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  1. Revealing the Determinants of Widespread Alternative Splicing Perturbation in Cancer

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    Yongsheng Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly appreciated that alternative splicing plays a key role in generating functional specificity and diversity in cancer. However, the mechanisms by which cancer mutations perturb splicing remain unknown. Here, we developed a network-based strategy, DrAS-Net, to investigate more than 2.5 million variants across cancer types and link somatic mutations with cancer-specific splicing events. We identified more than 40,000 driver variant candidates and their 80,000 putative splicing targets deregulated in 33 cancer types and inferred their functional impact. Strikingly, tumors with splicing perturbations show reduced expression of immune system-related genes and increased expression of cell proliferation markers. Tumors harboring different mutations in the same gene often exhibit distinct splicing perturbations. Further stratification of 10,000 patients based on their mutation-splicing relationships identifies subtypes with distinct clinical features, including survival rates. Our work reveals how single-nucleotide changes can alter the repertoires of splicing isoforms, providing insights into oncogenic mechanisms for precision medicine.

  2. Geometrodynamic steering principle reveals the determiners of inertia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    What shall the authors need to grasp the essence of quantum gravity? One requirement, at least, is essential: to understand the steering principle of classical geometrodynamics. The authors outline here the physical content of that steering principle - heat of the so-called initial value problem - in its J.W. York, Jr. formulation. The central idea epitomizes itself in a single simple sentence: Mass-energy there determines inertia here. They spell out this steering principle both in its precise form and in its poor man's version. At both levels of analysis considerations of physics and mathematics alike require that the effective mass-energy of gravity waves must make itself felt on the spacetime geometry - and therefore on the gyro-defined local inertial frame of reference - on the same level as matter itself. Additional to the (mass)/(distance) Newtonian potential so familiar as measure of the effect of a nearby mass on the local frame is the Thirring and Lense gravitomagnetic potential, proportional to (angular momentum) x (distance vector)/(distance). The recent proposal of Ciufolini for a dual laser-ranged LAGEOS satellite to detect the thus-predicted gravitomagnetism of the earth is briefly described

  3. Feedback Control of Sex Determination by Dosage Compensation Revealed through Caenorhabditis Elegans Sdc-3 Mutations

    OpenAIRE

    DeLong, L.; Plenefisch, J. D.; Klein, R. D.; Meyer, B. J.

    1993-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, sex determination and dosage compensation are coordinately controlled through a group of genes that respond to the primary sex determination signal. Here we describe a new gene, sdc-3, that also controls these processes. In contrast to previously described genes, the sex determination and dosage compensation activities of sdc-3 are separately mutable, indicating that they function independently. Paradoxically, the sdc-3 null phenotype fails to reveal the role of sdc...

  4. 78 FR 55772 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Beauty Revealed: Images of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ..., 1965 (79 Stat. 985; 22 U.S.C. 2459), Executive Order 12047 of March 27, 1978, the Foreign Affairs...). The mailing address is U.S. Department of State, SA-5, L/PD, Fifth Floor (Suite 5H03), Washington, DC... Determinations: ``Beauty Revealed: Images of Women in Qing Dynasty Chinese Painting'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby...

  5. Multilocus Sex Determination Revealed in Two Populations of Gynodioecious Wild Strawberry, Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Tennessen, Jacob A; Dalton, Rebecca M; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Koski, Matthew H; Liston, Aaron

    2015-10-19

    Gynodioecy, the coexistence of females and hermaphrodites, occurs in 20% of angiosperm families and often enables transitions between hermaphroditism and dioecy. Clarifying mechanisms of sex determination in gynodioecious species can thus illuminate sexual system evolution. Genetic determination of gynodioecy, however, can be complex and is not fully characterized in any wild species. We used targeted sequence capture to genetically map a novel nuclear contributor to male sterility in a self-pollinated hermaphrodite of Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata from the southern portion of its range. To understand its interaction with another identified locus and possibly additional loci, we performed crosses within and between two populations separated by 2000 km, phenotyped the progeny and sequenced candidate markers at both sex-determining loci. The newly mapped locus contains a high density of pentatricopeptide repeat genes, a class commonly involved in restoration of fertility caused by cytoplasmic male sterility. Examination of all crosses revealed three unlinked epistatically interacting loci that determine sexual phenotype and vary in frequency between populations. Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata represents the first wild gynodioecious species with genomic evidence of both cytoplasmic and nuclear genes in sex determination. We propose a model for the interactions between these loci and new hypotheses for the evolution of sex determining chromosomes in the subdioecious and dioecious Fragaria. Copyright © 2015 Ashman et al.

  6. Mutational scanning reveals the determinants of protein insertion and association energetics in the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elazar, Assaf; Weinstein, Jonathan; Biran, Ido; Fridman, Yearit; Bibi, Eitan; Fleishman, Sarel Jacob

    2016-01-29

    Insertion of helix-forming segments into the membrane and their association determines the structure, function, and expression levels of all plasma membrane proteins. However, systematic and reliable quantification of membrane-protein energetics has been challenging. We developed a deep mutational scanning method to monitor the effects of hundreds of point mutations on helix insertion and self-association within the bacterial inner membrane. The assay quantifies insertion energetics for all natural amino acids at 27 positions across the membrane, revealing that the hydrophobicity of biological membranes is significantly higher than appreciated. We further quantitate the contributions to membrane-protein insertion from positively charged residues at the cytoplasm-membrane interface and reveal large and unanticipated differences among these residues. Finally, we derive comprehensive mutational landscapes in the membrane domains of Glycophorin A and the ErbB2 oncogene, and find that insertion and self-association are strongly coupled in receptor homodimers.

  7. Multi-perspective smFRET reveals rate-determining late intermediates of ribosomal translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Michael R.; Alejo, Jose L.; Altman, Roger B.; Blanchard, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    Directional translocation of the ribosome through the messenger RNA open reading frame is a critical determinant of translational fidelity. This process entails a complex interplay of large-scale conformational changes within the actively translating particle, which together coordinate the movement of transfer and messenger RNA substrates with respect to the large and small ribosomal subunits. Using pre-steady state, single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging, we have tracked the nature and timing of these conformational events within the Escherichia coli ribosome from five structural perspectives. Our investigations reveal direct evidence of structurally and kinetically distinct, late intermediates during substrate movement, whose resolution is rate-determining to the translocation mechanism. These steps involve intra-molecular events within the EFG(GDP)-bound ribosome, including exaggerated, reversible fluctuations of the small subunit head domain, which ultimately facilitate peptidyl-tRNA’s movement into its final post-translocation position. PMID:26926435

  8. Multiperspective smFRET reveals rate-determining late intermediates of ribosomal translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Michael R; Alejo, Jose L; Altman, Roger B; Blanchard, Scott C

    2016-04-01

    Directional translocation of the ribosome through the mRNA open reading frame is a critical determinant of translational fidelity. This process entails a complex interplay of large-scale conformational changes within the actively translating particle, which together coordinate the movement of tRNA and mRNA substrates with respect to the large and small ribosomal subunits. Using pre-steady state, single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging, we tracked the nature and timing of these conformational events within the Escherichia coli ribosome from five structural perspectives. Our investigations revealed direct evidence of structurally and kinetically distinct late intermediates during substrate movement, whose resolution determines the rate of translocation. These steps involve intramolecular events within the EF-G-GDP-bound ribosome, including exaggerated, reversible fluctuations of the small-subunit head domain, which ultimately facilitate peptidyl-tRNA's movement into its final post-translocation position.

  9. Genome sequencing and analysis reveals possible determinants of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage

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    Cole Alexander M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is a major risk factor in clinical and community settings due to the range of etiologies caused by the organism. We have identified unique immunological and ultrastructural properties associated with nasal carriage isolates denoting a role for bacterial factors in nasal carriage. However, despite extensive molecular level characterizations by several groups suggesting factors necessary for colonization on nasal epithelium, genetic determinants of nasal carriage are unknown. Herein, we have set a genomic foundation for unraveling the bacterial determinants of nasal carriage in S. aureus. Results MLST analysis revealed no lineage specific differences between carrier and non-carrier strains suggesting a role for mobile genetic elements. We completely sequenced a model carrier isolate (D30 and a model non-carrier strain (930918-3 to identify differential gene content. Comparison revealed the presence of 84 genes unique to the carrier strain and strongly suggests a role for Type VII secretion systems in nasal carriage. These genes, along with a putative pathogenicity island (SaPIBov present uniquely in the carrier strains are likely important in affecting carriage. Further, PCR-based genotyping of other clinical isolates for a specific subset of these 84 genes raise the possibility of nasal carriage being caused by multiple gene sets. Conclusion Our data suggest that carriage is likely a heterogeneic phenotypic trait and implies a role for nucleotide level polymorphism in carriage. Complete genome level analyses of multiple carriage strains of S. aureus will be important in clarifying molecular determinants of S. aureus nasal carriage.

  10. Phylodynamic reconstruction reveals norovirus GII.4 epidemic expansions and their molecular determinants.

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    J Joukje Siebenga

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis. An increase in the number of globally reported norovirus outbreaks was seen the past decade, especially for outbreaks caused by successive genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4 variants. Whether this observed increase was due to an upswing in the number of infections, or to a surveillance artifact caused by heightened awareness and concomitant improved reporting, remained unclear. Therefore, we set out to study the population structure and changes thereof of GII.4 strains detected through systematic outbreak surveillance since the early 1990s. We collected 1383 partial polymerase and 194 full capsid GII.4 sequences. A Bayesian MCMC coalescent analysis revealed an increase in the number of GII.4 infections during the last decade. The GII.4 strains included in our analyses evolved at a rate of 4.3-9.0x10(-3 mutations per site per year, and share a most recent common ancestor in the early 1980s. Determinants of adaptation in the capsid protein were studied using different maximum likelihood approaches to identify sites subject to diversifying or directional selection and sites that co-evolved. While a number of the computationally determined adaptively evolving sites were on the surface of the capsid and possible subject to immune selection, we also detected sites that were subject to constrained or compensatory evolution due to secondary RNA structures, relevant in virus-replication. We highlight codons that may prove useful in identifying emerging novel variants, and, using these, indicate that the novel 2008 variant is more likely to cause a future epidemic than the 2007 variant. While norovirus infections are generally mild and self-limiting, more severe outcomes of infection frequently occur in elderly and immunocompromized people, and no treatment is available. The observed pattern of continually emerging novel variants of GII.4, causing elevated numbers of infections, is therefore a

  11. Determinants of National Fire Plan Fuels Treatment Expenditures: A Revealed Preference Analysis for Northern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Curt; Grimsrud, Kristine; Berrens, Robert P.

    2009-10-01

    The accumulation of fire fuels in forests throughout the world contributes significantly to the severity of wildfires. To combat the threat of wildfire, especially in the wildland-urban interface (WUI), US federal land management agencies have implemented a number of forest restoration and wildfire risk reduction programs. In the spirit of revealed preference analyses, the objective of this study is to investigate the pattern and determinants of National Fire Plan (NFP) expenditures for fuel reduction treatments in northern New Mexico (USA). Estimation results from a set of Generalized Estimating Equations models are mixed with respect to risk reduction hypotheses, and also raise issues regarding how risk reduction should be defined for a region characterized by both pockets of urban sprawl into the WUI and large areas of chronic rural poverty. Program preferences for project funding under the federal Collaborative Forest Restoration Program in New Mexico are shown to be distinctly different (e.g., exhibiting greater concern for social equity) than for other NFP-funded projects.

  12. 77 FR 34121 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Revealing the African...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... exhibition ``Revealing the African Presence in Renaissance Europe'' imported from abroad for temporary... exhibit objects at The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, MD, from on or about October 14, 2012, until on or about January 21, 2013; at the Princeton University Art Museum, Princeton, NJ, from on or about February...

  13. Improved annotation of antibiotic resistance determinants reveals microbial resistomes cluster by ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Molly K; Forsberg, Kevin J; Dantas, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a dire clinical problem with important ecological dimensions. While antibiotic resistance in human pathogens continues to rise at alarming rates, the impact of environmental resistance on human health is still unclear. To investigate the relationship between human-associated and environmental resistomes, we analyzed functional metagenomic selections for resistance against 18 clinically relevant antibiotics from soil and human gut microbiota as well as a set of multidrug-resistant cultured soil isolates. These analyses were enabled by Resfams, a new curated database of protein families and associated highly precise and accurate profile hidden Markov models, confirmed for antibiotic resistance function and organized by ontology. We demonstrate that the antibiotic resistance functions that give rise to the resistance profiles observed in environmental and human-associated microbial communities significantly differ between ecologies. Antibiotic resistance functions that most discriminate between ecologies provide resistance to β-lactams and tetracyclines, two of the most widely used classes of antibiotics in the clinic and agriculture. We also analyzed the antibiotic resistance gene composition of over 6000 sequenced microbial genomes, revealing significant enrichment of resistance functions by both ecology and phylogeny. Together, our results indicate that environmental and human-associated microbial communities harbor distinct resistance genes, suggesting that antibiotic resistance functions are largely constrained by ecology.

  14. Molecular determinants of juvenile hormone action as revealed by 3D QSAR analysis in Drosophila.

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    Denisa Liszeková

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postembryonic development, including metamorphosis, of many animals is under control of hormones. In Drosophila and other insects these developmental transitions are regulated by the coordinate action of two principal hormones, the steroid ecdysone and the sesquiterpenoid juvenile hormone (JH. While the mode of ecdysone action is relatively well understood, the molecular mode of JH action remains elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To gain more insights into the molecular mechanism of JH action, we have tested the biological activity of 86 structurally diverse JH agonists in Drosophila melanogaster. The results were evaluated using 3D QSAR analyses involving CoMFA and CoMSIA procedures. Using this approach we have generated both computer-aided and species-specific pharmacophore fingerprints of JH and its agonists, which revealed that the most active compounds must possess an electronegative atom (oxygen or nitrogen at both ends of the molecule. When either of these electronegative atoms are replaced by carbon or the distance between them is shorter than 11.5 A or longer than 13.5 A, their biological activity is dramatically decreased. The presence of an electron-deficient moiety in the middle of the JH agonist is also essential for high activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The information from 3D QSAR provides guidelines and mechanistic scope for identification of steric and electrostatic properties as well as donor and acceptor hydrogen-bonding that are important features of the ligand-binding cavity of a JH target protein. In order to refine the pharmacophore analysis and evaluate the outcomes of the CoMFA and CoMSIA study we used pseudoreceptor modeling software PrGen to generate a putative binding site surrogate that is composed of eight amino acid residues corresponding to the defined molecular interactions.

  15. What does Williams Syndrome Reveal about the Determinants of Social Behavior?

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    Anna Maaria Järvinen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence on autonomic nervous system (ANS function in individuals with Williams syndrome (WS has begun to highlight aberrancies that may have important implications for the social profile characterized by enhanced social motivation and approach. In parallel, neurobiological investigations have identified alterations in the structure, function, and connectivity of the amygdala, as well as prosocial neuropeptide dysregulation, as some of the key neurogenetic features of WS. A recent social approach/withdrawal hypothesis (Kemp and Guastella, 2011 suggests that autonomic cardiac control may play a key role in regulating the relationship between oxytocin and social behavior. This article discusses evidence from these critical, new strands of research into social behavior in WS, to consider the extent to which data on WS may provide novel insight into the determinants of social behavior. Future research directions are suggested.

  16. Association studies and legume synteny reveal haplotypes determining seed size in Vigna unguiculata

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    Mitchell R Lucas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Highly specific seed market classes for cowpea and other grain legumes exists because grain is most commonly cooked and consumed whole. Size, shape, color, and texture are critical features of these market classes and breeders target development of cultivars for market acceptance. Resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses that are absent from elite breeding material are often introgressed through crosses to landraces or wild relatives. When crosses are made between parents with different grain quality characteristics, recovery of progeny with acceptable or enhanced grain quality is problematic. Thus genetic markers for grain quality traits can help in pyramiding genes needed for specific market classes. Allelic variation dictating the inheritance of seed size can be tagged and used to assist the selection of large-seeded lines. In this work we applied SNP genotyping and knowledge of legume synteny to characterize regions of the cowpea genome associated with seed size. These marker-trait associations will enable breeders to use marker based selection approaches to increase the frequency of progeny with large seed. For ~800 samples derived from eight bi-parental populations, QTL analysis was used to identify markers linked to ten trait determinants. In addition, the population structure of 171 samples from the USDA core collection was identified and incorporated into a genome-wide association study which supported more than half of the trait-associated regions important in the bi-parental populations. Seven of the total ten QTL were supported based on synteny to seed size associated regions identified in the related legume soybean. In addition to delivering markers linked to major trait determinants in the context of modern breeding, we provide an analysis of the diversity of the USDA core collection of cowpea to identify genepools, migrants, admixture, and duplicates.

  17. Association Studies and Legume Synteny Reveal Haplotypes Determining Seed Size in Vigna unguiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Mitchell R; Huynh, Bao-Lam; da Silva Vinholes, Patricia; Cisse, Ndiaga; Drabo, Issa; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Roberts, Philip A; Close, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Highly specific seed market classes for cowpea and other grain legumes exist because grain is most commonly cooked and consumed whole. Size, shape, color, and texture are critical features of these market classes and breeders target development of cultivars for market acceptance. Resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses that are absent from elite breeding material are often introgressed through crosses to landraces or wild relatives. When crosses are made between parents with different grain quality characteristics, recovery of progeny with acceptable or enhanced grain quality is problematic. Thus genetic markers for grain quality traits can help in pyramiding genes needed for specific market classes. Allelic variation dictating the inheritance of seed size can be tagged and used to assist the selection of large seeded lines. In this work we applied 1,536-plex SNP genotyping and knowledge of legume synteny to characterize regions of the cowpea genome associated with seed size. These marker-trait associations will enable breeders to use marker-based selection approaches to increase the frequency of progeny with large seed. For 804 individuals derived from eight bi-parental populations, QTL analysis was used to identify markers linked to 10 trait determinants. In addition, the population structure of 171 samples from the USDA core collection was identified and incorporated into a genome-wide association study which supported more than half of the trait-associated regions important in the bi-parental populations. Seven of the total 10 QTLs were supported based on synteny to seed size associated regions identified in the related legume soybean. In addition to delivering markers linked to major trait determinants in the context of modern breeding, we provide an analysis of the diversity of the USDA core collection of cowpea to identify genepools, migrants, admixture, and duplicates.

  18. A germ cell determinant reveals parallel pathways for germ line development in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainpal, Rana; Nance, Jeremy; Yanowitz, Judith L

    2015-10-15

    Despite the central importance of germ cells for transmission of genetic material, our understanding of the molecular programs that control primordial germ cell (PGC) specification and differentiation are limited. Here, we present findings that X chromosome NonDisjunction factor-1 (XND-1), known for its role in regulating meiotic crossover formation, is an early determinant of germ cell fates in Caenorhabditis elegans. xnd-1 mutant embryos display a novel 'one PGC' phenotype as a result of G2 cell cycle arrest of the P4 blastomere. Larvae and adults display smaller germ lines and reduced brood size consistent with a role for XND-1 in germ cell proliferation. Maternal XND-1 proteins are found in the P4 lineage and are exclusively localized to the nucleus in PGCs, Z2 and Z3. Zygotic XND-1 turns on shortly thereafter, at the ∼300-cell stage, making XND-1 the earliest zygotically expressed gene in worm PGCs. Strikingly, a subset of xnd-1 mutants lack germ cells, a phenotype shared with nos-2, a member of the conserved Nanos family of germline determinants. We generated a nos-2 null allele and show that nos-2; xnd-1 double mutants display synthetic sterility. Further removal of nos-1 leads to almost complete sterility, with the vast majority of animals without germ cells. Sterility in xnd-1 mutants is correlated with an increase in transcriptional activation-associated histone modification and aberrant expression of somatic transgenes. Together, these data strongly suggest that xnd-1 defines a new branch for PGC development that functions redundantly with nos-2 and nos-1 to promote germline fates by maintaining transcriptional quiescence and regulating germ cell proliferation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Reverse Conservation Analysis Reveals the Specificity Determining Residues of Cytochrome P450 Family 2 (CYP 2

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    Tai-Sung Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of conservation of amino acids is widely used to identify important alignment positions of orthologs. The assumption is that important amino acid residues will be conserved in the protein family during the evolutionary process. For paralog alignment, on the other hand, the opposite concept can be used to identify residues that are responsible for specificity. Assuming that the function-specific or ligand-specific residue positions will have higher diversity since they are under evolutionary pressure to fit the target specificity, these function-specific or ligand-specific residues positions will have a lower degree of conservation than other positions in a highly conserved paralog alignment. This study assessed the ability of reverse conservation analysis to identify function-specific and ligand-specific residue positions in closely related paralog. Reverse conservation analysis of paralog alignments successfully identified all six previously reported substrate recognition sites (SRSs in cytochrome P450 family 2 (CYP 2. Further analysis of each subfamily identified the specificity-determining residues (SDRs that have been experimentally found. New potential SDRs were also predicted and await confirmation by further experiments or modeling calculations. This concept may be also applied to identify SDRs in other protein families.

  20. New roles for Nanos in neural cell fate determination revealed by studies in a cnidarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanska, Justyna; Frank, Uri

    2013-07-15

    Nanos is a pan-metazoan germline marker, important for germ cell development and maintenance. In flies, Nanos also acts in posterior and neural development, but these functions have not been demonstrated experimentally in other animals. Using the cnidarian Hydractinia we have uncovered novel roles for Nanos in neural cell fate determination. Ectopic expression of Nanos2 increased the numbers of embryonic stinging cell progenitors, but decreased the numbers of neurons. Downregulation of Nanos2 had the opposite effect. Furthermore, Nanos2 blocked maturation of committed, post-mitotic nematoblasts. Hence, Nanos2 acts as a switch between two differentiation pathways, increasing the numbers of nematoblasts at the expense of neuroblasts, but preventing nematocyte maturation. Nanos2 ectopic expression also caused patterning defects, but these were not associated with deregulation of Wnt signaling, showing that the basic anterior-posterior polarity remained intact, and suggesting that numerical imbalance between nematocytes and neurons might have caused these defects, affecting axial patterning only indirectly. We propose that the functions of Nanos in germ cells and in neural development are evolutionarily conserved, but its role in posterior patterning is an insect or arthropod innovation.

  1. Automated identification of complementarity determining regions (CDRs) reveals peculiar characteristics of CDRs and B cell epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofran, Yanay; Schlessinger, Avner; Rost, Burkhard

    2008-11-01

    Exact identification of complementarity determining regions (CDRs) is crucial for understanding and manipulating antigenic interactions. One way to do this is by marking residues on the antibody that interact with B cell epitopes on the antigen. This, of course, requires identification of B cell epitopes, which could be done by marking residues on the antigen that bind to CDRs, thus requiring identification of CDRs. To circumvent this vicious circle, existing tools for identifying CDRs are based on sequence analysis or general biophysical principles. Often, these tools, which are based on partial data, fail to agree on the boundaries of the CDRs. Herein we present an automated procedure for identifying CDRs and B cell epitopes using consensus structural regions that interact with the antigens in all known antibody-protein complexes. Consequently, we provide the first comprehensive analysis of all CDR-epitope complexes of known three-dimensional structure. The CDRs we identify only partially overlap with the regions suggested by existing methods. We found that the general physicochemical properties of both CDRs and B cell epitopes are rather peculiar. In particular, only four amino acids account for most of the sequence of CDRs, and several types of amino acids almost never appear in them. The secondary structure content and the conservation of B cell epitopes are found to be different than previously thought. These characteristics of CDRs and epitopes may be instrumental in choosing which residues to mutate in experimental search for epitopes. They may also assist in computational design of antibodies and in predicting B cell epitopes.

  2. The Population Genomics of Sunflowers and Genomic Determinants of Protein Evolution Revealed by RNAseq

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    Loren H. Rieseberg

    2012-10-01

    determinants of rates of protein evolution and the impact of selection on patterns of polymorphism and divergence.

  3. Structure of the Human FANCL RING-Ube2T Complex Reveals Determinants of Cognate E3-E2 Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Charlotte; Purkiss, Andrew; Miles, Jennifer Anne; Walden, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Summary The combination of an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme with an E3 ubiquitin-ligase is essential for ubiquitin modification of a substrate. Moreover, the pairing dictates both the substrate choice and the modification type. The molecular details of generic E3-E2 interactions are well established. Nevertheless, the determinants of selective, specific E3-E2 recognition are not understood. There are ∼40 E2s and ∼600 E3s giving rise to a possible ∼24,000 E3-E2 pairs. Using the Fanconi Anemia pathway exclusive E3-E2 pair, FANCL-Ube2T, we report the atomic structure of the FANCL RING-Ube2T complex, revealing a specific and extensive network of additional electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Furthermore, we show that these specific interactions are required for selection of Ube2T over other E2s by FANCL. PMID:24389026

  4. Modeling reveals bistability and low-pass filtering in the network module determining blood stem cell fate.

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    Jatin Narula

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Combinatorial regulation of gene expression is ubiquitous in eukaryotes with multiple inputs converging on regulatory control elements. The dynamic properties of these elements determine the functionality of genetic networks regulating differentiation and development. Here we propose a method to quantitatively characterize the regulatory output of distant enhancers with a biophysical approach that recursively determines free energies of protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions from experimental analysis of transcriptional reporter libraries. We apply this method to model the Scl-Gata2-Fli1 triad-a network module important for cell fate specification of hematopoietic stem cells. We show that this triad module is inherently bistable with irreversible transitions in response to physiologically relevant signals such as Notch, Bmp4 and Gata1 and we use the model to predict the sensitivity of the network to mutations. We also show that the triad acts as a low-pass filter by switching between steady states only in response to signals that persist for longer than a minimum duration threshold. We have found that the auto-regulation loops connecting the slow-degrading Scl to Gata2 and Fli1 are crucial for this low-pass filtering property. Taken together our analysis not only reveals new insights into hematopoietic stem cell regulatory network functionality but also provides a novel and widely applicable strategy to incorporate experimental measurements into dynamical network models.

  5. The interaction properties of the human Rab GTPase family--comparative analysis reveals determinants of molecular binding selectivity.

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    Matthias Stein

    Full Text Available Rab GTPases constitute the largest subfamily of the Ras protein superfamily. Rab proteins regulate organelle biogenesis and transport, and display distinct binding preferences for effector and activator proteins, many of which have not been elucidated yet. The underlying molecular recognition motifs, binding partner preferences and selectivities are not well understood.Comparative analysis of the amino acid sequences and the three-dimensional electrostatic and hydrophobic molecular interaction fields of 62 human Rab proteins revealed a wide range of binding properties with large differences between some Rab proteins. This analysis assists the functional annotation of Rab proteins 12, 14, 26, 37 and 41 and provided an explanation for the shared function of Rab3 and 27. Rab7a and 7b have very different electrostatic potentials, indicating that they may bind to different effector proteins and thus, exert different functions. The subfamily V Rab GTPases which are associated with endosome differ subtly in the interaction properties of their switch regions, and this may explain exchange factor specificity and exchange kinetics.We have analysed conservation of sequence and of molecular interaction fields to cluster and annotate the human Rab proteins. The analysis of three dimensional molecular interaction fields provides detailed insight that is not available from a sequence-based approach alone. Based on our results, we predict novel functions for some Rab proteins and provide insights into their divergent functions and the determinants of their binding partner selectivity.

  6. Regeneration of roots from callus reveals stability of the developmental program for determinate root growth in Sonoran Desert Cactaceae.

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    Shishkova, Svetlana; García-Mendoza, Edith; Castillo-Díaz, Vicente; Moreno, Norma E; Arellano, Jesús; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2007-05-01

    In some Sonoran Desert Cactaceae the primary root has a determinate root growth: the cells of the root apical meristem undergo only a few cell division cycles and then differentiate. The determinate growth of primary roots in Cactaceae was found in plants cultivated under various growth conditions, and could not be reverted by any treatment tested. The mechanisms involved in root meristem maintenance and determinate root growth in plants remain poorly understood. In this study, we have shown that roots regenerated from the callus of two Cactaceae species, Stenocereus gummosus and Ferocactus peninsulae, have a determinate growth pattern, similar to that of the primary root. To demonstrate this, a protocol for root regeneration from callus was established. The determinate growth pattern of roots regenerated from callus suggests that the program of root development is very stable in these species. These findings will permit future analysis of the role of certain Cactaceae genes in the determinate pattern of root growth via the regeneration of transgenic roots from transformed calli.

  7. Mapping of the Lassa virus LAMP1 binding site reveals unique determinants not shared by other old world arenaviruses.

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    Hadar Israeli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell entry of many enveloped viruses occurs by engagement with cellular receptors, followed by internalization into endocytic compartments and pH-induced membrane fusion. A previously unnoticed step of receptor switching was found to be critical during cell entry of two devastating human pathogens: Ebola and Lassa viruses. Our recent studies revealed the functional role of receptor switching to LAMP1 for triggering membrane fusion by Lassa virus and showed the involvement of conserved histidines in this switching, suggesting that other viruses from this family may also switch to LAMP1. However, when we investigated viruses that are genetically close to Lassa virus, we discovered that they cannot bind LAMP1. A crystal structure of the receptor-binding module from Morogoro virus revealed structural differences that allowed mapping of the LAMP1 binding site to a unique set of Lassa residues not shared by other viruses in its family, illustrating a key difference in the cell-entry mechanism of Lassa virus that may contribute to its pathogenicity.

  8. Genomic Insights and Its Comparative Analysis with Yersinia enterocolitica Reveals the Potential Virulence Determinants and Further Pathogenicity for Foodborne Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanasekaran, Gopalsamy; Na, Eun Jung; Chung, Han Young; Kim, Suyeon; Kim, You-Tae; Kwak, Woori; Kim, Heebal; Ryu, Sangryeol; Choi, Sang Ho; Lee, Ju-Hoon

    2017-02-28

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a well-known foodborne pathogen causing gastrointestinal infections worldwide. The strain Y. enterocolitica FORC_002 was isolated from the gill of flatfish (plaice) and its genome was sequenced. The genomic DNA consists of 4,837,317 bp with a GC content of 47.1%, and is predicted to contain 4,221 open reading frames, 81 tRNA genes, and 26 rRNA genes. Interestingly, genomic analysis revealed pathogenesis and host immune evasion-associated genes encoding guanylate cyclase (Yst), invasin (Ail and Inv), outer membrane protein (Yops), autotransporter adhesin A (YadA), RTX-like toxins, and a type III secretion system. In particular, guanylate cyclase is a heat-stable enterotoxin causing Yersinia -associated diarrhea, and RTX-like toxins are responsible for attachment to integrin on the target cell for cytotoxic action. This genome can be used to identify virulence factors that can be applied for the development of novel biomarkers for the rapid detection of this pathogen in foods.

  9. Signature-tagged mutagenesis screening revealed a novel smooth-to-rough transition determinant of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yang; Guo, Rongxian; Tang, Peipei; Kang, Xilong; Yin, Junlei; Wu, Kaiyue; Geng, Shizhong; Li, Qiuchun; Sun, Jun; Xu, Xiulong; Zhou, Xiaohui; Gan, Junji; Jiao, Xinan; Liu, Xiufan; Pan, Zhiming

    2017-03-03

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) has emerged as one of the most important food-borne pathogens for humans. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as a component of the outer membrane, is responsible for the virulence and smooth-to-rough transition in S. Enteritidis. In this study, we screened S. Enteritidis signature-tagged transposon mutant library using monoclonal antibody against somatic O 9 antigen (O 9 MAb) and O 9 factor rabbit antiserum to identify novel genes that are involved in smooth-to-rough transition. A total of 480 mutants were screened and one mutant with transposon insertion in rfbG gene had smooth-to-rough transition phenotype. In order to verify the role of rfbG gene, an rfbG insertion or deletion mutant was constructed using λ-Red recombination system. Phenotypic and biological analysis revealed that rfbG insertion or deletion mutants were similar to the wild-type strain in growth rate and biochemical properties, but the swimming motility was reduced. SE Slide Agglutination test and ELISA test showed that rfbG mutants do not stimulate animals to produce agglutinating antibody. In addition, the half-lethal dose (LD 50 ) of the rfbG deletion mutant strain was 10 6.6 -fold higher than that of the parent strain in a mouse model when injected intraperitoneally. These data indicate that the rfbG gene is involved in smooth-to-rough transition, swimming motility and virulence of S. Enteritidis. Furthermore, somatic O-antigen antibody-based approach to screen signature-tagged transposon mutants is feasible to clarify LPS biosynthesis and to find suitable markers in DIVA-vaccine research.

  10. Stochastic kinetics reveal imperative role of anisotropic interfacial tension to determine morphology and evolution of nucleated droplets in nematogenic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Amit Kumar

    2017-01-01

    For isotropic fluids, classical nucleation theory predicts the nucleation rate, barrier height and critical droplet size by ac- counting for the competition between bulk energy and interfacial tension. The nucleation process in liquid crystals is less understood. We numerically investigate nucleation in monolayered nematogenic films using a mesoscopic framework, in par- ticular, we study the morphology and kinetic pathway in spontaneous formation and growth of droplets of the stable phase in the metastable background. The parameter κ that quantifies the anisotropic elastic energy plays a central role in determining the geometric structure of the droplets. Noncircular nematic droplets with homogeneous director orientation are nucleated in a background of supercooled isotropic phase for small κ. For large κ, noncircular droplets with integer topological charge, accompanied by a biaxial ring at the outer surface, are nucleated. The isotropic droplet shape in a superheated nematic background is found to depend on κ in a similar way. Identical growth laws are found in the two cases, although an unusual two-stage mechanism is observed in the nucleation of isotropic droplets. Temporal distributions of successive events indi- cate the relevance of long-ranged elasticity-mediated interactions within the isotropic domains. Implications for a theoretical description of nucleation in anisotropic fluids are discussed.

  11. Determination of equilibrium structures of bromothymol blue revealed by using quantum chemistry with an aid of multivariate analysis of electronic absorption spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Toru; Hasegawa, Takeshi

    2017-10-05

    The pH dependent chemical structures of bromothymol blue (BTB), which have long been under controversy, are determined by employing a combined technique of multivariate analysis of electronic absorption spectra and quantum chemistry. Principle component analysis (PCA) of the pH dependent spectra apparently reveals that only two chemical species are adequate to fully account for the color changes, with which the spectral decomposition is readily performed by using augmented alternative least-squares (ALS) regression analysis. The quantity variation by the ALS analysis also reveals the practical acid dissociation constant, pK a '. The determination of pK a ' is performed for various ionic strengths, which reveals the thermodynamic acid constant (pK a =7.5) and the number of charge on each chemical species; the yellow form is negatively charged species of -1 and the blue form that of -2. On this chemical information, the quantum chemical calculation is carried out to find that BTB molecules take the pure quinoid form in an acid solution and the quinoid-phenolate form in an alkaline solution. The time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations for the theoretically determined chemical structures account for the peak shift of the electronic spectra. In this manner, the structures of all the chemical species appeared in equilibrium have finally been confirmed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of equilibrium structures of bromothymol blue revealed by using quantum chemistry with an aid of multivariate analysis of electronic absorption spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Toru; Hasegawa, Takeshi

    2017-10-01

    The pH dependent chemical structures of bromothymol blue (BTB), which have long been under controversy, are determined by employing a combined technique of multivariate analysis of electronic absorption spectra and quantum chemistry. Principle component analysis (PCA) of the pH dependent spectra apparently reveals that only two chemical species are adequate to fully account for the color changes, with which the spectral decomposition is readily performed by using augmented alternative least-squares (ALS) regression analysis. The quantity variation by the ALS analysis also reveals the practical acid dissociation constant, pKa‧. The determination of pKa‧ is performed for various ionic strengths, which reveals the thermodynamic acid constant (pKa = 7.5) and the number of charge on each chemical species; the yellow form is negatively charged species of - 1 and the blue form that of - 2. On this chemical information, the quantum chemical calculation is carried out to find that BTB molecules take the pure quinoid form in an acid solution and the quinoid-phenolate form in an alkaline solution. The time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations for the theoretically determined chemical structures account for the peak shift of the electronic spectra. In this manner, the structures of all the chemical species appeared in equilibrium have finally been confirmed.

  13. Determination of the physiological 2:2 TLR5:flagellin activation stoichiometry revealed by the activity of a fusion receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivičak-Kocjan, Karolina; Panter, Gabriela; Benčina, Mojca; Jerala, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The chimeric protein fusing flagellin to the TLR5 ectodomain is constitutively active. •Mutation P736H within the BB-loop of TLR5 TIR domain renders the receptor inactive. •The R90D mutation in flagellin inactivated autoactivation of the chimeric protein. •The 2:2 stoichiometry of the TLR5:flagellin complex is physiologically relevant. -- Abstract: Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) recognizes flagellin of most flagellated bacteria, enabling activation of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. The recently published crystal structure of a truncated zebrafish TLR5 ectodomain in complex with an inactive flagellin fragment indicated binding of two flagellin molecules to a TLR5 homodimer, however this complex did not dimerize in solution. In the present study, we aimed to determine the physiological stoichiometry of TLR5:flagellin activation by the use of a chimeric protein composed of an active flagellin fragment linked to the N-terminus of human TLR5 (SF-TLR5). This construct was constitutively active. Inactivation by the R90D mutation within flagellin demonstrated that autoactivation of the chimeric protein depended solely on the specific interaction between TLR5 and flagellin. Addition of wild-type hTLR5 substantially lowered autoactivation of SF-TLR5 in a concentration dependent manner, an effect which was reversible by the addition of exogenous Salmonella typhimurium flagellin, indicating the biological activity of a TLR5:flagellin complex with a 2:2 stoichiometry. These results, in addition to the combinations of inactive P736H mutation within the BB-loop of the TIR domain of TLR5 and SF-TLR5, further confirm the mechanism of TLR5 activation

  14. Determination of the physiological 2:2 TLR5:flagellin activation stoichiometry revealed by the activity of a fusion receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivičak-Kocjan, Karolina; Panter, Gabriela; Benčina, Mojca [Laboratory of Biotechnology, National Institute of Chemistry, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); The Centre of Excellence EN-FIST, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jerala, Roman, E-mail: roman.jerala@ki.si [Laboratory of Biotechnology, National Institute of Chemistry, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); The Centre of Excellence EN-FIST, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); The Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-05-24

    Highlights: •The chimeric protein fusing flagellin to the TLR5 ectodomain is constitutively active. •Mutation P736H within the BB-loop of TLR5 TIR domain renders the receptor inactive. •The R90D mutation in flagellin inactivated autoactivation of the chimeric protein. •The 2:2 stoichiometry of the TLR5:flagellin complex is physiologically relevant. -- Abstract: Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) recognizes flagellin of most flagellated bacteria, enabling activation of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. The recently published crystal structure of a truncated zebrafish TLR5 ectodomain in complex with an inactive flagellin fragment indicated binding of two flagellin molecules to a TLR5 homodimer, however this complex did not dimerize in solution. In the present study, we aimed to determine the physiological stoichiometry of TLR5:flagellin activation by the use of a chimeric protein composed of an active flagellin fragment linked to the N-terminus of human TLR5 (SF-TLR5). This construct was constitutively active. Inactivation by the R90D mutation within flagellin demonstrated that autoactivation of the chimeric protein depended solely on the specific interaction between TLR5 and flagellin. Addition of wild-type hTLR5 substantially lowered autoactivation of SF-TLR5 in a concentration dependent manner, an effect which was reversible by the addition of exogenous Salmonella typhimurium flagellin, indicating the biological activity of a TLR5:flagellin complex with a 2:2 stoichiometry. These results, in addition to the combinations of inactive P736H mutation within the BB-loop of the TIR domain of TLR5 and SF-TLR5, further confirm the mechanism of TLR5 activation.

  15. The Wright stuff: reimagining path analysis reveals novel components of the sex determination hierarchy in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fear, Justin M; Arbeitman, Michelle N; Salomon, Matthew P; Dalton, Justin E; Tower, John; Nuzhdin, Sergey V; McIntyre, Lauren M

    2015-09-04

    The Drosophila sex determination hierarchy is a classic example of a transcriptional regulatory hierarchy, with sex-specific isoforms regulating morphology and behavior. We use a structural equation modeling approach, leveraging natural genetic variation from two studies on Drosophila female head tissues--DSPR collection (596 F1-hybrids from crosses between DSPR sub-populations) and CEGS population (75 F1-hybrids from crosses between DGRP/Winters lines to a reference strain w1118)--to expand understanding of the sex hierarchy gene regulatory network (GRN). This approach is completely generalizable to any natural population, including humans. We expanded the sex hierarchy GRN adding novel links among genes, including a link from fruitless (fru) to Sex-lethal (Sxl) identified in both populations. This link is further supported by the presence of fru binding sites in the Sxl locus. 754 candidate genes were added to the pathway, including the splicing factors male-specific lethal 2 and Rm62 as downstream targets of Sxl which are well-supported links in males. Independent studies of doublesex and transformer mutants support many additions, including evidence for a link between the sex hierarchy and metabolism, via Insulin-like receptor. The genes added in the CEGS population were enriched for genes with sex-biased splicing and components of the spliceosome. A common goal of molecular biologists is to expand understanding about regulatory interactions among genes. Using natural alleles we can not only identify novel relationships, but using supervised approaches can order genes into a regulatory hierarchy. Combining these results with independent large effect mutation studies, allows clear candidates for detailed molecular follow-up to emerge.

  16. Revealing the burden of maternal mortality: a probabilistic model for determining pregnancy-related causes of death from verbal autopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desta Teklay

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substantial reductions in maternal mortality are called for in Millennium Development Goal 5 (MDG-5, thus assuming that maternal mortality is measurable. A key difficulty is attributing causes of death for the many women who die unaided in developing countries. Verbal autopsy (VA can elicit circumstances of death, but data need to be interpreted reliably and consistently to serve as global indicators. Recent developments in probabilistic modelling of VA interpretation are adapted and assessed here for the specific circumstances of pregnancy-related death. Methods A preliminary version of the InterVA-M probabilistic VA interpretation model was developed and refined with adult female VA data from several sources, and then assessed against 258 additional VA interviews from Burkina Faso. Likely causes of death produced by the model were compared with causes previously determined by local physicians. Distinction was made between free-text and closed-question data in the VA interviews, to assess the added value of free-text material on the model's output. Results Following rationalisation between the model and physician interpretations, cause-specific mortality fractions were broadly similar. Case-by-case agreement between the model and any of the reviewing physicians reached approximately 60%, rising to approximately 80% when cases with a discrepancy were reviewed by an additional physician. Cardiovascular disease and malaria showed the largest differences between the methods, and the attribution of infections related to pregnancy also varied. The model estimated 30% of deaths to be pregnancy-related, of which half were due to direct causes. Data derived from free-text made no appreciable difference. Conclusion InterVA-M represents a potentially valuable new tool for measuring maternal mortality in an efficient, consistent and standardised way. Further development, refinement and validation are planned. It could become a routine

  17. Loss of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP3K4) Reveals a Requirement for MAPK Signalling in Mouse Sex Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Debora; Siggers, Pam; Brixey, Rachel; Warr, Nick; Beddow, Sarah; Edwards, Jessica; Williams, Debbie; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Koopman, Peter; Flavell, Richard A.; Chi, Hongbo; Ostrer, Harry; Wells, Sara; Cheeseman, Michael; Greenfield, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Sex determination in mammals is controlled by the presence or absence of the Y-linked gene SRY. In the developing male (XY) gonad, sex-determining region of the Y (SRY) protein acts to up-regulate expression of the related gene, SOX9, a transcriptional regulator that in turn initiates a downstream pathway of testis development, whilst also suppressing ovary development. Despite the requirement for a number of transcription factors and secreted signalling molecules in sex determination, intracellular signalling components functioning in this process have not been defined. Here we report a role for the phylogenetically ancient mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway in mouse sex determination. Using a forward genetic screen, we identified the recessive boygirl (byg) mutation. On the C57BL/6J background, embryos homozygous for byg exhibit consistent XY gonadal sex reversal. The byg mutation is an A to T transversion causing a premature stop codon in the gene encoding MAP3K4 (also known as MEKK4), a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase. Analysis of XY byg/byg gonads at 11.5 d post coitum reveals a growth deficit and a failure to support mesonephric cell migration, both early cellular processes normally associated with testis development. Expression analysis of mutant XY gonads at the same stage also reveals a dramatic reduction in Sox9 and, crucially, Sry at the transcript and protein levels. Moreover, we describe experiments showing the presence of activated MKK4, a direct target of MAP3K4, and activated p38 in the coelomic region of the XY gonad at 11.5 d post coitum, establishing a link between MAPK signalling in proliferating gonadal somatic cells and regulation of Sry expression. Finally, we provide evidence that haploinsufficiency for Map3k4 accounts for T-associated sex reversal (Tas). These data demonstrate that MAP3K4-dependent signalling events are required for normal expression of Sry during testis development, and create a novel

  18. Loss of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 4 (MAP3K4 reveals a requirement for MAPK signalling in mouse sex determination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Bogani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sex determination in mammals is controlled by the presence or absence of the Y-linked gene SRY. In the developing male (XY gonad, sex-determining region of the Y (SRY protein acts to up-regulate expression of the related gene, SOX9, a transcriptional regulator that in turn initiates a downstream pathway of testis development, whilst also suppressing ovary development. Despite the requirement for a number of transcription factors and secreted signalling molecules in sex determination, intracellular signalling components functioning in this process have not been defined. Here we report a role for the phylogenetically ancient mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signalling pathway in mouse sex determination. Using a forward genetic screen, we identified the recessive boygirl (byg mutation. On the C57BL/6J background, embryos homozygous for byg exhibit consistent XY gonadal sex reversal. The byg mutation is an A to T transversion causing a premature stop codon in the gene encoding MAP3K4 (also known as MEKK4, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase. Analysis of XY byg/byg gonads at 11.5 d post coitum reveals a growth deficit and a failure to support mesonephric cell migration, both early cellular processes normally associated with testis development. Expression analysis of mutant XY gonads at the same stage also reveals a dramatic reduction in Sox9 and, crucially, Sry at the transcript and protein levels. Moreover, we describe experiments showing the presence of activated MKK4, a direct target of MAP3K4, and activated p38 in the coelomic region of the XY gonad at 11.5 d post coitum, establishing a link between MAPK signalling in proliferating gonadal somatic cells and regulation of Sry expression. Finally, we provide evidence that haploinsufficiency for Map3k4 accounts for T-associated sex reversal (Tas. These data demonstrate that MAP3K4-dependent signalling events are required for normal expression of Sry during testis development, and

  19. Comparative analysis of the predicted secretomes of Rosaceae scab pathogens Venturia inaequalis and V. pirina reveals expanded effector families and putative determinants of host range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Cecilia H; Plummer, Kim M; Jones, Darcy A B; Mesarich, Carl H; Shiller, Jason; Taranto, Adam P; Robinson, Andrew J; Kastner, Patrick; Hall, Nathan E; Templeton, Matthew D; Bowen, Joanna K

    2017-05-02

    Fungal plant pathogens belonging to the genus Venturia cause damaging scab diseases of members of the Rosaceae. In terms of economic impact, the most important of these are V. inaequalis, which infects apple, and V. pirina, which is a pathogen of European pear. Given that Venturia fungi colonise the sub-cuticular space without penetrating plant cells, it is assumed that effectors that contribute to virulence and determination of host range will be secreted into this plant-pathogen interface. Thus the predicted secretomes of a range of isolates of Venturia with distinct host-ranges were interrogated to reveal putative proteins involved in virulence and pathogenicity. Genomes of Venturia pirina (one European pear scab isolate) and Venturia inaequalis (three apple scab, and one loquat scab, isolates) were sequenced and the predicted secretomes of each isolate identified. RNA-Seq was conducted on the apple-specific V. inaequalis isolate Vi1 (in vitro and infected apple leaves) to highlight virulence and pathogenicity components of the secretome. Genes encoding over 600 small secreted proteins (candidate effectors) were identified, most of which are novel to Venturia, with expansion of putative effector families a feature of the genus. Numerous genes with similarity to Leptosphaeria maculans AvrLm6 and the Verticillium spp. Ave1 were identified. Candidates for avirulence effectors with cognate resistance genes involved in race-cultivar specificity were identified, as were putative proteins involved in host-species determination. Candidate effectors were found, on average, to be in regions of relatively low gene-density and in closer proximity to repeats (e.g. transposable elements), compared with core eukaryotic genes. Comparative secretomics has revealed candidate effectors from Venturia fungal plant pathogens that attack pome fruit. Effectors that are putative determinants of host range were identified; both those that may be involved in race-cultivar and host

  20. Determining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Andarzian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat production in the south of Khuzestan, Iran is constrained by heat stress for late sowing dates. For optimization of yield, sowing at the appropriate time to fit the cultivar maturity length and growing season is critical. Crop models could be used to determine optimum sowing window for a locality. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the Cropping System Model (CSM-CERES-Wheat for its ability to simulate growth, development, grain yield of wheat in the tropical regions of Iran, and to study the impact of different sowing dates on wheat performance. The genetic coefficients of cultivar Chamran were calibrated for the CSM-CERES-Wheat model and crop model performance was evaluated with experimental data. Wheat cultivar Chamran was sown on different dates, ranging from 5 November to 9 January during 5 years of field experiments that were conducted in the Khuzestan province, Iran, under full and deficit irrigation conditions. The model was run for 8 sowing dates starting on 25 October and repeated every 10 days until 5 January using long-term historical weather data from the Ahvaz, Behbehan, Dezful and Izeh locations. The seasonal analysis program of DSSAT was used to determine the optimum sowing window for different locations as well. Evaluation with the experimental data showed that performance of the model was reasonable as indicated by fairly accurate simulation of crop phenology, biomass accumulation and grain yield against measured data. The normalized RMSE were 3%, 2%, 11.8%, and 3.4% for anthesis date, maturity date, grain yield and biomass, respectively. Optimum sowing window was different among locations. It was opened and closed on 5 November and 5 December for Ahvaz; 5 November and 15 December for Behbehan and Dezful;and 1 November and 15 December for Izeh, respectively. CERES-Wheat model could be used as a tool to evaluate the effect of sowing date on wheat performance in Khuzestan conditions. Further model evaluations

  1. Local effect of enhancer of zeste-like reveals cooperation of epigenetic and cis-acting determinants for zygotic genome rearrangements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoussi Lhuillier-Akakpo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia, differentiation of the somatic nucleus from the zygotic nucleus is characterized by massive and reproducible deletion of transposable elements and of 45,000 short, dispersed, single-copy sequences. A specific class of small RNAs produced by the germline during meiosis, the scnRNAs, are involved in the epigenetic regulation of DNA deletion but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that trimethylation of histone H3 (H3K27me3 and H3K9me3 displays a dynamic nuclear localization that is altered when the endonuclease required for DNA elimination is depleted. We identified the putative histone methyltransferase Ezl1 necessary for H3K27me3 and H3K9me3 establishment and show that it is required for correct genome rearrangements. Genome-wide analyses show that scnRNA-mediated H3 trimethylation is necessary for the elimination of long, repeated germline DNA, while single copy sequences display differential sensitivity to depletion of proteins involved in the scnRNA pathway, Ezl1- a putative histone methyltransferase and Dcl5- a protein required for iesRNA biogenesis. Our study reveals cis-acting determinants, such as DNA length, also contribute to the definition of germline sequences to delete. We further show that precise excision of single copy DNA elements, as short as 26 bp, requires Ezl1, suggesting that development specific H3K27me3 and H3K9me3 ensure specific demarcation of very short germline sequences from the adjacent somatic sequences.

  2. Specificity determinants for lysine incorporation in Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan as revealed by the structure of a MurE enzyme ternary complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Karen M; Lloyd, Adrian J; Fülöp, Vilmos; Dowson, Christopher G; Barreteau, Hélène; Boniface, Audrey; Dementin, Sébastien; Blanot, Didier; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Gobec, Stanislav; Dessen, Andréa; Roper, David I

    2013-11-15

    Formation of the peptidoglycan stem pentapeptide requires the insertion of both L and D amino acids by the ATP-dependent ligase enzymes MurC, -D, -E, and -F. The stereochemical control of the third position amino acid in the pentapeptide is crucial to maintain the fidelity of later biosynthetic steps contributing to cell morphology, antibiotic resistance, and pathogenesis. Here we determined the x-ray crystal structure of Staphylococcus aureus MurE UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamate:meso-2,6-diaminopimelate ligase (MurE) (E.C. 6.3.2.7) at 1.8 Å resolution in the presence of ADP and the reaction product, UDP-MurNAc-L-Ala-γ-D-Glu-L-Lys. This structure provides for the first time a molecular understanding of how this Gram-positive enzyme discriminates between L-lysine and D,L-diaminopimelic acid, the predominant amino acid that replaces L-lysine in Gram-negative peptidoglycan. Despite the presence of a consensus sequence previously implicated in the selection of the third position residue in the stem pentapeptide in S. aureus MurE, the structure shows that only part of this sequence is involved in the selection of L-lysine. Instead, other parts of the protein contribute substrate-selecting residues, resulting in a lysine-binding pocket based on charge characteristics. Despite the absolute specificity for L-lysine, S. aureus MurE binds this substrate relatively poorly. In vivo analysis and metabolomic data reveal that this is compensated for by high cytoplasmic L-lysine concentrations. Therefore, both metabolic and structural constraints maintain the structural integrity of the staphylococcal peptidoglycan. This study provides a novel focus for S. aureus-directed antimicrobials based on dual targeting of essential amino acid biogenesis and its linkage to cell wall assembly.

  3. Comprehensive Identification of Long Non-coding RNAs in Purified Cell Types from the Brain Reveals Functional LncRNA in OPC Fate Determination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Dong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs (> 200 bp play crucial roles in transcriptional regulation during numerous biological processes. However, it is challenging to comprehensively identify lncRNAs, because they are often expressed at low levels and with more cell-type specificity than are protein-coding genes. In the present study, we performed ab initio transcriptome reconstruction using eight purified cell populations from mouse cortex and detected more than 5000 lncRNAs. Predicting the functions of lncRNAs using cell-type specific data revealed their potential functional roles in Central Nervous System (CNS development. We performed motif searches in ENCODE DNase I digital footprint data and Mouse ENCODE promoters to infer transcription factor (TF occupancy. By integrating TF binding and cell-type specific transcriptomic data, we constructed a novel framework that is useful for systematically identifying lncRNAs that are potentially essential for brain cell fate determination. Based on this integrative analysis, we identified lncRNAs that are regulated during Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cell (OPC differentiation from Neural Stem Cells (NSCs and that are likely to be involved in oligodendrogenesis. The top candidate, lnc-OPC, shows highly specific expression in OPCs and remarkable sequence conservation among placental mammals. Interestingly, lnc-OPC is significantly up-regulated in glial progenitors from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE mouse models compared to wild-type mice. OLIG2-binding sites in the upstream regulatory region of lnc-OPC were identified by ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation-Sequencing and validated by luciferase assays. Loss-of-function experiments confirmed that lnc-OPC plays a functional role in OPC genesis. Overall, our results substantiated the role of lncRNA in OPC fate determination and provided an unprecedented data source for future functional investigations in CNS cell types. We present our datasets and

  4. Multi-variant pathway association analysis reveals the importance of genetic determinants of estrogen metabolism in breast and endometrial cancer susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Ling Low

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the central role of estrogen exposure in breast and endometrial cancer development and numerous studies of genes in the estrogen metabolic pathway, polymorphisms within the pathway have not been consistently associated with these cancers. We posit that this is due to the complexity of multiple weak genetic effects within the metabolic pathway that can only be effectively detected through multi-variant analysis. We conducted a comprehensive association analysis of the estrogen metabolic pathway by interrogating 239 tagSNPs within 35 genes of the pathway in three tumor samples. The discovery sample consisted of 1,596 breast cancer cases, 719 endometrial cancer cases, and 1,730 controls from Sweden; and the validation sample included 2,245 breast cancer cases and 1,287 controls from Finland. We performed admixture maximum likelihood (AML-based global tests to evaluate the cumulative effect from multiple SNPs within the whole metabolic pathway and three sub-pathways for androgen synthesis, androgen-to-estrogen conversion, and estrogen removal. In the discovery sample, although no single polymorphism was significant after correction for multiple testing, the pathway-based AML global test suggested association with both breast (p(global = 0.034 and endometrial (p(global = 0.052 cancers. Further testing revealed the association to be focused on polymorphisms within the androgen-to-estrogen conversion sub-pathway, for both breast (p(global = 0.008 and endometrial cancer (p(global = 0.014. The sub-pathway association was validated in the Finnish sample of breast cancer (p(global = 0.015. Further tumor subtype analysis demonstrated that the association of the androgen-to-estrogen conversion sub-pathway was confined to postmenopausal women with sporadic estrogen receptor positive tumors (p(global = 0.0003. Gene-based AML analysis suggested CYP19A1 and UGT2B4 to be the major players within the sub-pathway. Our study indicates that the composite

  5. Mouse lysozyme-M knockout mice reveal how the self-determinant hierarchy shapes the T cell repertoire against this circulating self antigen in wild-type mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, Pratima; Chi, Howard H.; Kim, Hong R.; Clausen, Björn E.; Pederson, Brian; Sercarz, Eli E.; Forster, Irmgard; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied T cell tolerance to defined determinants within ML-M using wild-type (WT; ML-M+/+) and LysMcre (ML-M-/-) C3H (H-2(k)) mice to determine the relative contribution of ML-M-derived epitopes vs those from other self Ags in selection of the ML-M-specific T cell repertoire. ML-M was

  6. Delimitation of the embryonic thermosensitive period for sex determination using an embryo growth model reveals a potential bias for sex ratio prediction in turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girondot, Marc; Monsinjon, Jonathan; Guillon, Jean-Michel

    2018-04-01

    The sexual phenotype of the gonad is dependent on incubation temperature in many turtles, all crocodilians, and some lepidosaurians. At hatching, identification of sexual phenotype is impossible without sacrificing the neonates. For this reason, a general method to infer sexual phenotype from incubation temperatures is needed. Temperature influences sex determination during a specific period of the embryonic development, starting when the gonad begins to form. At constant incubation temperatures, this thermosensitive period for sex determination (TSP) is located at the middle third of incubation duration (MTID). When temperature fluctuates, the position of the thermosensitive period for sex determination can be shifted from the MTID because embryo growth is affected by temperature. A method is proposed to locate the thermosensitive period for sex determination based on modelling the embryo growth, allowing its precise identification from a natural regime of temperatures. Results from natural nests and simulations show that the approximation of the thermosensitive period for sex determination to the middle third of incubation duration may create a quasi-systematic bias to lower temperatures when computing the average incubation temperature during this period and thus a male-bias for sex ratio estimate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. MicroRNA transfection and AGO-bound CLIP-seq data sets reveal distinct determinants of miRNA action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Jiayu; Parker, Brian J; Jacobsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    the predictive effect of target flanking features. We observe distinct target determinants between expression-based and CLIP-based data. Target flanking features such as flanking region conservation are an important AGO-binding determinant-we hypothesize that CLIP experiments have a preference for strongly bound......Microarray expression analyses following miRNA transfection/inhibition and, more recently, Argonaute cross-linked immunoprecipitation (CLIP)-seq assays have been used to detect miRNA target sites. CLIP and expression approaches measure differing stages of miRNA functioning-initial binding of the mi...... miRNP-target interactions involving adjacent RNA-binding proteins that increase the strength of cross-linking. In contrast, seed-related features are major determinants in expression-based studies, but less so for CLIP-seq studies, and increased miRNA concentrations typical of transfection studies...

  8. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  9. Analysis of Large Seeds from Three Different Medicago truncatula Ecotypes Reveals a Potential Role of Hormonal Balance in Final Size Determination of Legume Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustav Bandyopadhyay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Legume seeds are important as protein and oil source for human diet. Understanding how their final seed size is determined is crucial to improve crop yield. In this study, we analyzed seed development of three accessions of the model legume, Medicago truncatula, displaying contrasted seed size. By comparing two large seed accessions to the reference accession A17, we described mechanisms associated with large seed size determination and potential factors modulating the final seed size. We observed that early events during embryogenesis had a major impact on final seed size and a delayed heart stage embryo development resulted to large seeds. We also observed that the difference in seed growth rate was mainly due to a difference in embryo cell number, implicating a role of cell division rate. Large seed accessions could be explained by an extended period of cell division due to a longer embryogenesis phase. According to our observations and recent reports, we observed that auxin (IAA and abscisic acid (ABA ratio could be a key determinant of cell division regulation at the end of embryogenesis. Overall, our study highlights that timing of events occurring during early seed development play decisive role for final seed size determination.

  10. Structure–function analysis of mouse Sry reveals dual essential roles of the C-terminal polyglutamine tract in sex determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Ng, Ee Ting; Davidson, Tara-Lynne; Longmuss, Enya; Urschitz, Johann; Elston, Marlee; Moisyadi, Stefan; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian sex-determining factor SRY comprises a conserved high-mobility group (HMG) box DNA-binding domain and poorly conserved regions outside the HMG box. Mouse Sry is unusual in that it includes a C-terminal polyglutamine (polyQ) tract that is absent in nonrodent SRY proteins, and yet, paradoxically, is essential for male sex determination. To dissect the molecular functions of this domain, we generated a series of Sry mutants, and studied their biochemical properties in cell lines and transgenic mouse embryos. Sry protein lacking the polyQ domain was unstable, due to proteasomal degradation. Replacing this domain with irrelevant sequences stabilized the protein but failed to restore Sry’s ability to up-regulate its key target gene SRY-box 9 (Sox9) and its sex-determining function in vivo. These functions were restored only when a VP16 transactivation domain was substituted. We conclude that the polyQ domain has important roles in protein stabilization and transcriptional activation, both of which are essential for male sex determination in mice. Our data disprove the hypothesis that the conserved HMG box domain is the only functional domain of Sry, and highlight an evolutionary paradox whereby mouse Sry has evolved a novel bifunctional module to activate Sox9 directly, whereas SRY proteins in other taxa, including humans, seem to lack this ability, presumably making them dependent on partner proteins(s) to provide this function. PMID:25074915

  11. Structure-function analysis of mouse Sry reveals dual essential roles of the C-terminal polyglutamine tract in sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Ng, Ee Ting; Davidson, Tara-Lynne; Longmuss, Enya; Urschitz, Johann; Elston, Marlee; Moisyadi, Stefan; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter

    2014-08-12

    The mammalian sex-determining factor SRY comprises a conserved high-mobility group (HMG) box DNA-binding domain and poorly conserved regions outside the HMG box. Mouse Sry is unusual in that it includes a C-terminal polyglutamine (polyQ) tract that is absent in nonrodent SRY proteins, and yet, paradoxically, is essential for male sex determination. To dissect the molecular functions of this domain, we generated a series of Sry mutants, and studied their biochemical properties in cell lines and transgenic mouse embryos. Sry protein lacking the polyQ domain was unstable, due to proteasomal degradation. Replacing this domain with irrelevant sequences stabilized the protein but failed to restore Sry's ability to up-regulate its key target gene SRY-box 9 (Sox9) and its sex-determining function in vivo. These functions were restored only when a VP16 transactivation domain was substituted. We conclude that the polyQ domain has important roles in protein stabilization and transcriptional activation, both of which are essential for male sex determination in mice. Our data disprove the hypothesis that the conserved HMG box domain is the only functional domain of Sry, and highlight an evolutionary paradox whereby mouse Sry has evolved a novel bifunctional module to activate Sox9 directly, whereas SRY proteins in other taxa, including humans, seem to lack this ability, presumably making them dependent on partner proteins(s) to provide this function.

  12. Genome-wide RNAi screen reveals the E3 SUMO-protein ligase gene SIZ1 as a novel determinant of furfural tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Han; Zhao, Huimin

    2014-01-01

    Background Furfural is a major growth inhibitor in lignocellulosic hydrolysates and improving furfural tolerance of microorganisms is critical for rapid and efficient fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, we used the RNAi-Assisted Genome Evolution (RAGE) method to select for furfural resistant mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and identified a new determinant of furfural tolerance. Results By using a genome-wide RNAi (RNA-interference) screen in S. cerevisiae for genes in...

  13. Transcriptome Response to Heavy Metals in Sinorhizobium meliloti CCNWSX0020 Reveals New Metal Resistance Determinants That Also Promote Bioremediation by Medicago lupulina in Metal-Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mingmei; Jiao, Shuo; Gao, Enting; Song, Xiuyong; Li, Zhefei; Hao, Xiuli; Rensing, Christopher; Wei, Gehong

    2017-10-15

    The symbiosis of the highly metal-resistant Sinorhizobium meliloti CCNWSX0020 and Medicago lupulina has been considered an efficient tool for bioremediation of heavy metal-polluted soils. However, the metal resistance mechanisms of S. meliloti CCNWSX00200 have not been elucidated in detail. Here we employed a comparative transcriptome approach to analyze the defense mechanisms of S. meliloti CCNWSX00200 against Cu or Zn exposure. Six highly upregulated transcripts involved in Cu and Zn resistance were identified through deletion mutagenesis, including genes encoding a multicopper oxidase (CueO), an outer membrane protein (Omp), sulfite oxidoreductases (YedYZ), and three hypothetical proteins (a CusA-like protein, a FixH-like protein, and an unknown protein), and the corresponding mutant strains showed various degrees of sensitivity to multiple metals. The Cu-sensitive mutant (Δ cueO ) and three mutants that were both Cu and Zn sensitive (Δ yedYZ , Δ cusA -like, and Δ fixH -like) were selected for further study of the effects of these metal resistance determinants on bioremediation. The results showed that inoculation with the Δ cueO mutant severely inhibited infection establishment and nodulation of M. lupulina under Cu stress, while inoculation with the Δ yedYZ and Δ fixH -like mutants decreased just the early infection frequency and nodulation under Cu and Zn stresses. In contrast, inoculation with the Δ cusA -like mutant almost led to loss of the symbiotic capacity of M. lupulina to even grow in uncontaminated soil. Moreover, the antioxidant enzyme activity and metal accumulation in roots of M. lupulina inoculated with all mutants were lower than those with the wild-type strain. These results suggest that heavy metal resistance determinants may promote bioremediation by directly or indirectly influencing formation of the rhizobium-legume symbiosis. IMPORTANCE Rhizobium-legume symbiosis has been promoted as an appropriate tool for bioremediation of heavy

  14. Immunohistochemical determination of HER-2/neu overexpression in malignant melanoma reveals no prognostic value, while c-Kit (CD117 overexpression exhibits potential therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potti Anil

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HER-2/neu and c-kit (CD117 onco-protein are increasingly being recognized as targets for therapy in solid tumors, but data on their role in malignant melanoma is currently limited. We studied the prevalence of overexpression of HER-2/neu and c-Kit in 202 patients with malignant melanoma to evaluate a possible prognostic value of these molecular targets in malignant melanoma. Methods Overexpression of HER-2/neu and c-Kit was evaluated using immunohistochemical assays in 202 archival tissue specimens. Results Between 1991 and 2001, 202 subjects (109 males; 54% and 93 females; 46% with malignant melanoma were studied with a mean age of 57 years (age range: 15–101 years. The most common histologic type was amelanotic melanoma (n = 62; 30.7% followed by superficial spreading melanoma (n = 54; 26.7%. The depth of penetration of melanoma (Breslow thickness, pT Stage ranged from 0.4 mm (stage pT1 to 8.0 mm (stage pT4A. Mean thickness was 2.6 mm (stage pT3A. The ECOG performance scores ranged from 0 to 3. Only 2 patients (0.9% revealed HER-2/neu overexpression, whereas 46 (22.8% revealed c-Kit overexpression. Multivariate analysis performed did not show a significant difference in survival between c-Kit positive and negative groups (p = 0.36. Interestingly, not only was c-Kit more likely to be overexpressed in the superficial spreading type, a preliminary association between the presence or absence of c-Kit overexpression and the existence of another second primary tumor was also observed. Conclusions The results of our large study indicate that the HER-2/neu onco-protein neither has a role in melanogenesis nor is a potential target for clinical trials with monoclonal antibody therapy. This indicates there is no role for its testing in patients with malignant melanoma. Although c-Kit, expressed preferentially in the superficial spreading type, may not have prognostic value, it does have significant therapeutic implications as a

  15. Determination of 5 '-leader sequences from radically disparate strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus reveals the presence of highly conserved sequence motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Bøtner, Anette; Nielsen, Jens

    1999-01-01

    We determined the untranslated 5'-leader sequence for three different isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): pathogenic European- and American-types, as well as an American-type vaccine strain. 5'-leader from European- and American-type PRRSV differed in length...... (220 and 190 nt, respectively), and exhibited only approximately 50% nucleotide homology. Nevertheless, highly conserved areas were identified in the leader of all 3 PRRSV isolates, which constitute candidate motifs for binding of protein(s) involved in viral replication. These comparative data provide...

  16. Proteomics of red and white corolla limbs in petunia reveals a novel function of the anthocyanin regulator ANTHOCYANIN1 in determining flower longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsi, Bhakti; Negri, Alfredo S; Quattrocchio, Francesca M; Koes, Ronald E; Espen, Luca

    2016-01-10

    The Petunia hybrida ANTHOCYANIN1 (AN1) gene encodes a transcription factor that regulates both the expression of genes involved in anthocyanin synthesis and the acidification of the vacuolar lumen in corolla epidermal cells. In this work, the comparison between the red flowers of the R27 line with the white flowers of the isogenic an1 mutant line W225 showed that the AN1 gene has further pleiotropic effects on flavonoid biosynthesis as well as on distant physiological traits. The proteomic profiling showed that the an1 mutation was associated to changes in accumulation of several proteins, affecting both anthocyanin synthesis and primary metabolism. The flavonoid composition study confirmed that the an1 mutation provoked a broad attenuation of the entire flavonoid pathway, probably by indirect biochemical events. Moreover, proteomic changes and variation of biochemical parameters revealed that the an1 mutation induced a delay in the onset of flower senescence in W225, as supported by the enhanced longevity of the W225 flowers in planta and the loss of sensitivity of cut flowers to sugar. This study suggests that AN1 is possibly involved in the perception and/or transduction of ethylene signal during flower senescence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Intrinsic determinants of Aβ(12-24 pH-dependent self-assembly revealed by combined computational and experimental studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixin Xu

    Full Text Available The propensity of amyloid-β (Aβ peptide to self-assemble into highly ordered amyloid structures lies at the core of their accumulation in the brain during Alzheimer's disease. By using all-atom explicit solvent replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations, we elucidated at the atomic level the intrinsic determinants of the pH-dependent dimerization of the central hydrophobic segment Aβ(12-24 and related these with the propensity to form amyloid fibrils measured by experimental tools such as atomic force microscopy and fluorescence. The process of Aβ(12-24 dimerization was evaluated in terms of free energy landscape, side-chain two-dimensional contact probability maps, β-sheet registries, potential mean force as a function of inter-chain distances, secondary structure development and radial solvation distributions. We showed that dimerization is a key event in Aβ(12-24 amyloid formation; it is highly prompted in the order of pH 5.0>2.9>>8.4 and determines further amyloid growth. The dimerization is governed by a dynamic interplay of hydrophobic, electrostatic and solvation interactions permitting some variability of β-sheets at each pH. These results provide atomistic insight into the complex process of molecular recognition detrimental for amyloid growth and pave the way for better understanding of the molecular basis of amyloid diseases.

  18. Pharmacogenetics of OATP Transporters Reveals That SLCO1B1 c.388A>G Variant Is Determinant of Increased Atorvastatin Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario D. C. Hirata

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The relationship between variants in SLCO1B1 and SLCO2B1 genes and lipid-lowering response to atorvastatin was investigated. Material and Methods: One-hundred-thirty-six unrelated individuals with hypercholesterolemia were selected and treated with atorvastatin (10 mg/day/4 weeks. They were genotyped with a panel of ancestry informative markers for individual African component of ancestry (ACA estimation by SNaPshot® and SLCO1B1 (c.388A>G, c.463C>A and c.521T>C and SLCO2B1 (−71T>C gene polymorphisms were identified by TaqMan® Real-time PCR. Results: Subjects carrying SLCO1B1 c.388GG genotype exhibited significantly high low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol reduction relative to c.388AA+c.388AG carriers (41 vs. 37%, p = 0.034. Haplotype analysis revealed that homozygous of SLCO1B1*15 (c.521C and c.388G variant had similar response to statin relative to heterozygous and non-carriers. A multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that c.388GG genotype was associated with higher LDL cholesterol reduction in the study population (OR: 3.2, CI95%:1.3–8.0, p < 0.05. Conclusion: SLCO1B1 c.388A>G polymorphism causes significant increase in atorvastatin response and may be an important marker for predicting efficacy of lipid-lowering therapy.

  19. A crucial role of paralogous β-defensin genes in the Chinese alligator innate immune system revealed by the first determination of a Crocodilia defensin cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ke-Yi; Wang, Xin; Wan, Qiu-Hong; Fang, Sheng-Guo

    2018-04-01

    The β-defensin, one of the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), is a significant component of the innate immune with a broad range of antimicrobial activities. Differing from the widely-studied mammals and birds, limited information about β-defensins has been reported in reptiles, especially in crocodilians. As a same ancient species as dinosaurs and the most endangered species of 23 crocodilians, the survival of Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) means a powerful immune system and possible involvement of AMPs in its immune resistance. In this study, we identified 20 novel Alligator sinensisβ-defensin genes (AsBDs) from a 390 kb region using bioinformatic and experimental approaches, and successfully distinguished six orthologous AsBDs to birds and nine paralogous AsBDs undergoing gene duplication events. The amino acid alignment shows that the AsBD paralogs, like α-defensins, encode a significantly longer pro-piece comparing with the orthologs. The calculation of non-synonymous (d N ) and synonymous (d S ) substitutions in the mature peptide reveals that the AsBD paralogs experience a significantly higher selective pressure (d N /d S ) than the orthologs, but a similar evolutionary force to α-defensins. The gene expression result indicates that the AsBD paralogs have a significantly higher expression level than the orthologos in gastrointestinal tract where the host is vulnerable to enteric pathogenic bacteria, as observed in α-defensins. These three pieces of evidence demonstrate that the AsBD paralogs do play an important role in maintaining long-term survival of this endangered reptile. Thus, this survey of AsBDs on the genomic structure, evolutionary characteristics, and expression pattern provides a genetic and immunological foundation for further investigating their antimicrobial function and alternative antibiotics potentiality. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of integrated multiple 'omics' datasets reveals the mechanisms of initiation and determination in the formation of tuberous roots in Rehmannia glutinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingjie; Yang, Yanhui; Li, Xinyu; Gu, Li; Wang, Fengji; Feng, Fajie; Tian, Yunhe; Wang, Fengqing; Wang, Xiaoran; Lin, Wenxiong; Chen, Xinjian; Zhang, Zhongyi

    2015-09-01

    All tuberous roots in Rehmannia glutinosa originate from the expansion of fibrous roots (FRs), but not all FRs can successfully transform into tuberous roots. This study identified differentially expressed genes and proteins associated with the expansion of FRs, by comparing the tuberous root at expansion stages (initiated tuberous root, ITRs) and FRs at the seedling stage (initiated FRs, IFRs). The role of miRNAs in the expansion of FRs was also explored using the sRNA transcriptome and degradome to identify miRNAs and their target genes that were differentially expressed between ITRs and FRs at the mature stage (unexpanded FRs, UFRs, which are unable to expand into ITRs). A total of 6032 genes and 450 proteins were differentially expressed between ITRs and IFRs. Integrated analyses of these data revealed several genes and proteins involved in light signalling, hormone response, and signal transduction that might participate in the induction of tuberous root formation. Several genes related to cell division and cell wall metabolism were involved in initiating the expansion of IFRs. Of 135 miRNAs differentially expressed between ITRs and UFRs, there were 27 miRNAs whose targets were specifically identified in the degradome. Analysis of target genes showed that several miRNAs specifically expressed in UFRs were involved in the degradation of key genes required for the formation of tuberous roots. As far as could be ascertained, this is the first time that the miRNAs that control the transition of FRs to tuberous roots in R. glutinosa have been identified. This comprehensive analysis of 'omics' data sheds new light on the mechanisms involved in the regulation of tuberous roots formation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  2. NMR structure determination of a synthetic analogue of bacillomycin Lc reveals the strategic role of L-Asn1 in the natural iturinic antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpon, Laurent; Tsan, Pascale; Majer, Zsuzsa; Vass, Elemer; Hollósi, Miklós; Noguéra, Valérie; Lancelin, Jean-Marc; Besson, Françoise

    2007-08-01

    Iturins are a group of antifungal produced by Bacillus subtilis. All are cyclic lipopeptides with seven α-amino acids of configuration LDDLLDL and one β-amino fatty acid. The bacillomycin L is a member of this family and its NMR structure was previously resolved using the sequence Asp-Tyr-Asn-Ser-Gln-Ser-Thr. In this work, we carefully examined the NMR spectra of this compound and detected an error in the sequence. In fact, Asp1 and Gln5 need to be changed into Asn1 and Glu5, which therefore makes it identical to bacillomycin Lc. As a consequence, it now appears that all iturinic peptides with antibiotic activity share the common β-amino fatty acid 8- L-Asn1- D-Tyr2- D-Asn3 sequence. To better understand the conformational influence of the acidic residue L-Asp1, present, for example in the inactive iturin C, the NMR structure of the synthetic analogue SCP [cyclo ( L-Asp1- D-Tyr2- D-Asn3- L-Ser4- L-Gln5- D-Ser6- L-Thr7-β-Ala8)] was determined and compared with bacillomycin Lc recalculated with the corrected sequence. In both cases, the conformers obtained were separated into two families of similar energy which essentially differ in the number and type of turns. A detailed analysis of both cyclopeptide structures is presented here. In addition, CD and FTIR spectra were performed and confirmed the conformational differences observed by NMR between both cyclopeptides.

  3. Investigation of specificity determinants in bacterial tRNA-guanine transglycosylase reveals queuine, the substrate of its eucaryotic counterpart, as inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Biela

    Full Text Available Bacterial tRNA-guanine transglycosylase (Tgt catalyses the exchange of the genetically encoded guanine at the wobble position of tRNAs(His,Tyr,Asp,Asn by the premodified base preQ1, which is further converted to queuine at the tRNA level. As eucaryotes are not able to synthesise queuine de novo but acquire it through their diet, eucaryotic Tgt directly inserts the hypermodified base into the wobble position of the tRNAs mentioned above. Bacterial Tgt is required for the efficient pathogenicity of Shigella sp, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery and, hence, it constitutes a putative target for the rational design of anti-Shigellosis compounds. Since mammalian Tgt is known to be indirectly essential to the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine, it is necessary to create substances which only inhibit bacterial but not eucaryotic Tgt. Therefore, it seems of utmost importance to study selectivity-determining features within both types of proteins. Homology models of Caenorhabditis elegans Tgt and human Tgt suggest that the replacement of Cys158 and Val233 in bacterial Tgt (Zymomonas mobilis Tgt numbering by valine and accordingly glycine in eucaryotic Tgt largely accounts for the different substrate specificities. In the present study we have created mutated variants of Z. mobilis Tgt in order to investigate the impact of a Cys158Val and a Val233Gly exchange on catalytic activity and substrate specificity. Using enzyme kinetics and X-ray crystallography, we gained evidence that the Cys158Val mutation reduces the affinity to preQ1 while leaving the affinity to guanine unaffected. The Val233Gly exchange leads to an enlarged substrate binding pocket, that is necessary to accommodate queuine in a conformation compatible with the intermediately covalently bound tRNA molecule. Contrary to our expectations, we found that a priori queuine is recognised by the binding pocket of bacterial Tgt without, however, being used as a substrate.

  4. The 'revealed preferences' theory: Assumptions and conjectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, C.H.

    1983-01-01

    Being kind of intuitive psychology the 'Revealed-Preferences'- theory based approaches towards determining the acceptable risks are a useful method for the generation of hypotheses. In view of the fact that reliability engineering develops faster than methods for the determination of reliability aims the Revealed-Preferences approach is a necessary preliminary help. Some of the assumptions on which the 'Revealed-Preferences' theory is based will be identified and analysed and afterwards compared with experimentally obtained results. (orig./DG) [de

  5. A quadruple mutant of Arabidopsis reveals a β-carotene hydroxylation activity for LUT1/CYP97C1 and a regulatory role of xanthophylls on determination of the PSI/PSII ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Alessia; Dall'Osto, Luca; Cazzaniga, Stefano; Diretto, Gianfranco; Giuliano, Giovanni; Bassi, Roberto

    2012-04-18

    Xanthophylls are oxygenated carotenoids playing an essential role as structural components of the photosynthetic apparatus. Xanthophylls contribute to the assembly and stability of light-harvesting complex, to light absorbance and to photoprotection. The first step in xanthophyll biosynthesis from α- and β-carotene is the hydroxylation of ε- and β-rings, performed by both non-heme iron oxygenases (CHY1, CHY2) and P450 cytochromes (LUT1/CYP97C1, LUT5/CYP97A3). The Arabidopsis triple chy1chy2lut5 mutant is almost completely depleted in β-xanthophylls. Here we report on the quadruple chy1chy2lut2lut5 mutant, additionally carrying the lut2 mutation (affecting lycopene ε-cyclase). This genotype lacks lutein and yet it shows a compensatory increase in β-xanthophylls with respect to chy1chy2lut5 mutant. Mutant plants show an even stronger photosensitivity than chy1chy2lut5, a complete lack of qE, the rapidly reversible component of non-photochemical quenching, and a peculiar organization of the pigment binding complexes into thylakoids. Biochemical analysis reveals that the chy1chy2lut2lut5 mutant is depleted in Lhcb subunits and is specifically affected in Photosystem I function, showing a deficiency in PSI-LHCI supercomplexes. Moreover, by analyzing a series of single, double, triple and quadruple Arabidopsis mutants in xanthophyll biosynthesis, we show a hitherto undescribed correlation between xanthophyll levels and the PSI-PSII ratio. The decrease in the xanthophyll/carotenoid ratio causes a proportional decrease in the LHCII and PSI core levels with respect to PSII. The physiological and biochemical phenotype of the chy1chy2lut2lut5 mutant shows that (i) LUT1/CYP97C1 protein reveals a major β-carotene hydroxylase activity in vivo when depleted in its preferred substrate α-carotene; (ii) xanthophylls are needed for normal level of Photosystem I and LHCII accumulation.

  6. A quadruple mutant of Arabidopsis reveals a β-carotene hydroxylation activity for LUT1/CYP97C1 and a regulatory role of xanthophylls on determination of the PSI/PSII ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiore Alessia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xanthophylls are oxygenated carotenoids playing an essential role as structural components of the photosynthetic apparatus. Xanthophylls contribute to the assembly and stability of light-harvesting complex, to light absorbance and to photoprotection. The first step in xanthophyll biosynthesis from α- and β-carotene is the hydroxylation of ε- and β-rings, performed by both non-heme iron oxygenases (CHY1, CHY2 and P450 cytochromes (LUT1/CYP97C1, LUT5/CYP97A3. The Arabidopsis triple chy1chy2lut5 mutant is almost completely depleted in β-xanthophylls. Results Here we report on the quadruple chy1chy2lut2lut5 mutant, additionally carrying the lut2 mutation (affecting lycopene ε-cyclase. This genotype lacks lutein and yet it shows a compensatory increase in β-xanthophylls with respect to chy1chy2lut5 mutant. Mutant plants show an even stronger photosensitivity than chy1chy2lut5, a complete lack of qE, the rapidly reversible component of non-photochemical quenching, and a peculiar organization of the pigment binding complexes into thylakoids. Biochemical analysis reveals that the chy1chy2lut2lut5 mutant is depleted in Lhcb subunits and is specifically affected in Photosystem I function, showing a deficiency in PSI-LHCI supercomplexes. Moreover, by analyzing a series of single, double, triple and quadruple Arabidopsis mutants in xanthophyll biosynthesis, we show a hitherto undescribed correlation between xanthophyll levels and the PSI-PSII ratio. The decrease in the xanthophyll/carotenoid ratio causes a proportional decrease in the LHCII and PSI core levels with respect to PSII. Conclusions The physiological and biochemical phenotype of the chy1chy2lut2lut5 mutant shows that (i LUT1/CYP97C1 protein reveals a major β-carotene hydroxylase activity in vivo when depleted in its preferred substrate α-carotene; (ii xanthophylls are needed for normal level of Photosystem I and LHCII accumulation.

  7. Tumor Volume and Metabolism of Prostate Cancer Determined by Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging at 3T Without Endorectal Coil Reveal Potential Clinical Implications in the Context of Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crehange, Gilles; Parfait, Sebastien; Liegard, Melanie; Maingon, Philippe; Ben Salem, Douraied; Cochet, Alexandre; Funes de la Vega, Mathilde; Cormier, Luc; Bonnetain, Franck; Mirjolet, Celine; Brunotte, Francois; Walker, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether a relationship exists between the tumor volume (TV) or relative choline content determined using magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging (MRSI) at 3T and the clinical prognostic parameters for patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa). Methods and Materials: A total of 72 men (mean age, 67.8 ± 6.2 years) were stratified as having low-risk (n = 26), intermediate-risk (n = 24), or high-risk (n = 22) PCa. MRSI was performed at 3T using a phased-array coil. Spectra are expressed as the total choline/citrate, total choline plus creatine/citrate, and total choline plus polyamines plus creatine/citrate ratios. The mean ratio of the most pathologic voxels and the MRSI-based TV were also determined. Results: The mean values of the total choline/citrate, total choline plus creatine/citrate, and total choline plus polyamine plus creatine/citrate ratios were greater for Stage T2b or greater tumors vs. Stage T2a or less tumors: 7.53 ± 13.60 vs. 2.31 ± 5.65 (p = .018), 8.98 ± 14.58 vs. 2.56 ± 5.70 (p = .016), and 10.32 ± 15.47 vs. 3.55 ± 6.16 (p = .014), respectively. The mean MRSI-based TV for Stage T2b or greater and Stage T2a or less tumors was significantly different (2.23 ± 2.62 cm 3 vs. 1.26 ± 2.06 cm 3 , respectively; p = .030). This TV correlated with increased prostate-specific antigen levels (odds ratio, 1.293; p = .012). Patients with high-risk PCa had a larger TV than did the patients with intermediate-risk PCa. A similar result was found for the intermediate-risk group compared with the low-risk group (odds ratio, 1.225; p = .041). Conclusion: Biomarkers expressing the relative choline content and TV were significant parameters for the localization of PCa and could be helpful for determining the prognosis more accurately.

  8. Plan of study to determine if the isotopic ratios [delta]15 N and [delta]18 O can reveal the sources of nitrate discharged by the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, William A.; Kendall, Carol; Goolsby, Donald A.; Boyer, Laurie L.

    1997-01-01

    Nitrate and other nutrients discharged from the Mississippi River basin are suspected of causing a zone of depleted dissolved oxygen (hypoxic zone) in the Gulf of Mexico each summer. The hypoxic zone may have an adverse effect on aquatic life and commercial fisheries. Commercial fertilizers are the dominant source of nitrogen input to the Mississippi basin. Other nitrogen sources include animal waste, fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by legumes, precipitation, domestic and industrial effluent, and the soil. The inputs of nitrogen from most of these sources to the Mississippi basin can be estimated and the outputs in surface water can be measured. However, nitrogen from each source is affected differently by physical, chemical, and biological processes that control nitrogen cycling in terrestrial and aquatic systems. Hence, the relative contributions from the various sources of nitrogen to nitrate load in the Mississippi River are unknown because the different sources may not contribute proportionally to their inputs in the basin. It may be possible to determine the relative contributions of the major sources of nitrate in river water using the stable isotopic ratios d15N and d18O of the nitrate ion. A few researchers have used the d15N and/or d18O isotope ratios to determine sources of nitrate in ground water, headwater catchments, and small rivers, but little is known about the isotopic composition of nitrate in larger rivers. The objective of this study is to measure the isotopic composition of nitrate and suspended organic matter in the Mississippi River and its major tributaries, in discharge to the Gulf of Mexico, and in streamflow from smaller watersheds that have distinct sources of nitrogen (row crops, animal wastes, and urban effluents) or are minimally impacted by man (undeveloped). Samples from seven sites on the Mississippi River and its tributaries and from 17 sites in smaller watersheds within the Mississippi River basin will be analyzed for d15N and

  9. Central-to-axial chirality transfer revealed by liquid crystals: a combined experimental and computational approach for the determination of absolute configuration of carboxylic acids with an α chirality centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Alberta; Ferroni, Fiammetta; Pieraccini, Silvia; Rosini, Carlo; Superchi, Stefano; Spada, Gian Piero

    2011-10-01

    The conversion into 6,7-dihydro-5H-dibenz[c,e]azepine (DAZ) N-protected amides is a viable route for the determination of the absolute configuration of chiral 2-substituted carboxylic acids. The biphenyl moiety of DAZ, besides being a probe of chirality for the electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy, makes these systems suitable for configuration assignment by exploiting the chirality amplification which occurs in nematic liquid crystals. To assess the reliability of the liquid crystal method in detecting the absolute stereochemistry of chiral amides bound to a biphenyl group, we measured the helical twisting power of a series of DAZ-N-protected amides and compared these data with the results obtained from ECD measurements. We will show that the liquid crystal method, corroborated by HTP predictions, is trustworthy with our biphenyl derivatives, even when ECD spectra are ambiguous for the presence of aryl moieties displaying strong UV absorptions in the same range of the biphenyl chromophore. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Modelling reveals endogenous osmotic adaptation of storage tissue water potential as an important driver determining different stem diameter variation patterns in the mangrove species Avicennia marina and Rhizophora stylosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Guyot, Adrien; Hubeau, Michiel; De Swaef, Tom; Lockington, David A; Steppe, Kathy

    2014-09-01

    Stem diameter variations are mainly determined by the radial water transport between xylem and storage tissues. This radial transport results from the water potential difference between these tissues, which is influenced by both hydraulic and carbon related processes. Measurements have shown that when subjected to the same environmental conditions, the co-occurring mangrove species Avicennia marina and Rhizophora stylosa unexpectedly show a totally different pattern in daily stem diameter variation. Using in situ measurements of stem diameter variation, stem water potential and sap flow, a mechanistic flow and storage model based on the cohesion-tension theory was applied to assess the differences in osmotic storage water potential between Avicennia marina and Rhizophora stylosa. Both species, subjected to the same environmental conditions, showed a resembling daily pattern in simulated osmotic storage water potential. However, the osmotic storage water potential of R. stylosa started to decrease slightly after that of A. marina in the morning and increased again slightly later in the evening. This small shift in osmotic storage water potential likely underlaid the marked differences in daily stem diameter variation pattern between the two species. The results show that in addition to environmental dynamics, endogenous changes in the osmotic storage water potential must be taken into account in order to accurately predict stem diameter variations, and hence growth.

  11. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...

  12. TypeScript revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Maharry, Dan

    2013-01-01

    TypeScript Revealed is a quick 100-page guide to Anders Hejlsberg's new take on JavaScript. With this brief, fast-paced introduction to TypeScript, .NET, Web and Windows 8 application developers who are already familiar with JavaScript will easily get up to speed with TypeScript and decide whether or not to start incorporating it into their own development. TypeScript is 'JavaScript for Application-scale development'; a superset of JavaScript that brings to it an additional object-oriented-like syntax familiar to .NET programmers that compiles down into simple, clean JavaScript that any browse

  13. Chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. In this paper the work carried out at Berkeley from the spring of 1942 to the summer of 1945 is described briefly. The aqueous chemistry of plutonium is quite remarkable. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were based on aqueous solutions, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states, while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element are reported

  14. Android Emotions Revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a method for designing facial interfaces for sociable android robots with respect to the fundamental rules of human affect expression. Extending the work of Paul Ekman towards a robotic direction, we follow the judgment-based approach for evaluating facial expressions to test...... findings are based on the results derived from a number of judgments, and suggest that before programming the facial expressions of a Geminoid, the Original should pass through the proposed procedure. According to our recommendations, the facial expressions of an android should be tested by judges, even...... in which case an android robot like the Geminoid|DK –a duplicate of an Original person- reveals emotions convincingly; when following an empirical perspective, or when following a theoretical one. The methodology includes the processes of acquiring the empirical data, and gathering feedback on them. Our...

  15. Titan Casts Revealing Shadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in

  16. Revealed preference with limited consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, T.; Seel, C.

    2014-01-01

    We derive revealed preference tests for models where individuals use consideration sets to simplify their consumption problem. Our basic test provides necessary and sufficient conditions for consistency of observed choices with the existence of consideration set restrictions. The same conditions can

  17. Decision Making and Revealed Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis...

  18. Determinants of marriage dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Mohd Amirul Rafiq Abu; Shafie, Siti Aishah Mohd; Hadi, Az'lina Abdul; Razali, Nornadiah Mohd; Azid @ Maarof, Nur Niswah Naslina

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays, the number of divorce cases among Muslim couples is very worrisome whereby the total cases reported in 2013 increased by half of the total cases reported in the previous year. The questions on the true key factors of dissolution of marriage continue to arise. Thus, the objective of this study is to reveal the factors that contribute to the dissolution of marriage. A total of 181 cases and ten potential determinants were included in this study. The potential determinants considered were age at marriage of husband and wife, educational level of husband and wife, employment status of husband and wife, income of husband and wife, the number of children and the presence at a counseling session. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that four determinants, namely the income of husband and wife, number of children and the presence at a counselling session were significant in predicting the likelihood of divorce among Muslim couples.

  19. Sex determination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The sex-determining system differs considerably among organisms. Even among insect species, the genetic system for sex-determination is highly diversified. In Drosophila melanogaster, somatic sexual differentiation is regulated by a well characterized genetic hierarchy X : A > Sxl > tra/tra2 > dsx and fru. This cascade ...

  20. Transparency masters for mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1980-01-01

    Transparency Masters for Mathematics Revealed focuses on master diagrams that can be used for transparencies for an overhead projector or duplicator masters for worksheets. The book offers information on a compilation of master diagrams prepared by John R. Stafford, Jr., audiovisual supervisor at the University of Missouri at Kansas City. Some of the transparencies are designed to be shown horizontally. The initial three masters are number lines and grids that can be used in a mathematics course, while the others are adaptations of text figures which are slightly altered in some instances. The

  1. Communication Games Reveal Preparation Contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameedi, Alley; Tavakoli, Armin; Marques, Breno; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    A communication game consists of distributed parties attempting to jointly complete a task with restricted communication. Such games are useful tools for studying limitations of physical theories. A theory exhibits preparation contextuality whenever its predictions cannot be explained by a preparation noncontextual model. Here, we show that communication games performed in operational theories reveal the preparation contextuality of that theory. For statistics obtained in a particular family of communication games, we show a direct correspondence with correlations in spacelike separated events obeying the no-signaling principle. Using this, we prove that all mixed quantum states of any finite dimension are preparation contextual. We report on an experimental realization of a communication game involving three-level quantum systems from which we observe a strong violation of the constraints of preparation noncontextuality.

  2. The chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity of plutonium chemistry was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were aqueous solution based, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, it was found that an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element will be reported

  3. Plan competitions reveal entrepreneurial talent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madison, Alison L.

    2011-05-15

    Monthly economic diversity column for Tri-City Herald business section. Excerpt below: There’s something to be said for gaining valuable real-world experience in a structured, nurturing environment. Take for instance learning to scuba dive in the comfort of my resort pool rather than immediately hanging out with sharks while I figure out little things like oxygen tanks and avoiding underwater panic attacks. Likewise, graduate students are getting some excellent, supportive real-world training through university business plan competitions. These competitions are places where smart minds, new technologies, months of preparation and coaching, and some healthy pre-presentation jitters collide to reveal not only solid new business ideas, but also some promising entrepreneurial talent. In fact, professionals from around our region descend upon college campuses every spring to judge these events, which help to bridge the gap between academics and the real technology and business-driven economy.

  4. Transcriptome classification reveals molecular subtypes in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainali Chrysanthi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psoriasis is an immune-mediated disease characterised by chronically elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, leading to aberrant keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. Although certain clinical phenotypes, such as plaque psoriasis, are well defined, it is currently unclear whether there are molecular subtypes that might impact on prognosis or treatment outcomes. Results We present a pipeline for patient stratification through a comprehensive analysis of gene expression in paired lesional and non-lesional psoriatic tissue samples, compared with controls, to establish differences in RNA expression patterns across all tissue types. Ensembles of decision tree predictors were employed to cluster psoriatic samples on the basis of gene expression patterns and reveal gene expression signatures that best discriminate molecular disease subtypes. This multi-stage procedure was applied to several published psoriasis studies and a comparison of gene expression patterns across datasets was performed. Conclusion Overall, classification of psoriasis gene expression patterns revealed distinct molecular sub-groups within the clinical phenotype of plaque psoriasis. Enrichment for TGFb and ErbB signaling pathways, noted in one of the two psoriasis subgroups, suggested that this group may be more amenable to therapies targeting these pathways. Our study highlights the potential biological relevance of using ensemble decision tree predictors to determine molecular disease subtypes, in what may initially appear to be a homogenous clinical group. The R code used in this paper is available upon request.

  5. Hubble Images Reveal Jupiter's Auroras

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    These images, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, reveal changes in Jupiter's auroral emissions and how small auroral spots just outside the emission rings are linked to the planet's volcanic moon, Io. The images represent the most sensitive and sharply-detailed views ever taken of Jovian auroras.The top panel pinpoints the effects of emissions from Io, which is about the size of Earth's moon. The black-and-white image on the left, taken in visible light, shows how Io and Jupiter are linked by an invisible electrical current of charged particles called a 'flux tube.' The particles - ejected from Io (the bright spot on Jupiter's right) by volcanic eruptions - flow along Jupiter's magnetic field lines, which thread through Io, to the planet's north and south magnetic poles. This image also shows the belts of clouds surrounding Jupiter as well as the Great Red Spot.The black-and-white image on the right, taken in ultraviolet light about 15 minutes later, shows Jupiter's auroral emissions at the north and south poles. Just outside these emissions are the auroral spots. Called 'footprints,' the spots are created when the particles in Io's 'flux tube' reach Jupiter's upper atmosphere and interact with hydrogen gas, making it fluoresce. In this image, Io is not observable because it is faint in the ultraviolet.The two ultraviolet images at the bottom of the picture show how the auroral emissions change in brightness and structure as Jupiter rotates. These false-color images also reveal how the magnetic field is offset from Jupiter's spin axis by 10 to 15 degrees. In the right image, the north auroral emission is rising over the left limb; the south auroral oval is beginning to set. The image on the left, obtained on a different date, shows a full view of the north aurora, with a strong emission inside the main auroral oval.The images were taken by the telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 between May 1994 and September 1995.This image and other images and data

  6. Risk determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The issue gives a survey of the legal, theological, statistical and health aspects of risk determination. It includes the opinions of physicians, epidemiologists, mathematicians, toxicologists, biologists, theologists and physicists who explain and illustrate the term of risk from their perspective. (orig./DG) [de

  7. Gender determination in populus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLetchie, D.N. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Tuskan, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Gender, the expression of maleness or femaleness, in dioecious plants has been associated with changes in morphology, physiology, ecological position, and commercial importance of several species, including members of the Salicaceae family. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the expression of gender in Salicaceae, including sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian genes, quantitative genes, environment, and genotype-by-environment interactions. Published reports would favor a genetic basis for gender. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers associated with gender in a segregating family of hybrid poplars. Bulked segregant analysis and chi-squared analysis were used to test for the occurrence of sex chromosomes, individual loci, and chromosome ratios (i.e., ploidy levels) as the mechanisms for gender determination. Examination of 2488 PCR based RAPD markers from 1219 primers revealed nine polymorphic bands between male and female bulked samples. However, linkage analysis indicated that none of these markers were significantly associated with gender. Chisquared results for difference in male-to-female ratios between diploid and triploid genotypes also revealed no significant differences. These findings suggest gender is not controlled via sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian loci or ratios of autosome to gender-determining loci. It is possible that gender is determined genetically by regions of the genome not sampled by the tested markers or by a complex of loci operating in an additive threshold manner or in an epistatic manner. It is also possible that gender is determined environmentally at an early zygote stage, canalizing gender expression.

  8. On revealing graph cycles via boundary measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belishev, M I; Wada, N

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with boundary value inverse problems on a metric graph, the structure of the graph being assumed unknown. The question under consideration is how to detect from the dynamical and/or spectral inverse data whether the graph contains cycles (is not a tree). For any graph Ω, the dynamical as well as spectral boundary inverse data determine the so-called wave diameter d w : H -1 (Ω) → R defined on functionals supported in the graph. The known fact is that if Ω is a tree then d w ≥ 0 holds and, in this case, the inverse data determine Ω up to isometry. A graph Ω is said to be coordinate if the functions {dist Ω (., γ)} γin∂Ω constitute a coordinate system on Ω. For such graphs, we propose a procedure, which reveals the presence/absence of cycles. The hypothesis is that Ω contains cycles if and only if d w takes negative values. We do not justify this hypothesis in the general case but reduce it to a certain special class of graphs (suns)

  9. Focus groups reveal consumer ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    According to qualitative research, Salvadoreans are ambivalent about the use of contraceptives. Since complete responsibility for management of the CSM project was accepted by the Association Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), the agency which operates the contraceptive social marketing project in El Salvador, in November 1980, the need for decisions in such areas as product price increases, introduction of new condom brands, promotion of the vaginal foaming tablet, and assessment of product sales performance had arisen. The ICSMP funded market research, completed during 1983, was intended to provide the data on which such decisions by ADS could be based. The qualitative research involved 8 focus groups, comprised of men and women, aged 18-45, contraceptive users and nonusers, from the middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the city of San Salvador and other suburban areas. In each group a moderator led discussion of family planning and probed respondents for specific attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding the use of contraceptives. To assess attitudes at a more emotional level, moderators asked respondents to "draw" their ideas on certain issues. A marked discrepancy was revealed between respondents' intellectual responses to the issues raised in group discussion, as opposed to their feelings expressed in the drawings. Intellectually, participants responded very positively to family planning practice, but when they were asked to draw their perceptions, ambivalent feelings emerged. Drawings of both the user and the nonuser convey primarily negative aspects for either choice. The user is tense and moody toward her children; the nonuser loses her attractiveness and "dies." Figures also show drawings of some of the attitudes of single and married male participants. 1 drawing shows an incomplete and a complete circle, symbolizing a sterilized man (incomplete) and a nonsterilized man (complete). Another picture depicts a chained man who has lost his freedom

  10. Universe reveals its dark side

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Henrique

    2005-01-01

    Evidence for dark matter is growing, and so are our chances of directly detecting it. It may come as a surprise to many people but 95% of what makes up the universe is still a mystery to scientists. Until very recently, however, we had devoted at least that proportion of our effort to understanding the remaining 5% - the small fraction that seems to be made up of ordinary baryonic matter such as atoms. But most cosmologists now agree that there is five times as much 'dark matter' as ordinary matter. Moreover, the remaining 70% of the universe is thought to consist of an even more mysterious entity called dark energy, which is causing the universe to expand ever more rapidly. Dark matter may be invisible but it ranks among the hottest topics in modern physics. Without it, we cannot explain the gravitational pull that holds galaxies and clusters of galaxies together when they clearly have insufficient mass in the form of stars. This mass discrepancy was noted as long ago as the 1930s, but it is only in the last few years that precision observations of the cosmic microwave background, combined with other cosmological measurements, have allowed physicists to determine the abundance of dark matter more precisely. (U.K.)

  11. Radioactivity reveals how crisps mix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, David [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2000-01-01

    Many of the ''fluids'' processed in the food industry have strange flow properties that cannot easily be predicted. This is an important question in industry, since engineers need to know how such systems flow through pipes in production plants or how different components mix together. To counter this lack of knowledge, the fluids are generally processed for longer than necessary, which often proves expensive and may affect the quality of the final product. The University of Birmingham Positron Imaging Centre has developed a powerful technique to study the behaviour of crisps, yoghurt and ice cream - together with many other granular materials and viscous fluids - in a variety of industrial processes. In one case, the group labelled a single crisp using a positron-emitting radioisotope and added it to a rotating drum full of crisps. By tracking the movement of the labelled crisp, they could determine how uniformly the crisps were exposed to the flavouring that was added in the mixing process. In this article the author describes the research at the university's Positron Imaging Centre. (UK)

  12. Radioactivity reveals how crisps mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, David

    2000-01-01

    Many of the ''fluids'' processed in the food industry have strange flow properties that cannot easily be predicted. This is an important question in industry, since engineers need to know how such systems flow through pipes in production plants or how different components mix together. To counter this lack of knowledge, the fluids are generally processed for longer than necessary, which often proves expensive and may affect the quality of the final product. The University of Birmingham Positron Imaging Centre has developed a powerful technique to study the behaviour of crisps, yoghurt and ice cream - together with many other granular materials and viscous fluids - in a variety of industrial processes. In one case, the group labelled a single crisp using a positron-emitting radioisotope and added it to a rotating drum full of crisps. By tracking the movement of the labelled crisp, they could determine how uniformly the crisps were exposed to the flavouring that was added in the mixing process. In this article the author describes the research at the university's Positron Imaging Centre. (UK)

  13. Extensive translational regulation during seed germination revealed by polysomal profiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Bing; Peviani, Alessia; Horst, van der Sjors; Gamm, Magdalena; Snel, Berend; Bentsink, Leónie; Hanson, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    This work investigates the extent of translational regulation during seed germination. The polysome occupancy of each gene is determined by genome-wide profiling of total mRNA and polysome-associated mRNA. This reveals extensive translational regulation during Arabidopsis thaliana seed

  14. Integrated genomics of Mucorales reveals novel therapeutic targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucormycosis is a life-threatening infection caused by Mucorales fungi. We sequenced 30 fungal genomes and performed transcriptomics with three representative Rhizopus and Mucor strains with human airway epithelial cells during fungal invasion to reveal key host and fungal determinants contributing ...

  15. Revealing conceptual understanding of international business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sue Ashley; Dr. Harmen Schaap; Prof.Dr. Elly de Bruijn

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students’ conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual

  16. Puerto Rico Revealed Preference Survey Data 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. Revealed preference data is...

  17. Abrasive supply for ancient Egypt revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltz, C.; Bichler, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the major research scheme 'Synchronization of Civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in the 2nd Millennium B.C' instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine 30 elements in pumice from archaeological excavations to reveal their specific volcanic origin. In ancient time, the widespread pumiceous products of several eruptions in the Aegean region have been used as abrasive tools and were therefore popular trade objects. The correlation of such archaeological findings to a specific eruption of known age would therefore allow to certify a maximum age of the respective stratum ('dating by first appearance'). Pumices from the Aegean region can easily be distinguished by their trace element distribution patterns. This has been shown by previous studies of the group. The elements Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zr and Zn were determined in 16 samples of pumice lumps from excavations in Tell-el-Dab'a and Tell-el-Herr (Egypt). Two irradiation cycles and five measurement runs were applied. To show the accuracy of the results obtained, typical samples of the most important pumice sources in the Aegean region, particularly from Milos, Nisyros, Kos and Thera were analyzed together with the Egyptian samples of unknown origin. A reliable identification of the samples is achieved by comparing these results to the database compiled in previous studies. The geographical positions of these islands are shown. Within the error range, most of the elements determined in typical representatives of Milos, Nisyros, Kos and Santorini were in perfect agreement with values from the literature. On the basis of the Cluster graphics presented, it is possible to relate unknown pumice to its primary source, just by comparing the relation of a few elements, like Ta-Eu and Th-Hf. One concludes that all samples except one can be related to the Minoan eruption of Thera

  18. Determinants of Homeownership in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Jørgen T.; Skak, Morten

    . The paper adds to earlier papers by the same authors where determinants of the homeownership rate were found using (average) data for 270 Danish municipalities. By using data directly related to individual households whose inhabitants have chosen to be or not to be homeowners, the analysis reveals...... characteristics and restrictions that influence the choice between renting and ownership. Among the determinants investigated is civil and social status of the breadwinner and various household characteristics including income. The empirical results generally suggest that the impact of the determinants...

  19. Revealing Conceptual Understanding of International Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Sue; Schaap, Harmen; de Bruijn, Elly

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students' conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual understanding in higher education. Essays and concept…

  20. REVEAL: Software Documentation and Platform Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael A.; Veibell, Victoir T.; Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2008-01-01

    The Research Environment for Vehicle Embedded Analysis on Linux (REVEAL) is reconfigurable data acquisition software designed for network-distributed test and measurement applications. In development since 2001, it has been successfully demonstrated in support of a number of actual missions within NASA s Suborbital Science Program. Improvements to software configuration control were needed to properly support both an ongoing transition to operational status and continued evolution of REVEAL capabilities. For this reason the project described in this report targets REVEAL software source documentation and deployment of the software on a small set of hardware platforms different from what is currently used in the baseline system implementation. This report specifically describes the actions taken over a ten week period by two undergraduate student interns and serves as a final report for that internship. The topics discussed include: the documentation of REVEAL source code; the migration of REVEAL to other platforms; and an end-to-end field test that successfully validates the efforts.

  1. SAS-6 engineering reveals interdependence between cartwheel and microtubules in determining centriole architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Manuel; Noga, Akira; Frey, Daniel; Hamel, Virginie; Guichard, Paul; Kraatz, Sebastian H W; Pfreundschuh, Moritz; Hosner, Sarah; Flückiger, Isabelle; Jaussi, Rolf; Wieser, Mara M; Thieltges, Katherine M; Deupi, Xavier; Müller, Daniel J; Kammerer, Richard A; Gönczy, Pierre; Hirono, Masafumi; Steinmetz, Michel O

    2016-04-01

    Centrioles are critical for the formation of centrosomes, cilia and flagella in eukaryotes. They are thought to assemble around a nine-fold symmetric cartwheel structure established by SAS-6 proteins. Here, we have engineered Chlamydomonas reinhardtii SAS-6-based oligomers with symmetries ranging from five- to ten-fold. Expression of a SAS-6 mutant that forms six-fold symmetric cartwheel structures in vitro resulted in cartwheels and centrioles with eight- or nine-fold symmetries in vivo. In combination with Bld10 mutants that weaken cartwheel-microtubule interactions, this SAS-6 mutant produced six- to eight-fold symmetric cartwheels. Concurrently, the microtubule wall maintained eight- and nine-fold symmetries. Expressing SAS-6 with analogous mutations in human cells resulted in nine-fold symmetric centrioles that exhibited impaired length and organization. Together, our data suggest that the self-assembly properties of SAS-6 instruct cartwheel symmetry, and lead us to propose a model in which the cartwheel and the microtubule wall assemble in an interdependent manner to establish the native architecture of centrioles.

  2. Artificial gravity reveals that economy of action determines the stability of sensorimotor coordination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G Carson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When we move along in time with a piece of music, we synchronise the downward phase of our gesture with the beat. While it is easy to demonstrate this tendency, there is considerable debate as to its neural origins. It may have a structural basis, whereby the gravitational field acts as an orientation reference that biases the formulation of motor commands. Alternatively, it may be functional, and related to the economy with which motion assisted by gravity can be generated by the motor system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a robotic system to generate a mathematical model of the gravitational forces acting upon the hand, and then to reverse the effect of gravity, and invert the weight of the limb. In these circumstances, patterns of coordination in which the upward phase of rhythmic hand movements coincided with the beat of a metronome were more stable than those in which downward movements were made on the beat. When a normal gravitational force was present, movements made down-on-the-beat were more stable than those made up-on-the-beat. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The ubiquitous tendency to make a downward movement on a musical beat arises not from the perception of gravity, but as a result of the economy of action that derives from its exploitation.

  3. A multidimensional network approach reveals microRNAs as determinants of the mesenchymal colorectal cancer subtype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fessler, E.; Jansen, M.; de Sousa E Melo, F.; Zhao, L.; Prasetyanti, P. R.; Rodermond, H.; Kandimalla, R.; Linnekamp, J. F.; Franitza, M.; van Hooff, S. R.; de Jong, J. H.; Oppeneer, S. C.; van Noesel, C. J. M.; Dekker, E.; Stassi, G.; Wang, X.; Medema, J. P.; Vermeulen, L.

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease posing a challenge for accurate classification and treatment of this malignancy. There is no common genetic molecular feature that would allow for the identification of patients at risk for developing recurrences and thus selecting patients who

  4. Awakening of a Dormant Cyanobacterium from Nitrogen Chlorosis Reveals a Genetically Determined Program

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klotz, A.; Georg, J.; Bučinská, Lenka; Watanabe, S.; Reimann, V.; Januszewski, W.; Sobotka, Roman; Jendrossek, D.; Hess, W. R.; Forchhammer, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 21 (2016), s. 2862-2872 ISSN 0960-9822 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1416 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : SP PCC 6803 * SYNECHOCYSTIS STRAIN PCC-6803 * STARVATION-INDUCED CHLOROSIS Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 8.851, year: 2016

  5. Structure-function analysis of Staphylococcus aureus amidase reveals the determinants of peptidoglycan recognition and cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Felix Michael; Zoll, Sebastian; Nega, Mulugeta; Götz, Friedrich; Stehle, Thilo

    2014-04-18

    The bifunctional major autolysin AtlA of Staphylococcus aureus cleaves the bacterium's peptidoglycan network (PGN) at two distinct sites during cell division. Deletion of the enzyme results in large cell clusters with disordered division patterns, indicating that AtlA could be a promising target for the development of new antibiotics. One of the two functions of AtlA is performed by the N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanine amidase AmiA, which cleaves the bond between the carbohydrate and the peptide moieties of PGN. To establish the structural requirements of PGN recognition and the enzymatic mechanism of cleavage, we solved the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of AmiA (AmiA-cat) in complex with a peptidoglycan-derived ligand at 1.55 Å resolution. The peptide stem is clearly visible in the structure, forming extensive contacts with protein residues by docking into an elongated groove. Less well defined electron density and the analysis of surface features indicate likely positions of the carbohydrate backbone and the pentaglycine bridge. Substrate specificity analysis supports the importance of the pentaglycine bridge for fitting into the binding cleft of AmiA-cat. PGN of S. aureus with l-lysine tethered with d-alanine via a pentaglycine bridge is completely hydrolyzed, whereas PGN of Bacillus subtilis with meso-diaminopimelic acid directly tethered with d-alanine is not hydrolyzed. An active site mutant, H370A, of AmiA-cat was completely inactive, providing further support for the proposed catalytic mechanism of AmiA. The structure reported here is not only the first of any bacterial amidase in which both the PGN component and the water molecule that carries out the nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon of the scissile bond are present; it is also the first peptidoglycan amidase complex structure of an important human pathogen.

  6. mRNA profiling reveals determinants of trastuzumab efficiency in HER2-positive breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia von der Heyde

    Full Text Available Intrinsic and acquired resistance to the monoclonal antibody drug trastuzumab is a major problem in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer. A deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms could help to develop new agents. Our intention was to detect genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs affecting trastuzumab efficiency in cell culture. Three HER2-positive breast cancer cell lines with different resistance phenotypes were analyzed. We chose BT474 as model of trastuzumab sensitivity, HCC1954 as model of intrinsic resistance, and BTR50, derived from BT474, as model of acquired resistance. Based on RNA-Seq data, we performed differential expression analyses on these cell lines with and without trastuzumab treatment. Differentially expressed genes between the resistant cell lines and BT474 are expected to contribute to resistance. Differentially expressed genes between untreated and trastuzumab treated BT474 are expected to contribute to drug efficacy. To exclude false positives from the candidate gene set, we removed genes that were also differentially expressed between untreated and trastuzumab treated BTR50. We further searched for SNPs in the untreated cell lines which could contribute to trastuzumab resistance. The analysis resulted in 54 differentially expressed candidate genes that might be connected to trastuzumab efficiency. 90% of 40 selected candidates were validated by RT-qPCR. ALPP, CALCOCO1, CAV1, CYP1A2 and IGFBP3 were significantly higher expressed in the trastuzumab treated than in the untreated BT474 cell line. GDF15, IL8, LCN2, PTGS2 and 20 other genes were significantly higher expressed in HCC1954 than in BT474, while NCAM2, COLEC12, AFF3, TFF3, NRCAM, GREB1 and TFF1 were significantly lower expressed. Additionally, we inferred SNPs in HCC1954 for CAV1, PTGS2, IL8 and IGFBP3. The latter also had a variation in BTR50. 20% of the validated subset have already been mentioned in literature. For half of them we called and analyzed SNPs. These results contribute to a better understanding of trastuzumab action and resistance mechanisms.

  7. Improved annotation of antibiotic resistance determinants reveals microbial resistomes cluster by ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Molly K; Forsberg, Kevin J; Dantas, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a dire clinical problem with important ecological dimensions. While antibiotic resistance in human pathogens continues to rise at alarming rates, the impact of environmental resistance on human health is still unclear. To investigate the relationship between human-associated and environmental resistomes, we analyzed functional metagenomic selections for resistance against 18 clinically relevant antibiotics from soil and human gut microbiota as well as a set of multidr...

  8. Structure-Function Analysis of Staphylococcus aureus Amidase Reveals the Determinants of Peptidoglycan Recognition and Cleavage*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Felix Michael; Zoll, Sebastian; Nega, Mulugeta; Götz, Friedrich; Stehle, Thilo

    2014-01-01

    The bifunctional major autolysin AtlA of Staphylococcus aureus cleaves the bacterium's peptidoglycan network (PGN) at two distinct sites during cell division. Deletion of the enzyme results in large cell clusters with disordered division patterns, indicating that AtlA could be a promising target for the development of new antibiotics. One of the two functions of AtlA is performed by the N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanine amidase AmiA, which cleaves the bond between the carbohydrate and the peptide moieties of PGN. To establish the structural requirements of PGN recognition and the enzymatic mechanism of cleavage, we solved the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of AmiA (AmiA-cat) in complex with a peptidoglycan-derived ligand at 1.55 Å resolution. The peptide stem is clearly visible in the structure, forming extensive contacts with protein residues by docking into an elongated groove. Less well defined electron density and the analysis of surface features indicate likely positions of the carbohydrate backbone and the pentaglycine bridge. Substrate specificity analysis supports the importance of the pentaglycine bridge for fitting into the binding cleft of AmiA-cat. PGN of S. aureus with l-lysine tethered with d-alanine via a pentaglycine bridge is completely hydrolyzed, whereas PGN of Bacillus subtilis with meso-diaminopimelic acid directly tethered with d-alanine is not hydrolyzed. An active site mutant, H370A, of AmiA-cat was completely inactive, providing further support for the proposed catalytic mechanism of AmiA. The structure reported here is not only the first of any bacterial amidase in which both the PGN component and the water molecule that carries out the nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon of the scissile bond are present; it is also the first peptidoglycan amidase complex structure of an important human pathogen. PMID:24599952

  9. Determinants of flexible work arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Sarbu, Miruna

    2014-01-01

    Flexible work arrangements such as allowing employees to work at home are used in firms, especially since information and communication technologies have become so widespread. Using individual-level data from 10,884 German employees, this paper analyses the determinants of working at home as a form of flexible work arrangements. The analysis is based on descriptive analyses and a discrete choice model using a probit estimation approach. The results reveal that men have a higher...

  10. REVEAL: Software Documentation and Platform Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael A.; Veibell, Victoir T.

    2011-01-01

    The Research Environment for Vehicle Embedded Analysis on Linux (REVEAL) is reconfigurable data acquisition software designed for network-distributed test and measurement applications. In development since 2001, it has been successfully demonstrated in support of a number of actual missions within NASA's Suborbital Science Program. Improvements to software configuration control were needed to properly support both an ongoing transition to operational status and continued evolution of REVEAL capabilities. For this reason the project described in this report targets REVEAL software source documentation and deployment of the software on a small set of hardware platforms different from what is currently used in the baseline system implementation. This presentation specifically describes the actions taken over a ten week period by two undergraduate student interns and serves as an overview of the content of the final report for that internship.

  11. Omics strategies for revealing Yersinia pestis virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruifu; Du, Zongmin; Han, Yanping; Zhou, Lei; Song, Yajun; Zhou, Dongsheng; Cui, Yujun

    2012-01-01

    Omics has remarkably changed the way we investigate and understand life. Omics differs from traditional hypothesis-driven research because it is a discovery-driven approach. Mass datasets produced from omics-based studies require experts from different fields to reveal the salient features behind these data. In this review, we summarize omics-driven studies to reveal the virulence features of Yersinia pestis through genomics, trascriptomics, proteomics, interactomics, etc. These studies serve as foundations for further hypothesis-driven research and help us gain insight into Y. pestis pathogenesis. PMID:23248778

  12. Formula-derived prostate volume determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, R. G.; de la Rosette, J. J.; Debruyne, F. M.; Wijkstra, H.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Despite disadvantages such as time-consuming and tedious to the user, planimetric volumetry is considered to be the most accurate method for prostate volume determination. This study investigates the possibilities of formula-derived volume determination and reveals the best alternative

  13. Revealed Preference Theory, Rationality, and Neoclassical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revealed Preference Theory (Samuelson 1938) is an attempt to establish economic theory as a genuine empirical science by ridding it of nonempirical psychological concepts. Samuelson's goal was to rid economic theory of the last vestiges of utility analysis. Samuelson structured his theory on a set of preference axioms ...

  14. [Mastitis revealing Churg-Strauss syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannepond, C; Le Fourn, E; de Muret, A; Ouldamer, L; Carmier, D; Machet, L

    2014-01-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome often involves the skin, and this may sometimes reveal the disease. A 25-year-old woman was referred to a gynaecologist for inflammation of the right breast with breast discharge. Cytological analysis of the liquid showed numerous inflammatory cells, particularly polymorphonuclear eosinophils and neutrophils. Ultrasound examination of the breast was consistent with galactophoritis. CRP was normal, and hypereosinophilia was seen. The patient was subsequently referred to a dermatology unit. Skin examination revealed inflammation of the entire breast, which was painful, warm and erythematous; the border was oedematous with blisters. Necrotic lesions were also present on the thumbs and knees. Skin biopsy of the breast showed a dermal infiltrate with abundant infiltrate of polymorphonuclear eosinophils, including patchy necrosis and intraepidermal vesicles. Histological examination of a biopsy sample from a thumb revealed eosinophilic granuloma and leukocytoclastic vasculitis. The patient was also presenting asthma, pulmonary infiltrates and mononeuropathy at L3, consistent with Churg-Strauss syndrome. Breast involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome is very rare (only one other case has been reported). This is the first case in which the breast condition revealed the disease. Cutaneous involvement of the breast is, however, also compatible with Wells' cellulitis. The lesions quickly disappeared with 1mg/kg/d oral prednisolone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Revealed preference tests for collective household behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherchye, L.J.H.; de Rock, B.; Vermeulen, F.M.P.; Verriest, E.; Molina, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter contains a state of the art of revealed preference tests for consistency of observed household behavior with Pareto efficiency. These tests are entirely nonparametric, since they do not require any assumptions regarding the parametric form of individual preferences or the intrahousehold

  16. Reveal quantum correlation in complementary bases

    OpenAIRE

    Shengjun Wu; Zhihao Ma; Zhihua Chen; Sixia Yu

    2014-01-01

    An essential feature of genuine quantum correlation is the simultaneous existence of correlation in complementary bases. We reveal this feature of quantum correlation by defining measures based on invariance under a basis change. For a bipartite quantum state, the classical correlation is the maximal correlation present in a certain optimum basis, while the quantum correlation is characterized as a series of residual correlations in the mutually unbiased bases. Compared with other approaches ...

  17. Mediastinal Mature Teratoma Revealed by Empyema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Raoufi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratomas are germ cell tumors, manifested with a great variety of clinical features; the most common extragonadal site is the anterior mediastinum. In this case, we report the patient with a large mature mediastinal teratoma with several components of ectodermal and endothermal epithelium. A 24-year-old female patient presented with history of persistent chest pain and progressively aggravating dyspnea for the previous 3 months. A chest X-ray showed a large opacity of the entire left hemithorax. Transcutaneous needle aspiration revealed a purulent fluid. The tube thoracostomy was introduced and the effusion was evacuated. Some weeks later, patient was seen in emergency for persistent cough and lateral chest pain. CT scan revealed a mass of the left hemithorax. The mass showed heterogeneous density, without compressing mediastinum great vessels and left hilar structures. Lipase value was elevated in needle aspiration. The patient underwent a total resection of the mediastinum mass via a left posterolateral thoracotomy. Microscopy revealed a mature teratoma with cystic structures. The patient subsequently made a full recovery. This case provide benign mediastinal teratoma with total atelectasis of left lung and elevated lipase value in needle transcutaneous aspiration; this event is explained by pancreatic component in the cystic tumor. Total removal of the tumor is adequate treatment for this type of teratoma and the prognosis is excellent.

  18. Genes but not genomes reveal bacterial domestication of Lactococcus lactis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Passerini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The population structure and diversity of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, a major industrial bacterium involved in milk fermentation, was determined at both gene and genome level. Seventy-six lactococcal isolates of various origins were studied by different genotyping methods and thirty-six strains displaying unique macrorestriction fingerprints were analyzed by a new multilocus sequence typing (MLST scheme. This gene-based analysis was compared to genomic characteristics determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The MLST analysis revealed that L. lactis subsp. lactis is essentially clonal with infrequent intra- and intergenic recombination; also, despite its taxonomical classification as a subspecies, it displays a genetic diversity as substantial as that within several other bacterial species. Genome-based analysis revealed a genome size variability of 20%, a value typical of bacteria inhabiting different ecological niches, and that suggests a large pan-genome for this subspecies. However, the genomic characteristics (macrorestriction pattern, genome or chromosome size, plasmid content did not correlate to the MLST-based phylogeny, with strains from the same sequence type (ST differing by up to 230 kb in genome size. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The gene-based phylogeny was not fully consistent with the traditional classification into dairy and non-dairy strains but supported a new classification based on ecological separation between "environmental" strains, the main contributors to the genetic diversity within the subspecies, and "domesticated" strains, subject to recent genetic bottlenecks. Comparison between gene- and genome-based analyses revealed little relationship between core and dispensable genome phylogenies, indicating that clonal diversification and phenotypic variability of the "domesticated" strains essentially arose through substantial genomic flux within the dispensable

  19. Determination of Human Hemoglobin Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Atef M M; Ibrahim, Fatma A A; Abd El-Latif, Noha A; Aziz, Samir W; Abdelmottaleb Moussa, Sherif A; Elalfy, Mohsen S

    2015-01-01

    The levels of the inactive hemoglobin (Hb) pigments [such as methemoglobin (metHb), carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) and sulfohemoglobin (SHb)] and the active Hb [in the oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) form] as well as the blood Hb concentration in healthy non pregnant female volunteers were determined using a newly developed multi-component spectrophotometric method. The results of this method revealed values of SHb% in the range (0.0727-0.370%), metHb% (0.43-1.0%), HbCO% (0.4-1.52%) and oxyHb% (97.06-98.62%). Furthermore, the results of this method revealed values of blood Hb concentration in the range (12.608-15.777 g/dL). The method is highly sensitive, accurate and reproducible.

  20. Midface swelling reveals nasofrontal dermal sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houneida, Zaghouani Ben Alaya; Manel, Limeme; Latifa, Harzallah; Habib, Amara; Dejla, Bakir; Chekib, Kraiem

    2012-01-01

    Nasofrontal dermal sinuses are very rare and generally occur in children. This congenital malformation can be revealed by midface swelling, which can be complicated by local infection or neuromeningitis. Such complications make the dermal sinus a life-threatening disease. Two cases of nasofrontal dermal sinuses are reported in this work. The first case is an 11-month-old girl who presented with left orbitonasal soft tissue swelling accompanied by inflammation. Physical examination found fever, left orbitonasal thickening, and a puncture hole letting out pus. Computed tomography revealed microabscesses located at the left orbitonasal soft tissues, a frontal bone defect, and an intracranial cyst. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the transosseous tract between the glabella and the brain and affirmed the epidermoid nature of the intracranial cyst. The second case is a 7-year-old girl who presented with a nasofrontal non-progressive mass that intermittently secreted a yellow liquid through an external orifice located at the glabella. MRI revealed a cystic mass located in the deep layer of the glabellar skin related to an epidermoid cyst with a nasofrontal dermal sinus tract. In both cases, surgical excision was performed, and pathological confirmation was made for the diagnoses of dermal sinuses. The postoperative course was favorable. Through these cases, the authors stress the role of imaging methods in confirming the diagnosis and looking for associated cysts (dermoid and epidermoid) to improve recognition of this rare disease. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentations, imaging manifestations, and most common sites of occurrence of this malformation are needed to formulate a differential diagnosis.

  1. Structures of Astromaterials Revealed by EBSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, M.

    2018-01-01

    Groups at the Johnson Space Center and the University of Tokyo have been using electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) to reveal the crystal structures of extraterrestrial minerals for many years. Even though we also routinely use transmission electron microscopy, synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD), and conventional electron diffraction, we find that EBSD is the most powerful technique for crystal structure elucidation in many instances. In this talk I describe a few of the cases where we have found EBSD to provide crucial, unique information. See attachment.

  2. [Encopresis revealing myotonic dystrophy in 2 children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avez-Couturier, J; Michaud, L; Cuisset, J-M; Lamblin, M-D; Dolhem, P; Turck, D; Vallée, L; Gottrand, F

    2009-05-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms are very frequent in myotonic dystrophy but largely unrecognized. They can be the revealing factors of the disease. We report 2 cases of 10 and 17-year-old children with persistent encopresis starting at the age of 3 and 5 years in spite of laxative treatment. Neurological examination and anorectal manometry provided the diagnosis of myotonic dystrophy. Procainamide treatment was introduced and the digestive symptoms improved. Any child with encopresis should have complete evaluation to rule out the diagnosis of myotonic dystrophy and physicians should look for upper and/or lower gastrointestinal symptoms in every patient with myotonic dystrophy.

  3. [Severe pulmonary embolism revealed by status epilepticus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allou, N; Coolen-Allou, N; Delmas, B; Cordier, C; Allyn, J

    2016-12-01

    High-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with high mortality rate (>50%). In some cases, diagnosis of PE remains a challenge with atypical presentations like in this case report with a PE revealed by status epilepticus. We report the case of a 40-year-old man without prior disease, hospitalized in ICU for status epilepticus. All paraclinical examinations at admission did not show any significant abnormalities (laboratory tests, cardiologic and neurological investigations). On day 1, he presented a sudden circulatory collapse and echocardiography showed right intra-auricular thrombus. He was treated by thrombolysis and arteriovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. After stabilization, computed tomography showed severe bilateral PE. He developed multi-organ failure and died 4days after admission. Pulmonary embolism revealed by status epilepticus has rarely been reported and is associated with poor prognosis. Physicians should be aware and think of the possibility of PE in patients with status epilepticus without any history or risk factors of seizure and normal neurological investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Determinants of internet poker adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philander, Kahlil S; Abarbanel, B Lillian

    2014-09-01

    In nearly all jurisdictions, adoption of a new form of gambling has been a controversial and contentious subject. Online gambling has been no different, though there are many aspects that affect online gambling that do not appear in the brick and mortar environment. This study seeks to identify whether demographic, economic, political, technological, and/or sociological determinants contribute to online poker gambling adoption. A theoretical discussion of these categories' importance to online poker is provided and exploratory empirical analysis is used to examine their potential validity. The analysis revealed support for all of the proposed categories of variables thought to be predictive of online gambling legality.

  5. Crystal structure determination of Efavirenz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popeneciu, Horea; Dumitru, Ristoiu; Tripon, Carmen; Borodi, Gheorghe; Pop, Mihaela Maria

    2015-01-01

    Needle-shaped single crystals of the title compound, C 14 H 9 ClF 3 NO 2 , were obtained from a co-crystallization experiment of Efavirenz with maleic acid in a (1:1) ratio, using methanol as solvent. Crystal structure determination at room temperature revealed a significant anisotropy of the lattice expansion compared to the previously reported low-temperature structure. In both low- and room temperature structures the cyclopropylethynyl fragment in one of the asymmetric unit molecules is disordered. While at low-temperature only one C atom exhibits positional disorder, at room temperature the disorder is present for two C atoms of the cyclopropane ring

  6. Health inequality - determinants and policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn; Andersen, Ingelise; Manual, Celie

    2012-01-01

    The review ”Health inequality – determinants and policies” identifies key-areas to be addressed with the aim to reduce the social inequality in health. The general life expectancy has steadily been increasing, but the data reveals marked social inequalities in health as well as life expectancy....... The review seeks to identify the causes of this social inequality. The analysis finds 12 areas of great importance for the inequality in health. This is i.e. early child development, schooling and education, the health behavior of the population, and the role of the health system. Within each of the 12 areas...

  7. Position automatic determination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This book tells of method of position determination and characteristic, control method of position determination and point of design, point of sensor choice for position detector, position determination of digital control system, application of clutch break in high frequency position determination, automation technique of position determination, position determination by electromagnetic clutch and break, air cylinder, cam and solenoid, stop position control of automatic guide vehicle, stacker crane and automatic transfer control.

  8. External quality measurements reveal internal processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.; Costa, J.M.; Kooten, van O.

    2003-01-01

    With the present developments in CA technology it becomes possible to fine tune the storage conditions to the specific needs of the product. This generates the need to know the exact quality conditions of the product before storage starts. By measuring the initial quality we can determine these

  9. [Localized purpura revealing vascular prosthetic graft infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boureau, A S; Lescalie, F; Cassagnau, E; Clairand, R; Connault, J

    2013-07-01

    Prosthetic graft infection after vascular reconstruction is a rare but serious complication. We report a case of infection occurring late after implantation of an iliofemoral prosthetic vascular graft. The Staphylococcus aureus infection was revealed by vascular purpura localized on the right leg 7 years after implantation of a vascular prosthesis. This case illustrates an uncommonly late clinical manifestation presenting as an acute infection 7 years after the primary operation. In this situation, the presentation differs from early infection, which generally occurs within the first four postoperative months. Diagnosis and treatment remain a difficult challenge because prosthetic graft infection is a potentially life-threatening complication. Morbidity and mortality rates are high. Here we detail specific aspects of the clinical and radiological presentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Chain networking revealed by molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yexin; Tsige, Mesfin; Wang, Shi-Qing

    Based on Kremer-Grest model for entangled polymer melts, we demonstrate how the response of a polymer glass depends critically on the chain length. After quenching two melts of very different chain lengths (350 beads per chain and 30 beads per chain) into deeply glassy states, we subject them to uniaxial extension. Our MD simulations show that the glass of long chains undergoes stable necking after yielding whereas the system of short chains is unable to neck and breaks up after strain localization. During ductile extension of the polymer glass made of long chain significant chain tension builds up in the load-bearing strands (LBSs). Further analysis is expected to reveal evidence of activation of the primary structure during post-yield extension. These results lend support to the recent molecular model 1 and are the simulations to demonstrate the role of chain networking. This work is supported, in part, by a NSF Grant (DMR-EAGER-1444859)

  11. Social patterns revealed through random matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Camellia; Jalan, Sarika

    2014-11-01

    Despite the tremendous advancements in the field of network theory, very few studies have taken weights in the interactions into consideration that emerge naturally in all real-world systems. Using random matrix analysis of a weighted social network, we demonstrate the profound impact of weights in interactions on emerging structural properties. The analysis reveals that randomness existing in particular time frame affects the decisions of individuals rendering them more freedom of choice in situations of financial security. While the structural organization of networks remains the same throughout all datasets, random matrix theory provides insight into the interaction pattern of individuals of the society in situations of crisis. It has also been contemplated that individual accountability in terms of weighted interactions remains as a key to success unless segregation of tasks comes into play.

  12. Neutron Imaging Reveals Internal Plant Hydraulic Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Horita, Jusuke [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Many terrestrial ecosystem processes are constrained by water availability and transport within the soil. Knowledge of plant water fluxes is thus critical for assessing mechanistic processes linked to biogeochemical cycles, yet resolution of root structure and xylem water transport dynamics has been a particularly daunting task for the ecologist. Through neutron imaging, we demonstrate the ability to non-invasively monitor individual root functionality and water fluxes within Zea mays L. (maize) and Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) seedlings growing in a sandy medium. Root structure and growth were readily imaged by neutron radiography and neutron computed tomography. Seedlings were irrigated with water or deuterium oxide and imaged through time as a growth lamp was cycled on to alter leaf demand for water. Sub-millimeter scale resolution reveals timing and magnitudes of root water uptake, redistribution within the roots, and root-shoot hydraulic linkages, relationships not well characterized by other techniques.

  13. Revealing effective classifiers through network comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallos, Lazaros K.; Fefferman, Nina H.

    2014-11-01

    The ability to compare complex systems can provide new insight into the fundamental nature of the processes captured, in ways that are otherwise inaccessible to observation. Here, we introduce the n-tangle method to directly compare two networks for structural similarity, based on the distribution of edge density in network subgraphs. We demonstrate that this method can efficiently introduce comparative analysis into network science and opens the road for many new applications. For example, we show how the construction of a “phylogenetic tree” across animal taxa according to their social structure can reveal commonalities in the behavioral ecology of the populations, or how students create similar networks according to the University size. Our method can be expanded to study many additional properties, such as network classification, changes during time evolution, convergence of growth models, and detection of structural changes during damage.

  14. Hidden acoustic information revealed by intentional nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, David R.

    2017-11-01

    Acoustic waves are omnipresent in modern life and are well described by the linearized equations of fluid dynamics. Once generated, acoustic waves carry and collect information about their source and the environment through which they propagate, respectively, and this information may be retrieved by analyzing recordings of these waves. Because of this, acoustics is the primary means for observation, surveillance, reconnaissance, and remote sensing in otherwise opaque environments, such as the Earth's oceans and crust, and the interior of the human body. For such information-retrieval tasks, acoustic fields are nearly always interrogated within their recorded frequency range or bandwidth. However, this frequency-range restriction is not general; acoustic fields may also carry (hidden) information at frequencies outside their bandwidth. Although such a claim may seem counter intuitive, hidden acoustic-field information can be revealed by re-introducing a marquee trait of fluid dynamics: nonlinearity. In particular, an intentional quadratic nonlinearity - a form of intra-signal heterodyning - can be used to obtain acoustic field information at frequencies outside a recorded acoustic field's bandwidth. This quadratic nonlinearity enables a variety of acoustic remote sensing applications that were long thought to be impossible. In particular, it allows the detrimental effects of sparse recordings and random scattering to be suppressed when the original acoustic field has sufficient bandwidth. In this presentation, the topic is developed heuristically, with a just brief exposition of the relevant mathematics. Hidden acoustic field information is then revealed from simulated and measured acoustic fields in simple and complicated acoustic environments involving frequencies from a few Hertz to more than 100 kHz, and propagation distances from tens of centimeters to hundreds of kilometers. Sponsored by ONR, NAVSEA, and NSF.

  15. Ceres Revealed in a Grain of Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Bodnar, R. J.; Fries, M.; Chan, Q. H.-S.; Kebukawa, Y.; Mikouchi, T.; Hagiya, K.; Komatsu, M.; Ohsumi, K.; Steele, A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Zag and Monahans (1998) are H chondrite regolith breccias containing 4.5 giga-year-old halite crystals which contain abundant inclusions of aqueous fluids, solids and organics. These all originated on a cryo-volcanically-active C class asteroid, probably 1 Ceres; the halite was transported to the regolith of the H chondrite parent asteroid, potentially 6 Hebe. Detailed analysis of these solids will thus potentially reveal the mineralogy of Ceres. Mineralogy of solids in the Monahans Halite Solid grains are present in the halites, which were entrained within the mother brines during eruption, including material from the interior and surface of the erupting body. The solids include abundant, widely variable organics that could not have been significantly heated (which would have resulted in the loss of fluids from the halite). Our analyses by Raman microprobe, SEM/EDX, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, UPLC-FD/QToF-MS, C-XANES and TEM reveal that these trapped grains include macromolecular carbon (MMC) similar in structure to CV3 chondrite matrix carbon, aliphatic carbon compounds, olivine (Fo99-59), high- and low-Ca pyroxene, feldspars, phyllosilicates, magnetite, sulfides, metal, lepidocrocite, carbonates, diamond, apatite and zeolites. Conclusions: The halite in Monahans and Zag derive from a water and carbon-rich object that was cryo-volcanically active in the early solar system, probably Ceres. The Dawn spacecraft found that Ceres includes C chondrite materials. Our samples include both protolith and aqueously-altered samples of the body, permitting understanding of alteration conditions. Whatever the halite parent body, it was rich in a wide variety of organics and warm, liquid water at the solar system's dawn.

  16. Metabolomics reveals metabolic biomarkers of Crohn's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, J.K.; Willing, B.; Lucio, M.; Fekete, A.; Dicksved, J.; Halfvarson, J.; Tysk, C.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.

    2009-06-01

    The causes and etiology of Crohn's disease (CD) are currently unknown although both host genetics and environmental factors play a role. Here we used non-targeted metabolic profiling to determine the contribution of metabolites produced by the gut microbiota towards disease status of the host. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (ICR-FT/MS) was used to discern the masses of thousands of metabolites in fecal samples collected from 17 identical twin pairs, including healthy individuals and those with CD. Pathways with differentiating metabolites included those involved in the metabolism and or synthesis of amino acids, fatty acids, bile acids and arachidonic acid. Several metabolites were positively or negatively correlated to the disease phenotype and to specific microbes previously characterized in the same samples. Our data reveal novel differentiating metabolites for CD that may provide diagnostic biomarkers and/or monitoring tools as well as insight into potential targets for disease therapy and prevention.

  17. Megacity precipitationsheds reveal tele-connected water security challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line J.

    2018-01-01

    Urbanization is a global process that has taken billions of people from the rural countryside to concentrated urban centers, adding pressure to existing water resources. Many cities are specifically reliant on renewable freshwater regularly refilled by precipitation, rather than fossil groundwater or desalination. A precipitationshed can be considered the “watershed of the sky” and identifies the origin of precipitation falling in a given region. In this paper, we use this concept to determine the sources of precipitation that supply renewable water in the watersheds of the largest cities of the world. We quantify the sources of precipitation for 29 megacities and analyze their differences between dry and wet years. Our results reveal that 19 of 29 megacities depend for more than a third of their water supply on evaporation from land. We also show that for many of the megacities, the terrestrial dependence is higher in dry years. This high dependence on terrestrial evaporation for their precipitation exposes these cities to potential land-use change that could reduce the evaporation that generates precipitation. Combining indicators of water stress, moisture recycling exposure, economic capacity, vegetation-regulated evaporation, land-use change, and dry-season moisture recycling sensitivity reveals four highly vulnerable megacities (Karachi, Shanghai, Wuhan, and Chongqing). A further six megacities were found to have medium vulnerability with regard to their water supply. We conclude that understanding how upwind landscapes affect downwind municipal water resources could be a key component for understanding the complexity of urban water security. PMID:29534109

  18. King Lear Reveals the Tragic Pattern of Shakespeare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Eflih Al-Ibia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rather than focusing on the obvious traditions of evaluating Shakespearean tragic heroes, this paper presents a groundbreaking approach to unfold the pattern William Shakespeare follows as he designed his unique characters. This pattern applies to most, if not all, Shakespearean tragic heroes. I argue that Shakespeare himself reveals a great portion of this pattern on the tongue of Lear as the latter disowns Goneril and Regan promising to have “such revenges on [them] both” in King Lear. Lear’s threats bestow four unique aspects that apply not only to his character but they also apply to Shakespearean tragic heroes. Lear’s speech tells us that he is determined to have an awful type of revenge on his daughters. However, the very same speech tells us that he seems uncertain about the method through which he should carry out this revenge. Lear does not express any type of remorse as he pursues his vengeful plans nor should he aim at amnesty. He also admits his own madness as he closes his revealing speech. This research develops these facts about Lear to unfold the unique pattern Shakespeare follows as he portrayed his major tragic figures. This pattern is examined, described and analyzed in King Lear, Othello, and Hamlet. We will find out that the pattern suggested in this study helps us better understand Shakespeare’s tragedies and enables us to provide better explanations for some controversial scenes in the tragedies discussed.

  19. Economic choices reveal probability distortion in macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, William R; Lak, Armin; Bossaerts, Peter; Schultz, Wolfram

    2015-02-18

    Economic choices are largely determined by two principal elements, reward value (utility) and probability. Although nonlinear utility functions have been acknowledged for centuries, nonlinear probability weighting (probability distortion) was only recently recognized as a ubiquitous aspect of real-world choice behavior. Even when outcome probabilities are known and acknowledged, human decision makers often overweight low probability outcomes and underweight high probability outcomes. Whereas recent studies measured utility functions and their corresponding neural correlates in monkeys, it is not known whether monkeys distort probability in a manner similar to humans. Therefore, we investigated economic choices in macaque monkeys for evidence of probability distortion. We trained two monkeys to predict reward from probabilistic gambles with constant outcome values (0.5 ml or nothing). The probability of winning was conveyed using explicit visual cues (sector stimuli). Choices between the gambles revealed that the monkeys used the explicit probability information to make meaningful decisions. Using these cues, we measured probability distortion from choices between the gambles and safe rewards. Parametric modeling of the choices revealed classic probability weighting functions with inverted-S shape. Therefore, the animals overweighted low probability rewards and underweighted high probability rewards. Empirical investigation of the behavior verified that the choices were best explained by a combination of nonlinear value and nonlinear probability distortion. Together, these results suggest that probability distortion may reflect evolutionarily preserved neuronal processing. Copyright © 2015 Stauffer et al.

  20. Comparative genomics of neuroglobin reveals its early origins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Dröge

    Full Text Available Neuroglobin (Ngb is a hexacoordinated globin expressed mainly in the central and peripheral nervous system of vertebrates. Although several hypotheses have been put forward regarding the role of neuroglobin, its definite function remains uncertain. Ngb appears to have a neuro-protective role enhancing cell viability under hypoxia and other types of oxidative stress. Ngb is phylogenetically ancient and has a substitution rate nearly four times lower than that of other vertebrate globins, e.g. hemoglobin. Despite its high sequence conservation among vertebrates Ngb seems to be elusive in invertebrates.We determined candidate orthologs in invertebrates and identified a globin of the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens that is most likely orthologous to vertebrate Ngb and confirmed the orthologous relationship of the polymeric globin of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus to Ngb. The putative orthologous globin genes are located next to genes orthologous to vertebrate POMT2 similarly to localization of vertebrate Ngb. The shared syntenic position of the globins from Trichoplax, the sea urchin and of vertebrate Ngb strongly suggests that they are orthologous. A search for conserved transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs in the promoter regions of the Ngb genes of different vertebrates via phylogenetic footprinting revealed several TFBSs, which may contribute to the specific expression of Ngb, whereas a comparative analysis with myoglobin revealed several common TFBSs, suggestive of regulatory mechanisms common to globin genes.Identification of the placozoan and echinoderm genes orthologous to vertebrate neuroglobin strongly supports the hypothesis of the early evolutionary origin of this globin, as it shows that neuroglobin was already present in the placozoan-bilaterian last common ancestor. Computational determination of the transcription factor binding sites repertoire provides on the one hand a set of transcriptional factors that are

  1. ERYTHEMA NODOSUM REVEALING ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chebbi Wafa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Erythema nodosum (EN is the most common type of panniculitis. It may be idiopathic or secondary to various etiologies. However, the occurrence of erythema nodosum in malignant hemopathy had rarely been reported. Case report: A 42 year-old woman presented with a four week history of recurrent multiple painful erythematous nodules developed on the lower limbs associated with arthralgia of the ankles and fever. The clinical features of skin lesions with contusiform color evolution allowed establishing the diagnosis of EN. No underlying cause was found. The skin lesions were improved with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and colchicine. Three months later, the patient consulted for recurrence of EN associated with fever, inflammatory polyarthralgia and hepatosplenomegaly. The peripheral blood count revealed pancytopenia. A bone marrow examination confirmed the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia type 2. Initiation of chemotherapy was followed by the complete disappearance of skin lesions of EN. Conclusion: Paraneoplastic erythema nodosum is a rare entity. In the literature, a few cases of association with leukemia have been reported. Exploration for solid neoplasms or hemopathy in case of recurrent EN or resistance to conventional treatment should be systematic

  2. Revealing the values behind convenience food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botonaki, Anna; Mattas, Konstadinos

    2010-12-01

    The increasing importance of convenience in consumer food choices has attracted researchers' interest. In the effort to understand how convenience affects consumers' food preferences, values are believed to play an important role. The present study attempts to examine the way personal values suggested by Schwartz (1992) are associated with behaviour and attitudes regarding convenience food. A number of constructs describing food related attitudes and behaviours were developed and their relationship with personal values was analyzed following the methodology proposed by Brunsø, Scholderer, and Grunert (2004). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey from a random sample of consumers in Thessaloniki city, Greece. The results reveal that convenience food consumption and convenience orientation in the food domain are mainly connected with values that motivate people to seek new experiences, act independently and enhance their own personal interests, while are in conflict with values of conservation and self-transcendence. The opposite holds for other food related attitudes and behaviours like involvement with cooking and variety in diet. The findings seem to be of particular interest not only for marketers of food products, but also for food policy makers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Revealing source signatures in ambient BTEX concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalel, Amir; Yuval; Broday, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Management of ambient concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) is essential for maintaining low ozone levels in urban areas where its formation is under a VOC-limited regime. The significant decrease in traffic-induced VOC emissions in many developed countries resulted in relatively comparable shares of traffic and non-traffic VOC emissions in urban airsheds. A key step for urban air quality management is allocating ambient VOC concentrations to their pertinent sources. This study presents an approach that can aid in identifying sources that contribute to observed BTEX concentrations in areas characterized by low BTEX concentrations, where traditional source apportionment techniques are not useful. Analysis of seasonal and diurnal variations of ambient BTEX concentrations from two monitoring stations located in distinct areas reveal the possibility to identify source categories. Specifically, the varying oxidation rates of airborne BTEX compounds are used to allocate contributions of traffic emissions and evaporative sources to observed BTEX concentrations. - BTEX sources are identified from temporal variations of ambient concentration

  4. VISTA Reveals the Secret of the Unicorn

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    A new infrared image from ESO's VISTA survey telescope reveals an extraordinary landscape of glowing tendrils of gas, dark clouds and young stars within the constellation of Monoceros (the Unicorn). This star-forming region, known as Monoceros R2, is embedded within a huge dark cloud. The region is almost completely obscured by interstellar dust when viewed in visible light, but is spectacular in the infrared. An active stellar nursery lies hidden inside a massive dark cloud rich in molecules and dust in the constellation of Monoceros. Although it appears close in the sky to the more familiar Orion Nebula it is actually almost twice as far from Earth, at a distance of about 2700 light-years. In visible light a grouping of massive hot stars creates a beautiful collection of reflection nebulae where the bluish starlight is scattered from parts of the dark, foggy outer layers of the molecular cloud. However, most of the new-born massive stars remain hidden as the thick interstellar dust strongly absorbs their ultraviolet and visible light. In this gorgeous infrared image taken from ESO's Paranal Observatory in northern Chile, the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA [1], eso0949) penetrates the dark curtain of cosmic dust and reveals in astonishing detail the folds, loops and filaments sculpted from the dusty interstellar matter by intense particle winds and the radiation emitted by hot young stars. "When I first saw this image I just said 'Wow!' I was amazed to see all the dust streamers so clearly around the Monoceros R2 cluster, as well as the jets from highly embedded young stellar objects. There is such a great wealth of exciting detail revealed in these VISTA images," says Jim Emerson, of Queen Mary, University of London and leader of the VISTA consortium. With its huge field of view, large mirror and sensitive camera, VISTA is ideal for obtaining deep, high quality infrared images of large areas of the sky, such as the Monoceros R2 region

  5. Sequence tagging reveals unexpected modifications in toxicoproteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Surendra; Chambers, Matthew C.; Codreanu, Simona G.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Collins, Ben C.; Pennington, Stephen R.; Gallagher, William M.; Tabb, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Toxicoproteomic samples are rich in posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of proteins. Identifying these modifications via standard database searching can incur significant performance penalties. Here we describe the latest developments in TagRecon, an algorithm that leverages inferred sequence tags to identify modified peptides in toxicoproteomic data sets. TagRecon identifies known modifications more effectively than the MyriMatch database search engine. TagRecon outperformed state of the art software in recognizing unanticipated modifications from LTQ, Orbitrap, and QTOF data sets. We developed user-friendly software for detecting persistent mass shifts from samples. We follow a three-step strategy for detecting unanticipated PTMs in samples. First, we identify the proteins present in the sample with a standard database search. Next, identified proteins are interrogated for unexpected PTMs with a sequence tag-based search. Finally, additional evidence is gathered for the detected mass shifts with a refinement search. Application of this technology on toxicoproteomic data sets revealed unintended cross-reactions between proteins and sample processing reagents. Twenty five proteins in rat liver showed signs of oxidative stress when exposed to potentially toxic drugs. These results demonstrate the value of mining toxicoproteomic data sets for modifications. PMID:21214251

  6. Featured Image: Revealing Hidden Objects with Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    Stunning color astronomical images can often be the motivation for astronomers to continue slogging through countless data files, calculations, and simulations as we seek to understand the mysteries of the universe. But sometimes the stunning images can, themselves, be the source of scientific discovery. This is the case with the below image of Lynds Dark Nebula 673, located in the Aquila constellation, that was captured with the Mayall 4-meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory by a team of scientists led by Travis Rector (University of Alaska Anchorage). After creating the image with a novel color-composite imaging method that reveals faint H emission (visible in red in both images here), Rector and collaborators identified the presence of a dozen new Herbig-Haro objects small cloud patches that are caused when material is energetically flung out from newly born stars. The image adapted above shows three of the new objects, HH 118789, aligned with two previously known objects, HH 32 and 332 suggesting they are driven by the same source. For more beautiful images and insight into the authors discoveries, check out the article linked below!Full view of Lynds Dark Nebula 673. Click for the larger view this beautiful composite image deserves! [T.A. Rector (University of Alaska Anchorage) and H. Schweiker (WIYN and NOAO/AURA/NSF)]CitationT. A. Rector et al 2018 ApJ 852 13. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa9ce1

  7. Feather corticosterone reveals developmental stress in seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Alexis P; Suzuki, Yuya; Elliott, Kyle H; Hatch, Scott A; Watanuki, Yutaka; Kitaysky, Alexander S

    2014-07-01

    In nest-bound avian offspring, food shortages typically trigger a release of the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT). Recent studies indicate that CORT is passively deposited in the tissue of growing feathers and thus may provide an integrated measure of stress incurred during development in the nest. The current hypothesis predicts that, assuming a constant rate of feather growth, elevated CORT circulating in the blood corresponds to higher levels of CORT in feather tissue, but experimental evidence for nutritionally stressed chicks is lacking. Here, we examined how food limitation affects feather CORT content in the rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca moncerata). We (i) used captive chicks reared on control versus restricted diets, and (ii) applied this technique to free-living chicks with unknown nutritional histories that fledged at three separate colonies. We found that (i) feather growth was not affected by experimentally induced nutritional stress; (ii) captive chicks raised on a restricted diet had higher levels of CORT in their primary feathers; (iii) feather CORT deposition is a sensitive method of detecting nutritional stress; and (iv) free-living fledglings from the colony with poor reproductive performance had higher CORT in their primary feathers. We conclude that feather CORT is a sensitive integrated measure revealing the temporal dynamics of food limitations experienced by rhinoceros auklet nestlings. The use of feather CORT may be a powerful endocrine tool in ecological and evolutionary studies of bird species with similar preferential allocation of limited resources to feather development. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. [Polymyalgia rheumatica revealing a lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocquempot, K; Defuentes, G; Duron-Martineau, S; Berets, O; Vaylet, F; Margery, J

    2013-01-01

    Polymyalgia rheumatica is an inflammatory condition belonging to the connective tissue diseases, which occurs quite frequently in the elderly. Previously, cases have been reported in association with malignant tumours, in a synchronous fashion or prior to the appearance of the cancer. In these cases, the polymyalgia rheumatica is considered to be a paraneoplastic syndrome. We report the cases of a 63-year-old woman and a 58-year-old man with severe proximal girdle pain associated to a high-level of systemic inflammatory markers and a diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica was made. In the face of a lack of ineffectiveness of analgesic and anti-inflammatory treatments, an intensive investigation was undertaken which in both cases revealed an adenocarcinoma of the lung. The rheumatic manifestations responded well to chemotherapy targeting the lung tumour. We present here a review of the literature to give prominence to the diagnostic pitfalls that can occur around paraneoplastic polymyalgia rheumatica. The presence of therapeutic resistance at the onset of treatment and other atypical features may suggest the presence of an occult malignancy. Copyright © 2012 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Determinants Of Cattle Farmers Particiaption In Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on determinants of cattle farmers particiaption in farmers organization in Hamadan province of Iran. Data was colleted from 75 randomly selected respondents with the aid of a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using percentage, mean score, analysis of variance and factor analysis. The findings revealed ...

  10. Pan Am tar sand bid revealed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, E

    1968-12-16

    Muskeg Oil Co., wholly-owned subsidiary of Pan American Canada Oil Co. Ltd., hopes to expand its proposed initial 8,000 bpd in situ Athabasca tar sand production scheme to an ultimate rate of 60,000 bpd. The Muskeg recovery process involves an in situ combustion technique developed by Pan American and applied successfully in experimental work in the Athabasca area. The underground burning process develops heat in the formation, reduces crude bitumen viscosity, and displaces the bitumen to the producing wells. Core analyses have been used to determine bitumen in place, wherever possible. Values for uncored wells were based on logs, through development of an empirical relationship between formation resistivity measured by focused logging devices and bitumen content determined by core analysis. The proposed recovery process is a 10-acre well spacing with 9-spot configuration. The McMurray Formation will be fractured hydraulically and preheated by a combustion process. The bitumen will be recovered by a combustion displacement process utilizing air and water.

  11. Slowest kinetic modes revealed by metabasin renormalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okushima, Teruaki; Niiyama, Tomoaki; Ikeda, Kensuke S.; Shimizu, Yasushi

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the slowest relaxations of complex systems, such as relaxation of glass-forming materials, diffusion in nanoclusters, and folding of biomolecules, is important for physics, chemistry, and biology. For a kinetic system, the relaxation modes are determined by diagonalizing its transition rate matrix. However, for realistic systems of interest, numerical diagonalization, as well as extracting physical understanding from the diagonalization results, is difficult due to the high dimensionality. Here, we develop an alternative and generally applicable method of extracting the long-time scale relaxation dynamics by combining the metabasin analysis of Okushima et al. [Phys. Rev. E 80, 036112 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevE.80.036112] and a Jacobi method. We test the method on an illustrative model of a four-funnel model, for which we obtain a renormalized kinematic equation of much lower dimension sufficient for determining slow relaxation modes precisely. The method is successfully applied to the vacancy transport problem in ionic nanoparticles [Niiyama et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 654, 52 (2016), 10.1016/j.cplett.2016.04.088], allowing a clear physical interpretation that the final relaxation consists of two successive, characteristic processes.

  12. Radio Telescopes Reveal Unseen Galactic Cannibalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Radio-telescope images have revealed previously-unseen galactic cannibalism -- a triggering event that leads to feeding frenzies by gigantic black holes at the cores of galaxies. Astronomers have long suspected that the extra-bright cores of spiral galaxies called Seyfert galaxies are powered by supermassive black holes consuming material. However, they could not see how the material is started on its journey toward the black hole. Optical/Radio Comparison Visible-light (left) and radio (right) image of galaxy pair: Radio image shows gas streaming between galaxies. CREDIT: Kuo et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for more graphics. One leading theory said that Seyfert galaxies have been disturbed by close encounters with neighboring galaxies, thus stirring up their gas and bringing more of it within the gravitational reach of the black hole. However, when astronomers looked at Seyferts with visible-light telescopes, only a small fraction showed any evidence of such an encounter. Now, new images of hydrogen gas in Seyferts made using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope show the majority of them are, in fact, disturbed by ongoing encounters with neighbor galaxies. "The VLA lifted the veil on what's really happening with these galaxies," said Cheng-Yu Kuo, a graduate student at the University of Virginia. "Looking at the gas in these galaxies clearly showed that they are snacking on their neighbors. This is a dramatic contrast with their appearance in visible starlight," he added. The effect of the galactic encounters is to send gas and dust toward the black hole and produce energy as the material ultimately is consumed. Black holes, concentrations of matter so dense that not even light can escape their gravitational pull, reside at the cores of many galaxies. Depending on how rapidly the black hole is eating, the galaxy can show a wide range of energetic activity. Seyfert galaxies have the mildest version of this activity, while

  13. Revealing household characteristics from smart meter data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckel, Christian; Sadamori, Leyna; Staake, Thorsten; Santini, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Utilities are currently deploying smart electricity meters in millions of households worldwide to collect fine-grained electricity consumption data. We present an approach to automatically analyzing this data to enable personalized and scalable energy efficiency programs for private households. In particular, we develop and evaluate a system that uses supervised machine learning techniques to automatically estimate specific “characteristics” of a household from its electricity consumption. The characteristics are related to a household's socio-economic status, its dwelling, or its appliance stock. We evaluate our approach by analyzing smart meter data collected from 4232 households in Ireland at a 30-min granularity over a period of 1.5 years. Our analysis shows that revealing characteristics from smart meter data is feasible, as our method achieves an accuracy of more than 70% over all households for many of the characteristics and even exceeds 80% for some of the characteristics. The findings are applicable to all smart metering systems without making changes to the measurement infrastructure. The inferred knowledge paves the way for targeted energy efficiency programs and other services that benefit from improved customer insights. On the basis of these promising results, the paper discusses the potential for utilities as well as policy and privacy implications. - Highlights: • Many household characteristics can be automatically inferred from smart meter data. • We develop a system to infer employment status and number of occupants, for instance. • We evaluate our system analyzing data collected from 4232 households in Ireland. • The insights enable personalized and scalable efficiency campaigns for utilities. • Energy efficiency measures must be complemented by privacy protection

  14. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Ray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells.

  15. Statistical metamodeling for revealing synergistic antimicrobial interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang Chia Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Many bacterial pathogens are becoming drug resistant faster than we can develop new antimicrobials. To address this threat in public health, a metamodel antimicrobial cocktail optimization (MACO scheme is demonstrated for rapid screening of potent antibiotic cocktails using uropathogenic clinical isolates as model systems. With the MACO scheme, only 18 parallel trials were required to determine a potent antimicrobial cocktail out of hundreds of possible combinations. In particular, trimethoprim and gentamicin were identified to work synergistically for inhibiting the bacterial growth. Sensitivity analysis indicated gentamicin functions as a synergist for trimethoprim, and reduces its minimum inhibitory concentration for 40-fold. Validation study also confirmed that the trimethoprim-gentamicin synergistic cocktail effectively inhibited the growths of multiple strains of uropathogenic clinical isolates. With its effectiveness and simplicity, the MACO scheme possesses the potential to serve as a generic platform for identifying synergistic antimicrobial cocktails toward management of bacterial infection in the future.

  16. Microradiometers Reveal Ocean Health, Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    When NASA researcher Stanford Hooker is in the field, he pays close attention to color. For Hooker, being in the field means being at sea. On one such research trip to the frigid waters of the Arctic, with a Coast Guard icebreaker looming nearby and the snow-crusted ice shelf a few feet away, Hooker leaned over the edge of his small boat and lowered a tethered device into the bright turquoise water, a new product devised by a NASA partner and enabled by a promising technology for oceanographers and atmospheric scientists alike. Color is a function of light. Pure water is clear, but the variation in color observed during a visit to the beach or a flight along a coastline depends on the water s depth and the constituents in it, how far down the light penetrates and how it is absorbed and scattered by dissolved and suspended material. Hooker cares about ocean color because of what it can reveal about the health of the ocean, and in turn, the health of our planet. "The main thing we are interested in is the productivity of the water," Hooker says. The seawater contains phytoplankton, microscopic plants, which are the food base for the ocean s ecosystems. Changes in the water s properties, whether due to natural seasonal effects or human influence, can lead to problems for delicate ecosystems such as coral reefs. Ocean color can inform researchers about the quantities and distribution of phytoplankton and other materials, providing clues as to how the world ocean is changing. NASA s Coastal Zone Color Scanner, launched in 1978, was the first ocean color instrument flown on a spacecraft. Since then, the Agency s ocean color research capabilities have become increasingly sophisticated with the launch of the SeaWiFS instrument in 1997 and the twin MODIS instruments carried into orbit on NASA s Terra (1999) and Aqua (2002) satellites. The technology provides sweeping, global information on ocean color on a scale unattainable by any other means. One issue that arises from

  17. Dramatic Outburst Reveals Nearest Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Sgr. The radio observations revealed the presence of a jet escaping from the system at mind-boggling speeds. Only three other galactic X-ray stellar systems have been found to eject material at such speeds. They have been dubbed "microquasars" because, on a smaller scale, they resemble quasars, which lie at the hearts of distant galaxies and also spew out high-velocity jets of particles. In galaxy-core quasars, the black holes are millions of times more massive than the Sun; in the more nearby microquasars the black holes are roughly three to twenty times more massive than the Sun. The extremely high velocity of the jets suggests that their origin lies close to the event horizon of a black hole. Microquasar activity is thought to arise when the black hole in the binary system draws material away from its companion star. The material surrounding the black hole forms a rapidly spinning disk called an accretion disk. This disk is heated by friction to millions of degrees, causing it to emit X-rays. As spiralling gas moves into the gravity well of the black hole, it moves faster and faster. Magnetic fields in the disk are believed to expel the charged subatomic particles at speeds close to that of light. As the charged particles interact with the magnetic fields, they emit radio waves. If some of the material escapes by being magnetically expelled into space, the matter may continue moving at the tremendous speed it had attained near the black hole. After their ejection, the jets of particles expand and cool, fading from astronomers' view. V4641 Sgr excites astronomers because it is close and because it acted so differently from other microquasars. In other microquasars, outbursts have dimmed more slowly over weeks or months rather than hours. "There's something fundamentally different about this one; it's more extreme than any other example," Hjellming said. "And because this system happens to be so close to us, `it is very likely that there are more objects like V4641

  18. Proteomic analysis of three gonad types of swamp eel reveals genes differentially expressed during sex reversal

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Yue; Zhao, Wei; Song, Ying; Li, Zhigang; Luo, Majing; Lei, Quan; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2015-01-01

    A variety of mechanisms are engaged in sex determination in vertebrates. The teleost fish swamp eel undergoes sex reversal naturally and is an ideal model for vertebrate sexual development. However, the importance of proteome-wide scanning for gonad reversal was not previously determined. We report a 2-D electrophoresis analysis of three gonad types of proteomes during sex reversal. MS/MS analysis revealed a group of differentially expressed proteins during ovary to ovotestis to testis transf...

  19. Small, but Determined: Technological Determinism in Nanoscience

    OpenAIRE

    Cyrus C.M. Mody

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of technological determinism by historians, sociologists, and philosophers has declined in recent years. Yet understanding this topic is necessary, particularly in examining the dynamics of emerging technologies and their associated research areas. This is especially true of nanotechnology, which, because of its roots in futurist traditions, employs unusual variants on classical determinist arguments. In particular, nanotechnology orients much more strongly to the past and future tha...

  20. Chandra Data Reveal Rapidly Whirling Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    A new study using results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory provides one of the best pieces of evidence yet that many supermassive black holes are spinning extremely rapidly. The whirling of these giant black holes drives powerful jets that pump huge amounts of energy into their environment and affects galaxy growth. A team of scientists compared leading theories of jets produced by rotating supermassive black holes with Chandra data. A sampling of nine giant galaxies that exhibit large disturbances in their gaseous atmospheres showed that the central black holes in these galaxies must be spinning at near their maximum rates. People Who Read This Also Read... NASA’s Swift Satellite Catches First Supernova in The Act of Exploding Black Holes Have Simple Feeding Habits Jet Power and Black Hole Assortment Revealed in New Chandra Image Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself "We think these monster black holes are spinning close to the limit set by Einstein's theory of relativity, which means that they can drag material around them at close to the speed of light," said Rodrigo Nemmen, a visiting graduate student at Penn State University, and lead author of a paper on the new results presented at American Astronomical Society in Austin, Texas. The research reinforces other, less direct methods previously used which have indicated that some stellar and supermassive black holes are spinning rapidly. According to Einstein's theory, a rapidly spinning black hole makes space itself rotate. This effect, coupled with gas spiraling toward the black hole, can produce a rotating, tightly wound vertical tower of magnetic field that flings a large fraction of the inflowing gas away from the vicinity of the black hole in an energetic, high-speed jet. Computer simulations by other authors have suggested that black holes may acquire their rapid spins when galaxies merge, and through the accretion of gas from their surroundings. "Extremely fast spin might be very common for large

  1. Cyp1a reporter zebrafish reveals target tissues for dioxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun-Hee [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microbiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hye-Jeong [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hee [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microbiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suhyun [Graduate School of Medicine, Korea University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Williams, Darren R. [New Drug Targets Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myeong-Kyu [Department of Neurology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young Do [Department of Biochemistry, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Teraoka, Hiroki [School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu (Japan); Park, Hae-Chul [Graduate School of Medicine, Korea University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Choy, Hyon E., E-mail: hyonchoy@chonnam.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Boo Ahn, E-mail: bashin@chonnam.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seok-Yong, E-mail: zebrafish@chonnam.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); School of Biological Sciences and Technology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: •2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is the most toxic anthropogenic substance ever identified. •Transgenic cyp1a reporter zebrafish reveals target tissues for TCDD. •The retinal bipolar cells, otic vesicle, lateral line, pancreas, cloaca and pectoral fin bud are novel targets in zebrafish for TCDD. •Our findings will further understanding of human health risks by TCDD. -- Abstract: 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is the unintentional byproduct of various industrial processes, is classified as human carcinogen and could disrupt reproductive, developmental and endocrine systems. Induction of cyp1a1 is used as an indicator of TCDD exposure. We sought to determine tissues that are vulnerable to TCDD toxicity using a transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. We inserted a nuclear enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (EGFP) into the start codon of a zebrafish cyp1a gene in a fosmid clone using DNA recombineering. The resulting recombineered fosmid was then used to generate cyp1a reporter zebrafish, embryos of which were exposed to TCDD. Expression pattern of EGFP in the reporter zebrafish mirrored that of endogenous cyp1a mRNA. In addition, exposure of the embryos to TCDD at as low as 10 pM for 72 h, which does not elicit morphological abnormalities of embryos, markedly increased GFP expression. Furthermore, the reporter embryos responded to other AhR ligands as well. Exposure of the embryos to TCDD revealed previously reported (the cardiovascular system, liver, pancreas, kidney, swim bladder and skin) and unreported target tissues (retinal bipolar cells, otic vesicle, lateral line, cloaca and pectoral fin bud) for TCDD. Transgenic cyp1a reporter zebrafish we have developed can further understanding of ecotoxicological relevance and human health risks by TCDD. In addition, they could be used to identify agonists of AhR and antidotes to TCDD toxicity.

  2. Opening the Big Black Box: European study reveals visitors' impressions of science laboratories

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "On 29 - 30 March the findings of 'Inside the Big Black Box'- a Europe-wide science and society project - will be revealed during a two-day seminar hosted by CERN*. The principle aim of Inside the Big Black Box (IN3B) is to determine whether a working scientific laboratory can capture the curiosity of the general public through visits" (1 page)

  3. A revealed-preference study of behavioural impacts of real-time traffic information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knockaert, J.S.A.; Tseng, Y.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate the impact of real-time traffic information on traveller behaviour by using repeated day-to-day revealed-preference (RP) observations from a reward experiment. We estimate a trip scheduling model of morning peak behaviour that allows us to determine the impact of

  4. Human tears reveal insights into corneal neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Nadia; Van Grasdorff, Sigi; Wouters, Kristien; Rozema, Jos; Koppen, Carina; Lion, Eva; Cools, Nathalie; Berneman, Zwi; Tassignon, Marie-José

    2012-01-01

    Corneal neovascularization results from the encroachment of blood vessels from the surrounding conjunctiva onto the normally avascular cornea. The aim of this study is to identify factors in human tears that are involved in development and/or maintenance of corneal neovascularization in humans. This could allow development of diagnostic tools for monitoring corneal neovascularization and combination monoclonal antibody therapies for its treatment. In an observational case-control study we enrolled a total of 12 patients with corneal neovascularization and 10 healthy volunteers. Basal tears along with reflex tears from the inferior fornix, superior fornix and using a corneal bath were collected along with blood serum samples. From all patients, ocular surface photographs were taken. Concentrations of the pro-angiogenic cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (MCP-1) and Fas Ligand (FasL) were determined in blood and tear samples using a flow cytometric multiplex assay. Our results show that the concentration of pro-angiogenic cytokines in human tears are significantly higher compared to their concentrations in serum, with highest levels found in basal tears. Interestingly, we could detect a significantly higher concentration of IL- 6, IL-8 and VEGF in localized corneal tears of patients with neovascularized corneas when compared to the control group. This is the first study of its kind demonstrating a significant difference of defined factors in tears from patients with neovascularized corneas as compared to healthy controls. These results provide the basis for future research using animal models to further substantiate the role of these cytokines in the establishment and maintenance of corneal neovascularization.

  5. Cave age determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    To determine the age of a cave we have to determine the age of elements which were created at the same moment when the cave was. Usually a cave is dug out by infiltration of acid waters. During this alteration process rocks free some aluminium and potassium ions. In Carlsbad and Lechuguilla caves, scientists have found alunite, this aluminium and potassium sulfate can be dated by using the carbon method of age determination. (A.C.)

  6. SIS - Status Determination

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Status Determination dataset within the Species Information System (SIS) contains information related to overfishing, overfished, and approaching overfished...

  7. Determination of cerium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepin, V.V.; Kurbatova, V.I.; Fedorova, N.D.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques of cerium determination in steels and alloys are developed. Amperometric method of determination which is based on Ce(4) titration by a solution of double salt of sulfuric Fe(2) and ammonium when cerium amount exceeds 0.01% is suggested. Cerium is oxidated to tetravalent state by KMnO 4 . The elements interfering with the determination (Cr, Ni etc.) are separated by means of deposition. When cerium content exceeds 0.005% in steels and alloys the determination is carried out using photometric method with arsenazo 3 in hydrochloric medium (pH 1.8-2.3). Optimum concentration is 5-50 μg [ru

  8. Optical tweezers reveal how proteins alter replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasiya, Kathy

    Single molecule force spectroscopy is a powerful method that explores the DNA interaction properties of proteins involved in a wide range of fundamental biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, and repair. We use optical tweezers to capture and stretch a single DNA molecule in the presence of proteins that bind DNA and alter its mechanical properties. We quantitatively characterize the DNA binding mechanisms of proteins in order to provide a detailed understanding of their function. In this work, we focus on proteins involved in replication of Escherichia coli (E. coli ), endogenous eukaryotic retrotransposons Ty3 and LINE-1, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DNA polymerases replicate the entire genome of the cell, and bind both double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) during DNA replication. The replicative DNA polymerase in the widely-studied model system E. coli is the DNA polymerase III subunit alpha (DNA pol III alpha). We use optical tweezers to determine that UmuD, a protein that regulates bacterial mutagenesis through its interactions with DNA polymerases, specifically disrupts alpha binding to ssDNA. This suggests that UmuD removes alpha from its ssDNA template to allow DNA repair proteins access to the damaged DNA, and to facilitate exchange of the replicative polymerase for an error-prone translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerase that inserts nucleotides opposite the lesions, so that bacterial DNA replication may proceed. This work demonstrates a biophysical mechanism by which E. coli cells tolerate DNA damage. Retroviruses and retrotransposons reproduce by copying their RNA genome into the nuclear DNA of their eukaryotic hosts. Retroelements encode proteins called nucleic acid chaperones, which rearrange nucleic acid secondary structure and are therefore required for successful replication. The chaperone activity of these proteins requires strong binding affinity for both single- and double-stranded nucleic

  9. Asteroids mass determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, M.

    1989-01-01

    Basic methods for asteroid mass determinations and their errors are discussed. New results and some current developments in the astrometric method are reviewed. New methods and techniques, such as electronic imaging, radar ranging and space probes are becoming important for asteroid mass determinations. Mass and density estimations on rotational properties and possible satelites are also discussed

  10. CATALYTIC KINETIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    acetylchlorophosphonazo(CPApA) by hydrogen peroxide in 0.10 M phosphoric acid. A novel catalytic kinetic-spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of copper based on this principle. Copper(II) can be determined spectrophotometrically ...

  11. Determinants of State Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiren, K.; Brouwer, E.

    2010-01-01

    From economic theory we derive a set of hypotheses on the determination of state aid. Econometric analysis on EU state aid panel data is carried out to test whether the determinants we expect on the basis of theory, correspond to the occurrence of state aid in practice in the EU. We find that

  12. Isotope analysis reveals foraging area dichotomy for atlantic leatherback turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Caut

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea has undergone a dramatic decline over the last 25 years, and this is believed to be primarily the result of mortality associated with fisheries bycatch followed by egg and nesting female harvest. Atlantic leatherback turtles undertake long migrations across ocean basins from subtropical and tropical nesting beaches to productive frontal areas. Migration between two nesting seasons can last 2 or 3 years, a time period termed the remigration interval (RI. Recent satellite transmitter data revealed that Atlantic leatherbacks follow two major dispersion patterns after nesting season, through the North Gulf Stream area or more eastward across the North Equatorial Current. However, information on the whole RI is lacking, precluding the accurate identification of feeding areas where conservation measures may need to be applied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using stable isotopes as dietary tracers we determined the characteristics of feeding grounds of leatherback females nesting in French Guiana. During migration, 3-year RI females differed from 2-year RI females in their isotope values, implying differences in their choice of feeding habitats (offshore vs. more coastal and foraging latitude (North Atlantic vs. West African coasts, respectively. Egg-yolk and blood isotope values are correlated in nesting females, indicating that egg analysis is a useful tool for assessing isotope values in these turtles, including adults when not available. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results complement previous data on turtle movements during the first year following the nesting season, integrating the diet consumed during the year before nesting. We suggest that the French Guiana leatherback population segregates into two distinct isotopic groupings, and highlight the urgent need to determine the feeding habitats of the turtle in the Atlantic in order to protect this species from incidental take by

  13. ATR confinement leakage determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuan, P.; Buescher, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    The air leakage rate from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) confinement is an important parameter in estimating hypothesized accidental releases of radiation to the environment. The leakage rate must be determined periodically to assure that the confinement has not degraded with time and such determination is one of the technical safety requirements of ATR operation. This paper reviews the methods of confinement leakage determination and presents an analysis of leakage determination under windy conditions, which can complicate the interpretation of the determined leakage rates. The paper also presents results of analyses of building air exchange under windy conditions. High wind can enhance air exchange and this could increase the release rates of radioisotopes following an accident

  14. A novel assay reveals hygrotactic behavior in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiteng Ji

    Full Text Available Humidity is one of the most important factors that determines the geographical distribution and survival of terrestrial animals. The ability to detect variation in humidity is conserved across many species. Here, we established a novel behavioral assay that revealed the thirsty Drosophila exhibits strong hygrotactic behavior, and it can locate water by detecting humidity gradient. In addition, exposure to high levels of moisture was sufficient to elicit proboscis extension reflex behavior in thirsty flies. Furthermore, we found that the third antennal segment was necessary for hygrotactic behavior in thirsty flies, while arista was required for the avoidance of moist air in hydrated flies. These results indicated that two types of hygroreceptor cells exist in Drosophila: one located in the third antennal segment that mediates hygrotactic behavior in thirst status, and the other located in arista which is responsible for the aversive behavior toward moist air in hydration status. Using a neural silencing screen, we demonstrated that synaptic output from the mushroom body α/β surface and posterior neurons was required for both hygrotactic behavior and moisture-aversive behavior.

  15. Kinematics of Mass Transport Deposits revealed by magnetic fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, R.; Levi, T.; Alsop, G. I.; Marco, S.

    2017-08-01

    The internal deformation and movement directions of Mass Transport Deposits (MTDs) are key factors in understanding the kinematics and dynamics of their emplacement. Although these are relatively easy to recover from well-bedded sediments, they are more difficult to deduce from massive beds without visible strain markers. In order to test the applicability of using anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) to determine MTD movement, we compare AMS fabrics, with structural measurements of visible kinematic indicators. Our case study involves the structural analysis of slumped lake sediments extensively exposed in MTDs within the Dead Sea Basin. Structural analyses of MTDs outcropping for >100 km reveal radial transport directions toward the basin depocenter. We show that the AMS fabrics display the same transport directions as inferred from structural analyses. Based on this similarity, we outline a robust procedure to obtain the transport direction of slumped MTDs from AMS fabrics. Variations in the magnetic fabrics and anisotropies in fold-thrust systems within the slumps match the various structural domains. We therefore suggest that magnetic fabrics and anisotropy variations in drill cores may reflect internal deformation within the slumps rather than different slumps. Obtaining magnetic fabrics from MTDs provides a viable way to infer the transport directions and internal deformation of MTDs and reconstruct the basin depocenter in ancient settings. The present results also have implications beyond the kinematics of MTDs, as their geometry resembles fold-thrust systems in other geological settings, scales, and tectonic environments.

  16. Urine Metabonomics Reveals Early Biomarkers in Diabetic Cognitive Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lili; Zhuang, Pengwei; Lin, Mengya; Kang, Mingqin; Liu, Hongyue; Zhang, Yuping; Yang, Zhen; Chen, Yunlong; Zhang, Yanjun

    2017-09-01

    Recently, increasing attention has been paid to diabetic encephalopathy, which is a frequent diabetic complication and affects nearly 30% of diabetics. Because cognitive dysfunction from diabetic encephalopathy might develop into irreversible dementia, early diagnosis and detection of this disease is of great significance for its prevention and treatment. This study is to investigate the early specific metabolites biomarkers in urine prior to the onset of diabetic cognitive dysfunction (DCD) by using metabolomics technology. An ultra-high performance liquid-chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS) platform was used to analyze the urine samples from diabetic mice that were associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and nonassociated with MCI in the stage of diabetes (prior to the onset of DCD). We then screened and validated the early biomarkers using OPLS-DA model and support vector machine (SVM) method. Following multivariate statistical and integration analysis, we found that seven metabolites could be accepted as early biomarkers of DCD, and the SVM results showed that the prediction accuracy is as high as 91.66%. The identities of four biomarkers were determined by mass spectrometry. The identified biomarkers were largely involved in nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, glutathione metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, and sphingolipid metabolism. The present study first revealed reliable biomarkers for early diagnosis of DCD. It provides new insight and strategy for the early diagnosis and treatment of DCD.

  17. Molecular analysis of sourdough reveals Lactobacillus mindensis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrmann, Matthias A; Müller, Martin R A; Vogel, Rudi F

    2003-01-01

    Genotypic fingerprinting to analyse the bacterial flora of an industrial sourdough revealed a coherent group of strains which could not be associated with a valid species. Comparative 16S rDNA sequence analysis showed that these strains formed a homogeneous cluster distinct from their closest relatives, Lactobacillus farciminis, Lactobacillus alimentarius and Lactobacillus kimchii. To characterize them further, physiological (sugar fermentation, formation of DL-lactate, hydrolysis of arginine, growth temperature, CO2 production) and chemotaxonomic properties have been determined. The DNA G +C content was 37.5 0.2 mol%. The peptidoglycan was of the lysine-D-iso-asparagine (L-Lys-D-Asp) type. The strains were homofermentative, Gram-positive, catalase-negative, non-spore-forming, non-motile rods. They were found as a major stable component of a rye flour sourdough fermentation. Physiological, biochemical as well as genotypic data suggested them to be a new species of the genus Lactobacillus. This was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization of genomic DNA, and the name Lactobacillus mindensis is proposed. The type strain of this species is DSM 14500T (=LMG 21508T).

  18. Frustration-guided motion planning reveals conformational transitions in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budday, Dominik; Fonseca, Rasmus; Leyendecker, Sigrid; van den Bedem, Henry

    2017-10-01

    Proteins exist as conformational ensembles, exchanging between substates to perform their function. Advances in experimental techniques yield unprecedented access to structural snapshots of their conformational landscape. However, computationally modeling how proteins use collective motions to transition between substates is challenging owing to a rugged landscape and large energy barriers. Here, we present a new, robotics-inspired motion planning procedure called dCC-RRT that navigates the rugged landscape between substates by introducing dynamic, interatomic constraints to modulate frustration. The constraints balance non-native contacts and flexibility, and instantaneously redirect the motion towards sterically favorable conformations. On a test set of eight proteins determined in two conformations separated by, on average, 7.5 Å root mean square deviation (RMSD), our pathways reduced the Cα atom RMSD to the goal conformation by 78%, outperforming peer methods. We then applied dCC-RRT to examine how collective, small-scale motions of four side-chains in the active site of cyclophilin A propagate through the protein. dCC-RRT uncovered a spatially contiguous network of residues linked by steric interactions and collective motion connecting the active site to a recently proposed, non-canonical capsid binding site 25 Å away, rationalizing NMR and multi-temperature crystallography experiments. In all, dCC-RRT can reveal detailed, all-atom molecular mechanisms for small and large amplitude motions. Source code and binaries are freely available at https://github.com/ExcitedStates/KGS/. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Spatial Congruity Effects Reveal Metaphorical Thinking, not Polarity Correspondence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolscheid, Sarah; Casasanto, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Spatial congruity effects have often been interpreted as evidence for metaphorical thinking, but an alternative account based on polarity correspondence (a.k.a. markedness) has challenged this view. Here we compared metaphor- and polarity-correspondence-based explanations for spatial congruity effects, using musical pitch as a testbed. In one experiment, English speakers classified high- and low-frequency pitches as "high" and "low," or as "front" and "back," to determine whether space-pitch congruity effects could be elicited by any marked spatial continuum. Although both pairs of terms describe bipolar spatial continuums, we found congruity effects only for high/low judgments, indicating that markedness is not sufficient to produce space-pitch congruity effects. A second experiment confirmed that there were no space-pitch congruity effects for another pair of terms that have clear markedness (big/small), but which do not denote spatial height. By contrast, this experiment showed congruity effects for words that cued an appropriate vertical spatial schema (tall/short), even though these words are not used conventionally in English to describe pitches, ruling out explanations for the observed pattern of results based on verbal polysemy. Together, results suggest that space-pitch congruity effects reveal metaphorical uses of spatial schemas, not polarity correspondence effects.

  20. Spatial congruity effects reveal metaphorical thinking, not polarity correspondence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eDolscheid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Spatial congruity effects have often been interpreted as evidence for metaphorical thinking, but an alternative account based on polarity correspondence (a.k.a. markedness has challenged this view. Here we compared metaphor- and polarity-correspondence-based explanations for spatial congruity effects, using musical pitch as a testbed. In one experiment, English speakers classified high- and low-frequency pitches as high and low, or as front and back, to determine whether space-pitch congruity effects could be elicited by any marked spatial continuum. Although both pairs of terms describe bipolar spatial continuums, we found congruity effects only for high/low judgments, indicating that markedness is not sufficient to produce space-pitch congruity effects. A second experiment confirmed that there were no space-pitch congruity effects for another pair of terms that have clear markedness (big/small, but which do not denote spatial height. By contrast, this experiment showed congruity effects for words that cued an appropriate vertical spatial schema (tall/short, even though these words are not used conventionally in English to describe pitches, ruling out explanations for the observed pattern of results based on verbal polysemy. Together, results suggest that space-pitch congruity effects reveal metaphorical uses of spatial schemas, not polarity correspondence effects.

  1. Algal genomes reveal evolutionary mosaicism and the fate of nucleomorphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Bruce A.; Tanifuji, Goro; Burki, Fabien; Gruber, Ansgar; Irimia, Manuuel; Maruyama, Shinichiro; Arias, Maria C.; Ball, Steven G.; Gile, Gillian H.; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Hopkins, Julia F.; Kuo, Alan; Rensing, Stefan A.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Symeonidi, Aikaterini; Elias, Marek; Eveleigh, Robert J. M.; Herman, Emily K.; Klute, Mary J.; Nakayama, Takuro; Obornik, Miroslav; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Armbrust, E. Virginia; Aves, Stephen J.; Beiko, Robert G.; Coutinho, Pedro; Dacks, Joel B.; Durnford, Dion G.; Fast, Naomi M.; Green, Beverley R.; Grisdale, Cameron J.; Hempel, Franziska; Henrissat, Bernard; Hoppner, Marc P.; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Kim, Eunsoo; Koreny, Ludek; Kroth, Peter G.; Liu, Yuan; Malik, Shehre-Banoo; Maier, Uwe G.; McRose, Darcy; Mock, Thomas; Neilson, Jonathan A. D.; Onodera, Naoko T.; Poole, Anthony M.; Pritham, Ellen J.; Richards, Thomas A.; Rocap, Gabrielle; Roy, Scott W.; Sarai, Chihiro; Schaack, Sarah; Shirato, Shu; Slamovits, Claudio H.; Spencer, Davie F.; Suzuki, Shigekatsu; Worden, Alexandra Z.; Zauner, Stefan; Barry, Kerrie; Bell, Callum; Bharti, Arvind K.; Crow, John A.; Grimwood, Jane; Kramer, Robin; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Salamov, Asaf; McFadden, Geoffrey I.; Lane, Christopher E.; Keeling, Patrick J.; Gray, Michael W.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Archibald, John M.

    2012-08-10

    Cryptophyte and chlorarachniophyte algae are transitional forms in the widespread secondary endosymbiotic acquisition of photosynthesis by engulfment of eukaryotic algae. Unlike most secondary plastid-bearing algae, miniaturized versions of the endosymbiont nuclei (nucleomorphs) persist in cryptophytes and chlorarachniophytes. To determine why, and to address other fundamental questions about eukaryote eukaryote endosymbiosis, we sequenced the nuclear genomes of the cryptophyte Guillardia theta and the chlorarachniophyte Bigelowiella natans. Both genomes have 21,000 protein genes and are intron rich, and B. natans exhibits unprecedented alternative splicing for a single-celled organism. Phylogenomic analyses and subcellular targeting predictions reveal extensive genetic and biochemical mosaicism, with both host- and endosymbiont-derived genes servicing the mitochondrion, the host cell cytosol, the plastid and the remnant endosymbiont cytosol of both algae. Mitochondrion-to-nucleus gene transfer still occurs in both organisms but plastid-to-nucleus and nucleomorph-to-nucleus transfers do not, which explains why a small residue of essential genes remains locked in each nucleomorph.

  2. Determinants of Actor Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris

    Industrial companies must exercise influence on their suppliers (or supplier actors). Actor rationality is a central theme connected to this management task. In this article, relevant literature is studied with the purpose of shedding light on determinants of actor rationality. Two buyer-supplier...... relations are investigated in a multiple case study, leading to the proposal of various additional factors that determine and shape actor rationality. Moreover a conceptual model of rationality determinants in the buyer-supplier relation is proposed, a model that may help supply managers analyse...

  3. Comparative genomics reveals diversity among xanthomonads infecting tomato and pepper

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Potnis, Neha

    2011-03-11

    Abstract Background Bacterial spot of tomato and pepper is caused by four Xanthomonas species and is a major plant disease in warm humid climates. The four species are distinct from each other based on physiological and molecular characteristics. The genome sequence of strain 85-10, a member of one of the species, Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xcv) has been previously reported. To determine the relationship of the four species at the genome level and to investigate the molecular basis of their virulence and differing host ranges, draft genomic sequences of members of the other three species were determined and compared to strain 85-10. Results We sequenced the genomes of X. vesicatoria (Xv) strain 1111 (ATCC 35937), X. perforans (Xp) strain 91-118 and X. gardneri (Xg) strain 101 (ATCC 19865). The genomes were compared with each other and with the previously sequenced Xcv strain 85-10. In addition, the molecular features were predicted that may be required for pathogenicity including the type III secretion apparatus, type III effectors, other secretion systems, quorum sensing systems, adhesins, extracellular polysaccharide, and lipopolysaccharide determinants. Several novel type III effectors from Xg strain 101 and Xv strain 1111 genomes were computationally identified and their translocation was validated using a reporter gene assay. A homolog to Ax21, the elicitor of XA21-mediated resistance in rice, and a functional Ax21 sulfation system were identified in Xcv. Genes encoding proteins with functions mediated by type II and type IV secretion systems have also been compared, including enzymes involved in cell wall deconstruction, as contributors to pathogenicity. Conclusions Comparative genomic analyses revealed considerable diversity among bacterial spot pathogens, providing new insights into differences and similarities that may explain the diverse nature of these strains. Genes specific to pepper pathogens, such as the O-antigen of the lipopolysaccharide cluster

  4. Calcium and magnesium determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    The roles of calcium and magnesium in human health and disease have been extensively studied. Calcium and magnesium have been determined in biological specimens by atomic absorption spectroscopy using stiochiometric nitrous oxide-acetylene flame

  5. Commentary Sex determination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR G

    2008-01-31

    ZW is reserved for female heterogamety.) The Radder et al study used lab incubation regimes that mimic temperature profiles of cool natural nests, so temperature probably determines sex at least occasionally in nature.

  6. Robust Growth Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Doppelhofer, Gernot; Weeks, Melvyn

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the robustness of determinants of economic growth in the presence of model uncertainty, parameter heterogeneity and outliers. The robust model averaging approach introduced in the paper uses a flexible and parsi- monious mixture modeling that allows for fat-tailed errors compared to the normal benchmark case. Applying robust model averaging to growth determinants, the paper finds that eight out of eighteen variables found to be significantly related to economic growth ...

  7. Health determinants and podiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, B S

    2001-09-01

    Public health and podiatry have a natural union both through historical development and a shared interest in prevention. Podiatry is considered in terms of health determinants such as income, social support, education and environment. The author considers that podiatry has a constructive role to play in the improvement of health and well-being in terms of the previously unrecognised relationship of the profession to the determinants of health and population health promotion.

  8. Determining postural stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Erez (Inventor); Forth, Katharine E. (Inventor); Paloski, William H. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for determining postural stability of a person can include acquiring a plurality of pressure data points over a period of time from at least one pressure sensor. The method can also include the step of identifying a postural state for each pressure data point to generate a plurality of postural states. The method can include the step of determining a postural state of the person at a point in time based on at least the plurality of postural states.

  9. Emergency operation determination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Tetsushi.

    1993-01-01

    The system of the present invention can determine an emergency operation coping with abnormal events occurring during nuclear plant operation without replying on an operator's judgement. That is, the system of the present invention comprises an intelligence base which divides and classifies the aims of the plant operation for the function, structure and operation manual and puts them into network. Degree of attainment for the extend of the status normality is determined on every aim of operation based on various kinds of measured data during plant operation. For a degree of attainment within a predetermined range, it is judged that an emergency operation is possible although this is in an abnormal state. Degree of emergency is determined by a fuzzy theory based on the degree of attainment, variation coefficient for the degree of attainment and the sensitivity to external disturbance as parameters. Priority for the degree of emergency on every operation aims is determined by comparison. Normality is successively checked for the determined operation aims. As a result, equipments as objects of abnormality suppressing operation are specified, and the operation amount of the equipments as objects are determined so that the measuring data are within a predetermined range. (I.S.)

  10. Labor Market Structure and Salary Determination among Professional Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Michael

    1988-01-01

    The author investigates the labor market structure and determinants of salaries for professional basketball players. An expanded version of the resource perspective is used. A three-tiered model of labor market segmentation is revealed for professional basketball players, but other variables also are important in salary determination. (Author/CH)

  11. Determination method of radiostrontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This manual provides determination methods of strontium-90 and strontium-89 in the environment released from nuclear facilities, and it is a revised edition of the previous manual published in 1974. As for the preparation method of radiation counting sample, ion exchange method, oxalate separation method and solvent extraction method were adopted in addition to the method of fuming nitric acid separation adopted in the previous edition. Strontium-90 is determined by the separation and radioactivity determination of yttrium-90 in radioequilibrium with strontium-90. Strontium-89 is determined by subtraction of radioactivity of strontium-90 plus yttrium-90 from gross radioactivity of isolated strontium carbonate. Radioactivity determination should be carried out with a low-background 2 π-gas-flow counting system for the mounted sample on a filter having a chemical form of ferric hydroxide, yttrium oxalate or strontium carbonate. This manual describes sample preparation procedures as well as radioactivity counting procedures for environmental samples of precipitates as rain or snow, airborne dust, fresh water, sea water and soil, and also for ash sample made from biological or food samples such as grains, vegetables, tea leaves, pine needle, milk, marine organisms, and total diet, by employing a method of fuming nitric acid separation, ion exchange separation, oxalate precipitate separation or solvent extraction separation (only for an ash sample). Procedures for reagent chemicals preparation is also attached to this manual. (Takagi, S.)

  12. Statistical Attitude Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, F. Landis

    2010-01-01

    All spacecraft require attitude determination at some level of accuracy. This can be a very coarse requirement of tens of degrees, in order to point solar arrays at the sun, or a very fine requirement in the milliarcsecond range, as required by Hubble Space Telescope. A toolbox of attitude determination methods, applicable across this wide range, has been developed over the years. There have been many advances in the thirty years since the publication of Reference, but the fundamentals remain the same. One significant change is that onboard attitude determination has largely superseded ground-based attitude determination, due to the greatly increased power of onboard computers. The availability of relatively inexpensive radiation-hardened microprocessors has led to the development of "smart" sensors, with autonomous star trackers being the first spacecraft application. Another new development is attitude determination using interferometry of radio signals from the Global Positioning System (GPS) constellation. This article reviews both the classic material and these newer developments at approximately the level of, with emphasis on. methods suitable for use onboard a spacecraft. We discuss both "single frame" methods that are based on measurements taken at a single point in time, and sequential methods that use information about spacecraft dynamics to combine the information from a time series of measurements.

  13. Airborne geoid determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Bastos, L.

    2000-01-01

    Airborne geoid mapping techniques may provide the opportunity to improve the geoid over vast areas of the Earth, such as polar areas, tropical jungles and mountainous areas, and provide an accurate "seam-less" geoid model across most coastal regions. Determination of the geoid by airborne methods...... relies on the development of airborne gravimetry, which in turn is dependent on developments in kinematic GPS. Routine accuracy of airborne gravimetry are now at the 2 mGal level, which may translate into 5-10 cm geoid accuracy on regional scales. The error behaviour of airborne gravimetry is well......-suited for geoid determination, with high-frequency survey and downward continuation noise being offset by the low-pass gravity to geoid filtering operation. In the paper the basic principles of airborne geoid determination are outlined, and examples of results of recent airborne gravity and geoid surveys...

  14. Spacecraft Attitude Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas

    This thesis describes the development of an attitude determination system for spacecraft based only on magnetic field measurements. The need for such system is motivated by the increased demands for inexpensive, lightweight solutions for small spacecraft. These spacecraft demands full attitude...... determination based on simple, reliable sensors. Meeting these objectives with a single vector magnetometer is difficult and requires temporal fusion of data in order to avoid local observability problems. In order to guaranteed globally nonsingular solutions, quaternions are generally the preferred attitude...... is a detailed study of the influence of approximations in the modeling of the system. The quantitative effects of errors in the process and noise statistics are discussed in detail. The third contribution is the introduction of these methods to the attitude determination on-board the Ørsted satellite...

  15. Fluorescence uranium determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Cellini, R.; Crus Castillo, F. de la; Barrera Pinero, R.

    1960-01-01

    An equipment for analysis of uranium by fluorescence was developed in order to determine it at such a low concentration that it can not be determined by the most sensible analytical methods. this new fluorimeter was adapted to measure the fluorescence emitted by the phosphorus sodium fluoride-sodium carbonate-potasium carbonate-uranyl, being excited by ultraviolet light of 3,650 A the intensity of the light emitted was measure with a photomultiplicator RCA 5819 and the adequate electronic equipment. (Author) 19 refs

  16. Plasma beta HCG determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, L.B.D.; Pinto, J.C.M.; Linhares, E.; Linhares, Estevao

    1981-01-01

    There are three important indications for the early diagnosis of pregnancy through the determination of the beta sub-unit of chorionic gonadotrophin using radioimmunoassay: 1) some patient's or doctor's anxiety to discover the problem; 2) when it will be necessary to employ diagnostic or treatment procedures susceptible to affect the ovum; and 3) in the differential diagnosis of amenorrhoea, uterine hemorrhage and abdominal tumors. Other user's are the diagnosis of missed absortion, and the diagnosis and follow-up of chrorioncarcinoma. The AA. studied 200 determinations of plasma beta-HCG, considering the main difficulties occuring in the clinical use of this relevant laboratory tool in actual Obstetrics. (author) [pt

  17. Determining gold content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.G.; Wormald, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    A method for determining the gold content of a material, comprises irradiating a body of the material with neutrons and determining the intensity of γ-rays having an energy of 279 keV arising from the reaction 179 Au(nn') 179 Au → 279 keV. The apparatus has means for conveying the materials past an assembly, which has a neutron source, which does not produce neutrons having sufficient energy to excite fast neutron reactions in non-auriferous constituents. (author)

  18. Are risks quantitatively determinable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buetzer, P.

    1985-01-01

    ''Chemical risks'' can only be determined with accurate figures in a few extraordinary cases. The difficulties lie, as has been shown by the example of the Flixborough catastrophe, mostly in the determination of the probabilities of occurrence. With a rough semiquantitative estimate of the potential hazards and the corresponding probabilities we can predict the risks with astonishing accuracy. Statistical data from incidents in the chemical industry are very useful, and they also show that ''chemical catastrophes'' are only to a very small extent initiated by uncontrolled chemical reactions. (orig.) [de

  19. Saturn's Internal Magnetic Field Revealed by Cassini Grand Finale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, H.; Dougherty, M. K.; Khurana, K. K.; Hunt, G. J.; Provan, G.; Kellock, S.; Burton, M. E.; Burk, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Saturn's internal magnetic field has been puzzling since the first in-situ measurements during the Pioneer 11 Saturn flyby. Cassini magnetometer measurements prior to the Grand Finale phase established 1) the highly axisymmetric nature of Saturn's internal magnetic field with a dipole tilt smaller than 0.06 degrees, 2) at least an order of magnitude slower secular variation rate compared to that of the current geomagnetic field, and 3) expulsion of magnetic fluxes from the equatorial region towards high latitude. The highly axisymmetric nature of Saturn's intrinsic magnetic field not only challenges dynamo theory but also makes an accurate determination of the interior rotation rate of Saturn extremely difficult. The Cassini spacecraft entered the Grand Finale phase in April 2017, during which time the spacecraft dived through the gap between Saturn's atmosphere and the inner edge of the D-ring 22 times before descending into the deep atmosphere of Saturn. The unprecedented proximity to Saturn (reaching 2500 km above the cloud deck) and the highly inclined nature of the Grand Finale orbits provided an ideal opportunity to decode Saturn's internal magnetic field. The fluxgate magnetometer onboard Cassini made precise vector measurements during the Grand Finale phase. Magnetic signals from the interior of the planet, the magnetospheric ring current, the high-latitude field-aligned current (FAC) modulated by the 10.7 hour planetary period oscillation, and low-latitude FACs were observed during the Grand Finale phase. Here we report the magnetometer measurements during the Cassini Grand Finale phase, new features of Saturn's internal magnetic field revealed by these measurements (e.g., the high degree magnetic moments of Saturn, the level of axisymmetry beyond dipole), and implications for the deep interior of Saturn.

  20. Drought sensitivity of Amazonian carbon balance revealed by atmospheric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, L. V.; Gloor, M.; Miller, J. B.; Doughty, C. E.; Malhi, Y.; Domingues, L. G.; Basso, L. S.; Martinewski, A.; Correia, C. S. C.; Borges, V. F.; Freitas, S.; Braz, R.; Anderson, L. O.; Rocha, H.; Grace, J.; Phillips, O. L.; Lloyd, J.

    2014-02-01

    Feedbacks between land carbon pools and climate provide one of the largest sources of uncertainty in our predictions of global climate. Estimates of the sensitivity of the terrestrial carbon budget to climate anomalies in the tropics and the identification of the mechanisms responsible for feedback effects remain uncertain. The Amazon basin stores a vast amount of carbon, and has experienced increasingly higher temperatures and more frequent floods and droughts over the past two decades. Here we report seasonal and annual carbon balances across the Amazon basin, based on carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide measurements for the anomalously dry and wet years 2010 and 2011, respectively. We find that the Amazon basin lost 0.48+/-0.18 petagrams of carbon per year (PgCyr-1) during the dry year but was carbon neutral (0.06+/-0.1PgCyr-1) during the wet year. Taking into account carbon losses from fire by using carbon monoxide measurements, we derived the basin net biome exchange (that is, the carbon flux between the non-burned forest and the atmosphere) revealing that during the dry year, vegetation was carbon neutral. During the wet year, vegetation was a net carbon sink of 0.25+/-0.14PgCyr-1, which is roughly consistent with the mean long-term intact-forest biomass sink of 0.39+/-0.10PgCyr-1 previously estimated from forest censuses. Observations from Amazonian forest plots suggest the suppression of photosynthesis during drought as the primary cause for the 2010 sink neutralization. Overall, our results suggest that moisture has an important role in determining the Amazonian carbon balance. If the recent trend of increasing precipitation extremes persists, the Amazon may become an increasing carbon source as a result of both emissions from fires and the suppression of net biome exchange by drought.

  1. Genome size analyses of Pucciniales reveal the largest fungal genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Sílvia; Ramos, Ana Paula; Pires, Ana Sofia; Azinheira, Helena G; Caldeirinha, Patrícia; Link, Tobias; Abranches, Rita; Silva, Maria do Céu; Voegele, Ralf T; Loureiro, João; Talhinhas, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi (Basidiomycota, Pucciniales) are biotrophic plant pathogens which exhibit diverse complexities in their life cycles and host ranges. The completion of genome sequencing of a few rust fungi has revealed the occurrence of large genomes. Sequencing efforts for other rust fungi have been hampered by uncertainty concerning their genome sizes. Flow cytometry was recently applied to estimate the genome size of a few rust fungi, and confirmed the occurrence of large genomes in this order (averaging 225.3 Mbp, while the average for Basidiomycota was 49.9 Mbp and was 37.7 Mbp for all fungi). In this work, we have used an innovative and simple approach to simultaneously isolate nuclei from the rust and its host plant in order to estimate the genome size of 30 rust species by flow cytometry. Genome sizes varied over 10-fold, from 70 to 893 Mbp, with an average genome size value of 380.2 Mbp. Compared to the genome sizes of over 1800 fungi, Gymnosporangium confusum possesses the largest fungal genome ever reported (893.2 Mbp). Moreover, even the smallest rust genome determined in this study is larger than the vast majority of fungal genomes (94%). The average genome size of the Pucciniales is now of 305.5 Mbp, while the average Basidiomycota genome size has shifted to 70.4 Mbp and the average for all fungi reached 44.2 Mbp. Despite the fact that no correlation could be drawn between the genome sizes, the phylogenomics or the life cycle of rust fungi, it is interesting to note that rusts with Fabaceae hosts present genomes clearly larger than those with Poaceae hosts. Although this study comprises only a small fraction of the more than 7000 rust species described, it seems already evident that the Pucciniales represent a group where genome size expansion could be a common characteristic. This is in sharp contrast to sister taxa, placing this order in a relevant position in fungal genomics research.

  2. Mesoscopic organization reveals the constraints governing Caenorhabditis elegans nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Pan

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges in biology is to understand how activity at the cellular level of neurons, as a result of their mutual interactions, leads to the observed behavior of an organism responding to a variety of environmental stimuli. Investigating the intermediate or mesoscopic level of organization in the nervous system is a vital step towards understanding how the integration of micro-level dynamics results in macro-level functioning. The coordination of many different co-occurring processes at this level underlies the command and control of overall network activity. In this paper, we have considered the somatic nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, for which the entire neuronal connectivity diagram is known. We focus on the organization of the system into modules, i.e., neuronal groups having relatively higher connection density compared to that of the overall network. We show that this mesoscopic feature cannot be explained exclusively in terms of considerations such as, optimizing for resource constraints (viz., total wiring cost and communication efficiency (i.e., network path length. Even including information about the genetic relatedness of the cells cannot account for the observed modular structure. Comparison with other complex networks designed for efficient transport (of signals or resources implies that neuronal networks form a distinct class. This suggests that the principal function of the network, viz., processing of sensory information resulting in appropriate motor response, may be playing a vital role in determining the connection topology. Using modular spectral analysis we make explicit the intimate relation between function and structure in the nervous system. This is further brought out by identifying functionally critical neurons purely on the basis of patterns of intra- and inter-modular connections. Our study reveals how the design of the nervous system reflects several constraints, including

  3. Can technology improve intershift report? What the research reveals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strople, Bernadette; Ottani, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Shift report is a multifaceted process that serves to provide nurses with vital patient information to facilitate clinical decisions and patient care planning. A shift report also provides nurses with a forum for functions, such as patient problem solving and collaboration. The authors conducted a literature review, which indicates that current methodologies used to collect and convey patient information are ineffective and may contribute to negative patient outcomes. Data incongruence, legal implications, time constraints augmented by the nursing shortage, and the financial impact of shift report are also addressed. The literature reveals significant rationale for pioneering new and innovative methods of shift-to-shift communication. In the report To Err is Human: Building a Safe Health System, the Institute of Medicine attributes the deaths of up to 98,000 hospitalized Americans to medical errors, including communication failures [Institute of Medicine. (1999). To err is human: Building a safe health system. Report by the Committee on Quality of Health Care in America. Washington, DC: National Academy Press]. As a result, government policy makers and health care agencies have focused their attention on determining the root cause of errors to identify preventative measures, including the use of information technology [Institute of Medicine. (2004). Keeping patients safe: Transforming the work environment of nurses. Report by the Committee on Quality of Health Care in America. Washington, DC: National Academy Press]. Under these premises, the authors examined the process of nursing shift report and how it impacts patient outcomes. The use of computer technology and wireless modes of communication is explored as a means of improving the shift report process and, subsequently, health care outcomes and patient safety.

  4. Intersubject information mapping: revealing canonical representations of complex natural stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Kriegeskorte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Real-world time-continuous stimuli such as video promise greater naturalism for studies of brain function. However, modeling the stimulus variation is challenging and introduces a bias in favor of particular descriptive dimensions. Alternatively, we can look for brain regions whose signal is correlated between subjects, essentially using one subject to model another. Intersubject correlation mapping (ICM allows us to find brain regions driven in a canonical manner across subjects by a complex natural stimulus. However, it requires a direct voxel-to-voxel match between the spatiotemporal activity patterns and is thus only sensitive to common activations sufficiently extended to match up in Talairach space (or in an alternative, e.g. cortical-surface-based, common brain space. Here we introduce the more general approach of intersubject information mapping (IIM. For each brain region, IIM determines how much information is shared between the subjects' local spatiotemporal activity patterns. We estimate the intersubject mutual information using canonical correlation analysis applied to voxels within a spherical searchlight centered on each voxel in turn. The intersubject information estimate is invariant to linear transforms including spatial rearrangement of the voxels within the searchlight. This invariance to local encoding will be crucial in exploring fine-grained brain representations, which cannot be matched up in a common space and, more fundamentally, might be unique to each individual – like fingerprints. IIM yields a continuous brain map, which reflects intersubject information in fine-grained patterns. Performed on data from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of subjects viewing the same television show, IIM and ICM both highlighted sensory representations, including primary visual and auditory cortices. However, IIM revealed additional regions in higher association cortices, namely temporal pole and orbitofrontal cortex. These

  5. Heterogeneity in Neutrophil Microparticles Reveals Distinct Proteome and Functional Properties*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalli, Jesmond; Montero-Melendez, Trinidad; Norling, Lucy V; Yin, Xiaoke; Hinds, Charles; Haskard, Dorian; Mayr, Manuel; Perretti, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Altered plasma neutrophil microparticle levels have recently been implicated in a number of vascular and inflammatory diseases, yet our understanding of their actions is very limited. Herein, we investigate the proteome of neutrophil microparticles in order to shed light on their biological actions. Stimulation of human neutrophils, either in suspension or adherent to an endothelial monolayer, led to the production of microparticles containing >400 distinct proteins with only 223 being shared by the two subsets. For instance, postadherent microparticles were enriched in alpha-2 macroglobulin and ceruloplasmin, whereas microparticles produced by neutrophils in suspension were abundant in heat shock 70 kDa protein 1. Annexin A1 and lactotransferrin were expressed in both microparticle subsets. We next determined relative abundance of these proteins in three types of human microparticle samples: healthy volunteer plasma, plasma of septic patients and skin blister exudates finding that these proteins were differentially expressed on neutrophil microparticles from these samples reflecting in part the expression profiles we found in vitro. Functional assessment of the neutrophil microparticles subsets demonstrated that in response to direct stimulation neutrophil microparticles produced reactive oxygen species and leukotriene B4 as well as locomoted toward a chemotactic gradient. Finally, we investigated the actions of the two neutrophil microparticles subsets described herein on target cell responses. Microarray analysis with human primary endothelial cells incubated with either microparticle subset revealed a discrete modulation of endothelial cell gene expression profile. These findings demonstrate that neutrophil microparticles are heterogenous and can deliver packaged information propagating the activation status of the parent cell, potentially exerting novel and fundamental roles both under homeostatic and disease conditions. PMID:23660474

  6. Particle size determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    A specification is given for an apparatus to provide a completely automatic testing cycle to determine the proportion of particles of less than a predetermined size in one of a number of fluid suspensions. Monitoring of the particle concentration during part of the process can be carried out by an x-ray source and detector. (U.K.)

  7. Determining TOC in Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Thomas J.

    1977-01-01

    The instrumental method for detecting total organic carbon (TOC) in water samples is detailed. The method's limitations are discussed and certain precautions that must be taken are emphasized. The subject of TOC versus COD and BOD is investigated and TOC is determined to be a valid indication of biological demand. (BT)

  8. Determining average yarding distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger H. Twito; Charles N. Mann

    1979-01-01

    Emphasis on environmental and esthetic quality in timber harvesting has brought about increased use of complex boundaries of cutting units and a consequent need for a rapid and accurate method of determining the average yarding distance and area of these units. These values, needed for evaluation of road and landing locations in planning timber harvests, are easily and...

  9. SHORT COMMUNICATION POTENTIOMETRIC DETERMINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    SHORT COMMUNICATION. POTENTIOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF K+ IONS USING A K+-SELECTIVE. ELECTRODE WITH MACROCYCLIC LIQUID MEMBRANE. Cezar Spinu*, Marian Isvoranu, Maria Pleniceanu and Cristian Tigae. Faculty of Chemistry, University of Craiova, A.I. Cuza 13, Craiova, Romania. (Received ...

  10. Waste Determination Equivalency - 12172

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Rebecca D. [Savannah River Remediation (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility encompassing approximately 800 square kilometers near Aiken, South Carolina which began operations in the 1950's with the mission to produce nuclear materials. The SRS contains fifty-one tanks (2 stabilized, 49 yet to be closed) distributed between two liquid radioactive waste storage facilities at SRS containing carbon steel underground tanks with storage capacities ranging from 2,800,000 to 4,900,000 liters. Treatment of the liquid waste from these tanks is essential both to closing older tanks and to maintaining space needed to treat the waste that is eventually vitrified or disposed of onsite. Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA) provides the Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), a methodology to determine that certain waste resulting from prior reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel are not high-level radioactive waste if it can be demonstrated that the waste meets the criteria set forth in Section 3116(a) of the NDAA. The Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the NRC, signed a determination in January 2006, pursuant to Section 3116(a) of the NDAA, for salt waste disposal at the SRS Saltstone Disposal Facility. This determination is based, in part, on the Basis for Section 3116 Determination for Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site and supporting references, a document that describes the planned methods of liquid waste treatment and the resulting waste streams. The document provides descriptions of the proposed methods for processing salt waste, dividing them into 'Interim Salt Processing' and later processing through the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Interim Salt Processing is separated into Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) and Actinide Removal Process/Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU). The Waste Determination was signed

  11. Facial cellulitis revealing choreo-acanthocytosis: A case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a 62 year-old-man with facial cellulitis revealing choreo-acanthocytosis (ChAc). He showed chorea that started 20 years ago. The orofacial dyskinisia with tongue and cheek biting resulted in facial cellulitis. The peripheral blood smear revealed acanthocytosis of 25%. The overall of chorea, orofacial dyskinetic ...

  12. Determination of digoxin by enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.; Braeuer, H.; Foerster, G.; Reinhardt, M.

    1978-01-01

    The results of parallel determinations of digoxin in the sera of non selected patients (n=104) by enzyme immunoassay (EMIT.EIA) and radioimmunoassay (J-125 labeled RIA) were compared with each other. The determinations revealed considerably different concentrations; the values determined by EIA were statistical lower (for EIA 1,09+'0,99ng/ml, for RIA 1,34+'1,01ng/ml, p [de

  13. Substrate recognition by complement convertases revealed in the C5-cobra venom factor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Nick Stub; Andersen, Kasper Røjkjær; Braren, Ingke

    2011-01-01

    with a protease subunit (Bb or C2a). We determined the crystal structures of the C3b homologue cobra venom factor (CVF) in complex with C5, and in complex with C5 and the inhibitor SSL7 at 4.3 Å resolution. The structures reveal a parallel two-point attachment between C5 and CVF, where the presence of SSL7 only...

  14. Contribution to speech development of the right anterior putamen revealed with multivariate tensor-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, Roza; Yalin Wang; Dirks, Holly; Dean, Douglas; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Gonzalez, Sara; Binh Kien Nguyen; Nelson, Marvin D; Deoni, Sean; Lepore, Natasha

    2017-07-01

    In our previous study1, we suggested that the difference between tensor-based metrics in the anterior part of the right putamen between 21 and 18 months age groups associated with speech development during this ages. Here we used a correlational analysis between verbal scores and determinant of the Jacobian matrix to confirm our hypothesis. Significant correlations in anterior part of the right putamen between verbal scores and surface metric were revealed in the 18 and 21 age groups.

  15. Uranium determination in different compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulyanitsa, L.S.; Ivanova, K.S.; Ryzhinskij, M.V.; Alekseeva, N.A.; Solntseva, L.F.; Shereshevskaya, I.I.

    1978-01-01

    For clarifying the suitability of two different methods of analysis for determining uranium without its previous purification, the analysis of uranium carbides (UC, UC 2 , UC - ZrC) and alloys (U - Al, U - Zr - Nb, U- Ti) has been carried out. Dissolution of the compositions examined was carried out either after previous calcining (UC, UC 2 ) or fusion with KHSO 4 (UC - ZrC), or in phosphoric acid (alloys). The first method, a variant of potentiometric titration, has been modified for small amounts of uranium. Titration was carried out on a semiautomatic titrating unit. The uranium amount per titration is about 4 to 5 mg. The second method of analysis is the coulombmetric titration at a constant current intensity. The quantity of uranium per titration was equal to 1 - 3 mg. The statistical processing of the results obtained was carried out by a dispersion analysis that allowed to reveal the influence of separate factors, such as method of analysis, type of composition, the non-uniformity of a sample, the enumerated factors influencing the dispersion of the analysis results. It has been shown that the both methods are equally suitable for analysis of the uranium compounds examined

  16. Mapping of Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolites in fermenting wheat straight-dough reveals succinic acid as pH-determining factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Vinay B; Cuyvers, Sven; Lagrain, Bert; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2013-01-15

    Fermenting yeast does not merely cause dough leavening, but also contributes to the bread aroma and might alter dough rheology. Here, the yeast carbon metabolism was mapped during bread straight-dough fermentation. The concentration of most metabolites changed quasi linearly as a function of fermentation time. Ethanol and carbon dioxide concentrations reached up to 60 mmol/100g flour. Interestingly, high levels of glycerol (up to 10 mmol/100g flour) and succinic acid (up to 1.6 mmol/100g flour) were produced during dough fermentation. Further tests showed that, contrary to current belief, the pH decrease in fermenting dough is primarily caused by the production of succinic acid by the yeast instead of carbon dioxide dissolution or bacterial organic acids. Together, our results provide a comprehensive overview of metabolite production during dough fermentation and yield insight into the importance of some of these metabolites for dough properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A new approach for determining phase response curves reveals that Purkinje cells can act as perfect integrators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Phoka

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar Purkinje cells display complex intrinsic dynamics. They fire spontaneously, exhibit bistability, and via mutual network interactions are involved in the generation of high frequency oscillations and travelling waves of activity. To probe the dynamical properties of Purkinje cells we measured their phase response curves (PRCs. PRCs quantify the change in spike phase caused by a stimulus as a function of its temporal position within the interspike interval, and are widely used to predict neuronal responses to more complex stimulus patterns. Significant variability in the interspike interval during spontaneous firing can lead to PRCs with a low signal-to-noise ratio, requiring averaging over thousands of trials. We show using electrophysiological experiments and simulations that the PRC calculated in the traditional way by sampling the interspike interval with brief current pulses is biased. We introduce a corrected approach for calculating PRCs which eliminates this bias. Using our new approach, we show that Purkinje cell PRCs change qualitatively depending on the firing frequency of the cell. At high firing rates, Purkinje cells exhibit single-peaked, or monophasic PRCs. Surprisingly, at low firing rates, Purkinje cell PRCs are largely independent of phase, resembling PRCs of ideal non-leaky integrate-and-fire neurons. These results indicate that Purkinje cells can act as perfect integrators at low firing rates, and that the integration mode of Purkinje cells depends on their firing rate.

  18. Magnetoencephalography in Twins Reveals a Strong Genetic Determination of the Peak Frequency of Visually Induced Gamma-Band Synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Pelt, S.; Boomsma, D.I.; Fries, P.

    2012-01-01

    Many aspects of brain processing are intimately linked to brain rhythms. Essentially all classical brain rhythms, i.e., delta, theta, alpha, beta, and sleep waves, are highly heritable. This renders brain rhythms an interesting intermediate phenotype for cognitive and behavioral traits. One brain

  19. Magnetoencephalography in twins reveals a strong genetic determination of the peak frequency of visually induced gamma-band synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Pelt, S.; Boomsma, D.I.; Fries, P.

    2012-01-01

    Many aspects of brain processing are intimately linked to brain rhythms. Essentially all classical brain rhythms, i.e., delta, theta, alpha, beta, and sleep waves, are highly heritable. This renders brain rhythms an interesting intermediate phenotype for cognitive and behavioral traits. One brain

  20. Comparative genomic sequence variation of Toxoplasma gondii reveals local admixture drives concerted expansion and diversification of secreted pathogenesis determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is among the most abundant parasites world-wide, infecting many wild and domestic animals and causing zoonotic infections in humans. T. gondii differs substantially in its distribution from closely related parasites that typically have narrow, specialized host ranges. We undertook...

  1. Comparative sequence analysis of Toxoplasma gondii reveals local genomic admixture drives concerted expansion and diversification of secreted pathogenesis determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is among the most prevalent parasites worldwide, infecting many wild and domestic animals and causing zoonotic infections in humans. T. gondii differs substantially in its broad distribution from closely related parasites that typically have narrow, specialized host ranges. To un...

  2. miRNA-target chimeras reveal miRNA 3'-end pairing as a major determinant of Argonaute target specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Michael J; Scheel, Troels K H; Luna, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) act as sequence-specific guides for Argonaute (AGO) proteins, which mediate posttranscriptional silencing of target messenger RNAs. Despite their importance in many biological processes, rules governing AGO-miRNA targeting are only partially understood. Here we report a modifie...

  3. Genome-Wide Mapping of Structural Variations Reveals a Copy Number Variant That Determines Reproductive Morphology in Cucumber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z.; Mao, L.; Chen, Junshi; Bu, F.; Li, G.; Sun, J.; Li, S.; Sun, H.; Jiao, C.; Blakely, R.; Pan, J.; Cai, R.; Luo, R.; Peer, Van de Y.; Jacobsen, E.; Fei, Z.; Huang, S.

    2015-01-01

    Structural variations (SVs) represent a major source of genetic diversity. However, the functional impact and formation mechanisms of SVs in plant genomes remain largely unexplored. Here, we report a nucleotide-resolution SV map of cucumber (Cucumis sativas) that comprises 26,788 SVs based on deep

  4. Genetic and biochemical analysis reveals linked QTLs determining natural variation for fruit post-harvest water loss in pepper (Capsicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovsky-Sarid, Sigal; Borovsky, Yelena; Faigenboim, Adi; Parsons, Eugene P; Lohrey, Gregory T; Alkalai-Tuvia, Sharon; Fallik, Elazar; Jenks, Matthew A; Paran, Ilan

    2017-02-01

    Molecular markers linked to QTLs controlling post-harvest fruit water loss in pepper may be utilized to accelerate breeding for improved shelf life and inhibit over-ripening before harvest. Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important vegetable crop world-wide. However, marketing is limited by the relatively short shelf life of the fruit due to water loss and decay that occur during prolonged storage. Towards breeding pepper with reduced fruit post-harvest water loss (PWL), we studied the genetic, physiological and biochemical basis for natural variation of PWL. We performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of fruit PWL in multiple generations of an interspecific cross of pepper, which resulted in the identification of two linked QTLs on chromosome 10 that control the trait. We further developed near-isogenic lines (NILs) for characterization of the QTL effects. Transcriptome analysis of the NILs allowed the identification of candidate genes associated with fruit PWL-associated traits such as cuticle biosynthesis, cell wall metabolism and fruit ripening. Significant differences in PWL between the NILs in the immature fruit stage, differentially expressed cuticle-associated genes and differences in the content of specific chemical constituents of the fruit cuticle, indicated a likely influence of cuticle composition on the trait. Reduced PWL in the NILs was associated with delayed over-ripening before harvest, low total soluble solids before storage, and reduced fruit softening after storage. Our study enabled a better understanding of the genetic and biological processes controlling natural variation in fruit PWL in pepper. Furthermore, the genetic materials and molecular markers developed in this study may be utilized to breed peppers with improved shelf life and inhibited over-ripening before harvest.

  5. Determinants of translation ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Tamar; Prior, Anat; Eddington, Chelsea M.; Arêas da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Ambiguity in translation is highly prevalent, and has consequences for second-language learning and for bilingual lexical processing. To better understand this phenomenon, the current study compared the determinants of translation ambiguity across four sets of translation norms from English to Spanish, Dutch, German and Hebrew. The number of translations an English word received was correlated across these different languages, and was also correlated with the number of senses the word has in English, demonstrating that translation ambiguity is partially determined by within-language semantic ambiguity. For semantically-ambiguous English words, the probability of the different translations in Spanish and Hebrew was predicted by the meaning-dominance structure in English, beyond the influence of other lexical and semantic factors, for bilinguals translating from their L1, and translating from their L2. These findings are consistent with models postulating direct access to meaning from L2 words for moderately-proficient bilinguals. PMID:27882188

  6. Determinants for gallstone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Monsted; Sorensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    . Gallstone incidence was assessed through repeated ultrasound examinations. Body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, self-rated health, lifestyle variables, blood lipids, and use of female sex hormones were measured at the baseline examination. Statistical analyses included logistic regression. Based...... re-examination were followed-up completely (mean 11.6 years, N = 2848). The overall cumulative incidence of gallstones was 0.60% per year. Independent positive determinants for incident gallstones were age, female sex, non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol, and gallbladder polyps...... associations were found for blood pressure, smoking, alcohol consumption, HDL cholesterol, or triglycerides in meta-analyses. Conclusions: Age, female sex, BMI, non-HDL cholesterol, and polyps are independent determinants for gallstone formation. Incident gallstones and the metabolic syndrome share common risk...

  7. Determining Optimal Decision Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Ioana Amariei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we start from the calculation of the product cost, applying the method of calculating the cost of hour- machine (THM, on each of the three cutting machines, namely: the cutting machine with plasma, the combined cutting machine (plasma and water jet and the cutting machine with a water jet. Following the calculation of cost and taking into account the precision of manufacturing of each machine, as well as the quality of the processed surface, the optimal decisional version needs to be determined regarding the product manufacturing. To determine the optimal decisional version, we resort firstly to calculating the optimal version on each criterion, and then overall using multiattribute decision methods.

  8. On Psychic Determinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robin Gordon

    2017-06-01

    A confusion persists in the psychoanalytic literature regarding the concept of psychic determinism. Two authors are cited in whose works the concept is identified as foundational to psychoanalysis, in the one case as a "fundamental hypothesis" (Charles Brenner) and in the other as an "underlying presupposition" or assumption (Linda A.W. Brakel). Both claims are based on a conflation of the concept Freud had in mind with a philosophical doctrine going by the same name but meaning something quite different. The philosophical doctrine has no place in psychoanalysis at all, and Freud's concept does not play a foundational role there. In a second section a restricted concept of psychic determinism is critically examined. A third section deals with the impact of that restricted concept on clinical theory and contemporary controversies about clinical practice. Finally, some possible reasons for this confusion are suggested.

  9. Determination of nickel-63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletiko, C.

    1988-01-01

    The research of activation products in the environment is often centered on cobalt-60 or other gamma emitters, since pure beta emitters require time consuming separations to be counted. However, some beta emitters must be checked because they have a build up in the environment, leading to potential hazards. Among these nuclides, there is nickel-63 which is a pure, soft beta emitter (67 keV) with a long half-life (100 years). A chemical separation, providing good results, was developed. Such a separation is based upon nickel carrier addition in the sample than DMG complex formation and isolation; after elimination of solvent. DMG complex is destroyed. Chemical yield is determined by flame atomic absorption measurement and nickel-63 counted by liquid scintillation. The described procedure allows the determination of low-level activities in different samples (soils, effluents, etc.). Detection limits are close to 0.1 Bq per sample

  10. Cyanides: decomposition and determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilath, I.; Cohen, L.

    1977-08-01

    Different cyanide destruction methods such as electrolysis (with and without the addition of salt), hypochlorite treatment and ion exchange detoxication were evaluated on a laboratory scale using model solutions. Parameters were determined for the optimal operation of the investigated processes. Analytical methods were adapted for concentrations and compositions of interest. An easy and rapid method of complex cyanide breakdown by ion exchange treatment was developed for analytical purposes. (author)

  11. Ion Mass Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus (100) is described for determining the mass of ions, the apparatus configured to hold a plasma (101 ) having a plasma potential. The apparatus (100) comprises an electrode (102) having a surface extending in a surface plane and an insulator (104) interfacing with the electrode (102......, and a processing unit (108) configured to interpret the detected impact locations in terms of the mass of the impacting ions....

  12. Satellite Photometric Error Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-18

    Satellite Photometric Error Determination Tamara E. Payne, Philip J. Castro, Stephen A. Gregory Applied Optimization 714 East Monument Ave, Suite...advocate the adoption of new techniques based on in-frame photometric calibrations enabled by newly available all-sky star catalogs that contain highly...filter systems will likely be supplanted by the Sloan based filter systems. The Johnson photometric system is a set of filters in the optical

  13. Stochastic split determinant algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvatha, Ivan

    2000-01-01

    I propose a large class of stochastic Markov processes associated with probability distributions analogous to that of lattice gauge theory with dynamical fermions. The construction incorporates the idea of approximate spectral split of the determinant through local loop action, and the idea of treating the infrared part of the split through explicit diagonalizations. I suggest that exact algorithms of practical relevance might be based on Markov processes so constructed

  14. Determination of vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepin, V.V.; Kurbatova, V.I.; Fedorova, N.D.

    1980-01-01

    Titrimetric and potentiometric methods of vanadium determination in ferrovanadium are developed. The essence of the titrimetric method using phenylanthranilic acid as indicator is in the following. Ferrovanadium weighed amount is dissolved in H 2 SO 4 , vanadium is oxidated by potassium permanganate to V(5) and is titrated by a solution of double salt of sulfuric Fe(2) and ammonium in the presence of indicator. Potentiometric titration is carried out using the same indicator [ru

  15. Uranium determination in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prudenzo, E.J.; Puga, Maria J.; Cerchietti, Maria L.R.; Arguelles, Maria G.

    2005-01-01

    In our laboratory, a procedure has been assessed to determine uranium content of water in normal situations. The method proposed without sample pre-treatment, is simple and rapid. Uranium mass is measured by fluorimetry. For calculation of detection limit (Ld) and quantification level (Lq) we used blank samples and the results were analyzed for different statistical test. The calculation of total propagated uncertainty and sources contribution on real samples are presented. (author)

  16. Determination of vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepin, V.V.; Kurbatova, V.I.; Fedorova, N.D.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques of vanadium determination in steels and alloys are developed. Extraction-photometric method with N-phenyl-benzohydroxamic acid when V content is 0.005-0.5% is suggested. Molar coefficient of the complex quenching at lambdasub(max)=530 nm constitutes 5750. Optimum concentration is 15-150 μg per 25 ml of the solution, determination limit is 0.05 μg/ml. Chloroform is an extracting agent. A photometric method with acetohydrazide of anthranilic acid is suggested for the analysis of alloyed steels at V content 0.03-1%. The lower limit of V determination constitutes 0.64 μg/ml. Effect of Fe is removed using phosphoric acid. Amperometric method for steels and alloys at V content from 0.05 to 5% and for steels and alloys containing more than 3% W and Cr is also developed. The method is based on amperometric titration with solution of double sulfuric salt of Fe(2) and ammonium [ru

  17. Can body volume be determined by PET?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentschel, Michael; Paul, Dominik; Mix, Michael; Moser, Ernst; Brink, Ingo; Korsten-Reck, Ulrike; Mueller, Frank; Merk, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    To avoid dependence on body weight, the standardised uptake value (SUV) in positron emission tomography (PET) can instead be normalised to the lean body mass (LBM), which can be determined from body volume and mass. This study was designed to answer the following questions: Firstly, can the total body volume in principle be determined using PET? Secondly, is the precision of this measurement comparable to that achieved using an established standard method. Ten patients were examined during oncological whole-body PET examinations. The whole-body volume of the patients was determined from the transmission scan in PET. Air displacement plethysmography with BOD POD was used for comparison as the standard method of volume determination. In all patients, the whole-body volumes could be determined using PET and the standard method. Bland and Altman [23] analysis for agreement between the volumes determined by the two methods (presentation of differences vs means) revealed a very small difference of -0.14 l. With a mean patient volume of 71.81±15.93 l, the relative systematic error is only LBM ). (orig.)

  18. Macroeconomic Determinants of Economic Growth: A Review of International Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirwa Themba G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper conducts a qualitative narrative appraisal of the existing empirical literature on the key macroeconomic determinants of economic growth in developing and developed countries. Much as other empirical studies have investigated the determinants of economic growth using various econometric methods, the majority of these studies have not distinguished what drives or hinders economic growth in developing or developed countries. The study finds that the determinants of economic growth are different when this distinction is used. It reveals that in developing countries the key macroeconomic determinants of economic growth include foreign aid, foreign direct investment, fiscal policy, investment, trade, human capital development, demographics, monetary policy, natural resources, reforms and geographic, regional, political and financial factors. In developed countries, the study reveals that the key macroeconomic determinants that are associated with economic growth include physical capital, fiscal policy, human capital, trade, demographics, monetary policy and financial and technological factors.

  19. Determination of zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iha, C.; Sood, S.P.; Sato, I.M.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis of Zr and Hf by X-ray fluorescence was studied. The thin film technique for sample preparation by deposition of precipitate on the filter paper was used. The K sub(α) line of Zr and L sub(β) 1 line of Hf were considered for the analysis. The behaviour of fluorescence intensity ratio with the corresponding mass ratio was also studied. The direct determination of Hf in concentrations between 2 and 95% in samples without any separation was investigated. For Hf concentrations lower than 2%, a method for its enrichment was standardized. (Author) [pt

  20. LUMINESCENCE DETERMINATION OF ETODOLAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Yegorova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive, simple and rapid method for determination of non-steroidal anti- inflammatory drug – etodolac (Et in washings from surfaces of pharmaceutical equipment have been proposed. The intensity of native luminescence of water-n-propanol solutions of etodolac (λex= 274 nm; λlum= 350 nm was used as the analytical signal. The calibration graph is linear in the concentration range 0.014-2.3 μg/ml, the limit of detection is 0.5 ng/ml.

  1. Spectrophotometric Determination of Ezetimibe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Baby Sudha Lakshmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, sensitive, selective and accurate spectro-photometric methods (Method A and Method B for the determination of eztimibe in bulk drug and pharmaceutical formulations (tablets have been described. Method A and B are based on the redox/complex formation reaction of drug with 1,10-phenanthroline and hexacyano-ferrate(III in presence of ferric chloride to form coloured chromogens exhibiting λmax at 510 and 740 nm respectively. The results of analysis for the two methods have been validated statistically and by recovery studies. The results are compared with those obtained using UV spectrophotometric method in alcohol at 231.7 nm.

  2. Potentiometric determination of molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusina, O.N.; Gorbatkova, B.Kh.

    1977-01-01

    Potentiometric titration by lead acetate is used to determine molybdenum in the form of molybdate ions. The behaviour of bimetallic electrode couples, i.e. tungsten-lead, platinum-lead, lead-carbon electrode, molybdenum-carbon electrode platinum-molibdenum has been investigated. The greatest jump of the potential in the finite point is observed for platinum-molybdenum electrode couple (150 mV/ml at pH 4.0-5.5). The limiting concentration of molybdenum in potentiometric titration by lead acetate is 2.8x10 -4 M. The measurements are accurate to within +-0.1%

  3. Determinants of capital structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, M J; Ozcan, Y A

    1992-01-01

    This study analyzes the determinants of hospital capital structure in a new market setting that are created by the financial pressures of prospective payment and the intense price competition among hospitals. Using California data, the study found hospital system affiliation, bed size, growth rate in revenues, operating risk, and asset structure affected both short- and long-term debt borrowings. In addition, percentage of uncompensated care, profitability, and payer mix influenced short-term borrowings while market conditions and ownership affected long-term borrowings. Most significant of all is the finding that smaller hospitals tend to borrow more, possibly because they cannot generate funds internally.

  4. The Physical Mechanism of Frictional Aging Revealed by Nanoindentation Creep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, C.; Carpick, R. W.; Goldsby, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    A classical observation from rock friction experiments is that friction increases linearly with the logarithm of the time of stationary contact, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as aging. Aging is most often attributed to an increase in the real area of contact due to asperity creep. However, recent atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments and molecular dynamics simulations suggest that time-dependent siloxane (Si—O—Si) bonding gives rise to aging in silica-silica contacts in the absence of plastic deformation. Determining whether an increase in contact `quantity' (due to creep), contact `quality' (due to chemical bonding), or another unknown mechanism causes aging is a challenging experimental task, despite its importance for developing a physical basis for rate and state friction laws. An intriguing observation is that aging is absent in friction experiments on quartz rocks and gouge at humidities water on asperity creep (via hydrolytic weakening) or on the adhesive strength of contacts. To discern between these possibilities, we have conducted nanoindentation experiments on single crystals of quartz to measure their indentation hardness and creep behavior at humidities of 2% to 50%, and in vacuum. Samples were loaded at 1000 mN/s to a peak load of 15, 40, or 400 mN, which was then held constant for 10 s. After the peak load is reached, the tip sinks into the material with time due to creep of the indentation contact. Our experiments reveal that there is no effect of varying humidity on either indentation hardness or indentation creep behavior over the full range of humidities investigated. If asperity creep were the dominant mechanism of frictional aging for quartz in the experiments cited above, then significant increases in hardness and decreases in the growth rate of indentation contacts at low humidities is expected, in stark contrast with our nanoindentation data. Our experiments indicate that asperity creep cannot be the cause of aging in quartz

  5. Comparative mapping reveals similar linkage of functional genes to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    genes between O. sativa and B. napus may have consistent function and control similar traits, which may be ..... acea chromosomes reveals islands of conserved organization. ... 1998 Conserved structure and function of the Arabidopsis flow-.

  6. Paraneoplastic syndromes revealing ovarian teratoma in young and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paraneoplastic syndromes revealing ovarian teratoma in young and menopausal women: report of two cases. Majdouline Boujoual, Ihsan Hakimi, Farid Kassidi, Youssef Akhoudad, Nawal Sahel, Adil Rkiouak, Mohamed Allaoui, Hafsa Chahdi, Mohamed Oukabli, Jaouad Kouach, Driss Rahali Moussaoui, Mohamed ...

  7. DNA markers reveal genetic structure and localized diversity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uqhdesma

    2016-10-12

    Oct 12, 2016 ... STRUCTURE analysis revealed 4 clusters of genetically ..... 10000 cycles and 50000 Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) iterations and 10 replicate runs performed for each K value to ..... WL, Lee M, Porter K (2000). Genetic ...

  8. Demand effects of consumers’ stated and revealed preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Per; Forsell, Eskil

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of how consumers react to different quality signals is fundamental for understanding how markets work. We study the online market- place for Android apps where we compare the causal effects on demand from two quality related signals; other consumers' stated and revealed preferences toward an app. Our main result is that consumers are much more responsive to other consumers' revealed preferences, compared to others' stated preferences. A 10 percentile increase in displayed average ra...

  9. Characteristics of the tomato chromoplast revealed by proteomic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Barsan, Cristina; Sanchez-Bel, Paloma; Rombaldi, César Valmor; Egea, Isabel; Rossignol, Michel; Kuntz, Marcel; Zouine, Mohamed; Latché, Alain; Bouzayen, Mondher; Pech, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    Chromoplasts are non-photosynthetic specialized plastids that are important in ripening tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum) since, among other functions, they are the site of accumulation of coloured compounds. Analysis of the proteome of red fruit chromoplasts revealed the presence of 988 proteins corresponding to 802 Arabidopsis unigenes, among which 209 had not been listed so far in plastidial databanks. These data revealed several features of the chromoplast. Proteins of lipid metabolism ...

  10. Determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodge, Jr, J P

    1963-01-01

    At the present time, the method of choice for the determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons appears to be the following, (a) extraction of the benzene-soluble fraction from the gross collected particulate matter, (b) one pass through a chromatographic column of partially deactivated alumina, (c) spectral examination of the fractions and (d) the application of appropriate chemical tests as indicated by the previous step. Using this method, the presence of pyrene, fluoranthene, one of the benzofluorenes, chrysens, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, anthanthrene, and coronene was demonstrated in the air of numerous American cities, and benzo(a)pyrene was measured at some 130 sites. Invaluable as such accurate determinations may be for research purposes, they are still too costly and time-consuming for routine survey purposes. While studies on the subject are by no means complete, they indicate the validity of piperonal chloride test as a general index of polycyclic hydrocarbons. This procedure is described in this paper. 7 references.

  11. Determinants of Discretionary Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Sujit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and empirical studies have focused on discretionary investments such as research and development (R&D and advertisement as value-creating activities. This empirical research article examines the determinants of the discretionary investment policy of food sector firms in India. The study aims to analyze the impact of financial policies and firm characteristics on the discretionary investment strategy of the food industry firms. The article uses the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM to understand the drivers of discretionary investment policy of food sector firms. The study finds that investment policy of firms is a major determinant of profitability of food sector firms. Higher investments in capital expenditures and working capital result in higher profitability. Management efficiency significantly influences firm profitability. The results suggest that riskier firms in food sector might focus on R&D investments as a strategy to generate more cash flows. Size of firm is negatively related to R&D intensity. Smaller firms in food sector tend to invest more in R&D. The study does not provide evidence to suggest that profitable firms invest more in R&D activities.

  12. Determination of radar MTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The ultimate goal of the Current Meter Array (CMA) is to be able to compare the current patterns detected with the array with radar images of the water surface. The internal wave current patterns modulate the waves on the water surface giving a detectable modulation of the radar cross-section (RCS). The function relating the RCS modulations to the current patterns is the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). By comparing radar images directly with co-located CMA measurements the MTF can be determined. In this talk radar images and CMA measurements from a recent experiment at Loch Linnhe, Scotland, will be used to make the first direct determination of MTF for an X and S band radar at low grazing angles. The technical problems associated with comparing radar images to CMA data will be explained and the solution method discussed. The results suggest the both current and strain rate contribute equally to the radar modulation for X band. For S band, the strain rate contributes more than the current. The magnitude of the MTF and the RCS modulations are consistent with previous estimates when the wind is blowing perpendicular to the radar look direction.

  13. A structural homologue of colipase in black mamba venom revealed by NMR floating disulphide bridge analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisbouvier, J; Albrand, J P; Blackledge, M; Jaquinod, M; Schweitz, H; Lazdunski, M; Marion, D

    1998-01-01

    The solution structure of mamba intestinal toxin 1 (MIT1), isolated from Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis venom, has been determined. This molecule is a cysteine-rich polypeptide exhibiting no recognised family membership. Resistance to MIT1 to classical specific endoproteases produced contradictory NMR and biochemical information concerning disulphide-bridge topology. We have used distance restraints allowing ambiguous partners between S atoms in combination with NMR-derived structural information, to correctly determine the disulphide-bridge topology. The resultant solution structure of MIT1, determined to a resolution of 0.5 A, reveals an unexpectedly similar global fold with respect to colipase, a protein involved in fatty acid digestion. Colipase exhibits an analogous resistance to endoprotease activity, indicating for the first time the possible topological origins of this biochemical property. The biochemical and structural homology permitted us to propose a mechanically related digestive function for MIT1 and provides novel information concerning snake venom protein evolution. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  14. Determinants of Network Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ysa, Tamyko; Sierra, Vicenta; Esteve, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The literature on network management is extensive. However, it generally explores network structures, neglecting the impact of management strategies. In this article we assess the effect of management strategies on network outcomes, providing empirical evidence from 119 urban revitalization...... networks. We go beyond current work by testing a path model for the determinants of network outcomes and considering the interactions between the constructs: management strategies, trust, complexity, and facilitative leadership. Our results suggest that management strategies have a strong effect on network...... outcomes and that they enhance the level of trust. We also found that facilitative leadership has a positive impact on network management as well as on trust in the network. Our findings also show that complexity has a negative impact on trust. A key finding of our research is that managers may wield more...

  15. Substoichiometric determination of phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, T.; Kudo, K.

    1981-01-01

    Phosphorus in orchard leaves (NBS SRM-1571) and spinach (SRM-1570) was determined by various substoichiometric analytical methods such as the direct method, Gravshchenko's method and the method of carrier amount variation. All samples were labelled with 32 P radioisotope. The data obtained by the method of carrier amount variation were also treated by the method of least squares instead of De Voe's method. Phosphorus concentration in orchard leaves was 0.206+-0.011% by the direct method, 0.219+-0.011% by Gravshchenko's method, 0.211+-0.011% by the method of carrier amount variation and 0.207+-0.007% by the method of least squares, respectively. These values agree with the value reported by NBS (0.21+-0.01%). Furthermore, these concentrations obtained by various substoichiometric methods were compared with those by radioactivation reported in a previous paper. (author)

  16. Polarographic determination of ruthenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jifu; Duan Shirong; Wu Xi

    1989-01-01

    It is suggested to use 0.5 mol/l HClO 4 -0.5 mol/l NaNO 3 -0.1 mol/l NaClO 4 as supporting electrolyte for determining ruthenium. In the supporting electrolyte there is a clear polarographic wave of ruthenium (IV) at -0.8 V vs. SCE. The wave height of ruthenium(IV) is linear in the range from 0.1 to 0.4 μg. ml -1 . The effect of the component of supporting electroylte and the other ion in the samples on the measurement of ruthenium are studied. The analysis methods for measuring ruthenium in both acidic or basic imitative radioactive waste solutions which is used in study of glass solidification are worked out. Imitative samples are analysised

  17. Initiating events frequency determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simic, Z.; Mikulicic, V.; Vukovic, I.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes work performed for the Nuclear Power Station (NPS). Work is related to the periodic initiating events frequency update for the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). Data for all relevant NPS initiating events (IE) were reviewed. The main focus was on events occurring during most recent operating history (i.e., last four years). The final IE frequencies were estimated by incorporating both NPS experience and nuclear industry experience. Each event was categorized according to NPS individual plant examination (IPE) initiating events grouping approach. For the majority of the IE groups, few, or no events have occurred at the NPS. For those IE groups with few or no NPS events, the final estimate was made by means of a Bayesian update with general nuclear industry values. Exceptions are rare loss-of-coolant-accidents (LOCA) events, where evaluation of engineering aspects is used in order to determine frequency.(author)

  18. What determines our behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Radovan

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In article Ajzen-Fishbein's attitude-behavior model called 'Theory of reasoned action' and Albert Bandura's Model of reciprocal determinism are presented. Both models are a part of social-cognitive paradigm which characterizes behavior with evaluation of different goals. Ajzen and Fishbein (1973; 1980 proposed that specific behavior are predictable from specific behavioral intentions. These intentions are a function of two components: the attitude toward the act in question and percieved normative expectations of reference group. On the other hand Bandura (1986; 1997 claims that person's motivation for a specific behavior and direction toward a specific social object respectively, reflects perception of his or hers self-efficacy beliefs. Some of the findings concerning the synthesis of the two models are also reviewed.

  19. Tritium determination in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavini, Ricardo M.

    2008-01-01

    An analytical procedure for the determination of tritium in water is described in this paper. The determination is carried out in presence of other radionuclides, such as Fe-55, Ni-63, Mn-54, Zn-65, Co-60, Cd-109, Sr-90, Cs-134 and Cs-137. The method consists in a simple distillation stage prior to measurement by liquid scintillation counting. The samples containing beta and gamma emitters are conditioned with a (NO 3 ) 2 Pb solution and Na(OH) up to pH = 7 - 8. This produces lead hydroxide precipitation that allows fixing volatile elements, which could be transported together with tritium, and may increase the extinction degree of the sample or interfere with the counting process. Special attention must be paid if presence of Fe-55 (E max ∼ 5.95 keV) is suspected as it might not be distinguished from tritium (E max ∼ 18 keV), leading to an overestimation of tritium activity. Different tests were carried to obtain the optimum method conditions, to achieve the purification of the tritium and a pH near to 7 in the distilled. The detection limit (2σ) was 8.0 Bq/l and the distillation performance was 98.3 %. This technique was applied to water samples containing Fe-55 and other gamma radionuclides in 1M hydrochloric acid media in successive Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) intercomparison programs. The results obtained were very satisfactory and are presented in this paper. (author)

  20. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  1. Listed waste determination report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    On September 23, 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a notice clarifying interim status requirements for the management of radioactive mixed waste thereby subjecting the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and other applicable Department of Energy (DOE) sites to regulation under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Therefore, the DOE was required to submit a Part A Permit application for each treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) unit within the INEL, defining the waste codes and processes to be regulated under RCRA. The September 1990 revised Part A Permit application, that was approved by the State of Idaho identified 101 potential acute and toxic hazardous waste codes (F-, P-, and U- listed wastes according to 40 CFR 261.31 and 40 CFR 261.33) for some TSD units at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Most of these waste were assumed to have been introduced into the High-level Liquid Waste TSD units via laboratory drains connected to the Process Equipment Waste (PEW) evaporator (PEW system). At that time, a detailed and systematic evaluation of hazardous chemical use and disposal practices had not been conducted to determine if F-, P-, or Unlisted waste had been disposed to the PEW system. The purpose of this investigation was to perform a systematic and detailed evaluation of the use and disposal of the 101 F-, P-, and Unlisted chemicals found in the approved September 1990 Part A Permit application. This investigation was aimed at determining which listed wastes, as defined in 40 CFR 261.31 (F-listed) and 261.33 (P ampersand Unlisted) were discharged to the PEW system. Results of this investigation will be used to support revisions to the RCRA Part A Permit application

  2. Professional determination problems of modern senior pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.N. Danylenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Today, young people are more focused on getting education as such, without taking into account the profession. The relevance of this study is the identification of the level of professional self-determination of senior pupils, the mechanisms of formation of professional preferences. The article contains the concept and content of professional self-determination in adolescence; the results of the study on the formation of professional self-determination in senior pupils are presented. The study conducted among 9th grade pupils of secondary schools has revealed that the further gradual self-determination of the future specialty depends not only on psychological readiness for conscious choice. Materials and methods. The study involved 982 pupils of secondary schools in Ukraine. To study the level of formation of professional readiness, there was conducted a survey on the developed questionnaire. Statistical analysis was carried out using MS Excel and SPSS 17. Results. The results showed that professional intents of 9-graders are a key feature for solving the problem of high school selection and future careers. But for most students, these intentions are contradictory due to objective reasons. Radio, television, books don’t have a significant impact on the choice of professional self-determination. Conclusions. The conducted survey is self-sufficient for the analysis of professional orientation. But the choice of profession by the students is influenced by many factors. Therefore, carrying out the studies on vocational guidance requires an integrated approach.

  3. Determinants of Food Heritage towards Food Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilah Md Ramli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies on traditional food and food products towards identity have been carried out, but there is insufficient study relating to heritage context. In exploring this issue, conceptual frameworks have developed and examined the relationship between the determinants of food heritage and food identity. A total of 898 self-administered questionnaires were collected from the public in Klang Valley area, Malaysia and using statistical analysis using partial least square-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM from PLS 3 software to established the validity and reliability of the model as well as the relationship between the two factors. Results revealed that there are eight construct determinants of food heritage and one construct of food identity that represent the conceptual model, and there is a moderate relationship between the two variables.

  4. Titrimetric determination of ruthenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichko, V.V.; Belyaeva, T.I.; Kudinova, V.K.; Usatenko, Yu.I.

    1978-01-01

    Titration of ruthenium(4) hydrochloric-acid solutions with Mohr's salt, hydroquinone, and thiourea has been studied with the use of biampero- and potentiometric indication of the titration end point (t.e.p.) Potentiometric and amperometric indication of the t.e.p. is applicable when Ru(4) concentration is from 20 to 6000 mkg in 20 ml of the titrated solution; biamperometric indication can be used at a concentration of 5-1000 mkg in the same volume. It has been established that titration of Ru(4) (in the form of the Na 2 RuCl 6 solution) with Mohr's salt is not hindered by the presence of 1000-fold excess of alkaline and alkali-earth metals, Al, Ti(4), Mn(2), Cr(3), Fe(3), Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge(4), As, Se, Mo(6), Cd, In, and Te; 100-fold excess of Rh, Pd, W, Bi, and Sn; 10-fold excess of Ag, Au, Pt, Hg, Os. Along with Ru(4) titrated are Ir(4), Te(3), V(5), and Ce(4). Selectivity of hydroquinone and thiourea is lower. Titrimetric procedure of determining ruthenium has been tested for ruthenium alloy containing cobalt tungsten. It cannot be recommended for analysis of the samples which dissolve in aqua regia

  5. The radioimmunoassay in revealing preclinical disorders of the pituitary-thyroid system functioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piven', N.V.; Pilatova, N.L.; Lukhverchik, L.N.; Kuz'menkova, E.I.; Solovej, V.V.; Mokhort, T.V.

    2001-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to study the value of radioimmunoassay (RIA) for assessing the pituitary - thyroid function in healthy persons (aged 18-45). Quantitative criteria have been worked put for estimation of thyroid gland function for the population of Belarus in accordance with regional ecological situation. On this basis, concentrations of thyrotropin, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, thyroglobulin, thyroxine binding globulin were determined by RIA in blood samples. The analysis of the data obtained revealed latent forms of hyperthyroidism (42%) and hypothyroidism (21%), regarded by the authors as late medical consequences of Chernobyl accident. Subclinical stages were diagnosed in most cases. Thus RIA has proved useful for studying the functional state of the regulatory 'pituitary-thyroid gland' system and revealing prenosological disorders in it

  6. UTV Expansion Pack: Special-Purpose Rank-Revealing Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fierro, Ricardo D.; Hansen, Per Christian

    2005-01-01

    This collection of Matlab 7.0 software supplements and complements the package UTV Tools from 1999, and includes implementations of special-purpose rank-revealing algorithms developed since the publication of the original package. We provide algorithms for computing and modifying symmetric rank-r...... values of a sparse or structured matrix. These new algorithms have applications in signal processing, optimization and LSI information retrieval.......This collection of Matlab 7.0 software supplements and complements the package UTV Tools from 1999, and includes implementations of special-purpose rank-revealing algorithms developed since the publication of the original package. We provide algorithms for computing and modifying symmetric rank......-revealing VSV decompositions, we expand the algorithms for the ULLV decomposition of a matrix pair to handle interference-type problems with a rank-deficient covariance matrix, and we provide a robust and reliable Lanczos algorithm which - despite its simplicity - is able to capture all the dominant singular...

  7. Camelid genomes reveal evolution and adaptation to desert environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huiguang; Guang, Xuanmin; Al-Fageeh, Mohamed B; Cao, Junwei; Pan, Shengkai; Zhou, Huanmin; Zhang, Li; Abutarboush, Mohammed H; Xing, Yanping; Xie, Zhiyuan; Alshanqeeti, Ali S; Zhang, Yanru; Yao, Qiulin; Al-Shomrani, Badr M; Zhang, Dong; Li, Jiang; Manee, Manee M; Yang, Zili; Yang, Linfeng; Liu, Yiyi; Zhang, Jilin; Altammami, Musaad A; Wang, Shenyuan; Yu, Lili; Zhang, Wenbin; Liu, Sanyang; Ba, La; Liu, Chunxia; Yang, Xukui; Meng, Fanhua; Wang, Shaowei; Li, Lu; Li, Erli; Li, Xueqiong; Wu, Kaifeng; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Junyi; Yin, Ye; Yang, Huanming; Al-Swailem, Abdulaziz M; Wang, Jun

    2014-10-21

    Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) are economically important livestock. Although the Bactrian camel and dromedary are large, typically arid-desert-adapted mammals, alpacas are adapted to plateaus. Here we present high-quality genome sequences of these three species. Our analysis reveals the demographic history of these species since the Tortonian Stage of the Miocene and uncovers a striking correlation between large fluctuations in population size and geological time boundaries. Comparative genomic analysis reveals complex features related to desert adaptations, including fat and water metabolism, stress responses to heat, aridity, intense ultraviolet radiation and choking dust. Transcriptomic analysis of Bactrian camels further reveals unique osmoregulation, osmoprotection and compensatory mechanisms for water reservation underpinned by high blood glucose levels. We hypothesize that these physiological mechanisms represent kidney evolutionary adaptations to the desert environment. This study advances our understanding of camelid evolution and the adaptation of camels to arid-desert environments.

  8. Prey-capture success revealed by echolocation signals in pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pygmaeus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Futtrup, Vibeke; Tougaard, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    Three Pipistrellus pygmaeus bats were trained to capture prey on the wing while flying in the laboratory. The bats' capture behaviour and capture success were determined and correlated with acoustic analyses of post-buzz echolocation signals. Three acoustic parameters revealed capture success: in...

  9. Burned-out seminoma revealed by solitary rib bone metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishisho, Toshihiko; Miyagi, Ryo; Sairyo, Koichi [Tokushima University Graduate School, Department of Orthopedics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima-city, Tokushima (Japan); Sakaki, Mika [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Hidaka-city, Saitama (Japan); Takao, Shoichiro [Tokushima University Graduate School, Department of Radiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima-city, Tokushima (Japan)

    2017-10-15

    Burned-out tumor is a rare phenomenon in which a testicular tumor regresses in the primary lesion and progresses in a metastatic lesion. We report the case of a 30-year-old male with burned-out seminoma revealed by open biopsy of solitary 10th rib bone metastasis. He underwent inguinal orchiectomy, which revealed hyalinization, indicating a spontaneously regressed testicular tumor. Chemotherapy for seminoma was administered in three cycles of bleomycin + etoposide + cisplatin therapy. The chemotherapy was effective, and wide resection of the rib was subsequently performed. No postoperative chemotherapy was performed, and there has been no evidence of recurrence for 3 years postoperatively. (orig.)

  10. [Postnatal diagnosis of gastric volvulus revealing congenital diaphragmatic hernia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprahamian, A; Nouyrigat, V; Grévent, D; Hervieux, E; Chéron, G

    2017-05-01

    Postnatally diagnosed congenital diaphragmatic hernias (CDH) are rare and have a better prognosis than those diagnosed prenatally. Postnatal symptoms can be respiratory, digestive, or mixed. Gastric volvulus can reveal CDH. Symptoms are pain, abdominal distension, and/or vomiting. Upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography provides the diagnosis. Prognosis is related to early surgical management in complicated forms with intestinal occlusion or sub-occlusion. We report on an infant who presented with vomiting, which revealed gastric volvulus associated with a CDH. Progression was favorable after surgical treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Gas Velocities Reveal Newly Born Planets in a Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-06-01

    Occasionally, science comes together beautifully for a discovery and sometimes this happens for more than one team at once! Today we explore how two independent collaborations of scientists simultaneously found the very first kinematic evidence for young planets forming in a protoplanetary disk. Though they explored the same disk, the two teams in fact discovered different planets.Evidence for PlanetsALMAs view of the dust in the protoplanetary disk surrounding the young star HD 163296. Todays studies explore not the dust, but the gas of this disk. [ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO); A. Isella; B. Saxton (NRAO/AUI/NSF)]Over the past three decades, weve detected around 4,000 fully formed exoplanets. Much more elusive, however, are the young planets still in the early stages of formation; only a handful of these have been discovered. More observations of early-stage exoplanets are needed in order to understand how these worlds are born in dusty protoplanetary-disk environments, how they grow their atmospheres, and how they evolve.Recent observations by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) have produced stunning images of protoplanetary disks. The unprecedented resolution of these images reveals substructure in the form of gaps and rings, hinting at the presence of planets that orbit within the disk and clear out their paths as they move. But there are also non-planet mechanisms that could produce such substructure, like grain growth around ice lines, or hydrodynamic instabilities in the disk.How can we definitively determine whether there are nascent planets embedded in these disks? Direct direction of a point source in a dust gap would be a strong confirmation, but now we have the next best thing: kinematic evidence for planets, from the motion of a disks gas.Observations of carbon monoxide line emission at +1km/s from the systemic velocity (left) vs. the outcome of a computer simulation (right) in the Pinte et al. study. A visible kink occurs in the flow

  12. Flame photometric determination of strontium in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skougstad, Marvin W.

    1957-01-01

    Preliminary search of reported methods of Sr analysis revealed several investigations which have been made for the determination of Sr with the flame photometer, both at relatively low concentrations (0 to 50 ppm Sr) and at higher concentrations. Generally the procedures described involved measurement of Sr emission at either 460.7 mu or at 681 mu. There is disagreement among those reporting methods for Sr as to the preference of the one wavelength over the other. The 681 line (or band) seems to be preferred because of its greater reproducibility and relative freedom from interference. The 460.7 mu line, however, lies in the region of greater sensitivity of the photomultiplier tube, and hence for this reason is preferred by some. This is an advantage, of course, when determining Sr at very low concentrations. This investigation is concerned with determining the optimum conditions for the determination of Sr at low concentration levels in water samples. Early experimental work indicated a greater sensitivity for the 460.7 mu (hereafter designated as 461 mu) Sr line. Therefore, most of the subsequent work was based on a study of the effects of various other materials and conditions on the emission of Sr at this wavelength.

  13. ID-check: Online concealed information test reveals true identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuere, B.; Kleinberg, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has already changed people's lives considerably and is likely to drastically change forensic research. We developed a web-based test to reveal concealed autobiographical information. Initial studies identified a number of conditions that affect diagnostic efficiency. By combining these

  14. Intratumor Heterogeneity and Branched Evolution Revealed by Multiregion Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlinger, Marco; Rowan, Andrew J.; Horswell, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    .RESULTS: Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed branched evolutionary tumor growth, with 63 to 69% of all somatic mutations not detectable across every tumor region. Intratumor heterogeneity was observed for a mutation within an autoinhibitory domain of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase, correlating with S6...

  15. Revealing gene action for production characteristics by inbreeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revealing gene action for production characteristics by inbreeding, based on a long-term selection ... The gene action involved in the expression of production characters was investigated, using the effect of the theoretical inbreeding ..... and predicted selection responses for growth, fat and lean traits in mice. J. Anim. Sci.

  16. An acute adrenal insufficiency revealing pituitary metastases of lung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 69-year-old men presented with vomiting, low blood pressure and hypoglycemia. Hormonal exploration confirmed a hypopituitarism. Appropriate therapy was initiated urgently. The hypothalamic-pituitary MRI showed a pituitary hypertrophy, a nodular thickening of the pituitary stalk. The chest X Rays revealed pulmonary ...

  17. The microbiome of Brazilian mangrove sediments as revealed by metagenomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreote, Fernando Dini; Jiménez Avella, Diego; Chaves, Diego; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Luvizotto, Danice Mazzer; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Fasanella, Cristiane Cipola; Lopez, Maryeimy Varon; Baena, Sandra; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; de Melo, Itamar Soares

    2012-01-01

    Here we embark in a deep metagenomic survey that revealed the taxonomic and potential metabolic pathways aspects of mangrove sediment microbiology. The extraction of DNA from sediment samples and the direct application of pyrosequencing resulted in approximately 215 Mb of data from four distinct

  18. Species Richness and Diversity Reveal that Human-Modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Family diversity and richness showed no significant differences across the sites. The spider species consisted of primarily three functional groups: ground wanderers, web builders and plant wanderers, and showed no within-group differences in abundance between sites. Similarity index between the study sites revealed a ...

  19. Landmark Study Reveals Antarctic Glacier's Long History of Retreat

    OpenAIRE

    Kuska, Dale M.

    2016-01-01

    Faculty Showcase Archive Article Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A major study, released in late November in the journal “Nature,” reveals the history of retreat of the massive Pine Island Glacier (PIG) in western Antarctica, widely considered one of the largest contributors to global sea-level rise.

  20. Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals widespread full phosphorylation site occupancy during mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Martin Lee; Brunak, Søren; Olsen, JV

    2010-01-01

    and phosphorylation sites were grouped according to their cell cycle kinetics and compared to publicly available messenger RNA microarray data. Most detected phosphorylation sites and more than 20% of all quantified proteins showed substantial regulation, mainly in mitotic cells. Kinase-motif analysis revealed global...

  1. Chemical milling solution reveals stress corrosion cracks in titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braski, D. N.

    1967-01-01

    Solution of hydrogen flouride, hydrogen peroxide, and water reveals hot salt stress corrosion cracks in various titanium alloys. After the surface is rinsed in water, dried, and swabbed with the solution, it can be observed by the naked eye or at low magnification.

  2. Structure defects in malachite revealed by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geffroy, B.; Diallo, I.; Paulin, R.

    1984-01-01

    Positron lifetime is measured between 77 and 400 K in two malachite samples with different mineralogical structures. The complex spectrum found in zoned malachite reveals a microporosity which remains stable in this range of temperature. Besides, above 200 K, equilibrium defects appear. Their formation energy is estimated to be Esub(f) = 0.27 +- 0.02 eV [fr

  3. Structure defects in malachite revealed by positron annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geffroy, B; Diallo, I; Paulin, R [Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires, CEN/Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1984-01-01

    Positron lifetime is measured between 77 and 400 K in two malachite samples with different mineralogical structures. The complex spectrum found in zoned malachite reveals a microporosity which remains stable in this range of temperature. Besides, above 200 K, equilibrium defects appear. Their formation energy is estimated to be Esub(f) = 0.27 +- 0.02 eV.

  4. Seasonal succession in zooplankton feeding traits reveals trophic trait coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenitz, Kasia; Visser, Andre; Mariani, Patrizio

    2017-01-01

    non-motile cells flourishing in spring and motile community dominating during summer. The zooplankton community is dominated by active feeding-current feeders with peak biomass in the late spring declining during summer. The model reveals how zooplankton grazing reinforces protist plankton seasonal...

  5. Adaptation to High Ethanol Reveals Complex Evolutionary Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Voordeckers

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tolerance to high levels of ethanol is an ecologically and industrially relevant phenotype of microbes, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this complex trait remain largely unknown. Here, we use long-term experimental evolution of isogenic yeast populations of different initial ploidy to study adaptation to increasing levels of ethanol. Whole-genome sequencing of more than 30 evolved populations and over 100 adapted clones isolated throughout this two-year evolution experiment revealed how a complex interplay of de novo single nucleotide mutations, copy number variation, ploidy changes, mutator phenotypes, and clonal interference led to a significant increase in ethanol tolerance. Although the specific mutations differ between different evolved lineages, application of a novel computational pipeline, PheNetic, revealed that many mutations target functional modules involved in stress response, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and respiration. Measuring the fitness effects of selected mutations introduced in non-evolved ethanol-sensitive cells revealed several adaptive mutations that had previously not been implicated in ethanol tolerance, including mutations in PRT1, VPS70 and MEX67. Interestingly, variation in VPS70 was recently identified as a QTL for ethanol tolerance in an industrial bio-ethanol strain. Taken together, our results show how, in contrast to adaptation to some other stresses, adaptation to a continuous complex and severe stress involves interplay of different evolutionary mechanisms. In addition, our study reveals functional modules involved in ethanol resistance and identifies several mutations that could help to improve the ethanol tolerance of industrial yeasts.

  6. Genetic and biochemical evidences reveal novel insights into the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 41; Issue 4. Genetic and biochemical evidences reveal novel insights into the mechanism underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sae2-mediated abrogation of DNA replication stress. INDRAJEET GHODKE K MUNIYAPPA. ARTICLE Volume 41 Issue 4 December 2016 pp ...

  7. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA reveals a complete lineage sorti ng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glossogobius callidus exhibits broad salinity tolerance and is distributed in both estuarine and freshwater environments in southern Africa. Previous studies revealed substantial morphological and molecular variation among populations, suggesting they constitute a species complex. The present study utilised phylogenetic ...

  8. Impurity sublattice localization in ZnO revealed by li marker diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azarov, A.Yu.; Knutsen, K.E.; Neuvonen, P.T.

    2013-01-01

    Sublattice localization of impurities in compound semiconductors, e.g., ZnO, determines their electronic and optical action. Despite that the impurity position may be envisaged based on charge considerations, the actual localization is often unknown, limiting our understanding of the incorporation...... and possible doping mechanisms. In this study, we demonstrate that the preferential sublattice occupation for a number of impurities in ZnO can be revealed by monitoring Li diffusion. In particular, using ion implantation, the impurity incorporation into the Zn sublattice (holds for, B, Mg, P, Ag, Cd, and Sb...

  9. Protein sequences from mastodon and Tyrannosaurus rex revealed by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asara, John M; Schweitzer, Mary H; Freimark, Lisa M; Phillips, Matthew; Cantley, Lewis C

    2007-04-13

    Fossilized bones from extinct taxa harbor the potential for obtaining protein or DNA sequences that could reveal evolutionary links to extant species. We used mass spectrometry to obtain protein sequences from bones of a 160,000- to 600,000-year-old extinct mastodon (Mammut americanum) and a 68-million-year-old dinosaur (Tyrannosaurus rex). The presence of T. rex sequences indicates that their peptide bonds were remarkably stable. Mass spectrometry can thus be used to determine unique sequences from ancient organisms from peptide fragmentation patterns, a valuable tool to study the evolution and adaptation of ancient taxa from which genomic sequences are unlikely to be obtained.

  10. Deep brain stimulation reveals emotional impact processing in ventromedial prefrontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Albert; Geday, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that modulation of monoaminergic tone with deep-brain stimulation (DBS) of subthalamic nucleus would reveal a site of reactivity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex that we previously identified by modulating serotonergic and noradrenergic mechanisms by blocking serotonin......-noradrenaline reuptake sites. We tested the hypothesis in patients with Parkinson's disease in whom we had measured the changes of blood flow everywhere in the brain associated with the deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus. We determined the emotional reactivity of the patients as the average impact...

  11. Egg origin determination efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, A.; Futo, I.; Vodila, G.; Palcsu, L.

    2012-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. As a co-operation with the Poultry Product Board, egg and drinking water samples were received in order to investigate whether the country of origin of the egg can be determined based on its stable isotope composition with the aim of market protection of the Hungarian eggs against the mislabelled foreign ones. The scientific background is that drinking water of egg laying hens is assumed to reflect the composition of regional precipitation, and it is also an input data in the process of egg formation. In the first sampling, altogether 23 sets of egg and drinking water samples were received from different production sites covering the whole area of Hungary. The egg white samples were vacuum distilled and frozen out by liquid nitrogen at -196 deg C. The process was monitored by two vacuum gauges. Water frozen out together with the drinking water samples was measured were measured by a Thermo Finnigan Delta PLUS XP isotope ratio mass spectrometer using a GasBench II peripheral unit equipped with a GC-autosampler. As a second issue, additionally, elemental composition of egg shells were also performed for series of Hungarian, Czech and Polish egg samples by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The drinking waters fit well to the Global Meteoric Water Line indicating their precipitation origin. It was experienced that the water in egg white gets enriched compared to the drinking water (Δ 18 O = -4.9 ± 1.0 per thousand and Δ D = -21.8 ± 6.4 per thousand), however, this shift is independent of the type of the hens, since the mean shifts in the eggs of Tetra and Hy-line hens are similar within error bar. For more depleted drinking water, the shift of the egg white was higher than for more enriched ones. This can be due to the contribution of the nutriment isotopic composition. The water isotope composition of the Hungarian eggs investigated was δ 18 O = -4.8 - -7.3 per thousand and δD = -46.0 - -70.7 per thousand, therefore egg

  12. Socioeconomic determinants of plantain production in Ovia North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The regression result revealed that R2 was 0.81 which implies that over 80% of the changes in number of local technologies adopted by the plantain farmers were determined by the independent variable. Some variable like education, farm income and local knowledge in plantain production were significant. Among others ...

  13. The Determinants of International News Flow: A Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmo; Barnett, George A.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the structure of international news flow and its determinants. Reveals inequality of international news flow between core and periphery, with Western industrialized countries at the center. Finds that the news flow network is structured into eight geographic-linguistic groups. Indicates flow is influenced by a country's economic…

  14. Characteristics and Determinants of Youth Unemployment in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Youth unemployment is a serious concern to policy makers in many developing countries because of its multidimensional impact. In this connection, the paper attempts to characterize youth unemployment in Ethiopia and reveal its major determinants. Univariate results indicate that the youth in general, including teenager ...

  15. Gender determination from diagnostic factors on anteroposterior pelvic radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Memarian

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the evaluation of the radiographic images of pelvic bones by assessing the mentioned factors can be useful for sex determination from skeletal remains. However, ethical considerations should also be taken into account while using these factors.

  16. Determination of oxygen diffusion kinetics during thin film ruthenium oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coloma Ribera, R.; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Yakshin, Andrey; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    In situ X-ray reflectivity was used to reveal oxygen diffusion kinetics for thermal oxidation of polycrystalline ruthenium thin films and accurate determination of activation energies for this process. Diffusion rates in nanometer thin RuO2 films were found to show Arrhenius behaviour. However, a

  17. Transaction cost determinants of credit governance structures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores transaction cost determinants of credit governance structures (CGS) of commercial banks in Tanzania. Descriptive statistics, linear regression model, binary and multinomial logistic regression models were employed for analysis. Findings revealed four modes of credit governance structures that are ...

  18. Subcriticality determination of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisenko, V.I.; Goranchuk, V.V.; Sidoruk, N.M.; Volokh, A.F.

    2014-01-01

    In this article the subcriticality determination of nuclear reactor is considered. Emphasized that, despite the requirements of regulatory documents on the subcriticality determination of WWER from the beginning of their operation, so far, this problem has not been solved. The results of subcriticality determination of Rossi-α method of the WWER-M is presented. The possibility of subcriticality determination of WWER is considered. The possibility of subcriticality determination of Rossi-α method with time resolution is of about 100 microseconds is also considered. The possible reasons for the error in subcriticality determination of the reactor are indicated

  19. Guardian small RNAs and sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuma, Susumu; Kawamoto, Munetaka; Kiuchi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The W chromosome of the silkworm Bombyx mori has been known to determine femaleness for more than 80 years. However, the feminizing gene has not been molecularly identified, because the B. mori W chromosome is almost fully occupied by a large number of transposable elements. The W chromosome-derived feminizing factor of B. mori was recently shown to be a female-specific PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA). piRNAs are small RNAs that potentially repress invading "non-self" elements (e.g., transposons and virus-like elements) by associating with PIWI proteins. Our results revealed that female-specific piRNA precursors, which we named Fem, are transcribed from the sex-determining region of the W chromosome at the early embryonic stage and are processed into a single mature piRNA (Fem piRNA). Fem piRNA forms a complex with Siwi (silkworm Piwi), which cleaves a protein-coding mRNA transcribed from the Z chromosome. RNA interference of this Z-linked gene, which we named Masc, revealed that this gene encodes a protein required for masculinization and dosage compensation. Fem and Masc both participate in the ping-pong cycle of the piRNA amplification loop by associating with the 2 B. mori PIWI proteins Siwi and BmAgo3 (silkworm Ago3), respectively, indicating that the piRNA-mediated interaction between the 2 sex chromosomes is the primary signal for the B. mori sex determination cascade. Fem is a non-transposable repetitive sequence on the W chromosome, whereas Masc is a single-copy protein-coding gene. It is of great interest how the piRNA system recognizes "self "Masc mRNA as "non-self" RNA.

  20. Proteomic analysis of three gonad types of swamp eel reveals genes differentially expressed during sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yue; Zhao, Wei; Song, Ying; Li, Zhigang; Luo, Majing; Lei, Quan; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2015-05-18

    A variety of mechanisms are engaged in sex determination in vertebrates. The teleost fish swamp eel undergoes sex reversal naturally and is an ideal model for vertebrate sexual development. However, the importance of proteome-wide scanning for gonad reversal was not previously determined. We report a 2-D electrophoresis analysis of three gonad types of proteomes during sex reversal. MS/MS analysis revealed a group of differentially expressed proteins during ovary to ovotestis to testis transformation. Cbx3 is up-regulated during gonad reversal and is likely to have a role in spermatogenesis. Rab37 is down-regulated during the reversal and is mainly associated with oogenesis. Both Cbx3 and Rab37 are linked up in a protein network. These datasets in gonadal proteomes provide a new resource for further studies in gonadal development.

  1. VOLTAMMETRIC DETERMINATION OF TINIDAZOLE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tablet samples showed the potential applicability of the developed method for the determination of tinidazole in ... determination of TNZ in real samples like tablets, injection, urine and biological fluids [24-27]. Almost all ..... during the storage.

  2. Determinant of Poverty in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    a logistic regression model to identify determinants of wellbeing of the household ... interest of researchers, public authorities and international organizations. The ... have to understand the determinants of poverty in rural and urban Ethiopia.

  3. Reduction and determination of dixanthogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, M S

    1971-06-01

    A convenient method for the reduction and determination of dixaathogen has been developed. It is based on the quantitative reaction of dixanthogen with zinc amalgam to form xanthate; the latter can be determined by iodine titration, potentiometric titration with silver nitrate or by spectrophotometry at 310 mmu. Dixanthogen can be determined in mixtures containing xanthate, by titration of aliquots with and without reduction. Higher dixanthogens can also be determined, and flotation liquors analysed.

  4. Coral transcriptome and bacterial community profiles reveal distinct Yellow Band Disease states in Orbicella faveolata

    KAUST Repository

    Closek, Collin J.

    2014-06-20

    Coral diseases impact reefs globally. Although we continue to describe diseases, little is known about the etiology or progression of even the most common cases. To examine a spectrum of coral health and determine factors of disease progression we examined Orbicella faveolata exhibiting signs of Yellow Band Disease (YBD), a widespread condition in the Caribbean. We used a novel combined approach to assess three members of the coral holobiont: the coral-host, associated Symbiodinium algae, and bacteria. We profiled three conditions: (1) healthy-appearing colonies (HH), (2) healthy-appearing tissue on diseased colonies (HD), and (3) diseased lesion (DD). Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed health state-specific diversity in Symbiodinium clade associations. 16S ribosomal RNA gene microarrays (PhyloChips) and O. faveolata complimentary DNA microarrays revealed the bacterial community structure and host transcriptional response, respectively. A distinct bacterial community structure marked each health state. Diseased samples were associated with two to three times more bacterial diversity. HD samples had the highest bacterial richness, which included components associated with HH and DD, as well as additional unique families. The host transcriptome under YBD revealed a reduced cellular expression of defense- and metabolism-related processes, while the neighboring HD condition exhibited an intermediate expression profile. Although HD tissue appeared visibly healthy, the microbial communities and gene expression profiles were distinct. HD should be regarded as an additional (intermediate) state of disease, which is important for understanding the progression of YBD. © 2014 International Society for Microbial Ecology. All rights reserved.

  5. Transcriptome analysis reveals key differentially expressed genes involved in wheat grain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonglong Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat seed development is an important physiological process of seed maturation and directly affects wheat yield and quality. In this study, we performed dynamic transcriptome microarray analysis of an elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar (Jimai 20 during grain development using the GeneChip Wheat Genome Array. Grain morphology and scanning electron microscope observations showed that the period of 11–15 days post-anthesis (DPA was a key stage for the synthesis and accumulation of seed starch. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling and significance analysis of microarrays revealed that the period from 11 to 15 DPA was more important than the 15–20 DPA stage for the synthesis and accumulation of nutritive reserves. Series test of cluster analysis of differential genes revealed five statistically significant gene expression profiles. Gene ontology annotation and enrichment analysis gave further information about differentially expressed genes, and MapMan analysis revealed expression changes within functional groups during seed development. Metabolic pathway network analysis showed that major and minor metabolic pathways regulate one another to ensure regular seed development and nutritive reserve accumulation. We performed gene co-expression network analysis to identify genes that play vital roles in seed development and identified several key genes involved in important metabolic pathways. The transcriptional expression of eight key genes involved in starch and protein synthesis and stress defense was further validated by qRT-PCR. Our results provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of wheat seed development and the determinants of yield and quality.

  6. Revealed access to haemodialysis facilities in northeastern Iran: Factors that matter in rural and urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Behzad; Bagheri, Nasser; Tara, Ahmad; Hoseini, Benyamin; Tabesh, Hamed; Tara, Mahmood

    2017-11-07

    Poor access to haemodialysis facilities is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. This study investigated factors affecting revealed access to the haemodialysis facilities considering patients living in rural and urban areas without any haemodialysis facility (Group A) and those living urban areas with haemodialysis facilities (Group B). This study is based on selfreported Actual Access Time (AAT) to referred haemodialysis facilities and other information regarding travel to haemodialysis facilities from patients. All significant variables on univariate analysis were entered into a univariate general linear model in order to identify factors associated with AAT. Both spatial (driving time and distance) and non-spatial factors (sex, income level, caregivers, transportation mode, education level, ethnicity and personal vehicle ownership) influenced the revealed access identified in Group A. The non-spatial factors for Group B patients were the same as for Group A, but no spatial factor was identified in Group B. It was found that accessibility is strongly underestimated when driving time is chosen as accessibility measure to haemodialysis facilities. Analysis of revealed access determinants provides policymakers with an appropriate decision base for making appropriate decisions and finding solutions to decrease the access time for patients under haemodialysis therapy. Driving time alone is not a good proxy for measuring access to haemodialysis facilities as there are many other potential obstacles, such as women's special travel problems, poor other transportation possibilities, ethnicity disparities, low education levels, low caregiver status and low-income.

  7. Dissecting a role for melanopsin in behavioural light aversion reveals a response independent of conventional photoreception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma'ayan Semo

    Full Text Available Melanopsin photoreception plays a vital role in irradiance detection for non-image forming responses to light. However, little is known about the involvement of melanopsin in emotional processing of luminance. When confronted with a gradient in light, organisms exhibit spatial movements relative to this stimulus. In rodents, behavioural light aversion (BLA is a well-documented but poorly understood phenomenon during which animals attribute salience to light and remove themselves from it. Here, using genetically modified mice and an open field behavioural paradigm, we investigate the role of melanopsin in BLA. While wildtype (WT, melanopsin knockout (Opn4(-/- and rd/rd cl (melanopsin only (MO mice all exhibit BLA, our novel methodology reveals that isolated melanopsin photoreception produces a slow, potentiating response to light. In order to control for the involvement of pupillary constriction in BLA we eliminated this variable with topical atropine application. This manipulation enhanced BLA in WT and MO mice, but most remarkably, revealed light aversion in triple knockout (TKO mice, lacking three elements deemed essential for conventional photoreception (Opn4(-/- Gnat1(-/- Cnga3(-/-. Using a number of complementary strategies, we determined this response to be generated at the level of the retina. Our findings have significant implications for the understanding of how melanopsin signalling may modulate aversive responses to light in mice and humans. In addition, we also reveal a clear potential for light perception in TKO mice.

  8. Ecological succession reveals potential signatures of marine-terrestrial transition in salt marsh fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Pylro, Victor Satler; Baldrian, Petr; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Salles, Joana Falcão

    2016-08-01

    Marine-to-terrestrial transition represents one of the most fundamental shifts in microbial life. Understanding the distribution and drivers of soil microbial communities across coastal ecosystems is critical given the roles of microbes in soil biogeochemistry and their multifaceted influence on landscape succession. Here, we studied the fungal community dynamics in a well-established salt marsh chronosequence that spans over a century of ecosystem development. We focussed on providing high-resolution assessments of community composition, diversity and ecophysiological shifts that yielded patterns of ecological succession through soil formation. Notably, despite containing 10- to 100-fold lower fungal internal transcribed spacer abundances, early-successional sites revealed fungal richnesses comparable to those of more mature soils. These newly formed sites also exhibited significant temporal variations in β-diversity that may be attributed to the highly dynamic nature of the system imposed by the tidal regime. The fungal community compositions and ecophysiological assignments changed substantially along the successional gradient, revealing a clear signature of ecological replacement and gradually transforming the environment from a marine into a terrestrial system. Moreover, distance-based linear modelling revealed soil physical structure and organic matter to be the best predictors of the shifts in fungal β-diversity along the chronosequence. Taken together, our study lays the basis for a better understanding of the spatiotemporally determined fungal community dynamics in salt marshes and highlights their ecophysiological traits and adaptation in an evolving ecosystem.

  9. Intracranial Hemorrhage Revealing Pseudohypoparathyroidism as a Cause of Fahr Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Swami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudohypoparathyroidism is an infrequently encountered disease. It is one of the causes of Fahr syndrome which also is a rare clinical entity caused by multiple diseases. A 4-year-old man hospitalized for sudden onset left hemiparesis and hypertension was diagnosed to have right thalamic and midbrain hemorrhage on plain CT scan of the head which also revealed co-existent extensive intracranial calcifications involving the basal ganglia and cerebellum bilaterally. General physical examination revealed features of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy, goitre, hypertension, left hemiparesis, and signs of cerebellar dysfunction. Laboratory findings suggested hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia along with high TSH, low FT4, low FT3, and high anti-TPO antibody. Though bilateral intracranial calcifications are usually encountered as an incidental radiological finding in the CT scan of brain, in this case, the patient admitted for thalamic and midbrain hemorrhage was on investigation for associated intracranial calcification, and goitre was also found to have coexisting pseudohypoparathyroidism and autoimmune hypothyroidism.

  10. Tax Policy Trends: Republicans Reveal Proposed Tax Overhaul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Bazel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available REPUBLICANS REVEAL PROPOSED TAX OVERHAUL The White House and Congressional Republicans have revealed their much-anticipated proposal for reform of the U.S. personal and corporate tax systems. The proposal titled, “UNIFIED FRAMEWORK FOR FIXING OUR BROKEN TAX CODE” outlines a number of central policy changes, which will significantly alter the U.S. corporate tax system. The proposal includes a top federal marginal rate reduction for the sole proprietorships, partnerships and S corporation—small business equivalents— from 39.6% to 25% (state income tax rates would no longer be deductible. Large corporations would also see a meaningful federal rate reduction given the proposed drop in the federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 20%. Additionally, the proposal includes a generous temporary measure intended to stimulate investment, full capital expensing for machinery with a partial limitation of interest deductions.

  11. Obscure pulmonary masses: bronchial impaction revealed by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugatch, R.D.; Gale, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Dilated bronchi impacted with mucus or tumor are recognized on standard chest radiographs because they are surrounded by aerated pulmonary parenchyma. When imaged in different projections, these lesions produce a variety of appearances that are generally familiar. This report characterizes less familiar computed tomographic (CT) findings in eight patients with pathologic bronchial distension of congenital, neoplastic, or infectious etiologies and correlates them with chest films. In seven patients, CT readily revealed dilated bronchi and/or regional lung hypodensity. In four of these cases, CT led to the initial suspicion of dilated bronchi. CT should be used early in the evaluation of atypical pulmonary mass lesions or to confirm suspected bronchial impaction because of the high probability it will reveal diagnostic features

  12. What proverb understanding reveals about how people think.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, R W; Beitel, D

    1995-07-01

    The ability to understand proverbial sayings, such as a rolling stone gathers no moss, has been of great interest to researchers in many areas of psychology. Most psychologists assume that understanding the figurative meanings of proverbs requires various kinds of higher order cognitive abilities. The authors review the findings on proverb interpretation to examine the question of what proverb use and understanding reveals about the ways normal and dysfunctional individuals think. The widely held idea that failure to provide a figurative interpretation of a proverb necessarily reflects a deficit in specialized abstract thinking is rejected. Moreover, the ability to correctly explain what a proverb means does not necessarily imply that an individual can think abstractly. Various empirical evidence, nonetheless, suggests that the ability to understand many proverbs reveals the presence of metaphorical schemes that are ubiquitous in everyday thought.

  13. Acting without seeing: eye movements reveal visual processing without awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spering, Miriam; Carrasco, Marisa

    2015-04-01

    Visual perception and eye movements are considered to be tightly linked. Diverse fields, ranging from developmental psychology to computer science, utilize eye tracking to measure visual perception. However, this prevailing view has been challenged by recent behavioral studies. Here, we review converging evidence revealing dissociations between the contents of perceptual awareness and different types of eye movement. Such dissociations reveal situations in which eye movements are sensitive to particular visual features that fail to modulate perceptual reports. We also discuss neurophysiological, neuroimaging, and clinical studies supporting the role of subcortical pathways for visual processing without awareness. Our review links awareness to perceptual-eye movement dissociations and furthers our understanding of the brain pathways underlying vision and movement with and without awareness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Digital tissue and what it may reveal about the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Josh L; Lichtman, Jeff W

    2017-10-30

    Imaging as a means of scientific data storage has evolved rapidly over the past century from hand drawings, to photography, to digital images. Only recently can sufficiently large datasets be acquired, stored, and processed such that tissue digitization can actually reveal more than direct observation of tissue. One field where this transformation is occurring is connectomics: the mapping of neural connections in large volumes of digitized brain tissue.

  15. Focus Groups to Reveal Parents' Needs for Prenatal Education

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Louise

    2002-01-01

    Focus group interviews are a useful qualitative research technique to obtain data from small groups about their opinions, attitudes, and/or feelings on a given subject. This particular technique has been used in Western Quebec in order to reveal the opinions, needs, and feelings of health professionals and future parents concerning prenatal education. As part of the region's priorities for 2002, all future parents in this part of the province were to be offered prenatal, government-paid, comm...

  16. Parascapular mass revealing primary tuberculosis of the posterior arch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbault, Anais; Ornetti, Paul; Chevallier, Olivier; Avril, Julien; Pottecher, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a parascapular abscess revealing primary tuberculosis of the posterior arch in a 31-year-old man. Sectional imaging is essential in order to detect the different lesions of this atypical spinal tuberculosis as osteolysis of the posterior arch extendible to vertebral body, osteocondensation, epidural extension which is common in this location, and high specificity of a zygapophysial, costo-vertebral or transverse arthritis. PMID:27709081

  17. [Colonic duplication revealed by intestinal obstruction due to fecal impaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azahouani, A; Hida, M; Benhaddou, H

    2015-12-01

    Colonic duplications are very rare in children. With rectal duplications, they are the rarest locations of alimentary tract duplications, most often diagnosed in the first years of life. We report an unusual case of colic duplication with fecal impaction in a 9-month-old boy revealed by intestinal obstruction. We discuss the main diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this malformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. 'Big bang' of B-cell development revealed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murre, Cornelis

    2018-01-15

    Earlier studies have identified transcription factors that specify B-cell fate, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be revealed. Two new studies by Miyai and colleagues (pp. 112-126) and Li and colleagues (pp. 96-111) in this issue of Genes & Development provide new and unprecedented insights into the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that establish B-cell identity. © 2018 Murre; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  19. Transient light-induced intracellular oxidation revealed by redox biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolossov, Vladimir L., E-mail: viadimer@illinois.edu [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Beaudoin, Jessica N. [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1207 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hanafin, William P. [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); DiLiberto, Stephen J. [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1207 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Kenis, Paul J.A. [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Rex Gaskins, H. [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1207 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 S. Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 905 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •Time-resolved live cell imaging revealed light-induced oxidation. •Only the roGFP probe fused with glutaredoxin reveals photooxidation. •The transient oxidation is rapidly reduced by the cytosolic antioxidant system. •Intracellular photooxidation is media-dependent. •Oxidation is triggered exclusively by exposure to short wavelength excitation. -- Abstract: We have implemented a ratiometric, genetically encoded redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein fused to human glutaredoxin (Grx1-roGFP2) to monitor real time intracellular glutathione redox potentials of mammalian cells. This probe enabled detection of media-dependent oxidation of the cytosol triggered by short wavelength excitation. The transient nature of light-induced oxidation was revealed by time-lapse live cell imaging when time intervals of less than 30 s were implemented. In contrast, transient ROS generation was not observed with the parental roGFP2 probe without Grx1, which exhibits slower thiol-disulfide exchange. These data demonstrate that the enhanced sensitivity of the Grx1-roGFP2 fusion protein enables the detection of short-lived ROS in living cells. The superior sensitivity of Grx1-roGFP2, however, also enhances responsiveness to environmental cues introducing a greater likelihood of false positive results during image acquisition.

  20. Transient light-induced intracellular oxidation revealed by redox biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolossov, Vladimir L.; Beaudoin, Jessica N.; Hanafin, William P.; DiLiberto, Stephen J.; Kenis, Paul J.A.; Rex Gaskins, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Time-resolved live cell imaging revealed light-induced oxidation. •Only the roGFP probe fused with glutaredoxin reveals photooxidation. •The transient oxidation is rapidly reduced by the cytosolic antioxidant system. •Intracellular photooxidation is media-dependent. •Oxidation is triggered exclusively by exposure to short wavelength excitation. -- Abstract: We have implemented a ratiometric, genetically encoded redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein fused to human glutaredoxin (Grx1-roGFP2) to monitor real time intracellular glutathione redox potentials of mammalian cells. This probe enabled detection of media-dependent oxidation of the cytosol triggered by short wavelength excitation. The transient nature of light-induced oxidation was revealed by time-lapse live cell imaging when time intervals of less than 30 s were implemented. In contrast, transient ROS generation was not observed with the parental roGFP2 probe without Grx1, which exhibits slower thiol-disulfide exchange. These data demonstrate that the enhanced sensitivity of the Grx1-roGFP2 fusion protein enables the detection of short-lived ROS in living cells. The superior sensitivity of Grx1-roGFP2, however, also enhances responsiveness to environmental cues introducing a greater likelihood of false positive results during image acquisition

  1. Tremendous Mass Concentration in Strange Galaxy Revealed by VLBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    A dense whirling mass orbiting what almost certainly is a black hole of truly Brobdingnagian proportions has been discovered at the heart of an active galaxy some 21 million light years from Earth. The astronomical observations were made by an international team of Japanese and American astronomers using a continent-wide radio telescope funded by the National Science Foundation. The work is reported in the January 12th issue of Nature. The tremendous concentration of mass, equivalent to 40 million suns, in the center of the galaxy NGC4258 in the constellation Canes Venatici, was revealed by the apparent rotation of a molecular disk that surrounds it. The observations showed that the disk of dense material is orbiting within the galaxy's nucleus at velocities -- up to 650 miles per second -- that require the gravitational pull of such a massive object. The high angular resolution and sensitivity of the Very Long Baseline Array of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory allowed precise measurements of the differential rotation of the material in the disk, which provides the most direct and definitive evidence to date for the presence of a supermassive black hole in the center of another galaxy. Black holes, so dense that nothing -- not even light -- can escape their gravitational fields, have long been thought to be present in the centers of active galaxies, where they would act as central engines driving a variety of exotic and energetic phenomena that are seen on much larger scales, such as jets and powerful X ray emission. NGC 4258, a spiral some 90,000 light-years across, is known to have jets of gas that are twisted into the shape of a helix emerging from the nucleus at speeds of 400 miles per second. Makoto Miyoshi of Japan's Mizusawa Astrogeodymanics Observatory; James Moran, James Herrnstein and Lincoln Greenhill of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA; Naomasa Nakai of Japan's Nobeyama Radio Observatory; Philip Diamond of the

  2. Comparison of S. cerevisiae F-BAR domain structures reveals a conserved inositol phosphate binding site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravcevic, Katarina; Alvarado, Diego; Schmitz, Karl R.; Kenniston, Jon A.; Mendrola, Jeannine M.; Ferguson, Kathryn M.; Lemmon, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY F-BAR domains control membrane interactions in endocytosis, cytokinesis, and cell signaling. Although generally thought to bind curved membranes containing negatively charged phospholipids, numerous functional studies argue that differences in lipid-binding selectivities of F-BAR domains are functionally important. Here, we compare membrane-binding properties of the S. cerevisiae F-BAR domains in vitro and in vivo. Whereas some F-BAR domains (such as Bzz1p and Hof1p F-BARs) bind equally well to all phospholipids, the F-BAR domain from the RhoGAP Rgd1p preferentially binds phosphoinositides. We determined X-ray crystal structures of F-BAR domains from Hof1p and Rgd1p, the latter bound to an inositol phosphate. The structures explain phospholipid-binding selectivity differences, and reveal an F-BAR phosphoinositide binding site that is fully conserved in a mammalian RhoGAP called Gmip, and is partly retained in certain other F-BAR domains. Our findings reveal previously unappreciated determinants of F-BAR domain lipid-binding specificity, and provide a basis for its prediction from sequence. PMID:25620000

  3. Structural characterization of Helicobacter pylori dethiobiotin synthetase reveals differences between family members

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Klimecka, Maria; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Nicholls, Robert A.; Murzyn, Krzysztof; Cuff, Marianne E.; Xu, Xiaohui; Cymborowski, Marcin; Murshudov, Garib N.; Savchenko, Alexei; Edwards, Aled; Minor, Wladek (MCSG); (UV); (MRC)

    2012-07-11

    Dethiobiotin synthetase (DTBS) is involved in the biosynthesis of biotin in bacteria, fungi, and plants. As humans lack this pathway, DTBS is a promising antimicrobial drug target. We determined structures of DTBS from Helicobacter pylori (hpDTBS) bound with cofactors and a substrate analog, and described its unique characteristics relative to other DTBS proteins. Comparison with bacterial DTBS orthologs revealed considerable structural differences in nucleotide recognition. The C-terminal region of DTBS proteins, which contains two nucleotide-recognition motifs, differs greatly among DTBS proteins from different species. The structure of hpDTBS revealed that this protein is unique and does not contain a C-terminal region containing one of the motifs. The single nucleotide-binding motif in hpDTBS is similar to its counterpart in GTPases; however, isothermal titration calorimetry binding studies showed that hpDTBS has a strong preference for ATP. The structural determinants of ATP specificity were assessed with X-ray crystallographic studies of hpDTBS-ATP and hpDTBS-GTP complexes. The unique mode of nucleotide recognition in hpDTBS makes this protein a good target for H. pylori-specific inhibitors of the biotin synthesis pathway.

  4. From Blame to Punishment: Disrupting Prefrontal Cortex Activity Reveals Norm Enforcement Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckholtz, Joshua W; Martin, Justin W; Treadway, Michael T; Jan, Katherine; Zald, David H; Jones, Owen; Marois, René

    2015-09-23

    The social welfare provided by cooperation depends on the enforcement of social norms. Determining blameworthiness and assigning a deserved punishment are two cognitive cornerstones of norm enforcement. Although prior work has implicated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in norm-based judgments, the relative contribution of this region to blameworthiness and punishment decisions remains poorly understood. Here, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and fMRI to determine the specific role of DLPFC function in norm-enforcement behavior. DLPFC rTMS reduced punishment for wrongful acts without affecting blameworthiness ratings, and fMRI revealed punishment-selective DLPFC recruitment, suggesting that these two facets of norm-based decision making are neurobiologically dissociable. Finally, we show that DLPFC rTMS affects punishment decision making by altering the integration of information about culpability and harm. Together, these findings reveal a selective, causal role for DLPFC in norm enforcement: representational integration of the distinct information streams used to make punishment decisions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Contribution to Casein Determination by UV Spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanescu Raluca

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the interaction between copper ions and proteins is presented, in order to elaborate a simple and rapid spectrophotometric assay of casein in milk. Under alkaline conditions, copper ions form the biuret complex with the proteins, which can be used in protein determination. Although very specific, the biuret method is less sensitive. Using insoluble copper phosphate, casein is able to extract copper ions, with which it forms the biuret complex, while either the complex or copper ions could be determined in the ultraviolet range. Indeed, an increased absorbance of biuret complex at 215 nm was found. Nevertheless, copper ions can be determined in UV as well, their concentration being proportional to that of casein. When used tetraglycine instead casein, mass spectrometric measurements at pH higher than 11 revealed the formation of complexes with many copper ions bound to each peptide bond-containing molecule. Nevertheless, on diluting the biuret solution the complex may dissociate leading to very complex UV spectra that should be further studied.

  6. Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ntui Asundep

    2013-12-01

    Nineteen percent of the women experienced an adverse pregnancy outcome. For 49% of the women, cost influenced their antenatal attendance. Cost was associated with increased likelihood of a woman experiencing an adverse outcome (adjusted OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.16–3.99; p = 0.016. Also, women with >5 births had an increased likelihood of an adverse outcome compared with women with single deliveries (adjusted OR = 3.77; 95% CI = 1.50–9.53; p = 0.005. The prevalence of adverse outcomes was lower than previously reported (44.6 versus 19%. Cost and distance were associated with adverse outcomes after adjusting for confounders. Cost and distance could be minimized through a wider application of the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme.

  7. Determinants of corporate dividend policy in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, H. S.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the determinants factors that effect the dividend policy. The sample used in this research is manufacture companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) and the period 2011 - 2015. There are independent variables such as earning, cash flow, free cash flow, debt, growth opportunities, investment opportunities, firm size, largest shareholder, firm risk, lagged dividend and dividend policy used as dependent variable. The study examines a total of 32 manufacture companies. After analyzing the data using the program software Eviews 9.0 by multiples regression analysis reveal that earning, cash flow, free cash flow, firm size, and lagged dividend have significant effect on dividend policy, whereas debt, growth opportunities, investment opportunities, largest shareholder, and firm risk have no significant effect on dividend policy. The results of this study are expected to be implemented by the financial managers in improving corporate profits and basic information as return on investment decisions.

  8. Key determinants of students’ mobile phone choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dzigbordi Dzandu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As there is still only limited research on students brand choice of mobile phones, the focus of this study was to ascertain drivers of tertiary students’ mobile phone brand choice in Ghana. Using a structured questionnaire, data was collected from a random sample of 840 students from three tertiary institutions in Ghana. The study revealed that the most significant determinant of the students brand choice of mobile phones was perceived quality (p0.05. The study concludes that in spite of their economic handicaps, students brand choice was driven most by perceived quality and not price. Recommendations on how information technology manufacturers’ particularly mobile phone companies and marketers can exploit these drivers to sustain and improve their brand equity among students have been made.

  9. Nature versus Nurture in Determining Athletic Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xu; Papadimitriou, Ioannis; Lidor, Ronnie; Eynon, Nir

    2016-01-01

    This overview provides a general discussion of the roles of nature and nurture in determining human athletic ability. On the nature (genetics) side, a review is provided with emphasis on the historical research and on several areas which are likely to be important for future research, including next-generation sequencing technologies. In addition, a number of well-designed training studies that could possibly reveal the biological mechanism ('cause') behind the association between gene variants and athletic ability are discussed. On the nurture (environment) side, we discuss common environmental variables including deliberate practice, family support, and the birthplace effect, which may be important in becoming an elite athlete. Developmental effects are difficult to disassociate with genetic effects, because the early life environment may have long-lasting effects in adulthood. With this in mind, the fetal programming hypothesis is also briefly reviewed, as fetal programming provides an excellent example of how the environment interacts with genetics. We conclude that the traditional argument of nature versus nurture is no longer relevant, as it has been clearly established that both are important factors in the road to becoming an elite athlete. With the availability of the next-generation genetics (sequencing) techniques, it is hoped that future studies will reveal the relevant genes influencing performance, as well as the interaction between those genes and environmental (nurture) factors. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Revealed Comparative Advantage of Services in Cariforum Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Freckleton

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de la importancia de las exportaciones de servicios a los países del CARIFORUM no hay muchos estudios sobre de la competitividad de las exportaciones. Este artículo examina la ventaja comparativa revelada de las exportaciones de servicios de los países del CARIFORUM. El análisis muestra que la mayoría de los países del CARIFORUM han puesto de manifiesto las ventajas comparativas en el turismo, pero también hay casos de ventaja comparativa revelada en otros servicios como transporte, seguros y servicios empresariales, servicios personales, culturales y recreativos. Los resultados sugieren que existe un potencial de CARIFORUM para diversificar las exportaciones de servicios con el fin de pro-mover el crecimiento económico y reducir la vulnerabilidad. Sin embargo, en la medida en que los países del CARIFORUM pueden tomar ventaja de las oportunidades existentes de acceso al Mercado de los servicios depende de su capacidad de mejorar la capacidad de oferta de servicios y promover la competitividad de los servicios. English: Despite the importance of services ex-ports to CARIFORUM countries there is limited research on the competitiveness of such exports. This article examines the revealed comparative advantage of services exports in CARIFORUM countries. The analysis shows that most CARIFORUM countries have revealed comparative advantage in tourism but there are also cases of revealed comparative advantage in other services including transport, insurance, business services and personal, cultural and recreational services. The results suggest that there is potential for CARIFORUM to diversify exports of services in order to promote economic growth and reduce vulnerability. However, the extent to which CARIFORUM countries can take advantage of existing market access opportunities for services depends on their ability to improve the capacity to supply services and to promote the competitiveness of services.

  11. Dislocation Interactions in Olivine Revealed by HR-EBSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, David; Hansen, Lars N.; Britton, T. Ben; Wilkinson, Angus J.

    2017-10-01

    Interactions between dislocations potentially provide a control on strain rates produced by dislocation motion during creep of rocks at high temperatures. However, it has been difficult to establish the dominant types of interactions and their influence on the rheological properties of creeping rocks due to a lack of suitable observational techniques. We apply high-angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction to map geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) density, elastic strain, and residual stress in experimentally deformed single crystals of olivine. Short-range interactions are revealed by cross correlation of GND density maps. Spatial correlations between dislocation types indicate that noncollinear interactions may impede motion of proximal dislocations at temperatures of 1000°C and 1200°C. Long-range interactions are revealed by autocorrelation of GND density maps. These analyses reveal periodic variations in GND density and sign, with characteristic length scales on the order of 1-10 μm. These structures are spatially associated with variations in elastic strain and residual stress on the order of 10-3 and 100 MPa, respectively. Therefore, short-range interactions generate local accumulations of dislocations, leading to heterogeneous internal stress fields that influence dislocation motion over longer length scales. The impacts of these short- and/or long-range interactions on dislocation velocities may therefore influence the strain rate of the bulk material and are an important consideration for future models of dislocation-mediated deformation mechanisms in olivine. Establishing the types and impacts of dislocation interactions that occur across a range of laboratory and natural deformation conditions will help to establish the reliability of extrapolating laboratory-derived flow laws to real Earth conditions.

  12. Determination of oxygen diffusion kinetics during thin film ruthenium oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coloma Ribera, R., E-mail: r.colomaribera@utwente.nl; Kruijs, R. W. E. van de; Yakshin, A. E.; Bijkerk, F. [MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2015-08-07

    In situ X-ray reflectivity was used to reveal oxygen diffusion kinetics for thermal oxidation of polycrystalline ruthenium thin films and accurate determination of activation energies for this process. Diffusion rates in nanometer thin RuO{sub 2} films were found to show Arrhenius behaviour. However, a gradual decrease in diffusion rates was observed with oxide growth, with the activation energy increasing from about 2.1 to 2.4 eV. Further exploration of the Arrhenius pre-exponential factor for diffusion process revealed that oxidation of polycrystalline ruthenium joins the class of materials that obey the Meyer-Neldel rule.

  13. Malar Bone Metastasis Revealing a Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsen Slim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common form of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. It is generally confined to the neck with or without spread to regional lymph nodes. Metastatic thyroid carcinomas are uncommon and mainly include lung and bone. Metastases involving oral and maxillofacial region are extremely rare. We described a case of malar metastasis revealing a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, presenting with pain and swelling of the left cheek in a 67-years-old female patient with an unspecified histological left lobo-isthmectomy medical history. To our knowledge, this is the first recorded instance of a malar metastasis from a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  14. [Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage revealed by jaundice: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulmaati, A; Hays, S; Mory-Thomas, N; Bretones, P; Bensaid, M; Jordan, I; Bonfils, M; Godbert, I; Picaud, J-C

    2012-04-01

    The clinical presentation of adrenal hemorrhage varies, depending on the extent of hemorrhage as well as the amount of adrenal cortex involved by the hemorrhage. We report here a case of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage revealed by late onset of neonatal jaundice. This adrenal hemorrhage most probably resulted from shoulder dystocia. The aim of this work was to focus on the fact that jaundice can be caused by adrenal hemorrhage and to emphasize the crucial importance of abdominal ultrasound in cases of persistent jaundice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. A Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Pleura Revealed by Hiccups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chafik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Solitary fibrous tumors of the pleura are rare and benign primary localized tumors; they possess a malignant potential and thus should be excised. We report a case of a 43-year-old woman, who had suffered for 5 years from right basithoracic pain associated with progressive dyspnea and persistent hiccups during the last 6 months. We have not found any similar case in the literature. Further testing after excision by thoracotomy revealed a solitary fibrous pleural tumor. A brief discussion of the clinical presentation and incidence of these tumors is included.

  16. [Suicide -- an essay trying to reveal the theme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, M A; Boemer, M R

    2000-12-01

    This essay proposes to reveal facets of the suicide through the discourse of different authors treating this theme as well as through contacts that I was able to have in my nursing training, through my academic trajectory. This trajectory includes an incursion by phenomenological ideas, mainly by the ideas of Heidegger and his existential analysis of the man as being-there. In this way, the understanding of a person who decides to finalize his/her existence, can be, by the existential analysis perspective, a way to reconstruct and redimension his/her existential perspectives.

  17. Windows PowerShell desired state configuration revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Chaganti, Ravikanth

    2014-01-01

    Desired State Configuration (DSC) is a powerful new configuration management platform that makes it easier than ever to perform cross-platform configuration management of your infrastructure, whether on-premise or in the cloud. DSC provides the management platform and Application Programming Interface (API) that can be used with any programming language. Windows PowerShell Desired State Configuration Revealed will take you through this new technology from start to finish and demonstrates the DSC interfaces through Windows PowerShell. DSC allows you to manage target devices by simply declarin

  18. MOTIVATIONAL AND VALUE-SEMANTIC DETERMINANTS OF INDIVIDUAL ASSERTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedeva Inga Viktorovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to reveal the concept of "determinants of assertiveness" of a personality, which are determined by motivational characteristics and life value and meaning orientations of the individual. The immediate driving force of human action is the motive or the system of motives. The system of motives of human behavior in different situations of activities, communication and cognition is determined by the personal world view (set of ideas, interests, and beliefs. The value orientation, influencing the direction of human activity, determines a person's behavior and is a personality determinant in the manifestations of assertive behavior and assertiveness. Therefore, the significant psychological factors that contribute to the development of assertiveness are high motivation to success, positive attitudes, and such values as compassion, tolerance, mutual understanding, sympathy, concern that oppose to violence, domination, suppression and submission. The article also presents the results of an empirical study of motivational and value-semantic characteristics of the individual.

  19. Determination of cadmium selenide nonstoichiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezhnev, V.Yu.; Kharif, Ya.L.; Kovtunenko, P.V.

    1986-01-01

    Physicochemical method of determination of cadmium selenide nonstoichiometry is developed. The method nature consists in the fact, that under definite conditions dissolved cadmium is extracted from crystals to a vapor phase and then is determined in it using the photocolorimetric method. Cadmium solubility in CdSe crystal is calculated from known CdSe mass and amount of separated cadmium. The lower boundary of determined contents constitutes 1x10 -5 % mol at sample of cadmium selenide 10 g

  20. The structure of BVU2987 from Bacteroides vulgatus reveals a superfamily of bacterial periplasmic proteins with possible inhibitory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Debanu; Finn, Robert D.; Carlton, Dennis; Miller, Mitchell D.; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Chiu, Michelle; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ellrott, Kyle; Ernst, Dustin; Farr, Carol L.; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; Sefcovic, Natasha; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; Bedem, Henry van den; Weekes, Dana; Wooten, Tiffany; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    The crystal structure of the BVU2987 gene product from B. vulgatus (UniProt A6L4L1) reveals that members of the new Pfam family PF11396 (domain of unknown function; DUF2874) are similar to β-lactamase inhibitor protein and YpmB. Proteins that contain the DUF2874 domain constitute a new Pfam family PF11396. Members of this family have predominantly been identified in microbes found in the human gut and oral cavity. The crystal structure of one member of this family, BVU2987 from Bacteroides vulgatus, has been determined, revealing a β-lactamase inhibitor protein-like structure with a tandem repeat of domains. Sequence analysis and structural comparisons reveal that BVU2987 and other DUF2874 proteins are related to β-lactamase inhibitor protein, PepSY and SmpA-OmlA proteins and hence are likely to function as inhibitory proteins

  1. Power, Ideology, and Technological Determinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Hess

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A Commentary on Taylor Dotson’s “Technological Determinism and Permissionless Innovation as Technocratic Governing Mentalities: Psychocultural Barriers to the Democratization of Technology”

  2. Dietary Determinants of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Lisa W

    2005-01-01

    .... Epidemiologic studies suggest that dietary factors may be important in the etiology of PCa. The objective of our research is to determine how nutritional compounds genistein, betasitosterol (STT...

  3. The new galaxy evolution paradigm revealed by the Herschel surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eales, Stephen; Smith, Dan; Bourne, Nathan; Loveday, Jon; Rowlands, Kate; van der Werf, Paul; Driver, Simon; Dunne, Loretta; Dye, Simon; Furlanetto, Cristina; Ivison, R. J.; Maddox, Steve; Robotham, Aaron; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Taylor, Edward N.; Valiante, Elisabetta; Wright, Angus; Cigan, Philip; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Jarvis, Matt J.; Marchetti, Lucia; Michałowski, Michał J.; Phillipps, Steven; Viaene, Sebastien; Vlahakis, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory has revealed a very different galaxyscape from that shown by optical surveys which presents a challenge for galaxy-evolution models. The Herschel surveys reveal (1) that there was rapid galaxy evolution in the very recent past and (2) that galaxies lie on a single Galaxy Sequence (GS) rather than a star-forming 'main sequence' and a separate region of 'passive' or 'red-and-dead' galaxies. The form of the GS is now clearer because far-infrared surveys such as the Herschel ATLAS pick up a population of optically red star-forming galaxies that would have been classified as passive using most optical criteria. The space-density of this population is at least as high as the traditional star-forming population. By stacking spectra of H-ATLAS galaxies over the redshift range 0.001 high stellar masses, high star-formation rates but, even several billion years in the past, old stellar populations - they are thus likely to be relatively recent ancestors of early-type galaxies in the Universe today. The form of the GS is inconsistent with rapid quenching models and neither the analytic bathtub model nor the hydrodynamical EAGLE simulation can reproduce the rapid cosmic evolution. We propose a new gentler model of galaxy evolution that can explain the new Herschel results and other key properties of the galaxy population.

  4. The microbiome of Brazilian mangrove sediments as revealed by metagenomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dini Andreote

    Full Text Available Here we embark in a deep metagenomic survey that revealed the taxonomic and potential metabolic pathways aspects of mangrove sediment microbiology. The extraction of DNA from sediment samples and the direct application of pyrosequencing resulted in approximately 215 Mb of data from four distinct mangrove areas (BrMgv01 to 04 in Brazil. The taxonomic approaches applied revealed the dominance of Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria in the samples. Paired statistical analysis showed higher proportions of specific taxonomic groups in each dataset. The metabolic reconstruction indicated the possible occurrence of processes modulated by the prevailing conditions found in mangrove sediments. In terms of carbon cycling, the sequences indicated the prevalence of genes involved in the metabolism of methane, formaldehyde, and carbon dioxide. With respect to the nitrogen cycle, evidence for sequences associated with dissimilatory reduction of nitrate, nitrogen immobilization, and denitrification was detected. Sequences related to the production of adenylsulfate, sulfite, and H(2S were relevant to the sulphur cycle. These data indicate that the microbial core involved in methane, nitrogen, and sulphur metabolism consists mainly of Burkholderiaceae, Planctomycetaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, and Desulfobacteraceae. Comparison of our data to datasets from soil and sea samples resulted in the allotment of the mangrove sediments between those samples. The results of this study add valuable data about the composition of microbial communities in mangroves and also shed light on possible transformations promoted by microbial organisms in mangrove sediments.

  5. The microbiome of Brazilian mangrove sediments as revealed by metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreote, Fernando Dini; Jiménez, Diego Javier; Chaves, Diego; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Luvizotto, Danice Mazzer; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Fasanella, Cristiane Cipola; Lopez, Maryeimy Varon; Baena, Sandra; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; de Melo, Itamar Soares

    2012-01-01

    Here we embark in a deep metagenomic survey that revealed the taxonomic and potential metabolic pathways aspects of mangrove sediment microbiology. The extraction of DNA from sediment samples and the direct application of pyrosequencing resulted in approximately 215 Mb of data from four distinct mangrove areas (BrMgv01 to 04) in Brazil. The taxonomic approaches applied revealed the dominance of Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria in the samples. Paired statistical analysis showed higher proportions of specific taxonomic groups in each dataset. The metabolic reconstruction indicated the possible occurrence of processes modulated by the prevailing conditions found in mangrove sediments. In terms of carbon cycling, the sequences indicated the prevalence of genes involved in the metabolism of methane, formaldehyde, and carbon dioxide. With respect to the nitrogen cycle, evidence for sequences associated with dissimilatory reduction of nitrate, nitrogen immobilization, and denitrification was detected. Sequences related to the production of adenylsulfate, sulfite, and H(2)S were relevant to the sulphur cycle. These data indicate that the microbial core involved in methane, nitrogen, and sulphur metabolism consists mainly of Burkholderiaceae, Planctomycetaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, and Desulfobacteraceae. Comparison of our data to datasets from soil and sea samples resulted in the allotment of the mangrove sediments between those samples. The results of this study add valuable data about the composition of microbial communities in mangroves and also shed light on possible transformations promoted by microbial organisms in mangrove sediments.

  6. [Research reveals a market for a veterinary behaviour clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheer-Sheehy, Valerie; Endenburg, Nienke

    2009-11-01

    An enquiry into the requirement of a university veterinary behaviour clinic in The Netherlands revealed that there is a clear call for such a service. The specific demands and wishes of first line practicing veterinarians and companion animal owners were investigated. The research revealed that veterinarians are regular confronted with behaviour problems in companion animals and that they are willing to refer these cases to the University. They also expressed their need for access to continuing professional development opportunities in the field of veterinary behavioural medicine (which is something that most veterinary behaviour clinics associated with veterinary faculties provide). The demand from companion animal owners was also examined. It can be concluded that a large number of them had animals with behaviour problems and that they were willing to seek veterinary advice on these matters. In response to the above mentioned demands the University of Utrecht will open a veterinary behaviour clinic, providing high quality service for animals, their owners and the referring veterinarians. This service will be based on sound scientific practice and delivered by both veterinarians specialised in this field and recognised animal behaviour therapists.

  7. Unilateral proptosis revealing a fronto-ethmoidal mucocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajmi, Houda; Hmaied, Wassim; Ben Jalel, Wady; Ben Romdhane, Khaoula; Chelly, Zied; El Fekih, Lamia

    2017-06-01

    Backgroud: The fronto-ethmoidal mucocele is a benign condition leading commonly to limited eye movement or ocular pain but it could also induce visual acuity impairment by compressing the optic nerve Aim: To discuss, through a case report, different ophthalmologic manifestations of the fronto-ethmoidalmucocele. Reported case: A 46-years-old man with no general history consulted for a bilateral ocular redness and itching. He reported, however, a mild protrusion of his left globe evolving for oneyear. The clinical examination revealed a unilateral proptosis in the left eye with a discrete limitation of theadduction. A brain and orbital computer tomography (CT)and a magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)revealed a grade I exophthalmos caused by an oval formation of fluid density in the left anterior and posterior ethmoidal cells in addition to the frontal sinus,driving theeyeball and internal oculomotor muscles back and out.The patient was referred to otorhinolaryngology department for a precocious surgical management. The ophtalmologic manifestations of the disease depend on the location, the size of the formation and involvement of adjacent structures. The loss of vision and the apex syndrome due to the compressionof the ocular globe are the most serious complications.

  8. Gaussian graphical modeling reveals specific lipid correlations in glioblastoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Nikola S.; Krumsiek, Jan; Theis, Fabian J.; Böhm, Christian; Meyer-Bäse, Anke

    2011-06-01

    Advances in high-throughput measurements of biological specimens necessitate the development of biologically driven computational techniques. To understand the molecular level of many human diseases, such as cancer, lipid quantifications have been shown to offer an excellent opportunity to reveal disease-specific regulations. The data analysis of the cell lipidome, however, remains a challenging task and cannot be accomplished solely based on intuitive reasoning. We have developed a method to identify a lipid correlation network which is entirely disease-specific. A powerful method to correlate experimentally measured lipid levels across the various samples is a Gaussian Graphical Model (GGM), which is based on partial correlation coefficients. In contrast to regular Pearson correlations, partial correlations aim to identify only direct correlations while eliminating indirect associations. Conventional GGM calculations on the entire dataset can, however, not provide information on whether a correlation is truly disease-specific with respect to the disease samples and not a correlation of control samples. Thus, we implemented a novel differential GGM approach unraveling only the disease-specific correlations, and applied it to the lipidome of immortal Glioblastoma tumor cells. A large set of lipid species were measured by mass spectrometry in order to evaluate lipid remodeling as a result to a combination of perturbation of cells inducing programmed cell death, while the other perturbations served solely as biological controls. With the differential GGM, we were able to reveal Glioblastoma-specific lipid correlations to advance biomedical research on novel gene therapies.

  9. Membrane Protein Properties Revealed through Data-Rich Electrostatics Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoline, Frank V; Bethel, Neville; Guerriero, Christopher J; Brodsky, Jeffrey L; Grabe, Michael

    2015-08-04

    The electrostatic properties of membrane proteins often reveal many of their key biophysical characteristics, such as ion channel selectivity and the stability of charged membrane-spanning segments. The Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation is the gold standard for calculating protein electrostatics, and the software APBSmem enables the solution of the PB equation in the presence of a membrane. Here, we describe significant advances to APBSmem, including full automation of system setup, per-residue energy decomposition, incorporation of PDB2PQR, calculation of membrane-induced pKa shifts, calculation of non-polar energies, and command-line scripting for large-scale calculations. We highlight these new features with calculations carried out on a number of membrane proteins, including the recently solved structure of the ion channel TRPV1 and a large survey of 1,614 membrane proteins of known structure. This survey provides a comprehensive list of residues with large electrostatic penalties for being embedded in the membrane, potentially revealing interesting functional information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhanced limonene production in cyanobacteria reveals photosynthesis limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Wei; Xin, Changpeng; Zheng, Yi; Cheng, Yanbing; Sun, Su; Li, Runze; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Dai, Susie Y; Rentzepis, Peter M; Yuan, Joshua S

    2016-12-13

    Terpenes are the major secondary metabolites produced by plants, and have diverse industrial applications as pharmaceuticals, fragrance, solvents, and biofuels. Cyanobacteria are equipped with efficient carbon fixation mechanism, and are ideal cell factories to produce various fuel and chemical products. Past efforts to produce terpenes in photosynthetic organisms have gained only limited success. Here we engineered the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to efficiently produce limonene through modeling guided study. Computational modeling of limonene flux in response to photosynthetic output has revealed the downstream terpene synthase as a key metabolic flux-controlling node in the MEP (2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate) pathway-derived terpene biosynthesis. By enhancing the downstream limonene carbon sink, we achieved over 100-fold increase in limonene productivity, in contrast to the marginal increase achieved through stepwise metabolic engineering. The establishment of a strong limonene flux revealed potential synergy between photosynthate output and terpene biosynthesis, leading to enhanced carbon flux into the MEP pathway. Moreover, we show that enhanced limonene flux would lead to NADPH accumulation, and slow down photosynthesis electron flow. Fine-tuning ATP/NADPH toward terpene biosynthesis could be a key parameter to adapt photosynthesis to support biofuel/bioproduct production in cyanobacteria.

  11. Ananke: temporal clustering reveals ecological dynamics of microbial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Hall

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic markers such as the 16S ribosomal RNA gene are widely used in microbial community analysis. A common first step in marker-gene analysis is grouping genes into clusters to reduce data sets to a more manageable size and potentially mitigate the effects of sequencing error. Instead of clustering based on sequence identity, marker-gene data sets collected over time can be clustered based on temporal correlation to reveal ecologically meaningful associations. We present Ananke, a free and open-source algorithm and software package that complements existing sequence-identity-based clustering approaches by clustering marker-gene data based on time-series profiles and provides interactive visualization of clusters, including highlighting of internal OTU inconsistencies. Ananke is able to cluster distinct temporal patterns from simulations of multiple ecological patterns, such as periodic seasonal dynamics and organism appearances/disappearances. We apply our algorithm to two longitudinal marker gene data sets: faecal communities from the human gut of an individual sampled over one year, and communities from a freshwater lake sampled over eleven years. Within the gut, the segregation of the bacterial community around a food-poisoning event was immediately clear. In the freshwater lake, we found that high sequence identity between marker genes does not guarantee similar temporal dynamics, and Ananke time-series clusters revealed patterns obscured by clustering based on sequence identity or taxonomy. Ananke is free and open-source software available at https://github.com/beiko-lab/ananke.

  12. [Mutism and acute behavioral disorders revealing MELAS syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomans, H; Barroso, B; Bertandeau, E; Bonnan, M; Dakar, A; Demasles, S; Garraud, S; Krim, E; Martin-Négrier, M-L

    2011-11-01

    MELAS syndrome (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes) is a rare genetic mitochondrial disease which can cause cerebral (cerebrovascular accident, migraine, mental deterioration..), sensorial (bilateral symmetrical deafness) and peripheral (muscular involvement, neuropathy) disorders potentially associated with diabetes, renal or cardiac disorders, or growth retardation. Eighty percent of the patients have the 3243 A>G mutation in the leucine RNA transfer gene. Clinical manifestations leading to discovery of the mutation can be extremely varied, affecting patients of different age groups. We report the case of a 49-year-old man who presented acute fits of confusion followed by mutism and praxic disorders. History taking revealed recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes, axonal neuropathy, and bilateral symmetrical deafness requiring hearing aids. The initial MRI showed FLAIR sequences with bi-parietal abnormalities, no signs of recent stroke on the DW/B10000 sequences, and basal ganglia calcifications. Blood tests and morphological findings ruled out a vascular origin. Search for lactic acidosis remained constantly negative in blood samples despite positive cerebrospinal fluid samples (N×3). The 3243 A>G mitochondrial DNA mutation was identified. The neuropsychological evaluation revealed a serious dysexecutive syndrome with a major impact on the patient's self sufficiency. Neurocognitive disorders are not common in MELAS syndrome. Brain MRI results and the presence of extra-neurological signs can be helpful for diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential metabolism of Mycoplasma species as revealed by their genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio B.M. Arraes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The annotation and comparative analyses of the genomes of Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma hyopneumonie, as well as of other Mollicutes (a group of bacteria devoid of a rigid cell wall, has set the grounds for a global understanding of their metabolism and infection mechanisms. According to the annotation data, M. synoviae and M. hyopneumoniae are able to perform glycolytic metabolism, but do not possess the enzymatic machinery for citrate and glyoxylate cycles, gluconeogenesis and the pentose phosphate pathway. Both can synthesize ATP by lactic fermentation, but only M. synoviae can convert acetaldehyde to acetate. Also, our genome analysis revealed that M. synoviae and M. hyopneumoniae are not expected to synthesize polysaccharides, but they can take up a variety of carbohydrates via the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PEP-PTS. Our data showed that these two organisms are unable to synthesize purine and pyrimidine de novo, since they only possess the sequences which encode salvage pathway enzymes. Comparative analyses of M. synoviae and M. hyopneumoniae with other Mollicutes have revealed differential genes in the former two genomes coding for enzymes that participate in carbohydrate, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism and host-pathogen interaction. The identification of these metabolic pathways will provide a better understanding of the biology and pathogenicity of these organisms.

  14. NeuCode Proteomics Reveals Bap1 Regulation of Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Baughman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce neutron-encoded (NeuCode amino acid labeling of mice as a strategy for multiplexed proteomic analysis in vivo. Using NeuCode, we characterize an inducible knockout mouse model of Bap1, a tumor suppressor and deubiquitinase whose in vivo roles outside of cancer are not well established. NeuCode proteomics revealed altered metabolic pathways following Bap1 deletion, including profound elevation of cholesterol biosynthetic machinery coincident with reduced expression of gluconeogenic and lipid homeostasis proteins in liver. Bap1 loss increased pancreatitis biomarkers and reduced expression of mitochondrial proteins. These alterations accompany a metabolic remodeling with hypoglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, hepatic lipid loss, and acinar cell degeneration. Liver-specific Bap1 null mice present with fully penetrant perinatal lethality, severe hypoglycemia, and hepatic lipid deficiency. This work reveals Bap1 as a metabolic regulator in liver and pancreas, and it establishes NeuCode as a reliable proteomic method for deciphering in vivo biology.

  15. What Faculty Interviews Reveal about Meaningful Learning in the

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Fay, Michael; Bruck, Laura B.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2013-01-01

    Forty chemistry faculty from American Chemical Society-approved departments were interviewed to determine their goals for undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Faculty were stratified by type of institution, departmental success with regard to National Science Foundation funding for laboratory reform, and level of laboratory course. Interview…

  16. Teaching Determinants Using Rook Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Anders O. F.

    2018-01-01

    Teaching determinants poses significant challenges to the instructor of a proof-based undergraduate linear algebra course. The standard definition by cofactor expansion is ugly, lacks symmetry, and is hard for students to use in proofs. We introduce a visual definition of the determinant that interprets permutations as arrangements of…

  17. Uranium hexafluoride. Bromine spectrophotometric determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Bromine determination in hydrolized uranium hexafluoride by reduction of bromates by ferrous sulfate, oxidation of bromides by potassium permanganate to give bromine which is extracted into carbon tetrachloride and transformed in eosine for spectrophotometry at 510 nm. The method is suitable for determining 5 to 150 ppm with respect to uranium [fr

  18. The Determinants of Food Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leng, Gareth; Adan, Roger A. H.; Belot, Michele

    2017-01-01

    , we need to be able to make valid predictions about the consequences of proposed interventions, and for this, we need a better understanding of the determinants of food choice. These determinants include dietary components (e.g. highly palatable foods and alcohol), but also diverse cultural and social...

  19. Self-Determination after Kosovo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Stefan; Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the meaning of self-determination in its historical and contemporary contexts and examines the different options available for the accommodation of contested self-determination claims. Among these, the creation of a new state, arguably, is the most radical of options and on...

  20. A Survey of Electronic Serials Managers Reveals Diversity in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Costello

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Branscome, B. A. (2013. Management of electronic serials in academic libraries: The results of an online survey. Serials Review, 39(4, 216-226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.serrev.2013.10.004 Abstract Objective – To examine industry standards for the management of electronic serials and measure the adoption of electronic serials over print. Design – Survey questionnaire. Setting – Email lists aimed at academic librarians working in serials management. Subjects – 195 self-selected subscribers to serials email lists. Methods – The author created a 20 question survey that consisted primarily of closed-ended questions pertaining to the collection demographics, staff, budget, and tools of serials management groups in academic libraries. The survey was conducted via Survey Monkey and examined using the analytical features of the tool. Participants remained anonymous and the survey questions did not ask them to reveal identifiable information about their libraries. Main Results – Collection demographics questions revealed that 78% of surveyed librarians estimated that print-only collections represented 40% or fewer of their serials holdings. The author observed diversity in the factors that influence print to digital transitions in academic libraries. However 71.5% of participants indicated that publisher technology support like IP authentication was required before adopting digital subscriptions. A lack of standardization also marked serials workflows, department responsibilities, and department titles. The author did not find a correlation between serials budget and the enrollment size of the institution. Participants reported that they used tools from popular serials management vendors like Serials Solutions, Innovative Interfaces, EBSCO, and Ex Libris, but most indicated that they used more than one tool for serials management. Participants specified 52 unique serials management products used in their libraries. Conclusion

  1. Spherical Harmonics Reveal Standing EEG Waves and Long-Range Neural Synchronization during Non-REM Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Sivakumar, Siddharth S.; Namath, Amalia G.; Galán, Roberto F.

    2016-01-01

    Previous work from our lab has demonstrated how the connectivity of brain circuits constrains the repertoire of activity patterns that those circuits can display. Specifically, we have shown that the principal components of spontaneous neural activity are uniquely determined by the underlying circuit connections, and that although the principal components do not uniquely resolve the circuit structure, they do reveal important features about it. Expanding upon this framework on a larger scale ...

  2. Crystal structure of the Haemophilus influenzae Hap adhesin reveals an intercellular oligomerization mechanism for bacterial aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Guoyu; Spahich, Nicole; Kenjale, Roma; Waksman, Gabriel; St Geme, Joseph W

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are complex microbial communities that are common in nature and are being recognized increasingly as an important determinant of bacterial virulence. However, the structural determinants of bacterial aggregation and eventual biofilm formation have been poorly defined. In Gram-negative bacteria, a major subgroup of extracellular proteins called self-associating autotransporters (SAATs) can mediate cell–cell adhesion and facilitate biofilm formation. In this study, we used the Haemophilus influenzae Hap autotransporter as a prototype SAAT to understand how bacteria associate with each other. The crystal structure of the H. influenzae HapS passenger domain (harbouring the SAAT domain) was determined to 2.2 Å by X-ray crystallography, revealing an unprecedented intercellular oligomerization mechanism for cell–cell interaction. The C-terminal SAAT domain folds into a triangular-prism-like structure that can mediate Hap–Hap dimerization and higher degrees of multimerization through its F1–F2 edge and F2 face. The intercellular multimerization can give rise to massive buried surfaces that are required for overcoming the repulsive force between cells, leading to bacterial cell–cell interaction and formation of complex microcolonies. PMID:21841773

  3. Genotyping by PCR and High-Throughput Sequencing of Commercial Probiotic Products Reveals Composition Biases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Morovic

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in microbiome research have brought renewed focus on beneficial bacteria, many of which are available in food and dietary supplements. Although probiotics have historically been defined as microorganisms that convey health benefits when ingested in sufficient viable amounts, this description now includes the stipulation well defined strains, encompassing definitive taxonomy for consumer consideration and regulatory oversight. Here, we evaluated 52 commercial dietary supplements covering a range of labeled species, and determined their content using plate counting, targeted genotyping. Additionally, strain identities were assessed using methods recently published by the United States Pharmacopeial Convention. We also determined the relative abundance of individual bacteria by high-throughput sequencing (HTS of the 16S rRNA sequence using paired-end 2x250bp Illumina MiSeq technology. Using multiple methods, we tested the hypothesis that products do contain the quantitative amount of labeled bacteria, and qualitative list of labeled microbial species. We found that 17 samples (33% were below label claim for CFU prior to their expiration dates. A multiplexed-PCR scheme showed that only 30/52 (58% of the products contained a correctly labeled classification, with issues encompassing incorrect taxonomy, missing species and un-labeled species. The HTS revealed that many blended products consisted predominantly of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. These results highlight the need for reliable methods to qualitatively determine the correct taxonomy and quantitatively ascertain the relative amounts of mixed microbial populations in commercial probiotic products.

  4. Engagement in activities revealing the body and psychosocial adjustment in adults with a trans-tibial prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan-Hall, M K; Yardley, L; Watts, R J

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the appearance of a prosthesis on social behaviour, social discomfort and psychological well-being in eleven amputees taking delivery of a prosthesis with a silicone cover. Two new scales were developed: the 'Engagement in everyday activities involving revealing the body' (EEARB); and the 'Discomfort-Engagement in everyday activities involving revealing the body' (Discomfort-EEARB) scales. The psychometric properties of these scales were determined using a sample of 101 able-bodied adults. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were also used to measure psychological well-being in the amputee sample. The EEARB and Discomfort-EEARB proved to have good reliability and validity. Comparison of amputees' scores prior to receiving the silicone cosmesis with those of the able-bodied adults revealed significant behavioural limitations and social discomfort, associated with low self-esteem, anxiety and depression. There was a significant increase in amputees' scores three months afier taking delivery of their prosthesis, indicating that amputees reported engaging in more activities which involved revealing their body, and that they would feel more comfortable in situations which involved revealing the body. As the amputee sample available was small and self-selected, it is not possible to generalise these findings to the amputee population as a whole. However, since there is little previous research investigating the effects of the appearance of the prosthesis, these findings demonstrate the need for further research in this area.

  5. Diffusion Tensor Tractography Reveals Disrupted Structural Connectivity during Brain Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan; Tian, Miao; Wang, Qi; Wu, Shuicai

    2017-10-01

    Brain aging is one of the most crucial biological processes that entail many physical, biological, chemical, and psychological changes, and also a major risk factor for most common neurodegenerative diseases. To improve the quality of life for the elderly, it is important to understand how the brain is changed during the normal aging process. We compared diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based brain networks in a cohort of 75 healthy old subjects by using graph theory metrics to describe the anatomical networks and connectivity patterns, and network-based statistic (NBS) analysis was used to identify pairs of regions with altered structural connectivity. The NBS analysis revealed a significant network comprising nine distinct fiber bundles linking 10 different brain regions showed altered white matter structures in young-old group compare with middle-aged group (p < .05, family-wise error-corrected). Our results might guide future studies and help to gain a better understanding of brain aging.

  6. Principles of Chromosome Architecture Revealed by Hi-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagen, Kyle P

    2018-06-01

    Chromosomes are folded and compacted in interphase nuclei, but the molecular basis of this folding is poorly understood. Chromosome conformation capture methods, such as Hi-C, combine chemical crosslinking of chromatin with fragmentation, DNA ligation, and high-throughput DNA sequencing to detect neighboring loci genome-wide. Hi-C has revealed the segregation of chromatin into active and inactive compartments and the folding of DNA into self-associating domains and loops. Depletion of CTCF, cohesin, or cohesin-associated proteins was recently shown to affect the majority of domains and loops in a manner that is consistent with a model of DNA folding through extrusion of chromatin loops. Compartmentation was not dependent on CTCF or cohesin. Hi-C contact maps represent the superimposition of CTCF/cohesin-dependent and -independent folding states. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The hand of birds revealed by early ostrich embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feduccia, Alan; Nowicki, Julie

    2002-08-01

    The problem of resolving the homology of the digits of the avian hand has been framed as a conflict between paleontological and embryological evidence, the former thought to support a hand composed of digits I, II, III, because of similarity of the phalangeal formulae of the earliest known bird Archaeopteryx to that of Mesozoic pentadactyl archosaurs, while embryological evidence has traditionally favored a II, III, IV avian hand. We have identified the critical developmental period for the major features of the avian skeleton in a primitive bird, the ostrich. Analysis of digit anlagen in the avian hand has revealed those for digits/metacarpals I and V, thus confirming previous embryological studies that indirectly suggested that the avian hand comprises digits II, III, IV, and was primitively pentadactyl.

  8. Dinosaurs reveal the geographical signature of an evolutionary radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Ciara; Meade, Andrew; Venditti, Chris

    2018-03-01

    Dinosaurs dominated terrestrial ecosystems across the globe for over 100 million years and provide a classic example of an evolutionary radiation. However, little is known about how these animals radiated geographically to become globally distributed. Here, we use a biogeographical model to reconstruct the dinosaurs' ancestral locations, revealing the spatial mechanisms that underpinned this 170-million-year-long radiation. We find that dinosaurs spread rapidly initially, followed by a significant continuous and gradual reduction in their speed of movement towards the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary (66 million years ago). This suggests that the predominant mode of dinosaur speciation changed through time with speciation originally largely driven by geographical isolation-when dinosaurs speciated more, they moved further. This was gradually replaced by increasing levels of sympatric speciation (species taking advantage of ecological opportunities within their existing environment) as terrestrial space became a limiting factor. Our results uncover the geographical signature of an evolutionary radiation.

  9. Bibliometric Analyses Reveal Patterns of Collaboration between ASMS Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmblad, Magnus; van Eck, Nees Jan

    2018-03-01

    We have explored the collaborative network of the current American Society for Mass Spectrometry (ASMS) membership using bibliometric methods. The analysis shows that 4249 members are connected in a single, large, co-authorship graph, including the majority of the most published authors in the field of mass spectrometry. The map reveals topographical differences between university groups and national laboratories, and that the co-authors with the strongest links have long worked together at the same location. We have collected and summarized information on the geographical distribution of members, showing a high coverage of active researchers in North America and Western Europe. Looking at research fields, we could also identify a number of new or `hot' topics among ASMS members. Interactive versions of the maps are available on-line at https://goo.gl/UBNFMQ (collaborative network) and https://goo.gl/WV25vm (research topics). [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. [Clinical case of acute renal failure revealing an autoimmune hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montasser, Dina Ibrahim; Hassani, Mohamed; Zajjari, Yassir; Bahadi, Abdelali; Alayoud, Ahmed; Hamzi, Amine; Hassani, Kawtar; Moujoud, Omar; Asseraji, Mohamed; Kadiri, Moncif; Aatif, Taoufik; El Kabbaj, Driss; Benyahia, Mohamed; Allam, Mustapha; Akhmouch, Ismail; Oualim, Zouhir

    2010-04-01

    Although the clinic picture is often indicative of muscle manifestations in patients with hypothyroidism, signs and symptoms of this condition are variable from simple elevation of serum muscle enzymes with myalgia, muscle weakness, cramps to rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure which remains a rare event. Thyroid hormones affect the function of almost every body organ, and thyroid dysfunction produces a wide range of metabolic disturbances. Hypothyroidism is associated with significant effects on the kidney which the pathophysiology seems to be multifactorial, but the exact mechanisms remain poorly understood. Hypothyroidism as a cause of renal impairment is usually overlooked, leading to unnecessary diagnostic procedures. The main objective of our observation is to report a case of acute renal failure revealing an autoimmune hypothyroidism in which thyroid hormone substitution led to a significant improvement in muscular, thyroid and renal disorders. Copyright 2010 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Deciphering CAPTCHAs: what a Turing test reveals about human cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hannagan

    Full Text Available Turning Turing's logic on its head, we used widespread letter-based Turing Tests found on the internet (CAPTCHAs to shed light on human cognition. We examined the basis of the human ability to solve CAPTCHAs, where machines fail. We asked whether this is due to our use of slow-acting inferential processes that would not be available to machines, or whether fast-acting automatic orthographic processing in humans has superior robustness to shape variations. A masked priming lexical decision experiment revealed efficient processing of CAPTCHA words in conditions that rule out the use of slow inferential processing. This shows that the human superiority in solving CAPTCHAs builds on a high degree of invariance to location and continuous transforms, which is achieved during the very early stages of visual word recognition in skilled readers.

  12. Adipsic diabetes insipidus revealing a bifocal intracranial germinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutz, Julie; Potorac, Iulia; Lutteri, Laurence; Gennigens, Christine; Martin, Didier; Daly, Adrian F; Bonneville, Jean-Francois; Tshibanda, Luaba; Beckers, Albert

    2017-07-01

    Adipsic diabetes insipidus is a rare complication of intracranial tumors in which impaired antidiuretic hormone secretion is associated with the loss of thirst sensation. Here, we present the case of a patient with bifocal intracranial germinoma, diagnosed due to symptoms mainly caused by adipsic diabetes insipidus. This is, to our knowledge, the first case of adipsic diabetes insipidus revealing an intracranial germinoma reported in the literature. We describe the diagnostic procedures and the three-year follow-up of this patient. Management of intracranial germ-cell tumors is made complex by the wide range of histological features. Although germinomas have a generally better prognosis than most nongerminomatous tumors, they can have severe or even life-threatening presentations. Adipsic diabetes insipidus is one such severe presentation and its rarity can make it difficult to recognize and manage. Awareness of this potential entity is therefore important for clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye; Li, Bo; Larkin, Denis M.; Lee, Chul; Storz, Jay F.; Antunes, Agostinho; Greenwold, Matthew J.; Meredith, Robert W.; Ödeen, Anders; Cui, Jie; Zhou, Qi; Xu, Luohao; Pan, Hailin; Wang, Zongji; Jin, Lijun; Zhang, Pei; Hu, Haofu; Yang, Wei; Hu, Jiang; Xiao, Jin; Yang, Zhikai; Liu, Yang; Xie, Qiaolin; Yu, Hao; Lian, Jinmin; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Fang; Li, Hui; Zeng, Yongli; Xiong, Zijun; Liu, Shiping; Zhou, Long; Huang, Zhiyong; An, Na; Wang, Jie; Zheng, Qiumei; Xiong, Yingqi; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Bo; Wang, Jingjing; Fan, Yu; da Fonseca, Rute R.; Alfaro-Núñez, Alonzo; Schubert, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic; Mourier, Tobias; Howard, Jason T.; Ganapathy, Ganeshkumar; Pfenning, Andreas; Whitney, Osceola; Rivas, Miriam V.; Hara, Erina; Smith, Julia; Farré, Marta; Narayan, Jitendra; Slavov, Gancho; Romanov, Michael N; Borges, Rui; Machado, João Paulo; Khan, Imran; Springer, Mark S.; Gatesy, John; Hoffmann, Federico G.; Opazo, Juan C.; Håstad, Olle; Sawyer, Roger H.; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Li, Ning; Huang, Yinhua; Bruford, Michael W.; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Dixon, Andrew; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Derryberry, Elizabeth; Warren, Wesley; Wilson, Richard K; Li, Shengbin; Ray, David A.; Green, Richard E.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Griffin, Darren; Johnson, Warren E.; Haussler, David; Ryder, Oliver A.; Willerslev, Eske; Graves, Gary R.; Alström, Per; Fjeldså, Jon; Mindell, David P.; Edwards, Scott V.; Braun, Edward L.; Rahbek, Carsten; Burt, David W.; Houde, Peter; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Jarvis, Erich D.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion of repetitive elements, large segmental deletions, and gene loss. Avian genomes furthermore show a remarkably high degree of evolutionary stasis at the levels of nucleotide sequence, gene synteny, and chromosomal structure. Despite this pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits. PMID:25504712

  14. Heat islands over Mumbai as revealed by autorecorded thermograph data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A. K.; Voogt, James; Kshirsagar, S. R.; Srivastava, Kavita

    2016-02-01

    This study examined hourly temperature data of two locations of Mumbai metropolitan city. One data point (Coloba, Mumbai) is in centre of the city and the other one (Santacruz, Mumbai) is at the airport. The study finds that there were many occasions when night-time hourly temperatures over the city centre were considerably higher than that of the airport, even though temperature at the time of sunset at both the places was nearly same. In this study, the occasions, when hourly night-time temperature over city was more than that of the airport by objectively defined threshold value (3.0 ∘C in this study) for most of the hours in the night, were termed as heat island events. Analysis of the study reveals that these events are mostly confined to November-February months. The study also found that frequency of such events has doubled in recent two decades in comparison to the earlier two decades.

  15. High-frequency microrheology reveals cytoskeleton dynamics in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigato, Annafrancesca; Miyagi, Atsushi; Scheuring, Simon; Rico, Felix

    2017-08-01

    Living cells are viscoelastic materials, dominated by an elastic response on timescales longer than a millisecond. On shorter timescales, the dynamics of individual cytoskeleton filaments are expected to emerge, but active microrheology measurements on cells accessing this regime are scarce. Here, we develop high-frequency microrheology experiments to probe the viscoelastic response of living cells from 1 Hz to 100 kHz. We report the viscoelasticity of different cell types under cytoskeletal drug treatments. On previously inaccessible short timescales, cells exhibit rich viscoelastic responses that depend on the state of the cytoskeleton. Benign and malignant cancer cells revealed remarkably different scaling laws at high frequencies, providing a unique mechanical fingerprint. Microrheology over a wide dynamic range--up to the frequency characterizing the molecular components--provides a mechanistic understanding of cell mechanics.

  16. Biosensor reveals multiple sources for mitochondrial NAD⁺.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambronne, Xiaolu A; Stewart, Melissa L; Kim, DongHo; Jones-Brunette, Amber M; Morgan, Rory K; Farrens, David L; Cohen, Michael S; Goodman, Richard H

    2016-06-17

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is an essential substrate for sirtuins and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerases (PARPs), which are NAD(+)-consuming enzymes localized in the nucleus, cytosol, and mitochondria. Fluctuations in NAD(+) concentrations within these subcellular compartments are thought to regulate the activity of NAD(+)-consuming enzymes; however, the challenge in measuring compartmentalized NAD(+) in cells has precluded direct evidence for this type of regulation. We describe the development of a genetically encoded fluorescent biosensor for directly monitoring free NAD(+) concentrations in subcellular compartments. We found that the concentrations of free NAD(+) in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and mitochondria approximate the Michaelis constants for sirtuins and PARPs in their respective compartments. Systematic depletion of enzymes that catalyze the final step of NAD(+) biosynthesis revealed cell-specific mechanisms for maintaining mitochondrial NAD(+) concentrations. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. [Thoracic aortic dissection revealed by systemic cholesterol embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braem, L; Paule, P; Héno, P; Morand, J J; Mafart, B; La Folie, T; Varlet, P; Mioulet, D; Fourcade, L

    2006-10-01

    Systemic cholesterol embolism is a rare complication of atherosclerosis, and has various presentations. Arterial catheterisms are a common cause. However, the association with an aortic dissection has been exceptionally reported. We report the observation of a 70 year-old man, with coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia. Six months before hospitalization, a coronary angioplasty was performed due to recurrent angina. The association of purpuric lesions on the feet, with acute renal failure confirmed cholesterol embolism syndrome. Transoesophageal echocardiography showed a dissection of the descending thoracic aorta associated with complex atheroma. The evolution was marked by the pulpar necrosis of a toe and by a worsening of the renal failure, requiring definitive hemodialysis. Further echographic control highlighted the rupture of the intimal veil of the dissection. Cholesterol embolism syndrome may reveal an aortic dissection in patients without thoracic symptoms. In such cases, transoesophageal echocardiography is a useful and non-invasive examination.

  18. Between Concealing and Revealing Intersexed Bodies: Parental Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danon, Limor Meoded; Krämer, Anike

    2017-08-01

    Parents of intersex children are perceived in many studies as hopeless, highly dependent on the medical system, and as gate keepers of normative gendered bodies. In this article, we challenge these perceptions and argue that parents of intersex children are problematically positioned between their children's needs for care and well-being and the socialmedical forces that aim to "normalize" them. Their in-between position leads them to establish different parental strategies within and outside of traditional sex/gender norms. We focus on three intertwined parental strategy frameworks: bodily dialogue, sex/gender framing, and concealing/revealing practices, and describe how, in each of these strategic frameworks, the parents maneuver, act in accordance with or against, react to, and challenge the medical system, social interactions, and the sex/gender paradigm. This is a comparative study based on narrative interviews with 22 parents of intersex children in Germany and Israel.

  19. Revealing low-energy part of the beta spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, S.; Celiktas, C.

    2002-01-01

    An effective method is proposed to separate electronic noise from the beta-particle spectra revealing lower energy part of the spectra. The available methods for reducing the noise problem cut the noise along with the low-energy part of the beta spectra by using a discriminator. Our setup eliminates this undesirable effect by shifting the noise toward the lowest energy scale leaving the low-energy part of spectra undisturbed. We achieved this noise-pulse-separation by treating the noise as a pulse so that we can exploit the application of the pulse-shape analyzer equipment used for pulse shape identification of particles and rejection of defective pulses. To the best of our knowledge this method of the noise separation is a novel approach

  20. Tyrannosauroid integument reveals conflicting patterns of gigantism and feather evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Phil R; Campione, Nicolás E; Persons, W Scott; Currie, Philip J; Larson, Peter L; Tanke, Darren H; Bakker, Robert T

    2017-06-01

    Recent evidence for feathers in theropods has led to speculations that the largest tyrannosaurids, including Tyrannosaurus rex , were extensively feathered. We describe fossil integument from Tyrannosaurus and other tyrannosaurids ( Albertosaurus, Daspletosaurus, Gorgosaurus and Tarbosaurus ), confirming that these large-bodied forms possessed scaly, reptilian-like skin. Body size evolution in tyrannosauroids reveals two independent occurrences of gigantism; specifically, the large sizes in Yutyrannus and tyrannosaurids were independently derived. These new findings demonstrate that extensive feather coverings observed in some early tyrannosauroids were lost by the Albian, basal to Tyrannosauridae. This loss is unrelated to palaeoclimate but possibly tied to the evolution of gigantism, although other mechanisms exist. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavan, Maanasa; Skoglund, Pontus; Graf, Kelly E.

    2014-01-01

    ,000-year-old individual (MA-1), from Mal'ta in south-central Siberia, to an average depth of 1×. To our knowledge this is the oldest anatomically modern human genome reported to date. The MA-1 mitochondrial genome belongs to haplogroup U, which has also been found at high frequency among Upper Palaeolithic......The origins of the First Americans remain contentious. Although Native Americans seem to be genetically most closely related to east Asians, there is no consensus with regard to which specific Old World populations they are closest to. Here we sequence the draft genome of an approximately 24...... that the region was continuously occupied by humans throughout the Last Glacial Maximum. Our findings reveal that western Eurasian genetic signatures in modern-day Native Americans derive not only from post-Columbian admixture, as commonly thought, but also from a mixed ancestry of the First Americans....

  2. Core-level photoemission revealing the Mott transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyeong-Do; Noh, Han-Jin; Kim, K.H.; Oh, S.-J.

    2005-01-01

    Ru 3d core-level X-ray photoemission spectra of various ruthenates are examined. They show in general two-peak structures, which can be assigned as the screened and unscreened peaks. The screened peak is absent in a Mott insulator, but develops into a main peak as the correlation strength becomes weak. This spectral behavior is well explained by the dynamical mean-field theory calculation for the single-band Hubbard model with the on-site core-hole potential using the exact diagonalization method. The new mechanism of the core-level photoemission satellite can be utilized to reveal the Mott transition phenomenon in various strongly correlated electron systems

  3. Revealing Tripartite Quantum Discord with Tripartite Information Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ting Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A new measure based on the tripartite information diagram is proposed for identifying quantum discord in tripartite systems. The proposed measure generalizes the mutual information underlying discord from bipartite to tripartite systems, and utilizes both one-particle and two-particle projective measurements to reveal the characteristics of the tripartite quantum discord. The feasibility of the proposed measure is demonstrated by evaluating the tripartite quantum discord for systems with states close to Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger, W, and biseparable states. In addition, the connections between tripartite quantum discord and two other quantum correlations—namely genuine tripartite entanglement and genuine tripartite Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen steering—are briefly discussed. The present study considers the case of quantum discord in tripartite systems. However, the proposed framework can be readily extended to general N-partite systems.

  4. Single Turnover at Molecular Polymerization Catalysts Reveals Spatiotemporally Resolved Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Quinn T; Blum, Suzanne A

    2017-10-23

    Multiple active individual molecular ruthenium catalysts have been pinpointed within growing polynorbornene, thereby revealing information on the reaction dynamics and location that is unavailable through traditional ensemble experiments. This is the first single-turnover imaging of a molecular catalyst by fluorescence microscopy and allows detection of individual monomer reactions at an industrially important molecular ruthenium ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) catalyst under synthetically relevant conditions (e.g. unmodified industrial catalyst, ambient pressure, condensed phase, ca. 0.03 m monomer). These results further establish the key fundamentals of this imaging technique for characterizing the reactivity and location of active molecular catalysts even when they are the minor components. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. ID-Check: Online Concealed Information Test Reveals True Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuere, Bruno; Kleinberg, Bennett

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has already changed people's lives considerably and is likely to drastically change forensic research. We developed a web-based test to reveal concealed autobiographical information. Initial studies identified a number of conditions that affect diagnostic efficiency. By combining these moderators, this study investigated the full potential of the online ID-check. Participants (n = 101) tried to hide their identity and claimed a false identity in a reaction time-based Concealed Information Test. Half of the participants were presented with personal details (e.g., first name, last name, birthday), whereas the others only saw irrelevant details. Results showed that participants' true identity could be detected with high accuracy (AUC = 0.98; overall accuracy: 86-94%). Online memory detection can reliably and validly detect whether someone is hiding their true identity. This suggests that online memory detection might become a valuable tool for forensic applications. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. The ecological origins of snakes as revealed by skull evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Filipe O; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Savriama, Yoland; Ollonen, Joni; Mahlow, Kristin; Herrel, Anthony; Müller, Johannes; Di-Poï, Nicolas

    2018-01-25

    The ecological origin of snakes remains amongst the most controversial topics in evolution, with three competing hypotheses: fossorial; marine; or terrestrial. Here we use a geometric morphometric approach integrating ecological, phylogenetic, paleontological, and developmental data for building models of skull shape and size evolution and developmental rate changes in squamates. Our large-scale data reveal that whereas the most recent common ancestor of crown snakes had a small skull with a shape undeniably adapted for fossoriality, all snakes plus their sister group derive from a surface-terrestrial form with non-fossorial behavior, thus redirecting the debate toward an underexplored evolutionary scenario. Our comprehensive heterochrony analyses further indicate that snakes later evolved novel craniofacial specializations through global acceleration of skull development. These results highlight the importance of the interplay between natural selection and developmental processes in snake origin and diversification, leading first to invasion of a new habitat and then to subsequent ecological radiations.

  7. Inheritance Patterns in Citation Networks Reveal Scientific Memes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Kuhn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Memes are the cultural equivalent of genes that spread across human culture by means of imitation. What makes a meme and what distinguishes it from other forms of information, however, is still poorly understood. Our analysis of memes in the scientific literature reveals that they are governed by a surprisingly simple relationship between frequency of occurrence and the degree to which they propagate along the citation graph. We propose a simple formalization of this pattern and validate it with data from close to 50 million publication records from the Web of Science, PubMed Central, and the American Physical Society. Evaluations relying on human annotators, citation network randomizations, and comparisons with several alternative approaches confirm that our formula is accurate and effective, without a dependence on linguistic or ontological knowledge and without the application of arbitrary thresholds or filters.

  8. Inheritance Patterns in Citation Networks Reveal Scientific Memes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Tobias; Perc, Matjaž; Helbing, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    Memes are the cultural equivalent of genes that spread across human culture by means of imitation. What makes a meme and what distinguishes it from other forms of information, however, is still poorly understood. Our analysis of memes in the scientific literature reveals that they are governed by a surprisingly simple relationship between frequency of occurrence and the degree to which they propagate along the citation graph. We propose a simple formalization of this pattern and validate it with data from close to 50 million publication records from the Web of Science, PubMed Central, and the American Physical Society. Evaluations relying on human annotators, citation network randomizations, and comparisons with several alternative approaches confirm that our formula is accurate and effective, without a dependence on linguistic or ontological knowledge and without the application of arbitrary thresholds or filters.

  9. Conformational changes in DNA gyrase revealed by limited proteolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampranis, S C; Maxwell, A

    1998-01-01

    We have used limited proteolysis to identify conformational changes in DNA gyrase. Gyrase exhibits a proteolytic fingerprint dominated by two fragments, one of approximately 62 kDa, deriving from the A protein, and another of approximately 25 kDa from the B protein. Quinolone binding to the enzyme......-DNA intermediate by calcium ions does not reveal any protection, suggesting that the quinolone-induced conformational change is different from an "open-gate" state of the enzyme. A quinolone-resistant mutant of gyrase fails to give the characteristic quinolone-associated proteolytic signature. The ATP...... does not prevent dimerization since incubation of the enzyme-DNA complex with both ADPNP and quinolones gives rise to a complex whose proteolytic pattern retains the characteristic signature of dimerization but has lost the quinolone-induced protection. As a result, the quinolone-gyrase complex can...

  10. Transcriptomic variation in a coral reveals pathways of clonal organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    K Bay, Line; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard

    2009-01-01

    A microarray study was undertaken to examine the potential for clonal gene expression variation in a branching reef building coral, Acropora millepora. The role of small-scale gradients in light and water flow was examined by comparing gene expression levels between branch elevation (tip and base......) and position (centre and edge) of replicate coral colonies (n=3). Analyses of variance revealed that almost 60% of variation in gene expression was present between colonies and 34 genes were considered differentially expressed between colonies (minimum P=6.5 x 10(-4)). These genes are associated with energy...... of corymbose-like branching coral colonies such as A. millepora. Four genes were differentially expressed between the tip and base of branches (P=3.239 x 10(-4)) and were associated with lysosome lipase activity and fluorescence, suggesting that branch tips may encounter higher pathogen loads or levels...

  11. CW EPR parameters reveal cytochrome P450 ligand binding modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockart, Molly M; Rodriguez, Carlo A; Atkins, William M; Bowman, Michael K

    2018-06-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monoxygenses utilize heme cofactors to catalyze oxidation reactions. They play a critical role in metabolism of many classes of drugs, are an attractive target for drug development, and mediate several prominent drug interactions. Many substrates and inhibitors alter the spin state of the ferric heme by displacing the heme's axial water ligand in the resting enzyme to yield a five-coordinate iron complex, or they replace the axial water to yield a nitrogen-ligated six-coordinate iron complex, which are traditionally assigned by UV-vis spectroscopy. However, crystal structures and recent pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies find a few cases where molecules hydrogen bond to the axial water. The water-bridged drug-H 2 O-heme has UV-vis spectra similar to nitrogen-ligated, six-coordinate complexes, but are closer to "reverse type I" complexes described in older liteature. Here, pulsed and continuous wave (CW) EPR demonstrate that water-bridged complexes are remarkably common among a range of nitrogenous drugs or drug fragments that bind to CYP3A4 or CYP2C9. Principal component analysis reveals a distinct clustering of CW EPR spectral parameters for water-bridged complexes. CW EPR reveals heterogeneous mixtures of ligated states, including multiple directly-coordinated complexes and water-bridged complexes. These results suggest that water-bridged complexes are under-represented in CYP structural databases and can have energies similar to other ligation modes. The data indicates that water-bridged binding modes can be identified and distinguished from directly-coordinated binding by CW EPR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Eye movement monitoring reveals differential influences of emotion on memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Riggs

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that memory for emotional aspects of an event may be enhanced at the cost of impaired memory for surrounding peripheral details. However, this has only been assessed directly via verbal reports which reveal the outcome of a long stream of processing but cannot shed light on how/when emotion may affect the retrieval process. In the present experiment, eye movement monitoring was used as an indirect measure of memory as it can reveal aspects of online memory processing. For example, do emotions modulate the nature of memory representations or the speed with which such memories can be accessed? Participants viewed central negative and neutral scenes surrounded by three neutral objects and after a brief delay, memory was assessed indirectly via eye movement monitoring and then directly via verbal reports. Consistent with the previous literature, emotion enhanced central and impaired peripheral memory as indexed by eye movement scanning and verbal reports. This suggests that eye movement scanning may contribute and/or is related to conscious access of memory. However, the central/peripheral tradeoff effect was not observed in an early measure of eye movement behavior, i.e. participants were faster to orient to a critical region of change in the periphery irrespective of whether it was previously studied in a negative or neutral context. These findings demonstrate emotion’s differential influences on different aspects of retrieval. In particular, emotion appears to affect the detail within, and/or the evaluation of, stored memory representations, but it may not affect the initial access to those representations.

  13. A Network Based Methodology to Reveal Patterns in Knowledge Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando López-Cruz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper motivates, presents and demonstrates in use a methodology based in complex network analysis to support research aimed at identification of sources in the process of knowledge transfer at the interorganizational level. The importance of this methodology is that it states a unified model to reveal knowledge sharing patterns and to compare results from multiple researches on data from different periods of time and different sectors of the economy. This methodology does not address the underlying statistical processes. To do this, national statistics departments (NSD provide documents and tools at their websites. But this proposal provides a guide to model information inferences gathered from data processing revealing links between sources and recipients of knowledge being transferred and that the recipient detects as main source to new knowledge creation. Some national statistics departments set as objective for these surveys the characterization of innovation dynamics in firms and to analyze the use of public support instruments. From this characterization scholars conduct different researches. Measures of dimensions of the network composed by manufacturing firms and other organizations conform the base to inquiry the structure that emerges from taking ideas from other organizations to incept innovations. These two sets of data are actors of a two- mode-network. The link between two actors (network nodes, one acting as the source of the idea. The second one acting as the destination comes from organizations or events organized by organizations that “provide” ideas to other group of firms. The resulting demonstrated design satisfies the objective of being a methodological model to identify sources in knowledge transfer of knowledge effectively used in innovation.

  14. Vibrio cholerae classical biotype strains reveal distinct signatures in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Munirul; Islam, M Tarequl; Rashed, Shah Manzur; Johura, Fatema-tuz; Bhuiyan, Nurul A; Delgado, Gabriela; Morales, Rosario; Mendez, Jose Luis; Navarro, Armando; Watanabe, Haruo; Hasan, Nur-A; Colwell, Rita R; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2012-07-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 classical (CL) biotype caused the fifth and sixth pandemics, and probably the earlier cholera pandemics, before the El Tor (ET) biotype initiated the seventh pandemic in Asia in the 1970s by completely displacing the CL biotype. Although the CL biotype was thought to be extinct in Asia and although it had never been reported from Latin America, V. cholerae CL and ET biotypes, including a hybrid ET, were found associated with areas of cholera endemicity in Mexico between 1991 and 1997. In this study, CL biotype strains isolated from areas of cholera endemicity in Mexico between 1983 and 1997 were characterized in terms of major phenotypic and genetic traits and compared with CL biotype strains isolated in Bangladesh between 1962 and 1989. According to sero- and biotyping data, all V. cholerae strains tested had the major phenotypic and genotypic characteristics specific for the CL biotype. Antibiograms revealed the majority of the Bangladeshi strains to be resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, furazolidone, ampicillin, and gentamicin, while the Mexican strains were sensitive to all of these drugs, as well as to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of NotI-digested genomic DNA revealed characteristic banding patterns for all of the CL biotype strains although the Mexican strains differed from the Bangladeshi strains in 1 to 2 DNA bands. The difference was subtle but consistent, as confirmed by the subclustering patterns in the PFGE-based dendrogram, and can serve as a regional signature, suggesting the pre-1991 existence and evolution of the CL biotype strains in the Americas, independent from Asia.

  15. Comparative Genomics Reveals High Genomic Diversity in the Genus Photobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Vibrionaceae is a large marine bacterial family, which can constitute up to 50% of the prokaryotic population in marine waters. Photobacterium is the second largest genus in the family and we used comparative genomics on 35 strains representing 16 of the 28 species described so far, to understand the genomic diversity present in the Photobacterium genus. Such understanding is important for ecophysiology studies of the genus. We used whole genome sequences to evaluate phylogenetic relationships using several analyses (16S rRNA, MLSA, fur , amino-acid usage, ANI), which allowed us to identify two misidentified strains. Genome analyses also revealed occurrence of higher and lower GC content clades, correlating with phylogenetic clusters. Pan- and core-genome analysis revealed the conservation of 25% of the genome throughout the genus, with a large and open pan-genome. The major source of genomic diversity could be traced to the smaller chromosome and plasmids. Several of the physiological traits studied in the genus did not correlate with phylogenetic data. Since horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is often suggested as a source of genetic diversity and a potential driver of genomic evolution in bacterial species, we looked into evidence of such in Photobacterium genomes. Genomic islands were the source of genomic differences between strains of the same species. Also, we found transposase genes and CRISPR arrays that suggest multiple encounters with foreign DNA. Presence of genomic exchange traits was widespread and abundant in the genus, suggesting a role in genomic evolution. The high genetic variability and indications of genetic exchange make it difficult to elucidate genome evolutionary paths and raise the awareness of the roles of foreign DNA in the genomic evolution of environmental organisms.

  16. Four not six: Revealing culturally common facial expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Rachael E; Sun, Wei; Delis, Ioannis; Garrod, Oliver G B; Schyns, Philippe G

    2016-06-01

    As a highly social species, humans generate complex facial expressions to communicate a diverse range of emotions. Since Darwin's work, identifying among these complex patterns which are common across cultures and which are culture-specific has remained a central question in psychology, anthropology, philosophy, and more recently machine vision and social robotics. Classic approaches to addressing this question typically tested the cross-cultural recognition of theoretically motivated facial expressions representing 6 emotions, and reported universality. Yet, variable recognition accuracy across cultures suggests a narrower cross-cultural communication supported by sets of simpler expressive patterns embedded in more complex facial expressions. We explore this hypothesis by modeling the facial expressions of over 60 emotions across 2 cultures, and segregating out the latent expressive patterns. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we first map the conceptual organization of a broad spectrum of emotion words by building semantic networks in 2 cultures. For each emotion word in each culture, we then model and validate its corresponding dynamic facial expression, producing over 60 culturally valid facial expression models. We then apply to the pooled models a multivariate data reduction technique, revealing 4 latent and culturally common facial expression patterns that each communicates specific combinations of valence, arousal, and dominance. We then reveal the face movements that accentuate each latent expressive pattern to create complex facial expressions. Our data questions the widely held view that 6 facial expression patterns are universal, instead suggesting 4 latent expressive patterns with direct implications for emotion communication, social psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and social robotics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Next generation sequencing reveals the hidden diversity of zooplankton assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope K Lindeque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zooplankton play an important role in our oceans, in biogeochemical cycling and providing a food source for commercially important fish larvae. However, difficulties in correctly identifying zooplankton hinder our understanding of their roles in marine ecosystem functioning, and can prevent detection of long term changes in their community structure. The advent of massively parallel next generation sequencing technology allows DNA sequence data to be recovered directly from whole community samples. Here we assess the ability of such sequencing to quantify richness and diversity of a mixed zooplankton assemblage from a productive time series site in the Western English Channel. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Plankton net hauls (200 µm were taken at the Western Channel Observatory station L4 in September 2010 and January 2011. These samples were analysed by microscopy and metagenetic analysis of the 18S nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene using the 454 pyrosequencing platform. Following quality control a total of 419,041 sequences were obtained for all samples. The sequences clustered into 205 operational taxonomic units using a 97% similarity cut-off. Allocation of taxonomy by comparison with the National Centre for Biotechnology Information database identified 135 OTUs to species level, 11 to genus level and 1 to order, <2.5% of sequences were classified as unknowns. By comparison a skilled microscopic analyst was able to routinely enumerate only 58 taxonomic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Metagenetics reveals a previously hidden taxonomic richness, especially for Copepoda and hard-to-identify meroplankton such as Bivalvia, Gastropoda and Polychaeta. It also reveals rare species and parasites. We conclude that Next Generation Sequencing of 18S amplicons is a powerful tool for elucidating the true diversity and species richness of zooplankton communities. While this approach allows for broad diversity assessments of plankton it may

  18. Compartmentation of glycogen metabolism revealed from 13C isotopologue distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin de Mas Igor

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stable isotope tracers are used to assess metabolic flux profiles in living cells. The existing methods of measurement average out the isotopic isomer distribution in metabolites throughout the cell, whereas the knowledge of compartmental organization of analyzed pathways is crucial for the evaluation of true fluxes. That is why we accepted a challenge to create a software tool that allows deciphering the compartmentation of metabolites based on the analysis of average isotopic isomer distribution. Results The software Isodyn, which simulates the dynamics of isotopic isomer distribution in central metabolic pathways, was supplemented by algorithms facilitating the transition between various analyzed metabolic schemes, and by the tools for model discrimination. It simulated 13C isotope distributions in glucose, lactate, glutamate and glycogen, measured by mass spectrometry after incubation of hepatocytes in the presence of only labeled glucose or glucose and lactate together (with label either in glucose or lactate. The simulations assumed either a single intracellular hexose phosphate pool, or also channeling of hexose phosphates resulting in a different isotopic composition of glycogen. Model discrimination test was applied to check the consistency of both models with experimental data. Metabolic flux profiles, evaluated with the accepted model that assumes channeling, revealed the range of changes in metabolic fluxes in liver cells. Conclusions The analysis of compartmentation of metabolic networks based on the measured 13C distribution was included in Isodyn as a routine procedure. The advantage of this implementation is that, being a part of evaluation of metabolic fluxes, it does not require additional experiments to study metabolic compartmentation. The analysis of experimental data revealed that the distribution of measured 13C-labeled glucose metabolites is inconsistent with the idea of perfect mixing of hexose

  19. Architecture of cognitive flexibility revealed by lesion mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbey, Aron K.; Colom, Roberto; Grafman, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscience has made remarkable progress in understanding the architecture of human intelligence, identifying a distributed network of brain structures that support goal-directed, intelligent behavior. However, the neural foundations of cognitive flexibility and adaptive aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 149) that investigates the neural bases of key competencies of cognitive flexibility (i.e., mental flexibility and the fluent generation of new ideas) and systematically examine their contributions to a broad spectrum of cognitive and social processes, including psychometric intelligence (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality (Neuroticism–Extraversion–Openness Personality Inventory). Latent variable modeling was applied to obtain error-free indices of each factor, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping to elucidate their neural substrates. Regression analyses revealed that latent scores for psychometric intelligence reliably predict latent scores for cognitive flexibility (adjusted R2 = 0.94). Lesion mapping results further indicated that these convergent processes depend on a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts, which bind these areas into an integrated system. A targeted analysis of the unique variance explained by cognitive flexibility further revealed selective damage within the right superior temporal gyrus, a region known to support insight and the recognition of novel semantic relations. The observed findings motivate an integrative framework for understanding the neural foundations of adaptive behavior, suggesting that core elements of cognitive flexibility emerge from a distributed network of brain regions that support specific competencies for human intelligence. PMID:23721727

  20. Memory functions reveal structural properties of gene regulatory networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Carrasco, Ruben

    2018-01-01

    Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) control cellular function and decision making during tissue development and homeostasis. Mathematical tools based on dynamical systems theory are often used to model these networks, but the size and complexity of these models mean that their behaviour is not always intuitive and the underlying mechanisms can be difficult to decipher. For this reason, methods that simplify and aid exploration of complex networks are necessary. To this end we develop a broadly applicable form of the Zwanzig-Mori projection. By first converting a thermodynamic state ensemble model of gene regulation into mass action reactions we derive a general method that produces a set of time evolution equations for a subset of components of a network. The influence of the rest of the network, the bulk, is captured by memory functions that describe how the subnetwork reacts to its own past state via components in the bulk. These memory functions provide probes of near-steady state dynamics, revealing information not easily accessible otherwise. We illustrate the method on a simple cross-repressive transcriptional motif to show that memory functions not only simplify the analysis of the subnetwork but also have a natural interpretation. We then apply the approach to a GRN from the vertebrate neural tube, a well characterised developmental transcriptional network composed of four interacting transcription factors. The memory functions reveal the function of specific links within the neural tube network and identify features of the regulatory structure that specifically increase the robustness of the network to initial conditions. Taken together, the study provides evidence that Zwanzig-Mori projections offer powerful and effective tools for simplifying and exploring the behaviour of GRNs. PMID:29470492

  1. Impaired Phosphate Tolerance Revealed With an Acute Oral Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Mandy E; White, Christine A; Hopman, Wilma M; Ward, Emilie C; Jeronimo, Paul S; Adams, Michael A; Holden, Rachel M

    2018-01-01

    Elevated serum phosphate is consistently linked with cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality in the setting of normal and impaired kidney function. However, serum phosphate does not often exceed the upper limit of normal until glomerular filtration rate (GFR) falls below 30 mL/min/m 2 . It was hypothesized that the response to an oral, bioavailable phosphate load will unmask impaired phosphate tolerance, a maladaptation not revealed by baseline serum phosphate concentrations. In this study, rats with varying kidney function as well as normo-phosphatemic human subjects, with inulin-measured GFR (13.2 to 128.3mL/min), received an oral phosphate load. Hormonal and urinary responses were evaluated over 2 hours. Results revealed that the more rapid elevation of serum phosphate was associated with subjects and rats with higher levels of kidney function, greater responsiveness to acute changes in parathyroid hormone (PTH), and significantly more urinary phosphate at 2 hours. In humans, increases in urinary phosphate to creatinine ratio did not correlate with baseline serum phosphate concentrations but did correlate strongly to early increase of serum phosphate. The blunted rise in serum phosphate in rats with CKD was not the result of altered absorption. This result suggests acute tissue deposition may be altered in the setting of kidney function impairment. Early recognition of impaired phosphate tolerance could translate to important interventions, such as dietary phosphate restriction or phosphate binders, being initiated at much higher levels of kidney function than is current practice. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  2. Boundary determinations for trivariate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchaineau, M; Joy, K I

    1999-01-01

    The trivariate tensor-product B-spline solid is a direct extension of the B-spline patch and has been shown to be useful in the creation and visualization of free-form geometric solids. Visualizing these solid objects requires the determination of the boundary surface of the solid, which is a combination of parametric and implicit surfaces. This paper presents a method that determines the implicit boundary surface by examination of the Jacobian determinant of the defining B-spline function. Using an approximation to this determinant, the domain space is adaptively subdivided until a mesh can be determined such that the boundary surface is close to linear in the cells of the mesh. A variation of the marching cubes algorithm is then used to draw the surface. Interval approximation techniques are used to approximate the Jacobian determinant and to approximate the Jacobian determinant gradient for use in the adaptive subdivision methods. This technique can be used to create free-form solid objects, useful in geometric modeling applications

  3. Immunological methods for gentamicin determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krugers Dagneauz, P.G.L.C.; Olthuis, F.M.F.G.

    1979-01-01

    For immunoassay, an antibody against the substance to the determined, the pure substance itself, and a labelled form or derivative of the substance are required. The principles and problems of the preparation of antibodies are discussed, some methods for the preparation of derivatives labelled with radioactive tracers or enzymes are reviewed, and homologous enzyme-immunological determination of gentamicin is discussed in detail. A comparison is mae of three radio-immunological determination methods, and the most suitable radio-immunological method is compared with two microbiological techniques. The results are found to be comparable. (Auth.)

  4. Age determination and geological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.D.; Delabio, R.N.; Lachance, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    Two hundred and eight potassium-argon age determinations carried out on Canadian rocks and minerals are reported. Each age determination is accompanied by a description of the rock and mineral concentrate used; brief interpretative comments regarding the geological significance of each age are also provided where possible. The experimental procedures employed are described in brief outline and the constants used in the calculation of ages are listed. Two geological time-scales are reproduced in tabular form for ready reference and an index of all Geological Survey of Canada K-Ar age determinations published in this format has been prepared using NTS quadrangles as the primary reference

  5. Embodiment of the interpersonal nexus: revealing qualitative research findings on shoulder surgery patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glass N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nel Glass, K Robyn OgleSchool of Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine, Australian Catholic University, Fitzroy, VIC, AustraliaBackground: The paper reports on the importance of the interpersonal nexus within qualitative research processes, from a recent research project on patient experiences of shoulder surgery. Our aim is to reveal the importance of qualitative research processes and specifically the role of the interpersonal nexus in generating quality data. Literature related to the importance of human interactions and interpersonal communication processes in health-related research remains limited. Shoulder surgery has been reported to be associated with significant postoperative pain. While shoulder surgery research has investigated various analgesic techniques to determine key efficacy and minimization of adverse side effects, little has been reported from the patient perspective.Methods: Following institutional ethics approval, this project was conducted in two private hospitals in Victoria, Australia, in 2010. The methods included a survey questionnaire, semistructured interviews, and researcher-reflective journaling. Researcher-reflective journaling was utilized to highlight and discuss the interpersonal nexus.Results: This research specifically addresses the importance of the contributions of qualitative methods and processes to understanding patient experiences of analgesic efficacy and shoulder surgery. The results reveal the importance of the established research process and the interwoven interpersonal nexus between the researcher and the research participants. The interpersonal skills of presencing and empathetic engagement are particularly highlighted.Conclusion: The authors attest the significance of establishing an interpersonal nexus in order to reveal patient experiences of shoulder surgery. Interpersonal emotional engagement is particularly highlighted in data collection, in what may be otherwise understated and overlooked

  6. Identifying revealed comparative advantages in an EU regional context

    OpenAIRE

    Cordes, Alexander; Gehrke, Birgit; Römisch, Roman; Rammer, Christian; Schliessler, Paula; Wassmann, Pia

    2015-01-01

    [Introduction ...] Overall, this report is structured as follows: the next chapter (2) briefly outlines the relevance of regional trade indicators for determining the competitiveness of a region. In chapter 3, the methodology for the calculation of regional trade performance indicators is introduced, and the elementary results are described. Chapter 4 presents an econometric analysis relating key regional characteristics to international success of local industries. Based upon the regional di...

  7. In vitro adaptation of Plasmodium falciparum reveal variations in cultivability

    OpenAIRE

    White, John; Mascarenhas, Anjali; Pereira, Ligia; Dash, Rashmi; Walke, Jayashri T.; Gawas, Pooja; Sharma, Ambika; Manoharan, Suresh Kumar; Guler, Jennifer L.; Maki, Jennifer N.; Kumar, Ashwani; Mahanta, Jagadish; Valecha, Neena; Dubhashi, Nagesh; Vaz, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Background Culture-adapted Plasmodium falciparum parasites can offer deeper understanding of geographic variations in drug resistance, pathogenesis and immune evasion. To help ground population-based calculations and inferences from culture-adapted parasites, the complete range of parasites from a study area must be well represented in any collection. To this end, standardized adaptation methods and determinants of successful in vitro adaption were sought. Methods Venous blood was collected f...

  8. Workplace Bullying and Work Engagement: A Self-Determination Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodboy, Alan K; Martin, Matthew M; Bolkan, San

    2017-06-01

    This study modeled motivational mechanisms that explain the negative effects of workplace bullying on work engagement. Guided by self-determination theory, workplace bullying was predicted to decrease worker engagement indirectly, due to the denial of employees' basic psychological needs and their intrinsic motivation to work. From a sample of 243 full-time employees, serial multiple mediation models revealed that the indirect relationships between workplace bullying and work engagement (i.e., vigor, dedication, absorption) were serially mediated by basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation to work. In support of self-determination theory, this study revealed that workplace bullying indirectly disengages employees from their work by denying them of their autonomy and relatedness needs and thwarting their motivation to perform work in a fulfilling way.

  9. Revealing Relationships among Relevant Climate Variables with Information Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Golera, Anthony; Curry, Charles T.; Huyser, Karen A.; Kevin R. Wheeler; Rossow, William B.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of the NASA Earth-Sun Exploration Technology Office is to understand the observed Earth climate variability, thus enabling the determination and prediction of the climate's response to both natural and human-induced forcing. We are currently developing a suite of computational tools that will allow researchers to calculate, from data, a variety of information-theoretic quantities such as mutual information, which can be used to identify relationships among climate variables, and transfer entropy, which indicates the possibility of causal interactions. Our tools estimate these quantities along with their associated error bars, the latter of which is critical for describing the degree of uncertainty in the estimates. This work is based upon optimal binning techniques that we have developed for piecewise-constant, histogram-style models of the underlying density functions. Two useful side benefits have already been discovered. The first allows a researcher to determine whether there exist sufficient data to estimate the underlying probability density. The second permits one to determine an acceptable degree of round-off when compressing data for efficient transfer and storage. We also demonstrate how mutual information and transfer entropy can be applied so as to allow researchers not only to identify relations among climate variables, but also to characterize and quantify their possible causal interactions.

  10. Zircons reveal magma fluxes in the Earth's crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricchi, Luca; Simpson, Guy; Schaltegger, Urs

    2014-07-24

    Magma fluxes regulate the planetary thermal budget, the growth of continents and the frequency and magnitude of volcanic eruptions, and play a part in the genesis and size of magmatic ore deposits. However, because a large fraction of the magma produced on the Earth does not erupt at the surface, determinations of magma fluxes are rare and this compromises our ability to establish a link between global heat transfer and large-scale geological processes. Here we show that age distributions of zircons, a mineral often present in crustal magmatic rocks, in combination with thermal modelling, provide an accurate means of retrieving magma fluxes. The characteristics of zircon age populations vary significantly and systematically as a function of the flux and total volume of magma accumulated in the Earth's crust. Our approach produces results that are consistent with independent determinations of magma fluxes and volumes of magmatic systems. Analysis of existing age population data sets using our method suggests that porphyry-type deposits, plutons and large eruptions each require magma input over different timescales at different characteristic average fluxes. We anticipate that more extensive and complete magma flux data sets will serve to clarify the control that the global heat flux exerts on the frequency of geological events such as volcanic eruptions, and to determine the main factors controlling the distribution of resources on our planet.

  11. Proton transfers in the Strecker reaction revealed by DFT calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Yamabe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Strecker reaction of acetaldehyde, NH3, and HCN to afford alanine was studied by DFT calculations for the first time, which involves two reaction stages. In the first reaction stage, the aminonitrile was formed. The rate-determining step is the deprotonation of the NH3+ group in MeCH(OH-NH3+ to form 1-aminoethanol, which occurs with an activation energy barrier (ΔE≠ of 9.6 kcal/mol. The stereochemistry (R or S of the aminonitrile product is determined at the NH3 addition step to the carbonyl carbon of the aldehyde. While the addition of CN− to the carbon atom of the protonated imine 7 appears to scramble the stereochemistry, the water cluster above the imine plane reinforces the CN− to attack the imine group below the plane. The enforcement hinders the scrambling. In the second stage, the aminonitrile transforms to alanine, where an amide Me-CH(NH2-C(=O-NH2 is the key intermediate. The rate-determining step is the hydrolysis of the cyano group of N(amino-protonated aminonitrile which occurs with an ΔE≠ value of 34.7 kcal/mol. In the Strecker reaction, the proton transfer along the hydrogen bonds plays a crucial role.

  12. A Rapid Colorimetric Method Reveals Fraudulent Substitutions in Sea Urchin Roe Marketed in Sardinia (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Domenico; Spina, Antonio; Satta, Gianluca; Chessa, Vittorio

    2016-06-25

    In recent years, besides the consumption of fresh sea urchin specimens, the demand of minimally-processed roe has grown considerably. This product has made frequent consumption in restaurants possible and frauds are becoming widespread with the partial replacement of sea urchin roe with surrogates that are similar in colour. One of the main factors that determines the quality of the roe is its colour and small differences in colour scale cannot be easily discerned by the consumers. In this study we have applied a rapid colorimetric method for reveal the fraudulent partial substitution of semi-solid sea urchin roe with liquid egg yolk. Objective assessment of whiteness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), hue (h*), and chroma (C*) was carried out with a digital spectrophotometer using the CIE L*a*b* colour measurement system. The colorimetric method highlighted statistically significant differences among sea urchin roe and liquid egg yolk that could be easily discerned quantitatively.

  13. The structure of Lactococcus lactis thioredoxin reductase reveals molecular features of photo-oxidative damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjoldager, Nicklas; Bang, Maria Blanner; Rykær, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The NADPH-dependent homodimeric flavoenzyme thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) provides reducing equivalents to thioredoxin, a key regulator of various cellular redox processes. Crystal structures of photo-inactivated thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) from the Gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis have...... been determined. These structures reveal novel molecular features that provide further insight into the mechanisms behind the sensitivity of this enzyme toward visible light. We propose that a pocket on the si-face of the isoalloxazine ring accommodates oxygen that reacts with photo-excited FAD...... thus be a widespread feature among bacterial TrxR with the described characteristics, which affords applications in clinical photo-therapy of drug-resistant bacteria....

  14. Nuclear markers reveal that inter-lake cichlids' similar morphologies do not reflect similar genealogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam, Daud; Seki, Shingo; Horic, Michio; Yamaoka, Kosaku

    2006-08-01

    The apparent inter-lake morphological similarity among East African Great Lakes' cichlid species/genera has left evolutionary biologists asking whether such similarity is due to sharing of common ancestor or mere convergent evolution. In order to answer such question, we first used Geometric Morphometrics, GM, to quantify morphological similarity and then subsequently used Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism, AFLP, to determine if similar morphologies imply shared ancestry or convergent evolution. GM revealed that not all presumed morphological similar pairs were indeed similar, and the dendrogram generated from AFLP data indicated distinct clusters corresponding to each lake and not inter-lake morphological similar pairs. Such results imply that the morphological similarity is due to convergent evolution and not shared ancestry. The congruency of GM and AFLP generated dendrograms imply that GM is capable of picking up phylogenetic signal, and thus GM can be potential tool in phylogenetic systematics.

  15. Opacity and Transport Measurements Reveal That Dilute Plasma Models of Sonoluminescence Are Not Valid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Shahzad; Kappus, Brian; Weninger, Keith; Putterman, Seth

    2012-03-01

    A strong interaction between a nanosecond laser and a 70 μm radius sonoluminescing plasma is achieved. The overall response of the system results in a factor of 2 increase in temperature as determined by its spectrum. Images of the interaction reveal that light energy is absorbed and trapped in a region smaller than the sonoluminescence emitting region of the bubble for over 100 ns. We interpret this opacity and transport measurement as demonstrating that sonoluminescencing bubbles can be 1000 times more opaque than what follows from the Saha equation of statistical mechanics in the ideal plasma limit. To address this discrepancy, we suggest that the effects of strong Coulomb interactions are an essential component of a first principles theory of sonoluminescence.

  16. Revealing topographic lineaments through IHS enhancement of DEM data. [Digital Elevation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Gary

    1990-01-01

    Intensity-hue-saturation (IHS) processing of slope (dip), aspect (dip direction), and elevation to reveal subtle topographic lineaments which may not be obvious in the unprocessed data are used to enhance digital elevation model (DEM) data from northwestern Nevada. This IHS method of lineament identification was applied to a mosiac of 12 square degrees using a Cray Y-MP8/864. Square arrays from 3 x 3 to 31 x 31 points were tested as well as several different slope enhancements. When relatively few points are used to fit the plane, lineaments of various lengths are observed and a mechanism for lineament classification is described. An area encompassing the gold deposits of the Carlin trend and including the Rain in the southeast to Midas in the northwest is investigated in greater detail. The orientation and density of lineaments may be determined on the gently sloping pediment surface as well as in the more steeply sloping ranges.

  17. Epitope-dependent mechanisms of CD27 neutralization revealed by X-ray crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obmolova, Galina; Teplyakov, Alexey; Malia, Thomas J.; Wunderler, Nicole; Kwok, Deborah; Barone, Linda; Sweet, Raymond; Ort, Tatiana; Scully, Michael; Gilliland, Gary L. (Janssen)

    2017-03-01

    CD27 is a T and B cell co-stimulatory protein of the TNF receptor superfamily dependent on the availability of the TNF-like ligand CD70. Two anti-CD27 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies were obtained from mouse hybridoma and subsequently humanized and optimized for binding the target. The two antibodies are similar in terms of their CD27-binding affinity and ability to block NF-κB signaling, however their clearance rates in monkeys are very different. The pharmacokinetics profiles could be epitope dependent. To identify the epitopes, we determined the crystal structure of the ternary complex between CD27 and the Fab fragments of these non-competing antibodies. The structure reveals the binding modes of the antibodies suggesting that their mechanisms of action are distinctly different and provides a possible explanation of the in vivo data.

  18. Discovery of methylfarnesoate as the annelid brain hormone reveals an ancient role of sesquiterpenoids in reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Sven; Krauditsch, Christian; Frühauf, Peter; Gerner, Christopher; Raible, Florian

    2016-11-29

    Animals require molecular signals to determine when to divert resources from somatic functions to reproduction. This decision is vital in animals that reproduce in an all-or-nothing mode, such as bristle worms: females committed to reproduction spend roughly half their body mass for yolk and egg production; following mass spawning, the parents die. An enigmatic brain hormone activity suppresses reproduction. We now identify this hormone as the sesquiterpenoid methylfarnesoate. Methylfarnesoate suppresses transcript levels of the yolk precursor Vitellogenin both in cell culture and in vivo , directly inhibiting a central energy-costly step of reproductive maturation. We reveal that contrary to common assumptions, sesquiterpenoids are ancient animal hormones present in marine and terrestrial lophotrochozoans. In turn, insecticides targeting this pathway suppress vitellogenesis in cultured worm cells. These findings challenge current views of animal hormone evolution, and indicate that non-target species and marine ecosystems are susceptible to commonly used insect larvicides.

  19. Olig2 and Hes regulatory dynamics during motor neuron differentiation revealed by single cell transcriptomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Sagner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During tissue development, multipotent progenitors differentiate into specific cell types in characteristic spatial and temporal patterns. We addressed the mechanism linking progenitor identity and differentiation rate in the neural tube, where motor neuron (MN progenitors differentiate more rapidly than other progenitors. Using single cell transcriptomics, we defined the transcriptional changes associated with the transition of neural progenitors into MNs. Reconstruction of gene expression dynamics from these data indicate a pivotal role for the MN determinant Olig2 just prior to MN differentiation. Olig2 represses expression of the Notch signaling pathway effectors Hes1 and Hes5. Olig2 repression of Hes5 appears to be direct, via a conserved regulatory element within the Hes5 locus that restricts expression from MN progenitors. These findings reveal a tight coupling between the regulatory networks that control patterning and neuronal differentiation and demonstrate how Olig2 acts as the developmental pacemaker coordinating the spatial and temporal pattern of MN generation.

  20. Illumina based whole mitochondrial genome of Junonia iphita reveals minor intraspecific variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Vanlalruati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the near complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome of Junonia iphita (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Nymphalinae was determined to be 14,892 bp. The gene order and orientation are identical to those in other butterfly species. The phylogenetic tree constructed from the whole mitogenomes using the 13 protein coding genes (PCGs defines the genetic relatedness of the two J. iphita species collected from two different regions. All the Junonia species clustered together, and were further subdivided into clade one consisting of J. almana and J. orithya and clade two comprising of the two J. iphita which were collected from Indo and Indochinese subregions separated by river barrier. Comparison between the two J. iphita sequences revealed minor variations and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms were identified at 51 sites amounting to 0.4% of the entire mitochondrial genome.

  1. Microscopic properties of ionic liquid/organic semiconductor interfaces revealed by molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Yasuyuki; Miyamoto, Hiroo; Imanishi, Akihito; Takeya, Jun; Inagaki, Kouji; Morikawa, Yoshitada; Fukui, Ken-Ichi

    2018-05-09

    Electric double-layer transistors based on ionic liquid/organic semiconductor interfaces have been extensively studied during the past decade because of their high carrier densities at low operation voltages. Microscopic structures and the dynamics of ionic liquids likely determine the device performance; however, knowledge of these is limited by a lack of appropriate experimental tools. In this study, we investigated ionic liquid/organic semiconductor interfaces using molecular dynamics to reveal the microscopic properties of ionic liquids. The organic semiconductors include pentacene, rubrene, fullerene, and 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ). While ionic liquids close to the substrate always form the specific layered structures, the surface properties of organic semiconductors drastically alter the ionic dynamics. Ionic liquids at the fullerene interface behave as a two-dimensional ionic crystal because of the energy gain derived from the favorable electrostatic interaction on the corrugated periodic substrate.

  2. Octacyanoniobate(IV)-based molecular magnets revealing 3D long-range order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelka, R; Balanda, M [Institute of Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342, Krakow (Poland); Pinkowicz, D; Drath, O; Nitek, W; Sieklucka, B [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Rams, M; Majcher, A, E-mail: robert.pelka@ifj.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2011-07-06

    Isostructural series of chemical formula {l_brace}[M{sup II}(pirazol){sub 4}]{sub 2}[Nb{sup IV}(CN){sub 8}]{center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O{r_brace}{sub n} (M{sup II} = Mn (1), Fe (2), Co (3), Ni (4)) has been obtained by the self-assembly technique. Its unique crystallographic structure consists in the formation of a 3D extended network of magnetic centers braced by geometrically identical cyanido bridges. Magnetic measurements reveal the transitions to the 3D order at temperatures 23.7, 8.3, 5.9, 13.4 K for 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The character of order is demonstrated to be ferrimagnetic for 1 and 2 and ferromagnetic for 3 and 4. The mean-field approach is used to determine the corresponding exchange coupling constants. The observed interactions are discussed within the magnetic orbital model.

  3. Octacyanoniobate(IV)-based molecular magnets revealing 3D long-range order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelka, R; Balanda, M; Pinkowicz, D; Drath, O; Nitek, W; Sieklucka, B; Rams, M; Majcher, A

    2011-01-01

    Isostructural series of chemical formula {[M II (pirazol) 4 ] 2 [Nb IV (CN) 8 ]· 4H 2 O} n (M II = Mn (1), Fe (2), Co (3), Ni (4)) has been obtained by the self-assembly technique. Its unique crystallographic structure consists in the formation of a 3D extended network of magnetic centers braced by geometrically identical cyanido bridges. Magnetic measurements reveal the transitions to the 3D order at temperatures 23.7, 8.3, 5.9, 13.4 K for 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The character of order is demonstrated to be ferrimagnetic for 1 and 2 and ferromagnetic for 3 and 4. The mean-field approach is used to determine the corresponding exchange coupling constants. The observed interactions are discussed within the magnetic orbital model.

  4. Octacyanoniobate(IV)-based molecular magnets revealing 3D long-range order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pełka, R.; Pinkowicz, D.; Drath, O.; Bałanda, M.; Rams, M.; Majcher, A.; Nitek, W.; Sieklucka, B.

    2011-07-01

    Isostructural series of chemical formula {[MII(pirazol)4]2[NbIV(CN)8]· 4H2O}n (MII = Mn (1), Fe (2), Co (3), Ni (4)) has been obtained by the self-assembly technique. Its unique crystallographic structure consists in the formation of a 3D extended network of magnetic centers braced by geometrically identical cyanido bridges. Magnetic measurements reveal the transitions to the 3D order at temperatures 23.7, 8.3, 5.9, 13.4 K for 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The character of order is demonstrated to be ferrimagnetic for 1 and 2 and ferromagnetic for 3 and 4. The mean-field approach is used to determine the corresponding exchange coupling constants. The observed interactions are discussed within the magnetic orbital model.

  5. Modulators of Stomatal Lineage Signal Transduction Alter Membrane Contact Sites and Reveal Specialization among ERECTA Kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chin-Min Kimmy; Paciorek, Tomasz; Abrash, Emily; Bergmann, Dominique C

    2016-08-22

    Signal transduction from a cell's surface to its interior requires dedicated signaling elements and a cellular environment conducive to signal propagation. Plant development, defense, and homeostasis rely on plasma membrane receptor-like kinases to perceive endogenous and environmental signals, but little is known about their immediate downstream targets and signaling modifiers. Using genetics, biochemistry, and live-cell imaging, we show that the VAP-RELATED SUPPRESSOR OF TMM (VST) family is required for ERECTA-mediated signaling in growth and cell-fate determination and reveal a role for ERECTA-LIKE2 in modulating signaling by its sister kinases. We show that VSTs are peripheral plasma membrane proteins that can form complexes with integral ER-membrane proteins, thereby potentially influencing the organization of the membrane milieu to promote efficient and differential signaling from the ERECTA-family members to their downstream intracellular targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Substrate recognition by complement convertases revealed in the C5-cobra venom factor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Nick Stub; Andersen, Kasper Røjkjær; Braren, Ingke

    2011-01-01

    with a protease subunit (Bb or C2a). We determined the crystal structures of the C3b homologue cobra venom factor (CVF) in complex with C5, and in complex with C5 and the inhibitor SSL7 at 4.3 Å resolution. The structures reveal a parallel two-point attachment between C5 and CVF, where the presence of SSL7 only...... slightly affects the C5-CVF interface, explaining the IgA dependence for SSL7-mediated inhibition of C5 cleavage. CVF functions as a relatively rigid binding scaffold inducing a conformational change in C5, which positions its cleavage site in proximity to the serine protease Bb. A general model...

  7. Integrative analysis of RNA, translation, and protein levels reveals distinct regulatory variation across humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenik, Can; Cenik, Elif Sarinay; Byeon, Gun W; Grubert, Fabian; Candille, Sophie I; Spacek, Damek; Alsallakh, Bilal; Tilgner, Hagen; Araya, Carlos L; Tang, Hua; Ricci, Emiliano; Snyder, Michael P

    2015-11-01

    Elucidating the consequences of genetic differences between humans is essential for understanding phenotypic diversity and personalized medicine. Although variation in RNA levels, transcription factor binding, and chromatin have been explored, little is known about global variation in translation and its genetic determinants. We used ribosome profiling, RNA sequencing, and mass spectrometry to perform an integrated analysis in lymphoblastoid cell lines from a diverse group of individuals. We find significant differences in RNA, translation, and protein levels suggesting diverse mechanisms of personalized gene expression control. Combined analysis of RNA expression and ribosome occupancy improves the identification of individual protein level differences. Finally, we identify genetic differences that specifically modulate ribosome occupancy--many of these differences lie close to start codons and upstream ORFs. Our results reveal a new level of gene expression variation among humans and indicate that genetic variants can cause changes in protein levels through effects on translation. © 2015 Cenik et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  8. What Do Women's Advertised Mate Preferences Reveal? An Analysis of Video Dating Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari D. Goetz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined women's video dating profiles to determine what their advertised mate preferences revealed about their mate value and relationship interests. Women created a one-minute long video dating profile for a hypothetical dating website. The videos were content analyzed into four categories of stated mate preferences: 1 “good genes” indicators 2 good resource investment potential indicators 3 good parenting indicators and 4 good partner indicators. Long-term mating interest was positively correlated with describing good partner indicators and self-perceived mate value was positively correlated with describing good genes indicators. Short-term mating interest was negatively correlated with describing any mate preferences while attractiveness was positively correlated with doing so. Results suggest that women's advertised mate preferences provide clues to their underlying relationship interests and mate value.

  9. Core microbial functional activities in ocean environments revealed by global metagenomic profiling analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari J S Ferreira

    Full Text Available Metagenomics-based functional profiling analysis is an effective means of gaining deeper insight into the composition of marine microbial populations and developing a better understanding of the interplay between the functional genome content of microbial communities and abiotic factors. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of 24 datasets covering surface and depth-related environments at 11 sites around the world's oceans. The complete datasets comprises approximately 12 million sequences, totaling 5,358 Mb. Based on profiling patterns of Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs of proteins, a core set of reference photic and aphotic depth-related COGs, and a collection of COGs that are associated with extreme oxygen limitation were defined. Their inferred functions were utilized as indicators to characterize the distribution of light- and oxygen-related biological activities in marine environments. The results reveal that, while light level in the water column is a major determinant of phenotypic adaptation in marine microorganisms, oxygen concentration in the aphotic zone has a significant impact only in extremely hypoxic waters. Phylogenetic profiling of the reference photic/aphotic gene sets revealed a greater variety of source organisms in the aphotic zone, although the majority of individual photic and aphotic depth-related COGs are assigned to the same taxa across the different sites. This increase in phylogenetic and functional diversity of the core aphotic related COGs most probably reflects selection for the utilization of a broad range of alternate energy sources in the absence of light.

  10. Two-dimensional spectra of electron collisions with acrylonitrile and methacrylonitrile reveal nuclear dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regeta, K., E-mail: khrystyna.regeta@unifr.ch; Allan, M., E-mail: michael.allan@unifr.ch [Department of Chemistry, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Musée 9, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland)

    2015-05-14

    Detailed experimental information on the motion of a nuclear packet on a complex (resonant) anion potential surface is obtained by measuring 2-dimensional (2D) electron energy loss spectra. The cross section is plotted as a function of incident electron energy, which determines which resonant anion state is populated, i.e., along which normal coordinate the wave packet is launched, and of the electron energy loss, which reveals into which final states each specific resonant state decays. The 2D spectra are presented for acrylonitrile and methacrylonitrile, at the incident energy range 0.095-1.0 eV, where the incoming electron is temporarily captured in the lowest π{sup ∗} orbital. The 2D spectra reveal selectivity patterns with respect to which vibrations are excited in the attachment and de-excited in the detachment. Further insight is gained by recording 1D spectra measured along horizontal, vertical, and diagonal cuts of the 2D spectrum. The methyl group in methacrylonitrile increases the resonance width 7 times. This converts the sharp resonances of acrylonitrile into boomerang structures but preserves the essence of the selectivity patterns. Selectivity of vibrational excitation by higher-lying shape resonances up to 8 eV is also reported.

  11. Floodplain forest succession reveals fluvial processes: A hydrogeomorphic model for temperate riparian woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Gregory; Politti, Emilio; Lautsch, Erwin; Benjankar, Rohan; Gill, Karen M; Rood, Stewart B

    2015-09-15

    River valley floodplains are physically-dynamic environments where fluvial processes determine habitat gradients for riparian vegetation. These zones support trees and shrubs whose life stages are adapted to specific habitat types and consequently forest composition and successional stage reflect the underlying hydrogeomorphic processes and history. In this study we investigated woodland vegetation composition, successional stage and habitat properties, and compared these with physically-based indicators of hydraulic processes. We thus sought to develop a hydrogeomorphic model to evaluate riparian woodland condition based on the spatial mosaic of successional phases of the floodplain forest. The study investigated free-flowing and dam-impacted reaches of the Kootenai and Flathead Rivers, in Idaho and Montana, USA and British Columbia, Canada. The analyses revealed strong correspondence between vegetation assessments and metrics of fluvial processes indicating morphodynamics (erosion and shear stress), inundation and depth to groundwater. The results indicated that common successional stages generally occupied similar hydraulic environments along the different river segments. Comparison of the spatial patterns between the free-flowing and regulated reaches revealed greater deviation from the natural condition for the braided channel segment than for the meandering segment. This demonstrates the utility of the hydrogeomorphic approach and suggests that riparian woodlands along braided channels could have lower resilience than those along meandering channels and might be more vulnerable to influences such as from river damming or climate change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Core microbial functional activities in ocean environments revealed by global metagenomic profiling analyses.

    KAUST Repository

    Ferreira, Ari J S

    2014-06-12

    Metagenomics-based functional profiling analysis is an effective means of gaining deeper insight into the composition of marine microbial populations and developing a better understanding of the interplay between the functional genome content of microbial communities and abiotic factors. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of 24 datasets covering surface and depth-related environments at 11 sites around the world\\'s oceans. The complete datasets comprises approximately 12 million sequences, totaling 5,358 Mb. Based on profiling patterns of Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) of proteins, a core set of reference photic and aphotic depth-related COGs, and a collection of COGs that are associated with extreme oxygen limitation were defined. Their inferred functions were utilized as indicators to characterize the distribution of light- and oxygen-related biological activities in marine environments. The results reveal that, while light level in the water column is a major determinant of phenotypic adaptation in marine microorganisms, oxygen concentration in the aphotic zone has a significant impact only in extremely hypoxic waters. Phylogenetic profiling of the reference photic/aphotic gene sets revealed a greater variety of source organisms in the aphotic zone, although the majority of individual photic and aphotic depth-related COGs are assigned to the same taxa across the different sites. This increase in phylogenetic and functional diversity of the core aphotic related COGs most probably reflects selection for the utilization of a broad range of alternate energy sources in the absence of light.

  13. Asymmetric biotic interactions and abiotic niche differences revealed by a dynamic joint species distribution model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lany, Nina K; Zarnetske, Phoebe L; Schliep, Erin M; Schaeffer, Robert N; Orians, Colin M; Orwig, David A; Preisser, Evan L

    2018-05-01

    A species' distribution and abundance are determined by abiotic conditions and biotic interactions with other species in the community. Most species distribution models correlate the occurrence of a single species with environmental variables only, and leave out biotic interactions. To test the importance of biotic interactions on occurrence and abundance, we compared a multivariate spatiotemporal model of the joint abundance of two invasive insects that share a host plant, hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA; Adelges tsugae) and elongate hemlock scale (EHS; Fiorina externa), to independent models that do not account for dependence among co-occurring species. The joint model revealed that HWA responded more strongly to abiotic conditions than EHS. Additionally, HWA appeared to predispose stands to subsequent increase of EHS, but HWA abundance was not strongly dependent on EHS abundance. This study demonstrates how incorporating spatial and temporal dependence into a species distribution model can reveal the dependence of a species' abundance on other species in the community. Accounting for dependence among co-occurring species with a joint distribution model can also improve estimation of the abiotic niche for species affected by interspecific interactions. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. The implicit effect of texturizing field on the elastic properties of magnetic elastomers revealed by SANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasoiu, M., E-mail: balas@jinr.ru [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Lebedev, V.T. [St.Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute NRC KI, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Raikher, Yu.L. [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, Perm (Russian Federation); Bica, I.; Bunoiu, M. [West University of Timisoara, Department of Physics (Romania)

    2017-06-01

    Small angle neutron scattering method (SANS) is used to characterize the structure properties of the polymer matrix of magnetic elastomers (MEs) of the same material content but with different magnetic textures. For that, series of silicone-rubber elastomers mixed with a ferrofluid and polymerized with/without external magnetic field were studied. In the species of pure rubber and the ME samples synthesized without field, SANS reveals a substantial number of large polymer coils (blobs) which are vertically prolate. The case of MEs polymerized under the magnetic field that is also vertically directed, is different. SANS data indicates that there the blobs are preferably elongated in the direction normal to the field. - Highlights: • SANS method is used to determine the structure of SR elastomers polymerized with ferrofluid in/no external magnetic field. • In the rubber and ME samples synthesized without field, SANS reveals a substantial number of vertically prolate blobs. • For MEs polymerized in vertical magnetic field, results that the blobs are elongated in the direction normal to the field. • Isotropic and texturized MEs differ by the filler structure and by intrinsic elastic properties of the matrix as well.

  15. Core microbial functional activities in ocean environments revealed by global metagenomic profiling analyses.

    KAUST Repository

    Ferreira, Ari J S; Siam, Rania; Setubal, Joã o C; Moustafa, Ahmed; Sayed, Ahmed; Chambergo, Felipe S; Dawe, Adam S; Ghazy, Mohamed A; Sharaf, Hazem; Ouf, Amged; Alam, Intikhab; Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M; Lehvä slaiho, Heikki; Ramadan, Eman; Antunes, André ; Stingl, Ulrich; Archer, John A.C.; Jankovic, Boris R; Sogin, Mitchell; Bajic, Vladimir B.; El-Dorry, Hamza

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomics-based functional profiling analysis is an effective means of gaining deeper insight into the composition of marine microbial populations and developing a better understanding of the interplay between the functional genome content of microbial communities and abiotic factors. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of 24 datasets covering surface and depth-related environments at 11 sites around the world's oceans. The complete datasets comprises approximately 12 million sequences, totaling 5,358 Mb. Based on profiling patterns of Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) of proteins, a core set of reference photic and aphotic depth-related COGs, and a collection of COGs that are associated with extreme oxygen limitation were defined. Their inferred functions were utilized as indicators to characterize the distribution of light- and oxygen-related biological activities in marine environments. The results reveal that, while light level in the water column is a major determinant of phenotypic adaptation in marine microorganisms, oxygen concentration in the aphotic zone has a significant impact only in extremely hypoxic waters. Phylogenetic profiling of the reference photic/aphotic gene sets revealed a greater variety of source organisms in the aphotic zone, although the majority of individual photic and aphotic depth-related COGs are assigned to the same taxa across the different sites. This increase in phylogenetic and functional diversity of the core aphotic related COGs most probably reflects selection for the utilization of a broad range of alternate energy sources in the absence of light.

  16. Combining complexity measures of EEG data: multiplying measures reveal previously hidden information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Thomas; Rajan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have noted significant differences among human electroencephalograph (EEG) results when participants or patients are exposed to different stimuli, undertaking different tasks, or being affected by conditions such as epilepsy or Alzheimer's disease. Such studies often use only one or two measures of complexity and do not regularly justify their choice of measure beyond the fact that it has been used in previous studies. If more measures were added to such studies, however, more complete information might be found about these reported differences. Such information might be useful in confirming the existence or extent of such differences, or in understanding their physiological bases. In this study we analysed publically-available EEG data using a range of complexity measures to determine how well the measures correlated with one another. The complexity measures did not all significantly correlate, suggesting that different measures were measuring unique features of the EEG signals and thus revealing information which other measures were unable to detect. Therefore, the results from this analysis suggests that combinations of complexity measures reveal unique information which is in addition to the information captured by other measures of complexity in EEG data. For this reason, researchers using individual complexity measures for EEG data should consider using combinations of measures to more completely account for any differences they observe and to ensure the robustness of any relationships identified.

  17. Concurrent growth rate and transcript analyses reveal essential gene stringency in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Goh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genes essential for bacterial growth are of particular scientific interest. Many putative essential genes have been identified or predicted in several species, however, little is known about gene expression requirement stringency, which may be an important aspect of bacterial physiology and likely a determining factor in drug target development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Working from the premise that essential genes differ in absolute requirement for growth, we describe silencing of putative essential genes in E. coli to obtain a titration of declining growth rates and transcript levels by using antisense peptide nucleic acids (PNA and expressed antisense RNA. The relationship between mRNA decline and growth rate decline reflects the degree of essentiality, or stringency, of an essential gene, which is here defined by the minimum transcript level for a 50% reduction in growth rate (MTL(50. When applied to four growth essential genes, both RNA silencing methods resulted in MTL(50 values that reveal acpP as the most stringently required of the four genes examined, with ftsZ the next most stringently required. The established antibacterial targets murA and fabI were less stringently required. CONCLUSIONS: RNA silencing can reveal stringent requirements for gene expression with respect to growth. This method may be used to validate existing essential genes and to quantify drug target requirement.

  18. Allosteric effects in bacteriophage HK97 procapsids revealed directly from covariance analysis of cryo EM data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nan; Veesler, David; Doerschuk, Peter C; Johnson, John E

    2018-05-01

    The information content of cryo EM data sets exceeds that of the electron scattering potential (cryo EM) density initially derived for structure determination. Previously we demonstrated the power of data variance analysis for characterizing regions of cryo EM density that displayed functionally important variance anomalies associated with maturation cleavage events in Nudaurelia Omega Capensis Virus and the presence or absence of a maturation protease in bacteriophage HK97 procapsids. Here we extend the analysis in two ways. First, instead of imposing icosahedral symmetry on every particle in the data set during the variance analysis, we only assume that the data set as a whole has icosahedral symmetry. This change removes artifacts of high variance along icosahedral symmetry axes, but retains all of the features previously reported in the HK97 data set. Second we present a covariance analysis that reveals correlations in structural dynamics (variance) between the interior of the HK97 procapsid with the protease and regions of the exterior (not seen in the absence of the protease). The latter analysis corresponds well with hydrogen deuterium exchange studies previously published that reveal the same correlation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The crystal structures of EAP domains from Staphylococcus aureus reveal an unexpected homology to bacterial superantigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisbrecht, Brian V; Hamaoka, Brent Y; Perman, Benjamin; Zemla, Adam; Leahy, Daniel J

    2005-04-29

    The Eap (extracellular adherence protein) of Staphylococcus aureus functions as a secreted virulence factor by mediating interactions between the bacterial cell surface and several extracellular host proteins. Eap proteins from different Staphylococcal strains consist of four to six tandem repeats of a structurally uncharacterized domain (EAP domain). We have determined the three-dimensional structures of three different EAP domains to 1.8, 2.2, and 1.35 A resolution, respectively. These structures reveal a core fold that is comprised of an alpha-helix lying diagonally across a five-stranded, mixed beta-sheet. Comparison of EAP domains with known structures reveals an unexpected homology with the C-terminal domain of bacterial superantigens. Examination of the structure of the superantigen SEC2 bound to the beta-chain of a T-cell receptor suggests a possible ligand-binding site within the EAP domain (Fields, B. A., Malchiodi, E. L., Li, H., Ysern, X., Stauffacher, C. V., Schlievert, P. M., Karjalainen, K., and Mariuzza, R. (1996) Nature 384, 188-192). These results provide the first structural characterization of EAP domains, relate EAP domains to a large class of bacterial toxins, and will guide the design of future experiments to analyze EAP domain structure/function relationships.

  20. Metabolomics reveals variation and correlation among different tissues of olive (Olea europaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Guodong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolites in olives are associated with nutritional value and physiological properties. However, comprehensive information regarding the olive metabolome is limited. In this study, we identified 226 metabolites from three different tissues of olive using a non-targeted metabolomic profiling approach, of which 76 named metabolites were confirmed. Further statistical analysis revealed that these 76 metabolites covered different types of primary metabolism and some of the secondary metabolism pathways. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA statistical assay was performed to calculate the variations within the detected metabolites, and levels of 65 metabolites were differentially expressed in different samples. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA dendrograms showed variations among different tissues that were similar to the metabolite profiles observed in new leaves and fruit. Additionally, 5776 metabolite-metabolite correlations were detected by a Pearson correlation coefficient approach. Screening of the calculated correlations revealed 3136, 3025, and 5184 were determined to metabolites and had significant correlations in three different combinations, respectively. This work provides the first comprehensive metabolomic of olive, which will provide new insights into understanding the olive metabolism, and potentially help advance studies in olive metabolic engineering.

  1. Network mapping and usage determination

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Senekal, FP

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available detection. Based on this information, topology determination techniques can be applied to infer network structure from the information. Techniques to visualise the information are discussed. IP geolocation (the ability to associate a geographical coordinate...

  2. Differential spectrophotometric determination of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecat, J.

    1980-01-01

    Differential spectrophotometric method is used for determination of plutonium reduced to oxydation state III+ by ascorbic acid, at 560 nm. Concentration of solutions is 4 g/l and accuracy of the method is better than 0,3% [fr

  3. Sodium sampling and impurities determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Docekal, J.; Kovar, C.; Stuchlik, S.

    1980-01-01

    Samples may be obtained from tubes in-built in the sodium facility and further processed or they are taken into crucibles, stored and processed later. Another sampling method is a method involving vacuum distillation of sodium, thus concentrating impurities. Oxygen is determined by malgamation, distillation or vanadium balance methods. Hydrogen is determined by the metal diaphragm extraction, direct extraction or amalgamation methods. Carbon is determined using dry techniques involving burning a sodium sample at 1100 degC or using wet techniques by dissolving the sample with an acid. Trace amounts of metal impurities are determined after dissolving sodium in ethanol. The trace metals are concentrated and sodium excess is removed. (M.S.)

  4. Determination of multiple scattering effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langevin, M.

    1981-01-01

    The integration of Sigmund and Winterbon numerical values is extended to the reduced thickness tau=2000. The diagram obtained allows a simple determination of the multiple scattering effect for different targets and projectiles [fr

  5. Refugee status determination: three challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jones

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Refugee status determination (RSD, which is vital to the protection of so many asylum seekers worldwide, is at best an imperfect, haphazard and challenging process. It merits greater attention and appropriate reform.

  6. Diagnostic agent for radioimmunological determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Updike, S.J.

    1978-01-01

    The invention concerns a diagnostic agent for radioimmunological determinations. According to the invention, a binding protein (protein globulins, antibodies) of an aqueous solution specific for the substance to be determined is incorporated in gel particles of a strongly hydrophilic insoluble gel of controlled pore size. After subsequent drying of the system, a radioactively labelled form of the substance to be determined from a non-aqueous medium is included. The mixture is dried again. The diagnostic agent forred can be well stored and is very stable. There is no loss of activity of the specific bonding protein when drying according to the invented method. The described reagent can be effectively applied to the determination of many antigens and haptens: The gel is rehydrated by the sample to be investigated; as a result of this, the non-bonded tracer is set free and competes with the non-labelled substance for the bonding position. (VJ) [de

  7. Radioimmunological determination of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmeiner, M.

    1976-01-01

    The antibody to vitamin D 3 as hapten proved useful in determination of 25-hydroxycalciferol (25-OH-CC). The attempt also to determine vitamin D 3 directly with the aid of this radioimmunological procedure failed because of the poor solubility of the vitamin in aqueous systems. Because of the linkage to the C3 the D-ring and C17 side chain would be expected to be the immunodeterminant sites. Although the antibody can be used to determine 25-OH-CC, there is no cross-reaction with cholesterol. This indicates the importance of the open B-ring of this vitamin. Scruting of the method showed good reproducibility and accuracy. The most favorable evaluation region is 0.1-2 ng/250μl sample. The procedure described enables 25-hydroxy vitamin D 3 to be determined without previous purification of the sample extract. (author)

  8. Sample size determination and power

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, Thomas P, Jr

    2013-01-01

    THOMAS P. RYAN, PhD, teaches online advanced statistics courses for Northwestern University and The Institute for Statistics Education in sample size determination, design of experiments, engineering statistics, and regression analysis.

  9. Star trackers for attitude determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebe, Carl Christian

    1995-01-01

    One problem comes to all spacecrafts using vector information. That is the problem of determining the attitude. This paper describes how the area of attitude determination instruments has evolved from simple pointing devices into the latest technology, which determines the attitude by utilizing...... a CCD camera and a powerful microcomputer. The instruments are called star trackers and they are capable of determining the attitude with an accuracy better than 1 arcsecond. The concept of the star tracker is explained. The obtainable accuracy is calculated, the numbers of stars to be included...... in the star catalogue are discussed and the acquisition of the initial attitude is explained. Finally the commercial market for star trackers is discussed...

  10. METHODS FOR DETERMINATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF LOGISTICS COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela STET

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dealing with the problems of logistics costs, highlighting some methods for estimation and determination of specific costs for different transport modes in freight distribution. There are highlighted, besides costs of transports, the other costs in supply chain, as well as costing methods used in logistics activities. In this context, there are also revealed some optimization means of transport costs in logistics chain.

  11. METHODS FOR DETERMINATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF LOGISTICS COSTS

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela STET

    2016-01-01

    The paper is dealing with the problems of logistics costs, highlighting some methods for estimation and determination of specific costs for different transport modes in freight distribution. There are highlighted, besides costs of transports, the other costs in supply chain, as well as costing methods used in logistics activities. In this context, there are also revealed some optimization means of transport costs in logistics chain.

  12. Concealed identification symbols and nondestructive determination of the identification symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Thomas A.; Gibbs, Kenneth M.

    2014-09-16

    The concealing of one or more identification symbols into a target object and the subsequent determination or reading of such symbols through non-destructive testing is described. The symbols can be concealed in a manner so that they are not visible to the human eye and/or cannot be readily revealed to the human eye without damage or destruction of the target object. The identification symbols can be determined after concealment by e.g., the compilation of multiple X-ray images. As such, the present invention can also provide e.g., a deterrent to theft and the recovery of lost or stolen objects.

  13. Organizational Structure as a Determinant of Job Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Atif; Ahmed, Hafiz Mushtaq

    2017-03-01

    This exploratory study determined the impact of organizational structure, particularly participation in decision making, instrumental communication, formalization, integration, and promotional opportunity, on burnout among Pakistani pediatric nurses. Data were collected from pediatric nurses working for Punjab's largest state-run hospital. The findings revealed that participation in decision making, instrumental communication, and promotional opportunity prevented burnout. Formalization contributed to burnout but integration was not related to burnout. Quite interestingly, except for supervisory status, most control variables for this study were not significantly related to emotional burnout. Hence, the hypothesis that organizational structure is a determinant of job burnout was accepted.

  14. Arterial spin labelling reveals prolonged arterial arrival time in idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bachari, Sarah; Parkes, Laura M; Vidyasagar, Rishma; Hanby, Martha F; Tharaken, Vivek; Leroi, Iracema; Emsley, Hedley C A

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, yet effective disease modifying treatments are still lacking. Neurodegeneration involves multiple interacting pathological pathways. The extent to which neurovascular mechanisms are involved is not well defined in IPD. We aimed to determine whether novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, including arterial spin labelling (ASL) quantification of cerebral perfusion, can reveal altered neurovascular status (NVS) in IPD. Fourteen participants with IPD (mean ± SD age 65.1 ± 5.9 years) and 14 age and cardiovascular risk factor matched control participants (mean ± SD age 64.6 ± 4.2 years) underwent a 3T MRI scan protocol. ASL images were collected before, during and after a 6 minute hypercapnic challenge. FLAIR images were used to determine white matter lesion score. Quantitative images of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial arrival time (AAT) were calculated from the ASL data both at rest and during hypercapnia. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) images were calculated, depicting the change in CBF and AAT relative to the change in end-tidal CO2. A significant (p = 0.005) increase in whole brain averaged baseline AAT was observed in IPD participants (mean ± SD age 1532 ± 138 ms) compared to controls (mean ± SD age 1335 ± 165 ms). Voxel-wise analysis revealed this to be widespread across the brain. However, there were no statistically significant differences in white matter lesion score, CBF, or CVR between patients and controls. Regional CBF, but not AAT, in the IPD group was found to correlate positively with Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) scores. These findings provide further evidence of alterations in NVS in IPD.

  15. High Pressure ZZ-Exchange NMR Reveals Key Features of Protein Folding Transition States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Kitazawa, Soichiro; Peran, Ivan; Stenzoski, Natalie; McCallum, Scott A; Raleigh, Daniel P; Royer, Catherine A

    2016-11-23

    Understanding protein folding mechanisms and their sequence dependence requires the determination of residue-specific apparent kinetic rate constants for the folding and unfolding reactions. Conventional two-dimensional NMR, such as HSQC experiments, can provide residue-specific information for proteins. However, folding is generally too fast for such experiments. ZZ-exchange NMR spectroscopy allows determination of folding and unfolding rates on much faster time scales, yet even this regime is not fast enough for many protein folding reactions. The application of high hydrostatic pressure slows folding by orders of magnitude due to positive activation volumes for the folding reaction. We combined high pressure perturbation with ZZ-exchange spectroscopy on two autonomously folding protein domains derived from the ribosomal protein, L9. We obtained residue-specific apparent rates at 2500 bar for the N-terminal domain of L9 (NTL9), and rates at atmospheric pressure for a mutant of the C-terminal domain (CTL9) from pressure dependent ZZ-exchange measurements. Our results revealed that NTL9 folding is almost perfectly two-state, while small deviations from two-state behavior were observed for CTL9. Both domains exhibited large positive activation volumes for folding. The volumetric properties of these domains reveal that their transition states contain most of the internal solvent excluded voids that are found in the hydrophobic cores of the respective native states. These results demonstrate that by coupling it with high pressure, ZZ-exchange can be extended to investigate a large number of protein conformational transitions.

  16. Selenium determination by fluorimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavorenti, A.

    1981-01-01

    A fluorimetric method to determine selenium both in vegetable samples and blood serum is developed. The method consists of a radioisotope 75 Se initially in order to optimize the determination of analytical conditions. Three samples digestion processes and also some factors related to methodology is studied. The nitric-percloric digestion process for 40 samples and the analytical process is shown. (M.J.C.) [pt

  17. Determinants of Aggressive Tax Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays examining determinants of aggressive tax avoidance. The first essay “Measuring the Aggressive Part of International Tax Avoidance”, co-authored with Prof. Dr. Michael Overesch, proposes a new measure that isolates the additional or even aggressive part in international tax avoidance and analyzes the determinants of aggressive tax avoidance of multinational enterprises. The second essay “Capital Injections and Aggressive Tax Planning - Can Banks Have It All...

  18. Determination of the scattering amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangal, A.D.; Kupsch, J.

    1984-01-01

    The problem to determine the elastic scattering amplitude from the differential cross-section by the unitarity equation is reexamined. We prove that the solution is unique and can be determined by a convergent iteration if the parameter lambda=sin μ of Newton and Martin is bounded by lambda 2 approx.=0.86. The method is based on a fixed point theorem for holomorphic mappings in a complex Banach space. (orig.)

  19. Modern methods for radiostrontium determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahek, Z.; Kosutic, K.; Lulic, S.

    1998-01-01

    The basic principles of the ion exchange chromatographic determination of radioactive strontium in liquid wastes and natural samples are presented. The sample is inserted into the chromatographic column through the injection system connected to a pump. Strontium is separated by column elution. A flow scintillation beta detector is positioned at the column outlet. Prior to entering the column, strontium is mixed with a scintillator. The apparatus for semi-automatic radiostrontium determination is also described. (M.D.)

  20. The Determinants of Debt Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Chenkai

    2013-01-01

    Debt financing is an important part in capital structure. Over the fifty years, most scholars and researchers focus primarily on the balance between debt financing and equity financing. And only few research involve in types of debt financing, as well as the determinant of debt financing. This study is aim to analyse the determinate of debt financing, which examine that the influence by eight different elements. This dissertation examined by quantitative techniques with 591 UK listed comp...

  1. Football performance and its determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Macháček, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focuses on enumeration of the essential psychosocial determinants affecting performance of the footballers. These determinants are divided into three sections. Personality of athlete as a key factor influencing his performance is discussed in the chapter one. Social and cultural environment are the subjects of the second chapter. Specifics and partial aspects of sports environments are presented in the third chapter. Definition of performance in football and the possibility of its...

  2. Astronomers Reveal Extinct Extra-Terrestrial Fusion Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    An international team of astronomers, studying the left-over remnants of stars like our own Sun, have found a remarkable object where the nuclear reactor that once powered it has only just shut down. This star, the hottest known white dwarf, H1504+65, seems to have been stripped of its entire outer regions during its death throes leaving behind the core that formed its power plant. Scientists from the United Kingdom, Germany and the USA focused two of NASA's space telescopes, the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), onto H1504+65 to probe its composition and measure its temperature. The data revealed that the stellar surface is extremely hot, 200,000 degrees, and is virtually free of hydrogen and helium, something never before observed in any star. Instead, the surface is composed mainly of carbon and oxygen, the 'ashes' of the fusion of helium in a nuclear reactor. An important question we must answer is why has this unique star lost the hydrogen and helium, which usually hide the stellar interior from our view? Professor Martin Barstow (University of Leicester) said. 'Studying the nature of the ashes of dead stars give us important clues as to how stars like the Sun live their lives and eventually die. The nuclear waste of carbon and oxygen produced in the process are essential elements for life and are eventually recycled into interstellar space to form new stars, planets and, possibly, living beings.' Professor Klaus Werner (University of Tübingen) said. 'We realized that this star has, on astronomical time scales, only very recently shut down nuclear fusion (about a hundred years ago). We clearly see the bare, now extinct reactor that once powered a bright giant star.' Dr Jeffrey Kruk (Johns Hopkins University) said: 'Astronomers have long predicted that many stars would have carbon-oxygen cores near the end of their lives, but I never expected we would actually be able to see one. This is a wonderful opportunity to

  3. Determination of plutonium in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakanoue, Masanobu

    1978-01-01

    Past and present methods of determining the amount of plutonium in the environment are summarized. Determination of the amount of plutonium in uranium ore began in 1941. Plutonium present in polluted environments due to nuclear explosions, nuclear power stations, etc. was measured in soil and sand in Nagasaki in 1951 and in ash in Bikini in 1954. Analytical methods of measuring the least amount of plutonium in the environment were developed twenty years later. Many studies on and reviews of these methods have been reported all over the world, and a standard analytical procedure has been adopted. A basic analytical method of measurement was drafted in Japan in 1976. The yield, treatment of samples, dissolution, separation, control of measurable ray sources determination by α spectrometry, cross-check determination, and treatment of samples containing hardly soluble plutonium were examined. At present, the amount of plutonium can be determined by all of these methods. The presence of plutonium was studied further, and the usefulness of determination of the plutonium isotope ratio is discussed. (Kumagai, S.)

  4. The rumen microbial metaproteome as revealed by SDS-PAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Timothy J; Wallace, R John

    2017-01-07

    Ruminal digestion is carried out by large numbers of bacteria, archaea, protozoa and fungi. Understanding the microbiota is important because ruminal fermentation dictates the efficiency of feed utilisation by the animal and is also responsible for major emissions of the greenhouse gas, methane. Recent metagenomic and metatranscriptomic studies have helped to elucidate many features of the composition and activity of the microbiota. The metaproteome provides complementary information to these other -omics technologies. The aim of this study was to explore the metaproteome of bovine and ovine ruminal digesta using 2D SDS-PAGE. Digesta samples were taken via ruminal fistulae and by gastric intubation, or at slaughter, and stored in glycerol at -80 °C. A protein extraction protocol was developed to maximise yield and representativeness of the protein content. The proteome of ruminal digesta taken from dairy cows fed a high concentrate diet was dominated by a few very highly expressed proteins, which were identified by LC-MS/MS to be structural proteins, such as actin and α- and β-tubulins, derived from ciliate protozoa. Removal of protozoa from digesta before extraction of proteins revealed the prokaryotic metaproteome, which was dominated by enzymes involved in glycolysis, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, phosphoglycerate kinase and triosephosphate isomerase. The enzymes were predominantly from the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. Enzymes from methanogenic archaea were also abundant, consistent with the importance of methane formation in the rumen. Gels from samples from dairy cows fed a high proportion of grass silage were consistently obscured by co-staining of humic compounds. Samples from beef cattle and fattening lambs receiving a predominantly concentrate diet produced clearer gels, but the pattern of spots was inconsistent between samples, making comparisons difficult. This work demonstrated for the

  5. Episodic sexual transmission of HIV revealed by molecular phylodynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Lewis

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure of sexual contact networks plays a key role in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections, and their reconstruction from interview data has provided valuable insights into the spread of infection. For HIV, the long period of infectivity has made the interpretation of contact networks more difficult, and major discrepancies have been observed between the contact network and the transmission network revealed by viral phylogenetics. The high rate of HIV evolution in principle allows for detailed reconstruction of links between virus from different individuals, but often sampling has been too sparse to describe the structure of the transmission network. The aim of this study was to analyze a high-density sample of an HIV-infected population using recently developed techniques in phylogenetics to infer the short-term dynamics of the epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM.Sequences of the protease and reverse transcriptase coding regions from 2,126 patients, predominantly MSM, from London were compared: 402 of these showed a close match to at least one other subtype B sequence. Nine large clusters were identified on the basis of genetic distance; all were confirmed by Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov chain (MCMC phylogenetic analysis. Overall, 25% of individuals with a close match with one sequence are linked to 10 or more others. Dated phylogenies of the clusters using a relaxed clock indicated that 65% of the transmissions within clusters took place between 1995 and 2000, and 25% occurred within 6 mo after infection. The likelihood that not all members of the clusters have been identified renders the latter observation conservative.Reconstruction of the HIV transmission network using a dated phylogeny approach has revealed the HIV epidemic among MSM in London to have been episodic, with evidence of multiple clusters of transmissions dating to the late 1990s, a period when HIV prevalence is known to have doubled in this

  6. Comprehensive Genomic Profiling of Esthesioneuroblastoma Reveals Additional Treatment Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Laurie M; Kim, Sungeun; Fedorchak, Kyle; Kundranda, Madappa; Odia, Yazmin; Nangia, Chaitali; Battiste, James; Colon-Otero, Gerardo; Powell, Steven; Russell, Jeffery; Elvin, Julia A; Vergilio, Jo-Anne; Suh, James; Ali, Siraj M; Stephens, Philip J; Miller, Vincent A; Ross, Jeffrey S

    2017-07-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB), also known as olfactory neuroblastoma, is a rare malignant neoplasm of the olfactory mucosa. Despite surgical resection combined with radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy, ENB often relapses with rapid progression. Current multimodality, nontargeted therapy for relapsed ENB is of limited clinical benefit. We queried whether comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) of relapsed or refractory ENB can uncover genomic alterations (GA) that could identify potential targeted therapies for these patients. CGP was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections from 41 consecutive clinical cases of ENBs using a hybrid-capture, adaptor ligation based next-generation sequencing assay to a mean coverage depth of 593X. The results were analyzed for base substitutions, insertions and deletions, select rearrangements, and copy number changes (amplifications and homozygous deletions). Clinically relevant GA (CRGA) were defined as GA linked to drugs on the market or under evaluation in clinical trials. A total of 28 ENBs harbored GA, with a mean of 1.5 GA per sample. Approximately half of the ENBs (21, 51%) featured at least one CRGA, with an average of 1 CRGA per sample. The most commonly altered gene was TP53 (17%), with GA in PIK3CA , NF1 , CDKN2A , and CDKN2C occurring in 7% of samples. We report comprehensive genomic profiles for 41 ENB tumors. CGP revealed potential new therapeutic targets, including targetable GA in the mTOR, CDK and growth factor signaling pathways, highlighting the clinical value of genomic profiling in ENB. Comprehensive genomic profiling of 41 relapsed or refractory ENBs reveals recurrent alterations or classes of mutation, including amplification of tyrosine kinases encoded on chromosome 5q and mutations affecting genes in the mTOR/PI3K pathway. Approximately half of the ENBs (21, 51%) featured at least one clinically relevant genomic alteration (CRGA), with an average of 1 CRGA per sample. The most commonly altered

  7. Quantification of ploidy in proteobacteria revealed the existence of monoploid, (mero-oligoploid and polyploid species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Pecoraro

    Full Text Available Bacteria are generally assumed to be monoploid (haploid. This assumption is mainly based on generalization of the results obtained with the most intensely studied model bacterium, Escherichia coli (a gamma-proteobacterium, which is monoploid during very slow growth. However, several species of proteobacteria are oligo- or polyploid, respectively. To get a better overview of the distribution of ploidy levels, genome copy numbers were quantified in four species of three different groups of proteobacteria. A recently developed Real Time PCR approach, which had been used to determine the ploidy levels of halophilic archaea, was optimized for the quantification of genome copy numbers of bacteria. Slow-growing (doubling time 103 minutes and fast-growing (doubling time 25 minutes E. coli cultures were used as a positive control. The copy numbers of the origin and terminus region of the chromosome were determined and the results were in excellent agreement with published data. The approach was also used to determine the ploidy levels of Caulobacter crescentus (an alpha-proteobacterium and Wolinella succinogenes (an epsilon-proteobacterium, both of which are monoploid. In contrast, Pseudomonas putida (a gamma-proteobacterium contains 20 genome copies and is thus polyploid. A survey of the proteobacteria with experimentally-determined genome copy numbers revealed that only three to four of 11 species are monoploid and thus monoploidy is not typical for proteobacteria. The ploidy level is not conserved within the groups of proteobacteria, and there are no obvious correlations between the ploidy levels with other parameters like genome size, optimal growth temperature or mode of life.

  8. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals differentially expressed genes associated with sex expression in garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Zhang, Xue-Jin; Yuan, Jin-Hong; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Gao, Wu-Jun

    2017-08-22

    Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a highly valuable vegetable crop of commercial and nutritional interest. It is also commonly used to investigate the mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation in plants. However, the sex expression mechanisms in asparagus remain poorly understood. De novo transcriptome sequencing via Illumina paired-end sequencing revealed more than 26 billion bases of high-quality sequence data from male and female asparagus flower buds. A total of 72,626 unigenes with an average length of 979 bp were assembled. In comparative transcriptome analysis, 4876 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the possible sex-determining stage of female and male/supermale flower buds. Of these DEGs, 433, including 285 male/supermale-biased and 149 female-biased genes, were annotated as flower related. Of the male/supermale-biased flower-related genes, 102 were probably involved in anther development. In addition, 43 DEGs implicated in hormone response and biosynthesis putatively associated with sex expression and reproduction were discovered. Moreover, 128 transcription factor (TF)-related genes belonging to various families were found to be differentially expressed, and this finding implied the essential roles of TF in sex determination or differentiation in asparagus. Correlation analysis indicated that miRNA-DEG pairs were also implicated in asparagus sexual development. Our study identified a large number of DEGs involved in the sex expression and reproduction of asparagus, including known genes participating in plant reproduction, plant hormone signaling, TF encoding, and genes with unclear functions. We also found that miRNAs might be involved in the sex differentiation process. Our study could provide a valuable basis for further investigations on the regulatory networks of sex determination and differentiation in asparagus and facilitate further genetic and genomic studies on this dioecious species.

  9. Multiple sex-associated regions and a putative sex chromosome in zebrafish revealed by RAD mapping and population genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Anderson

    Full Text Available Within vertebrates, major sex determining genes can differ among taxa and even within species. In zebrafish (Danio rerio, neither heteromorphic sex chromosomes nor single sex determination genes of large effect, like Sry in mammals, have yet been identified. Furthermore, environmental factors can influence zebrafish sex determination. Although progress has been made in understanding zebrafish gonad differentiation (e.g. the influence of germ cells on gonad fate, the primary genetic basis of zebrafish sex determination remains poorly understood. To identify genetic loci associated with sex, we analyzed F(2 offspring of reciprocal crosses between Oregon *AB and Nadia (NA wild-type zebrafish stocks. Genome-wide linkage analysis, using more than 5,000 sequence-based polymorphic restriction site associated (RAD-tag markers and population genomic analysis of more than 30,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms in our *ABxNA crosses revealed a sex-associated locus on the end of the long arm of chr-4 for both cross families, and an additional locus in the middle of chr-3 in one cross family. Additional sequencing showed that two SNPs in dmrt1 previously suggested to be functional candidates for sex determination in a cross of ABxIndia wild-type zebrafish, are not associated with sex in our AB fish. Our data show that sex determination in zebrafish is polygenic and that different genes may influence sex determination in different strains or that different genes become more important under different environmental conditions. The association of the end of chr-4 with sex is remarkable because, unique in the karyotype, this chromosome arm shares features with known sex chromosomes: it is highly heterochromatic, repetitive, late replicating, and has reduced recombination. Our results reveal that chr-4 has functional and structural properties expected of a sex chromosome.

  10. Remote synchronization reveals network symmetries and functional modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Valencia, Miguel; Chavez, Mario; Díaz-Guilera, Albert; Latora, Vito

    2013-04-26

    We study a Kuramoto model in which the oscillators are associated with the nodes of a complex network and the interactions include a phase frustration, thus preventing full synchronization. The system organizes into a regime of remote synchronization where pairs of nodes with the same network symmetry are fully synchronized, despite their distance on the graph. We provide analytical arguments to explain this result, and we show how the frustration parameter affects the distribution of phases. An application to brain networks suggests that anatomical symmetry plays a role in neural synchronization by determining correlated functional modules across distant locations.

  11. Decrypting Cryptochrome: Revealing the Molecular Identity of the Photoactivation Reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Domratcheva, Tatiana; Shahi, Abdul Rehaman Moughal

    2012-01-01

    of cryptochrome must arise from the photoactivation reaction occurring in the protein: exposure to blue light results in electron transfer to a flavin pigment co-factor, leading to formation of an electron spin-entangled pair of radicals. Theoretical and experimental studies established long ago that such radical...... pairs, indeed, can act as a magnetic compass. The photo-reaction pathway in cryptochrome is not fully resolved yet. We employ ab initio quantum chemistry and classical all-atom MD simulations for Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochrome to determine how the radical pair is formed, becomes stabilized through...

  12. Large longitude libration of Mercury reveals a molten core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margot, J L; Peale, S J; Jurgens, R F; Slade, M A; Holin, I V

    2007-05-04

    Observations of radar speckle patterns tied to the rotation of Mercury establish that the planet occupies a Cassini state with obliquity of 2.11 +/- 0.1 arc minutes. The measurements show that the planet exhibits librations in longitude that are forced at the 88-day orbital period, as predicted by theory. The large amplitude of the oscillations, 35.8 +/- 2 arc seconds, together with the Mariner 10 determination of the gravitational harmonic coefficient C22, indicates that the mantle of Mercury is decoupled from a core that is at least partially molten.

  13. Distributed neural system for emotional intelligence revealed by lesion mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Grafman, Jordan

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive neuroscience has made considerable progress in understanding the neural architecture of human intelligence, identifying a broadly distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that support goal-directed, intelligent behavior. However, the contributions of this network to social and emotional aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here we investigated the neural basis of emotional intelligence in 152 patients with focal brain injuries using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Latent variable modeling was applied to obtain measures of emotional intelligence, general intelligence and personality from the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Inventory, respectively. Regression analyses revealed that latent scores for measures of general intelligence and personality reliably predicted latent scores for emotional intelligence. Lesion mapping results further indicated that these convergent processes depend on a shared network of frontal, temporal and parietal brain regions. The results support an integrative framework for understanding the architecture of executive, social and emotional processes and make specific recommendations for the interpretation and application of the MSCEIT to the study of emotional intelligence in health and disease.

  14. Comparative genomics reveals mobile pathogenicity chromosomes in Fusarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Li Jun; van der Does, H. C.; Borkovich, Katherine A.; Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Daboussi, Marie-Jose; Di Pietro, Antonio; Dufresne, Marie; Freitag, Michael; Grabherr, Manfred; Henrissat, Bernard; Houterman, Petra M.; Kang, Seogchan; Shim, Won-Bo; Wolochuk, Charles; Xie, Xiaohui; Xu, Jin Rong; Antoniw, John; Baker, Scott E.; Bluhm, Burton H.; Breakspear, Andrew; Brown, Daren W.; Butchko, Robert A.; Chapman, Sinead; Coulson, Richard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Danchin, Etienne G.; Diener, Andrew; Gale, Liane R.; Gardiner, Donald; Goff, Steven; Hammond-Kossack, Kim; Hilburn, Karen; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Jonkers, Wilfried; Kazan, Kemal; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Koehrsen, Michael; Kumar, Lokesh; Lee, Yong Hwan; Li, Liande; Manners, John M.; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Mukherjee, Mala; Park, Gyungsoon; Park, Jongsun; Park, Sook Young; Proctor, Robert H.; Regev, Aviv; Ruiz-Roldan, M. C.; Sain, Divya; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Sykes, Sean; Schwartz, David C.; Turgeon, Barbara G.; Wapinski, Ilan; Yoder, Olen; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Zhou, Shiguo; Galagan, James; Cuomo, Christina A.; Kistler, H. Corby; Rep, Martijn

    2010-03-18

    Fusarium species are among the most important phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi, having significant impact on crop production and animal health. Distinctively, members of the F. oxysporum species complex exhibit wide host range but discontinuously distributed host specificity, reflecting remarkable genetic adaptability. To understand the molecular underpinnings of diverse phenotypic traits and their evolution in Fusarium, we compared the genomes of three economically important and phylogenetically related, yet phenotypically diverse plant-pathogenic species, F. graminearum, F. verticillioides and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Our analysis revealed greatly expanded lineage-specific (LS) genomic regions in F. oxysporum that include four entire chromosomes, accounting for more than one-quarter of the genome. LS regions are rich in transposons and genes with distinct evolutionary profiles but related to pathogenicity. Experimentally, we demonstrate for the first time the transfer of two LS chromosomes between strains of F. oxysporum, resulting in the conversion of a non-pathogenic strain into a pathogen. Transfer of LS chromosomes between otherwise genetically isolated strains explains the polyphyletic origin of host specificity and the emergence of new pathogenic lineages in the F. oxysporum species complex, putting the evolution of fungal pathogenicity into a new perspective.

  15. Opto-acoustic microscopy reveals adhesion mechanics of single cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi Ghanem, Maroun; Dehoux, Thomas; Liu, Liwang; Le Saux, Guillaume; Plawinski, Laurent; Durrieu, Marie-Christine; Audoin, Bertrand

    2018-01-01

    Laser-generated GHz-ultrasonic-based technologies have shown the ability to image single cell adhesion and stiffness simultaneously. Using this new modality, we here demonstrate quantitative indicators to investigate contact mechanics and adhesion processes of the cell. We cultured human cells on a rigid substrate, and we used an inverted pulsed opto-acoustic microscope to generate acoustic pulses containing frequencies up to 100 GHz in the substrate. We map the reflection of the acoustic pulses at the cell-substrate interface to obtain images of the acoustic impedance of the cell, Zc, as well as of the stiffness of the interface, K, with 1 μm lateral resolution. Our results show that the standard deviation ΔZc reveals differences between different cell types arising from the multiplicity of local conformations within the nucleus. From the distribution of K-values within the nuclear region, we extract a mean interfacial stiffness, Km, that quantifies the average contact force in areas of the cell displaying weak bonding. By analogy with classical contact mechanics, we also define the ratio of the real to nominal contact areas, Sr/St. We show that Km can be interpreted as a quantitative indicator of passive contact at metal-cell interfaces, while Sr/St is sensitive to active adhesive processes in the nuclear region. The ability to separate the contributions of passive and active adhesion processes should allow gaining insight into cell-substrate interactions, with important applications in tissue engineering.

  16. Subfield profitability analysis reveals an economic case for cropland diversification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, E.; McNunn, G. S.; Schulte, L. A.; Bonner, I. J.; Muth, D. J.; Babcock, B. A.; Sharma, B.; Heaton, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    Public agencies and private enterprises increasingly desire to achieve ecosystem service outcomes in agricultural systems, but are limited by perceived conflicts between economic and ecosystem service goals and a lack of tools enabling effective operational management. Here we use Iowa—an agriculturally homogeneous state representative of the Maize Belt—to demonstrate an economic rationale for cropland diversification at the subfield scale. We used a novel computational framework that integrates disparate but publicly available data to map ˜3.3 million unique potential management polygons (9.3 Mha) and reveal subfield opportunities to increase overall field profitability. We analyzed subfield profitability for maize/soybean fields during 2010-2013—four of the most profitable years in recent history—and projected results for 2015. While cropland operating at a loss of US 250 ha-1 or more was negligible between 2010 and 2013 at 18 000-190 000 ha (profitable areas, incorporating conservation management that breaks even (e.g., planting low-input perennials), into low-yielding portions of fields could increase overall cropland profitability by 80%. This approach is applicable to the broader region and differs substantially from the status quo of ‘top-down’ land management for conservation by harnessing private interest to align profitability with the production of ecosystem services.

  17. Functional metabolomics reveals novel active products in the DHA metabolome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakazu eShinohara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous mechanisms for successful resolution of an acute inflammatory response and the local return to homeostasis are of interest because excessive inflammation underlies many human diseases. In this review, we provide an update and overview of functional metabolomics that identified a new bioactive metabolome of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Systematic studies revealed that DHA was converted to DHEA-derived novel bioactive products as well as aspirin-triggered (AT forms of protectins. The new oxygenated DHEA derived products blocked PMN chemotaxis, reduced P-selectin expression and platelet-leukocyte adhesion, and showed organ protection in ischemia/reperfusion injury. These products activated cannabinoid receptor (CB2 receptor and not CB1 receptors. The AT-PD1 reduced neutrophil (PMN recruitment in murine peritonitis. With human cells, AT-PD1 decreased transendothelial PMN migration as well as enhanced efferocytosis of apoptotic human PMN by macrophages. The recent findings reviewed here indicate that DHEA oxidative metabolism and aspirin-triggered conversion of DHA produce potent novel molecules with anti-inflammatory and organ-protective properties, opening the DHA metabolome functional roles.

  18. [Necrotic leg ulcer revealing vasculitis induced by vitamin K antagonists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabli, H; Hocar, O; Akhdari, N; Amal, S; Hakkou, M; Hamdaoui, A

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin K antagonists are widely used in thromboembolic diseases. Hemorrhagic complications related to drug overdose represent their main side effect. We report a rare side effect, a severe and unexpected type of skin vasculitis - necrotic leg ulcer - induced by vitamin K antagonist. A 63-year-old female with a history of diabetes developed hyperalgesic necrotic ulcerations on the lower limbs one month after starting an acenocoumarol-based treatment for ischemic heart disease. Histological examination revealed lymphocytic vasculitis with fibrinoid necrosis. Etiological explorations searching for vasculitis were negative. In the absence of a precise etiology, drug-induced ulcer was suspected. Low molecular weight heparin was prescribed to replace acenocoumarol. The lesions slowly resolved with topical treatment. The chronological criteria and the negativity of etiological explorations allowed the diagnosis of vitamin K antagonist-induced necrotic skin ulcer. Clinicians should be aware of this rare complication induced by oral anticoagulants because of its practical therapeutic implications. This is the first case of necrotic leg ulcer induced by acenocoumarol corresponding histologically to necrotising lymphocytic vasculitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. [Prostatic granulomas revealing a peripheral T-cell lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foguem, C; Curlier, E; Rouamba, M-M; Regent, A; Philippe, P

    2009-02-01

    The presence of granulomas on tissue biopsie has been reported in a wide range of disorders. The clinical presentation and the diagnostic work-up of granulomatosis can be difficult as it is illustrated in the following report. A 59-year-old patient was referred in 2002 for a granulomatous prostatitis. Physical examination was normal. Except for the increase of prostate-specific antigen (which motivated a biopsy), the laboratory results were normal. Thoracic CT-scan disclosed mediastinal lymph nodes. A minor salivary gland biopsy was consistent with the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. In 2004, the patient presented an epidermal necrolysis, and in 2005 the deterioration of general status raised suspicion of a lymphoproliferative disorder. Liver and bone marrow biopsies revealed a granulomatous process. Despite steroid therapy, the patient died. Autopsy discloses a anaplasic T cell lymphoma. This report illustrates the relationship between sarcoidosis and lymphoma as a mode of presentation, a complication, or an accidental but misleading association? The association between anaplastic lymphoma and sarcoidosis is exceptional.

  20. CRISPR loci reveal networks of gene exchange in archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodt Avital

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CRISPR (Clustered, Regularly, Interspaced, Short, Palindromic Repeats loci provide prokaryotes with an adaptive immunity against viruses and other mobile genetic elements. CRISPR arrays can be transcribed and processed into small crRNA molecules, which are then used by the cell to target the foreign nucleic acid. Since spacers are accumulated by active CRISPR/Cas systems, the sequences of these spacers provide a record of the past "infection history" of the organism. Results Here we analyzed all currently known spacers present in archaeal genomes and identified their source by DNA similarity. While nearly 50% of archaeal spacers matched mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids or viruses, several others matched chromosomal genes of other organisms, primarily other archaea. Thus, networks of gene exchange between archaeal species were revealed by the spacer analysis, including many cases of inter-genus and inter-species gene transfer events. Spacers that recognize viral sequences tend to be located further away from the leader sequence, implying that there exists a selective pressure for their retention. Conclusions CRISPR spacers provide direct evidence for extensive gene exchange in archaea, especially within genera, and support the current dogma where the primary role of the CRISPR/Cas system is anti-viral and anti-plasmid defense. Open peer review This article was reviewed by: Profs. W. Ford Doolittle, John van der Oost, Christa Schleper (nominated by board member Prof. J Peter Gogarten

  1. Effective connectivity reveals strategy differences in an expert calculator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Minati

    Full Text Available Mathematical reasoning is a core component of cognition and the study of experts defines the upper limits of human cognitive abilities, which is why we are fascinated by peak performers, such as chess masters and mental calculators. Here, we investigated the neural bases of calendrical skills, i.e. the ability to rapidly identify the weekday of a particular date, in a gifted mental calculator who does not fall in the autistic spectrum, using functional MRI. Graph-based mapping of effective connectivity, but not univariate analysis, revealed distinct anatomical location of "cortical hubs" supporting the processing of well-practiced close dates and less-practiced remote dates: the former engaged predominantly occipital and medial temporal areas, whereas the latter were associated mainly with prefrontal, orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate connectivity. These results point to the effect of extensive practice on the development of expertise and long term working memory, and demonstrate the role of frontal networks in supporting performance on less practiced calculations, which incur additional processing demands. Through the example of calendrical skills, our results demonstrate that the ability to perform complex calculations is initially supported by extensive attentional and strategic resources, which, as expertise develops, are gradually replaced by access to long term working memory for familiar material.

  2. Shared memories reveal shared structure in neural activity across individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Leong, Y.C.; Honey, C.J.; Yong, C.H.; Norman, K.A.; Hasson, U.

    2016-01-01

    Our lives revolve around sharing experiences and memories with others. When different people recount the same events, how similar are their underlying neural representations? Participants viewed a fifty-minute movie, then verbally described the events during functional MRI, producing unguided detailed descriptions lasting up to forty minutes. As each person spoke, event-specific spatial patterns were reinstated in default-network, medial-temporal, and high-level visual areas. Individual event patterns were both highly discriminable from one another and similar between people, suggesting consistent spatial organization. In many high-order areas, patterns were more similar between people recalling the same event than between recall and perception, indicating systematic reshaping of percept into memory. These results reveal the existence of a common spatial organization for memories in high-level cortical areas, where encoded information is largely abstracted beyond sensory constraints; and that neural patterns during perception are altered systematically across people into shared memory representations for real-life events. PMID:27918531

  3. Ecoinformatics reveals effects of crop rotational histories on cotton yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Matthew H; Rosenheim, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    Crop rotation has been practiced for centuries in an effort to improve agricultural yield. However, the directions, magnitudes, and mechanisms of the yield effects of various crop rotations remain poorly understood in many systems. In order to better understand how crop rotation influences cotton yield, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze a large ecoinformatics database consisting of records of commercial cotton crops grown in California's San Joaquin Valley. We identified several crops that, when grown in a field the year before a cotton crop, were associated with increased or decreased cotton yield. Furthermore, there was a negative association between the effect of the prior year's crop on June densities of the pest Lygus hesperus and the effect of the prior year's crop on cotton yield. This suggested that some crops may enhance L. hesperus densities in the surrounding agricultural landscape, because residual L. hesperus populations from the previous year cannot continuously inhabit a focal field and attack a subsequent cotton crop. In addition, we found that cotton yield declined approximately 2.4% for each additional year in which cotton was grown consecutively in a field prior to the focal cotton crop. Because L. hesperus is quite mobile, the effects of crop rotation on L. hesperus would likely not be revealed by small plot experimentation. These results provide an example of how ecoinformatics datasets, which capture the true spatial scale of commercial agriculture, can be used to enhance agricultural productivity.

  4. Ecoinformatics reveals effects of crop rotational histories on cotton yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H Meisner

    Full Text Available Crop rotation has been practiced for centuries in an effort to improve agricultural yield. However, the directions, magnitudes, and mechanisms of the yield effects of various crop rotations remain poorly understood in many systems. In order to better understand how crop rotation influences cotton yield, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze a large ecoinformatics database consisting of records of commercial cotton crops grown in California's San Joaquin Valley. We identified several crops that, when grown in a field the year before a cotton crop, were associated with increased or decreased cotton yield. Furthermore, there was a negative association between the effect of the prior year's crop on June densities of the pest Lygus hesperus and the effect of the prior year's crop on cotton yield. This suggested that some crops may enhance L. hesperus densities in the surrounding agricultural landscape, because residual L. hesperus populations from the previous year cannot continuously inhabit a focal field and attack a subsequent cotton crop. In addition, we found that cotton yield declined approximately 2.4% for each additional year in which cotton was grown consecutively in a field prior to the focal cotton crop. Because L. hesperus is quite mobile, the effects of crop rotation on L. hesperus would likely not be revealed by small plot experimentation. These results provide an example of how ecoinformatics datasets, which capture the true spatial scale of commercial agriculture, can be used to enhance agricultural productivity.

  5. With neutrino masses revealed, proton decay is the missing link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pati, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    By way of paying tribute to Abdus Salam, I recall the ideas of higher unification that he and I initiated. I discuss the current status of those ideas in the light of recent developments, including those of: (a) gauge coupling unification, (b) discovery of neutrino-oscillation at SuperKamiokande, and (c) ongoing searches for proton decay. It is noted that the mass of ν τ (∼ 1/20 eV), suggested by the SuperK result, provides clear support for the route to higher unification based on the ideas of (i) SU(4)-color, (ii) left-right symmetry and (iii) supersymmetry. The change in perspective, pertaining to both gauge coupling unification and proton decay, brought forth by supersymmetry and superstrings, is noted. And, the beneficial roles of string-symmetries in addressing certain naturalness problems of supersymmetry, including that of rapid proton decay, are emphasized. Further, it is noted that with neutrino masses and coupling unification revealed, proton decay is the missing link. Following recent joint work with K. Babu and F. Wilczek, based on supersymmetric unification, it is remarked that the SuperKamiokande result on neutrino oscillation in fact enhances the expected rate of proton decay compared to prior estimates. Thus, assuming supersymmetric unification, one expects that the discovery of proton decay should not be far behind. (author)

  6. Acoustic telemetry reveals cryptic residency of whale sharks

    KAUST Repository

    Cagua, Edgar F.

    2015-04-01

    Althoughwhale sharks (Rhincodon typus) have beendocumentedtomove thousands of kilometres, they are most frequently observed at a few predictable seasonal aggregation sites. The absence of sharks at the surface during visual surveys has led to the assumption that sharks disperse to places unknown during the long \\'off-seasons\\' at most of these locations. Here we compare 2 years of R. typus visual sighting records from Mafia Island in Tanzania to concurrent acoustic telemetry of tagged individuals. Sightings revealed a clear seasonal pattern with a peak between October and February and no sharks observed at other times. By contrast, acoustic telemetry demonstrated yearround residency of R. typus. The sharks use a different habitat in the offseason, swimming deeper and further away from shore, presumably in response to prey distributions. This behavioural change reduces the sharks\\' visibility, giving the false impression that they have left the area.We demonstrate, for the first timeto our knowledge, year-roundresidencyofunprovisioned, individual R. typus at an aggregation site, and highlight the importance of using multiple techniques to study the movement ecology of marine megafauna. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Statistical universals reveal the structures and functions of human music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Patrick E; Brown, Steven; Sakai, Emi; Currie, Thomas E

    2015-07-21

    Music has been called "the universal language of mankind." Although contemporary theories of music evolution often invoke various musical universals, the existence of such universals has been disputed for decades and has never been empirically demonstrated. Here we combine a music-classification scheme with statistical analyses, including phylogenetic comparative methods, to examine a well-sampled global set of 304 music recordings. Our analyses reveal no absolute universals but strong support for many statistical universals that are consistent across all nine geographic regions sampled. These universals include 18 musical features that are common individually as well as a network of 10 features that are commonly associated with one another. They span not only features related to pitch and rhythm that are often cited as putative universals but also rarely cited domains including performance style and social context. These cross-cultural structural regularities of human music may relate to roles in facilitating group coordination and cohesion, as exemplified by the universal tendency to sing, play percussion instruments, and dance to simple, repetitive music in groups. Our findings highlight the need for scientists studying music evolution to expand the range of musical cultures and musical features under consideration. The statistical universals we identified represent important candidates for future investigation.

  8. Geometric Mechanics Reveals Optimal Complex Terrestrial Undulation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chaohui; Astley, Henry; Schiebel, Perrin; Dai, Jin; Travers, Matthew; Goldman, Daniel; Choset, Howie; CMU Team; GT Team

    Geometric mechanics offers useful tools for intuitively analyzing biological and robotic locomotion. However, utility of these tools were previously restricted to systems that have only two internal degrees of freedom and in uniform media. We show kinematics of complex locomotors that make intermittent contacts with substrates can be approximated as a linear combination of two shape bases, and can be represented using two variables. Therefore, the tools of geometric mechanics can be used to analyze motions of locomotors with many degrees of freedom. To demonstrate the proposed technique, we present studies on two different types of snake gaits which utilize combinations of waves in the horizontal and vertical planes: sidewinding (in the sidewinder rattlesnake C. cerastes) and lateral undulation (in the desert specialist snake C. occipitalis). C. cerastes moves by generating posteriorly traveling body waves in the horizontal and vertical directions, with a relative phase offset equal to +/-π/2 while C. occipitalismaintains a π/2 offset of a frequency doubled vertical wave. Geometric analysis reveals these coordination patterns enable optimal movement in the two different styles of undulatory terrestrial locomotion. More broadly, these examples demonstrate the utility of geometric mechanics in analyzing realistic biological and robotic locomotion.

  9. Artemin Crystal Structure Reveals Insights into Heparan Sulfate Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvian,L.; Jin, P.; Carmillo, P.; Boriack-Sjodin, P.; Pelletier, C.; Rushe, M.; Gong, B.; Sah, D.; Pepinsky, B.; Rossomando, A.

    2006-01-01

    Artemin (ART) promotes the growth of developing peripheral neurons by signaling through a multicomponent receptor complex comprised of a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor (cRET) and a specific glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked co-receptor (GFR{alpha}3). Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) signals through a similar ternary complex but requires heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) for full activity. HSPG has not been demonstrated as a requirement for ART signaling. We crystallized ART in the presence of sulfate and solved its structure by isomorphous replacement. The structure reveals ordered sulfate anions bound to arginine residues in the pre-helix and amino-terminal regions that were organized in a triad arrangement characteristic of heparan sulfate. Three residues in the pre-helix were singly or triply substituted with glutamic acid, and the resulting proteins were shown to have reduced heparin-binding affinity that is partly reflected in their ability to activate cRET. This study suggests that ART binds HSPGs and identifies residues that may be involved in HSPG binding.

  10. Artificial spatiotemporal touch inputs reveal complementary decoding in neocortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Calogero M; Mazzoni, Alberto; Spanne, Anton; Enander, Jonas M D; Mogensen, Hannes; Bengtsson, Fredrik; Camboni, Domenico; Micera, Silvestro; Jörntell, Henrik

    2017-04-04

    Investigations of the mechanisms of touch perception and decoding has been hampered by difficulties in achieving invariant patterns of skin sensor activation. To obtain reproducible spatiotemporal patterns of activation of sensory afferents, we used an artificial fingertip equipped with an array of neuromorphic sensors. The artificial fingertip was used to transduce real-world haptic stimuli into spatiotemporal patterns of spikes. These spike patterns were delivered to the skin afferents of the second digit of rats via an array of stimulation electrodes. Combined with low-noise intra- and extracellular recordings from neocortical neurons in vivo, this approach provided a previously inaccessible high resolution analysis of the representation of tactile information in the neocortical neuronal circuitry. The results indicate high information content in individual neurons and reveal multiple novel neuronal tactile coding features such as heterogeneous and complementary spatiotemporal input selectivity also between neighboring neurons. Such neuronal heterogeneity and complementariness can potentially support a very high decoding capacity in a limited population of neurons. Our results also indicate a potential neuroprosthetic approach to communicate with the brain at a very high resolution and provide a potential novel solution for evaluating the degree or state of neurological disease in animal models.

  11. Comparative metatranscriptomics reveals decline of a neustonic planktonic population

    KAUST Repository

    Mojib, Nazia; Thimma, Manjula; Kumaran, M.; Sougrat, Rachid; Irigoien, Xabier

    2016-01-01

    The neuston layer in tropical seas provides a good model to study the effects of increased levels of different stressors (e.g., temperature, ultraviolet radiation and Trichodesmium blooms). Here, we use a comparative in situ metatranscriptomics approach to reveal the functional genomic composition of metabolically active neustonic mesozooplankton community in response to the summer conditions in the Red Sea. The neustonic population exhibited changes in composition and abundance with a significant decline in copepods and appendicularia in July, when Trichodesmium cells were more abundant along with high temperatures and UV-B radiation. Nearly 23,000 genes were differentially expressed at the community level when the metatranscriptomes of the neustonic zooplankton were compared in April, July, and October. On a wider Phylum level, the genes related to oxidative phosphorylation, carbon, nucleotides, amino acids, and lipids were significantly overrepresented in both arthropods and chordates in April and October. On organism level for copepods, expression of genes responsive to oxidative stress, defense against bacteria, immune response, and virus reproduction were increased along with the observed increased appearance of copepod carcasses in the samples collected during July. The differences in expression correspond either to secondary effects of the Trichodesmium bloom or more likely to the increased UV-B radiation in July. Given the dearth of information on the zooplankton gene expression in response to environmental stimuli, our study provides the first transcriptome landscape of the mesozooplankton community during a period of increased mortality of the copepod and appendicularia population.

  12. Metabonomics reveals metabolite changes in biliary atresia infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kejun; Xie, Guoxiang; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Aihua; Liu, Jiajian; Su, Mingming; Ni, Yan; Zhou, Ying; Pan, Weihua; Che, Yanran; Zhang, Ting; Xiao, Yongtao; Wang, Yang; Wen, Jie; Jia, Wei; Cai, Wei

    2015-06-05

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a rare neonatal cholestatic disorder caused by obstruction of extra- and intra-hepatic bile ducts. If untreated, progressive liver cirrhosis will lead to death within 2 years. Early diagnosis and operation improve the outcome significantly. Infants with neonatal hepatitis syndrome (NHS) present similar symptoms, confounding the early diagnosis of BA. The lack of noninvasive diagnostic methods to differentiate BA from NHS greatly delays the surgery of BA infants, thus deteriorating the outcome. Here we performed a metabolomics study in plasma of BA, NHS, and healthy infants using gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Scores plots of orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis clearly separated BA from NHS and healthy infants. Eighteen metabolites were found to be differentially expressed between BA and NHS, among which seven (l-glutamic acid, l-ornithine, l-isoleucine, l-lysine, l-valine, l-tryptophan, and l-serine) were amino acids. The altered amino acids were quantitatively verified using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed the network of "Cellular Function and Maintenance, Hepatic System Development and Function, Neurological Disease" was altered most significantly. This study suggests that plasma metabolic profiling has great potential in differentiating BA from NHS, and amino acid metabolism is significantly different between the two diseases.

  13. Revealing the hidden structural phases of FeRh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinwoong; Ramesh, R.; Kioussis, Nicholas

    2016-11-01

    Ab initio electronic structure calculations reveal that tetragonal distortion has a dramatic effect on the relative stability of the various magnetic structures (C-, A-, G-, A'-AFM, and FM) of FeRh giving rise to a wide range of novel stable/metastable structures and magnetic phase transitions between these states. We predict that the cubic G-AFM structure, which was believed thus far to be the ground state, is metastable and that the tetragonally expanded G-AFM is the stable structure. The low energy barrier separating these states suggests phase coexistence at room temperature. We propose an A'-AFM phase to be the global ground state among all magnetic phases which arises from the strain-induced tuning of the exchange interactions. The results elucidate the underlying mechanism for the recent experimental findings of electric-field control of magnetic phase transition driven via tetragonal strain. The magnetic phase transitions open interesting prospects for exploiting strain engineering for the next-generation memory devices.

  14. A Global Synthesis Reveals Gaps in Coastal Habitat Restoration Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Stacy Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coastal ecosystems have drastically declined in coverage and condition across the globe. To combat these losses, marine conservation has recently employed habitat restoration as a strategy to enhance depleted coastal ecosystems. For restoration to be a successful enterprise, however, it is necessary to identify and address potential knowledge gaps and review whether the field has tracked scientific advances regarding best practices. This enables managers, researchers, and practitioners alike to more readily establish restoration priorities and goals. We synthesized the peer-reviewed, published literature on habitat restoration research in salt marshes, oyster reefs, and seagrasses to address three questions related to restoration efforts: (i How frequent is cross-sector authorship in coastal restoration research? (ii What is the geographic distribution of coastal restoration research? and (iii Are abiotic and biotic factors equally emphasized in the literature, and how does this vary with time? Our vote-count survey indicated that one-third of the journal-published studies listed authors from at least two sectors, and 6% listed authors from all three sectors. Across all habitat types, there was a dearth of studies from Africa, Asia, and South America. Finally, despite many experimental studies demonstrating that species interactions can greatly affect the recovery and persistence of coastal foundation species, only one-fourth of the studies we examined discussed their effects on restoration. Combined, our results reveal gaps and discrepancies in restoration research that should be addressed in order to further propel coastal restoration science.

  15. Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals Ecological Differentiation in the Genus Carnobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Christelle F; Borges, Frédéric; Taminiau, Bernard; Daube, Georges; Zagorec, Monique; Remenant, Benoît; Leisner, Jørgen J; Hansen, Martin A; Sørensen, Søren J; Mangavel, Cécile; Cailliez-Grimal, Catherine; Revol-Junelles, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) differ in their ability to colonize food and animal-associated habitats: while some species are specialized and colonize a limited number of habitats, other are generalist and are able to colonize multiple animal-linked habitats. In the current study, Carnobacterium was used as a model genus to elucidate the genetic basis of these colonization differences. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene meta-barcoding data showed that C. maltaromaticum followed by C. divergens are the most prevalent species in foods derived from animals (meat, fish, dairy products), and in the gut. According to phylogenetic analyses, these two animal-adapted species belong to one of two deeply branched lineages. The second lineage contains species isolated from habitats where contact with animal is rare. Genome analyses revealed that members of the animal-adapted lineage harbor a larger secretome than members of the other lineage. The predicted cell-surface proteome is highly diversified in C. maltaromaticum and C. divergens with genes involved in adaptation to the animal milieu such as those encoding biopolymer hydrolytic enzymes, a heme uptake system, and biopolymer-binding adhesins. These species also exhibit genes for gut adaptation and respiration. In contrast, Carnobacterium species belonging to the second lineage encode a poorly diversified cell-surface proteome, lack genes for gut adaptation and are unable to respire. These results shed light on the important genomics traits required for adaptation to animal-linked habitats in generalist Carnobacterium .

  16. Nicotinamide riboside kinase structures reveal new pathways to NAD+.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Tempel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The eukaryotic nicotinamide riboside kinase (Nrk pathway, which is induced in response to nerve damage and promotes replicative life span in yeast, converts nicotinamide riboside to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ by phosphorylation and adenylylation. Crystal structures of human Nrk1 bound to nucleoside and nucleotide substrates and products revealed an enzyme structurally similar to Rossmann fold metabolite kinases and allowed the identification of active site residues, which were shown to be essential for human Nrk1 and Nrk2 activity in vivo. Although the structures account for the 500-fold discrimination between nicotinamide riboside and pyrimidine nucleosides, no enzyme feature was identified to recognize the distinctive carboxamide group of nicotinamide riboside. Indeed, nicotinic acid riboside is a specific substrate of human Nrk enzymes and is utilized in yeast in a novel biosynthetic pathway that depends on Nrk and NAD+ synthetase. Additionally, nicotinic acid riboside is utilized in vivo by Urh1, Pnp1, and Preiss-Handler salvage. Thus, crystal structures of Nrk1 led to the identification of new pathways to NAD+.

  17. Comparative metatranscriptomics reveals decline of a neustonic planktonic population

    KAUST Repository

    Mojib, Nazia

    2016-10-20

    The neuston layer in tropical seas provides a good model to study the effects of increased levels of different stressors (e.g., temperature, ultraviolet radiation and Trichodesmium blooms). Here, we use a comparative in situ metatranscriptomics approach to reveal the functional genomic composition of metabolically active neustonic mesozooplankton community in response to the summer conditions in the Red Sea. The neustonic population exhibited changes in composition and abundance with a significant decline in copepods and appendicularia in July, when Trichodesmium cells were more abundant along with high temperatures and UV-B radiation. Nearly 23,000 genes were differentially expressed at the community level when the metatranscriptomes of the neustonic zooplankton were compared in April, July, and October. On a wider Phylum level, the genes related to oxidative phosphorylation, carbon, nucleotides, amino acids, and lipids were significantly overrepresented in both arthropods and chordates in April and October. On organism level for copepods, expression of genes responsive to oxidative stress, defense against bacteria, immune response, and virus reproduction were increased along with the observed increased appearance of copepod carcasses in the samples collected during July. The differences in expression correspond either to secondary effects of the Trichodesmium bloom or more likely to the increased UV-B radiation in July. Given the dearth of information on the zooplankton gene expression in response to environmental stimuli, our study provides the first transcriptome landscape of the mesozooplankton community during a period of increased mortality of the copepod and appendicularia population.

  18. Revealing Amphiphilic Nanodornains of Anti-Biofouling Polymer Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amadei, CA; Yang, R; Chiesa, M; Gleason, KK; Santos, S

    2014-04-09

    Undesired bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on wetted surfaces leads to significant economic and environmental costs in various industries. Amphiphilic coatings with molecular hydrophilic and hydrophobic patches can mitigate such biofouling effectively in an environmentally friendly manner. The coatings are synthesized by copolymerizing (Hydroxyethyl)methacrylate and perfluorodecylacrylate via initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD). In previous studies, the size of the patches was estimated to be similar to 1.4-1.75 nm by fitting protein adsorption data to a theoretical model. However, no direct observations of the molecular heterogeneity exist and therefore the origin of the fouling resistance of amphiphilic coatings remains unclear. Here, the amphiphilic nature is investigated by amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy (AM-AFM). High-resolution images obtained by penetrating and oscillating the AFM tip under the naturally present water layer with sub-nanometer amplitudes reveal, for the first time, the existence of amphiphilic nanodomains (1-2 nm(2)). Compositional heterogeneity at the nanoscale is further corroborated by a statistical analysis on the data obtained with dynamic AM-AFM force spectroscopy. Variations in the long range attractive forces, responsible for water affinity, are also identified. These nanoscopic results on the polymers wettability are also confirmed by contact angle measurements (i.e., static and dynamic). The unprecedented ability to visualize the amphiphilic nanodomains as well as sub-nanometer crystalline structures provides strong evidence for the existence of previously postulated nanostructures, and sheds light on the underlying antifouling mechanism of amphiphilic chemistry.

  19. Polymyalgia Rheumatica Revealing a Lymphoma: A Two-Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Verhoeven

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR is one of the most common inflammatory rheumatism types in elderly population. The link between cancer and PMR is a matter of debate. Methods. We report two cases of PMR leading to the diagnosis of lymphoma and the growing interest of PET-TDM in this indication. Results. A 84-year-old man known for idiopathic neutropenia presented an inflammatory arthromyalgia of the limb girdle since one month. Blood exams highlighted the presence of a monoclonal B cell clone. Bone marrow concluded to a B cell lymphoma of the marginal zone. He was successfully treated with 0.3 mg/kg/d of prednisone, and response was sustained after 6 months. A 73-year-old man known for prostatic neoplasia in remission for 5 years presented arthromyalgia of the limb girdle since one month. PET-CT revealed bursitis of the hips and the shoulders, no prostatic cancer recurrence, and a metabolically active iliac lymphadenopathy whose pathologic exam concluded to a low grade follicular lymphoma. He was successfully treated with 0.3 mg/kg/d of prednisone. Conclusion. These observations may imply that lymphoma is sometimes already present when PMR is diagnosed and PET-CT is a useful tool in the initial assessment of PMR to avoid missing neoplasia.

  20. Beyond Contagion: Reality Mining Reveals Complex Patterns of Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshamsi, Aamena; Pianesi, Fabio; Lepri, Bruno; Pentland, Alex; Rahwan, Iyad

    2015-01-01

    Contagion, a concept from epidemiology, has long been used to characterize social influence on people's behavior and affective (emotional) states. While it has revealed many useful insights, it is not clear whether the contagion metaphor is sufficient to fully characterize the complex dynamics of psychological states in a social context. Using wearable sensors that capture daily face-to-face interaction, combined with three daily experience sampling surveys, we collected the most comprehensive data set of personality and emotion dynamics of an entire community of work. From this high-resolution data about actual (rather than self-reported) face-to-face interaction, a complex picture emerges where contagion (that can be seen as adaptation of behavioral responses to the behavior of other people) cannot fully capture the dynamics of transitory states. We found that social influence has two opposing effects on states: adaptation effects that go beyond mere contagion, and complementarity effects whereby individuals' behaviors tend to complement the behaviors of others. Surprisingly, these effects can exhibit completely different directions depending on the stable personality or emotional dispositions (stable traits) of target individuals. Our findings provide a foundation for richer models of social dynamics, and have implications on organizational engineering and workplace well-being.