revenue? : Suggestions on earning more revenue, with a special attention to the Nordic region

    OpenAIRE

    Shahbazi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is concentrated on the changes in consumer’s newspaper consumption and its impact on newspaper’s revenue in order to find out how printed news can earn more money. This thesis has a special attention on the Nordic region newspaper industry. The aim of this thesis is to explain how changes occurred in news consumption habits of users has impacted on newspaper firms’ revenue in order to find new strategies for newspaper firms for earning more money to remain survived. The research q...

  18. Emerging revenue model structure for mobile industry: the case for traditional and OTT service providers in Sub-Sahara

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahola, U

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available . The conclusion is that network operators can no longer ignore the presence of OTT. There is a change in dominance of the revenue model between the existing and impending revenue models due to OTT presence, with advertisements and revenue-share agreements possibly...

  19. 78 FR 53194 - Advisory Group to the Internal Revenue Service Tax Exempt and Government Entities Division (TE/GE...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Advisory Group to the Internal Revenue Service Tax Exempt and Government Entities Division (TE/GE); Meeting AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Advisory Committee on Tax Exempt and Government Entities (ACT) will...

  20. Revenue Sharing in Professional Sports Leagues : For the Sake of Competitive Balance or as a Result of Monopsony Power?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomino, F.A.; Sakovics, J.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze the distribution of broadcasting revenues by sports leagues.In the context of an isolated league, we show that when the teams engage in competitive bidding to attract talent, the league's optimal choice is full revenue sharing (resulting in full competitive balance) even if the revenues

  1. THE ROLE OF THE CORPORATE INCOME TAX IN THE STATE BUDGET REVENUES OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Zamaslo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to determine the trends of the functioning of the corporate income tax in the system of state revenue, assess its tax transformations, and determine the tax efficiency. On that basis, determining prospects of income tax in the national system of business entities taxation and developing proposals for improving the mechanism of taxation in Ukraine. Methodology. The theoretical and methodological base of scientific research of national and foreign scholars on the analysis of corporate income tax, official statistical data of the Ministry of Finance of Ukraine and State Fiscal Service of Ukraine. To ensure the authenticity and validity of the research results to the goal, the following methods are used: induction and deduction – during theoretical generalizations and conclusions; analogy method – when comparing the foreign experience of administration of corporate income tax; economics and statistics as methods of the macroeconomic situation of Ukraine analysing. Results. In the article, the corporate income tax is investigated. The macroeconomic situation in Ukraine is analysed. Reasonable steps for the further use of the European countries experience for Ukraine are founded. Practical implications. The results of this study can be used by state authorities in developing tax policy directions in Ukraine. Value/originality of the results is a complex theoretical and practical analysis of the corporate income tax in Ukraine. Further research should relate to the improvement of its own system of income taxation. In the process of its implementation, it is necessary to use the experience of European countries.

  2. The economics of the CDM levy: Revenue potential, tax incidence and distortionary effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fankhauser, Samuel; Martin, Nat

    2010-01-01

    A levy on the Clean Development Mechanism and other carbon trading schemes is a potential source of finance for climate change adaptation. An adaptation levy of 2% is currently imposed on all CDM transactions which could raise around $500 million between now and 2012. This paper analyses the scope for raising further adaptation finance from the CDM, the economic costs (deadweight loss) of such a measure and the incidence of the levy, that is, the economic burden the levy would impose on the buyers and sellers of credits. We find that a levy of 2% could raise up to $2 billion a year in 2020 if there are no restrictions on demand. This could rise to $10 billion for a 10% tax. Restrictions on credit demand (called supplementarity limits, the requirement that most emission abatement should happen domestically) curtail trade volumes and consequently tax revenues. They also alter the economic impact of the CDM levy. Without supplementarity restrictions sellers (developing countries) bear two-thirds of the cost of the tax. If there are supplementarity limits they can pass on the tax burden to buyers (developed countries) more or less in full. Without supplementarity restrictions the distortionary effect of the levy (its deadweight loss) rises sharply with the tax rate. With them the deadweight loss is close to zero.

  3. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  4. Control of rolling contact fatigue on premium rails in revenue service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Effective rail maintenance strategies are : essential for controlling rolling contact fatigue : (RCF) and reducing wear of rails under heavy : axle load (HAL) operations. In an effort to : optimize rail maintenance strategies in revenue : service, Tr...

  5. Part 1 : heavy axle load revenue service mega site testing 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Since 2005, the Federal Railroad Administration : and the Association of American Railroads have : jointly funded a heavy axle load (HAL) revenue : service testing program with several objectives. : One objective is to determine the effects of HAL : ...

  6. Part 2 : heavy axle load revenue service mega site testing 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Since 2005, the Federal Railroad Administration : and the Association of American Railroads have : jointly funded a heavy axle load (HAL) revenue : service testing program, with several objectives. : One objective is to determine the effects of HAL :...

  7. 77 FR 13389 - Art Advisory Panel of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... 2512 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986. In order for the Panel to perform this function, Panel... Administration, has also approved renewal of the Panel. The membership of the Panel is balanced between museum...

  8. Iraq: Oil and Gas Legislation, Revenue Sharing, and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanchard, Christopher M

    2007-01-01

    Iraqi leaders continue to debate a package of hydrocarbon sector and revenue sharing legislation that will define the terms for the future management and development of the country's significant oil...

  9. Iraq: Oil and Gas Legislation, Revenue Sharing, and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanchard, Christopher M

    2008-01-01

    Iraqi leaders continue to debate a package of hydrocarbon sector and revenue sharing legislation that would define the terms for the future management and development of the country's significant oil...

  10. Impact of Market Behavior, Fleet Composition, and Ancillary Services on Revenue Sufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany

    2016-04-26

    This presentation provides an overview of new and ongoing NREL research that aims to improve our understanding of reliability and revenue sufficiency challenges through modeling tools within a markets framework.

  11. Leverkusen revenue office building with geothermal and district heating; Finanzamt Leverkusen setzt auf Geothermie und Fernwaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keveloh, Holger [Depenbrock Systembau GmbH und Co. KG, Bielefeld (Germany); Paterak, Anette; Wiemer, Bianca; Foerschler, Eberhard [Assmann Beraten+Planen GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Efficient air conditioning of office buildings is possible with concrete core activation via a geothermal heat pump. The new building of the revenue office at Leverkusen will use this technology. (orig.)

  12. Contradicting the twin deficits hypothesis: The role of tax revenues composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obadić Alka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The general theory of twin deficits hypothesis does not consider specific characteristics of domestic tax systems, i.e. whether the revenue side of the budget is dominated by indirect or by direct taxes. The main hypothesis of the paper is that in countries with fiscal systems dominated by indirect taxes, the deterioration of the current account balance would imply higher fiscal revenues due to larger imports and consumption. The hypothesis is based on the characteristics of domestic tax systems of Bulgaria, Croatia, Poland and Romania in which indirect tax revenues account for the majority of total budget tax revenues. Results suggest that the co-movements of the current account and the fiscal balance cannot be explained by the twin deficit theory in countries with indirect tax-oriented systems. These results imply that only the structural economic transformation and export orientation of the economy may reverse the causality direction between two deficits.

  13. Tax Revenue and Economic Growth: A Study of Nigeria and Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Chinedu Egbunike

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tax revenue is frequently considered as an alternative form of sustainable financing within a stable and predictable fiscal environment to promote growth and enable governments to finance their social and infrastructural needs. The objective of the study is to examine the effect of tax revenue on economic growth of Nigeria and Ghana. The study used multiple regressions as tools of analysis. The study finds a positive impact of tax revenue on the gross domestic product of Nigeria and Ghana confirming prior studies. The study recommended among others that adequate measure to ensure that revenue generated from the tax is effectively utilized to develop and grow the economy.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v7i2.7341

  14. Iraq: Oil and Gas Legislation, Revenue Sharing, and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanchard, Christoper M

    2007-01-01

    Iraqi leaders continue to debate a package of hydrocarbon sector and revenue sharing legislation that would define the terms for the future management and development of the country's significant oil...

  15. Iraq: Oil and Gas Legislation, Revenue Sharing, and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanchard, Christopher M

    2007-01-01

    Iraqis continue to debate a package of hydrocarbon sector and revenue sharing legislation that will define the terms for the future management and development of the country's significant oil and natural gas resources...

  16. 78 FR 44623 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Revenue Procedure 98-25

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... administration of the internal revenue laws.'' Such materiality would continue, according to IRS, at least until... information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the agency, including whether the...

  17. 75 FR 15491 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Revenue Procedure 98-25

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... become material to the administration of the internal revenue laws.'' Such materiality would continue... invited on: (a) Whether the collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the...

  18. Managing volatility: Fiscal policy, debt management and oil revenues in the Republic of Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budina, N.; van Wijnbergen, S.; Li, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Assessing fiscal sustainability - i.e. considering whether or not a country can maintain its current fiscal policies without running into solvency problems and possible default - requires projections on a government's future revenue stream, expenditures and contingent liabilities within a

  19. The impact of taxpayers’ financial statements audit on tax revenue growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutarindwa Samuel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to explore the role of financial statements audit in promoting tax revenues growth in Rwanda in the broader perspective. Survey questionnaires as primary data collection instruments were distributed to all audit officers of Rwanda Revenue Authority equalling to 100 staff and followed both analytical research design. Secondary data included reports from Rwanda revenue authority from 2006 to 2010 This paper also examines preliminary empirical results on the relationship between financial statements audit and tax growth this paper supports the notion that the practices of audit of final books of accounts for both small and medium enterprises at institutional level are prerequisite for growth of tax revenues in the country. In conclusion, the results not only have the potential to contribute theoretically to public finance but also to the area of institutional performance

  20. HPGe detector shielding adjustment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trnkova, L.; Rulik, P.

    2008-01-01

    Low-level background shielding of HPGe detectors is used mainly for environmental samples with very low content of radionuclides. National Radiation Protection Institute (SURO) in Prague is equipped with 14 HPGe detectors with relative efficiency up to 150%. The detectors are placed in a room built from materials with low content of natural radionuclides and equipped with a double isolation of the floor against radon. Detectors themselves are placed in lead or steel shielding. Steel shielding with one of these detectors with relative efficiency of 100% was chosen to be rebuilt to achieve lower minimum detectable activity (MDA). Additional lead and copper shielding was built up inside the original steel shielding to reduce the volume of the inner space and filled with nitrogen by means of evaporating liquid nitrogen. The additional lead and copper shielding, consequent reduction of the inner volume and supply of evaporated nitrogen, caused a decrease of the background count and accordingly MDA values as well. The effect of nitrogen evaporation on the net areas of peaks belonging to radon daughters is significant. The enhanced shielding adjustment has the biggest influence in low energy range, what can be seen in collected data. MDA values in energy range from 30 keV to 400 keV decreased to 0.65-0.85 of original value, in energy range from 400 keV to 2 MeV they fell to 0.70-0.97 of original value. (authors)

  1. The Relationship of Government Revenue and Government Expenditure: A case study of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ullah, Nazim

    2016-01-01

    Malaysia is a developing Islamic state that faced budget deficit since 1998. But it is not accepted by all and hopes that state should be in a position of either balance budget or surplus budget. The optimum level of Government budget is the state where government expenditure is totally offset by source of government revenue and that can be achieved through increasing tax revenue or decreasing expenditure. The aim of this study to find out the theoretical relationship betwee...

  2. Bus Route Design with a Bayesian Network Analysis of Bus Service Revenues

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yi; Jia, Yuanhua; Feng, Xuesong; Wu, Jiang

    2018-01-01

    A Bayesian network is used to estimate revenues of bus services in consideration of the effect of bus travel demands, passenger transport distances, and so on. In this research, the area X in Beijing has been selected as the study area because of its relatively high bus travel demand and, on the contrary, unsatisfactory bus services. It is suggested that the proposed Bayesian network approach is able to rationally predict the probabilities of different revenues of various route services, from...

  3. Fiscal consequences of greater openness: from tax avoidance and tax arbitrage to revenue growth

    OpenAIRE

    Jouko Ylä-Liedenpohja

    2008-01-01

    Revenue from corporation tax and taxes on capital income, net of revenue loss from deductibility of interest, as a percentage of the GDP has tripled in Finland over the past two decades. This is argued to result from greater openness of the economy as well as from simultaneous tax reforms towards neutrality of capital income taxation by combining tax-base broadening with tax-rate reductions. They implied improved efficiency of real investments, elimination of tax avoidance in entrepreneurial ...

  4. 3. quarter 2006 sales revenue; Chiffres d'affaires du 3. trimestre 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-10-15

    This document presents the sales revenue of the 3. quarter 2006 for the Group AREVA. The sales revenues for the first nine months of 2006 are up by 8,1% to 7,556 millions euros; the nuclear operations are up by 5,2% reflecting strong performance in the front end division; the transmission and distribution division is up by 14%. (A.L.B.)

  5. Does IFRIC 15 Matter? The Decision Usefulness of Accelerated Revenue and Earnings Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Lau Chee Kwong

    2013-01-01

    The newly issued IFRIC 15 Agreements for the Construction of Real Estate are likely to cause Malaysian property developers to change their revenue recognition policy from a stage-of-completion basis (accelerated) to a completion basis (conservative). In the US, consistent with the approach taken by the Financial Accounting standards Board (FASB), Altomuro, Beatty and Weber (2005) found that reported earnings based on accelerated revenue recognition are value relevant. The subsequent eliminati...

  6. Decision Usefulness Approach to Financial Reporting: A Case for Malaysian Inland Revenue Board

    OpenAIRE

    Kabiru Isa Dandago

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at determining whether or not financial reporting of companies in Malaysia provides useful information to Inland Revenue Board for income tax determination. The respondents in this study were staff of the Inland Revenue Board, Jalan Duta, Kuala Lumpur, and, for the purpose of the study, copies of questionnaire were distributed to them to illicit their responses. The data collected were analyzed, using SPSS. Most of the respondents are satisfied that companies’ financial report...

  7. The Effects of Average Revenue Regulation on Electricity Transmission Investment and Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Isamu Matsukawa

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the long-run effects of average revenue regulation on an electricity transmission monopolist who applies a two- part tariff comprising a variable congestion price and a non-negative fixed access fee. A binding constraint on the monopolist fs expected average revenue lowers the access fee, promotes transmission investment, and improves consumer surplus. In a case of any linear or log-linear electricity demand function with a positive probability that no congestion occur...

  8. Investment and revenue cap under incentive regulation: The case study of the Norwegian electricity distributors

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Dengjun; Xie, Jinghua

    2017-01-01

    Source at https://doi.org/10.1080/23322039.2017.1400900 Electricity distribution operators are regulated as monopolies around the world. Incentive regulation is further applied to relate their allowed revenues (revenue cap) to cost efficiency and investment. Incentive regulation varies cross countries and has evolved over time for individual countries. Norway is one of the first countries reforming the network distributors by incentive regulation. Using the long time series data, we eval...

  9. Risky Business: The Impact of Property Rights on Investment and Revenue in the Film Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Venkat Kuppuswamy; Carliss Y. Baldwin

    2012-01-01

    Our paper tests a key prediction of property rights theory, specifically, that agents will respond to marginal incentives embedded in property rights when making non-contractible, revenue-enhancing investments. (Grossman and Hart, 1986; Hart and Moore, 1990). Using rich project-level data from the U.S. film industry, we investigate variation in property right allocations, investment choices, and film revenues to test the distinctive aspects of property-rights theory. Empirical tests of these ...

  10. Tax Revenue in Sub-Saharan Africa; Effects of Economic Policies and Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaneshwar Ghura

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of data for 39 sub-Saharan African countries during 1985–96 indicates that the variations in tax revenue-GDP ratios within this group are influenced by economic policies and the level of corruption. Namely, these ratios rise with declining inflation, implementation of structural reforms, rising human capital (a proxy for the provision of public services by the government), and declining corruption. The paper confirms that the tax revenue ratio rises with income, and that elements ...

  11. International developments in revenues and incomes of general practitioners from 2000 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Kroneman, Madelon; Meeus, Pascal; Kringos, Dionne Sofia; Groot, Wim; van der Zee, Jouke

    2013-01-01

    Background: The remuneration system of General Practitioners (GPs) has changed in several countries in the past decade. The aim of our study was: to establish the effect of these changes on the revenues and income of GPs in the first decade of the 21st century. Methods: Annual GP revenue and practice costs were collected from national institutes in the eight countries included in our study (Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Sweden, The United Kingdom (UK)) from 2000...

  12. The structure of expenses and revenues according to International Accounting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Man

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the recognition of revenues and implicitly of the expenses linked to the ceding of the capital assets according to I.A.S. 16 and I.A.S. 38, as of the revenues and expenses linked to the sale of the obtained production according to I.A.S. 18 and I.A.S. 2, a parallel with the Romanian accounting influences.

  13. Uganda tax policy reforms: A case study of Uganda revenue authority URA

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Simon Kagambirwe

    2014-01-01

    In this study I examined the implementation of tax policy reforms at Uganda Revenue Authority. In particular, I examined the impact of the tax policy reforms implemented since the restructuring of Uganda Revenue Authority in 2005. Although Uganda's taxation system is a vital area of study, it has not gotten enough attention from researchers. This is because, in the Ugandan and generally African developing countries context, taxation involves vital and, to a large ex...

  14. Federal Offshore Statistics, 1993. Leasing, exploration, production, and revenue as of December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, D.K.

    1994-12-31

    This document contains statistical data on the following: federal offshore lands; offshore leasing activity and status; offshore development activity; offshore production of crude oil and natural gas; federal offshore oil and natural gas sales volume and royalties; revenue from federal offshore leases; disbursement of federal offshore revenue; reserves and resource estimates of offshore oil and natural gas; oil pollution in US and international waters; and international activities and marine minerals. A glossary is included.

  15. Tax rate to maximize the revenue: Laffer curve for the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Karas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to model the relationship between the rate of personal income tax and the revenue it generates, and to derive a tax rate that would maximize this revenue within the Czech Republic, using methodologies described in earlier works (Hsing, 1996. This tax rate represents an upper limit. Overstepping it has negative consequences for corporate finances and government budgetary funding alike, because it undermines the workers’ motivation to work, reduces buying power, and shifts work activities in favor of gray economy. The period of interest is a time series from 1993 to 2010. Two models were devised. The basic research instrument was a second-degree polynomial regression with a logarithmic transformation of the input data. The explaining variable was the tax revenue, the explanatory variable in Model 1 was the ratio of tax revenue to personal gross annual income. Model 2 featured the ratio of tax revenue to gross domestic product. To limit model instability, all data was stated per capita, in 2010 prices. Both models are statistically significant. By comparison, it was determined that, in the period of 1994–2010, the historical tax rate was lower than the rate designed to maximize the revenue. It approached the theoretical optimum most closely in 2007, and deviated from it most severely in 1995.

  16. COMPARINGTHE TREND BETWEEN SOUTH AFRICAN GOVERNMENT SPENDINGAND THE INCREASE INTAX REVENUE FOR THECOUNTRY’S TAXPAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerike Jacobs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adam Smithprovidesguidance through the four Canons of Taxation to assistgovernmenttodesign a good tax system based on a set of principles. These principles are being appliedthroughout the world, as well as in South Africa. However, the South Africangovernmenthasbeen challenged to reduce income inequality and promote growth. This has led to an increase ingovernmentspending.Although literature provides information about governmental spending, spending patterns have notbeen investigated. Therefore, this study followed a partially mixed sequential dominant statusdesign by investigating actual versus budgeted governmental tax revenue and spending, as well asthe relationship between governmental tax revenue, spending and the inflation rate. This was donefor the periodof2000 to 2007, seven years before the global financial crisisand 2008 to 2017,seven years after the global financial crisis. Qualitative data were collected by means of a literaturestudy to identify the main themes. The main themes were used in the investigation of the budgetsand compared to the budget reviews. Quantitative data were analysed to determine the correlationbetween governmental tax revenue, spending and the inflation rate. The findings suggest a strongcorrelation between governmental tax revenue and spending but a weak correlation between thegovernmental tax revenue, spending and the inflation rate.This study will enable South African stakeholders, including the country’s residents and potentialforeign investors, to determine the trend between governmental tax revenue, spending andinflation.

  17. Taxation, revenue allocation and fiscal federalism in Nigeria: Issues, challenges and policy options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salami Adeleke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is one of the most important and easy sources of revenue to any government, as the government possesses inherent power to impose taxes and levies. Nigeria tax system has been weak due largely to inadequate data of the tax base and heavy reliance on oil revenue. With the volatility in oil prices and excruciating impacts of the recent global financial crisis, taxation deserves more attention now than ever before in Nigeria. One issue that is critical to domestic resource mobilization and utilization is the issue of fiscal federalism. Nigeria operates three tiers of government; Federal, State and Local Governments with separate revenue, expenditure, and assigned responsibilities each. However, all decisions including resources are controlled from the centre and the vertical revenue allocations tilt more towards the direction of federal government, contrary to the tenets of federalism the country is practicing. Both vertical and horizontal revenue in Nigeria is engulfed in controversy. The paper presents key issues, trend and challenges of taxation and fiscal federalism in Nigeria. In addition, the paper highlights a number of suggestions that would stimulate increase in tax revenue and guarantee fiscal assignment acceptable to the federal and sub-national government.

  18. The association between a journal's source of revenue and the drug recommendations made in the articles it publishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Annette; Dörter, Fatma; Eckhardt, Kirsten; Viniol, Annika; Baum, Erika; Kochen, Michael M; Lexchin, Joel; Wegscheider, Karl; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert

    2011-03-22

    There is evidence to suggest that pharmaceutical companies influence the publication and content of research papers. Most German physicians rely on journals for their continuing medical education. We studied the influence of pharmaceutical advertising on the drug recommendations made in articles published in 11 German journals that focus on continuing medical education. We conducted a cross-sectional study of all of the issues of 11 journals published in 2007. Only journals frequently read by general practitioners were chosen. Issues were screened for pharmaceutical advertisements and recommendations made in the editorial content for a specified selection of drugs. Each journal was rated on a five-point scale according to the strength with which it either recommended or discouraged the use of these drugs. We looked for differences in these ratings between free journals (i.e., those financed entirely by pharmaceutical advertising), journals with mixed sources of revenue and journals financed solely by subscription fees. The journals were also screened for the simultaneous appearance of advertisements and recommendations for the same drug within a certain period, which was adjusted for both journal and class of drug. We identified 313 issues containing at least one advertisement for the selected drugs and 412 articles in which drug recommendations were made. Free journals were more likely to recommend the specified drugs than journals with sources of revenue that were mixed or based solely on subscriptions. The simultaneous appearance of advertisements and recommendations for the same drug in the same issue of a journal showed an inconsistent association. Free journals almost exclusively recommended the use of the specified drugs, whereas journals financed entirely with subscription fees tended to recommend against the use of the same drugs. Doctors should be aware of this bias in their use of material published in medical journals that focus on continuing medical

  19. Areva - Revenue up by 6% in the first half of 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    In Nuclear, the levels of activity among the various divisions and their contribution to revenues can vary significantly from one half of the year to the next, which affects relative group performance over the period in question. Like-for-like growth for the first half of 2008 had thus reached 18.6% compared to the first half of 2007, due to several positive events, in particular exceptional sales in Asia in the Front-End division, favourable seasonality in Services, and a very high concentration of production in Recycling (Back-End). These events, which resulted in achieving more than 80% of nuclear 2008 operating income in the first six months and about 48% of sales revenues, illustrate the non-representative nature of the half-year performance in terms of usual profitability profile of nuclear activities. As of June 30, 2009, AREVA had a backlog of 48.9 billion euro, up 28.2% compared to June 30, 2008 and a slight increase compared to end of year 2008. In Nuclear, the backlog of orders came to 42.9 billion euro at June 30, 2009, 32.7% ahead of figures for June 30, 2008. In Transmission and Distribution, the order backlog on June 30, 2009 came to 6.0 billion euro, an increase of 3.0% over one year. In the first half of 2009, AREVA recorded revenues of 6,522 million euro, representing a 5.7% rise (+2.8% like-for-like) compared to the first half of 2008. Revenues outside France were up 12% to 4,758 million euro or 73% of total revenues. In the first half, revenue from Nuclear businesses came to 3,906 million euro, remaining stable compared to the same period last year (-2.9% LFL). The Transmission and Distribution division recorded revenues of 2,614 million euro, up 14.5% (+12.5% LFL), illustrating a good flow in the order backlog for Products (+11.8% LFL) and Systems (+15.1% LFL). Sales revenue for the second quarter of 2009 rose to 3,519 million euro, for growth of 3.5% (+1.9% LFL) compared with the second quarter of 2008. The Nuclear division recorded sales

  20. Frequency adjustable MEMS vibration energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podder, P.; Constantinou, P.; Amann, A.; Roy, S.

    2016-10-01

    Ambient mechanical vibrations offer an attractive solution for powering the wireless sensor nodes of the emerging “Internet-of-Things”. However, the wide-ranging variability of the ambient vibration frequencies pose a significant challenge to the efficient transduction of vibration into usable electrical energy. This work reports the development of a MEMS electromagnetic vibration energy harvester where the resonance frequency of the oscillator can be adjusted or tuned to adapt to the ambient vibrational frequency. Micro-fabricated silicon spring and double layer planar micro-coils along with sintered NdFeB micro-magnets are used to construct the electromagnetic transduction mechanism. Furthermore, another NdFeB magnet is adjustably assembled to induce variable magnetic interaction with the transducing magnet, leading to significant change in the spring stiffness and resonance frequency. Finite element analysis and numerical simulations exhibit substantial frequency tuning range (25% of natural resonance frequency) by appropriate adjustment of the repulsive magnetic interaction between the tuning and transducing magnet pair. This demonstrated method of frequency adjustment or tuning have potential applications in other MEMS vibration energy harvesters and micromechanical oscillators.