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Sample records for revealed systematic differences

  1. Difference between resistant and susceptible maize to systematic colonization as revealed by DsRed-labeled Fusarium verticillioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium verticillioides was labeled with DsRed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation to examine differences in colonization and reactions of resistant and susceptible inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.. The extent of systemic colonization of F. verticillioides in roots from maize lines either resistant or susceptible to the fungus was studied by visualizing the red fluorescence produced by the fungus expressing DsRed. The difference in quantities of colony forming units (CFU in roots and basal stems, production of fumonisin B1, and pH of root were determined. Although F. verticillioides colonized both resistant and susceptible lines, differences were observed in the pattern and extent of fungal colonization in the two types of maize lines. The fungus colonized the susceptible lines producing mosaic patterns by filling the individual root cells with hyphae. Such a pattern of colonization was rarely observed in resistant lines, which were less colonized by the fungus than the susceptible lines in terms of CFUs. The production of mycotoxin fumonisin B1 in roots from different lines was closely correlated with the amount of F. verticillioides colonization, rather than the pH or amylopectin concentrations in the root. The findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of the defense mechanism in resistant maize lines to F. verticillioides.

  2. Systematic differences in signal emitting and receiving revealed by PageRank analysis of a human protein interactome.

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    Donglei Du

    Full Text Available Most protein PageRank studies do not use signal flow direction information in protein interactions because this information was not readily available in large protein databases until recently. Therefore, four questions have yet to be answered: A What is the general difference between signal emitting and receiving in a protein interactome? B Which proteins are among the top ranked in directional ranking? C Are high ranked proteins more evolutionarily conserved than low ranked ones? D Do proteins with similar ranking tend to have similar subcellular locations? In this study, we address these questions using the forward, reverse, and non-directional PageRank approaches to rank an information-directional network of human proteins and study their evolutionary conservation. The forward ranking gives credit to information receivers, reverse ranking to information emitters, and non-directional ranking mainly to the number of interactions. The protein lists generated by the forward and non-directional rankings are highly correlated, but those by the reverse and non-directional rankings are not. The results suggest that the signal emitting/receiving system is characterized by key-emittings and relatively even receivings in the human protein interactome. Signaling pathway proteins are frequent in top ranked ones. Eight proteins are both informational top emitters and top receivers. Top ranked proteins, except a few species-related novel-function ones, are evolutionarily well conserved. Protein-subunit ranking position reflects subunit function. These results demonstrate the usefulness of different PageRank approaches in characterizing protein networks and provide insights to protein interaction in the cell.

  3. Systematic differences in signal emitting and receiving revealed by PageRank analysis of a human protein interactome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Donglei; Lee, Connie F; Li, Xiu-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Most protein PageRank studies do not use signal flow direction information in protein interactions because this information was not readily available in large protein databases until recently. Therefore, four questions have yet to be answered: A) What is the general difference between signal emitting and receiving in a protein interactome? B) Which proteins are among the top ranked in directional ranking? C) Are high ranked proteins more evolutionarily conserved than low ranked ones? D) Do proteins with similar ranking tend to have similar subcellular locations? In this study, we address these questions using the forward, reverse, and non-directional PageRank approaches to rank an information-directional network of human proteins and study their evolutionary conservation. The forward ranking gives credit to information receivers, reverse ranking to information emitters, and non-directional ranking mainly to the number of interactions. The protein lists generated by the forward and non-directional rankings are highly correlated, but those by the reverse and non-directional rankings are not. The results suggest that the signal emitting/receiving system is characterized by key-emittings and relatively even receivings in the human protein interactome. Signaling pathway proteins are frequent in top ranked ones. Eight proteins are both informational top emitters and top receivers. Top ranked proteins, except a few species-related novel-function ones, are evolutionarily well conserved. Protein-subunit ranking position reflects subunit function. These results demonstrate the usefulness of different PageRank approaches in characterizing protein networks and provide insights to protein interaction in the cell.

  4. Systematic analysis of fly models with multiple drivers reveals different effects of ataxin-1 and huntingtin in neuron subtype-specific expression.

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    Risa Shiraishi

    Full Text Available The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a commonly used model organism for neurodegenerative diseases. Its major advantages include a short lifespan and its susceptibility to manipulation using sophisticated genetic techniques. Here, we report the systematic comparison of fly models of two polyglutamine (polyQ diseases. We induced expression of the normal and mutant forms of full-length Ataxin-1 and Huntingtin exon 1 in cholinergic, dopaminergic, and motor neurons, and glial cells using cell type-specific drivers. We systematically analyzed their effects based on multiple phenotypes: eclosion rate, lifespan, motor performance, and circadian rhythms of spontaneous activity. This systematic assay system enabled us to quantitatively evaluate and compare the functional disabilities of different genotypes. The results suggest different effects of Ataxin-1 and Huntingtin on specific types of neural cells during development and in adulthood. In addition, we confirmed the therapeutic effects of LiCl and butyrate using representative models. These results support the usefulness of this assay system for screening candidate chemical compounds that modify the pathologies of polyQ diseases.

  5. Systematic Differences and Random Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Levinthal, Daniel A.; Winter, Sidney G.

    2017-01-01

    evolutionary dynamics of firm entry, and the subsequent consolidation of market share and industry shake-out is considered, then during early epochs of industry evolution, one would tend to observe systematic differences in growth rates associated with firm’s competitive fitness. Thus, it is only......A fundamental premise of the strategy field is the existence of persistent firm level differences in resources and capabilities. This property of heterogeneity should express itself in a variety of empirical “signatures,” such as firm performance and arguably systematic and persistent differences...... component, but for much of an industry’s and firm’s history should have a random pattern consistent with the Gibrat property. The intuition is as follows. In a Cournot equilibrium, firms of better “type” (i.e., lower cost) realize a larger market share, but act with some restraint on their choice...

  6. Local systematic differences in 2MASS positions

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    Bustos Fierro, I. H.; Calderón, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    We have found that positions in the 2MASS All-sky Catalog of Point Sources show local systematic differences with characteristic length-scales of ˜ 5 to ˜ 8 arcminutes when compared with several catalogs. We have observed that when 2MASS positions are used in the computation of proper motions, the mentioned systematic differences cause systematic errors in the resulting proper motions. We have developed a method to locally rectify 2MASS with respect to UCAC4 in order to diminish the systematic differences between these catalogs. The rectified 2MASS catalog with the proposed method can be regarded as an extension of UCAC4 for astrometry with accuracy ˜ 90 mas in its positions, with negligible systematic errors. Also we show that the use of these rectified positions removes the observed systematic pattern in proper motions derived from original 2MASS positions.

  7. In vitro study revealed different size behavior of different nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudien, Dirk; Knebel, Jan; Creutzenberg, Otto

    2012-01-01

    Toxicity of nanoparticles is depending not only on the size of the primary particles but on the size of their agglomerates. Therefore, further studies are needed to examine the behavior of nanoparticles after they have gotten in contact with cells. The presented study investigated the change of size of different commercially available nanoparticles after applying them to different cell lines such as A549, Calu-3, 16HBE14o and LK004 representative for the different parts of the human lung. The different nanoparticles exhibited differences in behavior of size. TiO 2 P25 showed a tendency to increase, whereas TiO 2 T805 and Printex ® 90 remained more or less at the same size. In contrast, ZnO < 50 nm particles showed a significant decrease of size.

  8. Systematic Prioritization and Integrative Analysis of Copy Number Variations in Schizophrenia Reveal Key Schizophrenia Susceptibility Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiongjian; Huang, Liang; Han, Leng; Luo, Zhenwu; Hu, Fang; Tieu, Roger; Gan, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a common mental disorder with high heritability and strong genetic heterogeneity. Common disease-common variants hypothesis predicts that schizophrenia is attributable in part to common genetic variants. However, recent studies have clearly demonstrated that copy number variations (CNVs) also play pivotal roles in schizophrenia susceptibility and explain a proportion of missing heritability. Though numerous CNVs have been identified, many of the regions affected by CNVs show poor overlapping among different studies, and it is not known whether the genes disrupted by CNVs contribute to the risk of schizophrenia. By using cumulative scoring, we systematically prioritized the genes affected by CNVs in schizophrenia. We identified 8 top genes that are frequently disrupted by CNVs, including NRXN1, CHRNA7, BCL9, CYFIP1, GJA8, NDE1, SNAP29, and GJA5. Integration of genes affected by CNVs with known schizophrenia susceptibility genes (from previous genetic linkage and association studies) reveals that many genes disrupted by CNVs are also associated with schizophrenia. Further protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis indicates that protein products of genes affected by CNVs frequently interact with known schizophrenia-associated proteins. Finally, systematic integration of CNVs prioritization data with genetic association and PPI data identifies key schizophrenia candidate genes. Our results provide a global overview of genes impacted by CNVs in schizophrenia and reveal a densely interconnected molecular network of de novo CNVs in schizophrenia. Though the prioritized top genes represent promising schizophrenia risk genes, further work with different prioritization methods and independent samples is needed to confirm these findings. Nevertheless, the identified key candidate genes may have important roles in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and further functional characterization of these genes may provide pivotal targets for future therapeutics and

  9. Rigid Residue Scan Simulations Systematically Reveal Residue Entropic Roles in Protein Allostery.

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    Robert Kalescky

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intra-protein information is transmitted over distances via allosteric processes. This ubiquitous protein process allows for protein function changes due to ligand binding events. Understanding protein allostery is essential to understanding protein functions. In this study, allostery in the second PDZ domain (PDZ2 in the human PTP1E protein is examined as model system to advance a recently developed rigid residue scan method combining with configurational entropy calculation and principal component analysis. The contributions from individual residues to whole-protein dynamics and allostery were systematically assessed via rigid body simulations of both unbound and ligand-bound states of the protein. The entropic contributions of individual residues to whole-protein dynamics were evaluated based on covariance-based correlation analysis of all simulations. The changes of overall protein entropy when individual residues being held rigid support that the rigidity/flexibility equilibrium in protein structure is governed by the La Châtelier's principle of chemical equilibrium. Key residues of PDZ2 allostery were identified with good agreement with NMR studies of the same protein bound to the same peptide. On the other hand, the change of entropic contribution from each residue upon perturbation revealed intrinsic differences among all the residues. The quasi-harmonic and principal component analyses of simulations without rigid residue perturbation showed a coherent allosteric mode from unbound and bound states, respectively. The projection of simulations with rigid residue perturbation onto coherent allosteric modes demonstrated the intrinsic shifting of ensemble distributions supporting the population-shift theory of protein allostery. Overall, the study presented here provides a robust and systematic approach to estimate the contribution of individual residue internal motion to overall protein dynamics and allostery.

  10. Dissecting random and systematic differences between noisy composite data sets.

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    Diederichs, Kay

    2017-04-01

    Composite data sets measured on different objects are usually affected by random errors, but may also be influenced by systematic (genuine) differences in the objects themselves, or the experimental conditions. If the individual measurements forming each data set are quantitative and approximately normally distributed, a correlation coefficient is often used to compare data sets. However, the relations between data sets are not obvious from the matrix of pairwise correlations since the numerical value of the correlation coefficient is lowered by both random and systematic differences between the data sets. This work presents a multidimensional scaling analysis of the pairwise correlation coefficients which places data sets into a unit sphere within low-dimensional space, at a position given by their CC* values [as defined by Karplus & Diederichs (2012), Science, 336, 1030-1033] in the radial direction and by their systematic differences in one or more angular directions. This dimensionality reduction can not only be used for classification purposes, but also to derive data-set relations on a continuous scale. Projecting the arrangement of data sets onto the subspace spanned by systematic differences (the surface of a unit sphere) allows, irrespective of the random-error levels, the identification of clusters of closely related data sets. The method gains power with increasing numbers of data sets. It is illustrated with an example from low signal-to-noise ratio image processing, and an application in macromolecular crystallography is shown, but the approach is completely general and thus should be widely applicable.

  11. Kinds of access: Different methods for report reveal different kinds of metacognitive access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Sandberg, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    that there is not only a theoretical, but also an empirical difference between different methods of reporting. We hypothesize that differences in the sensitivity of different scales may reveal that different types of access are used to issue direct reports about experiences and metacognitive reports about...

  12. Systematic Differences Across Evaluation Schemes and Educational Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    2015-01-01

    Using large-scale register data from Denmark in a difference-in-differences framework, I analyse whether systematic disparities between internal teacher scores and external exam scores in the school-leaving certificates are linked to pupil characteristics. Such differences may mat- ter for post......-school. The corresponding increase for pupils with low educated parents is 4% points, closing 13% of the high-school enrolment gap to pupils with high educated parents....

  13. Systematic Differences across Evaluation Schemes and Educational Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    Using large scale register data from Denmark in a difference-in-differences framework, I analyze whether systematic disparities between internal teacher scores and external exam scores in the school leaving certificates are linked to pupil characteristics. Such differences may be particularly con......-SES pupils’ predicted probability to enroll in high-school, closing almost 10% of the high-school enrolment gap to high-SES pupils. Increases for boys and migrant pupils are modest....

  14. Does Secondary School Size Make a Difference? A Systematic Review

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    Newman, M.; Garrett, Z.; Elbourne, D.; Bradley, S.; Noden, P.; Taylor, J.; West, A.

    2006-01-01

    There is a vast body of literature on school size but comparatively few high quality empirical studies comparing outcomes in schools of different sizes. This systematic review synthesizes the results of the published research from 31 studies on the effects of secondary school size from OECD countries since 1990. Overall the directions and patterns…

  15. Revealed Preference Methods for Studying Bicycle Route Choice—A Systematic Review

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    Ray Pritchard

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One fundamental aspect of promoting utilitarian bicycle use involves making modifications to the built environment to improve the safety, efficiency and enjoyability of cycling. Revealed preference data on bicycle route choice can assist greatly in understanding the actual behaviour of a highly heterogeneous group of users, which in turn assists the prioritisation of infrastructure or other built environment initiatives. This systematic review seeks to compare the relative strengths and weaknesses of the empirical approaches for evaluating whole journey route choices of bicyclists. Two electronic databases were systematically searched for a selection of keywords pertaining to bicycle and route choice. In total seven families of methods are identified: GPS devices, smartphone applications, crowdsourcing, participant-recalled routes, accompanied journeys, egocentric cameras and virtual reality. The study illustrates a trade-off in the quality of data obtainable and the average number of participants. Future additional methods could include dockless bikeshare, multiple camera solutions using computer vision and immersive bicycle simulator environments.

  16. Strategy revealing phenotypic differences among synthetic oscillator designs.

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    Lomnitz, Jason G; Savageau, Michael A

    2014-09-19

    Considerable progress has been made in identifying and characterizing the component parts of genetic oscillators, which play central roles in all organisms. Nonlinear interaction among components is sufficiently complex that mathematical models are required to elucidate their elusive integrated behavior. Although natural and synthetic oscillators exhibit common architectures, there are numerous differences that are poorly understood. Utilizing synthetic biology to uncover basic principles of simpler circuits is a way to advance understanding of natural circadian clocks and rhythms. Following this strategy, we address the following questions: What are the implications of different architectures and molecular modes of transcriptional control for the phenotypic repertoire of genetic oscillators? Are there designs that are more realizable or robust? We compare synthetic oscillators involving one of three architectures and various combinations of the two modes of transcriptional control using a methodology that provides three innovations: a rigorous definition of phenotype, a procedure for deconstructing complex systems into qualitatively distinct phenotypes, and a graphical representation for illuminating the relationship between genotype, environment, and the qualitatively distinct phenotypes of a system. These methods provide a global perspective on the behavioral repertoire, facilitate comparisons of alternatives, and assist the rational design of synthetic gene circuitry. In particular, the results of their application here reveal distinctive phenotypes for several designs that have been studied experimentally as well as a best design among the alternatives that has yet to be constructed and tested.

  17. Kinds of access: different methods for report reveal different kinds of metacognitive access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Morten; Sandberg, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    In experimental investigations of consciousness, participants are asked to reflect upon their own experiences by issuing reports about them in different ways. For this reason, a participant needs some access to the content of her own conscious experience in order to report. In such experiments, the reports typically consist of some variety of ratings of confidence or direct descriptions of one's own experiences. Whereas different methods of reporting are typically used interchangeably, recent experiments indicate that different results are obtained with different kinds of reporting. We argue that there is not only a theoretical, but also an empirical difference between different methods of reporting. We hypothesize that differences in the sensitivity of different scales may reveal that different types of access are used to issue direct reports about experiences and metacognitive reports about the classification process. PMID:22492747

  18. Metabolomic Analyses of Leishmania Reveal Multiple Species Differences and Large Differences in Amino Acid Metabolism.

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    Gareth D Westrop

    Full Text Available Comparative genomic analyses of Leishmania species have revealed relatively minor heterogeneity amongst recognised housekeeping genes and yet the species cause distinct infections and pathogenesis in their mammalian hosts. To gain greater information on the biochemical variation between species, and insights into possible metabolic mechanisms underpinning visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, we have undertaken in this study a comparative analysis of the metabolomes of promastigotes of L. donovani, L. major and L. mexicana. The analysis revealed 64 metabolites with confirmed identity differing 3-fold or more between the cell extracts of species, with 161 putatively identified metabolites differing similarly. Analysis of the media from cultures revealed an at least 3-fold difference in use or excretion of 43 metabolites of confirmed identity and 87 putatively identified metabolites that differed to a similar extent. Strikingly large differences were detected in their extent of amino acid use and metabolism, especially for tryptophan, aspartate, arginine and proline. Major pathways of tryptophan and arginine catabolism were shown to be to indole-3-lactate and arginic acid, respectively, which were excreted. The data presented provide clear evidence on the value of global metabolomic analyses in detecting species-specific metabolic features, thus application of this technology should be a major contributor to gaining greater understanding of how pathogens are adapted to infecting their hosts.

  19. Measuring language lateralisation with different language tasks: a systematic review

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    Abigail R. Bradshaw

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Language lateralisation refers to the phenomenon in which one hemisphere (typically the left shows greater involvement in language functions than the other. Measurement of laterality is of interest both to researchers investigating the neural organisation of the language system and to clinicians needing to establish an individual’s hemispheric dominance for language prior to surgery, as in patients with intractable epilepsy. Recently, there has been increasing awareness of the possibility that different language processes may develop hemispheric lateralisation independently, and to varying degrees. However, it is not always clear whether differences in laterality across language tasks with fMRI are reflective of meaningful variation in hemispheric lateralisation, or simply of trivial methodological differences between paradigms. This systematic review aims to assess different language tasks in terms of the strength, reliability and robustness of the laterality measurements they yield with fMRI, to look at variability that is both dependent and independent of aspects of study design, such as the baseline task, region of interest, and modality of the stimuli. Recommendations are made that can be used to guide task design; however, this review predominantly highlights that the current high level of methodological variability in language paradigms prevents conclusions as to how different language functions may lateralise independently. We conclude with suggestions for future research using tasks that engage distinct aspects of language functioning, whilst being closely matched on non-linguistic aspects of task design (e.g., stimuli, task timings etc; such research could produce more reliable and conclusive insights into language lateralisation. This systematic review was registered as a protocol on Open Science Framework: https://osf.io/5vmpt/.

  20. Genomewide mapping reveals a combination of different genetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    could not investigate all kinds of genetic effects, especially epistatic effects, simultaneously on the whole genome. ... consistent with different loci affecting heterosis for different ...... Jones D. F. 1917 Dominance of linked factors as a means of.

  1. Microleakage at the Different Implant Abutment Interface: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Ramesh; Kumari, Shail

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Presence of gap at the implant-abutment interface, leads to microleakage and accumulation of bacteria which can affect the success of dental implants. Aim To evaluate the sealing capability of different implant connections against microleakage. Materials and Methods In January 2017 an electronic search of literature was performed, in Medline, EBSCO host and Pubmed data base. The search was focused on ability of different implant connections in preventing microleakage. The related titles and abstracts available in English were screened, and the articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected for full text reading. Results In this systematic review, literature search initially resulted in 78 articles among which 30 articles only fulfilled the criteria for inclusion and were finally included in the review. Almost all the studies showed that there was some amount of microleakage at abutment implant interface. Microleakage was very less in Morse taper implants in comparison to other implant connections. Majority of studies showed less microleakage in static loading conditions and microleakage increases in dynamic loading conditions. Conclusion In this systematic review maximum studies showed that there was some amount of microleakage at abutment implant interface. External hexagon implants failed completely to prevent microleakage in both static and dynamic loading conditions of implants. Internal hexagon implants mainly internal conical (Morse taper) implants are very promising in case of static loading and also showed less microleakage in dynamic loading conditions. Torque recommended by manufacturer should be followed strictly to get a better seal at abutment implant interface. Zirconia abutments are more to microleakage than Titanium abutments and there use should be discouraged. Zirconia abutments should be only restricted to cases where there was very high demand of aesthetics. PMID:28764310

  2. A Systematic Protein Refolding Screen Method using the DGR Approach Reveals that Time and Secondary TSA are Essential Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanze; van Oosterwijk, Niels; Ali, Ameena M; Adawy, Alaa; Anindya, Atsarina L; Dömling, Alexander S S; Groves, Matthew R

    2017-08-24

    Refolding of proteins derived from inclusion bodies is very promising as it can provide a reliable source of target proteins of high purity. However, inclusion body-based protein production is often limited by the lack of techniques for the detection of correctly refolded protein. Thus, the selection of the refolding conditions is mostly achieved using trial and error approaches and is thus a time-consuming process. In this study, we use the latest developments in the differential scanning fluorimetry guided refolding approach as an analytical method to detect correctly refolded protein. We describe a systematic buffer screen that contains a 96-well primary pH-refolding screen in conjunction with a secondary additive screen. Our research demonstrates that this approach could be applied for determining refolding conditions for several proteins. In addition, it revealed which "helper" molecules, such as arginine and additives are essential. Four different proteins: HA-RBD, MDM2, IL-17A and PD-L1 were used to validate our refolding approach. Our systematic protocol evaluates the impact of the "helper" molecules, the pH, buffer system and time on the protein refolding process in a high-throughput fashion. Finally, we demonstrate that refolding time and a secondary thermal shift assay buffer screen are critical factors for improving refolding efficiency.

  3. Effective connectivity reveals strategy differences in an expert calculator.

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    Ludovico Minati

    Full Text Available Mathematical reasoning is a core component of cognition and the study of experts defines the upper limits of human cognitive abilities, which is why we are fascinated by peak performers, such as chess masters and mental calculators. Here, we investigated the neural bases of calendrical skills, i.e. the ability to rapidly identify the weekday of a particular date, in a gifted mental calculator who does not fall in the autistic spectrum, using functional MRI. Graph-based mapping of effective connectivity, but not univariate analysis, revealed distinct anatomical location of "cortical hubs" supporting the processing of well-practiced close dates and less-practiced remote dates: the former engaged predominantly occipital and medial temporal areas, whereas the latter were associated mainly with prefrontal, orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate connectivity. These results point to the effect of extensive practice on the development of expertise and long term working memory, and demonstrate the role of frontal networks in supporting performance on less practiced calculations, which incur additional processing demands. Through the example of calendrical skills, our results demonstrate that the ability to perform complex calculations is initially supported by extensive attentional and strategic resources, which, as expertise develops, are gradually replaced by access to long term working memory for familiar material.

  4. Attention: Reaction Time and Accuracy Reveal Different Mechanisms

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    Prinzmetal, William; McCool, Christin; Park, Samuel

    2005-01-01

    The authors propose that there are 2 different mechanisms whereby spatial cues capture attention. The voluntary mechanism is the strategic allocation of perceptual resources to the location most likely to contain the target. The involuntary mechanism is a reflexive orienting response that occurs even when the spatial cue does not indicate the…

  5. Simulating fiction: individual differences in literature comprehension revealed with FMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhof, Annabel D; Willems, Roel M

    2015-01-01

    When we read literary fiction, we are transported to fictional places, and we feel and think along with the characters. Despite the importance of narrative in adult life and during development, the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying fiction comprehension are unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how individuals differently employ neural networks important for understanding others' beliefs and intentions (mentalizing), and for sensori-motor simulation while listening to excerpts from literary novels. Localizer tasks were used to localize both the cortical motor network and the mentalizing network in participants after they listened to excerpts from literary novels. Results show that participants who had high activation in anterior medial prefrontal cortex (aMPFC; part of the mentalizing network) when listening to mentalizing content of literary fiction, had lower motor cortex activity when they listened to action-related content of the story, and vice versa. This qualifies how people differ in their engagement with fiction: some people are mostly drawn into a story by mentalizing about the thoughts and beliefs of others, whereas others engage in literature by simulating more concrete events such as actions. This study provides on-line neural evidence for the existence of qualitatively different styles of moving into literary worlds, and adds to a growing body of literature showing the potential to study narrative comprehension with neuroimaging methods.

  6. Comparative analysis of fungal genomes reveals different plant cell wall degrading capacity in fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Fungi produce a variety of carbohydrate activity enzymes (CAZymes) for the degradation of plant polysaccharide materials to facilitate infection and/or gain nutrition. Identifying and comparing CAZymes from fungi with different nutritional modes or infection mechanisms may provide information for better understanding of their life styles and infection models. To date, over hundreds of fungal genomes are publicly available. However, a systematic comparative analysis of fungal CAZymes across the entire fungal kingdom has not been reported. Results In this study, we systemically identified glycoside hydrolases (GHs), polysaccharide lyases (PLs), carbohydrate esterases (CEs), and glycosyltransferases (GTs) as well as carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) in the predicted proteomes of 103 representative fungi from Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota. Comparative analysis of these CAZymes that play major roles in plant polysaccharide degradation revealed that fungi exhibit tremendous diversity in the number and variety of CAZymes. Among them, some families of GHs and CEs are the most prevalent CAZymes that are distributed in all of the fungi analyzed. Importantly, cellulases of some GH families are present in fungi that are not known to have cellulose-degrading ability. In addition, our results also showed that in general, plant pathogenic fungi have the highest number of CAZymes. Biotrophic fungi tend to have fewer CAZymes than necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungi. Pathogens of dicots often contain more pectinases than fungi infecting monocots. Interestingly, besides yeasts, many saprophytic fungi that are highly active in degrading plant biomass contain fewer CAZymes than plant pathogenic fungi. Furthermore, analysis of the gene expression profile of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum revealed that most of the CAZyme genes related to cell wall degradation were up-regulated during plant infection. Phylogenetic analysis also

  7. Genomic Comparisons Reveal Microevolutionary Differences in Mycobacterium abscessus Subspecies

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    Joon L. Tan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium abscessus, a rapid-growing non-tuberculous mycobacterium, has been the cause of sporadic and outbreak infections world-wide. The subspecies in M. abscessus complex (M. abscessus, M. massiliense, and M. bolletii are associated with different biologic and pathogenic characteristics and are known to be among the most frequently isolated opportunistic pathogens from clinical material. To date, the evolutionary forces that could have contributed to these biological and clinical differences are still unclear. We compared genome data from 243 M. abscessus strains downloaded from the NCBI ftp Refseq database to understand how the microevolutionary processes of homologous recombination and positive selection influenced the diversification of the M. abscessus complex at the subspecies level. The three subspecies are clearly separated in the Minimum Spanning Tree. Their MUMi-based genomic distances support the separation of M. massiliense and M. bolletii into two subspecies. Maximum Likelihood analysis through dN/dS (the ratio of number of non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site, to the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site identified distinct genes in each subspecies that could have been affected by positive selection during evolution. The results of genome-wide alignment based on concatenated locally-collinear blocks suggest that (a recombination has affected the M. abscessus complex more than mutation and positive selection; (b recombination occurred more frequently in M. massiliense than in the other two subspecies; and (c the recombined segments in the three subspecies have come from different intra-species and inter-species origins. The results lead to the identification of possible gene sets that could have been responsible for the subspecies-specific features and suggest independent evolution among the three subspecies, with recombination playing a more significant role than positive selection in the

  8. Genomic Comparisons Reveal Microevolutionary Differences in Mycobacterium abscessus Subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Joon L.; Ng, Kee P.; Ong, Chia S.; Ngeow, Yun F.

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus, a rapid-growing non-tuberculous mycobacterium, has been the cause of sporadic and outbreak infections world-wide. The subspecies in M. abscessus complex (M. abscessus, M. massiliense, and M. bolletii) are associated with different biologic and pathogenic characteristics and are known to be among the most frequently isolated opportunistic pathogens from clinical material. To date, the evolutionary forces that could have contributed to these biological and clinical differences are still unclear. We compared genome data from 243 M. abscessus strains downloaded from the NCBI ftp Refseq database to understand how the microevolutionary processes of homologous recombination and positive selection influenced the diversification of the M. abscessus complex at the subspecies level. The three subspecies are clearly separated in the Minimum Spanning Tree. Their MUMi-based genomic distances support the separation of M. massiliense and M. bolletii into two subspecies. Maximum Likelihood analysis through dN/dS (the ratio of number of non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site, to the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site) identified distinct genes in each subspecies that could have been affected by positive selection during evolution. The results of genome-wide alignment based on concatenated locally-collinear blocks suggest that (a) recombination has affected the M. abscessus complex more than mutation and positive selection; (b) recombination occurred more frequently in M. massiliense than in the other two subspecies; and (c) the recombined segments in the three subspecies have come from different intra-species and inter-species origins. The results lead to the identification of possible gene sets that could have been responsible for the subspecies-specific features and suggest independent evolution among the three subspecies, with recombination playing a more significant role than positive selection in the diversification

  9. Different levels of food restriction reveal genotype-specific differences in learning a visual discrimination task.

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    Kalina Makowiecki

    Full Text Available In behavioural experiments, motivation to learn can be achieved using food rewards as positive reinforcement in food-restricted animals. Previous studies reduce animal weights to 80-90% of free-feeding body weight as the criterion for food restriction. However, effects of different degrees of food restriction on task performance have not been assessed. We compared learning task performance in mice food-restricted to 80 or 90% body weight (BW. We used adult wildtype (WT; C57Bl/6j and knockout (ephrin-A2⁻/⁻ mice, previously shown to have a reverse learning deficit. Mice were trained in a two-choice visual discrimination task with food reward as positive reinforcement. When mice reached criterion for one visual stimulus (80% correct in three consecutive 10 trial sets they began the reverse learning phase, where the rewarded stimulus was switched to the previously incorrect stimulus. For the initial learning and reverse phase of the task, mice at 90%BW took almost twice as many trials to reach criterion as mice at 80%BW. Furthermore, WT 80 and 90%BW groups significantly differed in percentage correct responses and learning strategy in the reverse learning phase, whereas no differences between weight restriction groups were observed in ephrin-A2⁻/⁻ mice. Most importantly, genotype-specific differences in reverse learning strategy were only detected in the 80%BW groups. Our results indicate that increased food restriction not only results in better performance and a shorter training period, but may also be necessary for revealing behavioural differences between experimental groups. This has important ethical and animal welfare implications when deciding extent of diet restriction in behavioural studies.

  10. Correction: Comparative analysis of fungal genomes reveals different plant cell wall degrading capacity in fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The version of this article published in BMC Genomics 2013, 14: 274, contains 9 unpublished genomes (Botryobasidium botryosum, Gymnopus luxurians, Hypholoma sublateritium, Jaapia argillacea, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, Conidiobolus coronatus, Laccaria amethystina, Paxillus involutus, and P. rubicundulus) downloaded from JGI website. In this correction, we removed these genomes after discussion with editors and data producers whom we should have contacted before downloading these genomes. Removing these data did not alter the principle results and conclusions of our original work. The relevant Figures 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6; and Table 1 have been revised. Additional files 1, 3, 4, and 5 were also revised. We would like to apologize for any confusion or inconvenience this may have caused. Background Fungi produce a variety of carbohydrate activity enzymes (CAZymes) for the degradation of plant polysaccharide materials to facilitate infection and/or gain nutrition. Identifying and comparing CAZymes from fungi with different nutritional modes or infection mechanisms may provide information for better understanding of their life styles and infection models. To date, over hundreds of fungal genomes are publicly available. However, a systematic comparative analysis of fungal CAZymes across the entire fungal kingdom has not been reported. Results In this study, we systemically identified glycoside hydrolases (GHs), polysaccharide lyases (PLs), carbohydrate esterases (CEs), and glycosyltransferases (GTs) as well as carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) in the predicted proteomes of 94 representative fungi from Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota. Comparative analysis of these CAZymes that play major roles in plant polysaccharide degradation revealed that fungi exhibit tremendous diversity in the number and variety of CAZymes. Among them, some families of GHs and CEs are the most prevalent CAZymes that are distributed in all of the fungi analyzed

  11. Systematic survey reveals general applicability of "guilt-by-association" within gene coexpression networks

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    Kohane Isaac S

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological processes are carried out by coordinated modules of interacting molecules. As clustering methods demonstrate that genes with similar expression display increased likelihood of being associated with a common functional module, networks of coexpressed genes provide one framework for assigning gene function. This has informed the guilt-by-association (GBA heuristic, widely invoked in functional genomics. Yet although the idea of GBA is accepted, the breadth of GBA applicability is uncertain. Results We developed methods to systematically explore the breadth of GBA across a large and varied corpus of expression data to answer the following question: To what extent is the GBA heuristic broadly applicable to the transcriptome and conversely how broadly is GBA captured by a priori knowledge represented in the Gene Ontology (GO? Our study provides an investigation of the functional organization of five coexpression networks using data from three mammalian organisms. Our method calculates a probabilistic score between each gene and each Gene Ontology category that reflects coexpression enrichment of a GO module. For each GO category we use Receiver Operating Curves to assess whether these probabilistic scores reflect GBA. This methodology applied to five different coexpression networks demonstrates that the signature of guilt-by-association is ubiquitous and reproducible and that the GBA heuristic is broadly applicable across the population of nine hundred Gene Ontology categories. We also demonstrate the existence of highly reproducible patterns of coexpression between some pairs of GO categories. Conclusion We conclude that GBA has universal value and that transcriptional control may be more modular than previously realized. Our analyses also suggest that methodologies combining coexpression measurements across multiple genes in a biologically-defined module can aid in characterizing gene function or in characterizing

  12. Systematic analysis of compositional order of proteins reveals new characteristics of biological functions and a universal correlate of macroevolution.

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    Erez Persi

    Full Text Available We present a novel analysis of compositional order (CO based on the occurrence of Frequent amino-acid Triplets (FTs that appear much more than random in protein sequences. The method captures all types of proteomic compositional order including single amino-acid runs, tandem repeats, periodic structure of motifs and otherwise low complexity amino-acid regions. We introduce new order measures, distinguishing between 'regularity', 'periodicity' and 'vocabulary', to quantify these phenomena and to facilitate the identification of evolutionary effects. Detailed analysis of representative species across the tree-of-life demonstrates that CO proteins exhibit numerous functional enrichments, including a wide repertoire of particular patterns of dependencies on regularity and periodicity. Comparison between human and mouse proteomes further reveals the interplay of CO with evolutionary trends, such as faster substitution rate in mouse leading to decrease of periodicity, while innovation along the human lineage leads to larger regularity. Large-scale analysis of 94 proteomes leads to systematic ordering of all major taxonomic groups according to FT-vocabulary size. This is measured by the count of Different Frequent Triplets (DFT in proteomes. The latter provides a clear hierarchical delineation of vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, fungi and prokaryotes, with thermophiles showing the lowest level of FT-vocabulary. Among eukaryotes, this ordering correlates with phylogenetic proximity. Interestingly, in all kingdoms CO accumulation in the proteome has universal characteristics. We suggest that CO is a genomic-information correlate of both macroevolution and various protein functions. The results indicate a mechanism of genomic 'innovation' at the peptide level, involved in protein elongation, shaped in a universal manner by mutational and selective forces.

  13. Systematic Analysis of Compositional Order of Proteins Reveals New Characteristics of Biological Functions and a Universal Correlate of Macroevolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persi, Erez; Horn, David

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel analysis of compositional order (CO) based on the occurrence of Frequent amino-acid Triplets (FTs) that appear much more than random in protein sequences. The method captures all types of proteomic compositional order including single amino-acid runs, tandem repeats, periodic structure of motifs and otherwise low complexity amino-acid regions. We introduce new order measures, distinguishing between ‘regularity’, ‘periodicity’ and ‘vocabulary’, to quantify these phenomena and to facilitate the identification of evolutionary effects. Detailed analysis of representative species across the tree-of-life demonstrates that CO proteins exhibit numerous functional enrichments, including a wide repertoire of particular patterns of dependencies on regularity and periodicity. Comparison between human and mouse proteomes further reveals the interplay of CO with evolutionary trends, such as faster substitution rate in mouse leading to decrease of periodicity, while innovation along the human lineage leads to larger regularity. Large-scale analysis of 94 proteomes leads to systematic ordering of all major taxonomic groups according to FT-vocabulary size. This is measured by the count of Different Frequent Triplets (DFT) in proteomes. The latter provides a clear hierarchical delineation of vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, fungi and prokaryotes, with thermophiles showing the lowest level of FT-vocabulary. Among eukaryotes, this ordering correlates with phylogenetic proximity. Interestingly, in all kingdoms CO accumulation in the proteome has universal characteristics. We suggest that CO is a genomic-information correlate of both macroevolution and various protein functions. The results indicate a mechanism of genomic ‘innovation’ at the peptide level, involved in protein elongation, shaped in a universal manner by mutational and selective forces. PMID:24278003

  14. Different antipsychotics elicit different effects on magnocellular oxytocinergic and vasopressinergic neurons as revealed by Fos immunohistochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiss, A; Bundzikova, J; Pirnik, Z

    2010-01-01

    rats were injected intraperitoneally with haloperidol (1 mg/kg), clozapine (30 mg/kg), olanzapine (30 mg/kg), risperidone (2mg/kg), and vehicle (5% chremophor) and were sacrificed 60 min later by a fixative. Fos, Fos/OXY, and Fos/AVP labelings were visualized by immunohistochemistry in the SON, 5...... accessory (ACS) cell groups, and 4 distinct PVN subdivisions using a computerized light microscope. Most apparent activation of single Fos, Fos/OXY, and Fos/AVP cells was induced by clozapine and olanzapine; effects of risperidone and haloperidol were substantially lower; no colocalizations were revealed...... of risperidone and haloperidol. Variabilities in Fos distribution in the PVN, SON, and ACS induced by antipsychotics may be helpful to understand more precisely the extent of their extra-forebrain actions with possible presumption of their functional impact and side effect consequences....

  15. Molecular phylogeny of Pasiphaeidae (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea) reveals systematic incongruence of the current classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yunshi; De Grave, Sammy; Ho, Tsz Wai; Ip, Brian H Y; Tsang, Ling Ming; Chan, Tin-Yam; Chu, Ka Hou

    2017-10-01

    Caridean shrimps constitute one of the most diverse groups of decapod crustaceans, notwithstanding their poorly resolved infraordinal relationships. One of the systematically controversial families in Caridea is the predominantly pelagic Pasiphaeidae, comprises 101 species in seven genera. Pasiphaeidae species exhibit high morphological disparity, as well as ecological niche width, inhabiting shallow to very deep waters (>4000m). The present work presents the first molecular phylogeny of the family, based on a combined dataset of six mitochondrial and nuclear gene markers (12S rDNA, 16S rDNA, histone 3, sodium-potassium ATPase α-subunit, enolase and ATP synthase β-subunit) from 33 species belonged to six genera of Pasiphaeidae with 19 species from 12 other caridean families as outgroup taxa. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses conducted on the concatenated dataset of 2265bp suggest the family Pasiphaeidae is not monophyletic, with Psathyrocaris more closely related to other carideans than to the other five pasiphaeid genera included in this analysis. Leptochela occupies a sister position to the remaining genera and is genetically quite distant from them. At the generic level, the analysis supports the monophyly of Pasiphaea, Leptochela and Psathyrocaris, while Eupasiphae is shown to be paraphyletic, closely related to Parapasiphae and Glyphus. The present molecular result strongly implies that certain morphological characters used in the present systematic delineation within Pasiphaeidae may not be synapomorphies and the classification within the family needs to be urgently revised. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A systematic review of sex differences in the placebo and the nocebo effect

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    Vambheim SM

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sara M Vambheim,1 Magne Arve Flaten2 1Department of Psychology, UiT, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, 2Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU, Trondheim, Norway Objectives: The present review investigated whether there are systematic sex differences in the placebo and the nocebo effect. Methods: A literature search was conducted in multiple electronic databases. Studies were included if the study compared a group or condition where a placebo was administered to a natural history group or similar cohort. Results: Eighteen studies were identified – 12 on placebo effects and 6 on nocebo effects. Chi-square tests revealed that 1 males responded more strongly to placebo treatment, and females responded more strongly to nocebo treatment, and 2 males responded with larger placebo effects induced by verbal information, and females responded with larger nocebo effects induced by conditioning procedures. Conclusion: This review indicates that there are sex differences in the placebo and nocebo effects, probably caused by sex differences in stress, anxiety, and the endogenous opioid system. Keywords: placebo response, nocebo response, placebo analgesia, nocebo hyperalgesia, sex differences

  17. Systematic Prediction of Scaffold Proteins Reveals New Design Principles in Scaffold-Mediated Signal Transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianfei; Neiswinger, Johnathan; Zhang, Jin; Zhu, Heng; Qian, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Scaffold proteins play a crucial role in facilitating signal transduction in eukaryotes by bringing together multiple signaling components. In this study, we performed a systematic analysis of scaffold proteins in signal transduction by integrating protein-protein interaction and kinase-substrate relationship networks. We predicted 212 scaffold proteins that are involved in 605 distinct signaling pathways. The computational prediction was validated using a protein microarray-based approach. The predicted scaffold proteins showed several interesting characteristics, as we expected from the functionality of scaffold proteins. We found that the scaffold proteins are likely to interact with each other, which is consistent with previous finding that scaffold proteins tend to form homodimers and heterodimers. Interestingly, a single scaffold protein can be involved in multiple signaling pathways by interacting with other scaffold protein partners. Furthermore, we propose two possible regulatory mechanisms by which the activity of scaffold proteins is coordinated with their associated pathways through phosphorylation process. PMID:26393507

  18. Diffuse correlation tomography reveals spatial and temporal difference in blood flow changes among murine femoral grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Songfeng; Proctor, Ashley R.; Benoit, Danielle S. W.; Choe, Regine

    2017-07-01

    Diffuse correlation tomography was utilized to noninvasively monitor 3D blood flow changes in three types of healing mouse femoral grafts. Results reveal the spatial and temporal difference among the groups.

  19. Systematic profiling of alternative splicing signature reveals prognostic predictor for ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junyong; Chen, Zuhua; Yong, Lei

    2018-02-01

    The majority of genes are alternatively spliced and growing evidence suggests that alternative splicing is modified in cancer and is associated with cancer progression. Systematic analysis of alternative splicing signature in ovarian cancer is lacking and greatly needed. We profiled genome-wide alternative splicing events in 408 ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV) patients in TCGA. Seven types of alternative splicing events were curated and prognostic analyses were performed with predictive models and splicing network built for OV patients. Among 48,049 mRNA splicing events in 10,582 genes, we detected 2,611 alternative splicing events in 2,036 genes which were significant associated with overall survival of OV patients. Exon skip events were the most powerful prognostic factors among the seven types. The area under the curve of the receiver-operator characteristic curve for prognostic predictor, which was built with top significant alternative splicing events, was 0.937 at 2,000 days of overall survival, indicating powerful efficiency in distinguishing patient outcome. Interestingly, splicing correlation network suggested obvious trends in the role of splicing factors in OV. In summary, we built powerful prognostic predictors for OV patients and uncovered interesting splicing networks which could be underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Systematic Analysis Reveals that Cancer Mutations Converge on Deregulated Metabolism of Arachidonate and Xenobiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gatto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mutations are the basis of the clonal evolution of most cancers. Nevertheless, a systematic analysis of whether mutations are selected in cancer because they lead to the deregulation of specific biological processes independent of the type of cancer is still lacking. In this study, we correlated the genome and transcriptome of 1,082 tumors. We found that nine commonly mutated genes correlated with substantial changes in gene expression, which primarily converged on metabolism. Further network analyses circumscribed the convergence to a network of reactions, termed AraX, that involves the glutathione- and oxygen-mediated metabolism of arachidonic acid and xenobiotics. In an independent cohort of 4,462 samples, all nine mutated genes were consistently correlated with the deregulation of AraX. Among all of the metabolic pathways, AraX deregulation represented the strongest predictor of patient survival. These findings suggest that oncogenic mutations drive a selection process that converges on the deregulation of the AraX network.

  1. Male and Female Differences in Nonconscious Mimicry: A Systematic Review

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    Christine M. Lehane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on nonconscious mimicry suggests that females mimic their communication partners more often than males. Many studies have investigated the association between mimicry, emotion recognition, and empathy. However, there is a trend in this research area to recruit same-sex samples, thus neglecting a discussion regarding the role of sex or gender as a moderator of nonconscious mimicry. This article reviews the research on nonconscious mimicry – facial, behavioural, and verbal, in order to identify whether or not there are male and female differences. The results indicate that mimicry may be moderated by participant sex or gender depending upon, among others, choice of mimicry measurement, stimulus exposure length, and social context. However, few studies address male and female differences in mimicry and many have methodological limitations. The review concludes with a discussion and recommendations for future research.

  2. Sleep in adolescents of different socioeconomic status: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Pereira Gomes Felden

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the sleep characteristics in adolescents from different socioeconomic levels. Data source: Original studies found in the MEDLINE/PubMed and SciELO databases without language and period restrictions that analyzed associations between sleep variables and socioeconomic indicators. The initial search resulted in 99 articles. After reading the titles and abstracts and following inclusion and exclusion criteria, 12 articles with outcomes that included associations between sleep variables (disorders, duration, quality and socioeconomic status (ethnicity, family income, and social status were analyzed. Data synthesis: The studies associating sleep with socioeconomic variables are recent, published mainly after the year 2000. Half of the selected studies were performed with young Americans, and only one with Brazilian adolescents. Regarding ethnic differences, the studies do not have uniform conclusions. The main associations found were between sleep variables and family income or parental educational level, showing a trend among poor, low social status adolescents to manifest low duration, poor quality of sleeping patterns. Conclusions: The study found an association between socioeconomic indicators and quality of sleep in adolescents. Low socioeconomic status reflects a worse subjective perception of sleep quality, shorter duration, and greater daytime sleepiness. Considering the influence of sleep on physical and cognitive development and on the learning capacity of young individuals, the literature on the subject is scarce. There is a need for further research on sleep in different realities of the Brazilian population.

  3. Analysis of biostimulated microbial communities from two field experiments reveals temporal and spatial differences in proteome profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callister, S.J.; Wilkins, M.J.; Nicora, C.D.; Williams, K.H.; Banfield, J.F.; VerBerkmoes, N.C.; Hettich, R.L.; NGuessan, A.L.; Mouser, P.J.; Elifantz, H.; Smith, R.D.; Lovley, D.R.; Lipton, M.S.; Long, P.E.

    2010-07-15

    Stimulated by an acetate-amendment field experiment conducted in 2007, anaerobic microbial populations in the aquifer at the Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Colorado reduced mobile U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). During this experiment, planktonic biomass was sampled at various time points to quantitatively evaluate proteomes. In 2008, an acetate-amended field experiment was again conducted in a similar manner to the 2007 experiment. As there was no comprehensive metagenome sequence available for use in proteomics analysis, we systematically evaluated 12 different organism genome sequences to generate sets of aggregate genomes, or “pseudo-metagenomes”, for supplying relative quantitative peptide and protein identifications. Proteomics results support previous observations of the dominance of Geobacteraceae during biostimulation using acetate as sole electron donor, and revealed a shift from an early stage of iron reduction to a late stage of iron reduction. Additionally, a shift from iron reduction to sulfate reduction was indicated by changes in the contribution of proteome information contributed by different organism genome sequences within the aggregate set. In addition, the comparison of proteome measurements made between the 2007 field experiment and 2008 field experiment revealed differences in proteome profiles. These differences may be the result of alterations in abundance and population structure within the planktonic biomass samples collected for analysis.

  4. Neuromuscular properties of different spastic human joints vary systematically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbagheri, M M; Settle, K

    2010-01-01

    We quantified the mechanical abnormalities of the spastic wrist in chronic stroke survivors, and determined whether these findings were representative of those recorded at the elbow and ankle joints. System identification techniques were used to characterize the mechanical abnormalities of these joints and to identify the contribution of intrinsic and reflex stiffness to these abnormalities. Modulation of intrinsic and reflex stiffness with the joint angle was studied by applying PRBS perturbations to the joints at different joint angles over the range of motion. Age-matched healthy subjects were used as control.

  5. Systematically Altering Bacterial SOS Activity under Stress Reveals Therapeutic Strategies for Potentiating Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Charlie Y; Manning, Sara A; Roggiani, Manuela; Culyba, Matthew J; Samuels, Amanda N; Sniegowski, Paul D; Goulian, Mark; Kohli, Rahul M

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial SOS response is a DNA damage repair network that is strongly implicated in both survival and acquired drug resistance under antimicrobial stress. The two SOS regulators, LexA and RecA, have therefore emerged as potential targets for adjuvant therapies aimed at combating resistance, although many open questions remain. For example, it is not well understood whether SOS hyperactivation is a viable therapeutic approach or whether LexA or RecA is a better target. Furthermore, it is important to determine which antimicrobials could serve as the best treatment partners with SOS-targeting adjuvants. Here we derived Escherichia coli strains that have mutations in either lexA or recA genes in order to cover the full spectrum of possible SOS activity levels. We then systematically analyzed a wide range of antimicrobials by comparing the mean inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and induced mutation rates for each drug-strain combination. We first show that significant changes in MICs are largely confined to DNA-damaging antibiotics, with strains containing a constitutively repressed SOS response impacted to a greater extent than hyperactivated strains. Second, antibiotic-induced mutation rates were suppressed when SOS activity was reduced, and this trend was observed across a wider spectrum of antibiotics. Finally, perturbing either LexA or RecA proved to be equally viable strategies for targeting the SOS response. Our work provides support for multiple adjuvant strategies, while also suggesting that the combination of an SOS inhibitor with a DNA-damaging antibiotic could offer the best potential for lowering MICs and decreasing acquired drug resistance. IMPORTANCE Our antibiotic arsenal is becoming depleted, in part, because bacteria have the ability to rapidly adapt and acquire resistance to our best agents. The SOS pathway, a widely conserved DNA damage stress response in bacteria, is activated by many antibiotics and has been shown to play central role in

  6. Perturbation of whole-brain dynamics in silico reveals mechanistic differences between brain states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deco, Gustavo; Cabral, Joana; Saenger, Victor M; Boly, Melanie; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Laufs, Helmut; Van Someren, Eus; Jobst, Beatrice; Stevner, Angus; Kringelbach, Morten L

    2017-01-01

    Human neuroimaging research has revealed that wakefulness and sleep involve very different activity patterns. Yet, it is not clear why brain states differ in their dynamical complexity, e.g. in the level of integration and segregation across brain networks over time. Here, we investigate the

  7. Perturbation of whole-brain dynamics in silico reveals mechanistic differences between brain states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deco, Gustavo; Cabral, Joana; Saenger, Victor M; Boly, Melanie; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Laufs, Helmut; Van Someren, Eus; Jobst, Beatrice M; Stevner, Angus B A; Kringelbach, Morten L

    2018-01-01

    Human neuroimaging research has revealed that wakefulness and sleep involve very different activity patterns. Yet, it is not clear why brain states differ in their dynamical complexity, e.g. in the level of integration and segregation across brain networks over time. Here, we investigate the

  8. Effects of different lower-limb sensory stimulation strategies on postural regulation-A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Teng Woo

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews of balance control have tended to only focus on the effects of single lower-limb stimulation strategies, and a current limitation is the lack of comparison between different relevant stimulation strategies. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine evidence of effects of different lower-limb sensory stimulation strategies on postural regulation and stability. Moderate- to high- pooled effect sizes (Unbiased (Hedges' g standardized mean differences (SMD = 0.31-0.66 were observed with the addition of noise in a Stochastic Resonance Stimulation Strategy (SRSS, in three populations (i.e., healthy young adults, older adults, and individuals with lower-limb injuries, and under different task constraints (i.e., unipedal, bipedal, and eyes open. A Textured Material Stimulation Strategy (TMSS enhanced postural control in the most challenging condition-eyes-closed on a stable surface (SMD = 0.61, and in older adults (SMD = 0.30. The Wearable Garments Stimulation Strategy (WGSS showed no or adverse effects (SMD = -0.68-0.05 under all task constraints and in all populations, except in individuals with lower-limb injuries (SMD = 0.20. Results of our systematic review and meta-analysis revealed that future research could consider combining two or more stimulation strategies in intervention treatments for postural regulation and balance problems, depending on individual needs.

  9. Effects of different lower-limb sensory stimulation strategies on postural regulation-A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Mei Teng; Davids, Keith; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Orth, Dominic; Chow, Jia Yi; Jaakkola, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Systematic reviews of balance control have tended to only focus on the effects of single lower-limb stimulation strategies, and a current limitation is the lack of comparison between different relevant stimulation strategies. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine evidence of effects of different lower-limb sensory stimulation strategies on postural regulation and stability. Moderate- to high- pooled effect sizes (Unbiased (Hedges' g) standardized mean differences (SMD) = 0.31-0.66) were observed with the addition of noise in a Stochastic Resonance Stimulation Strategy (SRSS), in three populations (i.e., healthy young adults, older adults, and individuals with lower-limb injuries), and under different task constraints (i.e., unipedal, bipedal, and eyes open). A Textured Material Stimulation Strategy (TMSS) enhanced postural control in the most challenging condition-eyes-closed on a stable surface (SMD = 0.61), and in older adults (SMD = 0.30). The Wearable Garments Stimulation Strategy (WGSS) showed no or adverse effects (SMD = -0.68-0.05) under all task constraints and in all populations, except in individuals with lower-limb injuries (SMD = 0.20). Results of our systematic review and meta-analysis revealed that future research could consider combining two or more stimulation strategies in intervention treatments for postural regulation and balance problems, depending on individual needs.

  10. What Public Media Reveals about MOOCs: A Systematic Analysis of News Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovanovic, Vitomir; Joksimovic, Srecko; Gaševic, Dragan; Siemens, George; Hatala, Marek

    2015-01-01

    One of the striking differences between massive open online courses (MOOCs) and previous innovations in the education technology field is the unprecedented interest and involvement of the general public. As MOOCs address pressing problems in higher education and the broader educational practice, awareness of the general public debate around MOOCs…

  11. Biomechanical Differences of Foot-Strike Patterns During Running: A Systematic Review With Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Matheus O; Davis, Irene S; Lopes, Alexandre D

    2015-10-01

    Systematic review with meta-analysis. To determine the biomechanical differences between foot-strike patterns used when running. Strike patterns during running have received attention in the recent literature due to their potential mechanical differences and associated injury risks. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, SciELO, and SPORTDiscus) were searched through July 2014. Studies (cross-sectional, case-control, prospective, and retrospective) comparing the biomechanical characteristics of foot-strike patterns during running in distance runners at least 18 years of age were included in this review. Two independent reviewers evaluated the risk of bias. A meta-analysis with a random-effects model was used to combine the data from the included studies. Sixteen studies were included in the final analysis. In the meta-analyses of kinematic variables, significant differences between forefoot and rearfoot strikers were found for foot and knee angle at initial contact and knee flexion range of motion. A forefoot-strike pattern resulted in a plantar-flexed ankle position and a more flexed knee position, compared to a dorsiflexed ankle position and a more extended knee position for the rearfoot strikers, at initial contact with the ground. In the comparison of rearfoot and midfoot strikers, midfoot strikers demonstrated greater ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and decreased knee flexion range of motion compared to rearfoot strikers. For kinetic variables, the meta-analysis revealed that rearfoot strikers had higher vertical loading rates compared to forefoot strikers. There are differences in kinematic and kinetic characteristics between foot-strike patterns when running. Clinicians should be aware of these characteristics to help in the management of running injuries and advice on training.

  12. Distinct signaling roles of ceramide species in yeast revealed through systematic perturbation and systems biology analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montefusco, David J; Chen, Lujia; Matmati, Nabil; Lu, Songjian; Newcomb, Benjamin; Cooper, Gregory F; Hannun, Yusuf A; Lu, Xinghua

    2013-10-29

    Ceramide, the central molecule of sphingolipid metabolism, is an important bioactive molecule that participates in various cellular regulatory events and that has been implicated in disease. Deciphering ceramide signaling is challenging because multiple ceramide species exist, and many of them may have distinct functions. We applied systems biology and molecular approaches to perturb ceramide metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and inferred causal relationships between ceramide species and their potential targets by combining lipidomic, genomic, and transcriptomic analyses. We found that during heat stress, distinct metabolic mechanisms controlled the abundance of different groups of ceramide species and provided experimental support for the importance of the dihydroceramidase Ydc1 in mediating the decrease in dihydroceramides during heat stress. Additionally, distinct groups of ceramide species, with different N-acyl chains and hydroxylations, regulated different sets of functionally related genes, indicating that the structural complexity of these lipids produces functional diversity. The transcriptional modules that we identified provide a resource to begin to dissect the specific functions of ceramides.

  13. The Comparative Risk of Delirium with Different Opioids : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Lieke M.; van der Zanden, Vera; Spies, Petra E.; de Rooij, Sophia E.; van Munster, Barbara C.

    Objective There is substantial evidence that the use of opioids increases the risk of adverse outcomes such as delirium, but whether this risk differs between the various opioids remains controversial. In this systematic review, we evaluate and discuss possible differences in the risk of

  14. Systematic Assessment Reveals Lack of Understandability for Prostate Biopsy Online Patient Education Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciolek, Kimberly A; Jarrard, David F; Abel, E Jason; Best, Sara L

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the accuracy, readability, understandability, and actionability of Internet patient education materials (PEM) about transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. A comprehensive Internet search was performed to find PEM with pre- or postbiopsy instructions. PEM that were duplicates, government affiliated, international, or video based were excluded. Biopsy instructions were evaluated for accuracy and presence of essential topics. Readability was assessed via word count and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level. Understandability and actionability were measured using the Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool (PEMAT). Effects of authorship and geographical variation were determined using Fischer exact and Kruskal-Wallis tests. We identified 148 unique PEM. Only 31 (21%) sites adhered to the recommended reading level. Most PEM did not contain recommended graphics (14%), checklists (2%), or summaries (6%). The PEMAT understandability score for academic PEM was higher than private (P = .02) and unaffiliated PEM (P = .01). No websites had inaccurate content. Only 2 PEM sites (1%) included all essential content (stop anticoagulants, antibiotics, need for urinalysis, biopsy pain, when to resume activity, and bleeding complications). Few significant differences based on geographic region were observed for word count, readability, PEMAT scores, or content. Transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy PEM adhere poorly to guidelines for easy-to-understand materials. Most PEM lack vital information and are written at a reading level that is too complex for patient comprehension. The urology community can construct better websites by consulting PEM advisory materials and providing nontechnical language, figures, and specific instructions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Quantitative proteomics of seed filling in castor: comparison with soybean and rapeseed reveals differences between photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic seed metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Norma L; Hajduch, Martin; Thelen, Jay J

    2009-10-01

    Seed maturation or seed filling is a phase of development that plays a major role in the storage reserve composition of a seed. In many plant seeds photosynthesis plays a major role in this process, although oilseeds, such as castor (Ricinus communis), are capable of accumulating oil without the benefit of photophosphorylation to augment energy demands. To characterize seed filling in castor, a systematic quantitative proteomics study was performed. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to resolve and quantify Cy-dye-labeled proteins expressed at 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks after flowering in biological triplicate. Expression profiles for 660 protein spot groups were established, and of these, 522 proteins were confidently identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry by mining against the castor genome. Identified proteins were classified according to function, and the most abundant groups of proteins were involved in protein destination and storage (34%), energy (19%), and metabolism (15%). Carbon assimilatory pathways in castor were compared with previous studies of photosynthetic oilseeds, soybean (Glycine max) and rapeseed (Brassica napus). These comparisons revealed differences in abundance and number of protein isoforms at numerous steps in glycolysis. One such difference was the number of enolase isoforms and their sum abundance; castor had approximately six times as many isoforms as soy and rapeseed. Furthermore, Rubisco was 11-fold less prominent in castor compared to rapeseed. These and other differences suggest some aspects of carbon flow, carbon recapture, as well as ATP and NADPH production in castor differs from photosynthetic oilseeds.

  16. Differences in handgrip strength protocols to identify sarcopenia and frailty - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Santos, A R; Amaral, T F

    2017-10-16

    Hand grip strength (HGS) is used for the diagnosis of sarcopenia and frailty. Several factors have been shown to influence HGS values during measurement. Therefore, variations in the protocols used to assess HGS, as part of the diagnosis of sarcopenia and frailty, may lead to the identification of different individuals with low HGS, introducing bias. The aim of this systematic review is to gather all the relevant studies that measured HGS to diagnose sarcopenia and frailty and to identify the differences between the protocols used. A systematic review was carried out following the recommendations of The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement. PubMed and Web of Science were systematically searched, until August 16, 2016. The evidence regarding HGS measurement protocols used to diagnose sarcopenia and frailty was summarised and the most recent protocols regarding the procedure were compared. From the described search 4393 articles were identified. Seventy-two studies were included in this systematic review, in which 37 referred to sarcopenia articles, 33 to frailty and two evaluated both conditions. Most studies presented limited information regarding the protocols used. The majority of the studies included did not describe a complete procedure of HGS measurement. The high heterogeneity between the protocols used, in sarcopenia and frailty studies, create an enormous difficulty in drawing comparative conclusions among them.

  17. Handsome wants as handsome does: physical attractiveness and gender differences in revealed sexual preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Elizabeth Aura

    2011-01-01

    In this article I evaluate the effect of physical attractiveness on young adults' sexual and romantic outcomes to reveal gender differences in acted preferences. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a probability sample of young adults (n = 14,276), I investigate gender differences in desired sexual partner accumulation, relationship status, and timing of sexual intercourse. I find gender differences in sexual and romantic strategies consistent with those predicted by the double standard of sexuality and evolutionary theory. Specifically, compared to men, women pursue more committed relationships, fewer sexual partners, and delayed sexual intercourse.

  18. Gender differences in computer-mediated communication: a systematic literature review of online health-related support groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Phoenix K H; Malik, Sumaira H; Coulson, Neil S

    2009-04-01

    Previous research has contended that the unique characteristics of the Internet might remove some of the gender differences that exist in face-to-face healthcare. The aims of the present study were to systematically review studies that have examined gender differences in communication within online health communities. A literature search was conducted to identify studies addressing gender differences in messages posted to online health-related support groups. Out of the 1186 articles identified, twelve were retrieved for review. Half of the studies examined gender differences by comparing male and female cancer discussion boards. The literature review revealed that some gender differences were observed in these studies. However, for studies that analysed mixed-gender communities, gender differences were less evident. Results seemed to reveal gender differences in communications in single-sex online health support groups, and similarities in communication patterns in mixed-sex online health support groups. However, findings should be treated with caution due to the diversity in studies and methodological issues highlighted in the present review. There is a need for health care professionals to take into account a range of situational and contextual factors that may affect how men and women use online health support groups. However, more robust research is needed before concrete guidelines can be developed to help health care professionals develop effective online support interventions.

  19. Systematic chemical and molecular profiling of MLL-rearranged infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia reveals efficacy of romidepsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, M N; Ford, J; Cheung, L C; Heng, J; Singh, S; Wells, J; Failes, T W; Arndt, G M; Smithers, N; Prinjha, R K; Anderson, D; Carter, K W; Gout, A M; Lassmann, T; O'Reilly, J; Cole, C H; Kotecha, R S; Kees, U R

    2017-01-01

    To address the poor prognosis of mixed lineage leukemia (MLL)-rearranged infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (iALL), we generated a panel of cell lines from primary patient samples and investigated cytotoxic responses to contemporary and novel Food and Drug Administration-approved chemotherapeutics. To characterize representation of primary disease within cell lines, molecular features were compared using RNA-sequencing and cytogenetics. High-throughput screening revealed variable efficacy of currently used drugs, however identified consistent efficacy of three novel drug classes: proteasome inhibitors, histone deacetylase inhibitors and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. Gene expression of drug targets was highly reproducible comparing iALL cell lines to matched primary specimens. Histone deacetylase inhibitors, including romidepsin (ROM), enhanced the activity of a key component of iALL therapy, cytarabine (ARAC) in vitro and combined administration of ROM and ARAC to xenografted mice further reduced leukemia burden. Molecular studies showed that ROM reduces expression of cytidine deaminase, an enzyme involved in ARAC deactivation, and enhances the DNA damage–response to ARAC. In conclusion, we present a valuable resource for drug discovery, including the first systematic analysis of transcriptome reproducibility in vitro, and have identified ROM as a promising therapeutic for MLL-rearranged iALL. PMID:27443263

  20. Metabolomics reveals variation and correlation among different tissues of olive (Olea europaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Guodong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolites in olives are associated with nutritional value and physiological properties. However, comprehensive information regarding the olive metabolome is limited. In this study, we identified 226 metabolites from three different tissues of olive using a non-targeted metabolomic profiling approach, of which 76 named metabolites were confirmed. Further statistical analysis revealed that these 76 metabolites covered different types of primary metabolism and some of the secondary metabolism pathways. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA statistical assay was performed to calculate the variations within the detected metabolites, and levels of 65 metabolites were differentially expressed in different samples. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA dendrograms showed variations among different tissues that were similar to the metabolite profiles observed in new leaves and fruit. Additionally, 5776 metabolite-metabolite correlations were detected by a Pearson correlation coefficient approach. Screening of the calculated correlations revealed 3136, 3025, and 5184 were determined to metabolites and had significant correlations in three different combinations, respectively. This work provides the first comprehensive metabolomic of olive, which will provide new insights into understanding the olive metabolism, and potentially help advance studies in olive metabolic engineering.

  1. Feature-Based Change Detection Reveals Inconsistent Individual Differences in Visual Working Memory Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Joseph P; Wijeakumar, Sobanawartiny; Buss, Aaron T; Spencer, John P

    2016-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) is a key cognitive system that enables people to hold visual information in mind after a stimulus has been removed and compare past and present to detect changes that have occurred. VWM is severely capacity limited to around 3-4 items, although there are robust individual differences in this limit. Importantly, these individual differences are evident in neural measures of VWM capacity. Here, we capitalized on recent work showing that capacity is lower for more complex stimulus dimension. In particular, we asked whether individual differences in capacity remain consistent if capacity is shifted by a more demanding task, and, further, whether the correspondence between behavioral and neural measures holds across a shift in VWM capacity. Participants completed a change detection (CD) task with simple colors and complex shapes in an fMRI experiment. As expected, capacity was significantly lower for the shape dimension. Moreover, there were robust individual differences in behavioral estimates of VWM capacity across dimensions. Similarly, participants with a stronger BOLD response for color also showed a strong neural response for shape within the lateral occipital cortex, intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and superior IPS. Although there were robust individual differences in the behavioral and neural measures, we found little evidence of systematic brain-behavior correlations across feature dimensions. This suggests that behavioral and neural measures of capacity provide different views onto the processes that underlie VWM and CD. Recent theoretical approaches that attempt to bridge between behavioral and neural measures are well positioned to address these findings in future work.

  2. Panethnic Differences in Blood Pressure in Europe: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Amedeo Modesti

    Full Text Available People of Sub Saharan Africa (SSA and South Asians(SA ethnic minorities living in Europe have higher risk of stroke than native Europeans(EU. Study objective is to provide an assessment of gender specific absolute differences in office systolic(SBP and diastolic(DBP blood pressure(BP levels between SSA, SA, and EU.We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies conducted in Europe that examined BP in non-selected adult SSA, SA and EU subjects. Medline, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched from their inception through January 31st 2015, for relevant articles. Outcome measures were mean SBP and DBP differences between minorities and EU, using a random effects model and tested for heterogeneity. Twenty-one studies involving 9,070 SSA, 18,421 SA, and 130,380 EU were included. Compared with EU, SSA had higher values of both SBP (3.38 mmHg, 95% CI 1.28 to 5.48 mmHg; and 6.00 mmHg, 95% CI 2.22 to 9.78 in men and women respectively and DBP (3.29 mmHg, 95% CI 1.80 to 4.78; 5.35 mmHg, 95% CI 3.04 to 7.66. SA had lower SBP than EU(-4.57 mmHg, 95% CI -6.20 to -2.93; -2.97 mmHg, 95% CI -5.45 to -0.49 but similar DBP values. Meta-analysis by subgroup showed that SA originating from countries where Islam is the main religion had lower SBP and DBP values than EU. In multivariate meta-regression analyses, SBP difference between minorities and EU populations, was influenced by panethnicity and diabetes prevalence.1 The higher BP in SSA is maintained over decades, suggesting limited efficacy of prevention strategies in such group in Europe;2 The lower BP in Muslim populations suggests that yet untapped lifestyle and behavioral habits may reveal advantages towards the development of hypertension;3 The additive effect of diabetes, emphasizes the need of new strategies for the control of hypertension in groups at high prevalence of diabetes.

  3. Common brain regions underlying different arithmetic operations as revealed by conjunct fMRI-BOLD activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Thorsten; Code, Chris; Herrmann, Manfred

    2007-10-03

    The issue of how and where arithmetic operations are represented in the brain has been addressed in numerous studies. Lesion studies suggest that a network of different brain areas are involved in mental calculation. Neuroimaging studies have reported inferior parietal and lateral frontal activations during mental arithmetic using tasks of different complexities and using different operators (addition, subtraction, etc.). Indeed, it has been difficult to compare brain activation across studies because of the variety of different operators and different presentation modalities used. The present experiment examined fMRI-BOLD activity in participants during calculation tasks entailing different arithmetic operations -- addition, subtraction, multiplication and division -- of different complexities. Functional imaging data revealed a common activation pattern comprising right precuneus, left and right middle and superior frontal regions during all arithmetic operations. All other regional activations were operation specific and distributed in prominently frontal, parietal and central regions when contrasting complex and simple calculation tasks. The present results largely confirm former studies suggesting that activation patterns due to mental arithmetic appear to reflect a basic anatomical substrate of working memory, numerical knowledge and processing based on finger counting, and derived from a network originally related to finger movement. We emphasize that in mental arithmetic research different arithmetic operations should always be examined and discussed independently of each other in order to avoid invalid generalizations on arithmetics and involved brain areas.

  4. Systematic and quantitative comparison of digest efficiency and specificity reveals the impact of trypsin quality on MS-based proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Julia Maria; Schumbrutzki, Cornelia; Wortelkamp, Stefanie; Sickmann, Albert; Zahedi, René Peiman

    2012-02-02

    Trypsin is the most frequently used proteolytic enzyme in mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Beside its good availability, it also offers some major advantages such as an optimal average peptide length of ~14 amino acids, and typically the presence of at least two defined positive charges at the N-terminus as well as the C-terminal Arg/Lys, rendering tryptic peptides well suited for CID-based LC-MS/MS. Here, we conducted a systematic study of different types of commercially available trypsin in order to qualitatively and quantitatively compare cleavage specificity, efficiency as well as reproducibility and the potential impact on quantitation and proteome coverage. We present a straightforward strategy applied to complex digests of human platelets, comprising (1) digest controls using a monolithic column HPLC-setup, (2) SCX enrichment of semitryptic/nonspecific peptides, (3) targeted MRM analysis of corresponding full cleavage/missed cleavage peptide pairs as well as (4) LC-MS analyses of complete digests with a three-step data interpretation. Thus, differences in digest performance can be readily assessed, rendering these procedures extremely beneficial to quality control not only the trypsin of choice, but also to effectively compare as well as optimize different digestion conditions and to evaluate the reproducibility of a dedicated digest protocol for all kinds of quantitative proteome studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The importance of service-users' perspectives: A systematic review of qualitative evidence reveals overlooked critical features of weight management programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Katy; Melendez-Torres, G J; Burchett, Helen E D; Richardson, Michelle; Rees, Rebecca; Thomas, James

    2018-03-14

    Extensive research effort shows that weight management programmes (WMPs) targeting both diet and exercise are broadly effective. However, the critical features of WMPs remain unclear. To develop a deeper understanding of WMPs critical features, we undertook a systematic review of qualitative evidence. We sought to understand from a service-user perspective how programmes are experienced, and may be effective, on the ground. We identified qualitative studies from existing reviews and updated the searches of one review. We included UK studies capturing the views of adult WMP users. Thematic analysis was used inductively to code and synthesize the evidence. Service users were emphatic that supportive relationships, with service providers or WMP peers, are the most critical aspect of WMPs. Supportive relationships were described as providing an extrinsic motivator or "hook" which helped to overcome barriers such as scepticism about dietary advice or a lack confidence to engage in physical activity. The evidence revealed that service-users' understandings of the critical features of WMPs differ from the focus of health promotion guidance or descriptions of evaluated programmes which largely emphasize educational or goal setting aspects of WMPs. Existing programme guidance may not therefore fully address the needs of service users. The study illustrates that the perspectives of service users can reveal unanticipated intervention mechanisms or underemphasized critical features and underscores the value of a holistic understanding about "what happens" in complex psychosocial interventions such as WMPs. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Aquatic insect ecophysiological traits reveal phylogenetically based differences in dissolved cadmium susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwalter, David B; Cain, Daniel J; Martin, Caitrin A; Xie, Lingtian; Luoma, Samuel N; Garland, Theodore

    2008-06-17

    We used a phylogenetically based comparative approach to evaluate the potential for physiological studies to reveal patterns of diversity in traits related to susceptibility to an environmental stressor, the trace metal cadmium (Cd). Physiological traits related to Cd bioaccumulation, compartmentalization, and ultimately susceptibility were measured in 21 aquatic insect species representing the orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera. We mapped these experimentally derived physiological traits onto a phylogeny and quantified the tendency for related species to be similar (phylogenetic signal). All traits related to Cd bioaccumulation and susceptibility exhibited statistically significant phylogenetic signal, although the signal strength varied among traits. Conventional and phylogenetically based regression models were compared, revealing great variability within orders but consistent, strong differences among insect families. Uptake and elimination rate constants were positively correlated among species, but only when effects of body size and phylogeny were incorporated in the analysis. Together, uptake and elimination rates predicted dramatic Cd bioaccumulation differences among species that agreed with field-based measurements. We discovered a potential tradeoff between the ability to eliminate Cd and the ability to detoxify it across species, particularly mayflies. The best-fit regression models were driven by phylogenetic parameters (especially differences among families) rather than functional traits, suggesting that it may eventually be possible to predict a taxon's physiological performance based on its phylogenetic position, provided adequate physiological information is available for close relatives. There appears to be great potential for evolutionary physiological approaches to augment our understanding of insect responses to environmental stressors in nature.

  7. Structural characterization of Helicobacter pylori dethiobiotin synthetase reveals differences between family members

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Klimecka, Maria; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Nicholls, Robert A.; Murzyn, Krzysztof; Cuff, Marianne E.; Xu, Xiaohui; Cymborowski, Marcin; Murshudov, Garib N.; Savchenko, Alexei; Edwards, Aled; Minor, Wladek (MCSG); (UV); (MRC)

    2012-07-11

    Dethiobiotin synthetase (DTBS) is involved in the biosynthesis of biotin in bacteria, fungi, and plants. As humans lack this pathway, DTBS is a promising antimicrobial drug target. We determined structures of DTBS from Helicobacter pylori (hpDTBS) bound with cofactors and a substrate analog, and described its unique characteristics relative to other DTBS proteins. Comparison with bacterial DTBS orthologs revealed considerable structural differences in nucleotide recognition. The C-terminal region of DTBS proteins, which contains two nucleotide-recognition motifs, differs greatly among DTBS proteins from different species. The structure of hpDTBS revealed that this protein is unique and does not contain a C-terminal region containing one of the motifs. The single nucleotide-binding motif in hpDTBS is similar to its counterpart in GTPases; however, isothermal titration calorimetry binding studies showed that hpDTBS has a strong preference for ATP. The structural determinants of ATP specificity were assessed with X-ray crystallographic studies of hpDTBS-ATP and hpDTBS-GTP complexes. The unique mode of nucleotide recognition in hpDTBS makes this protein a good target for H. pylori-specific inhibitors of the biotin synthesis pathway.

  8. Systematic Evaluation of Protein Reduction and Alkylation Reveals Massive Unspecific Side Effects by Iodine-containing Reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Torsten; Winter, Dominic

    2017-07-01

    Reduction and alkylation of cysteine residues is part of virtually any proteomics workflow. Despite its frequent use, up to date no systematic investigation of the impact of different conditions on the outcome of proteomics studies has been performed. In this study, we compared common reduction reagents (dithiothreitol, tris-(2-carboxyethyl)-phosphine, and β-mercaptoethanol) and alkylation reagents (iodoacetamide, iodoacetic acid, acrylamide, and chloroacetamide). Using in-gel digests as well as SAX fractionated in-solution digests of cytosolic fractions of HeLa cells, we evaluated 13 different reduction and alkylation conditions resulting in considerably varying identification rates. We observed strong differences in offsite alkylation reactions at 7 amino acids as well as at the peptide N terminus, identifying single and double adducts of all reagents. Using dimethyl labeling, mass tolerant searches, and synthetic peptide experiments, we identified alkylation of methionine residues by iodine-containing alkylation reagents as one of the major factors for the differences. We observed differences of more than 9-fold in numbers of identified methionine-containing peptide spectral matches for in-gel digested samples between iodine- and noniodine-containing alkylation reagents. This was because of formation of carbamidomethylated and carboxymethylated methionine side chains and a resulting prominent neutral loss during ESI ionization or in MS/MS fragmentation, strongly decreasing identification rates of methionine-containing peptides. We achieved best results with acrylamide as alkylation reagent, whereas the highest numbers of peptide spectral matches were obtained when reducing with dithiothreitol and β-mercaptoethanol for the in-solution and the in-gel digested samples, respectively. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Selective localization of different types of opiate receptors in hippocampus as revealed by in vitro autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duka, T.; Wuester, M.; Schubert, P.; Stoiber, R.; Herz, A.

    1981-01-01

    The visualization of opiate binding sites within the hippocampus of the rat has been achieved by means of an in vitro autoradiography. In line with the concept of multiple opiate receptors, different opioid agonists revealed a particular distribution pattern. Whereas the selective delta-receptor agonist [ 3 H]D-Ala 2 , D-Leu 5 -enkephalin specifically labelled binding sites in the CA 2 area, [ 3 H]etorphine grains displayed a uniform dense distribution throughout the pyramidal cell layers from CA 1 to CA 4 . (Auth.)

  10. Comparing expressed and revealed preferences for risk reduction: different hazards and question frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniels, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    Studies often note the wide differences that exist in costs per death avoided across US federal programs and regulatory contexts. This paper explores two new, related explanations for these differences. First, it argues that the patterns of revealed preferences (public allocations) may be related to public values, which are measured here through subjects' expressed preference responses to a contingent valuation survey regarding risk reduction. Subjects' expressed values are compared to actual (and proposed) costs of safety regulations for a similar set of hazards. The authors discover strong congruence in the ranking of expressed values and actual values. Second, the paper presents the results of a subsequent survey that investigates why the patterns observed in the first survey might occur. It suggests that one reason for the observed similarities between revealed and expressed preferences may be in how choices are framed. The paper hypothesizes that both subjects and decision makers may frame valuation decisions in the same way: as percentage changes from the reference point provided by the base rate of deaths for that hazard

  11. Metatranscriptomics reveal differences in in situ energy and nitrogen metabolism among hydrothermal vent snail symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, J G; Beinart, R A; Stewart, F J; Delong, E F; Girguis, P R

    2013-08-01

    Despite the ubiquity of chemoautotrophic symbioses at hydrothermal vents, our understanding of the influence of environmental chemistry on symbiont metabolism is limited. Transcriptomic analyses are useful for linking physiological poise to environmental conditions, but recovering samples from the deep sea is challenging, as the long recovery times can change expression profiles before preservation. Here, we present a novel, in situ RNA sampling and preservation device, which we used to compare the symbiont metatranscriptomes associated with Alviniconcha, a genus of vent snail, in which specific host-symbiont combinations are predictably distributed across a regional geochemical gradient. Metatranscriptomes of these symbionts reveal key differences in energy and nitrogen metabolism relating to both environmental chemistry (that is, the relative expression of genes) and symbiont phylogeny (that is, the specific pathways employed). Unexpectedly, dramatic differences in expression of transposases and flagellar genes suggest that different symbiont types may also have distinct life histories. These data further our understanding of these symbionts' metabolic capabilities and their expression in situ, and suggest an important role for symbionts in mediating their hosts' interaction with regional-scale differences in geochemistry.

  12. Integrated Analysis of Alzheimer's Disease and Schizophrenia Dataset Revealed Different Expression Pattern in Learning and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Xing; Dai, Shao-Xing; Liu, Jia-Qian; Wang, Qian; Li, Gong-Hua; Huang, Jing-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and schizophrenia (SZ) are both accompanied by impaired learning and memory functions. This study aims to explore the expression profiles of learning or memory genes between AD and SZ. We downloaded 10 AD and 10 SZ datasets from GEO-NCBI for integrated analysis. These datasets were processed using RMA algorithm and a global renormalization for all studies. Then Empirical Bayes algorithm was used to find the differentially expressed genes between patients and controls. The results showed that most of the differentially expressed genes were related to AD whereas the gene expression profile was little affected in the SZ. Furthermore, in the aspects of the number of differentially expressed genes, the fold change and the brain region, there was a great difference in the expression of learning or memory related genes between AD and SZ. In AD, the CALB1, GABRA5, and TAC1 were significantly downregulated in whole brain, frontal lobe, temporal lobe, and hippocampus. However, in SZ, only two genes CRHBP and CX3CR1 were downregulated in hippocampus, and other brain regions were not affected. The effect of these genes on learning or memory impairment has been widely studied. It was suggested that these genes may play a crucial role in AD or SZ pathogenesis. The different gene expression patterns between AD and SZ on learning and memory functions in different brain regions revealed in our study may help to understand the different mechanism between two diseases.

  13. Revealing metabolomic variations in Cortex Moutan from different root parts using HPLC-MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chaoni; Wu, Man; Chen, Yongyong; Zhang, Yajun; Zhao, Xinfeng; Zheng, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of metabolites in the different root parts of Cortex Moutan (the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews) is not well understood, therefore, scientific evidence is not available for quality assessment of Cortex Moutan. To reveal metabolomic variations in Cortex Moutan in order to gain deeper insights to enable quality control. Metabolomic variations in the different root parts of Cortex Moutan were characterised using high-performance liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and multivariate data analysis. The discriminating metabolites in different root parts were evaluated by the one-way analysis of variance and a fold change parameter. The metabolite profiles of Cortex Moutan were largely dominated by five primary and 41 secondary metabolites . Higher levels of malic acid, gallic acid and mudanoside-B were mainly observed in the second lateral roots, whereas dihydroxyacetophenone, benzoyloxypaeoniflorin, suffruticoside-A, kaempferol dihexoside, mudanpioside E and mudanpioside J accumulated in the first lateral and axial roots. The highest contents of paeonol, galloyloxypaeoniflorin and procyanidin B were detected in the axial roots. Accordingly, metabolite compositions of Cortex Moutan were found to vary among different root parts. The axial roots have higher quality than the lateral roots in Cortex Moutan due to the accumulation of bioactive secondary metabolites associated with plant physiology. These findings provided important scientific evidence for grading Cortex Moutan on the general market. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Nomadic lifestyle of Lactobacillus plantarum revealed by comparative genomics of 54 strains isolated from different habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Maria Elena; Bayjanov, Jumamurat R; Caffrey, Brian E; Wels, Michiel; Joncour, Pauline; Hughes, Sandrine; Gillet, Benjamin; Kleerebezem, Michiel; van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Leulier, François

    2016-12-01

    The ability of bacteria to adapt to diverse environmental conditions is well-known. The process of bacterial adaptation to a niche has been linked to large changes in the genome content, showing that many bacterial genomes reflect the constraints imposed by their habitat. However, some highly versatile bacteria are found in diverse habitats that almost share nothing in common. Lactobacillus plantarum is a lactic acid bacterium that is found in a large variety of habitat. With the aim of unravelling the link between evolution and ecological versatility of L. plantarum, we analysed the genomes of 54 L. plantarum strains isolated from different environments. Comparative genome analysis identified a high level of genomic diversity and plasticity among the strains analysed. Phylogenomic and functional divergence studies coupled with gene-trait matching analyses revealed a mixed distribution of the strains, which was uncoupled from their environmental origin. Our findings revealed the absence of specific genomic signatures marking adaptations of L. plantarum towards the diverse habitats it is associated with. This suggests fundamentally similar trends of genome evolution in L. plantarum, which occur in a manner that is apparently uncoupled from ecological constraint and reflects the nomadic lifestyle of this species. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Sex differences in functional activation patterns revealed by increased emotion processing demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Geoffrey B C; Witelson, Sandra F; Szechtman, Henry; Nahmias, Claude

    2004-02-09

    Two [O(15)] PET studies assessed sex differences regional brain activation in the recognition of emotional stimuli. Study I revealed that the recognition of emotion in visual faces resulted in bilateral frontal activation in women, and unilateral right-sided activation in men. In study II, the complexity of the emotional face task was increased through tje addition of associated auditory emotional stimuli. Men again showed unilateral frontal activation, in this case to the left; whereas women did not show bilateral frontal activation, but showed greater limbic activity. These results suggest that when processing broader cross-modal emotional stimuli, men engage more in associative cognitive strategies while women draw more on primary emotional references.

  16. Child mental health differences amongst ethnic groups in Britain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon David A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inter-ethnic differences have been reported for many mental health outcomes in the UK, but no systematic review on child mental health has been published. The aim of this review is to compare the population-based prevalence of child mental disorders between ethnic groups in Britain, and relate these findings to ethnic differences in mental health service use. Methods A systematic search of bibliographic databases for population-based and clinic-based studies of children aged 0–19, including all ethnic groups and the main child mental disorders. We synthesised findings by comparing each minority group to the White British study sample. Results 31 population-based and 18 clinic-based studies met the inclusion criteria. Children in the main minority groups have similar or better mental health than White British children for common disorders, but may have higher rates for some less common conditions. The causes of these differences are unclear. There may be unmet need for services among Pakistani and Bangladeshi children. Conclusion Inter-ethnic differences exist but are largely unexplained. Future studies should address the challenges of cross-cultural psychiatry and investigate reasons for inter-ethnic differences.

  17. Students’ performance in the different clinical skills assessed in OSCE: what does it reveal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong Hiong Sim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare students’ performance in the different clinical skills (CSs assessed in the objective structured clinical examination. Methods: Data for this study were obtained from final year medical students’ exit examination (n=185. Retrospective analysis of data was conducted using SPSS. Means for the six CSs assessed across the 16 stations were computed and compared. Results: Means for history taking, physical examination, communication skills, clinical reasoning skills (CRSs, procedural skills (PSs, and professionalism were 6.25±1.29, 6.39±1.36, 6.34±0.98, 5.86±0.99, 6.59±1.08, and 6.28±1.02, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA showed there was a significant difference in the means of the six CSs assessed [F(2.980, 548.332=20.253, p<0.001]. Pairwise multiple comparisons revealed significant differences between the means of the eight pairs of CSs assessed, at p<0.05. Conclusions: CRSs appeared to be the weakest while PSs were the strongest, among the six CSs assessed. Students’ unsatisfactory performance in CRS needs to be addressed as CRS is one of the core competencies in medical education and a critical skill to be acquired by medical students before entering the workplace. Despite its challenges, students must learn the skills of clinical reasoning, while clinical teachers should facilitate the clinical reasoning process and guide students’ clinical reasoning development.

  18. Probabilistic Inference: Task Dependency and Individual Differences of Probability Weighting Revealed by Hierarchical Bayesian Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Moritz; Seer, Caroline; Lange, Florian; Kopp, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive determinants of probabilistic inference were examined using hierarchical Bayesian modeling techniques. A classic urn-ball paradigm served as experimental strategy, involving a factorial two (prior probabilities) by two (likelihoods) design. Five computational models of cognitive processes were compared with the observed behavior. Parameter-free Bayesian posterior probabilities and parameter-free base rate neglect provided inadequate models of probabilistic inference. The introduction of distorted subjective probabilities yielded more robust and generalizable results. A general class of (inverted) S-shaped probability weighting functions had been proposed; however, the possibility of large differences in probability distortions not only across experimental conditions, but also across individuals, seems critical for the model's success. It also seems advantageous to consider individual differences in parameters of probability weighting as being sampled from weakly informative prior distributions of individual parameter values. Thus, the results from hierarchical Bayesian modeling converge with previous results in revealing that probability weighting parameters show considerable task dependency and individual differences. Methodologically, this work exemplifies the usefulness of hierarchical Bayesian modeling techniques for cognitive psychology. Theoretically, human probabilistic inference might be best described as the application of individualized strategic policies for Bayesian belief revision.

  19. Second Harmonic Generation Reveals Subtle Fibrosis Differences in Adult and Pediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Zhao, Jing-Min; Rao, Hui-Ying; Yu, Wei-Miao; Zhang, Wei; Theise, Neil D; Wee, Aileen; Wei, Lai

    2017-11-20

    Investigate subtle fibrosis similarities and differences in adult and pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) using second harmonic generation (SHG). SHG/two-photon excitation fluorescence imaging quantified 100 collagen parameters and determined qFibrosis values by using the nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) Clinical Research Network (CRN) scoring system in 62 adult and 36 pediatric NAFLD liver specimens. Six distinct parameters identified differences among the NASH CRN stages with high accuracy (area under the curve, 0835-0.982 vs 0.885-0.981, adult and pediatric). All portal region parameters showed similar changes across early stages 0, 1C, and 2, in both groups. Parameter values decreased in adults with progression from stage 1A/B to 2 in the central vein region. In children, aggregated collagen parameters decreased, but nearly all distributed collagen parameters increased from stage 1A/B to 2. SHG analysis accurately reproduces NASH CRN staging in NAFLD, as well as reveals differences and similarities between adult and pediatric collagen deposition not captured by currently available quantitative methods. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Probabilistic inference: Task dependency and individual differences of probability weighting revealed by hierarchical Bayesian modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz eBoos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive determinants of probabilistic inference were examined using hierarchical Bayesian modelling techniques. A classic urn-ball paradigm served as experimental strategy, involving a factorial two (prior probabilities by two (likelihoods design. Five computational models of cognitive processes were compared with the observed behaviour. Parameter-free Bayesian posterior probabilities and parameter-free base rate neglect provided inadequate models of probabilistic inference. The introduction of distorted subjective probabilities yielded more robust and generalizable results. A general class of (inverted S-shaped probability weighting functions had been proposed; however, the possibility of large differences in probability distortions not only across experimental conditions, but also across individuals, seems critical for the model’s success. It also seems advantageous to consider individual differences in parameters of probability weighting as being sampled from weakly informative prior distributions of individual parameter values. Thus, the results from hierarchical Bayesian modelling converge with previous results in revealing that probability weighting parameters show considerable task dependency and individual differences. Methodologically, this work exemplifies the usefulness of hierarchical Bayesian modelling techniques for cognitive psychology. Theoretically, human probabilistic inference might be best described as the application of individualized strategic policies for Bayesian belief revision.

  1. Sex differences in neural and behavioral signatures of cooperation revealed by fNIRS hyperscanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph M.; Liu, Ning; Cui, Xu; Vrticka, Pascal; Saggar, Manish; Hosseini, S. M. Hadi; Reiss, Allan L.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers from multiple fields have sought to understand how sex moderates human social behavior. While over 50 years of research has revealed differences in cooperation behavior of males and females, the underlying neural correlates of these sex differences have not been explained. A missing and fundamental element of this puzzle is an understanding of how the sex composition of an interacting dyad influences the brain and behavior during cooperation. Using fNIRS-based hyperscanning in 111 same- and mixed-sex dyads, we identified significant behavioral and neural sex-related differences in association with a computer-based cooperation task. Dyads containing at least one male demonstrated significantly higher behavioral performance than female/female dyads. Individual males and females showed significant activation in the right frontopolar and right inferior prefrontal cortices, although this activation was greater in females compared to males. Female/female dyad’s exhibited significant inter-brain coherence within the right temporal cortex, while significant coherence in male/male dyads occurred in the right inferior prefrontal cortex. Significant coherence was not observed in mixed-sex dyads. Finally, for same-sex dyads only, task-related inter-brain coherence was positively correlated with cooperation task performance. Our results highlight multiple important and previously undetected influences of sex on concurrent neural and behavioral signatures of cooperation. PMID:27270754

  2. Multivariate pattern analysis reveals anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated differences of clinical signs and functional brain network organizations between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE, but the anatomical connectivity differences underlying functional variance between the left and right mTLE remain uncharacterized. We examined 43 (22 left, 21 right mTLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis and 39 healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging. After the whole-brain anatomical networks were constructed for each subject, multivariate pattern analysis was applied to classify the left mTLE from the right mTLE and extract the anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mTLE patients. The classification results reveal 93.0% accuracy for the left mTLE versus the right mTLE, 93.4% accuracy for the left mTLE versus controls and 90.0% accuracy for the right mTLE versus controls. Compared with the right mTLE, the left mTLE exhibited a different connectivity pattern in the cortical-limbic network and cerebellum. The majority of the most discriminating anatomical connections were located within or across the cortical-limbic network and cerebellum, thereby indicating that these disease-related anatomical network alterations may give rise to a portion of the complex of emotional and memory deficit between the left and right mTLE. Moreover, the orbitofrontal gyrus, cingulate cortex, hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, which exhibit high discriminative power in classification, may play critical roles in the pathophysiology of mTLE. The current study demonstrated that anatomical connectivity differences between the left mTLE and the right mTLE may have the potential to serve as a neuroimaging biomarker to guide personalized diagnosis of the left and right mTLE.

  3. Multivariate pattern analysis reveals anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Peng; An, Jie; Zeng, Ling-Li; Shen, Hui; Chen, Fanglin; Wang, Wensheng; Qiu, Shijun; Hu, Dewen

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated differences of clinical signs and functional brain network organizations between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE), but the anatomical connectivity differences underlying functional variance between the left and right mTLE remain uncharacterized. We examined 43 (22 left, 21 right) mTLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis and 39 healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging. After the whole-brain anatomical networks were constructed for each subject, multivariate pattern analysis was applied to classify the left mTLE from the right mTLE and extract the anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mTLE patients. The classification results reveal 93.0% accuracy for the left mTLE versus the right mTLE, 93.4% accuracy for the left mTLE versus controls and 90.0% accuracy for the right mTLE versus controls. Compared with the right mTLE, the left mTLE exhibited a different connectivity pattern in the cortical-limbic network and cerebellum. The majority of the most discriminating anatomical connections were located within or across the cortical-limbic network and cerebellum, thereby indicating that these disease-related anatomical network alterations may give rise to a portion of the complex of emotional and memory deficit between the left and right mTLE. Moreover, the orbitofrontal gyrus, cingulate cortex, hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, which exhibit high discriminative power in classification, may play critical roles in the pathophysiology of mTLE. The current study demonstrated that anatomical connectivity differences between the left mTLE and the right mTLE may have the potential to serve as a neuroimaging biomarker to guide personalized diagnosis of the left and right mTLE.

  4. A systematic literature review of sex differences in childhood language and brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchell, Andrew; Adhikari, Aditi; Weinberg, Lauren S; Choo, Ai Leen; Garnett, Emily O; Chow, Ho Ming; Chang, Soo-Eun

    2018-06-01

    The extent of sex differences in childhood language development is unclear. We conducted a systematic literature review synthesizing results from studies examining sex differences in brain structure and function relevant to language development during childhood. We searched PubMed and Scopus databases, and this returned a total of 46 published studies meeting criteria for inclusion that directly examined sex differences in brain development relevant to language function in children. The results indicate that: (a) sex differences in brain structure or function do not necessarily lead to differences in language task performance; (b) evidence for sex differences in brain and language development are limited; (c) when present, sex differences often interact with a variety of factors such as age and task. Overall, the magnitude of sexual dimorphism of brain developmental trajectories associated with language is not as significant as previously thought. Sex differences were found, however, in studies employing tighter age ranges. This suggests that sex differences may be more prominent during certain developmental stages but are negligible in other stages, likely due to different rates of maturation between the sexes. More research is needed to improve our understanding of how sex differences may arise due to the influence of sex hormones and developmental stages, and how these differences may lead to differences in various language task performance. These studies are expected to provide normative information that may be used in studies examining neurodevelopmental disorders that frequently affect more males than females, and also often affect language development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thyroid transcriptome analysis reveals different adaptive responses to cold environmental conditions between two chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shanshan; Yang, Xukai; Wang, Dehe; Zhu, Feng; Yang, Ning; Hou, Zhuocheng; Ning, Zhonghua

    2018-01-01

    Selection for cold tolerance in chickens is important for improving production performance and animal welfare. The identification of chicken breeds with higher cold tolerance and production performance will help to target candidates for the selection. The thyroid gland plays important roles in thermal adaptation, and its function is influenced by breed differences and transcriptional plasticity, both of which remain largely unknown in the chicken thyroid transcriptome. In this study, we subjected Bashang Long-tail (BS) and Rhode Island Red (RIR) chickens to either cold or warm environments for 21 weeks and investigated egg production performance, body weight changes, serum thyroid hormone concentrations, and thyroid gland transcriptome profiles. RIR chickens had higher egg production than BS chickens under warm conditions, but BS chickens produced more eggs than RIRs under cold conditions. Furthermore, BS chickens showed stable body weight gain under cold conditions while RIRs did not. These results suggested that BS breed is a preferable candidate for cold-tolerance selection and that the cold adaptability of RIRs should be improved in the future. BS chickens had higher serum thyroid hormone concentrations than RIRs under both environments. RNA-Seq generated 344.3 million paired-end reads from 16 sequencing libraries, and about 90% of the processed reads were concordantly mapped to the chicken reference genome. Differential expression analysis identified 46-1,211 genes in the respective comparisons. With regard to breed differences in the thyroid transcriptome, BS chickens showed higher cell replication and development, and immune response-related activity, while RIR chickens showed higher carbohydrate and protein metabolism activity. The cold environment reduced breed differences in the thyroid transcriptome compared with the warm environment. Transcriptional plasticity analysis revealed different adaptive responses in BS and RIR chickens to cope with the cold

  6. Effects of different lower-limb sensory stimulation strategies on postural regulation-a Systematic review and metaanalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woo, Mei Teng; Davids, Keith; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Orth, Dominic; Chow, Jia Yi; Jaakkola, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Systematic reviews of balance control have tended to only focus on the effects of single lower-limb stimulation strategies, and a current limitation is the lack of comparison between different relevant stimulation strategies. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine

  7. Impact of systematic errors on DVH parameters of different OAR and target volumes in Intracavitary Brachytherapy (ICBT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourya, Ankur; Singh, Gaganpreet; Kumar, Vivek; Oinam, Arun S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study is to analyze the impact of systematic errors on DVH parameters of different OAR and Target volumes in intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). To quantify the changes in dose-volume histogram parameters due to systematic errors in applicator reconstruction of brachytherapy planning, known errors in catheter reconstructions have to be introduced in applicator coordinate system

  8. Comparative Analysis of Membrane Vesicles from Three Piscirickettsia salmonis Isolates Reveals Differences in Vesicle Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia I Tandberg

    Full Text Available Membrane vesicles (MVs are spherical particles naturally released from the membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Bacterial MV production is associated with a range of phenotypes including biofilm formation, horizontal gene transfer, toxin delivery, modulation of host immune responses and virulence. This study reports comparative profiling of MVs from bacterial strains isolated from three widely disperse geographical areas. Mass spectrometry identified 119, 159 and 142 proteins in MVs from three different strains of Piscirickettsia salmonis isolated from salmonids in Chile (LF-89, Norway (NVI 5692 and Canada (NVI 5892, respectively. MV comparison revealed several strain-specific differences related to higher virulence capability for LF-89 MVs, both in vivo and in vitro, and stronger similarities between the NVI 5692 and NVI 5892 MV proteome. The MVs were similar in size and appearance as analyzed by electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The MVs from all three strains were internalized by both commercial and primary immune cell cultures, which suggest a potential role of the MVs in the bacterium's utilization of leukocytes. When MVs were injected into an adult zebrafish infection model, an upregulation of several pro-inflammatory genes were observed in spleen and kidney, indicating a modulating effect on the immune system. The present study is the first comparative analysis of P. salmonis derived MVs, highlighting strain-specific vesicle characteristics. The results further illustrate that the MV proteome from one bacterial strain is not representative of all bacterial strains within one species.

  9. DNA entropy reveals a significant difference in complexity between housekeeping and tissue specific gene promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David; Finan, Chris; Newport, Melanie J; Jones, Susan

    2015-10-01

    The complexity of DNA can be quantified using estimates of entropy. Variation in DNA complexity is expected between the promoters of genes with different transcriptional mechanisms; namely housekeeping (HK) and tissue specific (TS). The former are transcribed constitutively to maintain general cellular functions, and the latter are transcribed in restricted tissue and cells types for specific molecular events. It is known that promoter features in the human genome are related to tissue specificity, but this has been difficult to quantify on a genomic scale. If entropy effectively quantifies DNA complexity, calculating the entropies of HK and TS gene promoters as profiles may reveal significant differences. Entropy profiles were calculated for a total dataset of 12,003 human gene promoters and for 501 housekeeping (HK) and 587 tissue specific (TS) human gene promoters. The mean profiles show the TS promoters have a significantly lower entropy (pentropy distributions for the 3 datasets show that promoter entropies could be used to identify novel HK genes. Functional features comprise DNA sequence patterns that are non-random and hence they have lower entropies. The lower entropy of TS gene promoters can be explained by a higher density of positive and negative regulatory elements, required for genes with complex spatial and temporary expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Different Silk Yields of Two Silkworm Strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li

    Full Text Available Cocoon and silk yields are the most important characteristics of sericulture. However, few studies have examined the genes that modulate these features. Further studies of these genes will be useful for improving the products of sericulture. JingSong (JS and Lan10 (L10 are two strains having significantly different cocoon and silk yields. In the current study, RNA-Seq and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR were performed on both strains in order to determine divergence of the silk gland, which controls silk biosynthesis in silkworms. Compared with L10, JS had 1375 differentially expressed genes (DEGs; 738 up-regulated genes and 673 down-regulated genes. Nine enriched gene ontology (GO terms were identified by GO enrichment analysis based on these DEGs. KEGG enrichment analysis results showed that the DEGs were enriched in three pathways, which were mainly associated with the processing and biosynthesis of proteins. The representative genes in the enrichment pathways and ten significant DEGs were further verified by qPCR, the results of which were consistent with the RNA-Seq data. Our study has revealed differences in silk glands between the two silkworm strains and provides a perspective for understanding the molecular mechanisms determining silk yield.

  11. Secretomes of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma flocculare reveal differences associated to pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Jéssica A; Lorenzatto, Karina R; de Moraes, Sofia N; Moura, Hercules; Barr, John R; Ferreira, Henrique B

    2017-02-10

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma flocculare cohabit the porcine respiratory tract. However, M. hyopneumoniae causes the porcine enzootic pneumonia, while M. flocculare is a commensal bacterium. Comparative analyses demonstrated high similarity between these species, which includes the sharing of all predicted virulence factors. Nevertheless, studies related to soluble secretomes of mycoplasmas were little known, although they are important for bacterial-host interactions. The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis between the soluble secreted proteins repertoires of the pathogenic Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and its closely related commensal Mycoplasma flocculare. For that, bacteria were cultured in medium with reduced serum concentration and secreted proteins were identified by a LC-MS/MS proteomics approach. Altogether, 62 and 26 proteins were identified as secreted by M. hyopneumoniae and M. flocculare, respectively, being just seven proteins shared between these bacteria. In M. hyopneumoniae secretome, 15 proteins described as virulence factors were found; while four putative virulence factors were identified in M. flocculare secretome. For the first time, clear differences related to virulence were found between these species, helping to elucidate the pathogenic nature of M. hyopneumoniae to swine hosts. For the first time, the secretomes of two porcine respiratory mycoplasmas, namely the pathogenic M. hyopneumoniae and the commensal M. flocculare were compared. The presented results revealed previously unknown differences between these two genetically related species, some of which are associated to the M. hyopneumoniae ability to cause porcine enzootic pneumonia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Expression of cytokeratins in odontogenic jaw cysts: monoclonal antibodies reveal distinct variation between different cyst types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormia, M; Ylipaavalniemi, P; Nagle, R B; Virtanen, I

    1987-08-01

    Immunostaining with monoclonal antibodies was used to study and compare the cytokeratin content of odontogenic cysts and normal gingival epithelium. Two monoclonal antibodies, PKK2 and KA1, stained the whole epithelium in all cyst samples. In gingiva, PKK2 gave a suprabasal staining and KA1 reacted with all epithelial cell layers. Antibodies PKK1, KM 4.62 and KS 8.12 gave a heterogeneous staining in follicular and radicular cysts. In keratocysts and in gingiva PKK1 and KM 4.62 reacted mainly with basal cells and KS 8.12 gave a suprabasal staining. Antibodies reacting with the simple epithelial cytokeratin polypeptide No. 18 (PKK3, KS 18.18) recognized in gingiva only solitary cells compatible with Merkel cells. In a case of follicular ameloblastoma a distinct staining of tumor epithelium was revealed with these antibodies. In 2 follicular cysts, but not in other cyst types, a layer of cytokeratin 18-positive cells was revealed. KA5 and KK 8.60 antibodies, reacting exclusively with keratinizing epithelia, including normal gingiva, gave no reaction in radicular cysts, keratocysts and ameloblastoma. Two of the follicular cysts, were negative for PKK3 and KS 18.18, but reacted strongly with KA5 and KK 8.60. The present results show that odontogenic jaw cysts have distinct differences in their cytokeratin content. With the exception of some follicular cysts, they lack signs of keratinizing epithelial differentiation. Only follicular cysts appear to share with some types of ameloblastoma the expression of cytokeratin polypeptide No. 18.

  13. Effects of different lower-limb sensory stimulation strategies on postural regulation?A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Mei Teng; Davids, Keith; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Orth, Dominic; Chow, Jia Yi; Jaakkola, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Systematic reviews of balance control have tended to only focus on the effects of single lower-limb stimulation strategies, and a current limitation is the lack of comparison between different relevant stimulation strategies. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine evidence of effects of different lower-limb sensory stimulation strategies on postural regulation and stability. Moderate- to high- pooled effect sizes (Unbiased (Hedges’ g) standardized mean differences ...

  14. Revealing the secrets of African annonaceae : systematics, evolution and biogeography of the syncarpous genera Isolona and Monodora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couvreur, T.L.P.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this PhD project was to study the evolution, systematics and biogeography of two African genera from the pan-tropical Annonaceae family: Isolona and Monodora. Both genera are unique within the family in that the female reproductive parts (or carpels) are fused into a single unit. All

  15. Seed metabolomic study reveals significant metabolite variations and correlations among different soybean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong; Rao, Jun; Shi, Jianxin; Hu, Chaoyang; Cheng, Fang; Wilson, Zoe A; Zhang, Dabing; Quan, Sheng

    2014-09-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the world's major crops, and soybean seeds are a rich and important resource for proteins and oils. While "omics" studies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, have been widely applied in soybean molecular research, fewer metabolomic studies have been conducted for large-scale detection of low molecular weight metabolites, especially in soybean seeds. In this study, we investigated the seed metabolomes of 29 common soybean cultivars through combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred sixty-nine named metabolites were identified and subsequently used to construct a metabolic network of mature soybean seed. Among the 169 detected metabolites, 104 were found to be significantly variable in their levels across tested cultivars. Metabolite markers that could be used to distinguish genetically related soybean cultivars were also identified, and metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed some significant associations within the same or among different metabolite groups. Findings from this work may potentially provide the basis for further studies on both soybean seed metabolism and metabolic engineering to improve soybean seed quality and yield. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Seed metabolomic study reveals significant metabolite variations and correlations among different soybean cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Lin; Jun Rao; Jianxin Shi; Chaoyang Hu; Fang Cheng; Zoe AWilson; Dabing Zhang; Sheng Quan

    2014-01-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the world’s major crops, and soybean seeds are a rich and important resource for proteins and oils. While “omics”studies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, have been widely applied in soybean molecular research, fewer metabolomic studies have been conducted for large-scale detection of low molecular weight metabolites, especial y in soybean seeds. In this study, we investigated the seed metabolomes of 29 common soybean cultivars through combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred sixty-nine named metabolites were identified and subsequently used to construct a metabolic network of mature soybean seed. Among the 169 detected metabolites, 104 were found to be significantly variable in their levels across tested cultivars. Metabolite markers that could be used to distinguish genetical y related soybean cultivars were also identified, and metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed some significant associations within the same or among different metabolite groups. Findings from this work may potentially provide the basis for further studies on both soybean seed metabolism and metabolic engineering to improve soybean seed quality and yield.

  17. Experimental evolution reveals differences between phenotypic and evolutionary responses to population density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, K B; Simmons, L W

    2017-09-01

    Group living can select for increased immunity, given the heightened risk of parasite transmission. Yet, it also may select for increased male reproductive investment, given the elevated risk of female multiple mating. Trade-offs between immunity and reproduction are well documented. Phenotypically, population density mediates both reproductive investment and immune function in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. However, the evolutionary response of populations to these traits is unknown. We created two replicated populations of P. interpunctella, reared and mated for 14 generations under high or low population densities. These population densities cause plastic responses in immunity and reproduction: at higher numbers, both sexes invest more in one index of immunity [phenoloxidase (PO) activity] and males invest more in sperm. Interestingly, our data revealed divergence in PO and reproduction in a different direction to previously reported phenotypic responses. Males evolving at low population densities transferred more sperm, and both males and females displayed higher PO than individuals at high population densities. These positively correlated responses to selection suggest no apparent evolutionary trade-off between immunity and reproduction. We speculate that the reduced PO activity and sperm investment when evolving under high population density may be due to the reduced population fitness predicted under increased sexual conflict and/or to trade-offs between pre- and post-copulatory traits. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. The Evolution of Two-Component Systems in Bacteria RevealsDifferent Strategies for Niche Adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Eric; Huang, Katherine; Arkin, Adam

    2006-09-13

    Two-component systems including histidine protein kinasesrepresent the primary signal transduction paradigm in prokaryoticorganisms. To understand how these systems adapt to allow organisms todetect niche-specific signals, we analyzed the phylogenetic distributionof nearly 5000 histidine protein kinases from 207 sequenced prokaryoticgenomes. We found that many genomes carry a large repertoire of recentlyevolved signaling genes, which may reflect selective pressure to adapt tonew environmental conditions. Both lineage-specific gene family expansionand horizontal gene transfer play major roles in the introduction of newhistidine kinases into genomes; however, there are differences in howthese two evolutionary forces act. Genes imported via horizontal transferare more likely to retain their original functionality as inferred from asimilar complement of signaling domains, while gene family expansionaccompanied by domain shuffling appears to be a major source of novelgenetic diversity. Family expansion is the dominantsource of newhistidine kinase genes in the genomes most enriched in signalingproteins, and detailed analysis reveals that divergence in domainstructure and changes in expression patterns are hallmarks of recentexpansions. Finally, while these two modes of gene acquisition arewidespread across bacterial taxa, there are clear species-specificpreferences for which mode is used.

  19. Transgenic zebrafish reveal tissue-specific differences in estrogen signaling in response to environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Daniel A; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Hung, Alice L; Blazer, Vicki S; Halpern, Marnie E

    2014-04-01

    Environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) are exogenous chemicals that mimic endogenous hormones such as estrogens. Previous studies using a zebrafish transgenic reporter demonstrated that the EEDs bisphenol A and genistein preferentially activate estrogen receptors (ERs) in the larval heart compared with the liver. However, it was not known whether the transgenic zebrafish reporter was sensitive enough to detect estrogens from environmental samples, whether environmental estrogens would exhibit tissue-specific effects similar to those of BPA and genistein, or why some compounds preferentially target receptors in the heart. We tested surface water samples using a transgenic zebrafish reporter with tandem estrogen response elements driving green fluorescent protein expression (5xERE:GFP). Reporter activation was colocalized with tissue-specific expression of ER genes by RNA in situ hybridization. We observed selective patterns of ER activation in transgenic fish exposed to river water samples from the Mid-Atlantic United States, with several samples preferentially activating receptors in embryonic and larval heart valves. We discovered that tissue specificity in ER activation was due to differences in the expression of ER subtypes. ERα was expressed in developing heart valves but not in the liver, whereas ERβ2 had the opposite profile. Accordingly, subtype-specific ER agonists activated the reporter in either the heart valves or the liver. The use of 5xERE:GFP transgenic zebrafish revealed an unexpected tissue-specific difference in the response to environmentally relevant estrogenic compounds. Exposure to estrogenic EEDs in utero was associated with adverse health effects, with the potentially unanticipated consequence of targeting developing heart valves.

  20. Trismus following different treatment modalities for head and neck cancer: a systematic review of subjective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Sook Y; Mcleod, Robert W J; Elhassan, Hassan A

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this review was to compare systematically the subjective measure of trismus between different interventions to treat head and neck cancer, particularly those of the oropharynx. Using The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Guidelines, Six databases were searched for the text using various terms which include "oropharyngeal/head and neck cancer", "trismus/mouth opening" and the various treatment modalities. Included in the review were clinical studies (> or =10 patients). Three observers independently assessed the papers identified. Among the six studies reviewed, five showed a significantly worst outcome with regard to the quality-of-life questionnaire scores for a radiotherapy or surgery and radiotherapy (RT) ± chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy when compared to surgery alone. Only one study showed no significant difference between surgery alone and other treatment modalities. Subjective quality-of-life measures are a concurrent part of modern surgical practice. Although subjective measures were utilised to measure post operative trismus successfully, there was no consensus as to which treatment modality had overall better outcomes, with conflicting studies in keeping with the current debate in this field. Larger and higher quality studies are needed to compare all three treatment modalities.

  1. Whole-genome sequencing reveals mutational landscape underlying phenotypic differences between two widespread Chinese cattle breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Xu

    Full Text Available Whole-genome sequencing provides a powerful tool to obtain more genetic variability that could produce a range of benefits for cattle breeding industry. Nanyang (Bos indicus and Qinchuan (Bos taurus are two important Chinese indigenous cattle breeds with distinct phenotypes. To identify the genetic characteristics responsible for variation in phenotypes between the two breeds, in the present study, we for the first time sequenced the genomes of four Nanyang and four Qinchuan cattle with 10 to 12 fold on average of 97.86% and 98.98% coverage of genomes, respectively. Comparison with the Bos_taurus_UMD_3.1 reference assembly yielded 9,010,096 SNPs for Nanyang, and 6,965,062 for Qinchuan cattle, 51% and 29% of which were novel SNPs, respectively. A total of 154,934 and 115,032 small indels (1 to 3 bp were found in the Nanyang and Qinchuan genomes, respectively. The SNP and indel distribution revealed that Nanyang showed a genetically high diversity as compared to Qinchuan cattle. Furthermore, a total of 2,907 putative cases of copy number variation (CNV were identified by aligning Nanyang to Qinchuan genome, 783 of which (27% encompassed the coding regions of 495 functional genes. The gene ontology (GO analysis revealed that many CNV genes were enriched in the immune system and environment adaptability. Among several CNV genes related to lipid transport and fat metabolism, Lepin receptor gene (LEPR overlapping with CNV_1815 showed remarkably higher copy number in Qinchuan than Nanyang (log2 (ratio = -2.34988; P value = 1.53E-102. Further qPCR and association analysis investigated that the copy number of the LEPR gene presented positive correlations with transcriptional expression and phenotypic traits, suggesting the LEPR CNV may contribute to the higher fat deposition in muscles of Qinchuan cattle. Our findings provide evidence that the distinct phenotypes of Nanyang and Qinchuan breeds may be due to the different genetic variations including SNPs

  2. Different definitions of CpG island methylator phenotype and outcomes of colorectal cancer: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Min; Gao, Xu; Zhang, Yan; Hoffmeister, Michael; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Contradictory results were reported for the prognostic role of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) among colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Differences in the definitions of CIMP were the most common explanation for these discrepancies. The aim of this systematic review was to give an overview of the published studies on CRC prognosis according to the different definitions of CIMP. A systematic literature search was performed in MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science for articles published until 3 ...

  3. Proteomic Profiles Reveal the Function of Different Vegetative Tissues of Moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zou, Qiong; Wang, Jinxing; Zhang, Junjie; Liu, Zeping; Chen, Xiaoyang

    2016-12-01

    Moringa oleifera is a rich source of bioactive compounds and is widely used in traditional medicine and food for its nutritional value; however, the protein and peptide components of different tissues are rarely discussed. Here, we describe the first investigation of M. oleifera proteomes using mass spectrometry and bioinformatics methods. We aimed to elucidate the protein profiles of M. oleifera leaves, stem, bark, and root. Totally 202 proteins were identified from four vegetative organs. We identified 101 proteins from leaves, 51 from stem, 94 from bark and 67 from root, finding that only five proteins existed in both four vegetative parts. The calculated pI of most of the proteins is distributed in 5-10 and the molecular weight distributed below 100 kDa. Functional classification analysis revealed that proteins which are involved in catalytic activities are the most abundant both in leaves, stem, bark and root. Identification of several heat shock proteins in four vegetative tissues might be adaptive for resistance to high temperature environmental stresses of tropical or subtropical areas. Some enzymes involved in antioxidant processes were also identified in M. oleifera leaves, stem, bark and root. Among the four tissues studies here, leaves protein content and molecular diversity were the highest. The identification of the flocculating protein MO2.1 and MO2.2 in the bark and root provides clue to clarify the antimicrobial molecular mechanisms of root and bark. This study provides information on the protein compositions of M. oleifera vegetative tissues that will be beneficial for potential drug and food supplement development and plant physiology research.

  4. Regional Atmospheric CO2 Inversion Reveals Seasonal and Geographic Differences in Amazon Net Biome Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, Caroline B.; Miller, John B.; Gatti, Luciana V.; Gloor, Manuel M.; Guan, Kaiyu; Michalak, Anna M.; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid; Touma, Danielle; Andrews, Arlyn; Basso, Luana G.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Understanding tropical rainforest carbon exchange and its response to heat and drought is critical for quantifying the effects of climate change on tropical ecosystems, including global climate carbon feedbacks. Of particular importance for the global carbon budget is net biome exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere (NBE), which represents nonfire carbon fluxes into and out of biomass and soils. Subannual and sub-Basin Amazon NBE estimates have relied heavily on process-based biosphere models, despite lack of model agreement with plot-scale observations. We present a new analysis of airborne measurements that reveals monthly, regional-scale (Approx.1-8 x 10(exp -6) km2) NBE variations. We develop a regional atmospheric CO2 inversion that provides the first analysis of geographic and temporal variability in Amazon biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange and that is minimally influenced by biosphere model-based first guesses of seasonal and annual mean fluxes. We find little evidence for a clear seasonal cycle in Amazon NBE but do find NBE sensitivity to aberrations from long-term mean climate. In particular, we observe increased NBE (more carbon emitted to the atmosphere) associated with heat and drought in 2010, and correlations between wet season NBE and precipitation (negative correlation) and temperature (positive correlation). In the eastern Amazon, pulses of increased NBE persisted through 2011, suggesting legacy effects of 2010 heat and drought. We also identify regional differences in postdrought NBE that appear related to long-term water availability. We examine satellite proxies and find evidence for higher gross primary productivity (GPP) during a pulse of increased carbon uptake in 2011, and lower GPP during a period of increased NBE in the 2010 dry season drought, but links between GPP and NBE changes are not conclusive. These results provide novel evidence of NBE sensitivity to short-term temperature and moisture extremes in the Amazon, where monthly and sub

  5. A Systems Biology Approach Reveals Converging Molecular Mechanisms that Link Different POPs to Common Metabolic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Patricia; Perlina, Ally; Mumtaz, Moiz; Fowler, Bruce A

    2016-07-01

    A number of epidemiological studies have identified statistical associations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metabolic diseases, but testable hypotheses regarding underlying molecular mechanisms to explain these linkages have not been published. We assessed the underlying mechanisms of POPs that have been associated with metabolic diseases; three well-known POPs [2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD), 2,2´,4,4´,5,5´-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), and 4,4´-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE)] were studied. We used advanced database search tools to delineate testable hypotheses and to guide laboratory-based research studies into underlying mechanisms by which this POP mixture could produce or exacerbate metabolic diseases. For our searches, we used proprietary systems biology software (MetaCore™/MetaDrug™) to conduct advanced search queries for the underlying interactions database, followed by directional network construction to identify common mechanisms for these POPs within two or fewer interaction steps downstream of their primary targets. These common downstream pathways belong to various cytokine and chemokine families with experimentally well-documented causal associations with type 2 diabetes. Our systems biology approach allowed identification of converging pathways leading to activation of common downstream targets. To our knowledge, this is the first study to propose an integrated global set of step-by-step molecular mechanisms for a combination of three common POPs using a systems biology approach, which may link POP exposure to diseases. Experimental evaluation of the proposed pathways may lead to development of predictive biomarkers of the effects of POPs, which could translate into disease prevention and effective clinical treatment strategies. Ruiz P, Perlina A, Mumtaz M, Fowler BA. 2016. A systems biology approach reveals converging molecular mechanisms that link different POPs to common metabolic diseases. Environ

  6. Influence of Different Implant Geometry in Clinical Longevity and Maintenance of Marginal Bone: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovatto, Sabrina Telles; Bassani, Rafaela; Sarkis-Onofre, Rafael; Dos Santos, Mateus Bertolini Fernandes

    2018-03-26

    To assess, through a systematic review, the influence of different implant geometries on clinical longevity and maintenance of marginal bone tissue. An electronic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science databases, limited to studies written in English from 1996 to 2017 using specific search strategies. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared dental implants and their geometries were included. Two reviewers independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. From the 4006 references identified by the search, 24 were considered eligible for full-text analysis, after which 10 studies were included in this review. A similar behavior of marginal bone loss between tapered and cylindrical geometries was observed; however, implants that had micro-threads in the neck presented a slight decrease of marginal bone loss compared to implants with straight or smooth neck. Success and survival rates were high, with cylindrical implants presenting higher success and survival rates than tapered ones. Implant geometry seems to have little influence on marginal bone loss (MBL) and survival and success rates after 1 year of implant placement; however, the evidence in this systematic review was classified as very low due to limitations such as study design, sample size, and publication bias. Thus, more well-designed RCTs should be conducted to provide evidence regarding the influence of implant geometry on MBL and survival and success rates after 1 year of implant placement. © 2018 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  7. Do spatiotemporal parameters and gait variability differ across the lifespan of healthy adults? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herssens, Nolan; Verbecque, Evi; Hallemans, Ann; Vereeck, Luc; Van Rompaey, Vincent; Saeys, Wim

    2018-06-12

    Aging is often associated with changes in the musculoskeletal system, peripheral and central nervous system. These age-related changes often result in mobility problems influencing gait performance. Compensatory strategies are used as a way to adapt to these physiological changes. The aim of this review is to investigate the differences in spatiotemporal and gait variability measures throughout the healthy adult life. This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines and registered in the PROSPERO database (no. CRD42017057720). Databases MEDLINE (Pubmed), Web of Science (Web of Knowledge), Cochrane Library and ScienceDirect were systematically searched until March 2018. Eighteen of the 3195 original studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. The majority of studies reported spatiotemporal and gait variability measures in adults above the age of 65, followed by the young adult population, information of middle-aged adults is lacking. Spatiotemporal parameters and gait variability measures were extracted from 2112 healthy adults between 18 and 98 years old and, in general, tend to deteriorate with increasing age. Variability measures were only reported in an elderly population and show great variety between studies. The findings of this review suggest that most spatiotemporal parameters significantly differ across different age groups. Elderly populations show a reduction of preferred walking speed, cadence, step and stride length, all related to a more cautious gait, while gait variability measures remain stable over time. A preliminary framework of normative reference data is provided, enabling insights into the influence of aging on spatiotemporal parameters, however spatiotemporal parameters of middle-aged adults should be investigated more thoroughly. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Gender differences in walking (for leisure, transport and in total) across adult life: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Tessa M; Wagnild, Janelle M

    2017-04-20

    The aim of this systematic review was to examine gender differences in walking for leisure, transport and in total in adults living in high-income countries, and to assess whether gender differences in walking practices change across the life-course. A systematic literature search was conducted of publications dated 1995 to 2015. Papers providing quantitative data on participation in walking of both men and women aged at least 18 years in a high-income country were screened for the quality of the data on gender differences in walking. Data were extracted and results were synthesised using forest plots and narrative summary. Thirty-six studies were included in the review: 18 reported on walking for leisure, 16 on walking for transport (in total, or for particular purposes), and 14 on total walking. Most (33) studies provided data comparing the proportion of men and women who walked (at all or for a minimum duration) over a defined period, usually one week. There was consistent evidence that more women than men walk for leisure, although effect sizes were small. However, this effect varies by age: more younger women than younger men walk for leisure, but the gender difference diminishes with age and appears to reverse in the oldest age groups. Taking all ages together, there was no consistent gender difference in walking for transport or in total walking, although the small number of studies reporting on walking to undertake errands suggested that more women than men walk for this purpose. While there is little evidence that levels of total walking consistently vary by gender, our findings suggest that there are consistent gender differences in participation in walking for some purposes, including for leisure, and that there are gender differences in the impact of age on walking. We conclude that more research is needed to improve our understanding of how walking fits into the lives of women and men across the life-course, especially in relation to gender

  9. Insights from Integrative Systematics Reveal Cryptic Diversity in Pristimantis Frogs (Anura: Craugastoridae from the Upper Amazon Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mauricio Ortega-Andrade

    Full Text Available Pluralistic approaches to taxonomy facilitate a more complete appraisal of biodiversity, especially the diversification of cryptic species. Although species delimitation has traditionally been based primarily on morphological differences, the integration of new methods allows diverse lines of evidence to solve the problem. Robber frogs (Pristimantis are exemplary, as many of the species show high morphological variation within populations, but few traits that are diagnostic of species. We used a combination of DNA sequences from three mitochondrial genes, morphometric data, and comparisons of ecological niche models (ENMs to infer a phylogenetic hypothesis for the Pristimantis acuminatus complex. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed a close relationship between three new species-Pristimantis enigmaticus sp. nov., P. limoncochensis sp. nov. and P. omeviridis sp. nov.-originally confused with Pristimantis acuminatus. In combination with morphometric data and geographic distributions, several morphological characters such as degree of tympanum exposure, skin texture, ulnar/tarsal tubercles and sexual secondary characters (vocal slits and nuptial pads in males were found to be useful for diagnosing species in the complex. Multivariate discriminant analyses provided a successful classification rate for 83-100% of specimens. Discriminant analysis of localities in environmental niche space showed a successful classification rate of 75-98%. Identity tests of ENMs rejected hypotheses of niche equivalency, although not strongly because the high values on niche overlap. Pristimantis acuminatus and P. enigmaticus sp. nov. are distributed along the lowlands of central-southern Ecuador and northern Peru, in contrast with P. limoncochensis sp. nov. and P. omeviridis sp. nov., which are found in northern Ecuador and southern Colombia, up to 1200 m in the upper Amazon Basin. The methods used herein provide an integrated framework for inventorying the greatly

  10. Gender differences in the relationship between built environment and non-communicable diseases: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valson, Joanna Sara; Kutty, V Raman

    2018-02-05

    Non-communicable diseases are on the rise globally. Risk factors of non-communicable diseases continue to be a growing concern in both developed and developing countries. With significant rise in population and establishment of buildings, rapid changes have taken place in the built environment. Relationship between health and place, particularly with non-communicable diseases has been established in previous literature. This systematic review assesses the current evidence on influence of gender in the relationship between built environment and non-communicable diseases. A systematic literature search using PubMed was done to identify all studies that reported relationship between gender and built environment. All titles and abstracts were scrutinised to include only articles based on risk factors, prevention, treatment and outcome of non-communicable diseases. The Gender Analysis Matrix developed by the World Health Organization was used to describe the findings of gender differences. Sex differences, biological susceptibility, gender norms/ values, roles and activities related to gender and access to/control over resources were themes for the differences in the relationship. A total of 15 out of 214 articles met the inclusion criteria. Majority of the studies were on risk factors of non-communicable diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases. Gender differences in physical access to recreational facilities, neighbourhood perceptions of safety and walkability have been documented. Men and women showed differential preferences to walking, engaging in physical activity and in perceiving safety of the neighbourhood. Girls and boys showed differences in play activities at school and in their own neighbourhood environment. Safety from crime and safety from traffic were also perceived important to engage in physical activity. Gender norms and gender roles and activities have shown basis for the differences in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases. Sparse

  11. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed structural differences among WRKY domain-DNA interaction in barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Bharati; Grover, Abhinav; Sharma, Pradeep

    2018-02-12

    The WRKY transcription factors are a class of DNA-binding proteins involved in diverse plant processes play critical roles in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Genome-wide divergence analysis of WRKY gene family in Hordeum vulgare provided a framework for molecular evolution and functional roles. So far, the crystal structure of WRKY from barley has not been resolved; moreover, knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of WRKY domain is pre-requisites for exploring the protein-DNA recognition mechanisms. Homology modelling based approach was used to generate structures for WRKY DNA binding domain (DBD) and its variants using AtWRKY1 as a template. Finally, the stability and conformational changes of the generated model in unbound and bound form was examined through atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for 100 ns time period. In this study, we investigated the comparative binding pattern of WRKY domain and its variants with W-box cis-regulatory element using molecular docking and dynamics (MD) simulations assays. The atomic insight into WRKY domain exhibited significant variation in the intermolecular hydrogen bonding pattern, leading to the structural anomalies in the variant type and differences in the DNA-binding specificities. Based on the MD analysis, residual contribution and interaction contour, wild-type WRKY (HvWRKY46) were found to interact with DNA through highly conserved heptapeptide in the pre- and post-MD simulated complexes, whereas heptapeptide interaction with DNA was missing in variants (I and II) in post-MD complexes. Consequently, through principal component analysis, wild-type WRKY was also found to be more stable by obscuring a reduced conformational space than the variant I (HvWRKY34). Lastly, high binding free energy for wild-type and variant II allowed us to conclude that wild-type WRKY-DNA complex was more stable relative to variants I. The results of our study revealed complete dynamic and structural information

  12. Application of Solid-State NMR to Reveal Structural Differences in Cefazolin Sodium Pentahydrate From Different Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Tian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state Nuclear magnetic resonance, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were combined with theoretical calculation to investigate different crystal packings of α-cefazolin sodium obtained from three different vendors and conformational polymorphism was identified to exist in α-cefazolin sodium. Marginal differences observed among cefazolin sodium pentahydrate 1, 2, and 3 were speculated as being caused by the proportion of conformation 2.

  13. Differences in price elasticities of demand for health insurance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendzialek, Jonas B; Simic, Dusan; Stock, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Many health insurance systems apply managed competition principles to control costs and quality of health care. Besides other factors, managed competition relies on a sufficient price-elastic demand. This paper presents a systematic review of empirical studies on price elasticity of demand for health insurance. The objective was to identify the differing international ranges of price elasticity and to find socio-economic as well as setting-oriented factors that influence price elasticity. Relevant literature for the topic was identified through a two-step identification process including a systematic search in appropriate databases and further searches within the references of the results. A total of 45 studies from countries such as the USA, Germany, the Netherlands, and Switzerland were found. Clear differences in price elasticity by countries were identified. While empirical studies showed a range between -0.2 and -1.0 for optional primary health insurance in the US, higher price elasticities between -0.6 and -4.2 for Germany and around -2 for Switzerland were calculated for mandatory primary health insurance. Dutch studies found price elasticities below -0.5. In consideration of all relevant studies, age and poorer health status were identified to decrease price elasticity. Other socio-economic factors had an unclear impact or too limited evidence. Premium level, range of premiums, homogeneity of benefits/coverage and degree of forced decision were found to have a major influence on price elasticity in their settings. Further influence was found from supplementary insurance and premium-dependent employer contribution.

  14. Parenting Stress through the Lens of Different Clinical Groups: a Systematic Review & Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Lucybel; Graziano, Paulo A.; Bagner, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    Research has demonstrated an association between parenting stress and child behavior problems, and suggested levels of parenting stress are higher among parents of children at risk for behavior problems, such as those with autism and developmental delay (ASD/DD). The goal of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of parenting stress and child behavior problems among different clinical groups (i.e., ASD/DD, chronic illness, with or at-risk for behavioral and/or mood disorders). We also examined demographic and methodological variables as moderators and differences in overall levels of parenting stress between the clinical groups. This systematic review documents a link between parenting stress and child behavior problems with an emphasis on externalizing behavior. One-hundred thirty-three studies were included for quantitative analysis. Parenting stress was more strongly related to child externalizing (weighted ES r = 0.57, d = 1.39) than internalizing (weighted ES r = 0.37, d = 0.79) problems. Moderation analyses indicated that the association between parenting stress and behavior problems was stronger among studies which had mostly male and clinic-recruited samples. Overall, parenting stress levels were higher for parents of children with ASD/DD compared to parents of children from other clinical groups. Findings document the association between parenting stress and child behavior problems and highlight the importance of assessing parenting stress as part of routine care and throughout behavioral intervention programs, especially for groups of children at high risk for behavior problems, such as children with ASD/DD, in order to identify support for both the parent(s) and child. PMID:28555335

  15. Differences of energy expenditure while sitting versus standing: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidifard, Farzane; Medina-Inojosa, Jose R; Supervia, Marta; Olson, Thomas P; Somers, Virend K; Erwin, Patricia J; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2018-03-01

    Background Replacing sitting with standing is one of several recommendations to decrease sedentary time and increase the daily energy expenditure, but the difference in energy expenditure between standing versus sitting has been controversial. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine this difference. Designs and methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar for observational and experimental studies that compared the energy expenditure of standing versus sitting. We calculated mean differences and 95% confidence intervals using a random effects model. We conducted different predefined subgroup analyses based on characteristics of participants and study design. Results We identified 658 studies and included 46 studies with 1184 participants for the final analysis. The mean difference in energy expenditure between sitting and standing was 0.15 kcal/min (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12-0.17). The difference among women was 0.1 kcal/min (95% CI 0.0-0.21), and was 0.19 kcal/min (95% CI 0.05-0.33) in men. Observational studies had a lower difference in energy expenditure (0.11 kcal/min, 95% CI 0.08-0.14) compared to randomised trials (0.2 kcal/min, 95% CI 0.12-0.28). By substituting sitting with standing for 6 hours/day, a 65 kg person will expend an additional 54 kcal/day. Assuming no increase in energy intake, this difference in energy expenditure would be translated into the energy content of about 2.5 kg of body fat mass in 1 year. Conclusions The substitution of sitting with standing could be a potential solution for a sedentary lifestyle to prevent weight gain in the long term. Future studies should aim to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of this strategy.

  16. Clustering Scientific Publications Based on Citation Relations: A Systematic Comparison of Different Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šubelj, Lovro; van Eck, Nees Jan; Waltman, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Clustering methods are applied regularly in the bibliometric literature to identify research areas or scientific fields. These methods are for instance used to group publications into clusters based on their relations in a citation network. In the network science literature, many clustering methods, often referred to as graph partitioning or community detection techniques, have been developed. Focusing on the problem of clustering the publications in a citation network, we present a systematic comparison of the performance of a large number of these clustering methods. Using a number of different citation networks, some of them relatively small and others very large, we extensively study the statistical properties of the results provided by different methods. In addition, we also carry out an expert-based assessment of the results produced by different methods. The expert-based assessment focuses on publications in the field of scientometrics. Our findings seem to indicate that there is a trade-off between different properties that may be considered desirable for a good clustering of publications. Overall, map equation methods appear to perform best in our analysis, suggesting that these methods deserve more attention from the bibliometric community.

  17. Clustering Scientific Publications Based on Citation Relations: A Systematic Comparison of Different Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šubelj, Lovro; van Eck, Nees Jan; Waltman, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Clustering methods are applied regularly in the bibliometric literature to identify research areas or scientific fields. These methods are for instance used to group publications into clusters based on their relations in a citation network. In the network science literature, many clustering methods, often referred to as graph partitioning or community detection techniques, have been developed. Focusing on the problem of clustering the publications in a citation network, we present a systematic comparison of the performance of a large number of these clustering methods. Using a number of different citation networks, some of them relatively small and others very large, we extensively study the statistical properties of the results provided by different methods. In addition, we also carry out an expert-based assessment of the results produced by different methods. The expert-based assessment focuses on publications in the field of scientometrics. Our findings seem to indicate that there is a trade-off between different properties that may be considered desirable for a good clustering of publications. Overall, map equation methods appear to perform best in our analysis, suggesting that these methods deserve more attention from the bibliometric community. PMID:27124610

  18. Revealing the Differences Between Free and Complexed Enzyme Mechanisms and Factors Contributing to Cell Wall Recalcitrance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resch, Michael G.; Donohoe, Byron; Ciesielski, Peter; Nill, Jennifer; McKinney, Kellene; Mittal, Ashutosh; Katahira, Rui; Himmel, Michael; Biddy, Mary; Beckham, Gregg; Decker, Steve

    2014-09-08

    Enzymatic depolymerization of polysaccharides is a key step in the production of fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass, and discovery of synergistic biomass-degrading enzyme paradigms will enable improved conversion processes. Historically, revealing insights into enzymatic saccharification mechanisms on plant cell walls has been hindered by uncharacterized substrates and low resolution.

  19. Prevention of type 2 diabetes; a systematic review and meta-analysis of different intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlotti, C; Morabito, A; Pontiroli, A E

    2014-08-01

    Different intervention strategies can prevent type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness of different strategies. Studies were grouped into 15 different strategies: 1: diet plus physical activity; 2: physical activity; 3-6: anti-diabetic drugs [glitazones, metformin, beta-cell stimulating drugs (sulphanylureas, glinides), alfa-glucosidase inhibitors]; 7-8: cardiovascular drugs (ACE inhibitors, ARB, calcium antagonists); 9-14 [diets, lipid-affecting drugs (orlistat, bezafibrate), vitamins, micronutrients, estrogens, alcohol, coffee]; 15: bariatric surgery. Only controlled studies were included in the analysis, whether randomized, non-randomized, observational studies, whether primarily designed to assess incident cases of diabetes, or performed with other purposes, such as control of hypertension, of ischemic heart disease or prevention of cardiovascular events. Appropriate methodology [preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement] was used. Seventy-one studies (490 813 subjects), published as full papers, were analysed to identify predictors of new cases of T2DM, and were included in a meta-analysis (random-effects model) to study the effect of different strategies. Intervention effect (new cases of diabetes) was expressed as odds ratio (OR), with 95% confidence intervals (C.I.s). Publication bias was formally assessed. Body mass index was in the overweight range for 13 groups, obese or morbidly obese in lipid-affecting drugs and in bariatric surgery. Non-surgical strategies, except for beta-cell stimulating drugs, estrogens and vitamins, were able to prevent T2DM, with different effectiveness, from 0.37 (C.I. 0.26-0.52) to 0.85 (C.I. 0.77-0.93); the most effective strategy was bariatric surgery in morbidly obese subjects [0.16 (C.I. 0.11,0.24)]. At meta-regression analysis, age of subjects and amount of weight lost were associated with effectiveness of

  20. Application of Solid-State NMR to Reveal Structural Differences in Cefazolin Sodium Pentahydrate from Different Manufacturing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Wang, Wei D.; Zou, Wen-Bo; Qian, Jian-Qin; Hu, Chang-Qin

    2018-04-01

    The solid form of an active pharmaceutical ingredient is important when developing a new chemical entity. A solid understanding of the crystal structure and morphology that affect the mechanical and physical characteristics of pharmaceutical powders determines the manufacturing process. Solid-state NMR, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were combined with theoretical calculation to investigate different crystal packings of α-cefazolin sodium from three different vendors and conformational polymorphism was identified to exist in the α-cefazolin sodium. Marginal differences observed among CEZ-Na pentahydrate 1, 2, and 3 were speculated as the proportion of conformation 2. Understanding the differences in the polymorphic structure of α-cefazolin sodium may help with making modifications to incorporate new knowledge with a product’s development.

  1. Comparing the reported burn conditions for different severity burns in porcine models: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Christine J; Cuttle, Leila

    2017-12-01

    There are many porcine burn models that create burns using different materials (e.g. metal, water) and different burn conditions (e.g. temperature and duration of exposure). This review aims to determine whether a pooled analysis of these studies can provide insight into the burn materials and conditions required to create burns of a specific severity. A systematic review of 42 porcine burn studies describing the depth of burn injury with histological evaluation is presented. Inclusion criteria included thermal burns, burns created with a novel method or material, histological evaluation within 7 days post-burn and method for depth of injury assessment specified. Conditions causing deep dermal scald burns compared to contact burns of equivalent severity were disparate, with lower temperatures and shorter durations reported for scald burns (83°C for 14 seconds) compared to contact burns (111°C for 23 seconds). A valuable archive of the different mechanisms and materials used for porcine burn models is presented to aid design and optimisation of future models. Significantly, this review demonstrates the effect of the mechanism of injury on burn severity and that caution is recommended when burn conditions established by porcine contact burn models are used by regulators to guide scald burn prevention strategies. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Evidence of the efficacy for occupational therapy in different conditions: an overview of systematic reviews.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steultjens, E.M.J.; Dekker, J.; Bouter, L.M.; Leemrijse, C.J.; Ende, C.H.M. van den

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the research evidence available from systematic reviews of the efficacy of occupational therapy (OT) for practitioners, researchers, purchasing organizations and policy-makers. DATA SOURCE: The search for systematic reviews was conducted in PubMed and the Cochrane Library

  3. Large differences in the genome organization of different plant Trypanosomatid parasites (Phytomonas spp.) reveal wide evolutionary divergences between taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, C; Dollet, M; Pagès, M; Bastien, P

    2009-03-01

    All currently known plant trypanosomes have been grouped in the genus Phytomonas spp., although they can differ greatly in terms of both their biological properties and effects upon the host. Those parasitizing the phloem sap are specifically associated with lethal syndromes in Latin America, such as, phloem necrosis of coffee, 'Hartrot' of coconut and 'Marchitez sorpresiva' of oil palm, that inflict considerable economic losses in endemic countries. The genomic organization of one group of Phytomonas (D) considered as representative of the genus has been published previously. The present work presents the genomic structure of two representative isolates from the pathogenic phloem-restricted group (H) of Phytomonas, analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis followed by hybridization with chromosome-specific DNA markers. It came as a surprise to observe an extremely different genomic organization in this group as compared with that of group D. Most notably, the chromosome number is 7 in this group (with a genome size of 10 Mb) versus 21 in the group D (totalling 25 Mb). These data unravel an unsuspected genomic diversity within plant trypanosomatids, that may justify a further debate about their division into different genera.

  4. Implementing the Health Promoting University approach in culturally different contexts: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Reyes, Mónica; Van den Broucke, Stephan

    2016-03-01

    Universities represent a valuable opportunity to promote health and well-being. Based on the setting approach, the Health Promoting Universities concept has been developed in different countries and contexts. However, the implementation process remains poorly documented. This systematic review aims to describe how universities have implemented the Health Promoting University concept in different cultural contexts. Pubmed, Medline, Lilacs and Scielo were searched for articles on Health Promoting Universities, published between 1995 and 2015. Studies detailing the implementation of a Health Promoting University approach were included. Selected articles were content analysed paying attention to: (a) the definition of a Health Promoting University; (b) priority areas of action; (c) items of work; (d) coordination of the project; (e) evaluation; and (f) adaptation to the cultural context. Twelve studies were identified for in-depth analysis. Of those, three were theoretical papers, and nine were intervention studies. The programmes described in the selected studies are mostly based on the guidelines of the Edmonton Charter. They incorporated the main areas of action and items of works proposed by the Health Promoting University framework. The implementation of healthy policies and incorporation of health promotion in the curriculum are remaining challenges. Strategies to facilitate adaptation to context include: stakeholder participation in planning and implementation, adaptation of educational material and analysis of needs. The review suggests that most of the universities work towards similar goals, relying on the Health Promoting University framework, yet that the way in which initiatives are implemented depends on the context. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Different methods of dentin processing for application in bone tissue engineering: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Fahimeh Sadat; Tatari, Saeed; Samadi, Ramin; Moharamzadeh, Keyvan

    2016-10-01

    Dentin has become an interesting potential biomaterial for tissue engineering of oral hard tissues. It can be used as a scaffold or as a source of growth factors in bone tissue engineering. Different forms of dentin have been studied for their potential use as bone substitutes. Here, we systematically review different methods of dentin preparation and the efficacy of processed dentin in bone tissue engineering. An electronic search was carried out in PubMed and Scopus databases for articles published from 2000 to 2016. Studies on dentin preparation for application in bone tissue engineering were selected. The initial search yielded a total of 1045 articles, of which 37 were finally selected. Review of studies showed that demineralization was the most commonly used dentin preparation process for use in tissue engineering. Dentin extract, dentin particles (tooth ash), freeze-dried dentin, and denatured dentin are others method of dentin preparation. Based on our literature review, we can conclude that preparation procedure and the size and shape of dentin particles play an important role in its osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties. Standardization of these methods is important to draw a conclusion in this regard. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2616-2627, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Asymmetric biotic interactions and abiotic niche differences revealed by a dynamic joint species distribution model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lany, Nina K; Zarnetske, Phoebe L; Schliep, Erin M; Schaeffer, Robert N; Orians, Colin M; Orwig, David A; Preisser, Evan L

    2018-05-01

    A species' distribution and abundance are determined by abiotic conditions and biotic interactions with other species in the community. Most species distribution models correlate the occurrence of a single species with environmental variables only, and leave out biotic interactions. To test the importance of biotic interactions on occurrence and abundance, we compared a multivariate spatiotemporal model of the joint abundance of two invasive insects that share a host plant, hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA; Adelges tsugae) and elongate hemlock scale (EHS; Fiorina externa), to independent models that do not account for dependence among co-occurring species. The joint model revealed that HWA responded more strongly to abiotic conditions than EHS. Additionally, HWA appeared to predispose stands to subsequent increase of EHS, but HWA abundance was not strongly dependent on EHS abundance. This study demonstrates how incorporating spatial and temporal dependence into a species distribution model can reveal the dependence of a species' abundance on other species in the community. Accounting for dependence among co-occurring species with a joint distribution model can also improve estimation of the abiotic niche for species affected by interspecific interactions. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  7. Systematic drug screening reveals specific vulnerabilities and co-resistance patterns in endocrine-resistant breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangaspeska, Sara; Hultsch, Susanne; Jaiswal, Alok; Edgren, Henrik; Mpindi, John-Patrick; Eldfors, Samuli; Brück, Oscar; Aittokallio, Tero; Kallioniemi, Olli

    2016-01-01

    The estrogen receptor (ER) inhibitor tamoxifen reduces breast cancer mortality by 31 % and has served as the standard treatment for ER-positive breast cancers for decades. However, 50 % of advanced ER-positive cancers display de novo resistance to tamoxifen, and acquired resistance evolves in 40 % of patients who initially respond. Mechanisms underlying resistance development remain poorly understood and new therapeutic opportunities are urgently needed. Here, we report the generation and characterization of seven tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cell lines from four parental strains. Using high throughput drug sensitivity and resistance testing (DSRT) with 279 approved and investigational oncology drugs, exome-sequencing and network analysis, we for the first time, systematically determine the drug response profiles specific to tamoxifen resistance. We discovered emerging vulnerabilities towards specific drugs, such as ERK1/2-, proteasome- and BCL-family inhibitors as the cells became tamoxifen-resistant. Co-resistance to other drugs such as the survivin inhibitor YM155 and the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel also occurred. This study indicates that multiple molecular mechanisms dictate endocrine resistance, resulting in unexpected vulnerabilities to initially ineffective drugs, as well as in emerging co-resistances. Thus, combatting drug-resistant tumors will require patient-tailored strategies in order to identify new drug vulnerabilities, and to understand the associated co-resistance patterns. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2452-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  8. Systematic drug screening reveals specific vulnerabilities and co-resistance patterns in endocrine-resistant breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangaspeska, Sara; Hultsch, Susanne; Jaiswal, Alok; Edgren, Henrik; Mpindi, John-Patrick; Eldfors, Samuli; Brück, Oscar; Aittokallio, Tero; Kallioniemi, Olli

    2016-07-04

    The estrogen receptor (ER) inhibitor tamoxifen reduces breast cancer mortality by 31 % and has served as the standard treatment for ER-positive breast cancers for decades. However, 50 % of advanced ER-positive cancers display de novo resistance to tamoxifen, and acquired resistance evolves in 40 % of patients who initially respond. Mechanisms underlying resistance development remain poorly understood and new therapeutic opportunities are urgently needed. Here, we report the generation and characterization of seven tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cell lines from four parental strains. Using high throughput drug sensitivity and resistance testing (DSRT) with 279 approved and investigational oncology drugs, exome-sequencing and network analysis, we for the first time, systematically determine the drug response profiles specific to tamoxifen resistance. We discovered emerging vulnerabilities towards specific drugs, such as ERK1/2-, proteasome- and BCL-family inhibitors as the cells became tamoxifen-resistant. Co-resistance to other drugs such as the survivin inhibitor YM155 and the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel also occurred. This study indicates that multiple molecular mechanisms dictate endocrine resistance, resulting in unexpected vulnerabilities to initially ineffective drugs, as well as in emerging co-resistances. Thus, combatting drug-resistant tumors will require patient-tailored strategies in order to identify new drug vulnerabilities, and to understand the associated co-resistance patterns.

  9. Independent Transitions between Monsoonal and Arid Biomes Revealed by Systematic Revison of a Complex of Australian Geckos (Diplodactylus; Diplodactylidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Oliver

    Full Text Available How the widespread expansion and intensification of aridity through the Neogene has shaped the Austral biota is a major question in Antipodean biogeography. Lineages distributed across wide aridity gradients provide opportunities to examine the timing, frequency, and direction of transitions between arid and mesic regions. Here, we use molecular genetics and morphological data to investigate the systematics and biogeography of a nominal Australian gecko species (Diplodactylus conspicillatus sensu lato with a wide distribution spanning most of the Australian Arid Zone (AAZ and Monsoonal Tropics (AMT. Our data support a minimum of seven genetically distinct and morphologically diagnosable taxa; we thus redefine the type species, ressurrect three names from synonymy, and describe three new species. Our inferred phylogeny suggests the history and diversification of lineages in the AAZ and AMT are intimately linked, with evidence of multiple independent interchanges since the late Miocene. However, despite this shared history, related lineages in these two regions also show evidence of broadly contrasting intra-regional responses to aridification; vicarance and speciation in older and increasingly attenuated mesic regions, versus a more dynamic history including independent colonisations and recent range expansions in the younger AAZ.

  10. Towards school mental health programmes in Nigeria: systematic review revealed the need for contextualised and culturally-nuanced research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilola, Olayinka; Ola, Bolanle

    2016-01-01

    School-based mental health programmes, a potential avenue to reach many children and youth, are not yet developed in Nigeria. In view of the importance of cultural nuances in mental health issues, initial groundwork towards the establishment of these programmes in Nigeria must be cognizant of cultural peculiarities at the outset. The objective of the study was to critically examine, through the lens of transcultural psychiatry, all the currently available epidemiological studies and needs assessments relevant to school-based mental health programmes in Nigeria. The study was a systematic review of relevant studies available from MEDLINE, Science Direct, PsychInfo, Google Scholar, and AJOL databases. This review shows that there is an ongoing effort at documenting the burden of mental health problems and risks, resource needs, and the available resource and capacity for school-based mental health programmes in Nigeria. However, generally speaking these epidemiological data and needs assessments are significantly limited in epistemological philosophy and cultural contextualisation. This was evidenced by a preponderance of non-representative data, quantitative assessments, and decontextualised interpretation of results and conclusions. Going forward, recommendations are offered for culturally-nuanced epidemiology and the direction is set for context-appropriate needs assessments for school-based mental health programmes in Nigeria.

  11. Magnetic and magnetoelectric properties of NdCrTiO5 revealed by systematically rare-earth doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Feng, Zhenjie; Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Bojie; Chu, Hao; Huang, Ping; Wang, Difei; Qian, Xiaolong; Yu, Chuan; Wang, Guohua; Deng, Dongmei; Jing, Chao; Cao, Shixun; Zhang, Jincang

    2018-01-01

    We have systematically synthesized polycrystalline samples of Nd0.9A0.1CrTiO5 (A = Pr, Nd, Gd, Dy, Er, Tm, and Yb), and have investigated their crystal structure, polarization and magnetic susceptibility. The polarization values of doped samples are suppressed comparing to pure NdCrTiO5 sample, which indicates that the polarization is highly dependence with the magnetic moments of doping ions. The TN of Cr-Cr in Nd0.9A0.1CrTiO5 are dominated by both the suppression effect caused by doped magnetic moment increment and the enhancement effect caused by c axis contracting. We conclude that the magnetic moments in the rare-earth Nd sites play an important role in the magnetoelectric effect in NdCrTiO5 family. The substitution effect discussion here can help us well understand the intrinsic mechanism and provide a possible guidance in exploring new magnetoelectric coupling systems.

  12. Correction: Independent transitions between monsoonal and arid biomes revealed by systematic revison of a complex of Australian geckos (Diplodactylus; Diplodactylidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Oliver

    Full Text Available How the widespread expansion and intensification of aridity through the Neogene has shaped the Austral biota is a major question in Antipodean biogeography.Lineages distributed across wide aridity gradients provide opportunities to examine the timing, frequency, and direction of transitions between arid and mesic regions.Here, we use molecular genetics and morphological data to investigate the systematics and biogeography of a nominal Australian gecko species(Diplodactylus conspicillatus sensu lato with a wide distribution spanning most of the Australian Arid Zone (AAZ and Monsoonal Tropics (AMT. Our data support a minimum of seven genetically distinct and morphologically diagnosable taxa; we thus redefine the type species, ressurrect three names from synonymy, and describe three new species. Our inferred phylogeny suggests the history and diversification of lineages in the AAZ and AMT are intimately linked, with evidence of multiple independent interchanges since the late Miocene. However, despite this shared history, related lineages in these two regions also show evidence of broadly contrasting intra-regional responses to aridification; vicarance and speciation in older and increasingly attenuated mesic regions, versus a more dynamic history including independent colonisations and recent range expansions in the younger AAZ.

  13. Independent Transitions between Monsoonal and Arid Biomes Revealed by Systematic Revison of a Complex of Australian Geckos (Diplodactylus; Diplodactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Paul M; Couper, Patrick J; Pepper, Mitzy

    2014-01-01

    How the widespread expansion and intensification of aridity through the Neogene has shaped the Austral biota is a major question in Antipodean biogeography. Lineages distributed across wide aridity gradients provide opportunities to examine the timing, frequency, and direction of transitions between arid and mesic regions. Here, we use molecular genetics and morphological data to investigate the systematics and biogeography of a nominal Australian gecko species (Diplodactylus conspicillatus sensu lato) with a wide distribution spanning most of the Australian Arid Zone (AAZ) and Monsoonal Tropics (AMT). Our data support a minimum of seven genetically distinct and morphologically diagnosable taxa; we thus redefine the type species, ressurrect three names from synonymy, and describe three new species. Our inferred phylogeny suggests the history and diversification of lineages in the AAZ and AMT are intimately linked, with evidence of multiple independent interchanges since the late Miocene. However, despite this shared history, related lineages in these two regions also show evidence of broadly contrasting intra-regional responses to aridification; vicarance and speciation in older and increasingly attenuated mesic regions, versus a more dynamic history including independent colonisations and recent range expansions in the younger AAZ.

  14. Correction: Independent transitions between monsoonal and arid biomes revealed by systematic revison of a complex of Australian geckos (Diplodactylus; Diplodactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Paul M; Couper, Patrick J; Pepper, Mitzy

    2015-01-01

    How the widespread expansion and intensification of aridity through the Neogene has shaped the Austral biota is a major question in Antipodean biogeography.Lineages distributed across wide aridity gradients provide opportunities to examine the timing, frequency, and direction of transitions between arid and mesic regions.Here, we use molecular genetics and morphological data to investigate the systematics and biogeography of a nominal Australian gecko species(Diplodactylus conspicillatus sensu lato) with a wide distribution spanning most of the Australian Arid Zone (AAZ) and Monsoonal Tropics (AMT). Our data support a minimum of seven genetically distinct and morphologically diagnosable taxa; we thus redefine the type species, ressurrect three names from synonymy, and describe three new species. Our inferred phylogeny suggests the history and diversification of lineages in the AAZ and AMT are intimately linked, with evidence of multiple independent interchanges since the late Miocene. However, despite this shared history, related lineages in these two regions also show evidence of broadly contrasting intra-regional responses to aridification; vicarance and speciation in older and increasingly attenuated mesic regions, versus a more dynamic history including independent colonisations and recent range expansions in the younger AAZ.

  15. EEG neural oscillatory dynamics reveal semantic and response conflict at difference levels of conflict awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, J.; Zhang, Q.; van Gaal, S.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous work has shown that conflict can be detected in the absence of awareness, it is unknown how different sources of conflict (i.e., semantic, response) are processed in the human brain and whether these processes are differently modulated by conflict awareness. To explore this issue,

  16. Differences in cortisol concentrations in adolescents with eating disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz Neto, Laércio Marques da; Vasconcelos, Flávia Maria Nassar de; Silva, Jacqueline Elineuza da; Pinto, Tiago Coimbra Costa; Sougey, Éverton Botelho; Ximenes, Rosana Christine Cavalcanti

    2018-04-12

    To perform a systematic review of the literature for scientific evidence of possible differences in cortisol concentrations in adolescents with eating disorders. Electronic searches were conducting in the PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Virtual Health Library, and Science Direct databases for articles published between 2007 and 2017 using the keywords, cortisol, hydrocortisone; eating disorders, bulimia, bulimia nervosa, anorexia, anorexia nervosa; adolescence, adolescent, adolescents. A total of 192 articles were found. After the analysis of the eligibility criteria using the PRISMA method, 19 articles were selected for the present review. Most studies were conducted in Europe. Adolescents diagnosed with anorexia nervosa were evaluated in all studies, except one, when other eating disorders were investigated. Blood was the means used for the determination of cortisol. In ten studies, cortisol levels were higher in the group with anorexia than the control group and a reduction in cortisol levels occurred in the adolescents after being submitted to nutritional recovery. Patients with eating disorders may have several clinical consequences, such as changes in body fat distribution, changes in bone mineral density, worsening of neurocognitive ability, and endocrine changes (e.g., hypercortisolemia), which in turn can lead to hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hypertension, and increased risk of infections. The findings demonstrate that adolescents with eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa, have increased cortisol levels, which are reduced after the treatment period. Further studies on differences in cortisol concentrations in adolescents with other eating disorders are needed, using different methods. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Systematic identification of anti-interferon function on hepatitis C virus genome reveals p7 as an immune evasion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hangfei; Chu, Virginia; Wu, Nicholas C; Chen, Zugen; Truong, Shawna; Brar, Gurpreet; Su, Sheng-Yao; Du, Yushen; Arumugaswami, Vaithilingaraja; Olson, C Anders; Chen, Shu-Hua; Lin, Chung-Yen; Wu, Ting-Ting; Sun, Ren

    2017-02-21

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) encodes mechanisms to evade the multilayered antiviral actions of the host immune system. Great progress has been made in elucidating the strategies HCV employs to down-regulate interferon (IFN) production, impede IFN signaling transduction, and impair IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression. However, there is a limited understanding of the mechanisms governing how viral proteins counteract the antiviral functions of downstream IFN effectors due to the lack of an efficient approach to identify such interactions systematically. To study the mechanisms by which HCV antagonizes the IFN responses, we have developed a high-throughput profiling platform that enables mapping of HCV sequences critical for anti-IFN function at high resolution. Genome-wide profiling performed with a 15-nt insertion mutant library of HCV showed that mutations in the p7 region conferred high levels of IFN sensitivity, which could be alleviated by the expression of WT p7 protein. This finding suggests that p7 protein of HCV has an immune evasion function. By screening a liver-specific ISG library, we identified that IFI6-16 significantly inhibits the replication of p7 mutant viruses without affecting WT virus replication. In contrast, knockout of IFI6-16 reversed the IFN hypersensitivity of p7 mutant virus. In addition, p7 was found to be coimmunoprecipitated with IFI6-16 and to counteract the function of IFI6-16 by depolarizing the mitochondria potential. Our data suggest that p7 is a critical immune evasion protein that suppresses the antiviral IFN function by counteracting the function of IFI6-16.

  18. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN RADIO-LOUD AND RADIO-QUIET γ -RAY PULSARS AS REVEALED BY FERMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, C. Y.; Lee, Jongsu [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Takata, J. [Institute of Particle physics and Astronomy, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (China); Ng, C. W.; Cheng, K. S., E-mail: cyhui@cnu.ac.kr, E-mail: takata@hust.edu.cn [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

    2017-01-10

    By comparing the properties of non-recycled radio-loud γ -ray pulsars and radio-quiet γ -ray pulsars, we have searched for the differences between these two populations. We found that the γ -ray spectral curvature of radio-quiet pulsars can be larger than that of radio-loud pulsars. Based on the full sample of non-recycled γ -ray pulsars, their distributions of the magnetic field strength at the light cylinder are also found to be different. We note that this might result from an observational bias. By reexamining the previously reported difference of γ -ray-to-X-ray flux ratios, we found that the significance can be hampered by their statistical uncertainties. In the context of the outer gap model, we discuss the expected properties of these two populations and compare with the possible differences that are identified in our analysis.

  19. EEG neural oscillatory dynamics reveal semantic and response conflict at difference levels of conflict awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Jiang; Qinglin Zhang; Simon Van Gaal

    2015-01-01

    Although previous work has shown that conflict can be detected in the absence of awareness, it is unknown how different sources of conflict (i.e., semantic, response) are processed in the human brain and whether these processes are differently modulated by conflict awareness. To explore this issue, we extracted oscillatory power dynamics from electroencephalographic (EEG) data recorded while human participants performed a modified version of the Stroop task. Crucially, in this task conflict a...

  20. U.S. masters track participation reveals a stable sex difference in competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaner, Robert O; Addona, Vittorio; Mead, Michael P

    2014-10-06

    It is well established that men are more likely than women to engage in direct competition, but it is unclear if this reflects social structural conditions or evolved predispositions. These hypotheses can be addressed by quantifying competitiveness in sports and testing if the sex difference is decreasing over time in the U.S., a society where social roles have converged. Study 1 assessed participation and the occurrence of relatively fast performances by masters runners (40-74 years old) at recent road races and track meets. Fast performances occurred over 20 times more often at track meets than at road races. Women comprised 55% of finishers at roads races but only 15-28% of finishers at track meets. Thus, the sex difference in masters track participation can serve as a measure of the sex difference in competitiveness. Study 2 used data from national championship meets and yearly rankings lists to test whether the sex difference in masters track participation decreased from 1988-2012. The sex difference decreased overall, but there was no evidence of change since the late 1990s. Therefore, the sex difference in the willingness to engage in direct sports competition appears to reflect both social structural conditions and evolved predispositions.

  1. Structural differences between yeast and mammalian microtubules revealed by cryo-EM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howes, Stuart C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Biophysics Graduate Group; Geyer, Elisabeth A. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Biophysics; Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry; LaFrance, Benjamin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular and Cell Biology Graduate Program; Zhang, Rui [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Howard Hughes Medical Inst.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Division; Kellogg, Elizabeth H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Howard Hughes Medical Inst.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Division; Westermann, Stefan [Univ. of Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany). Dept. of Molecular Genetics, Center for Medical Biotechnology; Rice, Luke M. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Biophysics; Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry; Nogales, Eva [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Howard Hughes Medical Inst.; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Molecular Biology and California Inst. for Quantitative Biosciences; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Division

    2017-06-26

    Microtubules are polymers of αβ-tubulin heterodimers essential for all eukaryotes. Despite sequence conservation, there are significant structural differences between microtubules assembled in vitro from mammalian or budding yeast tubulin. Yeast MTs were not observed to undergo compaction at the interdimer interface as seen for mammalian microtubules upon GTP hydrolysis. Lack of compaction might reflect slower GTP hydrolysis or a different degree of allosteric coupling in the lattice. The microtubule plus end–tracking protein Bim1 binds yeast microtubules both between αβ-tubulin heterodimers, as seen for other organisms, and within tubulin dimers, but binds mammalian tubulin only at interdimer contacts. At the concentrations used in cryo-electron microscopy, Bim1 causes the compaction of yeast microtubules and induces their rapid disassembly. In conclusion, our studies demonstrate structural differences between yeast and mammalian microtubules that likely underlie their differing polymerization dynamics. These differences may reflect adaptations to the demands of different cell size or range of physiological growth temperatures.

  2. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AMOMUM VILLOSUM: A SYSTEMATIC INVESTIGATION ON THREE DIFFERENT PRODUCTION MODES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yun-Feng; Chen, Ling-Xiao; Chen, Yu-Ning; Zhao, Jing; Leong, Fong; Li, Xi-Wen; Yang, Qing; Li, Peng; Hu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Amomum Villosum (A. Villosum ), called Chunsharen in Chinese, is widely used in treating gastrointestinal disease. Its clinical benefits have been confirmed by both in vitro and in vivo studies. Facing the shortage of wild A. Villosum , artificial cultivating and natural fostering have been practiced in recent years. Therefore, it would be wondered whether the three different types of A. Villosum are comparable or not, particularly the herbal qualities, technological challenges, ecological impacts and economic benefits. In this study, we combined quality research by using GC-MS, and field investigation to provide a systematic assessment about the three types of A. Villosum from these four aspects. It found that the wild type had low output and was in an endangered situation. The artificial cultivation had larger agriculturing area with higher productivity, but faced the ecological challenges. Lastly, the natural fostering type generated the highest economic benefit and relatively low ecological impact. In addition, the natural fostering type had relatively better quality than the other types. Therefore, it suggests that natural fostering can be applied for long-term sustainable development of A. Villosum .

  3. Impact of school-based health promotion interventions aimed at different behavioral domains: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Serrano, Marta; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín S

    2014-01-01

    Given that lifestyleshave similar determinants and that school-based interventions are usually targeted at all the risks that affect adolescents, the objective of this systematic review was to summarize the characteristics and effects of school-based interventions acting on different behavioral domains of adolescent health promotion. The review process was conducted by two independent reviewers who searched PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases for experimental or observational studies with at least two measures of results published from 2007 to 2011, given that the research information available doubles every 5 years. Methodological quality was assessed with a standardized tool. Information was extracted from 35 studies aiming to prevent risk behaviors and promote healthy nutrition, physical activity, and mental and holistic health. Activities were based on theoretical models and were classified into interactive lessons, peer mediation, environmental changes, parents' and community activities, and tailored messages by computer-assisted training or other resources, usually including multiple components. In some cases, we identified some moderate to large, short- and long-term effects on behavioral and intermediate variable. This exhaustive review found that well-implemented interventions can promote adolescent health. These findings are consistent with recent reviews. Implications for practice, public health, and research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Somatic sex-specific transcriptome differences in Drosophila revealed by whole transcriptome sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbeitman Michelle N

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding animal development and physiology at a molecular-biological level has been advanced by the ability to determine at high resolution the repertoire of mRNA molecules by whole transcriptome resequencing. This includes the ability to detect and quantify rare abundance transcripts and isoform-specific mRNA variants produced from a gene. The sex hierarchy consists of a pre-mRNA splicing cascade that directs the production of sex-specific transcription factors that specify nearly all sexual dimorphism. We have used deep RNA sequencing to gain insight into how the Drosophila sex hierarchy generates somatic sex differences, by examining gene and transcript isoform expression differences between the sexes in adult head tissues. Results Here we find 1,381 genes that differ in overall expression levels and 1,370 isoform-specific transcripts that differ between males and females. Additionally, we find 512 genes not regulated downstream of transformer that are significantly more highly expressed in males than females. These 512 genes are enriched on the × chromosome and reside adjacent to dosage compensation complex entry sites, which taken together suggests that their residence on the × chromosome might be sufficient to confer male-biased expression. There are no transcription unit structural features, from a set of features, that are robustly significantly different in the genes with significant sex differences in the ratio of isoform-specific transcripts, as compared to random isoform-specific transcripts, suggesting that there is no single molecular mechanism that generates isoform-specific transcript differences between the sexes, even though the sex hierarchy is known to include three pre-mRNA splicing factors. Conclusions We identify thousands of genes that show sex-specific differences in overall gene expression levels, and identify hundreds of additional genes that have differences in the abundance of isoform

  5. Do Couple-Based Interventions Make a Difference for Couples Affected by Cancer?: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regan Tim W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the growing recognition that patients and partners react to a cancer diagnosis as an interdependent system and increasing evidence that psychosocial interventions can be beneficial to both patients and partners, there has been a recent increase in the attention given to interventions that target couples. The aim of this systematic review was to identify existing couple-based interventions for patients with cancer and their partners and explore the efficacy of these interventions (including whether there is added value to target the couple versus individuals, the content and delivery of couple-based interventions, and to identify the key elements of couple-based interventions that promote improvement in adjustment to cancer diagnosis. Method A systematic review of the cancer literature was performed to identify experimental and quasi-experimental couple-based interventions published between 1990 and 2011. To be considered for this review, studies had to test the efficacy of a psychosocial intervention for couples affected by cancer. Studies were excluded if they were published in a language other than English or French, focused on pharmacological, exercise, or dietary components combined with psychosocial components, or did not assess the impact of the intervention on psychological distress (e.g., depression, anxiety or quality of life. Data were extracted using a standardised data collection form, and were analysed independently by three reviewers. Results Of the 709 articles screened, 23 were included in this review. Couple-based interventions were most efficacious in improving couple communication, psychological distress, and relationship functioning. Interventions had a limited impact on physical distress and social adjustment. Most interventions focused on improving communication and increasing understanding of the cancer diagnosis within couples. Interventions were most often delivered by masters-level nurses or

  6. Different patterns of auditory cortex activation revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formisano, E; Pepino, A; Bracale, M [Department of Electronic Engineering, Biomedical Unit, Universita di Napoli, Federic II, Italy, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Di Salle, F [Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Radiologucal Unit, Universita di Napoli, Federic II, Italy, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Lanfermann, H; Zanella, F E [Department of Neuroradiology, J.W. Goethe Universitat, Frankfurt/M. (Germany)

    1999-12-31

    In the last few years, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has been widely accepted as an effective tool for mapping brain activities in both the sensorimotor and the cognitive field. The present work aims to assess the possibility of using fMRI methods to study the cortical response to different acoustic stimuli. Furthermore, we refer to recent data collected at Frankfurt University on the cortical pattern of auditory hallucinations. Healthy subjects showed broad bilateral activation, mostly located in the transverse gyrus of Heschl. The analysis of the cortical activation induced by different stimuli has pointed out a remarkable difference in the spatial and temporal features of the auditory cortex response to pulsed tones and pure tones. The activated areas during episodes of auditory hallucinations match the location of primary auditory cortex as defined in control measurements with the same patients and in the experiments on healthy subjects. (authors) 17 refs., 4 figs.

  7. DNA-methylation profiling of fetal tissues reveals marked epigenetic differences between chorionic and amniotic samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Eckmann-Scholz

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation are supposed to play a key role in fetal development. Here we have investigated fetal DNA-methylation levels of 27,578 CpG loci in 47 chorionic villi (CVS and 16 amniotic cell (AC samples. Methylation levels differed significantly between karyotypically normal AC and CVS for 2,014 genes. AC showed more extreme DNA-methylation levels of these genes than CVS and the differentially methylated genes are significantly enriched for processes characteristic for the different cell types sampled. Furthermore, we identified 404 genes differentially methylated in CVS with trisomy 21. These genes were significantly enriched for high CG dinucleotid (CpG content and developmental processes associated with Down syndrome. Our study points to major tissue-specific differences of fetal DNA-methylation and gives rise to the hypothesis that part of the Down syndrome phenotype is epigenetically programmed in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  8. Evolutionary engineering reveals divergent paths when yeast is adapted to different acidic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fletcher, Eugene; Feizi, Amir; Bisschops, Markus M. M.

    2017-01-01

    Tolerance of yeast to acid stress is important for many industrial processes including organic acid production. Therefore, elucidating the molecular basis of long term adaptation to acidic environments will be beneficial for engineering production strains to thrive under such harsh conditions....... Previous studies using gene expression analysis have suggested that both organic and inorganic acids display similar responses during short term exposure to acidic conditions. However, biological mechanisms that will lead to long term adaptation of yeast to acidic conditions remains unknown and whether...... factor in the evolutionary process since cells evolved on two different carbon sources (raffinose and glucose) generated a different set of mutations in response to the presence of lactic acid. Therefore, different strategies are required for a rational design of low pH tolerant strains depending...

  9. Different patterns of auditory cortex activation revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formisano, E.; Pepino, A.; Bracale, M.; Di Salle, F.; Lanfermann, H.; Zanella, F.E.

    1998-01-01

    In the last few years, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has been widely accepted as an effective tool for mapping brain activities in both the sensorimotor and the cognitive field. The present work aims to assess the possibility of using fMRI methods to study the cortical response to different acoustic stimuli. Furthermore, we refer to recent data collected at Frankfurt University on the cortical pattern of auditory hallucinations. Healthy subjects showed broad bilateral activation, mostly located in the transverse gyrus of Heschl. The analysis of the cortical activation induced by different stimuli has pointed out a remarkable difference in the spatial and temporal features of the auditory cortex response to pulsed tones and pure tones. The activated areas during episodes of auditory hallucinations match the location of primary auditory cortex as defined in control measurements with the same patients and in the experiments on healthy subjects. (authors)

  10. Single-vesicle imaging reveals different transport mechanisms between glutamatergic and GABAergic vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsi, Zohreh; Preobraschenski, Julia; van den Bogaart, Geert; Riedel, Dietmar; Jahn, Reinhard; Woehler, Andrew

    2016-02-26

    Synaptic transmission is mediated by the release of neurotransmitters, which involves exo-endocytotic cycling of synaptic vesicles. To maintain synaptic function, synaptic vesicles are refilled with thousands of neurotransmitter molecules within seconds after endocytosis, using the energy provided by an electrochemical proton gradient. However, it is unclear how transmitter molecules carrying different net charges can be efficiently sequestered while maintaining charge neutrality and osmotic balance. We used single-vesicle imaging to monitor pH and electrical gradients and directly showed different uptake mechanisms for glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) operating in parallel. In contrast to glutamate, GABA was exchanged for protons, with no other ions participating in the transport cycle. Thus, only a few components are needed to guarantee reliable vesicle filling with different neurotransmitters. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytochrome c551 denaturation by five systematic urea derivatives that differ in the alkyl chain length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shinya; Fujii, Sotaro; Koga, Aya; Wakai, Satoshi; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki; Sambongi, Yoshihiro

    2017-07-01

    Reversible denaturation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytochrome c 551 (PAc 551 ) could be followed using five systematic urea derivatives that differ in the alkyl chain length, i.e. urea, N-methylurea (MU), N-ethylurea (EU), N-propylurea (PU), and N-butylurea (BU). The BU concentration was the lowest required for the PAc 551 denaturation, those of PU, EU, MU, and urea being gradually higher. Furthermore, the accessible surface area difference upon PAc 551 denaturation caused by BU was found to be the highest, those by PU, EU, MU, and urea being gradually lower. These findings indicate that urea derivatives with longer alkyl chains are stronger denaturants. In this study, as many as five systematic urea derivatives could be applied for the reversible denaturation of a single protein, PAc 551 , for the first time, and the effects of the alkyl chain length on protein denaturation were systematically verified by means of thermodynamic parameters.

  12. Cortical Silent Period Reveals Differences Between Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia and Muscle Tension Dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samargia, Sharyl; Schmidt, Rebekah; Kimberley, Teresa Jacobson

    2016-03-01

    The pathophysiology of adductor spasmodic dysphonia (AdSD), like other focal dystonias, is largely unknown. The purposes of this study were to determine (a) cortical excitability differences between AdSD, muscle tension dysphonia (MTD), and healthy controls; (b) distribution of potential differences in cranial or skeletal muscle; and (c) if cortical excitability measures assist in the differential diagnosis of AdSD and MTD. Ten participants with adductor spasmodic dysphonia, 8 with muscle tension dysphonia, and 10 healthy controls received single and paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the primary motor cortex contralateral to tested muscles, first dorsal interosseus (FDI), and masseter. We tested the hypothesis that cortical excitability measures in AdSD would be significantly different from those in MTD and healthy controls. In addition, we hypothesized that there would be a correlation between cortical excitability measures and clinical voice severity in AdSD. Cortical silent period duration in masseter and FDI was significantly shorter in AdSD than MTD and healthy controls. Other measures failed to demonstrate differences. There are differences in cortical excitability between AdSD, MTD, and healthy controls. These differences in the cortical measure of both the FDI and masseter muscles in AdSD suggest widespread dysfunction of the GABAB mechanism may be a pathophysiologic feature of AdSD, similar to other forms of focal dystonia. Further exploration of the use of TMS to assist in the differential diagnosis of AdSD and MTD is warranted. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Reproducible isolation of lymph node stromal cells reveals site-dependent differences in fibroblastic reticular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L Fletcher

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Within lymph nodes, non-hematopoietic stromal cells organize and interact with leukocytes in an immunologically important manner. In addition to organizing T and B cell segregation and expressing lymphocyte survival factors, several recent studies have shown that lymph node stromal cells shape the naïve T cell repertoire, expressing self-antigens which delete self-reactive T cells in a unique and non-redundant fashion. A fundamental role in peripheral tolerance, in addition to an otherwise extensive functional portfolio, necessitates closer study of lymph node stromal cell subsets using modern immunological techniques; however this has not routinely been possible in the field, due to difficulties reproducibly isolating these rare subsets. Techniques were therefore developed for successful ex vivo and in vitro manipulation and characterization of lymph node stroma. Here we discuss and validate these techniques in mice and humans, and apply them to address several unanswered questions regarding lymph node composition. We explored the steady-state stromal composition of lymph nodes isolated from mice and humans, and found that marginal reticular cells and lymphatic endothelial cells required lymphocytes for their normal maturation in mice. We also report alterations in the proportion and number of fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs between skin-draining and mesenteric lymph nodes. Similarly, transcriptional profiling of FRCs revealed changes in cytokine production from these sites. Together, these methods permit highly reproducible stromal cell isolation, sorting, and culture.

  14. Reproducible isolation of lymph node stromal cells reveals site-dependent differences in fibroblastic reticular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Anne L; Malhotra, Deepali; Acton, Sophie E; Lukacs-Kornek, Veronika; Bellemare-Pelletier, Angelique; Curry, Mark; Armant, Myriam; Turley, Shannon J

    2011-01-01

    Within lymph nodes, non-hematopoietic stromal cells organize and interact with leukocytes in an immunologically important manner. In addition to organizing T and B cell segregation and expressing lymphocyte survival factors, several recent studies have shown that lymph node stromal cells shape the naïve T cell repertoire, expressing self-antigens which delete self-reactive T cells in a unique and non-redundant fashion. A fundamental role in peripheral tolerance, in addition to an otherwise extensive functional portfolio, necessitates closer study of lymph node stromal cell subsets using modern immunological techniques; however this has not routinely been possible in the field, due to difficulties reproducibly isolating these rare subsets. Techniques were therefore developed for successful ex vivo and in vitro manipulation and characterization of lymph node stroma. Here we discuss and validate these techniques in mice and humans, and apply them to address several unanswered questions regarding lymph node composition. We explored the steady-state stromal composition of lymph nodes isolated from mice and humans, and found that marginal reticular cells and lymphatic endothelial cells required lymphocytes for their normal maturation in mice. We also report alterations in the proportion and number of fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) between skin-draining and mesenteric lymph nodes. Similarly, transcriptional profiling of FRCs revealed changes in cytokine production from these sites. Together, these methods permit highly reproducible stromal cell isolation, sorting, and culture.

  15. Genetic differences among Haplorchis taichui populations in Indochina revealed by mitochondrial COX1 sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaenkham, U; Phuphisut, O; Nuamtanong, S; Yoonuan, T; Sa-Nguankiat, S; Vonghachack, Y; Belizario, V Y; Dung, D T; Dekumyoy, P; Waikagul, J

    2017-09-01

    Haplorchis taichui is an intestinal heterophyid fluke that is pathogenic to humans. It is widely distributed in Asia, with a particularly high prevalence in Indochina. Previous work revealed that the lack of gene flow between three distinct populations of Vietnamese H. taichui can be attributed to their geographic isolation with no interconnected river basins. To test the hypothesis that interconnected river basins allow gene flow between otherwise isolated populations of H. taichui, as previously demonstrated for another trematode, Opisthorchis viverrini, we compared the genetic structures of seven populations of H. taichui from various localities in the lower Mekong Basin, in Thailand and Laos, with those in Vietnam, using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) gene. To determine the gene flow between these H. taichui populations, we calculated their phylogenetic relationships, genetic distances and haplotype diversity. Each population showed very low nucleotide diversity at this locus. However, high levels of genetic differentiation between the populations indicated very little gene flow. A phylogenetic analysis divided the populations into four clusters that correlated with the country of origin. The negligible gene flow between the Thai and Laos populations, despite sharing the Mekong Basin, caused us to reject our hypothesis. Our data suggest that the distribution of H. taichui populations was incidentally associated with national borders.

  16. Different migration patterns of sea urchin and mouse sperm revealed by a microfluidic chemotaxis device.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixin Chang

    Full Text Available Chemotaxis refers to a process whereby cells move up or down a chemical gradient. Sperm chemotaxis is known to be a strategy exploited by marine invertebrates such as sea urchins to reach eggs efficiently in moving water. Less is understood about how or whether chemotaxis is used by mammalian sperm to reach eggs, where fertilization takes place within the confinement of a reproductive tract. In this report, we quantitatively assessed sea urchin and mouse sperm chemotaxis using a recently developed microfluidic model and high-speed imaging. Results demonstrated that sea urchin Arbacia punctulata sperm were chemotactic toward the peptide resact with high chemotactic sensitivity, with an average velocity Vx up the chemical gradient as high as 20% of its average speed (238 μm/s, while mouse sperm displayed no statistically significant chemotactic behavior in progesterone gradients, which had been proposed to guide mammalian sperm toward eggs. This work demonstrates the validity of a microfluidic model for quantitative sperm chemotaxis studies, and reveals a biological insight that chemotaxis up a progesterone gradient may not be a universal strategy for mammalian sperm to reach eggs.

  17. Limited tryptic proteolysis of the benzodiazepine binding proteins in different species reveals structural homologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, W; Lentes, K U; Schmitz, E; Propping, P; Hebebrand, J

    1988-12-01

    Peptide mapping can be used to elucidate further the structural similarities of the benzodiazepine binding proteins in different vertebrate species. Crude synaptic membrane preparations were photoaffinity-labeled with [3H]flunitrazepam and subsequently degraded with various concentrations of trypsin. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by fluorography allowed a comparison of the molecular weights of photolabeled peptides in different species. Tryptic degradation led to a common peptide of 40K in all species investigated, a finding indicating that the benzodiazepine binding proteins are structurally homologous in higher bony fishes and tetrapods.

  18. Systematic Investigation of Expression of G2/M Transition Genes Reveals CDC25 Alteration in Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, Henriett; Németh, Kinga; Czenke, Dóra; Likó, István; Czirják, Sándor; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Baghy, Kornélia; Korbonits, Márta; Kovalszky, Ilona; Igaz, Péter; Rácz, Károly; Patócs, Attila

    2017-07-01

    Dysregulation of G1/S checkpoint of cell cycle has been reported in pituitary adenomas. In addition, our previous finding showing that deregulation of Wee1 kinase by microRNAs together with other studies demonstrating alteration of G2/M transition in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) suggest that G2/M transition may also be important in pituitary tumorigenesis. To systematically study the expression of members of the G2/M transition in NFPAs and to investigate potential microRNA (miRNA) involvement. Totally, 80 NFPA and 14 normal pituitary (NP) tissues were examined. Expression of 46 genes encoding members of the G2/M transition was profiled on 34 NFPA and 10 NP samples on TaqMan Low Density Array. Expression of CDC25A and two miRNAs targeting CDC25A were validated by individual quantitative real time PCR using TaqMan assays. Protein expression of CDC25A, CDC25C, CDK1 and phospho-CDK1 (Tyr-15) was investigated on tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry. Several genes' expression alteration were observed in NFPA compared to normal tissues by transcription profiling. On protein level CDC25A and both the total and the phospho-CDK1 were overexpressed in adenoma tissues. CDC25A correlated with nuclear localized CDK1 (nCDK1) and with tumor size and nCDK1 with Ki-67 index. Comparing primary vs. recurrent adenomas we found that Ki-67 proliferation index was higher and phospho-CDK1 (inactive form) was downregulated in recurrent tumors compared to primary adenomas. Investigating the potential causes behind CDC25A overexpression we could not find copy number variation at the coding region nor expression alteration of CDC25A regulating transcription factors however CDC25A targeting miRNAs were downregulated in NFPA and negatively correlated with CDC25A expression. Our results suggest that among alterations of G2/M transition of the cell cycle, overexpression of the CDK1 and CDC25A may have a role in the pathogenesis of the NFPA and that CDC25A is potentially

  19. Just a subtle difference? Findings from a systematic review on definitions of nutrition literacy and food literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Corinna; Sommerhalder, Kathrin; Beer-Borst, Sigrid; Abel, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    Nutrition literacy and food literacy have become increasingly important concepts in health promotion. Researchers use one or the other term to describe the competencies needed to maintain a healthy diet. This systematic review examines whether these terms are synonymous or if their meanings are substantially different.We searched major bibliographic databases (Web of Science, PubMed, ScienceDirect, CINAHL, SocIndex and ERIC) for publications that provided an original definition of nutrition or food literacy. Then we used Nutbeam's tripartite health literacy model as an analytical grid. The definitions we found included specific competencies, which we mapped to the domains of functional, interactive, or critical literacy.In the 173 full-text publications we screened, we found six original definitions of nutrition literacy, and 13 original definitions of food literacy. Seven food literacy definitions were integrated into a conceptual framework. Analysing their structure revealed that nutrition literacy and food literacy are seen as specific forms of health literacy, and represent distinct but complementary concepts. Definitions of nutrition literacy mainly described the abilities necessary to obtain and understand nutrition information. Definitions of food literacy incorporated a broader spectrum of theoretical and practical knowledge and skills. To be food literate also means to apply information on food choices and critically reflect on the effect of food choice on personal health and on society. Since food literacy is based on a more comprehensive understanding of health behaviours, it is the more viable term to use in health promotion interventions. For the practical implication, a harmonization of the different definitions is desirable.

  20. Different materials for direct pulp capping: systematic review and meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Brouwer, Fredrik; Schwendicke, Anja; Paris, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    We systematically assessed randomized controlled trials comparing direct pulp capping materials. Trials comparing materials for direct capping and evaluating clinically and/or radiographically determined success after minimum 3 months were included. Two reviewers independently screened electronic databases (Medline, Central, Embase) and performed hand searches. Risk of bias was assessed and meta-analyses were performed, separated for dentition. Trial sequential analysis was used to assess risk of random errors. Strength of evidence was graded using the GRADE approach. From a total of 453 identified studies, 11 (all with high risk of bias) investigating 1094 teeth (922 patients) were included. Six studies were on primary teeth (all with carious exposures) and five on permanent teeth (carious and artificial exposures). Mean follow-up was 14 months (range 3-24). Most studies used calcium hydroxide as control, comparing it to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) (three studies), bonding without prior etching/conditioning (two), or bonding with prior etching/conditioning, enamel matrix proteins, resin-modified glass ionomer cement, calcium sulfate, zinc oxide eugenol, corticosteroids, antibiotics, or formocresol (each in only one study). One study compared MTA and calcium-enriched cement. In permanent teeth, risk of failure was significantly decreased if MTA instead of calcium hydroxide was used (risk ratio (RR) [95 % confidence intervals (CI)] 0.59 [0.39/0.90]); no difference was found for primary teeth. Other comparisons did not find significant differences or were supported by only one study. No firm evidence was reached according to trial sequential analysis. There is insufficient data to recommend or refute the use of a specific material. More long-term practice-based studies with real-life exposures are required. To reduce risk of failure, dentists might consider using MTA instead of calcium hydroxide (CH) for direct capping. Current evidence is insufficient for

  1. Prevalence and clinical implications of the inter-arm blood pressure difference: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C E; Campbell, J L; Evans, P H; Millward, A

    2006-12-01

    A blood pressure (BP) difference between arms was first reported over 100 years ago. Knowledge of its prevalence and relevance to the accurate measurement of BP remains poor. Current hypertension guidelines do not emphasise it. The objectives of this study were to establish the best estimate of prevalence of the inter-arm difference (IAD) in the population, to consider its implications for accurate BP measurement and treatment, and to discuss its aetiology and potential as a risk marker for cardiovascular disease. Systematic literature review was carried out. The data sources were Medline EMBASE and CINAHL databases, and Index of Theses. Studies reporting prevalence rates of IAD were retrieved and considered for inclusion against explicit methodological criteria. Point prevalence rates were extracted and weighted mean prevalence rates calculated. The main outcome measures were weighted mean prevalences of systolic IAD > or =10 and > or =20 mm Hg and of diastolic IAD > or =10 mm Hg. Thirty-one studies were identified. Most had methodological weaknesses; only four met the inclusion criteria. Pooled prevalences of the IAD from these four studies were 19.6% systolic > or =10 mm Hg (95% CI 18.0-21.3%), 4.2% systolic > or =20 mm Hg (95% CI 3.4-5.1%) and 8.1% diastolic > or =10 mm Hg (95%CI 6.9-9.2%). In conclusion, an IAD is present in a substantial number of patients and should be looked for whenever diagnosis and treatment depend on accurate measurements of BP. The importance of an IAD should be better emphasised in current hypertension management guidelines. There is evidence associating an IAD with peripheral vascular disease, raising the possibility that its presence may predict cardiovascular events.

  2. Microstructure and physicochemical properties reveal differences between high moisture buffalo and bovine Mozzarella cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hanh T H; Ong, Lydia; Lopez, Christelle; Kentish, Sandra E; Gras, Sally L

    2017-12-01

    Mozzarella cheese is a classical dairy product but most research to date has focused on low moisture products. In this study, the microstructure and physicochemical properties of both laboratory and commercially produced high moisture buffalo Mozzarella cheeses were investigated and compared to high moisture bovine products. Buffalo and bovine Mozzarella cheeses were found to significantly differ in their microstructure, chemical composition, organic acid and proteolytic profiles but had similar hardness and meltability. The buffalo cheeses exhibited a significantly higher ratio of fat to protein and a microstructure containing larger fat patches and a less dense protein network. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry detected the presence of only β-casein variant A2 and a single β-lactoglobulin variant in buffalo products compared to the presence of both β-casein variants A1 and A2 and β-lactoglobulin variants A and B in bovine cheese. These differences arise from the different milk composition and processing conditions. The differences in microstructure and physicochemical properties observed here offer a new approach to identify the sources of milk used in commercial cheese products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Individual differences in decision making competence revealed by multivariate fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Tanveer; Román, Francisco J; Operskalski, Joachim T; Zwilling, Christopher E; Barbey, Aron K

    2018-06-01

    While an extensive literature in decision neuroscience has elucidated the neurobiological foundations of decision making, prior research has focused primarily on group-level effects in a sample population. Due to the presence of inherent differences between individuals' cognitive abilities, it is also important to examine the neural correlates of decision making that explain interindividual variability in cognitive performance. This study therefore investigated how individual differences in decision making competence, as measured by the Adult Decision Making Competence (A-DMC) battery, are related to functional brain connectivity patterns derived from resting-state fMRI data in a sample of 304 healthy participants. We examined connectome-wide associations, identifying regions within frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital cortex that demonstrated significant associations with decision making competence. We then assessed whether the functional interactions between brain regions sensitive to decision making competence and seven intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) were predictive of specific facets of decision making assessed by subtests of the A-DMC battery. Our findings suggest that individual differences in specific facets of decision making competence are mediated by ICNs that support executive, social, and perceptual processes, and motivate an integrative framework for understanding the neural basis of individual differences in decision making competence. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Teacher Knowledge for Active-Learning Instruction: Expert-Novice Comparison Reveals Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, A. J.; Higgins, M.; Brickman, P.; Andrews, T. C.

    2018-01-01

    Active-learning strategies "can" improve science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) undergraduates' abilities to learn fundamental concepts and skills. However, the results instructors achieve vary substantially. One explanation for this is that instructors commonly implement active learning differently than intended. An…

  5. RNA-SEQ reveals transcriptional level changes of poplar roots in different forms of nitrogen treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunpu eQu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Poplar has emerged as a model plant for understanding molecular mechanisms of tree growth, development and response to environment. Long-term application of different forms of nitrogen (such as NO3--N and NH4+-N may cause morphological changes of poplar roots; however, the molecular level changes are still not well known. In this study, we analyzed the expression profiling of poplar roots treated by three forms of nitrogen: S1 (NH4+, S2 (NH4NO3 and S3 (NO3- by using RNA-SEQ technique. We found 463 genes significantly differentially expressed in roots by different N treatments, of which a total of 116 genes were found to differentially express between S1 and S2, 173 genes between S2 and S3, and 327 genes between S1 and S3. A cluster analysis shows significant difference in many transcription factor families and functional genes family under different N forms. Through an analysis of Mapman metabolic pathway, we found that the significantly differentially expressed genes are associated with fermentation, glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA, secondary metabolism, hormone metabolism, and transport processing. Interestingly, we did not find significantly differentially expressed genes in N metabolism pathway, mitochondrial electron transport / ATP synthesis and mineral nutrition. We also found abundant candidate genes (20 transcription factors and 30 functional genes regulating morphology changes of poplar roots under the three N forms. The results obtained are beneficial to a better understanding of the potential molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating root morphology changes under different N treatments.

  6. Genus-wide comparison of Pseudovibrio bacterial genomes reveal diverse adaptations to different marine invertebrate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Anoop; Antunes, Agostinho

    2018-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudovibrio have been frequently found in association with a wide variety of marine eukaryotic invertebrate hosts, indicative of their versatile and symbiotic lifestyle. A recent comparison of the sponge-associated Pseudovibrio genomes has shed light on the mechanisms influencing a successful symbiotic association with sponges. In contrast, the genomic architecture of Pseudovibrio bacteria associated with other marine hosts has received less attention. Here, we performed genus-wide comparative analyses of 18 Pseudovibrio isolated from sponges, coral, tunicates, flatworm, and seawater. The analyses revealed a certain degree of commonality among the majority of sponge- and coral-associated bacteria. Isolates from other marine invertebrate host, tunicates, exhibited a genetic repertoire for cold adaptation and specific metabolic abilities including mucin degradation in the Antarctic tunicate-associated bacterium Pseudovibrio sp. Tun.PHSC04_5.I4. Reductive genome evolution was simultaneously detected in the flatworm-associated bacteria and the sponge-associated bacterium P. axinellae AD2, through the loss of major secretion systems (type III/VI) and virulence/symbioses factors such as proteins involved in adhesion and attachment to the host. Our study also unraveled the presence of a CRISPR-Cas system in P. stylochi UST20140214-052 a flatworm-associated bacterium possibly suggesting the role of CRISPR-based adaptive immune system against the invading virus particles. Detection of mobile elements and genomic islands (GIs) in all bacterial members highlighted the role of horizontal gene transfer for the acquisition of novel genetic features, likely enhancing the bacterial ecological fitness. These findings are insightful to understand the role of genome diversity in Pseudovibrio as an evolutionary strategy to increase their colonizing success across a wide range of marine eukaryotic hosts.

  7. Partitioning the heritability of Tourette syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder reveals differences in genetic architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea K Davis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The direct estimation of heritability from genome-wide common variant data as implemented in the program Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA has provided a means to quantify heritability attributable to all interrogated variants. We have quantified the variance in liability to disease explained by all SNPs for two phenotypically-related neurobehavioral disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and Tourette Syndrome (TS, using GCTA. Our analysis yielded a heritability point estimate of 0.58 (se = 0.09, p = 5.64e-12 for TS, and 0.37 (se = 0.07, p = 1.5e-07 for OCD. In addition, we conducted multiple genomic partitioning analyses to identify genomic elements that concentrate this heritability. We examined genomic architectures of TS and OCD by chromosome, MAF bin, and functional annotations. In addition, we assessed heritability for early onset and adult onset OCD. Among other notable results, we found that SNPs with a minor allele frequency of less than 5% accounted for 21% of the TS heritability and 0% of the OCD heritability. Additionally, we identified a significant contribution to TS and OCD heritability by variants significantly associated with gene expression in two regions of the brain (parietal cortex and cerebellum for which we had available expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs. Finally we analyzed the genetic correlation between TS and OCD, revealing a genetic correlation of 0.41 (se = 0.15, p = 0.002. These results are very close to previous heritability estimates for TS and OCD based on twin and family studies, suggesting that very little, if any, heritability is truly missing (i.e., unassayed from TS and OCD GWAS studies of common variation. The results also indicate that there is some genetic overlap between these two phenotypically-related neuropsychiatric disorders, but suggest that the two disorders have distinct genetic architectures.

  8. Hemoglobin analyses in the Netherlands reveal more than 80 different variants including six novel ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zwieten, Rob; Veldthuis, Martijn; Delzenne, Barend; Berghuis, Jeffrey; Groen, Joke; Ait Ichou, Fatima; Clifford, Els; Harteveld, Cornelis L; Stroobants, An K

    2014-01-01

    More than 20,000 blood samples of individuals living in The Netherlands and suspected of hemolytic anemia or diabetes were analyzed by high resolution cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Besides common disease-related hemoglobins (Hbs), rare variants were also detected. The variant Hbs were retrospectively analyzed by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and by isoelectric focusing (IEF). For unambiguous identification, the globin genes were sequenced. Most of the 80 Hb variants detected by initial screening on HPLC were also separated by capillary electrophoresis (CE), but a few variants were only detectable with one of these methods. Some variants were unstable, had thalassemic properties or increased oxygen affinity, and some interfered with Hb A2 measurement, detection of sickle cell Hb or Hb A1c quantification. Two of the six novel variants, Hb Enschede (HBA2: c.308G  > A, p.Ser103Asn) and Hb Weesp (HBA1: c.301C > T, p.Leu101Phe), had no clinical consequences. In contrast, two others appeared clinically significant: Hb Ede (HBB: c.53A > T, p.Lys18Met) caused thalassemia and Hb Waterland (HBB: c.428C > T, pAla143Val) was related to mild polycytemia. Hb A2-Venlo (HBD: c.193G > A, p.Gly65Ser) and Hb A2-Rotterdam (HBD: c.38A > C, p.Asn13Thr) interfered with Hb A2 quantification. This survey shows that HPLC analysis followed by globin gene sequencing of rare variants is an effective method to reveal Hb variants.

  9. Lead isotopes reveal different sources of lead in balsamic and other vinegars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndung'u, Kuria; Hibdon, Sharon; Veron, Alain; Flegal, A. Russell

    2011-01-01

    Fifty-eight brands of balsamic vinegars were analyzed for lead concentrations and isotopic compositions ( 204 Pb, 206 Pb, 207 Pb, and 208 Pb) to test the findings of a previous study indicating relatively high levels of lead contamination in some of those vinegars - more than two thirds (70%) of them exceeded California's State Maximum Level (34 μg/L) based on consumption rates ≥ 0.5 μg Pb per day. The Lead isotopic fingerprints of all those vinegars with high lead concentrations were then found to be primarily anthropogenic. This isotopic analysis unquestionably reveals multiple contamination sources including atmospheric pollutant Pb and an unidentified contamination source, likely occurring after grape harvest. Organically grown grape vinegars display the same Pb content and isotopic signatures as other vinegars. This implies that pesticides might not be a significant source of pollutant Pb in vinegars. A significant post-harvest contamination would be inherited from chemicals added during production and/or material used during transport, processing or storage of these vinegars. This is consistent with the highest Pb levels being found in aged vinegars (112 ± 112 μg/L) in contrast to other vinegars (41.6 ± 28.9 μg/L) suggesting contamination during storage. It is, therefore, projected that lead levels in most vinegars, especially aged balsamic and wine vinegars, will decrease with improvements in their manufacture and storage processes consequential to recent concerns of elevated levels of lead in some vinegars. - Highlights: → First extensive study on content and possible sources of lead in balsamic vinegars. → Half of the vinegars exceed California's State Maximum Level for human consumption. → Lead content in vinegars seems to be mainly post-harvest from industrial processes.

  10. Whole genome comparisons of Fragaria, Prunus and Malus reveal different modes of evolution between Rosaceous subfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sook; Cestaro, Alessandro; Troggio, Michela; Main, Dorrie; Zheng, Ping; Cho, Ilhyung; Folta, Kevin M; Sosinski, Bryon; Abbott, Albert; Celton, Jean-Marc; Arús, Pere; Shulaev, Vladimir; Verde, Ignazio; Morgante, Michele; Rokhsar, Daniel; Velasco, Riccardo; Sargent, Daniel James

    2012-04-04

    Rosaceae include numerous economically important and morphologically diverse species. Comparative mapping between the member species in Rosaceae have indicated some level of synteny. Recently the whole genome of three crop species, peach, apple and strawberry, which belong to different genera of the Rosaceae family, have been sequenced, allowing in-depth comparison of these genomes. Our analysis using the whole genome sequences of peach, apple and strawberry identified 1399 orthologous regions between the three genomes, with a mean length of around 100 kb. Each peach chromosome showed major orthology mostly to one strawberry chromosome, but to more than two apple chromosomes, suggesting that the apple genome went through more chromosomal fissions in addition to the whole genome duplication after the divergence of the three genera. However, the distribution of contiguous ancestral regions, identified using the multiple genome rearrangements and ancestors (MGRA) algorithm, suggested that the Fragaria genome went through a greater number of small scale rearrangements compared to the other genomes since they diverged from a common ancestor. Using the contiguous ancestral regions, we reconstructed a hypothetical ancestral genome for the Rosaceae 7 composed of nine chromosomes and propose the evolutionary steps from the ancestral genome to the extant Fragaria, Prunus and Malus genomes. Our analysis shows that different modes of evolution may have played major roles in different subfamilies of Rosaceae. The hypothetical ancestral genome of Rosaceae and the evolutionary steps that lead to three different lineages of Rosaceae will facilitate our understanding of plant genome evolution as well as have a practical impact on knowledge transfer among member species of Rosaceae.

  11. Whole genome comparisons of Fragaria, Prunus and Malus reveal different modes of evolution between Rosaceous subfamilies

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    Jung Sook

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rosaceae include numerous economically important and morphologically diverse species. Comparative mapping between the member species in Rosaceae have indicated some level of synteny. Recently the whole genome of three crop species, peach, apple and strawberry, which belong to different genera of the Rosaceae family, have been sequenced, allowing in-depth comparison of these genomes. Results Our analysis using the whole genome sequences of peach, apple and strawberry identified 1399 orthologous regions between the three genomes, with a mean length of around 100 kb. Each peach chromosome showed major orthology mostly to one strawberry chromosome, but to more than two apple chromosomes, suggesting that the apple genome went through more chromosomal fissions in addition to the whole genome duplication after the divergence of the three genera. However, the distribution of contiguous ancestral regions, identified using the multiple genome rearrangements and ancestors (MGRA algorithm, suggested that the Fragaria genome went through a greater number of small scale rearrangements compared to the other genomes since they diverged from a common ancestor. Using the contiguous ancestral regions, we reconstructed a hypothetical ancestral genome for the Rosaceae 7 composed of nine chromosomes and propose the evolutionary steps from the ancestral genome to the extant Fragaria, Prunus and Malus genomes. Conclusion Our analysis shows that different modes of evolution may have played major roles in different subfamilies of Rosaceae. The hypothetical ancestral genome of Rosaceae and the evolutionary steps that lead to three different lineages of Rosaceae will facilitate our understanding of plant genome evolution as well as have a practical impact on knowledge transfer among member species of Rosaceae.

  12. Tracking of plus-ends reveals microtubule functional diversity in different cell types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaebani, M. Reza; Pasula, Aravind; Ott, Albrecht; Santen, Ludger

    2016-07-01

    Many cellular processes are tightly connected to the dynamics of microtubules (MTs). While in neuronal axons MTs mainly regulate intracellular trafficking, they participate in cytoskeleton reorganization in many other eukaryotic cells, enabling the cell to efficiently adapt to changes in the environment. We show that the functional differences of MTs in different cell types and regions is reflected in the dynamic properties of MT tips. Using plus-end tracking proteins EB1 to monitor growing MT plus-ends, we show that MT dynamics and life cycle in axons of human neurons significantly differ from that of fibroblast cells. The density of plus-ends, as well as the rescue and catastrophe frequencies increase while the growth rate decreases toward the fibroblast cell margin. This results in a rather stable filamentous network structure and maintains the connection between nucleus and membrane. In contrast, plus-ends are uniformly distributed along the axons and exhibit diverse polymerization run times and spatially homogeneous rescue and catastrophe frequencies, leading to MT segments of various lengths. The probability distributions of the excursion length of polymerization and the MT length both follow nearly exponential tails, in agreement with the analytical predictions of a two-state model of MT dynamics.

  13. Integrated analysis of ischemic stroke datasets revealed sex and age difference in anti-stroke targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Xing Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is a common neurological disorder and the burden in the world is growing. This study aims to explore the effect of sex and age difference on ischemic stroke using integrated microarray datasets. The results showed a dramatic difference in whole gene expression profiles and influenced pathways between males and females, and also in the old and young individuals. Furthermore, compared with old males, old female patients showed more serious biological function damage. However, females showed less affected pathways than males in young subjects. Functional interaction networks showed these differential expression genes were mostly related to immune and inflammation-related functions. In addition, we found ARG1 and MMP9 were up-regulated in total and all subgroups. Importantly, IL1A, ILAB, IL6 and TNF and other anti-stroke target genes were up-regulated in males. However, these anti-stroke target genes showed low expression in females. This study found huge sex and age differences in ischemic stroke especially the opposite expression of anti-stroke target genes. Future studies are needed to uncover these pathological mechanisms, and to take appropriate pre-prevention, treatment and rehabilitation measures.

  14. Continuous place avoidance task reveals differences in spatial navigation in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimadevilla, J M; Fenton, A A; Bures, J

    2000-01-01

    A new place navigation test was used to estimate the spatial orientation abilities of male and female rats. Animals had to avoid a room frame defined area on a rotating arena, entering of which was punished by mild footshock, i.e. rats had to avoid the same place in the room but different parts of the floor, which was rotated through the punished zone. Because of the rotation of the arena (one revolution per min), animals could not rely on intramaze cues and only extramaze landmarks could be used for accurate navigation. During 8 consecutive days rats were exposed to daily 40-min sessions, consisting of 20-min acquisition and 20-min extinction (shock discontinued). The position of the punished sector centered around one of the four mutually perpendicular azimuths was daily changed in a predetermined sequence. The results showed no male female differences during acquisition and better performance of males during extinction. The performance of females was not affected by estral cycle-related hormonal changes. The findings are discussed in the light of controversial results of research into sex differences in spatial abilities.

  15. Systematic screen for mutants resistant to TORC1 inhibition in fission yeast reveals genes involved in cellular ageing and growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Rallis

    2014-01-01

    Target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1, which controls growth in response to nutrients, promotes ageing in multiple organisms. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe emerges as a valuable genetic model system to study TORC1 function and cellular ageing. Here we exploited the combinatorial action of rapamycin and caffeine, which inhibit fission yeast growth in a TORC1-dependent manner. We screened a deletion library, comprising ∼84% of all non-essential fission yeast genes, for drug-resistant mutants. This screen identified 33 genes encoding functions such as transcription, kinases, mitochondrial respiration, biosynthesis, intra-cellular trafficking, and stress response. Among the corresponding mutants, 5 showed shortened and 21 showed increased maximal chronological lifespans; 15 of the latter mutants showed no further lifespan increase with rapamycin and might thus represent key targets downstream of TORC1. We pursued the long-lived sck2 mutant with additional functional analyses, revealing that the Sck2p kinase functions within the TORC1 network and is required for normal cell growth, global protein translation, and ribosomal S6 protein phosphorylation in a nutrient-dependent manner. Notably, slow cell growth was associated with all long-lived mutants while oxidative-stress resistance was not.

  16. Autonomously folding protein fragments reveal differences in the energy landscapes of homologous RNases H.

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    Laura E Rosen

    Full Text Available An important approach to understanding how a protein sequence encodes its energy landscape is to compare proteins with different sequences that fold to the same general native structure. In this work, we compare E. coli and T. thermophilus homologs of the protein RNase H. Using protein fragments, we create equilibrium mimics of two different potential partially-folded intermediates (I(core and I(core+1 hypothesized to be present on the energy landscapes of these two proteins. We observe that both T. thermophilus RNase H (ttRNH fragments are folded and have distinct stabilities, indicating that both regions are capable of autonomous folding and that both intermediates are present as local minima on the ttRNH energy landscape. In contrast, the two E. coli RNase H (ecRNH fragments have very similar stabilities, suggesting that the presence of additional residues in the I(core+1 fragment does not affect the folding or structure as compared to I(core. NMR experiments provide additional evidence that only the I(core intermediate is populated by ecRNH. This is one of the biggest differences that has been observed between the energy landscapes of these two proteins. Additionally, we used a FRET experiment in the background of full-length ttRNH to specifically monitor the formation of the I(core+1 intermediate. We determine that the ttRNH I(core+1 intermediate is likely the intermediate populated prior to the rate-limiting barrier to global folding, in contrast to E. coli RNase H for which I(core is the folding intermediate. This result provides new insight into the nature of the rate-limiting barrier for the folding of RNase H.

  17. Large-scale transcriptome analysis reveals arabidopsis metabolic pathways are frequently influenced by different pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenhong; He, Fei; Zhang, Ziding

    2017-07-01

    Through large-scale transcriptional data analyses, we highlighted the importance of plant metabolism in plant immunity and identified 26 metabolic pathways that were frequently influenced by the infection of 14 different pathogens. Reprogramming of plant metabolism is a common phenomenon in plant defense responses. Currently, a large number of transcriptional profiles of infected tissues in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have been deposited in public databases, which provides a great opportunity to understand the expression patterns of metabolic pathways during plant defense responses at the systems level. Here, we performed a large-scale transcriptome analysis based on 135 previously published expression samples, including 14 different pathogens, to explore the expression pattern of Arabidopsis metabolic pathways. Overall, metabolic genes are significantly changed in expression during plant defense responses. Upregulated metabolic genes are enriched on defense responses, and downregulated genes are enriched on photosynthesis, fatty acid and lipid metabolic processes. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) identifies 26 frequently differentially expressed metabolic pathways (FreDE_Paths) that are differentially expressed in more than 60% of infected samples. These pathways are involved in the generation of energy, fatty acid and lipid metabolism as well as secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Clustering analysis based on the expression levels of these 26 metabolic pathways clearly distinguishes infected and control samples, further suggesting the importance of these metabolic pathways in plant defense responses. By comparing with FreDE_Paths from abiotic stresses, we find that the expression patterns of 26 FreDE_Paths from biotic stresses are more consistent across different infected samples. By investigating the expression correlation between transcriptional factors (TFs) and FreDE_Paths, we identify several notable relationships. Collectively, the current study

  18. Heritable differences in schooling behavior among threespine stickleback populations revealed by a novel assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail R Wark

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the proximate and ultimate mechanisms of social behavior remains a major goal of behavioral biology. In particular, the complex social interactions mediating schooling behavior have long fascinated biologists, leading to theoretical and empirical investigations that have focused on schooling as a group-level phenomenon. However, methods to examine the behavior of individual fish within a school are needed in order to investigate the mechanisms that underlie both the performance and the evolution of schooling behavior. We have developed a technique to quantify the schooling behavior of an individual in standardized but easily manipulated social circumstances. Using our model school assay, we show that threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus from alternative habitats differ in behavior when tested in identical social circumstances. Not only do marine sticklebacks show increased association with the model school relative to freshwater benthic sticklebacks, they also display a greater degree of parallel swimming with the models. Taken together, these data indicate that marine sticklebacks exhibit a stronger tendency to school than benthic sticklebacks. We demonstrate that these population-level differences in schooling tendency are heritable and are shared by individuals within a population even when they have experienced mixed-population housing conditions. Finally, we begin to explore the stimuli that elicit schooling behavior in these populations. Our data suggest that the difference in schooling tendency between marine and benthic sticklebacks is accompanied by differential preferences for social vs. non-social and moving vs. stationary shelter options. Our study thus provides novel insights into the evolution of schooling behavior, as well as a new experimental approach to investigate the genetic and neural mechanisms that underlie this complex social behavior.

  19. Different responses to heat shock stress revealed heteromorphic adaptation strategy of Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qijun; Zhu, Zhenggang; Zhu, Zhujun; Yang, Rui; Qian, Feijian; Chen, Haimin; Yan, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    Pyropia has a unique heteromorphic life cycle with alternation stages between thallus and conchocelis, which lives at different water temperatures in different seasons. To better understand the different adaptation strategies for temperature stress, we tried to observe comparative biochemical changes of Pyropia haitanensis based on a short term heat shock model. The results showed that: (1) At normal temperature, free-living conchocelis contains significantly higher levels of H2O2, fatty acid-derived volatiles, the copy number of Phrboh and Phhsp70 genes,the activities of NADPH oxidase and floridoside than those in thallus. The released H2O2 and NADPH oxidase activity of conchocelis were more than 7 times higher than those of thallus. The copy number of Phrboh in conchocelis was 32 times that in thallus. (2) After experiencing heat shock at 35°C for 30 min, the H2O2 contents, the mRNA levels of Phrboh and Phhsp70, NADPH oxidase activity and the floridoside content in thallus were all significantly increased. The mRNA levels of Phrboh increased 5.78 times in 5 min, NADPH oxidase activity increased 8.45 times in 20 min. (3) Whereas, in conchocelis, the changes in fatty acids and their down-stream volatiles predominated, significantly increasing levels of saturated fatty acids and decreasing levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids occurred, and the 8-carbon volatiles were accumulated. However, the changes in H2O2 content and expression of oxidant-related genes and enzymatic activity were not obvious. Overall, these results indicate that conchocelis maintains a high level of active protective apparatus to endure its survival at high temperature, while thallus exhibit typical stress responses to heat shock. It is concluded that Pyropia haitanensis has evolved a delicate strategy for temperature adaptation for its heteromorphic life cycle.

  20. Different responses to heat shock stress revealed heteromorphic adaptation strategy of Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijun Luo

    Full Text Available Pyropia has a unique heteromorphic life cycle with alternation stages between thallus and conchocelis, which lives at different water temperatures in different seasons. To better understand the different adaptation strategies for temperature stress, we tried to observe comparative biochemical changes of Pyropia haitanensis based on a short term heat shock model. The results showed that: (1 At normal temperature, free-living conchocelis contains significantly higher levels of H2O2, fatty acid-derived volatiles, the copy number of Phrboh and Phhsp70 genes,the activities of NADPH oxidase and floridoside than those in thallus. The released H2O2 and NADPH oxidase activity of conchocelis were more than 7 times higher than those of thallus. The copy number of Phrboh in conchocelis was 32 times that in thallus. (2 After experiencing heat shock at 35°C for 30 min, the H2O2 contents, the mRNA levels of Phrboh and Phhsp70, NADPH oxidase activity and the floridoside content in thallus were all significantly increased. The mRNA levels of Phrboh increased 5.78 times in 5 min, NADPH oxidase activity increased 8.45 times in 20 min. (3 Whereas, in conchocelis, the changes in fatty acids and their down-stream volatiles predominated, significantly increasing levels of saturated fatty acids and decreasing levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids occurred, and the 8-carbon volatiles were accumulated. However, the changes in H2O2 content and expression of oxidant-related genes and enzymatic activity were not obvious. Overall, these results indicate that conchocelis maintains a high level of active protective apparatus to endure its survival at high temperature, while thallus exhibit typical stress responses to heat shock. It is concluded that Pyropia haitanensis has evolved a delicate strategy for temperature adaptation for its heteromorphic life cycle.

  1. Sequence analysis of chromosome 1 revealed different selection patterns between Chinese wild mice and laboratory strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fuyi; Hu, Shixian; Chao, Tianzhu; Wang, Maochun; Li, Kai; Zhou, Yuxun; Xu, Hongyan; Xiao, Junhua

    2017-10-01

    Both natural and artificial selection play a critical role in animals' adaptation to the environment. Detection of the signature of selection in genomic regions can provide insights for understanding the function of specific phenotypes. It is generally assumed that laboratory mice may experience intense artificial selection while wild mice more natural selection. However, the differences of selection signature in the mouse genome and underlying genes between wild and laboratory mice remain unclear. In this study, we used two mouse populations: chromosome 1 (Chr 1) substitution lines (C1SLs) derived from Chinese wild mice and mouse genome project (MGP) sequenced inbred strains and two selection detection statistics: Fst and Tajima's D to identify the signature of selection footprint on Chr 1. For the differentiation between the C1SLs and MGP, 110 candidate selection regions containing 47 protein coding genes were detected. A total of 149 selection regions which encompass 7.215 Mb were identified in the C1SLs by Tajima's D approach. While for the MGP, we identified nearly twice selection regions (243) compared with the C1SLs which accounted for 13.27 Mb Chr 1 sequence. Through functional annotation, we identified several biological processes with significant enrichment including seven genes in the olfactory transduction pathway. In addition, we searched the phenotypes associated with the 47 candidate selection genes identified by Fst. These genes were involved in behavior, growth or body weight, mortality or aging, and immune systems which align well with the phenotypic differences between wild and laboratory mice. Therefore, the findings would be helpful for our understanding of the phenotypic differences between wild and laboratory mice and applications for using this new mouse resource (C1SLs) for further genetics studies.

  2. Electrophysiological signals associated with fluency of different levels of processing reveal multiple contributions to recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingbing; Taylor, Jason R; Wang, Wei; Gao, Chuanji; Guo, Chunyan

    2017-08-01

    Processing fluency appears to influence recognition memory judgements, and the manipulation of fluency, if misattributed to an effect of prior exposure, can result in illusory memory. Although it is well established that fluency induced by masked repetition priming leads to increased familiarity, manipulations of conceptual fluency have produced conflicting results, variously affecting familiarity or recollection. Some recent studies have found that masked conceptual priming increases correct recollection (Taylor & Henson, 2012), and the magnitude of this behavioural effect correlates with analogous fMRI BOLD priming effects in brain regions associated with recollection (Taylor, Buratto, & Henson, 2013). However, the neural correlates and time-courses of masked repetition and conceptual priming were not compared directly in previous studies. The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to identify and compare the electrophysiological correlates of masked repetition and conceptual priming and investigate how they contribute to recognition memory. Behavioural results were consistent with previous studies: Repetition primes increased familiarity, whereas conceptual primes increased correct recollection. Masked repetition and conceptual priming also decreased the latency of late parietal component (LPC). Masked repetition priming was associated with an early P200 effect and a later parietal maximum N400 effect, whereas masked conceptual priming was only associated with a central-parietal maximum N400 effect. In addition, the topographic distributions of the N400 repetition priming and conceptual priming effects were different. These results suggest that fluency at different levels of processing is associated with different ERP components, and contributes differentially to subjective recognition memory experiences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Microstructural differences between two Zr(C,N) coatings revealed by analytical transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dörfel, Ilona; Rooch, Heidemarie; Österle, Werner

    2012-01-01

    The microstructures of two samples of a Zr(C,N) coating on steel, which unexpectedly differed in their tribological properties, were investigated by analytical transmission electron microscopy. The samples were produced by a cathodic arc evaporation process in two commercial coating devices under similar coating conditions with the exception of the number of Zr targets. The source of the differing tribological properties of the samples was detected by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), energy filtering TEM (EFTEM), electron diffraction, high resolution electron microscopy, and high angel annular dark field. The TEM preparation and the results of the TEM investigations are shown in detail. The origin of the unexpected behavior was determined to be a nano-scale multilayer structure that existed only in the tribologically superior specimen. EDX and EFTEM investigations indicated enrichment in oxygen at the interface between coating and steel substrate in the tribologically inferior sample. Findings of the microstructural configuration were obtained by taking a closer look at the structure and comparing the results of the several analytical TEM techniques. This allows the allocation of the concentration fluctuations in N, C, and Zr to the two thickness fractions of the nano multilayers and a local correlation of the identified minority phase Zr 3 (C,N) 4 to the higher N content in the narrower type of the multilayer fraction of the sample with the excellent tribological properties. The minority phase Zr 3 (C,N) 4 is randomly distributed in the sample with the defective tribological properties. Coating conditions are not topic of this work, but after discussion of the TEM results, the fact that one of the coating devices worked with one Zr target and the other one with two, could be identified as cause for the formation of the nano multilayer structure in the sample with the superior tribological

  4. Ancient DNA reveals differences in behaviour and sociality between brown bears and extinct cave bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Gloria G; Grandal-d'Anglade, Aurora; Kolbe, Ben; Fernandes, Daniel; Meleg, Ioana N; García-Vázquez, Ana; Pinto-Llona, Ana C; Constantin, Silviu; de Torres, Trino J; Ortiz, Jose E; Frischauf, Christine; Rabeder, Gernot; Hofreiter, Michael; Barlow, Axel

    2016-10-01

    Ancient DNA studies have revolutionized the study of extinct species and populations, providing insights on phylogeny, phylogeography, admixture and demographic history. However, inferences on behaviour and sociality have been far less frequent. Here, we investigate the complete mitochondrial genomes of extinct Late Pleistocene cave bears and middle Holocene brown bears that each inhabited multiple geographically proximate caves in northern Spain. In cave bears, we find that, although most caves were occupied simultaneously, each cave almost exclusively contains a unique lineage of closely related haplotypes. This remarkable pattern suggests extreme fidelity to their birth site in cave bears, best described as homing behaviour, and that cave bears formed stable maternal social groups at least for hibernation. In contrast, brown bears do not show any strong association of mitochondrial lineage and cave, suggesting that these two closely related species differed in aspects of their behaviour and sociality. This difference is likely to have contributed to cave bear extinction, which occurred at a time in which competition for caves between bears and humans was likely intense and the ability to rapidly colonize new hibernation sites would have been crucial for the survival of a species so dependent on caves for hibernation as cave bears. Our study demonstrates the potential of ancient DNA to uncover patterns of behaviour and sociality in ancient species and populations, even those that went extinct many tens of thousands of years ago. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Students' performance in the different clinical skills assessed in OSCE: what does it reveal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Joong Hiong; Abdul Aziz, Yang Faridah; Mansor, Azura; Vijayananthan, Anushya; Foong, Chan Choong; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare students' performance in the different clinical skills (CSs) assessed in the objective structured clinical examination. Data for this study were obtained from final year medical students' exit examination (n=185). Retrospective analysis of data was conducted using SPSS. Means for the six CSs assessed across the 16 stations were computed and compared. Means for history taking, physical examination, communication skills, clinical reasoning skills (CRSs), procedural skills (PSs), and professionalism were 6.25±1.29, 6.39±1.36, 6.34±0.98, 5.86±0.99, 6.59±1.08, and 6.28±1.02, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA showed there was a significant difference in the means of the six CSs assessed [F(2.980, 548.332)=20.253, pskill to be acquired by medical students before entering the workplace. Despite its challenges, students must learn the skills of clinical reasoning, while clinical teachers should facilitate the clinical reasoning process and guide students' clinical reasoning development.

  6. EEG neural oscillatory dynamics reveal semantic and response conflict at difference levels of conflict awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Qinglin; Van Gaal, Simon

    2015-07-14

    Although previous work has shown that conflict can be detected in the absence of awareness, it is unknown how different sources of conflict (i.e., semantic, response) are processed in the human brain and whether these processes are differently modulated by conflict awareness. To explore this issue, we extracted oscillatory power dynamics from electroencephalographic (EEG) data recorded while human participants performed a modified version of the Stroop task. Crucially, in this task conflict awareness was manipulated by masking a conflict-inducing color word preceding a color patch target. We isolated semantic from response conflict by introducing four color words/patches, of which two were matched to the same response. We observed that both semantic as well as response conflict were associated with mid-frontal theta-band and parietal alpha-band power modulations, irrespective of the level of conflict awareness (high vs. low), although awareness of conflict increased these conflict-related power dynamics. These results show that both semantic and response conflict can be processed in the human brain and suggest that the neural oscillatory mechanisms in EEG reflect mainly "domain general" conflict processing mechanisms, instead of conflict source specific effects.

  7. EEG neural oscillatory dynamics reveal semantic and response conflict at difference levels of conflict awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Qinglin; Van Gaal, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Although previous work has shown that conflict can be detected in the absence of awareness, it is unknown how different sources of conflict (i.e., semantic, response) are processed in the human brain and whether these processes are differently modulated by conflict awareness. To explore this issue, we extracted oscillatory power dynamics from electroencephalographic (EEG) data recorded while human participants performed a modified version of the Stroop task. Crucially, in this task conflict awareness was manipulated by masking a conflict-inducing color word preceding a color patch target. We isolated semantic from response conflict by introducing four color words/patches, of which two were matched to the same response. We observed that both semantic as well as response conflict were associated with mid-frontal theta-band and parietal alpha-band power modulations, irrespective of the level of conflict awareness (high vs. low), although awareness of conflict increased these conflict-related power dynamics. These results show that both semantic and response conflict can be processed in the human brain and suggest that the neural oscillatory mechanisms in EEG reflect mainly “domain general” conflict processing mechanisms, instead of conflict source specific effects. PMID:26169473

  8. Infrared spectroscopy reveals both qualitative and quantitative differences in equine subchondral bone during maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrina, Yevgeniya; Isaksson, Hanna; Sinisaari, Miikka; Rieppo, Lassi; Brama, Pieter A.; van Weeren, René; Helminen, Heikki J.; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Saarakkala, Simo

    2010-11-01

    The collagen phase in bone is known to undergo major changes during growth and maturation. The objective of this study is to clarify whether Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy, coupled with cluster analysis, can detect quantitative and qualitative changes in the collagen matrix of subchondral bone in horses during maturation and growth. Equine subchondral bone samples (n = 29) from the proximal joint surface of the first phalanx are prepared from two sites subjected to different loading conditions. Three age groups are studied: newborn (0 days old), immature (5 to 11 months old), and adult (6 to 10 years old) horses. Spatial collagen content and collagen cross-link ratio are quantified from the spectra. Additionally, normalized second derivative spectra of samples are clustered using the k-means clustering algorithm. In quantitative analysis, collagen content in the subchondral bone increases rapidly between the newborn and immature horses. The collagen cross-link ratio increases significantly with age. In qualitative analysis, clustering is able to separate newborn and adult samples into two different groups. The immature samples display some nonhomogeneity. In conclusion, this is the first study showing that FTIR spectral imaging combined with clustering techniques can detect quantitative and qualitative changes in the collagen matrix of subchondral bone during growth and maturation.

  9. Event-related potentials reveal the relations between feature representations at different levels of abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Samuel D; Shedden, Judith M; Brooks, Lee R; Grundy, John G

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we use behavioural methods and event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore the relations between informational and instantiated features, as well as the relation between feature abstraction and rule type. Participants are trained to categorize two species of fictitious animals and then identify perceptually novel exemplars. Critically, two groups are given a perfectly predictive counting rule that, according to Hannah and Brooks (2009. Featuring familiarity: How a familiar feature instantiation influences categorization. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale, 63, 263-275. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.1037/a0017919), should orient them to using abstract informational features when categorizing the novel transfer items. A third group is taught a feature list rule, which should orient them to using detailed instantiated features. One counting-rule group were taught their rule before any exposure to the actual stimuli, and the other immediately after training, having learned the instantiations first. The feature-list group were also taught their rule after training. The ERP results suggest that at test, the two counting-rule groups processed items differently, despite their identical rule. This not only supports the distinction that informational and instantiated features are qualitatively different feature representations, but also implies that rules can readily operate over concrete inputs, in contradiction to traditional approaches that assume that rules necessarily act on abstract inputs.

  10. BMI and breast cancer prognosis benefit: mammography screening reveals differences between normal weight and overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispo, Anna; Grimaldi, Maria; D'Aiuto, Massimiliano; Rinaldo, Massimo; Capasso, Immacolata; Amore, Alfonso; D'Aiuto, Giuseppe; Giudice, Aldo; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Montella, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    Few studies are available on the potential impact of body weight on breast cancer prognosis in screen-detected patients. Moreover, it is not known whether body mass index (BMI) could have a different prognostic impact in screen-detected versus symptomatic breast cancer patients. To investigate these unsolved issues, we carried out a retrospective study evaluating the effect of BMI on breast cancer prognosis in screen-detected vs symptomatic breast cancer patients. We conducted a follow-up study on 448 women diagnosed with incident, histologically-confirmed breast cancer. Patients were categorized according to their BMI as normal weight, overweight and obese. Disease free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and BMI curves were compared according to mode of cancer detection. Among screen-detected patients, higher BMI was associated with a significant lower DFS, whereas no significant difference was observed among symptomatic patients. OS showed similar results. In the multivariate analysis adjusting for age, education, tumor size, nodal status, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and menopausal status, the risk for high level of BMI among screen-detected patients did not reach the statistical significance for either recurrence or survival. Our study highlights the potential impact of high bodyweight in breast cancer prognosis, the findings confirm that obesity plays a role in women breast cancer prognosis independently from diagnosis mode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular and Cellular Profiling of Scalp Psoriasis Reveals Differences and Similarities Compared to Skin Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Juan; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Shemer, Avner; Oliva, Margeaux

    2016-01-01

    Scalp psoriasis shows a variable clinical spectrum and in many cases poses a great therapeutic challenge. However, it remains unknown whether the immune response of scalp psoriasis differs from understood pathomechanisms of psoriasis in other skin areas. We sought to determine the cellular and molecular phenotype of scalp psoriasis by performing a comparative analysis of scalp and skin using lesional and nonlesional samples from 20 Caucasian subjects with untreated moderate to severe psoriasis and significant scalp involvement and 10 control subjects without psoriasis. Our results suggest that even in the scalp, psoriasis is a disease of the inter-follicular skin. The immune mechanisms that mediate scalp psoriasis were found to be similar to those involved in skin psoriasis. However, the magnitude of dysregulation, number of differentially expressed genes, and enrichment of the psoriatic genomic fingerprint were more prominent in skin lesions. Furthermore, the scalp transcriptome showed increased modulation of several gene-sets, particularly those induced by interferon-gamma, compared with that of skin psoriasis, which was mainly associated with activation of TNFα/L-17/IL-22-induced keratinocyte response genes. We also detected differences in expression of gene-sets involving negative regulation, epigenetic regulation, epidermal differentiation, and dendritic cell or Th1/Th17/Th22-related T-cell processes. PMID:26849645

  12. Metabolomics Reveals Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Obese Individuals Differ in their Response to a Caloric Challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Badoud

    Full Text Available To determine if metabolically healthy obese (MHO individuals have a different metabolic response to a standardized diet compared to lean healthy (LH and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO individuals.Thirty adults (35-70 yrs were classified as LH, MHO, and MUO according to anthropometric and clinical measurements. Participants consumed a standardized high calorie meal (~1330 kcal. Blood glucose and insulin were measured at fasting, and 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min postprandially. Additional blood samples were collected for the targeted analysis of amino acids (AAs and derivatives, and fatty acids (FAs.The postprandial response (i.e., area under the curve, AUC for serum glucose and insulin were similar between MHO and LH individuals, and significantly lower than MUO individuals (p < 0.05. Minor differences were found in postprandial responses for AAs between MHO and MUO individuals, while three polyunsaturated FAs (linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid showed smaller changes in serum after the meal in MHO individuals compared to MUO. Fasting levels for various AAs (notably branched-chain AA and FAs (e.g., saturated myristic and palmitic acids were found to correlate with glucose and insulin AUC.MHO individuals show preserved insulin sensitivity and a greater ability to adapt to a caloric challenge compared to MUO individuals.

  13. Electrophysiological Evidence reveals Differences between the Recognition of Microexpressions and Macroexpressions

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    Xunbing Shen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Microexpressions are fleeting facial expressions that are important for judging people’s true emotions. Little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying the recognition of microexpressions (with duration of less than 200 ms and macroexpressions (with duration of greater than 200 ms. We used an affective priming paradigm in which a picture of a facial expression is the prime and an emotional word is the target, and electroencephalogram (EEG and event-related potentials (ERPs to examine neural activities associated with recognizing microexpressions and macroexpressions. The results showed that there were significant main effects of duration and valence for N170/VPP. The main effect of congruence for N400 is also significant. Further, sLORETA showed that the brain regions responsible for these significant differences included the inferior temporal gyrus and widespread regions of the frontal lobe. Furthermore, the results suggested that the left hemisphere was more involved than the right hemisphere in processing a microexpression. The main effect of duration for the event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP was significant, and the theta oscillations (4 Hz to 8 Hz increased in recognizing expressions with a duration of 40 ms compared with 300 ms. Thus, there are different EEG/ERPs neural mechanisms for recognizing microexpressions compared to recognizing macroexpressions.

  14. Injuries in Runners; A Systematic Review on Risk Factors and Sex Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Worp, Maarten P.; ten Haaf, Dominique S. M.; van Cingel, Robert; de Wijer, Anton; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Staal, J. Bart

    2015-01-01

    Background The popularity of running continues to increase, which means that the incidence of running-related injuries will probably also continue to increase. Little is known about risk factors for running injuries and whether they are sex-specific. Objectives The aim of this study was to review information about risk factors and sex-specific differences for running-induced injuries in adults. Search Strategy The databases PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and Psych-INFO were searched for relevant articles. Selection Criteria Longitudinal cohort studies with a minimal follow-up of 1 month that investigated the association between risk factors (personal factors, running/training factors and/or health and lifestyle factors) and the occurrence of lower limb injuries in runners were included. Data Collection and Analysis Two reviewers’ independently selected relevant articles from those identified by the systematic search and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. The strength of the evidence was determined using a best-evidence rating system. Sex differences in risk were determined by calculating the sex ratio for risk factors (the risk factor for women divided by the risk factor for men). Main Results Of 400 articles retrieved, 15 longitudinal studies were included, of which 11 were considered high-quality studies and 4 moderate-quality studies. Overall, women were at lower risk than men for sustaining running-related injuries. Strong and moderate evidence was found that a history of previous injury and of having used orthotics/inserts was associated with an increased risk of running injuries. Age, previous sports activity, running on a concrete surface, participating in a marathon, weekly running distance (30–39 miles) and wearing running shoes for 4 to 6 months were associated with a greater risk of injury in women than in men. A history of previous injuries, having a running experience of 0–2 years, restarting running, weekly running distance (20–29

  15. Motor cortical representation in two different strength-training modalities revealed by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rune Refsgaard; Osuna-Florentz, Patrick; Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas

    2017-01-01

    stimulation was used for mapping motor cortical representations (MAP) of VL and BF in an active state (~5-10% of a squat). The stimulation intensity used was slightly above active motor threshold (~105%). Results The MAP area for VL was significantly larger for the explosively trained than for the resistance...... trained (8448 ± 6121 μV and 3350 ± 1920 μV, respectively, p= 0.04). There was no difference in MAP area for BF. Discussion The larger cortical map area for VL in the explosively trained group may be due to the training of their leg muscles being more structured and frequent (i.e., number of times the leg...

  16. Mechanistic Differences in Neuropathic Pain Modalities Revealed by Correlating Behavior with Global Expression Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique J. Cobos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic neuropathic pain is a major morbidity of neural injury, yet its mechanisms are incompletely understood. Hypersensitivity to previously non-noxious stimuli (allodynia is a common symptom. Here, we demonstrate that the onset of cold hypersensitivity precedes tactile allodynia in a model of partial nerve injury, and this temporal divergence was associated with major differences in global gene expression in innervating dorsal root ganglia. Transcripts whose expression change correlates with the onset of cold allodynia were nociceptor related, whereas those correlating with tactile hypersensitivity were immune cell centric. Ablation of TrpV1 lineage nociceptors resulted in mice that did not acquire cold allodynia but developed normal tactile hypersensitivity, whereas depletion of macrophages or T cells reduced neuropathic tactile allodynia but not cold hypersensitivity. We conclude that neuropathic pain incorporates reactive processes of sensory neurons and immune cells, each leading to distinct forms of hypersensitivity, potentially allowing drug development targeted to each pain type.

  17. Functional MRI reveals expert-novice differences during sport-related anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael J; Bishop, Daniel T; Jackson, Robin C; Abernethy, Bruce

    2010-01-27

    We examined the effect of expertise on cortical activation during sports anticipation using functional MRI. In experiment 1, recreational players predicted badminton stroke direction and the pattern of active clusters was consistent with a proposed perception-of-action network. This pattern was not replicated in a stimulus-matched, action-unrelated control task. In experiment 2, players of three different skill levels anticipated stroke direction from clips occluded either 160 ms before or 80 ms after racquet-shuttle contact. Early-occluded sequences produced more activation than late-occluded sequences overall, in most cortical regions of interest, but experts showed an additional enhancement in medial, dorsolateral and ventrolateral frontal cortex. Anticipation in open-skill sports engages cortical areas integral to observing and understanding others' actions; such activity is enhanced in experts.

  18. [Different uses of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (buckwheat) in Japan and China: what ancient medical documents reveal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Nami; Marui, Eiji

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate that buckwheat has been recognized, both in Japan and China, as a crop that is useful in many ways: as an agricultural crop, and for the healing powers and properties that, according to traditional Chinese medicine, it has. A comparative study of ancient documents pertaining to medicine in these countries has made it clear that this is the case. Buckwheat, however, has been used quite differently in each country. As is shown in some ancient Chinese documents pertaining to medicine, China has treated buckwheat primarily as a medicine for clinical use rather than as an edible crop. Nowadays, buckwheat is eaten only in some regions of China. Although it came to Japan from China as a medicine, in Japan buckwheat gradually became a popular food crop. It has become an important component of traditional Japanese cuisine thanks in part to government support and the strong demand that developed in Japanese society.

  19. Cultivation-independent methods reveal differences among bacterial gut microbiota in triatomine vectors of Chagas disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Faria da Mota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a trypanosomiasis whose agent is the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to humans by hematophagous bugs known as triatomines. Even though insecticide treatments allow effective control of these bugs in most Latin American countries where Chagas disease is endemic, the disease still affects a large proportion of the population of South America. The features of the disease in humans have been extensively studied, and the genome of the parasite has been sequenced, but no effective drug is yet available to treat Chagas disease. The digestive tract of the insect vectors in which T. cruzi develops has been much less well investigated than blood from its human hosts and constitutes a dynamic environment with very different conditions. Thus, we investigated the composition of the predominant bacterial species of the microbiota in insect vectors from Rhodnius, Triatoma, Panstrongylus and Dipetalogaster genera. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Microbiota of triatomine guts were investigated using cultivation-independent methods, i.e., phylogenetic analysis of 16s rDNA using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and cloned-based sequencing. The Chao index showed that the diversity of bacterial species in triatomine guts is low, comprising fewer than 20 predominant species, and that these species vary between insect species. The analyses showed that Serratia predominates in Rhodnius, Arsenophonus predominates in Triatoma and Panstrongylus, while Candidatus Rohrkolberia predominates in Dipetalogaster. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The microbiota of triatomine guts represents one of the factors that may interfere with T. cruzi transmission and virulence in humans. The knowledge of its composition according to insect species is important for designing measures of biological control for T. cruzi. We found that the predominant species of the bacterial microbiota in triatomines form a group of low

  20. Teacher Knowledge for Active-Learning Instruction: Expert-Novice Comparison Reveals Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, A J; Higgins, M; Brickman, P; Andrews, T C

    2018-01-01

    Active-learning strategies can improve science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) undergraduates' abilities to learn fundamental concepts and skills. However, the results instructors achieve vary substantially. One explanation for this is that instructors commonly implement active learning differently than intended. An important factor affecting how instructors implement active learning is knowledge of teaching and learning. We aimed to discover knowledge that is important to effective active learning in large undergraduate courses. We developed a lesson-analysis instrument to elicit teacher knowledge, drawing on the theoretical construct of teacher noticing. We compared the knowledge used by expert ( n = 14) and novice ( n = 29) active-learning instructors as they analyzed lessons. Experts and novices differed in what they noticed, with experts more commonly considering how instructors hold students accountable, topic-specific student difficulties, whether the instructor elicited and responded to student thinking, and opportunities students had to generate their own ideas and work. Experts were also better able to support their lesson analyses with reasoning. This work provides foundational knowledge for the future design of preparation and support for instructors adopting active learning. Improving teacher knowledge will improve the implementation of active learning, which will be necessary to widely realize the potential benefits of active learning in undergraduate STEM. © 2018 A. J. Auerbach et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2018 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  1. Automated decoding of facial expressions reveals marked differences in children when telling antisocial versus prosocial lies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanette, Sarah; Gao, Xiaoqing; Brunet, Megan; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Lee, Kang

    2016-10-01

    The current study used computer vision technology to examine the nonverbal facial expressions of children (6-11years old) telling antisocial and prosocial lies. Children in the antisocial lying group completed a temptation resistance paradigm where they were asked not to peek at a gift being wrapped for them. All children peeked at the gift and subsequently lied about their behavior. Children in the prosocial lying group were given an undesirable gift and asked if they liked it. All children lied about liking the gift. Nonverbal behavior was analyzed using the Computer Expression Recognition Toolbox (CERT), which employs the Facial Action Coding System (FACS), to automatically code children's facial expressions while lying. Using CERT, children's facial expressions during antisocial and prosocial lying were accurately and reliably differentiated significantly above chance-level accuracy. The basic expressions of emotion that distinguished antisocial lies from prosocial lies were joy and contempt. Children expressed joy more in prosocial lying than in antisocial lying. Girls showed more joy and less contempt compared with boys when they told prosocial lies. Boys showed more contempt when they told prosocial lies than when they told antisocial lies. The key action units (AUs) that differentiate children's antisocial and prosocial lies are blink/eye closure, lip pucker, and lip raise on the right side. Together, these findings indicate that children's facial expressions differ while telling antisocial versus prosocial lies. The reliability of CERT in detecting such differences in facial expression suggests the viability of using computer vision technology in deception research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Differences between urban and rural hedges in England revealed by a citizen science project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Laura; Sparks, Tim H; Araya, Yoseph; Harvey, Martin; Ansine, Janice

    2016-07-22

    Hedges are both ecologically and culturally important and are a distinctive feature of the British landscape. However the overall length of hedges across Great Britain is decreasing. Current challenges in studying hedges relate to the dominance of research on rural, as opposed to urban, hedges, and their variability and geographical breadth. To help address these challenges and to educate the public on the importance of hedge habitats for wildlife, in 2010 the Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) programme coordinated a hedge-focused citizen science survey. Results from 2891 surveys were analysed. Woody plant species differed significantly between urban and rural areas. Beech, Holly, Ivy, Laurel, Privet and Yew were more commonly recorded in urban hedges whereas Blackthorn, Bramble, Dog Rose, Elder and Hawthorn were recorded more often in rural hedges. Urban and rural differences were shown for some groups of invertebrates. Ants, earwigs and shieldbugs were recorded more frequently in urban hedges whereas blowflies, caterpillars, harvestmen, other beetles, spiders and weevils were recorded more frequently in rural hedges. Spiders were the most frequently recorded invertebrate across all surveys. The presence of hard surfaces adjacent to the hedge was influential on hedge structure, number and diversity of plant species, amount of food available for wildlife and invertebrate number and diversity. In urban hedges with one adjacent hard surface, the food available for wildlife was significantly reduced and in rural hedges, one adjacent hard surface affected the diversity of invertebrates. This research highlights that urban hedges may be important habitats for wildlife and that hard surfaces may have an impact on both the number and diversity of plant species and the number and diversity of invertebrates. This study demonstrates that citizen science programmes that focus on hedge surveillance can work and have the added benefit of educating the public on the importance of

  3. The complete genome sequence of Staphylothermus marinus reveals differences in sulfur metabolism among heterotrophic Crenarchaeota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, iain J.; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Rodriguez, Jason; Hooper, Sean; Porat, Iris; Ulrich, Luke E.; Elkins, James G.; Mavromatis, Kostas; Sun, Hui; Land, Miriam; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Barry, Kerrie; Huber, Harald; Zhulin, Igor B.; Whitman, William B.; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2008-09-05

    Staphylothermus marinus is an anaerobic, sulfur-reducing peptide fermenter of the archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota. It is the third heterotrophic, obligate sulfur reducing crenarchaeote to be sequenced and provides an opportunity for comparative analysis of the three genomes. The 1.57 Mbp genome of the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeote Staphylothermus marinus has been completely sequenced. The main energy generating pathways likely involve 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductases and ADP-forming acetyl-CoA synthases. S. marinus possesses several enzymes not present in other crenarchaeotes including a sodium ion-translocating decarboxylase likely to be involved in amino acid degradation. S. marinus lacks sulfur-reducing enzymes present in the other two sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes that have been sequenced - Thermofilum pendens and Hyperthermus butylicus. Instead it has three operons similar to the mbh and mbx operons of Pyrococcus furiosus, which may play a role in sulfur reduction and/or hydrogen production. The two marine organisms, S. marinus and H. butylicus, possess more sodium-dependent transporters than T. pendens and use symporters for potassium uptake while T. pendens uses an ATP-dependent potassium transporter. T. pendens has adapted to a nutrient-rich environment while H. butylicus is adapted to a nutrient-poor environment, and S. marinus lies between these two extremes. The three heterotrophic sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes have adapted to their habitats, terrestrial vs. marine, via their transporter content, and they have also adapted to environments with differing levels of nutrients. Despite the fact that they all use sulfur as an electron acceptor, they are likely to have different pathways for sulfur reduction.

  4. Cultivation-independent methods reveal differences among bacterial gut microbiota in triatomine vectors of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Mota, Fabio Faria; Marinho, Lourena Pinheiro; Moreira, Carlos José de Carvalho; Lima, Marli Maria; Mello, Cícero Brasileiro; Garcia, Eloi Souza; Carels, Nicolas; Azambuja, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease is a trypanosomiasis whose agent is the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to humans by hematophagous bugs known as triatomines. Even though insecticide treatments allow effective control of these bugs in most Latin American countries where Chagas disease is endemic, the disease still affects a large proportion of the population of South America. The features of the disease in humans have been extensively studied, and the genome of the parasite has been sequenced, but no effective drug is yet available to treat Chagas disease. The digestive tract of the insect vectors in which T. cruzi develops has been much less well investigated than blood from its human hosts and constitutes a dynamic environment with very different conditions. Thus, we investigated the composition of the predominant bacterial species of the microbiota in insect vectors from Rhodnius, Triatoma, Panstrongylus and Dipetalogaster genera. Microbiota of triatomine guts were investigated using cultivation-independent methods, i.e., phylogenetic analysis of 16s rDNA using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and cloned-based sequencing. The Chao index showed that the diversity of bacterial species in triatomine guts is low, comprising fewer than 20 predominant species, and that these species vary between insect species. The analyses showed that Serratia predominates in Rhodnius, Arsenophonus predominates in Triatoma and Panstrongylus, while Candidatus Rohrkolberia predominates in Dipetalogaster. The microbiota of triatomine guts represents one of the factors that may interfere with T. cruzi transmission and virulence in humans. The knowledge of its composition according to insect species is important for designing measures of biological control for T. cruzi. We found that the predominant species of the bacterial microbiota in triatomines form a group of low complexity whose structure differs according to the vector genus.

  5. Torque measurements reveal large process differences between materials during high solid enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmqvist Benny

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A common trend in the research on 2nd generation bioethanol is the focus on intensifying the process and increasing the concentration of water insoluble solids (WIS throughout the process. However, increasing the WIS content is not without problems. For example, the viscosity of pretreated lignocellulosic materials is known to increase drastically with increasing WIS content. Further, at elevated viscosities, problems arise related to poor mixing of the material, such as poor distribution of the enzymes and/or difficulties with temperature and pH control, which results in possible yield reduction. Achieving good mixing is unfortunately not without cost, since the power requirements needed to operate the impeller at high viscosities can be substantial. This highly important scale-up problem can easily be overlooked. Results In this work, we monitor the impeller torque (and hence power input in a stirred tank reactor throughout high solid enzymatic hydrolysis (Arundo donax and spruce. Two different process modes were evaluated, where either the impeller speed or the impeller power input was kept constant. Results from hydrolysis experiments at a fixed impeller speed of 10 rpm show that a very rapid decrease in impeller torque is experienced during hydrolysis of pretreated arundo (i.e. it loses its fiber network strength, whereas the fiber strength is retained for a longer time within the spruce material. This translates into a relatively low, rather WIS independent, energy input for arundo whereas the stirring power demand for spruce is substantially larger and quite WIS dependent. By operating the impeller at a constant power input (instead of a constant impeller speed it is shown that power input greatly affects the glucose yield of pretreated spruce whereas the hydrolysis of arundo seems unaffected. Conclusions The results clearly highlight the large differences between the arundo and spruce materials, both in terms of

  6. Microbial community diversity of the eastern Atlantic Ocean reveals geographic differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedline, C. J.; Franklin, R. B.; McCallister, S. L.; Rivera, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    Prokaryotic communities are recognized as major drivers of the biogeochemical processes in the oceans. However, the genetic diversity and composition of those communities is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the eubacterial communities in three different water layers: surface (2-20 m), deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM; 28-90 m), and deep (100-4600 m) at nine stations along the eastern Atlantic Ocean from 42.8° N to 23.7° S. In order to describe the dynamics of the eubacterial assemblages in relation to depth, associated environmental properties, and Longhurstian ecological provinces community DNA was extracted from 16 samples, from which the V6 region of 16s rDNA was PCR-amplified with eubacteria-specific primers, and the PCR amplicons were pyrosequenced. A total of 352 029 sequences were generated; after quality filtering and processing, 257 260 sequences were clustered into 2871 normalized Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) using a definition of 97% sequence identity. Comparisons of the phylogenetic affiliation of those 2871 OTUs show more than 54% of them were assigned to the Proteobacteria, with the Alphaproteobacteria representing 4% of the total Proteobacteria OTUs, and the Gammaproteobacteria representing 22%. Within the Alphaproteobacteria-affiliated OTUs, 44% of the OTUs were associated with the ubiquitous SAR11 clade. The phylum Cyanobacteria represent 10% of the reads, with the majority of those reads among the GpIIa family including Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus. Among the Gammaproteobacteria, a single OTU affiliated to Alteromonas comprises ~3% of the abundance. The phyla Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes represent approximately 7%, 0.8%, 2%, and 0.05% of the read abundance, respectively. Community ecology statistical analyses and a novel implementation of Bayesian inference suggests that eastern Atlantic Ocean eubacterial assemblages are vertically stratified and associated with water layers

  7. 146Sm-142Nd systematics measured in enstatite chondrites reveals a heterogeneous distribution of 142Nd in the solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannoun, Abdelmouhcine; Boyet, Maud; Rizo, Hanika; El Goresy, Ahmed

    2011-05-10

    The short-lived (146)Sm-(142)Nd chronometer (T(1/2) = 103 Ma) is used to constrain the early silicate evolution of planetary bodies. The composition of bulk terrestrial planets is then considered to be similar to that of primitive chondrites that represent the building blocks of rocky planets. However for many elements chondrites preserve small isotope differences. In this case it is not always clear to what extent these variations reflect the isotope heterogeneity of the protosolar nebula rather than being produced by the decay of parent isotopes. Here we present Sm-Nd isotopes data measured in a comprehensive suite of enstatite chondrites (EC). The EC preserve (142)Nd/(144)Nd ratios that range from those of ordinary chondrites to values similar to terrestrial samples. The EC having terrestrial (142)Nd/(144)Nd ratios are also characterized by small (144)Sm excesses, which is a pure p-process nuclide. The correlation between (144)Sm and (142)Nd for chondrites may indicate a heterogeneous distribution in the solar nebula of p-process matter synthesized in supernovae. However to explain the difference in (142)Nd/(144)Nd ratios, 20% of the p-process contribution to (142)Nd is required, at odds with the value of 4% currently proposed in stellar models. This study highlights the necessity of obtaining high-precision (144)Sm measurements to interpret properly measured (142)Nd signatures. Another explanation could be that the chondrites sample material formed in different pulses of the lifetime of asymptotic giant branch stars. Then the isotope signature measured in SiC presolar would not represent the unique s-process signature of the material present in the solar nebula during accretion.

  8. Characterization of multiple light damage paradigms reveals regional differences in photoreceptor loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer L; Nelson, Craig M; Luo, Xixia; Hyde, David R; Thummel, Ryan

    2012-04-01

    Zebrafish provide an attractive model to study the retinal response to photoreceptor apoptosis due to its remarkable ability to spontaneously regenerate retinal neurons following damage. There are currently two widely-used light-induced retinal degeneration models to damage photoreceptors in the adult zebrafish. One model uses constant bright light, whereas the other uses a short exposure to extremely intense ultraviolet light. Although both models are currently used, it is unclear whether they differ in regard to the extent of photoreceptor damage or the subsequent regeneration response. Here we report a thorough analysis of the photoreceptor damage and subsequent proliferation response elicited by each individual treatment, as well as by the concomitant use of both treatments. We show a differential loss of rod and cone photoreceptors with each treatment. Additionally, we show that the extent of proliferation observed in the retina directly correlates with the severity of photoreceptor loss. We also demonstrate that both the ventral and posterior regions of the retina are partially protected from light damage. Finally, we show that combining a short ultraviolet exposure followed by a constant bright light treatment largely eliminates the neuroprotected regions, resulting in widespread loss of rod and cone photoreceptors and a robust regenerative response throughout the retina. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic variability of garlic accessions as revealed by agro-morphological traits evaluated under different environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerheide, E S S; Azevedo Filho, J A; Vencovsky, R; Zucchi, M I; Zago, B W; Pinheiro, J B

    2017-05-31

    The cultivated garlic (Allium sativum L.) displays a wide phenotypic diversity, which is derived from natural mutations and phenotypic plasticity, due to dependence on soil type, moisture, latitude, altitude and cultural practices, leading to a large number of cultivars. This study aimed to evaluate the genetic variability shown by 63 garlic accessions belonging to Instituto Agronômico de Campinas and the Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" germplasm collections. We evaluated ten quantitative characters in experimental trials conducted under two localities of the State of São Paulo: Monte Alegre do Sul and Piracicaba, during the agricultural year of 2007, in a randomized blocks design with five replications. The Mahalanobis distance was used to measure genetic dissimilarities. The UPGMA method and Tocher's method were used as clustering procedures. Results indicated significant variation among accessions (P < 0.01) for all evaluated characters, except for the percentage of secondary bulb growth in MAS, indicating the existence of genetic variation for bulb production, and germplasm evaluation considering different environments is more reliable for the characterization of the genotypic variability among garlic accessions, since it diminishes the environmental effects in the clustering of genotypes.

  10. Mixed infections reveal virulence differences between host-specific bee pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Ellen G; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Welker, Dennis L; James, Rosalind R

    2015-07-01

    Dynamics of host-pathogen interactions are complex, often influencing the ecology, evolution and behavior of both the host and pathogen. In the natural world, infections with multiple pathogens are common, yet due to their complexity, interactions can be difficult to predict and study. Mathematical models help facilitate our understanding of these evolutionary processes, but empirical data are needed to test model assumptions and predictions. We used two common theoretical models regarding mixed infections (superinfection and co-infection) to determine which model assumptions best described a group of fungal pathogens closely associated with bees. We tested three fungal species, Ascosphaera apis, Ascosphaera aggregata and Ascosphaera larvis, in two bee hosts (Apis mellifera and Megachile rotundata). Bee survival was not significantly different in mixed infections vs. solo infections with the most virulent pathogen for either host, but fungal growth within the host was significantly altered by mixed infections. In the host A. mellifera, only the most virulent pathogen was present in the host post-infection (indicating superinfective properties). In M. rotundata, the most virulent pathogen co-existed with the lesser-virulent one (indicating co-infective properties). We demonstrated that the competitive outcomes of mixed infections were host-specific, indicating strong host specificity among these fungal bee pathogens. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Discrimination task reveals differences in neural bases of tinnitus and hearing impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima T Husain

    Full Text Available We investigated auditory perception and cognitive processing in individuals with chronic tinnitus or hearing loss using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our participants belonged to one of three groups: bilateral hearing loss and tinnitus (TIN, bilateral hearing loss without tinnitus (HL, and normal hearing without tinnitus (NH. We employed pure tones and frequency-modulated sweeps as stimuli in two tasks: passive listening and active discrimination. All subjects had normal hearing through 2 kHz and all stimuli were low-pass filtered at 2 kHz so that all participants could hear them equally well. Performance was similar among all three groups for the discrimination task. In all participants, a distributed set of brain regions including the primary and non-primary auditory cortices showed greater response for both tasks compared to rest. Comparing the groups directly, we found decreased activation in the parietal and frontal lobes in the participants with tinnitus compared to the HL group and decreased response in the frontal lobes relative to the NH group. Additionally, the HL subjects exhibited increased response in the anterior cingulate relative to the NH group. Our results suggest that a differential engagement of a putative auditory attention and short-term memory network, comprising regions in the frontal, parietal and temporal cortices and the anterior cingulate, may represent a key difference in the neural bases of chronic tinnitus accompanied by hearing loss relative to hearing loss alone.

  12. Hierarchical compression of Caenorhabditis elegans locomotion reveals phenotypic differences in the organization of behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Marin, Alex; Stephens, Greg J; Brown, André E X

    2016-08-01

    Regularities in animal behaviour offer insights into the underlying organizational and functional principles of nervous systems and automated tracking provides the opportunity to extract features of behaviour directly from large-scale video data. Yet how to effectively analyse such behavioural data remains an open question. Here, we explore whether a minimum description length principle can be exploited to identify meaningful behaviours and phenotypes. We apply a dictionary compression algorithm to behavioural sequences from the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans freely crawling on an agar plate both with and without food and during chemotaxis. We find that the motifs identified by the compression algorithm are rare but relevant for comparisons between worms in different environments, suggesting that hierarchical compression can be a useful step in behaviour analysis. We also use compressibility as a new quantitative phenotype and find that the behaviour of wild-isolated strains of C. elegans is more compressible than that of the laboratory strain N2 as well as the majority of mutant strains examined. Importantly, in distinction to more conventional phenotypes such as overall motor activity or aggregation behaviour, the increased compressibility of wild isolates is not explained by the loss of function of the gene npr-1, which suggests that erratic locomotion is a laboratory-derived trait with a novel genetic basis. Because hierarchical compression can be applied to any sequence, we anticipate that compressibility can offer insights into the organization of behaviour in other animals including humans. © 2016 The Authors.

  13. Focus Groups Reveal Differences in Career Experiences Between Male and Female Geoscientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oconnell, S.; Frey, C. D.; Holmes, M.

    2003-12-01

    We conducted twelve telephone focus groups of geoscientists to discover what motivates geoscientists to enter our field and stay in our field. There were separate male and female groups from six different professional categories: administrators, full and associate professors, non-tenure track personnel, assistant professors, post-docs and PhD candidates, Bachelor's and Master's candidates. A total of 96 geoscientists participated. Specifically, respondents were asked what initially brought them into the geosciences. Three dominant themes emerged: the subject matter itself, undergraduate experiences, and relationships. A total of 51 responses to this question related to the subject matter itself. Approximately 61 percent (31) of those responses were given by male focus group participants. Across all focus groups, participants brought up issues such as a general appreciation of the outdoors, weather, rocks, and dinosaurs. Following closely behind the general subject matter is undergraduate events. Fifty-one responses mentioned something about undergraduate experiences such as an introductory class, a laboratory experience, or field experiences. While both female and male participants discussed the role of interpersonal relationships in their decision to become a geoscientist, females were slightly more likely to bring up relevant relationships (26 times for females compared to 21 for males). These relationships varied in both groups from a parent or grandparents influence to camping trips with professors. When respondents were asked whether they had ever considered leaving the geosciences and under what circumstances, there was a striking difference between males and females: males were far less likely to have ever considered leaving. Younger males were more likely to consider leaving than older geoscientists. They feel challenged by the financial constraints of graduate school and the time constraints of academic vs. family life. Many females considered leaving at

  14. Comparative Analysis of Dengue and Zika Outbreaks Reveals Differences by Setting and Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Funk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The pacific islands of Micronesia have experienced several outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases over the past decade. In outbreaks on small islands, the susceptible population is usually well defined, and there is no co-circulation of pathogens. Because of this, analysing such outbreaks can be useful for understanding the transmission dynamics of the pathogens involved, and particularly so for yet understudied pathogens such as Zika virus. Here, we compared three outbreaks of dengue and Zika virus in two different island settings in Micronesia, the Yap Main Islands and Fais, using a mathematical model of transmission dynamics and making full use of commonalities in disease and setting between the outbreaks. We found that the estimated reproduction numbers for Zika and dengue were similar when considered in the same setting, but that, conversely, reproduction number for the same disease can vary considerably by setting. On the Yap Main Islands, we estimated a reproduction number of 8.0-16 (95% Credible Interval (CI for the dengue outbreak and 4.8-14 (95% CI for the Zika outbreak, whereas for the dengue outbreak on Fais our estimate was 28-102 (95% CI. We further found that the proportion of cases of Zika reported was smaller (95% CI 1.4%-1.9% than that of dengue (95% CI: 47%-61%. We confirmed these results in extensive sensitivity analysis. They suggest that models for dengue transmission can be useful for estimating the predicted dynamics of Zika transmission, but care must be taken when extrapolating findings from one setting to another.

  15. Molecular Subtyping of Primary Prostate Cancer Reveals Specific and Shared Target Genes of Different ETS Rearrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Paulo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate whether ETS transcription factors frequently involved in rearrangements in prostate carcinomas (PCa, namely ERG and ETV1, regulate specific or shared target genes. We performed differential expression analysis on nine normal prostate tissues and 50 PCa enriched for different ETS rearrangements using exon-level expression microarrays, followed by in vitro validation using cell line models. We found specific deregulation of 57 genes in ERG-positive PCa and 15 genes in ETV1-positive PCa, whereas deregulation of 27 genes was shared in both tumor subtypes. We further showed that the expression of seven tumor-associated ERG target genes (PLA1A, CACNA1D, ATP8A2, HLA-DMB, PDE3B, TDRD1, and TMBIM1 and two tumor-associated ETV1 target genes (FKBP10 and GLYATL2 was significantly affected by specific ETS silencing in VCaP and LNCaP cell line models, respectively, whereas the expression of three candidate ERG and ETV1 shared targets (GRPR, KCNH8, and TMEM45B was significantly affected by silencing of either ETS. Interestingly, we demonstrate that the expression of TDRD1, the topmost overexpressed gene of our list of ERG-specific candidate targets, is inversely correlated with the methylation levels of a CpG island found at -66 bp of the transcription start site in PCa and that TDRD1 expression is regulated by direct binding of ERG to the CpG island in VCaP cells. We conclude that ETS transcription factors regulate specific and shared target genes and that TDRD1, FKBP10, and GRPR are promising therapeutic targets and can serve as diagnostic markers for molecular subtypes of PCa harboring specific fusion gene rearrangements.

  16. Genetic diversity and relationships among different tomato varieties revealed by EST-SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korir, N K; Diao, W; Tao, R; Li, X; Kayesh, E; Li, A; Zhen, W; Wang, S

    2014-01-08

    The genetic diversity and relationship of 42 tomato varieties sourced from different geographic regions was examined with EST-SSR markers. The genetic diversity was between 0.18 and 0.77, with a mean of 0.49; the polymorphic information content ranged from 0.17 to 0.74, with a mean of 0.45. This indicates a fairly high degree of diversity among these tomato varieties. Based on the cluster analysis using unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA), all the tomato varieties fell into 5 groups, with no obvious geographical distribution characteristics despite their diverse sources. The principal component analysis (PCA) supported the clustering result; however, relationships among varieties were more complex in the PCA scatterplot than in the UPGMA dendrogram. This information about the genetic relationships between these tomato lines helps distinguish these 42 varieties and will be useful for tomato variety breeding and selection. We confirm that the EST-SSR marker system is useful for studying genetic diversity among tomato varieties. The high degree of polymorphism and the large number of bands obtained per assay shows that SSR is the most informative marker system for tomato genotyping for purposes of rights/protection and for the tomato industry in general. It is recommended that these varieties be subjected to identification using an SSR-based manual cultivar identification diagram strategy or other easy-to-use and referable methods so as to provide a complete set of information concerning genetic relationships and a readily usable means of identifying these varieties.

  17. A tobacco cDNA reveals two different transcription patterns in vegetative and reproductive organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. da Silva

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify genes expressed in the pistil that may have a role in the reproduction process, we have established an expressed sequence tags project to randomly sequence clones from a Nicotiana tabacum stigma/style cDNA library. A cDNA clone (MTL-8 showing high sequence similarity to genes encoding glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins was chosen for further characterization. Based on the extensive identity of MTL-8 to the RGP-1a sequence of N. sylvestris, a primer was defined to extend the 5' sequence of MTL-8 by RT-PCR from stigma/style RNAs. The amplification product was sequenced and it was confirmed that MTL-8 corresponds to an mRNA encoding a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein. Two transcripts of different sizes and expression patterns were identified when the MTL-8 cDNA insert was used as a probe in RNA blots. The largest is 1,100 nucleotides (nt long and markedly predominant in ovaries. The smaller transcript, with 600 nt, is ubiquitous to the vegetative and reproductive organs analyzed (roots, stems, leaves, sepals, petals, stamens, stigmas/styles and ovaries. Plants submitted to stress (wounding, virus infection and ethylene treatment presented an increased level of the 600-nt transcript in leaves, especially after tobacco necrosis virus infection. In contrast, the level of the 1,100-nt transcript seems to be unaffected by the stress conditions tested. Results of Southern blot experiments have suggested that MTL-8 is present in one or two copies in the tobacco genome. Our results suggest that the shorter transcript is related to stress while the larger one is a flower predominant and nonstress-inducible messenger.

  18. Tip-of-the-tongue states reveal age differences in the syllable frequency effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Meagan T; Abrams, Lise

    2011-01-01

    Syllable frequency has been shown to facilitate production in some languages but has yielded inconsistent results in English and has never been examined in older adults. Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) states represent a unique type of production failure where the phonology of a word is unable to be retrieved, suggesting that the frequency of phonological forms, like syllables, may influence the occurrence of TOT states. In the current study, we investigated the role of first-syllable frequency on TOT incidence and resolution in young (18-26 years of age), young-old (60-74 years of age), and old-old (75-89 years of age) adults. Data from 3 published studies were compiled, where TOTs were elicited by presenting definition-like questions and asking participants to respond with "Know," "Don't Know," or "TOT." Young-old and old-old adults, but not young adults, experienced more TOTs for words beginning with low-frequency first syllables relative to high-frequency first syllables. Furthermore, age differences in TOT incidence occurred only for words with low-frequency first syllables. In contrast, when a prime word with the same first syllable as the target was presented during TOT states, all age groups resolved more TOTs for words beginning with low-frequency syllables. These findings support speech production models that allow for bidirectional activation between conceptual, lexical, and phonological forms of words. Furthermore, the age-specific effects of syllable frequency provide insight into the progression of age-linked changes to phonological processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Systematic review of the limited evidence for different surgical techniques at benign hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Sigurd Beier; Schroll, Jeppe Bennekou; Settnes, Annette

    2017-01-01

    guideline on the subject based on a systematic review of the literature. A guideline panel of seven gynecologists formulated the clinical questions for the guideline. A search specialist performed the comprehensive literature search. The guideline panel reviewed the literature and rated the quality...

  20. Sex differences in cerebral venous thrombosis: A systematic analysis of a shift over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, Susanna M.; Middeldorp, Saskia; Stam, Jan; Coutinho, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    In contemporary studies, cerebral venous thrombosis is three times more common in adult women than in men. To study the change in sex ratio over time in cerebral venous thrombosis. We systematically reviewed the literature. Any type of study with at least 40 patients with cerebral venous thrombosis

  1. Methodological quality of systematic reviews in subfertility: a comparison of two different approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivor Popovich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews are used widely to guide health care decisions. Several tools have been created to assess systematic review quality. The measurement tool for assessing the methodological quality of systematic reviews known as the AMSTAR tool applies a yes/no score to eleven relevant domains of review methodology. This tool has been reworked so that each domain is scored based on a four point scale, producing R-AMSTAR. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We aimed to compare the AMSTAR and R-AMSTAR tools in assessing systematic reviews in the field of assisted reproduction for subfertility. All published systematic reviews on assisted reproductive technology, with the latest search for studies taking place from 2007-2011, were considered. Reviews that contained no included studies or considered diagnostic outcomes were excluded. Thirty each of Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews were randomly selected from a search of relevant databases. Both tools were then applied to all sixty reviews. The results were converted to percentage scores and all reviews graded and ranked based on this. AMSTAR produced a much wider variation in percentage scores and achieved higher inter-rater reliability than R-AMSTAR according to kappa statistics. The average rating for Cochrane reviews was consistent between the two tools (88.3% for R-AMSTAR versus 83.6% for AMSTAR but inconsistent for non-Cochrane reviews (63.9% R-AMSTAR vs. 38.5% AMSTAR. In comparing the rankings generated between the two tools Cochrane reviews changed an average of 4.2 places, compared to 2.9 for non-Cochrane. CONCLUSION: R-AMSTAR provided greater guidance in the assessment of domains and produced quantitative results. However, there were many problems with the construction of its criteria and AMSTAR was much easier to apply consistently. We recommend that AMSTAR incorporates the findings of this study and produces additional guidance for its application in order to improve its reliability and

  2. Different definitions of CpG island methylator phenotype and outcomes of colorectal cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Min; Gao, Xu; Zhang, Yan; Hoffmeister, Michael; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Contradictory results were reported for the prognostic role of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) among colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Differences in the definitions of CIMP were the most common explanation for these discrepancies. The aim of this systematic review was to give an overview of the published studies on CRC prognosis according to the different definitions of CIMP. A systematic literature search was performed in MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science for articles published until 3 April 2015. Data extraction included information about the study population, the definition of CIMP, and investigated outcomes. Thirty-six studies were included in this systematic review. Among them, 30 studies reported the association of CIMP and CRC prognosis and 11 studies reported the association of CIMP with survival after CRC therapy. Overall, 16 different definitions of CIMP were identified. The majority of studies reported a poorer prognosis for patients with CIMP-positive (CIMP+)/CIMP-high (CIMP-H) CRC than with CIMP-negative (CIMP-)/CIMP-low (CIMP-L) CRC. Inconsistent results or varying effect strengths could not be explained by different CIMP definitions used. No consistent variation in response to specific therapies according to CIMP status was found. Comparative analyses of different CIMP panels in the same large study populations are needed to further clarify the role of CIMP definitions and to find out how methylation information can best be used to predict CRC prognosis and response to specific CRC therapies.

  3. The safety and effectiveness of different methods of earwax removal: a systematic review and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, A J; Loveman, E; Gospodarevskaya, E; Harris, P; Bird, A; Bryant, J; Scott, D A; Davidson, P; Little, P; Coppin, R

    2010-06-01

    care (14 studies), secondary care (8 studies) or other care settings (4 studies), met the inclusion criteria for the review - 22 RCTs and 4 CCTs. The range of interventions included 16 different softeners, with or without irrigation, and in various different comparisons. Participants, outcomes, timing of intervention, follow-up and methodological quality varied between studies. On measures of wax clearance Cerumol, sodium bicarbonate, olive oil and water are all more effective than no treatment; triethanolamine polypeptide (TP) is better than olive oil; wet irrigation is better than dry irrigation; sodium bicarbonate drops followed by irrigation by nurse is more effective than sodium bicarbonate drops followed by self-irrigation; softening with TP and self-irrigation is more effective than self-irrigation only; and endoscopic de-waxing is better than microscopic de-waxing. AEs appeared to be minor and of limited extent. Resuts of the exploratory economic model found that softeners followed by self-irrigation were more likely to be cost-effective [24,433 pounds per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY)] than softeners followed by irrigation at primary care (32,130 pounds per QALY) when compared with no treatment. Comparison of the two active treatments showed that the additional gain associated with softeners followed by irrigation at primary care over softeners followed by self-irrigation was at a cost of 340,000 pounds per QALY. When compared over a lifetime horizon to the 'no treatment' option, the ICERs for softeners followed by self-irrigation and of softeners followed by irrigation at primary care were 24,450 pounds per QALY and 32,136 pounds per QALY, respectively. The systematic review found limited good-quality evidence of the safety, benefits and costs of the different strategies, making it difficult to differentiate between the various methods for removing earwax and rendering the economic evaluation as speculative. Although softeners are effective, which

  4. Does the consumption of fruits and vegetables differ between Eastern and Western European populations? Systematic review of cross-national studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefler, Denes; Bobak, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Difference in fruit and vegetable consumption has been suggested as a possible reason for the large gap in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates between Eastern and Western European populations. However, individual-level dietary data which allow direct comparison across the two regions are rare. In this systematic review we aimed to answer the question whether cross-national studies with comparable individual-level dietary data reveal any systematic differences in fruit and vegetable consumption between populations in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the Former Soviet Union (FSU) compared to Western Europe (WE). Studies were identified by electronic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science databases from inception to September 2014, and hand search. Studies which reported data on fruit, vegetable consumption or carotene and vitamin C intake or tissue concentrations of adult participants from both CEE/FSU and WE countries were considered for inclusion. Quality of the included studies was assessed by a modified STROBE statement. Power calculation was performed to determine the statistical significance of the comparison results. Twenty-two studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Fruit consumption was found to be consistently lower in CEE/FSU participants compared to Western Europeans. Results on vegetable intake were less unambiguous. Antioxidant studies indicated lower concentration of beta-carotene in CEE/FSU subjects, but the results for vitamin C were not consistent. This systematic review suggests that populations in CEE and FSU consume less fruit than Western Europeans. The difference in the consumption of fruit may contribute to the CVD gap between the two regions.

  5. Chlamydia prevalence in the general population: is there a sex difference? a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Dielissen, Patrick W; Teunissen, Doreth AM; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine LM

    2013-01-01

    Background The focus of Chlamydia trachomatis screening and testing lies more on women than on men. The study aim was to establish by systematic review the prevalence of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men and women in the general population. Methods Electronic databases and reference lists were searched from 2000 to 2013 using the key words “Chlamydia trachomatis”, “population-based study” and “disease prevalence”. Reference lists were checked. Studies were included in the anal...

  6. Morphometric differences in planum temporale in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder revealed by statistical analysis of Labeled Cortical Depth Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Tilak eRatnanather

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Differences in cortical thickness in the lateral temporal lobe, including the planum temporale (PT, have been reported in MRI studies of schizophrenia (SCZ and bipolar disorder (BPD patients. Most of these studies have used a single-valued global or local measure for thickness. However, additional and complementary information can be obtained by generating Labelled Cortical Depth Maps (LCDMs, which are distances of labeled gray matter voxels from the nearest point on the gray/white matter (inner cortical surface. Statistical analyses of pooled and censored LCDM distances reveal subtle differences in PT between SCZ and BPD groups from data generated by Ratnanather et al. (Schizophrenia Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2013.08.014. These results confirm that the left PT (LPT is more sensitive than the right PT in distinguishing between SCZ, BPD and healthy controls. Also confirmed is a strong gender effect, with a thicker PT seen in males than in females. The differences between groups at smaller distances in the LPT revealed by pooled and censored LCDM analysis suggest that SCZ and BPD have different effects on the cortical mantle close to the gray/white matter surface. This is consistent with reported subtle changes in the cortical mantle observed in postmortem studies.

  7. Do ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal temperate tree species systematically differ in root order-related fine root morphology and biomass?

    OpenAIRE

    Kubisch, Petra; Hertel, Dietrich; Leuschner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    While most temperate broad-leaved tree species form ectomycorrhizal (EM) symbioses, a few species have arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM). It is not known whether EM and AM tree species differ systematically with respect to fine root morphology, fine root system size and root functioning. In a species-rich temperate mixed forest, we studied the fine root morphology and biomass of three EM and three AM tree species from the genera Acer, Carpinus, Fagus, Fraxinus, and Tilia searching for principal dif...

  8. Gender-Differentiated Parenting Revisited: Meta-Analysis Reveals Very Few Differences in Parental Control of Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endendijk, Joyce J.; Groeneveld, Marleen G.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Mesman, Judi

    2016-01-01

    Although various theories describe mechanisms leading to differential parenting of boys and girls, there is no consensus about the extent to which parents do treat their sons and daughters differently. The last meta-analyses on the subject were conducted more than fifteen years ago, and changes in gender-specific child rearing in the past decade are quite plausible. In the current set of meta-analyses, based on 126 observational studies (15,034 families), we examined mothers’ and fathers’ differential use of autonomy-supportive and controlling strategies with boys and girls, and the role of moderators related to the decade in which the study was conducted, the observational context, and sample characteristics. Databases of Web of Science, ERIC, PsychInfo, Online Contents, Picarta, and Proquest were searched for studies examining differences in observed parental control of boys and girls between the ages of 0 and 18 years. Few differences were found in parents’ use of control with boys and girls. Parents were slightly more controlling with boys than with girls, but the effect size was negligible (d = 0.08). The effect was larger, but still small, in normative groups and in samples with younger children. No overall effect for gender-differentiated autonomy-supportive strategies was found (d = 0.03). A significant effect of time emerged: studies published in the 1970s and 1980s reported more autonomy-supportive strategies with boys than toward girls, but from 1990 onwards parents showed somewhat more autonomy-supportive strategies with girls than toward boys. Taking into account parents’ gender stereotypes might uncover subgroups of families where gender-differentiated control is salient, but based on our systematic review of the currently available large data base we conclude that in general the differences between parenting of boys versus girls are minimal. PMID:27416099

  9. Gender-Differentiated Parenting Revisited: Meta-Analysis Reveals Very Few Differences in Parental Control of Boys and Girls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce J Endendijk

    Full Text Available Although various theories describe mechanisms leading to differential parenting of boys and girls, there is no consensus about the extent to which parents do treat their sons and daughters differently. The last meta-analyses on the subject were conducted more than fifteen years ago, and changes in gender-specific child rearing in the past decade are quite plausible. In the current set of meta-analyses, based on 126 observational studies (15,034 families, we examined mothers' and fathers' differential use of autonomy-supportive and controlling strategies with boys and girls, and the role of moderators related to the decade in which the study was conducted, the observational context, and sample characteristics. Databases of Web of Science, ERIC, PsychInfo, Online Contents, Picarta, and Proquest were searched for studies examining differences in observed parental control of boys and girls between the ages of 0 and 18 years. Few differences were found in parents' use of control with boys and girls. Parents were slightly more controlling with boys than with girls, but the effect size was negligible (d = 0.08. The effect was larger, but still small, in normative groups and in samples with younger children. No overall effect for gender-differentiated autonomy-supportive strategies was found (d = 0.03. A significant effect of time emerged: studies published in the 1970s and 1980s reported more autonomy-supportive strategies with boys than toward girls, but from 1990 onwards parents showed somewhat more autonomy-supportive strategies with girls than toward boys. Taking into account parents' gender stereotypes might uncover subgroups of families where gender-differentiated control is salient, but based on our systematic review of the currently available large data base we conclude that in general the differences between parenting of boys versus girls are minimal.

  10. Gender-Differentiated Parenting Revisited: Meta-Analysis Reveals Very Few Differences in Parental Control of Boys and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endendijk, Joyce J; Groeneveld, Marleen G; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Mesman, Judi

    2016-01-01

    Although various theories describe mechanisms leading to differential parenting of boys and girls, there is no consensus about the extent to which parents do treat their sons and daughters differently. The last meta-analyses on the subject were conducted more than fifteen years ago, and changes in gender-specific child rearing in the past decade are quite plausible. In the current set of meta-analyses, based on 126 observational studies (15,034 families), we examined mothers' and fathers' differential use of autonomy-supportive and controlling strategies with boys and girls, and the role of moderators related to the decade in which the study was conducted, the observational context, and sample characteristics. Databases of Web of Science, ERIC, PsychInfo, Online Contents, Picarta, and Proquest were searched for studies examining differences in observed parental control of boys and girls between the ages of 0 and 18 years. Few differences were found in parents' use of control with boys and girls. Parents were slightly more controlling with boys than with girls, but the effect size was negligible (d = 0.08). The effect was larger, but still small, in normative groups and in samples with younger children. No overall effect for gender-differentiated autonomy-supportive strategies was found (d = 0.03). A significant effect of time emerged: studies published in the 1970s and 1980s reported more autonomy-supportive strategies with boys than toward girls, but from 1990 onwards parents showed somewhat more autonomy-supportive strategies with girls than toward boys. Taking into account parents' gender stereotypes might uncover subgroups of families where gender-differentiated control is salient, but based on our systematic review of the currently available large data base we conclude that in general the differences between parenting of boys versus girls are minimal.

  11. 'Ogura'-based 'CMS' lines with different nuclear backgrounds of cabbage revealed substantial diversity at morphological and molecular levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkash, Chander; Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Rajender; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Satish; Dey, Shyam Sundar; Bhatia, Reeta; Kumar, Raj

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive study on characterization and genetic diversity analysis was carried out in 16 'Ogura'-based 'CMS' lines of cabbage using 14 agro-morphological traits and 29 SSR markers. Agro-morphological characterization depicted considerable variations for different horticultural traits studied. The genotype, ZHA-2, performed better for most of the economically important quantitative traits. Further, gross head weight (0.76), head length (0.60) and head width (0.83) revealed significant positive correlation with net head weight. Dendrogram based on 10 quantitative traits exhibited considerable diversity among different CMS lines and principle component analysis (PCA) indicated that net and gross head weight, and head length and width are the main components of divergence between 16 CMS lines of cabbage. In molecular study, a total of 58 alleles were amplified by 29 SSR primers, averaging to 2.0 alleles in each locus. High mean values of Shannon's Information index (0.62), expected (0.45) and observed (0.32) heterozygosity and polymorphic information content (0.35) depicted substantial polymorphism. Dendrogram based on Jaccard's similarity coefficient constructed two major groups and eight sub-groups, which revealed substantial diversity among different CMS lines. In overall, based on agro-morphological and molecular studies genotype RRMA, ZHA-2 and RCA were found most divergent. Hence, they have immense potential in future breeding programs for the high-yielding hybrid development in cabbage.

  12. Are most samples of animals systematically biased? Consistent individual trait differences bias samples despite random sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Peter A

    2013-02-01

    Sampling animals from the wild for study is something nearly every biologist has done, but despite our best efforts to obtain random samples of animals, 'hidden' trait biases may still exist. For example, consistent behavioral traits can affect trappability/catchability, independent of obvious factors such as size and gender, and these traits are often correlated with other repeatable physiological and/or life history traits. If so, systematic sampling bias may exist for any of these traits. The extent to which this is a problem, of course, depends on the magnitude of bias, which is presently unknown because the underlying trait distributions in populations are usually unknown, or unknowable. Indeed, our present knowledge about sampling bias comes from samples (not complete population censuses), which can possess bias to begin with. I had the unique opportunity to create naturalized populations of fish by seeding each of four small fishless lakes with equal densities of slow-, intermediate-, and fast-growing fish. Using sampling methods that are not size-selective, I observed that fast-growing fish were up to two-times more likely to be sampled than slower-growing fish. This indicates substantial and systematic bias with respect to an important life history trait (growth rate). If correlations between behavioral, physiological and life-history traits are as widespread as the literature suggests, then many animal samples may be systematically biased with respect to these traits (e.g., when collecting animals for laboratory use), and affect our inferences about population structure and abundance. I conclude with a discussion on ways to minimize sampling bias for particular physiological/behavioral/life-history types within animal populations.

  13. A Systematic, Integrated Study on the Neuroprotective Effects of Hydroxysafflor Yellow A Revealed by H1 NMR-Based Metabonomics and the NF-κB Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA is the main active component of the Chinese herb Carthamus tinctorius L.. Purified HSYA is used as a neuroprotective agent to prevent cerebral ischemia. Injectable safflor yellow (50 mg, containing 35 mg HSYA is widely used to treat patients with ischemic cardiocerebrovascular disease. However, it is unknown how HSYA exerts a protective effect on cerebral ischemia at the molecular level. A systematical integrated study, including histopathological examination, neurological evaluation, blood-brain barrier (BBB, metabonomics, and the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB pathway, was applied to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of HSYA neuroprotection at the molecular level. HSYA could travel across the BBB, significantly reducing the infarct volume and improving the neurological functions of rats with ischemia. Treatment with HSYA could lead to relative corrections of the impaired metabolic pathways through energy metabolism disruption, excitatory amino acid toxicity, oxidative stress, and membrane disruption revealed by 1H NMR-based metabonomics. Meanwhile, HSYA treatment inhibits the NF-κB pathway via suppressing proinflammatory cytokine expression and p65 translocation and binding activity while upregulating an anti-inflammatory cytokine.

  14. Gene Expression Profiling Reveals a Massive, Aneuploidy-Dependent Transcriptional Deregulation and Distinct Differences between Lymph Node–Negative and Lymph Node–Positive Colon Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grade, Marian; Hörmann, Patrick; Becker, Sandra; Hummon, Amanda B.; Wangsa, Danny; Varma, Sudhir; Simon, Richard; Liersch, Torsten; Becker, Heinz; Difilippantonio, Michael J.; Ghadimi, B. Michael; Ried, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    To characterize patterns of global transcriptional deregulation in primary colon carcinomas, we did gene expression profiling of 73 tumors [Unio Internationale Contra Cancrum stage II (n = 33) and stage III (n = 40)] using oligonucleotide microarrays. For 30 of the tumors, expression profiles were compared with those from matched normal mucosa samples. We identified a set of 1,950 genes with highly significant deregulation between tumors and mucosa samples (P 5-fold average expression difference between normal colon mucosa and carcinomas, including up-regulation of MYC and of HMGA1, a putative oncogene. Furthermore, we identified 68 genes that were significantly differentially expressed between lymph node–negative and lymph node–positive tumors (P deregulated genes were validated using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR in >40 tumor and normal mucosa samples with good concordance between the techniques. Finally, we established a relationship between specific genomic imbalances, which were mapped for 32 of the analyzed colon tumors by comparative genomic hybridization, and alterations of global transcriptional activity. Previously, we had conducted a similar analysis of primary rectal carcinomas. The systematic comparison of colon and rectal carcinomas revealed a significant overlap of genomic imbalances and transcriptional deregulation, including activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade, suggesting similar pathogenic pathways. PMID:17210682

  15. Amygdala subnuclei connectivity in response to violence reveals unique influences of individual differences in psychopathic traits in a nonforensic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Keith J; Porges, Eric C; Decety, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Atypical amygdala function and connectivity have reliably been associated with psychopathy. However, the amygdala is not a unitary structure. To examine how psychopathic traits in a nonforensic sample are linked to amygdala response to violence, this study used probabilistic tractography to classify amygdala subnuclei based on anatomical projections to and from amygdala subnuclei in a group of 43 male participants. The segmentation identified the basolateral complex (BLA; lateral, basal, and accessory basal subnuclei) and the central subnucleus (CE), which were used as seeds in a functional connectivity analysis to identify differences in neuronal coupling specific to observed violence. While a full amygdala seed showed significant connectivity only to right middle occipital gyrus, subnuclei seeds revealed unique connectivity patterns. BLA showed enhanced coupling with anterior cingulate and prefrontal regions, while CE showed increased connectivity with the brainstem, but reduced connectivity with superior parietal and precentral gyrus. Further, psychopathic personality factors were related to specific patterns of connectivity. Fearless Dominance scores on the psychopathic personality inventory predicted increased coupling between the BLA seed and sensory integration cortices, and increased connectivity between the CE seed and posterior insula. Conversely, Self-Centered Impulsivity scores were negatively correlated with coupling between BLA and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and Coldheartedness scores predicted increased functional connectivity between BLA and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. Taken together, these findings demonstrate how subnuclei segmentations reveal important functional connectivity differences that are otherwise inaccessible. Such an approach yields a better understanding of amygdala dysfunction in psychopathy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Comparative Genomics Revealed Genetic Diversity and Species/Strain-Level Differences in Carbohydrate Metabolism of Three Probiotic Bifidobacterial Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshitaka Odamaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strains of Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium animalis are widely used as probiotics in the food industry. Although numerous studies have revealed the properties and functionality of these strains, it is uncertain whether these characteristics are species common or strain specific. To address this issue, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of 49 strains belonging to these three bifidobacterial species to describe their genetic diversity and to evaluate species-level differences. There were 166 common clusters between strains of B. breve and B. longum, whereas there were nine common clusters between strains of B. animalis and B. longum and four common clusters between strains of B. animalis and B. breve. Further analysis focused on carbohydrate metabolism revealed the existence of certain strain-dependent genes, such as those encoding enzymes for host glycan utilisation or certain membrane transporters, and many genes commonly distributed at the species level, as was previously reported in studies with limited strains. As B. longum and B. breve are human-residential bifidobacteria (HRB, whereas B. animalis is a non-HRB species, several of the differences in these species’ gene distributions might be the result of their adaptations to the nutrient environment. This information may aid both in selecting probiotic candidates and in understanding their potential function as probiotics.

  17. Phenotypic diversity of diploid and haploid Emiliania huxleyi cells and of cells in different growth phases revealed by comparative metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausz, Michaela A; Pohnert, Georg

    2015-01-01

    In phytoplankton a high species diversity of microalgae co-exists at a given time. But diversity is not only reflected by the species composition. Within these species different life phases as well as different metabolic states can cause additional diversity. One important example is the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. Diploid cells play an important role in marine ecosystems since they can form massively abundant algal blooms but in addition the less abundant haploid life phase of E. huxleyi occurs in lower quantities. Both life phases may fulfill different functions in the plankton. We hypothesize that in addition to the functional diversity caused by this life phase transition the growth stage of cells can also influence the metabolic composition and thus the ecological impact of E. huxleyi. Here we introduce a metabolomic survey in dependence of life phases as well as different growth phases to reveal such changes. The comparative metabolomic approach is based on the extraction of intracellular metabolites from intact microalgae, derivatization and analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Automated data processing and statistical analysis using canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) revealed unique metabolic profiles for each life phase. Concerning the correlations of metabolites to growth phases, complex patterns were observed. As for example the saccharide mannitol showed its highest concentration in the exponential phase, whereas fatty acids were correlated to stationary and sterols to declining phase. These results are indicative for specific ecological roles of these stages of E. huxleyi and are discussed in the context of previous physiological and ecological studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Cytogenetical and morphological features reveal significant differences among Venezuelan and Brazilian samples of Mugil curema (Teleostei: Mugilidae

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    Mauro Nirchio

    Full Text Available Karyotype of M. curema from the Gulf of Mexico and Brazil have been reported as possessing chromosome complement with 2n=28 and FN=48, whereas specimens from Venezuela has been reported as possessing a diploid number 2n=24 and a conserved FN (48. Although at first sight this variation suggests the presence of a chromosomal intraspecific (interpopulational variability, the possibility that we are dealing with two different species was examined. This work revisit the karyotypes of M. curema from Venezuela and Brazil, including new data on C-banding, and NOR localization, and compares morphologic characteristics of samples from both localities. Thus, besides diploid number, the constitutive heterochromatin distribution and NORs location, mark other differences between M. curema Cytotype 1 (2n=28; FN=48 and Cytotype 2 (2n=24; NF=48. Moreover, morphologic comparison revealed differences in the scale counts and pectoral fin rays: 35 scales in the middle body line and 15 pectoral fin rays in specimens possessing the karyotype 2n=28, compared with 37-39 scales in the middle body line and 17 pectoral fin rays in specimens with the karyotype 2n=24. These differences lead us to suggest that both cytotypes are not related merely to geographic polytipic variations but could correspond to different species.

  19. Does remnant gastric cancer really differ from primary gastric cancer? A systematic review of the literature by the Task Force of Japanese Gastric Cancer Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hideaki; Fukagawa, Takeo; Haga, Yoshio; Oba, Koji

    2016-04-01

    Remnant gastric cancer, most frequently defined as cancer detected in the remnant stomach after distal gastrectomy for benign disease and those cases after surgery of gastric cancer at least 5 years after the primary surgery, is often reported as a tumor with poor prognosis. The Task Force of Japanese Gastric Cancer Association for Research Promotion evaluated the clinical impact of remnant gastric cancer by systematically reviewing publications focusing on molecular carcinogenesis, lymph node status, patient survival, and surgical complications. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE with the keywords "remnant," "stomach," and "cancer," revealing 1154 relevant reports published up to the end of December 2014. The mean interval between the initial surgery and the diagnosis of remnant gastric cancer ranged from 10 to 30 years. The incidence of lymph node metastases at the splenic hilum for remnant gastric cancer is not significantly higher than that for primary proximal gastric cancer. Lymph node involvement in the jejunal mesentery is a phenomenon peculiar to remnant gastric cancer after Billroth II reconstruction. Prognosis and postoperative morbidity and mortality rates seem to be comparable to those for primary proximal gastric cancer. The crude 5-year mortality for remnant gastric cancer was 1.08 times higher than that for primary proximal gastric cancer, but this difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, although no prospective cohort study has yet evaluated the clinical significance of remnant gastric cancer, our literature review suggests that remnant gastric cancer does not adversely affect patient prognosis and postoperative course.

  20. What is the difference in concussion management in children as compared with adults? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gavin A; Anderson, Vicki; Babl, Franz E; Gioia, Gerard A; Giza, Christopher C; Meehan, William; Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Purcell, Laura; Schatz, Philip; Schneider, Kathryn J; Takagi, Michael; Yeates, Keith Owen; Zemek, Roger

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the evidence regarding the management of sport-related concussion (SRC) in children and adolescents. The eight subquestions included the effects of age on symptoms and outcome, normal and prolonged duration, the role of computerised neuropsychological tests (CNTs), the role of rest, and strategies for return to school and return to sport (RTSp). Systematic review. MEDLINE (OVID), Embase (OVID) and PsycInfo (OVID). Studies were included if they were original research on SRC in children aged 5 years to 18 years, and excluded if they were review articles, or did not focus on childhood SRC. A total of 5853 articles were identified, and 134 articles met the inclusion criteria. Some articles were common to multiple subquestions. Very few studies examined SRC in young children, aged 5-12 years. This systematic review recommends that in children: child and adolescent age-specific paradigms should be applied; child-validated symptom rating scales should be used; the widespread routine use of baseline CNT is not recommended; the expected duration of symptoms associated with SRC is less than 4 weeks; prolonged recovery be defined as symptomatic for greater than 4 weeks; a brief period of cognitive and physical rest should be followed with gradual symptom-limited physical and cognitive activity; all schools be encouraged to have a concussion policy and should offer appropriate academic accommodations and support to students recovering from SRC; and children and adolescents should not RTSp until they have successfully returned to school, however early introduction of symptom-limited physical activity is appropriate. PROSPERO 2016:CRD42016039184. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. The complete genome and proteome of Laribacter hongkongensis reveal potential mechanisms for adaptations to different temperatures and habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Tse, Herman; Teng, Jade L L; Curreem, Shirly O T; Tsang, Alan K L; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Wong, Gilman K M; Huang, Yi; Loman, Nicholas J; Snyder, Lori A S; Cai, James J; Huang, Jian-Dong; Mak, William; Pallen, Mark J; Lok, Si; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2009-03-01

    Laribacter hongkongensis is a newly discovered Gram-negative bacillus of the Neisseriaceae family associated with freshwater fish-borne gastroenteritis and traveler's diarrhea. The complete genome sequence of L. hongkongensis HLHK9, recovered from an immunocompetent patient with severe gastroenteritis, consists of a 3,169-kb chromosome with G+C content of 62.35%. Genome analysis reveals different mechanisms potentially important for its adaptation to diverse habitats of human and freshwater fish intestines and freshwater environments. The gene contents support its phenotypic properties and suggest that amino acids and fatty acids can be used as carbon sources. The extensive variety of transporters, including multidrug efflux and heavy metal transporters as well as genes involved in chemotaxis, may enable L. hongkongensis to survive in different environmental niches. Genes encoding urease, bile salts efflux pump, adhesin, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and other putative virulence factors-such as hemolysins, RTX toxins, patatin-like proteins, phospholipase A1, and collagenases-are present. Proteomes of L. hongkongensis HLHK9 cultured at 37 degrees C (human body temperature) and 20 degrees C (freshwater habitat temperature) showed differential gene expression, including two homologous copies of argB, argB-20, and argB-37, which encode two isoenzymes of N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase (NAGK)-NAGK-20 and NAGK-37-in the arginine biosynthesis pathway. NAGK-20 showed higher expression at 20 degrees C, whereas NAGK-37 showed higher expression at 37 degrees C. NAGK-20 also had a lower optimal temperature for enzymatic activities and was inhibited by arginine probably as negative-feedback control. Similar duplicated copies of argB are also observed in bacteria from hot springs such as Thermus thermophilus, Deinococcus geothermalis, Deinococcus radiodurans, and Roseiflexus castenholzii, suggesting that similar mechanisms for temperature adaptation may be employed by other

  2. Statistical differences and systematic effect on measurement procedure in thermoluminescent dosimetry of the Iodine-125 brachytherapy seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeituni, Carlos A.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Manzoli, Jose E.; Moura, Joao Augusto; Feher, Anselmo; Karam, Dib

    2009-01-01

    In order to provide the dosimetry for Iodine-125 seed production in Brazil, Harshaw thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) will be used. Even if measurements with TLD-100 of the same batch of fabrication are performed, the response will not be the same. As a consequence, they must be measured one by one. These dosimeters are LiF type with a micro-cube (1 mm x 1 mm x 1 mm) shape. Irradiations were performed using Iodine-125 seeds to guarantee the same absorbed dose of 5 Gy in each dosimeter. It has been used a Solid Water Phantom with three concentrically circle with 20 mm, 50 mm and 70 mm diameters. The angle of positions used was 0 deg, 30 deg, 60 deg and 90 deg. Of course there are 2 positions in 0 deg and 90 deg and 4 positions in 30 deg and 60 deg. These complete procedures were carried out five times in order to compare the data and minimize the systematic error. The iodine-125 seed used in the experiment was take off in each measure and put again turning his position 180 deg to guarantee the systematic error was minimized. This paper presents also a little discussion about the statistical difference in the measurement and the calculation procedure to determine the systematic error in these measurements. (author)

  3. Statistical differences and systematic effect on measurement procedure in thermoluminescent dosimetry of the Iodine-125 brachytherapy seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeituni, Carlos A.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Manzoli, Jose E.; Moura, Joao Augusto; Feher, Anselmo, E-mail: czeituni@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Karam, Dib [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP Leste), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades

    2009-07-01

    In order to provide the dosimetry for Iodine-125 seed production in Brazil, Harshaw thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) will be used. Even if measurements with TLD-100 of the same batch of fabrication are performed, the response will not be the same. As a consequence, they must be measured one by one. These dosimeters are LiF type with a micro-cube (1 mm x 1 mm x 1 mm) shape. Irradiations were performed using Iodine-125 seeds to guarantee the same absorbed dose of 5 Gy in each dosimeter. It has been used a Solid Water Phantom with three concentrically circle with 20 mm, 50 mm and 70 mm diameters. The angle of positions used was 0 deg, 30 deg, 60 deg and 90 deg. Of course there are 2 positions in 0 deg and 90 deg and 4 positions in 30 deg and 60 deg. These complete procedures were carried out five times in order to compare the data and minimize the systematic error. The iodine-125 seed used in the experiment was take off in each measure and put again turning his position 180 deg to guarantee the systematic error was minimized. This paper presents also a little discussion about the statistical difference in the measurement and the calculation procedure to determine the systematic error in these measurements. (author)

  4. Comparison at the peptide level with post-translational modification consideration reveals more differences between two unenriched samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jianrui; Shao, Chen; Jia, Lulu; Gao, Youhe

    2014-06-30

    In shotgun strategies, peptide sequences are first identified from tandem mass (MS/MS) spectra, and the existence and abundance of the proteins are then inferred from the peptide information. However, the protein inference step can produce errors and a loss of information. To identify the information that is lost using the traditional approaches, this study compared the proteomic data of two leukemia cell lines (Jurkat and K562) at the peptide level with consideration of post-translational modifications (PTMs). The raw files from the two cell lines were searched against the decoy IPI-human database version 3.68, which contains forward and reverse sequences. Then the observed modification name in the results was matched with the modification classification on the Unimod website by a manual search. Only the peptides with 'post-translational' modifications were compared between the two cell lines. After searching the database with consideration of PTMs, a total of 44046 non-redundant peptides were identified in both the Jurkat and K562 cell lines. Of these peptides, even without specific PTM enrichment, 11.43% of them (with at least two spectra in one cell line) existed in different PTM forms between the two cell lines, and 1.73% of the peptides were modified in both cell lines, but with different modifications or possibly on different sites. Comparing proteomic data at the peptide level with consideration of PTMs can reveal more differences between two unenriched samples. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Different localization patterns of anthocyanin species in the pericarp of black rice revealed by imaging mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Yoshimura

    Full Text Available Black rice (Oryza sativa L. Japonica contains high levels of anthocyanins in the pericarp and is considered an effective health-promoting food. Several studies have identified the molecular species of anthocyanins in black rice, but information about the localization of each anthocyanin species is limited because methodologies for investigating the localization such as determining specific antibodies to anthocyanin, have not yet been developed Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS is a suitable tool for investigating the localization of metabolites. In this study, we identified 7 species of anthocyanin monoglycosides and 2 species of anthocyanin diglycosides in crude extracts from black rice by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS analysis. We also analyzed black rice sections by MALDI-IMS and found 2 additional species of anthocyanin pentosides and revealed different localization patterns of anthocyanin species composed of different sugar moieties. Anthocyanin species composed of a pentose moiety (cyanidin-3-O-pentoside and petunidin-3-O-pentoside were localized in the entire pericarp, whereas anthocyanin species composed of a hexose moiety (cyanidin-3-O-hexoside and peonidin-3-O-hexoside were focally localized in the dorsal pericarp. These results indicate that anthocyanin species composed of different sugar moieties exhibit different localization patterns in the pericarp of black rice. This is the first detailed investigation into the localization of molecular species of anthocyanins by MALDI-IMS.

  6. Approach for discrimination and quantification of electroactive species: kinetics difference revealed by higher harmonics of Fourier transformed sinusoidal voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yishan; Huang, Xinjian; Wang, Lishi

    2015-01-06

    Discrimination and quantification of electroactive species are traditionally realized by a potential difference which is mainly determined by thermodynamics. However, the resolution of this approach is limited to tens of millivolts. In this paper, we described an application of Fourier transformed sinusoidal voltammetry (FT-SV) that provides a new approach for discrimination and quantitative evaluation of electroactive species, especially thermodynamic similar ones. Numerical simulation indicates that electron transfer kinetics difference between electroactive species can be revealed by the phase angle of higher order harmonics of FT-SV, and the difference can be amplified order by order. Thus, even a very subtle kinetics difference can be amplified to be distinguishable at a certain order of harmonics. This method was verified with structurally similar ferrocene derivatives which were chosen as the model systems. Although these molecules have very close redox potential (harmonics. The results demonstrated the feasibility and reliability of the method. It was also implied that the combination of the traditional thermodynamic method and this kinetics method can form a two-dimension resolved detection method, and it has the potential to extend the resolution of voltammetric techniques to a new level.

  7. DNA polymorphisms revealed by the RAPD technique show differences between radionuclide-contaminated and uncontaminated mosquitofish populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodorakis, C.W.; Shugart, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    In 1977, approximately 250 Mosquitofish (Gambusia affines) were transplanted from a relatively uncontaminated site into a small pond on the Oak Ridge Reservation that is heavily contaminated with radionuclides. DNA polymorphisms, using the RAPD technique, were examined in order to determine if any genetic differentiation had occurred between the two populations. Also, fish from another radionuclide-contaminated population (White Oak Lake) and two unrelated non-contaminated populations were also examined. The RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) technique uses the polymerase chain reaction with a short oligonucleotide primer to produce DNA fragments of various lengths. When analyzed by gel electrophoresis, these fragments form banding patterns similar to DNA fingerprints. A total of 26 primers were used to produce DNA band patterns, many of which revealed population differences. In addition several primers revealed banding patterns which differentiated between the Crystal Springs and Pond 3513 populations. Furthermore, bands found at high frequency in Pond 3513 and White Oak Lake populations were absent or present at a lower frequency in the non-contaminated populations. For some primers, the contaminated populations showed more DNA bands per individual, and fish with more bands had fewer DNA strand breaks than the fish with fewer bands. These data will be discussed with relation to biomonitoring programs and evolution of resistance to genotoxins in natural populations

  8. Glycoprotein profiles of macrophages at different stages of activation as revealed by lectin binding after electrophoretic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimura, T; North, S M; Nicolson, G L

    1987-01-01

    Glycoprotein profiles of rat macrophages (M phi) at different stages of activation were studied by examining the reactivity of various lectins to the glycoproteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Ricinus communis agglutinin 1 (RCA1) revealed several components including glycoproteins of Mr 160 kDa and 65 kDa prominent in resident M phi. A pokeweed mitogen (PWM) isolectin, Pa-4, recognizes branched poly(N-acetyllactosamine)-type carbohydrate chains, and revealed a significant increase in glycoproteins of Mr ranging from 70 kDa to 150 kDa on thioglycolate-elicited M phi. Increased reactivity of PWM to thioglycolate-elicited M phi was observed by direct binding of 125I-labeled Pa-4 to intact or glutaraldehyde-fixed M phi. Histochemical staining of formaldehyde-fixed M phi in vitro with biotinylated Pa-4 was consistent with the gel analysis, that is, resident M phi had no reactivity while thioglycolate-elicited M phi showed slight reactivity. Alveolar and intratumoral M phi bound more Pa-4 than resident or thioglycolate-elicited M phi. The PWM isolectin may therefore serve as a marker for an early stage of M phi activation.

  9. Ultrasonic vocalizations in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) reveal modest sex differences and nonlinear signals of sexual motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Vargas, Marcela; Johnston, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Vocal signaling is one of many behaviors that animals perform during social interactions. Vocalizations produced by both sexes before mating can communicate sex, identity and condition of the caller. Adult golden hamsters produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) after intersexual contact. To determine whether these vocalizations are sexually dimorphic, we analyzed the vocal repertoire for sex differences in: 1) calling rates, 2) composition (structural complexity, call types and nonlinear phenomena) and 3) acoustic structure. In addition, we examined it for individual variation in the calls. The vocal repertoire was mainly composed of 1-note simple calls and at least half of them presented some degree of deterministic chaos. The prevalence of this nonlinear phenomenon was confirmed by low values of harmonic-to-noise ratio for most calls. We found modest sexual differences between repertoires. Males were more likely than females to produce tonal and less chaotic calls, as well as call types with frequency jumps. Multivariate analysis of the acoustic features of 1-note simple calls revealed significant sex differences in the second axis represented mostly by entropy and bandwidth parameters. Male calls showed lower entropy and inter-quartile bandwidth than female calls. Because the variation of acoustic structure within individuals was higher than among individuals, USV could not be reliably assigned to the correct individual. Interestingly, however, this high variability, augmented by the prevalence of chaos and frequency jumps, could be the result of increased vocal effort. Hamsters motivated to produce high calling rates also produced longer calls of broader bandwidth. Thus, the sex differences found could be the result of different sex preferences but also of a sex difference in calling motivation or condition. We suggest that variable and complex USV may have been selected to increase responsiveness of a potential mate by communicating sexual arousal and

  10. Ultrasonic vocalizations in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus reveal modest sex differences and nonlinear signals of sexual motivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Fernández-Vargas

    Full Text Available Vocal signaling is one of many behaviors that animals perform during social interactions. Vocalizations produced by both sexes before mating can communicate sex, identity and condition of the caller. Adult golden hamsters produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV after intersexual contact. To determine whether these vocalizations are sexually dimorphic, we analyzed the vocal repertoire for sex differences in: 1 calling rates, 2 composition (structural complexity, call types and nonlinear phenomena and 3 acoustic structure. In addition, we examined it for individual variation in the calls. The vocal repertoire was mainly composed of 1-note simple calls and at least half of them presented some degree of deterministic chaos. The prevalence of this nonlinear phenomenon was confirmed by low values of harmonic-to-noise ratio for most calls. We found modest sexual differences between repertoires. Males were more likely than females to produce tonal and less chaotic calls, as well as call types with frequency jumps. Multivariate analysis of the acoustic features of 1-note simple calls revealed significant sex differences in the second axis represented mostly by entropy and bandwidth parameters. Male calls showed lower entropy and inter-quartile bandwidth than female calls. Because the variation of acoustic structure within individuals was higher than among individuals, USV could not be reliably assigned to the correct individual. Interestingly, however, this high variability, augmented by the prevalence of chaos and frequency jumps, could be the result of increased vocal effort. Hamsters motivated to produce high calling rates also produced longer calls of broader bandwidth. Thus, the sex differences found could be the result of different sex preferences but also of a sex difference in calling motivation or condition. We suggest that variable and complex USV may have been selected to increase responsiveness of a potential mate by communicating sexual

  11. Cytogenetic analysis of the Amazon stingless bee Melipona seminigra merrillae reveals different chromosome number for the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaura Bezerra Francini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic analysis of the Amazon stingless bee Melipona seminigra merrillae, by conventional Giemsa staining and C-banding, revealed a different chromosome number for Melipona: 2n = 22 for females and diploid drones while the haploid drones present n = 11. There is no evidence of B chromosomes. This result contrasts with previous studies, in which the chromosome number of 19 Melipona species was determined as 2n = 18 for females and n = 9 for haploid males. Based on cytogenetic information available for other Melipona species, we propose that M. s. merrillae has a more derived diploid number. This indicates that chromosome number is not a conservative characteristic within the genus as previously thought. Cytogenetic data for stingless bees are scarce, especially in Amazon region. Additional studies will be very important in order to promote Melipona karyoevolution discussion and consequently a taxonomy review.

  12. The clinical effectiveness of different parenting programmes for children with conduct problems: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Rod S

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conduct problems are common, disabling and costly. The prognosis for children with conduct problems is poor, with outcomes in adulthood including criminal behaviour, alcoholism, drug abuse, domestic violence, child abuse and a range of psychiatric disorders. There has been a rapid expansion of group based parent-training programmes for the treatment of children with conduct problems in a number of countries over the past 10 years. Existing reviews of parent training have methodological limitations such as inclusion of non-randomised studies, the absence of investigation for heterogeneity prior to meta-analysis or failure to report confidence intervals. The objective of the current study was to systematically review randomised controlled trials of parenting programmes for the treatment of children with conduct problems. Methods Standard systematic review methods were followed including duplicate inclusion decisions, data extraction and quality assessment. Twenty electronic databases from the fields of medicine, psychology, social science and education were comprehensively searched for RCTs and systematic reviews to February 2006. Inclusion criteria were: randomised controlled trial; of structured, repeatable parenting programmes; for parents/carers of children up to the age of 18 with a conduct problem; and at least one measure of child behaviour. Meta-analysis and qualitative synthesis were used to summarise included studies. Results 57 RCTs were included. Studies were small with an average group size of 21. Meta-analyses using both parent (SMD -0.67; 95% CI: -0.91, -0.42 and independent (SMD -0.44; 95% CI: -0.66, -0.23 reports of outcome showed significant differences favouring the intervention group. There was insufficient evidence to determine the relative effectiveness of different approaches to delivering parenting programmes. Conclusion Parenting programmes are an effective treatment for children with conduct problems

  13. FDG PET imaging of Ela1-myc mice reveals major biological differences between pancreatic acinar and ductal tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abasolo, Ibane; Pujal, Judit; Navarro, Pilar; Rabanal, Rosa M.; Serafin, Anna; Millan, Olga; Real, Francisco X.

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate FDG PET imaging in Ela1-myc mice, a pancreatic cancer model resulting in the development of tumours with either acinar or mixed acinar-ductal phenotype. Transversal and longitudinal FDG PET studies were conducted; selected tissue samples were subjected to autoradiography and ex vivo organ counting. Glucose transporter and hexokinase mRNA expression was analysed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); Glut2 expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry. Transversal studies showed that mixed acinar-ductal tumours could be identified by FDG PET several weeks before they could be detected by hand palpation. Longitudinal studies revealed that ductal - but not acinar - tumours could be detected by FDG PET. Autoradiographic analysis confirmed that tumour areas with ductal differentiation incorporated more FDG than areas displaying acinar differentiation. Ex vivo radioactivity measurements showed that tumours of solely acinar phenotype incorporated more FDG than pancreata of non-transgenic littermates despite the fact that they did not yield positive PET images. To gain insight into the biological basis of the differential FDG uptake, glucose transporter and hexokinase transcript expression was studied in microdissected tumour areas enriched for acinar or ductal cells and validated using cell-specific markers. Glut2 and hexokinase I and II mRNA levels were up to 20-fold higher in ductal than in acinar tumours. Besides, Glut2 protein overexpression was found in ductal neoplastic cells but not in the surrounding stroma. In Ela1-myc mice, ductal tumours incorporate significantly more FDG than acinar tumours. This difference likely results from differential expression of Glut2 and hexokinases. These findings reveal previously unreported biological differences between acinar and ductal pancreatic tumours. (orig.)

  14. FDG PET imaging of Ela1-myc mice reveals major biological differences between pancreatic acinar and ductal tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abasolo, Ibane [Institut Municipal d' Investigacio Medica-Hospital del Mar, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, Departament de Ciencies Experimentals i de la Salut, Barcelona (Spain); Institut d' Alta Tecnologia - CRC, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Pujal, Judit; Navarro, Pilar [Institut Municipal d' Investigacio Medica-Hospital del Mar, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Rabanal, Rosa M.; Serafin, Anna [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animals, Barcelona (Spain); Millan, Olga [Institut d' Alta Tecnologia - CRC, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Real, Francisco X. [Institut Municipal d' Investigacio Medica-Hospital del Mar, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, Departament de Ciencies Experimentals i de la Salut, Barcelona (Spain); Programa de Patologia Molecular, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncologicas, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-15

    The aim was to evaluate FDG PET imaging in Ela1-myc mice, a pancreatic cancer model resulting in the development of tumours with either acinar or mixed acinar-ductal phenotype. Transversal and longitudinal FDG PET studies were conducted; selected tissue samples were subjected to autoradiography and ex vivo organ counting. Glucose transporter and hexokinase mRNA expression was analysed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); Glut2 expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry. Transversal studies showed that mixed acinar-ductal tumours could be identified by FDG PET several weeks before they could be detected by hand palpation. Longitudinal studies revealed that ductal - but not acinar - tumours could be detected by FDG PET. Autoradiographic analysis confirmed that tumour areas with ductal differentiation incorporated more FDG than areas displaying acinar differentiation. Ex vivo radioactivity measurements showed that tumours of solely acinar phenotype incorporated more FDG than pancreata of non-transgenic littermates despite the fact that they did not yield positive PET images. To gain insight into the biological basis of the differential FDG uptake, glucose transporter and hexokinase transcript expression was studied in microdissected tumour areas enriched for acinar or ductal cells and validated using cell-specific markers. Glut2 and hexokinase I and II mRNA levels were up to 20-fold higher in ductal than in acinar tumours. Besides, Glut2 protein overexpression was found in ductal neoplastic cells but not in the surrounding stroma. In Ela1-myc mice, ductal tumours incorporate significantly more FDG than acinar tumours. This difference likely results from differential expression of Glut2 and hexokinases. These findings reveal previously unreported biological differences between acinar and ductal pancreatic tumours. (orig.)

  15. A population study of killer viruses reveals different evolutionary histories of two closely related Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shang-Lin; Leu, Jun-Yi; Chang, Tien-Hsien

    2015-08-01

    Microbes have evolved ways of interference competition to gain advantage over their ecological competitors. The use of secreted killer toxins by yeast cells through acquiring double-stranded RNA viruses is one such prominent example. Although the killer behaviour has been well studied in laboratory yeast strains, our knowledge regarding how killer viruses are spread and maintained in nature and how yeast cells co-evolve with viruses remains limited. We investigated these issues using a panel of 81 yeast populations belonging to three Saccharomyces sensu stricto species isolated from diverse ecological niches and geographic locations. We found that killer strains are rare among all three species. In contrast, killer toxin resistance is widespread in Saccharomyces paradoxus populations, but not in Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Saccharomyces eubayanus populations. Genetic analyses revealed that toxin resistance in S. paradoxus is often caused by dominant alleles that have independently evolved in different populations. Molecular typing identified one M28 and two types of M1 killer viruses in those killer strains. We further showed that killer viruses of the same type could lead to distinct killer phenotypes under different host backgrounds, suggesting co-evolution between the viruses and hosts in different populations. Taken together, our data suggest that killer viruses vary in their evolutionary histories even within closely related yeast species. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. In-medium proton-neutron mass difference and the systematics of the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, T.D.; Furnstahl, R.J.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    We investigate a recent suggestion that the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly can be resolved if the in-medium proton-neutron mass difference is substantially changed from its free space value. In a number of hadronic models, such an effect is a natural consequence of partial chiral restoration in the nuclear medium. This suggestion is meaningful in the context of a local-density approximation, which has strong implications for the systematics of the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly over a range of nuclei. We show that such a mechanism predicts both noticeable shell effects and modest variations in the anomaly as the nuclear size is changed

  17. Body dysmorphic disorder in different settings: A systematic review and estimated weighted prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Gledhill, Lucinda J; Christodoulou, Polyxeni; Hodsoll, John

    2016-09-01

    Our aim was to systematically review the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in a variety of settings. Weighted prevalence estimate and 95% confidence intervals in each study were calculated. The weighted prevalence of BDD in adults in the community was estimated to be 1.9%; in adolescents 2.2%; in student populations 3.3%; in adult psychiatric inpatients 7.4%; in adolescent psychiatric inpatients 7.4%; in adult psychiatric outpatients 5.8%; in general cosmetic surgery 13.2%; in rhinoplasty surgery 20.1%; in orthognathic surgery 11.2%; in orthodontics/cosmetic dentistry settings 5.2%; in dermatology outpatients 11.3%; in cosmetic dermatology outpatients 9.2%; and in acne dermatology clinics 11.1%. Women outnumbered men in the majority of settings but not in cosmetic or dermatological settings. BDD is common in some psychiatric and cosmetic settings but is poorly identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Machine learning techniques for breast cancer computer aided diagnosis using different image modalities: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Nisreen I R; Omran, Shaimaa; El Houby, Enas M F; Allam, Hemat

    2018-03-01

    The high incidence of breast cancer in women has increased significantly in the recent years. Physician experience of diagnosing and detecting breast cancer can be assisted by using some computerized features extraction and classification algorithms. This paper presents the conduction and results of a systematic review (SR) that aims to investigate the state of the art regarding the computer aided diagnosis/detection (CAD) systems for breast cancer. The SR was conducted using a comprehensive selection of scientific databases as reference sources, allowing access to diverse publications in the field. The scientific databases used are Springer Link (SL), Science Direct (SD), IEEE Xplore Digital Library, and PubMed. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined and applied to each retrieved work to select those of interest. From 320 studies retrieved, 154 studies were included. However, the scope of this research is limited to scientific and academic works and excludes commercial interests. This survey provides a general analysis of the current status of CAD systems according to the used image modalities and the machine learning based classifiers. Potential research studies have been discussed to create a more objective and efficient CAD systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effectiveness of different styles of massage therapy in fibromyalgia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Susan Lee King; Matsutani, Luciana Akemi; Marques, Amélia Pasqual

    2015-04-01

    The systematic review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of massage in fibromyalgia. An electronic search was conducted at MEDLINE, SCiELO, EMBASE, ISI, PEDro, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL and LILACS (Jan 1990-May 2013). Ten randomized and non-randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of massage alone on symptoms and health-related quality of life of adult patients with fibromyalgia were included. Two reviewers independently screened records, examined full-text reports for compliance with the eligibility criteria, and extracted data. Meta-analysis (pooled from 145 participants) shows that myofascial release had large, positive effects on pain and medium effects on anxiety and depression at the end of treatment, in contrast with placebo; effects on pain and depression were maintained in the medium and short term, respectively. Narrative analysis suggests that: myofascial release also improves fatigue, stiffness and quality of life; connective tissue massage improves depression and quality of life; manual lymphatic drainage is superior to connective tissue massage regarding stiffness, depression and quality of life; Shiatsu improves pain, pressure pain threshold, fatigue, sleep and quality of life; and Swedish massage does not improve outcomes. There is moderate evidence that myofascial release is beneficial for fibromyalgia symptoms. Limited evidence supports the application of connective tissue massage and Shiatsu. Manual lymphatic drainage may be superior to connective tissue massage, and Swedish massage may have no effects. Overall, most styles of massage therapy consistently improved the quality of life of fibromyalgia patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Human Studies of Vertical and Horizontal Alveolar Ridge Augmentation Comparing Different Types of Bone Graft Materials: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavda, Suraj; Levin, Liran

    2018-02-01

    Alveolar ridge augmentation can be completed with various types of bone augmentation materials (autogenous, allograft, xenograft, and alloplast). Currently, autogenous bone is labeled as the "gold standard" because of faster healing times and integration between native and foreign bone. No systematic review has currently determined whether there is a difference in implant success between various bone augmentation materials. The purpose of this article was to systematically review comparative human studies of vertical and horizontal alveolar ridge augmentation comparing different types of bone graft materials (autogenous, allograft, xenograft, and alloplast). A MEDLINE search was conducted under the 3 search concepts of bone augmentation, dental implants, and alveolar ridge augmentation. Studies pertaining to socket grafts or sinus lifts were excluded. Case reports, small case series, and review papers were excluded. A bias assessment tool was applied to the final articles. Overall, 219 articles resulted from the initial search, and 9 articles were included for final analysis. There were no discernible differences in implant success between bone augmentation materials. Generally, patients preferred nonautogenous bone sources as there were fewer hospital days, less pain, and better recovery time. Two articles had industrial support; however, conclusions of whether that support influenced the outcomes could not be determined. Future comparative studies should compare nonautogenous bone sources and have longer follow-up times.

  1. Gender differences in prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabry, R M; Reeves, M M; Eakin, E G; Owen, N

    2010-05-01

    To systematically review studies documenting the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among men and women in Member States of the Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC; Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates)-countries in which obesity, Type 2 diabetes and related metabolic and cardiovascular diseases are highly prevalent. A search was conducted on PubMed and CINAHL using the term 'metabolic syndrome' and the country name of each GCC Member State. The search was limited to studies published in the English language. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII) of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and/or International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definitions. The methodological quality of each study was evaluated based on four criteria: a national-level population sample; equal gender representation; robustness of the sample size; an explicit sampling methodology. PubMed, CINAHL and reference list searches identified nine relevant studies. Only four were considered high quality and found that, for men, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome ranged from 20.7% to 37.2% (ATPIII definition) and from 29.6% to 36.2% (IDF definition); and, for women, from 32.1% to 42.7% (ATPIII definition) and from 36.1% to 45.9% (IDF definition). Overall, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the GCC states is some 10-15% higher than in most developed countries, with generally higher prevalence rates for women. Preventive strategies will require identifying socio-demographic and environmental correlates (particularly those influencing women) and addressing modifiable risk behaviours, including lack of physical activity, prolonged sitting time and dietary intake.

  2. Vaccines are different: A systematic review of budget impact analyses of vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loze, Priscilla Magalhaes; Nasciben, Luciana Bertholim; Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam; Itria, Alexander; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; de Soárez, Patrícia Coelho

    2017-05-15

    Several countries require manufacturers to present a budget impact analysis (BIA), together with a cost-effectiveness analysis, to support national funding requests. However, guidelines for conducting BIA of vaccines are scarce. To analyze the methodological approaches used in published budget impact analysis (BIA) of vaccines, discussing specific methodological issues related to vaccines. This systematic review of the literature on BIA of vaccines was carried out in accordance with the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination - CRD guidelines. We searched multiple databases: MedLine, Embase, Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde (BVS), Cochrane Library, DARE Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), HTA Database (via Centre for Reviews and Dissemination - CRD), and grey literature. Two researchers, working independently, selected the studies and extracted the data. The methodology quality of individual studies was assessed using the ISPOR 2012 Budget Impact Analysis Good Practice II Task Force. A qualitative narrative synthesis was conducted. Twenty-two studies were reviewed. The most frequently evaluated vaccines were pneumococcal (41%), influenza (23%) and rotavirus (18%). The target population was stated in 21 studies (95%) and the perspective was clear in 20 (91%). Only 36% reported the calculations used to complete the BIA, 27% informed the total and disaggregated costs for each time period, and 9% showed the change in resource use for each time period. More than half of the studies (55%, n=12) reported less than 50% of the items recommended in the checklist. The production of BIA of vaccines has increased from 2009. The report of the methodological steps was unsatisfactory, making it difficult to assess the validity of the results presented. Vaccines specific issues should be discussed in international guidelines for BIA of vaccines, to improve the quality of the studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Co-culture microorganisms with different initial proportions reveal the mechanism of chalcopyrite bioleaching coupling with microbial community succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liyuan; Wang, Xingjie; Feng, Xue; Liang, Yili; Xiao, Yunhua; Hao, Xiaodong; Yin, Huaqun; Liu, Hongwei; Liu, Xueduan

    2017-01-01

    The effect of co-culture microorganisms with different initial proportions on chalcopyrite bioleaching was investigated. Communities were rebuilt by six typical strains isolated from the same habitat. The results indicated, by community with more sulfur oxidizers at both 30 and 40°C, the final copper extraction rate was 19.8% and 6.5% higher, respectively, than that with more ferrous oxidizers. The variations of pH, redox potential, ferrous and copper ions in leachate also provided evidences that community with more sulfur oxidizers was more efficient. Community succession of free and attached cells revealed that initial proportions played decisive roles on community dynamics at 30°C, while communities shared similar structures, not relevant to initial proportions at 40°C. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed different microbial functions on mineral surface. A mechanism model for chalcopyrite bioleaching was established coupling with community succession. This will provide theoretical basis for reconstructing an efficient community in industrial application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bilingualism at the core of the brain. Structural differences between bilinguals and monolinguals revealed by subcortical shape analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgaleta, Miguel; Sanjuán, Ana; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sebastian-Galles, Núria; Ávila, César

    2016-01-15

    Naturally acquiring a language shapes the human brain through a long-lasting learning and practice process. This is supported by previous studies showing that managing more than one language from early childhood has an impact on brain structure and function. However, to what extent bilingual individuals present neuroanatomical peculiarities at the subcortical level with respect to monolinguals is yet not well understood, despite the key role of subcortical gray matter for a number of language functions, including monitoring of speech production and language control - two processes especially solicited by bilinguals. Here we addressed this issue by performing a subcortical surface-based analysis in a sample of monolinguals and simultaneous bilinguals (N=88) that only differed in their language experience from birth. This analysis allowed us to study with great anatomical precision the potential differences in morphology of key subcortical structures, namely, the caudate, accumbens, putamen, globus pallidus and thalamus. Vertexwise analyses revealed significantly expanded subcortical structures for bilinguals compared to monolinguals, localized in bilateral putamen and thalamus, as well as in the left globus pallidus and right caudate nucleus. A topographical interpretation of our results suggests that a more complex phonological system in bilinguals may lead to a greater development of a subcortical brain network involved in monitoring articulatory processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional assays and metagenomic analyses reveals differences between the microbial communities inhabiting the soil horizons of a Norway spruce plantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Uroz

    Full Text Available In temperate ecosystems, acidic forest soils are among the most nutrient-poor terrestrial environments. In this context, the long-term differentiation of the forest soils into horizons may impact the assembly and the functions of the soil microbial communities. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the ecology and functional potentials of these microbial communities, a suite of analyses including comparative metagenomics was applied on independent soil samples from a spruce plantation (Breuil-Chenue, France. The objectives were to assess whether the decreasing nutrient bioavailability and pH variations that naturally occurs between the organic and mineral horizons affects the soil microbial functional biodiversity. The 14 Gbp of pyrosequencing and Illumina sequences generated in this study revealed complex microbial communities dominated by bacteria. Detailed analyses showed that the organic soil horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Bacteria, Chordata, Arthropoda and Ascomycota. On the contrary the mineral horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Archaea. Our analyses also highlighted that the microbial communities inhabiting the two soil horizons differed significantly in their functional potentials according to functional assays and MG-RAST analyses, suggesting a functional specialisation of these microbial communities. Consistent with this specialisation, our shotgun metagenomic approach revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of sequences related glycoside hydrolases in the organic horizon compared to the mineral horizon that was significantly enriched in glycoside transferases. This functional stratification according to the soil horizon was also confirmed by a significant correlation between the functional assays performed in this study and the functional metagenomic analyses. Together, our results suggest that the soil stratification and particularly the soil resource

  6. Analysis of the cartilage proteome from three different mouse models of genetic skeletal diseases reveals common and discrete disease signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Bell

    2013-06-01

    Pseudoachondroplasia and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia are genetic skeletal diseases resulting from mutations in cartilage structural proteins. Electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry previously showed that the appearance of the cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM in targeted mouse models of these diseases is disrupted; however, the precise changes in ECM organization and the pathological consequences remain unknown. Our aim was to determine the effects of matrilin-3 and COMP mutations on the composition and extractability of ECM components to inform how these detrimental changes might influence cartilage organization and degeneration. Cartilage was sequentially extracted using increasing denaturants and the extraction profiles of specific proteins determined using SDS-PAGE/Western blotting. Furthermore, the relative composition of protein pools was determined using mass spectrometry for a non-biased semi-quantitative analysis. Western blotting revealed changes in the extraction of matrilins, COMP and collagen IX in mutant cartilage. Mass spectrometry confirmed quantitative changes in the extraction of structural and non-structural ECM proteins, including proteins with roles in cellular processes such as protein folding and trafficking. In particular, genotype-specific differences in the extraction of collagens XII and XIV and tenascins C and X were identified; interestingly, increased expression of several of these genes has recently been implicated in susceptibility and/or progression of murine osteoarthritis. We demonstrated that mutation of matrilin-3 and COMP caused changes in the extractability of other cartilage proteins and that proteomic analyses of Matn3 V194D, Comp T585M and Comp DelD469 mouse models revealed both common and discrete disease signatures that provide novel insight into skeletal disease mechanisms and cartilage degradation.

  7. Sex differences in acupuncture effectiveness in animal models of Parkinson's disease: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Lim, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many animal experimental studies have been performed to investigate the efficacy of acupuncture in Parkinson's disease (PD). Sex differences are a major issue in all diseases including PD. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reviews investigating sex differences on the

  8. Delay discounting differences in brain activation, connectivity, and structure in individuals with addiction: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Max M; Amlung, Michael T; Beach, Steven R H; Sweet, Lawrence H; MacKillop, James

    2017-07-11

    Delayed reward discounting (DRD), the degree to which future rewards are discounted relative to immediate rewards, is used as an index of impulsive decision-making and has been associated with a number of problematic health behaviors. Given the robust behavioral association between DRD and addictive behavior, there is an expanding literature investigating the differences in the functional and structural correlates of DRD in the brain between addicted and healthy individuals. However, there has yet to be a systematic review which characterizes differences in regional brain activation, functional connectivity, and structure and places them in the larger context of the DRD literature. The objective of this systematic review is to summarize and critically appraise the existing literature examining differences between addicted and healthy individuals in the neural correlates of DRD using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A systematic search strategy will be implemented that uses Boolean search terms in PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO, as well as manual search methods, to identify the studies comprehensively. This review will include studies using MRI or fMRI in humans to directly compare brain activation, functional connectivity, or structure in relation to DRD between addicted and healthy individuals or continuously assess addiction severity in the context of DRD. Two independent reviewers will determine studies that meet the inclusion criteria for this review, extract data from included studies, and assess the quality of included studies using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework. Then, narrative review will be used to explicate the differences in structural and functional correlates of DRD implicated by the literature and assess the strength of evidence for this conclusion. This review will provide a needed critical exegesis of the MRI studies that have been conducted investigating

  9. Urban-rural differences in childhood and adolescent obesity in the United States: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James Allen; Johnson, Asal Mohamadi

    2015-06-01

    A systematic literature review and subsequent meta-analysis were performed to investigate differences in childhood obesity between urban and rural areas in the United States. A search of published studies comparing childhood obesity in urban and rural settings was undertaken by probing PubMed and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) for articles that met predetermined inclusion criteria. A subsequent meta-analysis was conducted to determine the combined effect size and significance of differences in childhood obesity between urban and rural areas. Ten studies were identified for systematic review, five of which contributed to the meta-analysis. All but one study suggested that residence in rural areas was associated with higher prevalence or increased odds of childhood obesity, compared to children living in urban areas. A meta-analysis of 74,168 pooled participants ages 2-19 found that rural children have 26% greater odds of obesity, compared to urban children (odds ratio=1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.32). Obesity rates are higher among rural children than urban children in the United States. To ensure successful targeted interventions and effective resource allocation, practitioners and policy makers alike should be cognizant of this disparity in childhood obesity.

  10. Influence of different types of light on the response of the pulp tissue in dental bleaching: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetti, Francine; Lemos, Cleidiel Aparecido Araújo; de Oliveira Gallinari, Marjorie; Terayama, Amanda Miyuki; Briso, André Luiz Fraga; de Castilho Jacinto, Rogério; Sivieri-Araújo, Gustavo; Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo

    2018-05-01

    This systematic review (PROSPERO register: CRD42016053140) investigated the influence of different types of light on the pulp tissue during dental bleaching. Two independent authors conducted a systematic search and risk of bias evaluations. An electronic search was undertaken (PubMed/Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other databases) until May 2017. The population, intervention, comparison, outcomes (PICO) question was: "Does the light in dental bleaching change the response of the pulp to the bleaching procedure?" The intervention involved pulp tissue/cells after bleaching with light, while the comparison involved pulp tissue/cells after bleaching without light. The primary outcome was the inflammation/cytotoxicity observed in pulp after bleaching. Out of 2210 articles found, 12 articles were included in the review; four were in vivo studies (one study in dogs/others in human), and eight were in vitro studies (cell culture/with artificial pulp chamber or not). The light source used was halogen, light-emitting diode (LED), and laser. Only one in vivo study that used heat to simulate light effects showed significant pulp inflammation. Only two in vitro studies demonstrated that light influenced cell metabolism; one using halogen light indicated negative effects, and the other using laser therapy indicated positive effects. Given that animal and in vitro studies have been identified, there remain some limitations for extrapolation to the human situation. Furthermore, different light parameters were used. The effects of dental bleaching on the pulp are not influenced by different types of light, but different light parameters can influence these properties. There is insufficient evidence about the influence of different types of light on inflammation/cytotoxicity of the pulp.

  11. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals different strategies for degradation of steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse by Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borin, Gustavo Pagotto; Sanchez, Camila Cristina; de Santana, Eliane Silva; Zanini, Guilherme Keppe; Dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; de Oliveira Pontes, Angélica; de Souza, Aline Tieppo; Dal'Mas, Roberta Maria Menegaldo Tavares Soares; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro

    2017-06-30

    Second generation (2G) ethanol is produced by breaking down lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. In Brazil, sugarcane bagasse has been proposed as the lignocellulosic residue for this biofuel production. The enzymatic cocktails for the degradation of biomass-derived polysaccharides are mostly produced by fungi, such as Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei. However, it is not yet fully understood how these microorganisms degrade plant biomass. In order to identify transcriptomic changes during steam-exploded bagasse (SEB) breakdown, we conducted a RNA-seq comparative transcriptome profiling of both fungi growing on SEB as carbon source. Particular attention was focused on CAZymes, sugar transporters, transcription factors (TFs) and other proteins related to lignocellulose degradation. Although genes coding for the main enzymes involved in biomass deconstruction were expressed by both fungal strains since the beginning of the growth in SEB, significant differences were found in their expression profiles. The expression of these enzymes is mainly regulated at the transcription level, and A. niger and T. reesei also showed differences in TFs content and in their expression. Several sugar transporters that were induced in both fungal strains could be new players on biomass degradation besides their role in sugar uptake. Interestingly, our findings revealed that in both strains several genes that code for proteins of unknown function and pro-oxidant, antioxidant, and detoxification enzymes were induced during growth in SEB as carbon source, but their specific roles on lignocellulose degradation remain to be elucidated. This is the first report of a time-course experiment monitoring the degradation of pretreated bagasse by two important fungi using the RNA-seq technology. It was possible to identify a set of genes that might be applied in several biotechnology fields. The data suggest that these two microorganisms employ different strategies for biomass

  12. Multilocus Sequence Typing Reveals Relevant Genetic Variation and Different Evolutionary Dynamics among Strains of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Scortichini

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Forty-five Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis (Xaj strains originating from Juglans regia cultivation in different countries were molecularly typed by means of MultiLocus Sequence Typing (MLST, using acnB, gapA, gyrB and rpoD gene fragments. A total of 2.5 kilobases was used to infer the phylogenetic relationship among the strains and possible recombination events. Haplotype diversity, linkage disequilibrium analysis, selection tests, gene flow estimates and codon adaptation index were also assessed. The dendrograms built by maximum likelihood with concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences revealed two major and two minor phylotypes. The same haplotype was found in strains originating from different continents, and different haplotypes were found in strains isolated in the same year from the same location. A recombination breakpoint was detected within the rpoD gene fragment. At the pathovar level, the Xaj populations studied here are clonal and under neutral selection. However, four Xaj strains isolated from walnut fruits with apical necrosis are under diversifying selection, suggesting a possible new adaptation. Gene flow estimates do not support the hypothesis of geographic isolation of the strains, even though the genetic diversity between the strains increases as the geographic distance between them increases. A triplet deletion, causing the absence of valine, was found in the rpoD fragment of all 45 Xaj strains when compared with X. axonopodis pv. citri strain 306. The codon adaptation index was high in all four genes studied, indicating a relevant metabolic activity.

  13. The Microbiome of Seriola lalandi of Wild and Aquaculture Origin Reveals Differences in Composition and Potential Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ramírez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Seriola lalandi is an economically important species that is globally distributed in temperate and subtropical marine waters. Aquaculture production of this species has had problems associated with intensive fish farming, such as disease outbreaks or nutritional deficiencies causing high mortalities. Intestinal microbiota has been involved in many processes that benefit the host, such as disease control, stimulation of the immune response, and the promotion of nutrient metabolism, among others. However, little is known about the potential functionality of the microbiota and the differences in the composition between wild and aquacultured fish. Here, we assayed the V4-region of the 16S rRNA gene using high-throughput sequencing. Our results showed that there are significant differences between S. lalandi of wild and aquaculture origin (ANOSIM and PERMANOVA, P < 0.05. At the genus level, a total of 13 genera were differentially represented between the two groups, all of which have been described as beneficial microorganisms that have an antagonistic effect against pathogenic bacteria, improve immunological parameters and growth performance, and contribute to nutrition. Additionally, the changes in the presumptive functions of the intestinal microbiota of yellowtail were examined by predicting the metagenomes using PICRUSt. The most abundant functional categories were those corresponding to the metabolism of cofactors and vitamins, amino acid metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism, revealing differences in the contribution of the microbiota depending on the origin of the animals. To our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize and compare the intestinal microbiota of S. lalandi of wild and aquaculture origin using high-throughput sequencing.

  14. The Microbiome of Seriola lalandi of Wild and Aquaculture Origin Reveals Differences in Composition and Potential Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Carolina; Romero, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Seriola lalandi is an economically important species that is globally distributed in temperate and subtropical marine waters. Aquaculture production of this species has had problems associated with intensive fish farming, such as disease outbreaks or nutritional deficiencies causing high mortalities. Intestinal microbiota has been involved in many processes that benefit the host, such as disease control, stimulation of the immune response, and the promotion of nutrient metabolism, among others. However, little is known about the potential functionality of the microbiota and the differences in the composition between wild and aquacultured fish. Here, we assayed the V4-region of the 16S rRNA gene using high-throughput sequencing. Our results showed that there are significant differences between S. lalandi of wild and aquaculture origin (ANOSIM and PERMANOVA, P < 0.05). At the genus level, a total of 13 genera were differentially represented between the two groups, all of which have been described as beneficial microorganisms that have an antagonistic effect against pathogenic bacteria, improve immunological parameters and growth performance, and contribute to nutrition. Additionally, the changes in the presumptive functions of the intestinal microbiota of yellowtail were examined by predicting the metagenomes using PICRUSt. The most abundant functional categories were those corresponding to the metabolism of cofactors and vitamins, amino acid metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism, revealing differences in the contribution of the microbiota depending on the origin of the animals. To our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize and compare the intestinal microbiota of S. lalandi of wild and aquaculture origin using high-throughput sequencing.

  15. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Zhuo

    Full Text Available For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE at q (False Discover Rate 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01 enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences.

  16. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...

  17. Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in different population groups: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Lukas; Cina, Manuel; Egli-Gany, Dianne; Goutaki, Myrofora; Halbeisen, Florian S; Lohrer, Gian-Reto; Ali, Hammad; Scott, Pippa; Low, Nicola

    2018-02-09

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a common cause of non-gonococcal non-chlamydial urethritis and cervicitis. Testing of asymptomatic populations has been proposed, but prevalence in asymptomatic populations is not well established. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of M. genitalium in the general population, pregnant women, men who have sex with men (MSM), commercial sex workers (CSWs) and clinic-based samples, METHODS: We searched Embase, Medline, IndMED, African Index Medicus and LILACS from 1 January 1991 to 12 July 2016 without language restrictions. We included studies with 500 participants or more. Two reviewers independently screened and selected studies and extracted data. We examined forest plots and conducted random-effects meta-analysis to estimate prevalence, if appropriate. Between-study heterogeneity was examined using the I 2 statistic and meta-regression. Of 3316 screened records, 63 were included. In randomly selected samples from the general population, the summary prevalence was 1.3% (95% CI 1.0% to 1.8%, I 2 41.5%, three studies, 9091 people) in countries with higher levels of development and 3.9% (95% CI 2.2 to 6.7, I 2 89.2%, three studies, 3809 people) in countries with lower levels. Prevalence was similar in women and men (P=0.47). In clinic based samples, prevalence estimates were higher, except in asymptomatic patients (0.8%, 95% CI 0.4 to 1.4, I 2 0.0%, three studies, 2889 people). Summary prevalence estimates were, in the following groups: pregnant women 0.9% (95% CI 0.6% to 1.4%, I 2 0%, four studies, 3472 people), MSM in the community 3.2% (95% CI 2.1 to 5.1, I 2 78.3%, five studies, 3012 people) and female CSWs in the community 15.9% (95% CI 13.5 to 18.9, I 2 79.9%, four studies, 4006 people). This systematic review can inform testing guidelines for M. genitalium . The low estimated prevalence of M. genitalium in the general population, pregnant women and asymptomatic attenders at clinics does not support expansion of testing to these

  18. A systematic review of functional outcome and quality of life following reconstruction of maxillofacial defects using vascularized free fibula flaps and dental rehabilitation reveals poor data quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijbenga, Johan G.; Schepers, Rutger H.; Werker, Paul M. N.; Witjes, Max J. H.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    Background: Reconstruction and oral rehabilitation of segmental maxillofacial defects resulting from ablative surgery is commonly achieved by osteocutaneous vascularized free fibula (VFFF) transplantation combined with implant-supported dental prostheses. We systematically reviewed the literature

  19. Incidence of Running-Related Injuries Per 1000 h of running in Different Types of Runners: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videbæk, Solvej; Bueno, Andreas Moeballe; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Rasmussen, Sten

    2015-07-01

    No systematic review has identified the incidence of running-related injuries per 1000 h of running in different types of runners. The purpose of the present review was to systematically search the literature for the incidence of running-related injuries per 1000 h of running in different types of runners, and to include the data in meta-analyses. A search of the PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, PEDro and Web of Science databases was conducted. Titles, abstracts, and full-text articles were screened by two blinded reviewers to identify prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials reporting the incidence of running-related injuries in novice runners, recreational runners, ultra-marathon runners, and track and field athletes. Data were extracted from all studies and comprised for further analysis. An adapted scale was applied to assess the risk of bias. After screening 815 abstracts, 13 original articles were included in the main analysis. Running-related injuries per 1000 h of running ranged from a minimum of 2.5 in a study of long-distance track and field athletes to a maximum of 33.0 in a study of novice runners. The meta-analyses revealed a weighted injury incidence of 17.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 16.7-19.1) in novice runners and 7.7 (95% CI 6.9-8.7) in recreational runners. Heterogeneity in definitions of injury, definition of type of runner, and outcome measures in the included full-text articles challenged comparison across studies. Novice runners seem to face a significantly greater risk of injury per 1000 h of running than recreational runners.

  20. Efficacy of Different Types of Mobilization Techniques in Patients With Primary Adhesive Capsulitis of the Shoulder: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noten, Suzie; Meeus, Mira; Stassijns, Gaetane; Van Glabbeek, Francis; Verborgt, Olivier; Struyf, Filip

    2016-05-01

    To systematically review the literature for efficacy of isolated articular mobilization techniques in patients with primary adhesive capsulitis (AC) of the shoulder. PubMed and Web of Science were searched for relevant studies published before November 2014. Additional references were identified by manual screening of the reference lists. All English language randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of mobilization techniques on range of motion (ROM) and pain in adult patients with primary AC of the shoulder were included in this systematic review. Twelve randomized controlled trials involving 810 patients were included. Two reviewers independently screened the articles, scored methodologic quality, and extracted data for analysis. The review was conducted and reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. All studies were assessed in duplicate for risk of bias using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database Scale for randomized controlled trials. The efficacy of 7 different types of mobilization techniques was evaluated. Angular mobilization (n=2), Cyriax approach (n=1), and Maitland technique (n=6) showed improvement in pain score and ROM. With respect to translational mobilizations (n=1), posterior glides are preferred to restore external rotation. Spine mobilizations combined with glenohumeral stretching and both angular and translational mobilization (n=1) had a superior effect on active ROM compared with sham ultrasound. High-intensity mobilization (n=1) showed less improvement in the Constant Murley Score than a neglect group. Finally, positive long-term effects of the Mulligan technique (n=1) were found on both pain and ROM. Overall, mobilization techniques have beneficial effects in patients with primary AC of the shoulder. Because of preliminary evidence for many mobilization techniques, the Maitland technique and combined mobilizations seem recommended at the moment. Copyright © 2016

  1. Are all sport activities equal? A systematic review of how youth psychosocial experiences vary across differing sport activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M Blair; Allan, Veronica; Erickson, Karl; Martin, Luc J; Budziszewski, Ross; Côté, Jean

    2017-02-01

    Models of sport development often support the assumption that young athletes' psychosocial experiences differ as a result of seemingly minor variations in how their sport activities are designed (eg, participating in team or individual sport; sampling many sports or specialising at an early age). This review was conducted to systematically search sport literature and explore how the design of sport activities relates to psychosocial outcomes. Systematic search, followed by data extraction and synthesis. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were applied and a coding sheet was used to extract article information and code for risk of bias. Academic databases and manual search of peer-reviewed journals. Search criteria determined eligibility primarily based on the sample (eg, ages 7 through 17 years) and study design (eg, measured psychosocial constructs). 35 studies were located and were classified within three categories: (1) sport types, (2) sport settings, and (3) individual patterns of sport involvement. These studies represented a wide range of scores when assessed for risk of bias and involved an array of psychosocial constructs, with the most prevalent investigations predicting outcomes such as youth development, self-esteem and depression by comparing (1) team or individual sport participants and (2) youth with varying amounts of sport involvement. As variations in sport activities impact youth sport experiences, it is vital for researchers to carefully describe and study these factors, while practitioners may use the current findings when designing youth sport programmes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Mental Toughness and Individual Differences in Learning, Educational and Work Performance, Psychological Well-being, and Personality: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Mutz, Julian; Clough, Peter J; Papageorgiou, Kostas A

    2017-01-01

    Mental toughness (MT) is an umbrella term that entails positive psychological resources, which are crucial across a wide range of achievement contexts and in the domain of mental health. We systematically review empirical studies that explored the associations between the concept of MT and individual differences in learning, educational and work performance, psychological well-being, personality, and other psychological attributes. Studies that explored the genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in MT are also reviewed. The findings suggest that MT is associated with various positive psychological traits, more efficient coping strategies and positive outcomes in education and mental health. Approximately 50% of the variation in MT can be accounted for by genetic factors. Furthermore, the associations between MT and psychological traits can be explained mainly by either common genetic or non-shared environmental factors. Taken together, our findings suggest a 'mental toughness advantage' with possible implications for developing interventions to facilitate achievement in a variety of settings.

  3. A systematic review of socio-economic differences in food habits in Europe: consumption of fruit and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irala-Estevez, J. De; Groth, Margit Velsing; Johansson, L.

    2000-01-01

    model. Setting: The inclusion criteria of studies were: use of a validated method for assessing intake at the individual level; selection of a nationwide sample or a representative sample of a region; and providing the mean and standard deviation of overall fruit and vegetable consumption for each level......Objective: To evaluate the differences in the consumption of fruit and vegetables between groups with different socio-economic status (SES) in the adult population of European countries. Design: A systematic review of published and unpublished surveys of food habits conducted between 1985 and 1999...... of education or occupation, and separately for men and women. Subjects: Participants in the individual surveys had to be adults (18 - 85 y). Results: Eleven studies from seven countries met the criteria for being included in the meta-analysis. A higher SES was associated with a greater consumption of both...

  4. Systematic comparison of different techniques to measure hippocampal subfield volumes in ADNI2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Susanne G.; Yushkevich, Paul A.; Das, Sandhitsu

    2018-01-01

    regression analyses were used to calculate effect sizes (ES) for group, amyloid positivity in controls, and associations with cognitive/memory performance for each approach. Results Subfield volumetry was better than whole hippocampal volumetry for the detection of the mild atrophy differences between...... and T1 subfield approaches. None of the different T2-HghRes methods tested had a clear advantage over the other methods. Each has strengths and weaknesses that need to be taken into account when deciding which one to use to get the best results from subfield volumetry....

  5. A systematic review found no consistent difference in effect between more and less intensive placebo interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fässler, Margrit; Meissner, Karin; Kleijnen, Jos

    2015-01-01

    this hypothesis. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Eligible trials were identified through electronic database searches and citation tracking up to February 2013. Placebo interventions in a trial were categorized into a more intense and a less intense intervention based on complexity, invasiveness, or route...... intense and the less intense placebo intervention, four studies found differences for single outcomes, and one study consistently reported significantly larger effects of the more intense placebo. An explorative meta-analysis yielded a standardized mean difference -0.22 (95% confidence interval: -0.46, 0...

  6. Lipidomic profiling reveals distinct differences in plasma lipid composition in healthy, prediabetic, and type 2 diabetic individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Huanzi; Fang, Chao; Fan, Yanqun; Lu, Yan; Wen, Bo; Ren, Huahui; Hou, Guixue; Yang, Fangming; Xie, Hailiang; Jie, Zhuye; Peng, Ye; Ye, Zhiqiang; Wu, Jiegen; Zi, Jin; Zhao, Guoqing; Chen, Jiayu; Bao, Xiao; Hu, Yihe; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The relationship between dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) has been extensively reported, but the global lipid profiles, especially in the East Asia population, associated with the development of T2D remain to be characterized. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was applied to detect the global lipidome in the fasting plasma of 293 Chinese individuals, including 114 T2D patients, 81 prediabetic subjects, and 98 individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Both qualitative and quantitative analyses revealed a gradual change in plasma lipid features with T2D patients exhibiting characteristics close to those of prediabetic individuals, whereas they differed significantly from individuals with NGT. We constructed and validated a random forest classifier with 28 lipidomic features that effectively discriminated T2D from NGT or prediabetes. Most of the selected features significantly correlated with diabetic clinical indices. Hydroxybutyrylcarnitine was positively correlated with fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour postprandial glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). Lysophosphatidylcholines such as lysophosphatidylcholine (18:0), lysophosphatidylcholine (18:1), and lysophosphatidylcholine (18:2) were all negatively correlated with HOMA-IR. The altered plasma lipidome in Chinese T2D and prediabetic subjects suggests that lipid features may play a role in the pathogenesis of T2D and that such features may provide a basis for evaluating risk and monitoring disease development. PMID:28505362

  7. Network metrics reveal differences in social organization between two fission-fusion species, Grevy's zebra and onager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Siva R; Fischhoff, Ilya R; Dushoff, Jonathan; Rubenstein, Daniel I

    2007-02-01

    For species in which group membership frequently changes, it has been a challenge to characterize variation in individual interactions and social structure. Quantifying this variation is necessary to test hypotheses about ecological determinants of social patterns and to make predictions about how group dynamics affect the development of cooperative relationships and transmission processes. Network models have recently become popular for analyzing individual contacts within a population context. We use network metrics to compare populations of Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi) and onagers (Equus hemionus khur). These closely related equids, previously described as having the same social system, inhabit environments differing in the distribution of food, water, and predators. Grevy's zebra and onagers are one example of many sets of coarsely similar fission-fusion species and populations, observed elsewhere in other ungulates, primates, and cetaceans. Our analysis of the population association networks reveals contrasts consistent with their distinctive environments. Grevy's zebra individuals are more selective in their association choices. Grevy's zebra form stable cliques, while onager associations are more fluid. We find evidence that females associate assortatively by reproductive state in Grevy's zebra but not in onagers. The current approach demonstrates the utility of network metrics for identifying fine-grained variation among individuals and populations in association patterns. From our analysis, we can make testable predictions about behavioral mechanisms underlying social structure and its effects on transmission processes.

  8. Diuron treatment reveals the different roles of two cyclic electron transfer pathways in photosystem II in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yujian; Chen, Si; Fan, Xiaoji; Song, Hao; Li, Xingxing; Xu, Jiahui; Qian, Haifeng

    2017-04-01

    Three ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana, ecotype Columbia (Wild type, Wt) and two mutants (pgr5 and ndf4), were used to evaluate the effects of diuron on photosynthetic activity of A. thaliana. It was found that diuron adversely affected the fresh weight and chlorophyll content of the plants. Chlorophyll fluorescence studies determined that the pgr5 mutant was more sensitive to diuron than Wt and the ndf4 mutant. Gene expression analysis revealed different roles for the two cyclic electron transfer (CET) pathways, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH) and proton gradient regulation (PGR5) pathways, in the plant after diuron treatment. For example, a gene in the NDH pathway, lhca5, was activated in the low dose (LD) group in the pgr5 mutant, but was down-regulated in the moderate dose (MD) group, along with two other NDH-related genes (ppl2 and ndhH). In the PGR5 pathway, the pgr5 gene was functional under conditions of increased stress (MD group), and was up-regulated to a greater extent in the ndf4 mutant than that in the Wt and pgr5 mutant. Our results suggest that the PGR5 pathway in plants is more important than the NDH pathway during resistance to environmental stress. Deficiencies in the PGR5 pathway could not be counteracted by the NDH pathway, but deficiencies in the NDH pathway could be overcome by stimulating PGR5. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Metallomics of two microorganisms relevant to heavy metal bioremediation reveal fundamental differences in metal assimilation and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, Andrew [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Menon, Angeli [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Scott, Israel [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Poole, Farris [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Vaccaro, Brian [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Thorgersen, Michael P. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Geller, Jil [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Hazen, Terry C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hurt Jr., Richard Ashley [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Steven D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Elias, Dwayne A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Adams, Michael W. W. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2014-03-26

    Although as many as half of all proteins are thought to require a metal cofactor, the metalloproteomes of microorganisms remain relatively unexplored. Microorganisms from different environments are likely to vary greatly in the metals that they assimilate, not just among the metals with well-characterized roles but also those lacking any known function. Herein we investigated the metal utilization of two microorganisms that were isolated from very similar environments and are of interest because of potential roles in the immobilization of heavy metals, such as uranium and chromium. The metals assimilated and their concentrations in the cytoplasm of Desulfovibrio vulgaris strain Hildenborough (DvH) and Enterobacter cloacae strain Hanford (EcH) varied dramatically, with a larger number of metals present in Enterobacter. For example, a total of 9 and 19 metals were assimilated into their cytoplasmic fractions, respectively, and DvH did not assimilate significant amounts of zinc or copper whereas EcH assimilated both. However, bioinformatic analysis of their genome sequences revealed a comparable number of predicted metalloproteins, 813 in DvH and 953 in EcH. These allowed some rationalization of the types of metal assimilated in some cases (Fe, Cu, Mo, W, V) but not in others (Zn, Nd, Ce, Pr, Dy, Hf and Th). It was also shown that U binds an unknown soluble protein in EcH but this incorporation was the result of extracellular U binding to cytoplasmic components after cell lysis.

  10. Quantitative analysis of diet structure by real-time PCR, reveals different feeding patterns by two dominant grasshopper species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xunbing; Wu, Huihui; McNeill, Mark Richard; Qin, Xinghu; Ma, Jingchuan; Tu, Xiongbing; Cao, Guangchun; Wang, Guangjun; Nong, Xiangqun; Zhang, Zehua

    2016-01-01

    Studies on grasshopper diets have historically employed a range of methodologies, each with certain advantages and disadvantages. For example, some methodologies are qualitative instead of quantitative. Others require long experimental periods or examine population-level effects, only. In this study, we used real-time PCR to examine diets of individual grasshoppers. The method has the advantage of being both fast and quantitative. Using two grasshopper species, Oedaleus asiaticus and Dasyhippus barbipes, we designed ITS primer sequences for their three main host plants, Stipa krylovii, Leymus chinensis and Cleistogenes squarrosa and used real-time PCR method to test diet structure both qualitatively and quantitatively. The lowest detection efficiency of the three grass species was ~80% with a strong correlation between actual and PCR-measured food intake. We found that Oedaleus asiaticus maintained an unchanged diet structure across grasslands with different grass communities. By comparison, Dasyhippus barbipes changed its diet structure. These results revealed why O. asiaticus distribution is mainly confined to Stipa-dominated grassland, and D. barbipes is more widely distributed across Inner Mongolia. Overall, real-time PCR was shown to be a useful tool for investigating grasshopper diets, which in turn offers some insight into grasshopper distributions and improved pest management. PMID:27562455

  11. Structural Analysis of Insulin Minisatellite Alleles Reveals Unusually Large Differences in Diversity between Africans and Non-Africans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, John D. H.; Jeffreys, Alec J.

    2002-01-01

    The insulin minisatellite (INS VNTR) associates with susceptibility to a variety of diseases. We have developed a high-resolution system for analyzing variant repeat distributions applicable to all known minisatellite alleles, irrespective of size, which allows lineages of related alleles to be identified. This system has previously revealed extremely low structural diversity in the minisatellite among northern Europeans from the United Kingdom, with all alleles belonging to one of only three highly diverged lineages called “I,” “IIIA,” and “IIIB.” To explore the origins of this remarkably limited lineage diversity, we have characterized an additional 780 alleles from three non-African and three African populations. In total, 22 highly diverged lineages were identified, with structural intermediates absent from extant populations, suggesting a bottleneck within the ancestry of all humans. The difference between levels of diversity in Africans and non-Africans is unusually large, with all 22 lineages identified in Africa compared with only three lineages seen not only in the United Kingdom but also in the other non-African populations. We also find evidence for overrepresentation of lineage I chromosomes in non-Africans. These data are consistent with a common out-of-Africa origin and an unusually tight bottleneck within the ancestry of all non-African populations, possibly combined with differential and positive selection for lineage I alleles in non-Africans. The important implications of these data for future disease-association studies are discussed. PMID:12404181

  12. Ways of making-sense: Local gamma synchronization reveals differences between semantic processing induced by music and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Paulo; Chavez, Mario; Rodríguez, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Similar to linguistic stimuli, music can also prime the meaning of a subsequent word. However, it is so far unknown what is the brain dynamics underlying the semantic priming effect induced by music, and its relation to language. To elucidate these issues, we compare the brain oscillatory response to visual words that have been semantically primed either by a musical excerpt or by an auditory sentence. We found that semantic violation between music-word pairs triggers a classical ERP N400, and induces a sustained increase of long-distance theta phase synchrony, along with a transient increase of local gamma activity. Similar results were observed after linguistic semantic violation except for gamma activity, which increased after semantic congruence between sentence-word pairs. Our findings indicate that local gamma activity is a neural marker that signals different ways of semantic processing between music and language, revealing the dynamic and self-organized nature of the semantic processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Single cell cultures of Drosophila neuroectodermal and mesectodermal central nervous system progenitors reveal different degrees of developmental autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüer, Karin; Technau, Gerhard M

    2009-08-03

    The Drosophila embryonic central nervous system (CNS) develops from two sets of progenitor cells, neuroblasts and ventral midline progenitors, which behave differently in many respects. Neuroblasts derive from the neurogenic region of the ectoderm and form the lateral parts of the CNS. Ventral midline precursors are formed by two rows of mesectodermal cells and build the CNS midline. There is plenty of evidence that individual identities are conferred to precursor cells by positional information in the ectoderm. It is unclear, however, how far the precursors can maintain their identities and developmental properties in the absence of normal external signals. To separate the respective contributions of autonomous properties versus extrinsic signals during their further development, we isolated individual midline precursors and neuroectodermal precursors at the pre-mitotic gastrula stage, traced their development in vitro, and analyzed the characteristics of their lineages in comparison with those described for the embryo. Although individually cultured mesectodermal cells exhibit basic characteristics of CNS midline progenitors, the clones produced by these progenitors differ from their in situ counterparts with regard to cell numbers, expression of molecular markers, and the separation of neuronal and glial fate. In contrast, clones derived from individually cultured precursors taken from specific dorsoventral zones of the neuroectoderm develop striking similarities to the lineages of neuroblasts that normally delaminate from these zones and develop in situ. This in vitro analysis allows for the first time a comparison of the developmental capacities in situ and in vitro of individual neural precursors of defined spatial and temporal origin. The data reveal that cells isolated at the pre-mitotic and pre-delamination stage express characteristics of the progenitor type appropriate to their site of origin in the embryo. However, presumptive neuroblasts, once

  14. Single cell cultures of Drosophila neuroectodermal and mesectodermal central nervous system progenitors reveal different degrees of developmental autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Technau Gerhard M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Drosophila embryonic central nervous system (CNS develops from two sets of progenitor cells, neuroblasts and ventral midline progenitors, which behave differently in many respects. Neuroblasts derive from the neurogenic region of the ectoderm and form the lateral parts of the CNS. Ventral midline precursors are formed by two rows of mesectodermal cells and build the CNS midline. There is plenty of evidence that individual identities are conferred to precursor cells by positional information in the ectoderm. It is unclear, however, how far the precursors can maintain their identities and developmental properties in the absence of normal external signals. Results To separate the respective contributions of autonomous properties versus extrinsic signals during their further development, we isolated individual midline precursors and neuroectodermal precursors at the pre-mitotic gastrula stage, traced their development in vitro, and analyzed the characteristics of their lineages in comparison with those described for the embryo. Although individually cultured mesectodermal cells exhibit basic characteristics of CNS midline progenitors, the clones produced by these progenitors differ from their in situ counterparts with regard to cell numbers, expression of molecular markers, and the separation of neuronal and glial fate. In contrast, clones derived from individually cultured precursors taken from specific dorsoventral zones of the neuroectoderm develop striking similarities to the lineages of neuroblasts that normally delaminate from these zones and develop in situ. Conclusion This in vitro analysis allows for the first time a comparison of the developmental capacities in situ and in vitro of individual neural precursors of defined spatial and temporal origin. The data reveal that cells isolated at the pre-mitotic and pre-delamination stage express characteristics of the progenitor type appropriate to their site of origin in

  15. Live cell imaging reveals different modes of cytotoxic action of extracts derived from commonly used luting cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumpaitė-Vanagienė, Rita; Čebatariūnienė, Alina; Tunaitis, Virginijus; Pūrienė, Alina; Pivoriūnas, Augustas

    2018-02-01

    To compare cytotoxicity of extracts derived from commonly used luting cements: Hoffmann's Zinc Phosphate (ZPC), GC Fuji Plus Resin Modified Glass Ionomer (RMGIC) and 3M ESPE RelyX Unicem Resin Cement (RC) on primary human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). HGFs were exposed to different concentrations of the ZPC, RMGIC and RC extracts. The cytotoxicity was assessed with the PrestoBlue Cell Viability Reagent and viable cells were counted by a haemocytometer using the trypan blue exclusion test. In order to determine the primary mechanism of the cell death induced by extracts from different luting cements, the real-time monitoring of caspase-3/-7 activity and membrane integrity of cells was employed. The extracts from the RMGIC and ZPC decreased the metabolic activity and numbers of viable cells. Unexpectedly, the extracts from the RC evoked only small effects on the metabolic activity of HGFs with a decreasing number of viable cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner. The live cell imaging revealed that the apoptosis was the primary mechanism of a cell death induced by the extracts derived from the RMGIC, whereas the extracts from the RC and ZPC induced a cell death through a necrotic and caspase-independent pathway. The apoptosis was the primary mechanism of the cell death induced by the extracts derived from the RMGIC, whereas the extracts from the RC and ZPC induced a cell death via a necrotic pathway. We suggest that metabolic assays commonly used to assess the cytotoxicity of luting cements should be validated by alternative methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Systematic comparison of different techniques to measure hippocampal subfield volumes in ADNI2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne G. Mueller

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: T2-HighRes subfield approaches outperformed whole hippocampus and T1 subfield approaches. None of the different T2-HghRes methods tested had a clear advantage over the other methods. Each has strengths and weaknesses that need to be taken into account when deciding which one to use to get the best results from subfield volumetry.

  17. Effectiveness of weight loss interventions – is there a difference between men and women: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R L; Wood, L G; Collins, C E; Callister, R

    2015-01-01

    Effective strategies are required to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity; however, the effectiveness of current weight loss programmes is variable. One contributing factor may be the difference in weight loss success between men and women. A systematic review was conducted to determine whether the effectiveness of weight loss interventions differs between men and women. Randomized controlled trials published up until March 2014 were included. Effect sizes (Hedges' g) were used to examine the difference in weight outcomes between men and women. A total of 58 studies met the eligibility criteria with 49 studies of higher quality included in the final data synthesis. Eleven studies that directly compared weight loss in men and women reported a significant sex difference. Ten of these reported that men lost more weight than women; however, women also lost a significant amount of weight. Analysis of effect sizes found small differences in weight loss favouring men for both diet (g = 0.489) and diet plus exercise (g = 0.240) interventions. There is little evidence from this review to indicate that men and women should adopt different weight loss strategies. Current evidence supports moderate energy restriction in combination with exercise for weight loss in both men and women. PMID:25494712

  18. Lack of systematic topographic difference between attention and reasoning beta correlates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F H Basile

    Full Text Available Based on previous evidence for individual-specific sets of cortical areas active during simple attention tasks, in this work we intended to perform within individual comparisons of task-induced beta oscillations between visual attention and a reasoning task. Since beta induced oscillations are not time-locked to task events and were first observed by Fourier transforms, in order to analyze the cortical topography of attention induced beta activity, we have previously computed corrected-latency averages based on spontaneous peaks of band-pass filtered epochs. We then used Independent Component Analysis (ICA only to single out the significant portion of averaged data, above noise levels. In the present work ICA served as the main, exhaustive means for decomposing beta activity in both tasks, using 128-channel EEG data from 24 subjects. Given the previous observed similarity between tasks by visual inspection and by simple descriptive statistics, we now intended another approach: to quantify how much each ICA component obtained in one task could be explained by a linear combination of the topographic patterns from the other task in each individual. Our hypothesis was that the major psychological difference between tasks would not be reflected as important topographic differences within individuals. Results confirmed the high topographic similarity between attention and reasoning beta correlates in that few components in each individual were not satisfactorily explained by the complementary task, and if those could be considered "task-specific", their scalp distribution and estimated cortical sources were not common across subjects. These findings, along with those from fMRI studies preserving individual data and conventional neuropsychological and neurosurgical observations, are discussed in support of a new functional localization hypothesis: individuals use largely different sets of cortical association areas to perform a given task, but those

  19. The determinants of medical technology adoption in different decisional systems: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varabyova, Yauheniya; Blankart, Carl Rudolf; Greer, Ann Lennarson; Schreyögg, Jonas

    2017-03-01

    Studies of determinants of adoption of new medical technology have failed to coalesce into coherent knowledge. A flaw obscuring strong patterns may be a common habit of treating a wide range of health care innovations as a generic technology. We postulate three decisional systems that apply to different medical technologies with distinctive expertise, interest, and authority: medical-individualistic, fiscal-managerial, and strategic-institutional decisional systems. This review aims to examine the determinants of the adoption of medical technologies based on the corresponding decision-making system. We included quantitative and qualitative studies that analyzed factors facilitating or inhibiting the adoption of medical technologies. In total, 65 studies published between 1974 and 2014 met our inclusion criteria. These studies contained 688 occurrences of variables that were used to examine the adoption decisions, and we subsequently condensed these variables to 62 determinants in four main categories: organizational, individual, environmental, and innovation-related. The determinants and their empirical association with adoption were grouped and analyzed by the three decision-making systems. Although we did not identify substantial differences across the decision-making systems in terms of the direction of the determinants' influence on adoption, a clear pattern emerged in terms of the categories of determinants that were targeted in different decision-making systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Systematic Assessment of Research on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Mercury Reveals Conflicts of Interest and the Need for Transparency in Autism Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Janet K; Geier, David A; Deth, Richard C; Sykes, Lisa K; Hooker, Brian S; Love, James M; Bjørklund, Geir; Chaigneau, Carmen G; Haley, Boyd E; Geier, Mark R

    2017-12-01

    Historically, entities with a vested interest in a product that critics have suggested is harmful have consistently used research to back their claims that the product is safe. Prominent examples are: tobacco, lead, bisphenol A, and atrazine. Research literature indicates that about 80-90% of studies with industry affiliation found no harm from the product, while only about 10-20% of studies without industry affiliation found no harm. In parallel to other historical debates, recent studies examining a possible relationship between mercury (Hg) exposure and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show a similar dichotomy. Studies sponsored and supported by industry or entities with an apparent conflict of interest have most often shown no evidence of harm or no "consistent" evidence of harm, while studies without such affiliations report positive evidence of a Hg/autism association. The potentially causal relationship between Hg exposure and ASD differs from other toxic products since there is a broad coalition of entities for whom a conflict of interest arises. These include influential governmental public health entities, the pharmaceutical industry, and even the coal burning industry. This review includes a systematic literature search of original studies on the potential relationship between Hg and ASD from 1999 to August 2015, finding that of the studies with public health and/or industry affiliation, 86% reported no relationship between Hg and ASD. However, among studies without public health and/or industry affiliation, only 21% find no relationship between Hg and ASD. The discrepancy in these results suggests a bias indicative of a conflict of interest.

  1. Systematic differences in the response of genetic variation to pedigree and genome-based selection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidaritabar, M; Vereijken, A; Muir, W M; Meuwissen, T; Cheng, H; Megens, H-J; Groenen, M A M; Bastiaansen, J W M

    2014-12-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a DNA-based method of selecting for quantitative traits in animal and plant breeding, and offers a potentially superior alternative to traditional breeding methods that rely on pedigree and phenotype information. Using a 60 K SNP chip with markers spaced throughout the entire chicken genome, we compared the impact of GS and traditional BLUP (best linear unbiased prediction) selection methods applied side-by-side in three different lines of egg-laying chickens. Differences were demonstrated between methods, both at the level and genomic distribution of allele frequency changes. In all three lines, the average allele frequency changes were larger with GS, 0.056 0.064 and 0.066, compared with BLUP, 0.044, 0.045 and 0.036 for lines B1, B2 and W1, respectively. With BLUP, 35 selected regions (empirical P selected regions were identified. Empirical thresholds for local allele frequency changes were determined from gene dropping, and differed considerably between GS (0.167-0.198) and BLUP (0.105-0.126). Between lines, the genomic regions with large changes in allele frequencies showed limited overlap. Our results show that GS applies selection pressure much more locally than BLUP, resulting in larger allele frequency changes. With these results, novel insights into the nature of selection on quantitative traits have been gained and important questions regarding the long-term impact of GS are raised. The rapid changes to a part of the genetic architecture, while another part may not be selected, at least in the short term, require careful consideration, especially when selection occurs before phenotypes are observed.

  2. Fit of screw-retained fixed implant frameworks fabricated by different methods: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduo, Jaafar; Lyons, Karl; Bennani, Vincent; Waddell, Neil; Swain, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the published literature investigating the accuracy of fit of fixed implant frameworks fabricated using different materials and methods. A comprehensive electronic search was performed through PubMed (MEDLINE) using Boolean operators to combine key words. The search was limited to articles written in English and published through May 2010. In addition, a manual search through articles and reference lists retrieved from the electronic search and peer-reviewed journals was also conducted. A total of 248 articles were retrieved, and 26 met the specified inclusion criteria for the review. The selected articles assessed the fit of fixed implant frameworks fabricated by different techniques. The investigated fabrication approaches were one-piece casting, sectioning and reconnection, spark erosion with an electric discharge machine, computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM), and framework bonding to prefabricated abutment cylinders. Cast noble metal frameworks have a predictable fit, and additional fit refinement treatment is not indicated in well-controlled conditions. Base metal castings do not provide a satisfactory level of fit unless additional refinement treatment is performed, such as sectioning and laser welding or spark erosion. Spark erosion, framework bonding to prefabricated abutment cylinders, and CAD/CAM have the potential to provide implant frameworks with an excellent fit; CAD/CAM is the most consistent and least technique-sensitive of these methods.

  3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Methods of Hospitals' Downsizing: A Narrative Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalda Mousazadeh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:Hospitals as key actors in health systems face growing pressures especially cost cutting and search for cost-effective ways to resources management. Downsizing is one of these ways. This study was conducted to identify advantages and disadvantages of different methods of hospital' downsizing. Methods: The search was conducted in databases of Medlib, SID, Pub Med, Science Direct and Google Scholar Meta search engine by keywords of Downsizing, Hospital Downsizing, Hospital Rightsizing, Hospital Restructuring, Staff Downsizing, Hospital Merging, Hospital Reorganization and the Persian equivalents. Resulted 815 articles were studied and refined step by step. Finally, 27 articles were selected for analysis. Results: Five hospital downsizing methods were identified during searching. These methods were reducing the number of employees and beds, outsourcing, integration of hospital units, and the combination of these methods. The most important benefits were cost reduction, increasing patient satisfaction, increasing home care and outpatient services. The most important disadvantage included reducing access, reducing the rate of hospital admissions and increasing employees’ workload and dissatisfaction. Conclusion: Each downsizing method has strengths and weaknesses. Using different methods of downsizing, according to circumstances and applying appropriate interventions after implementation, is necessary for promotion.

  4. Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Methods of Hospitals' Downsizing: A Narrative Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousazadeh, Yalda; Jannati, Ali; Jabbari Beiramy, Hossein; AsghariJafarabadi, Mohammad; Ebadi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hospitals as key actors in health systems face growing pres­sures especially cost cutting and search for costeffective ways to resources management. Downsizing is one of these ways. This study was conducted to identify advantages and disadvantages of different methods of hospital' downsizing. Methods:The search was conducted in databases of Medlib, SID, Pub Med, Science Direct and Google Scholar Meta search engine by keywords of Downsizing, Hospital Downsizing, Hospital Rightsizing, Hospital Restructuring, Staff Downsizing, Hospital Merging, Hospital Reorganization and the Persian equivalents. Resulted 815 articles were studied and refined step by step. Finally, 27 articles were selected for analysis. Results: Five hospital downsizing methods were identified during searching. These methods were reducing the number of employees and beds, outsourcing, integration of hospital units, and the combination of these methods. The most important benefits were cost reduction, increasing patient satisfaction, increasing home care and outpatient services. The most important disadvantage included reducing access, reducing the rate of hospital admissions and increasing employees’ workload and dissatisfaction. Conclusion: Each downsizing method has strengths and weaknesses. Using different methods of downsizing, according to circumstances and applying appropriate interventions after implementation, is necessary for promotion. PMID:24688978

  5. Cluster expansion of the solvation free energy difference: Systematic improvements in the solvation of single ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliego, Josefredo R.

    2017-07-01

    The cluster expansion method has been used in the imperfect gas theory for several decades. This paper proposes a cluster expansion of the solvation free energy difference. This difference, which results from a change in the solute-solvent potential energy, can be written as the logarithm of a finite series. Similar to the Mayer function, the terms in the series are related to configurational integrals, which makes the integrand relevant only for configurations of the solvent molecules close to the solute. In addition, the terms involve interaction of solute with one, two, and so on solvent molecules. The approach could be used for hybrid quantum mechanical and molecular mechanics methods or mixed cluster-continuum approximation. A simple form of the theory was applied for prediction of pKa in methanol; the results indicated that three explicit methanol molecules and the dielectric continuum lead to a root of mean squared error (RMSE) of only 1.3 pKa units, whereas the pure continuum solvation model based on density method leads to a RMSE of 6.6 pKa units.

  6. A systematic review and quantitative analysis of different therapies for pancreas divisum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafezi, Mohammadreza; Mayschak, Bartosch; Probst, Pascal; Büchler, Markus W; Hackert, Thilo; Mehrabi, Arianeb

    2017-09-01

    Pancreas divisum is the most common anatomical variation of pancreatic ductal system affecting 5-10% of population. Therapy includes different endoscopic and surgical procedures. The aim of this article was to summarize actual evidence of different treatment. A Medline search was performed to identify all studies, investigating endoscopic or surgical therapy of Pancreas divisum. An individual data simulation model was applied to compare endoscopic and surgical studies. 56 observational studies (31 endoscopic and 25 surgical studies) were included in analyses. Surgery was significantly superior to endoscopic treatment in terms of success rate (72% vs. 62.3), complication rate (23.8% vs. 31.3%) and re-intervention rate (14.4% vs. 28.3%). Surgery may be superior to endoscopy in terms of treatment success and complications. There is no study comparing these two therapies. Consequently, a randomized trial is needed to clarify if endoscopy or surgery is superior in the therapy of pancreas divisum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Heterogeneity revealed through meta-analysis might link geographical differences with nasopharyngeal carcinoma incidence in Han Chinese populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Wen-Hui; Chiu, Chi-Cking; Yao Shugart, Yin

    2015-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an epithelial malignancy highly prevalent in southern China, and incidence rates among Han Chinese people vary according to geographic region. Recently, three independent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) confirmed that HLA-A is the main risk gene for NPC. However, the results of studies conducted in regions with dissimilar incidence rates contradicted the claims that HLA-A is the sole risk gene and that the association of rs29232 is independent of the HLA-A effect in the chromosome 6p21.3 region. We performed a meta-analysis, selecting five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in chromosome 6p21.3 mapped in three published GWASs and four case–control studies. The studies involved 8994 patients with NPC and 11,157 healthy controls, all of whom were Han Chinese. The rs2517713 SNP located downstream of HLA-A was significantly associated with NPC (P = 1.08 × 10 −91 , odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 0.55–0.61). The rs29232 SNP exhibited a moderate level of heterogeneity (I 2 = 47 %) that disappeared (I 2 = 0 %) after stratification by moderate- and high-incidence NPC regions. Our results suggested that the HLA-A gene is strongly associated with NPC risk. In addition, the heterogeneity revealed by the meta-analysis of rs29232 might be associated with regional differences in NPC incidence among Han Chinese people. The higher OR of rs29232 and the fact that rs29232 was independent of the HLA-A effect in the moderate-incidence population suggested that rs29232 might have greater relevance to NPC incidence in a moderate-incidence population than in a high-incidence population. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1607-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  8. Sustainable Utilization of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resources: Systematic Evaluation on Different Production Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwen Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage amount of medicinal plant rapidly increased along with the development of traditional Chinese medicine industry. The higher market demand and the shortage of wild herbal resources enforce us to carry out large-scale introduction and cultivation. Herbal cultivation can ease current contradiction between medicinal resources supply and demand while they bring new problems such as pesticide residues and plant disease and pests. Researchers have recently placed high hopes on the application of natural fostering, a new method incorporated herbal production and diversity protecting practically, which can solve the problems brought by artificial cultivation. However no modes can solve all problems existing in current herbal production. This study evaluated different production modes including cultivation, natural fostering, and wild collection to guide the traditional Chinese medicine production for sustainable utilization of herbal resources.

  9. What Makes Hydrologic Models Differ? Using SUMMA to Systematically Explore Model Uncertainty and Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, A.; Nijssen, B.; Chegwidden, O.; Wood, A.; Clark, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    Model intercomparison experiments have been conducted to quantify the variability introduced during the model development process, but have had limited success in identifying the sources of this model variability. The Structure for Unifying Multiple Modeling Alternatives (SUMMA) has been developed as a framework which defines a general set of conservation equations for mass and energy as well as a common core of numerical solvers along with the ability to set options for choosing between different spatial discretizations and flux parameterizations. SUMMA can be thought of as a framework for implementing meta-models which allows for the investigation of the impacts of decisions made during the model development process. Through this flexibility we develop a hierarchy of definitions which allows for models to be compared to one another. This vocabulary allows us to define the notion of weak equivalence between model instantiations. Through this weak equivalence we develop the concept of model mimicry, which can be used to investigate the introduction of uncertainty and error during the modeling process as well as provide a framework for identifying modeling decisions which may complement or negate one another. We instantiate SUMMA instances that mimic the behaviors of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) by choosing modeling decisions which are implemented in each model. We compare runs from these models and their corresponding mimics across the Columbia River Basin located in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and Canada. From these comparisons, we are able to determine the extent to which model implementation has an effect on the results, as well as determine the changes in sensitivity of parameters due to these implementation differences. By examining these changes in results and sensitivities we can attempt to postulate changes in the modeling decisions which may provide better estimation of

  10. E-cigarettes and equity: a systematic review of differences in awareness and use between sociodemographic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Greg; Thomas, Sian; Egan, Matt; Gilmore, Anna; Petticrew, Mark

    2017-12-01

    To assess whether electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) awareness, 'ever use' and current use vary significantly between different sociodemographic groups. Systematic review. Published and unpublished reports identified by searching seven electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, EMBASE, Global Health, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus) and grey literature sources. Systematic search for and appraisal of cross-sectional or longitudinal studies that assessed e-cigarette awareness, 'ever use' or current use, and included subgroup analysis of 1 or more PROGRESS Plus sociodemographic groups. No geographical or time restrictions imposed. Assessment by multiple reviewers, with 17% of full articles screened meeting the selection criteria. Data extracted and checked by multiple reviewers, with quality assessed using an adapted tool developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Results of narrative synthesis suggest broadly that awareness, 'ever use' and current use of e-cigarettes may be particularly prevalent among older adolescents and younger adults, males, people of white ethnicity and-particularly in the case of awareness and 'ever use'-those of intermediate or high levels of education. In some cases, results also varied within and between countries. E-cigarette awareness, 'ever use' and current use appear to be patterned by a number of sociodemographic factors which vary between different countries and subnational localities. Care will therefore be required to ensure neither the potential benefits nor the potential risks of e-cigarettes exacerbate existing health inequalities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Relationship between the physical environment and different domains of physical activity in European adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Holle Veerle

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past decade, various reviews described the relationship between the physical environment and different physical activity (PA domains. Yet, the majority of the current review evidence relies on North American/Australian studies, while only a small proportion of findings refer to European studies. Given some clear environmental differences across continents, this raises questions about the applicability of those results in European settings. This systematic review aimed at summarizing Europe-specific evidence on the relationship between the physical environment and different PA domains in adults. Methods Seventy eligible papers were identified through systematic searches across six electronic databases. Included papers were observational studies assessing the relationship between several aspects of the physical environment and PA in European adults (18-65y. Summary scores were calculated to express the strength of the relationship between each environmental factor and different PA domains. Results Convincing evidence on positive relationships with several PA domains was found for following environmental factors: walkability, access to shops/services/work and the composite factor environmental quality. Convincing evidence considering urbanization degree showed contradictory results, dependent on the observed PA domain. Transportation PA was more frequently related to the physical environment than recreational PA. Possible evidence for a positive relationship with transportation PA emerged for walking/cycling facilities, while a negative relationship was found for hilliness. Some environmental factors, such as access to recreational facilities, aesthetics, traffic- and crime-related safety were unrelated to different PA domains in Europe. Conclusions Generally, findings from this review of European studies are in accordance with results from North American/Australian reviews and may contribute to a generalization of the

  12. An efficacy and safety comparison between different stentriever designs in acute ischaemic stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grech, R.; Pullicino, R.; Thornton, J.; Downer, J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the recanalisation rates and long-term functional outcomes of the Solitaire and Trevo devices; to compare these results to those from the Solitaire With the Intention For Thrombectomy (SWIFT) trial and TREVO 2 studies; and to assess for statistical differences in the outcomes between the two devices. Materials and methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that utilised stentrievers in the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke was conducted. The results were compared to those of the SWIFT and TREVO 2 trials and outcome differences between Trevo (Stryker, Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA) and Solitaire (ev3/Covidien, Irvine, California, USA) were analysed statistically. Results: Solitaire had a lower mortality rate compared to Trevo (16.2% [95% confidence interval {CI}: 13.1%, 19.8%] versus 22.2% [95% CI: 10.8%, 40.2%]) and achieved a higher rate of functional independence (52.1% [95% CI: 46.3%, 57.8%] versus 47.6% [95% CI: 36.7%, 58.8%]). Statistical tests, however, failed to demonstrate significant differences in either functional outcomes or 3-month mortality rates. No significant differences were noted in weighted mean recanalisation rates between the Solitaire and Trevo groups. Conclusion: Stentrievers achieve a high rate of recanalisation and functional independence in acute ischaemic stroke and have a relatively good safety profile. No significant differences in functional outcomes, mortality, and symptomatic intra-cranial haemorrhage could be demonstrated between two popular stentrievers designs, namely Trevo and Solitaire. - Highlights: • We conducted a meta-analysis of stentrievers in acute ischaemic stroke. • We assessed recanalization rates and functional outcomes of stentrievers. • We also explored any differences between different stentriever designs. • We failed to demonstrate significant differences between Trevo and Solitaire.

  13. A comparison of two common sample preparation techniques for lipid and fatty acid analysis in three different coral morphotypes reveals quantitative and qualitative differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, Jessica A; Rocker, Melissa M; Francis, David S

    2017-01-01

    Lipids are involved in a host of biochemical and physiological processes in corals. Therefore, changes in lipid composition reflect changes in the ecology, nutrition, and health of corals. As such, accurate lipid extraction, quantification, and identification is critical to obtain comprehensive insight into a coral's condition. However, discrepancies exist in sample preparation methodology globally, and it is currently unknown whether these techniques generate analogous results. This study compared the two most common sample preparation techniques for lipid analysis in corals: (1) tissue isolation by air-spraying and (2) crushing the coral in toto . Samples derived from each preparation technique were subsequently analysed to quantify lipids and their constituent classes and fatty acids in four common, scleractinian coral species representing three distinct morphotypes ( Acropora millepora , Montipora crassotuberculata , Porites cylindrica , and Pocillopora damicornis ). Results revealed substantial amounts of organic material, including lipids, retained in the skeletons of all species following air-spraying, causing a marked underestimation of total lipid concentration using this method. Moreover, lipid class and fatty acid compositions between the denuded skeleton and sprayed tissue were substantially different. In particular, the majority of the total triacylglycerol and total fatty acid concentrations were retained in the skeleton (55-69% and 56-64%, respectively). As such, the isolated, sprayed tissue cannot serve as a reliable proxy for lipid quantification or identification in the coral holobiont. The in toto crushing method is therefore recommended for coral sample preparation prior to lipid analysis to capture the lipid profile of the entire holobiont, permitting accurate diagnoses of coral condition.

  14. A comparison of two common sample preparation techniques for lipid and fatty acid analysis in three different coral morphotypes reveals quantitative and qualitative differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A. Conlan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipids are involved in a host of biochemical and physiological processes in corals. Therefore, changes in lipid composition reflect changes in the ecology, nutrition, and health of corals. As such, accurate lipid extraction, quantification, and identification is critical to obtain comprehensive insight into a coral’s condition. However, discrepancies exist in sample preparation methodology globally, and it is currently unknown whether these techniques generate analogous results. This study compared the two most common sample preparation techniques for lipid analysis in corals: (1 tissue isolation by air-spraying and (2 crushing the coral in toto. Samples derived from each preparation technique were subsequently analysed to quantify lipids and their constituent classes and fatty acids in four common, scleractinian coral species representing three distinct morphotypes (Acropora millepora, Montipora crassotuberculata, Porites cylindrica, and Pocillopora damicornis. Results revealed substantial amounts of organic material, including lipids, retained in the skeletons of all species following air-spraying, causing a marked underestimation of total lipid concentration using this method. Moreover, lipid class and fatty acid compositions between the denuded skeleton and sprayed tissue were substantially different. In particular, the majority of the total triacylglycerol and total fatty acid concentrations were retained in the skeleton (55–69% and 56–64%, respectively. As such, the isolated, sprayed tissue cannot serve as a reliable proxy for lipid quantification or identification in the coral holobiont. The in toto crushing method is therefore recommended for coral sample preparation prior to lipid analysis to capture the lipid profile of the entire holobiont, permitting accurate diagnoses of coral condition.

  15. Kinematics and hydrodynamics analysis of swimming anurans reveals striking inter-specific differences in the mechanism for producing thrust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Christopher T

    2010-02-15

    the body velocity in H. boettgeri and X. laevis, resulting in negative net translational EFV. Consequently, the translational component of thrust (caused mostly by hip, knee and ankle extension) was twofold higher than rotational thrust in Rana pipiens. Likewise, rotational components of thrust were nearly twofold higher than translational components in H. boettgeri. X. laevis, however, was the most skewed species observed, generating nearly 100% of total thrust by foot rotation generated by hip, ankle and tmt extension. Thus, this study presents a simple kinematics analysis that is predictive of hydrodynamic differences among species. Such differences in kinematics reveal a continuum of different propulsive strategies ranging from mostly rotation-powered (X. laevis) to mostly translation-powered (R. pipiens) swimming.

  16. Individual differences in adult attachment are systematically related to dream narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R; Avihou-Kanza, Neta

    2011-03-01

    Self-reported individual differences in attachment insecurities (anxiety and avoidance) are sometimes assumed to tap only conscious mental processes, although many studies have found correlations between such measures and responses to the Thematic Apperception Test, the Rorschach Inkblot Test, and diverse laboratory measures of unconscious mental processes. Dreams offer another route into the unconscious, as Freud famously claimed: a route found useful in psychotherapy. In this study, approximately 1000 dreams reported by 68 young adults who kept dream diaries for a month were analyzed using the Core Conflictual Relationships Theme method, and the themes were examined in relation to (a) scores on the Experiences in Close Relationships measure of attachment anxiety and avoidance and (b) stress experienced the day before each dream. In line with attachment theory and previous research, attachment-related avoidance predicted avoidant wishes and negative representations of other people in dreams. Attachment anxiety predicted wishes for interpersonal closeness, especially in dreams following stressful days, and negative representations of self and both positive and negative representations of others, with negative representations being more common in dreams following stressful days.

  17. [Historical trauma. Systematic review of a different approach to armed conflict].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borda Bohigas, Juan Pablo; Carrillo, Juan O; Garzón, Daniel F; Ramírez, María P; Rodríguez, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    Historical trauma (HT) is a collective trauma inflicted on a group of people who share an identity or affiliation, and is often characterized by the transgenerational legacy of traumatic experiences, and expressed through various psychological and social responses. This construct is proposed in contrast to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to limitations identified with the latter diagnostic category when addressing collective trauma, especially in situations of political and social violence. The purpose of this article is to review the literature published so far on HT. A search was performed using the terms "historical trauma" and "mental health" or "trauma histórico" and "salud mental" in the scientific databases, EMBASE, Ebscohost, JSTOR, ProQuest, LILACS, SciELO, PsycARTICLES, ISI Web of Science and PubMed. The authors reviewed HT definition, paramount characteristics of its traumatic experience, and several theories of on the transgenerational succession if these experiences occur, as well as possible consequences of traumatic events at individual, family and social level. Common characteristics of different therapeutic models are highlighted, in addition to some recommendations for their application. PTSD has clear limitations in addressing community and cumulative traumatic experiences related to specific social and historical contexts. The authors discuss the potential utility of HT in this task. Finally, several gaps in current knowledge regarding this construct are mentioned, and some recommendations for future research are indicated. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Transcriptome analysis reveals regional and temporal differences in mucosal immune system development in the small intestine of neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guanxiang; Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Bao, Hua; Stothard, Paul; Griebel, Philip J; Guan, Le Luo

    2016-08-11

    bacterial recognition (miR-100) during the first week of small intestine development. The rapid development of transcriptional differences between jejunum and ileum reveal that these two intestinal regions make distinct contributions to the intestinal mucosal immune system during the early neonatal period. In addition, transcriptome analysis indicates that the first week after birth is a very dynamic developmental period for the intestinal mucosal immune system and these changes may be regulated by both miRNAs and microbial colonization. Findings from this study indicate that a detailed analysis of both the abundance and diversity of the colonizing microbiome may be necessary to understand factors regulating the rapid development of the mucosal immune system during the first week of life.

  19. A systematic review on recurrent respiratory papillomatosis: clinical effect and duration of benefit of different treatment modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Kiverniti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare different modalities used for the treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP in adults and children in terms of their clinical effect and the duration of benefit. Systematic review of papers was written in the English language and published between 1977 and 2007. Outcomes are number of patients with a clinical response and length of time the response lasted for. We found 28 useful studies. There were 1,045 subjects, 416 children and 339 adults who underwent different treatments for RRP between 1976 and 2007. The methods used consisted of cidofovir, interferon, surgical excision, indole-3-carbinol, acyclovir, mumps vaccine, and photodynamic therapy. 62.5% of patients had a complete response on cidofovir (11 studies, 45.14% on interferon (8 studies, 33.33% on I3C (2 studies, 44.36% after surgery (5 studies, 77.55% after the mumps vaccine (1 study, 100% on acyclovir (1 study, and 9.09% after photodynamic therapy (1 study. The effect of different modalities lasted between 9 and 27 months. In conclusion, it is impossible to reach any reliable conclusions as to which method is the most durable and effective. There is a great need for randomised control multicentre trials on the treatment of RRP, so that reliable results can be produced.

  20. Effects of Different Models of Dialysis Care on Patient-Important Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramar, Priya; Ahmed, Ahmed T; Wang, Zhen; Chawla, Sagar S; Suarez, Maria Lourdes Gonzalez; Hickson, LaTonya J; Farrell, Ann; Williams, Amy W; Shah, Nilay D; Murad, M Hassan; Thorsteinsdottir, Bjorg

    2017-12-01

    Ongoing payment reform in dialysis necessitates better patient outcomes and lower costs. Suggested improvements to processes of care for maintenance dialysis patients are abundant; however, their impact on patient-important outcomes is unclear. This systematic review included comparative randomized controlled trials or observational studies with no restriction on language, published from 2000 to 2014, involving at least 5 adult dialysis patients who received a minimum of 6 months of follow-up. The effect size was pooled and stratified by intervention strategy (multidisciplinary care [MDC], home dialysis, alternate dialysis settings, and electronic health record implementation). Heterogeneity (I 2 ) was used to assess the variability in study effects related to study differences rather than chance. Of the 1988 articles screened, 25 international studies with 74,833 maintenance dialysis patients were included. Interventions with MDC or home dialysis were associated with a lower mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.61, 0.84, I 2  = 41.6%; HR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.41, 0.81, I 2  = 89.0%; respectively) and hospitalizations (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.68, 95% CI 0.51, 0.91, I 2  = NA; IRR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.64, 1.20, I 2  = 79.6%; respectively). Alternate dialysis settings also were associated with a reduction in hospitalizations (IRR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.25, 0.69, I 2  = 0.0%). This systematic review underscores the importance of multidisciplinary care, and also the value of telemedicine as a means to increase access to providers and enhance outcomes for those dialyzing at home or in alternate settings, including those with limited access to nephrology expertise because of travel distance.

  1. Methods for specifying the target difference in a randomised controlled trial: the Difference ELicitation in TriAls (DELTA systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenni Hislop

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Randomised controlled trials (RCTs are widely accepted as the preferred study design for evaluating healthcare interventions. When the sample size is determined, a (target difference is typically specified that the RCT is designed to detect. This provides reassurance that the study will be informative, i.e., should such a difference exist, it is likely to be detected with the required statistical precision. The aim of this review was to identify potential methods for specifying the target difference in an RCT sample size calculation.A comprehensive systematic review of medical and non-medical literature was carried out for methods that could be used to specify the target difference for an RCT sample size calculation. The databases searched were MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Methodology Register, PsycINFO, Science Citation Index, EconLit, the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC, and Scopus (for in-press publications; the search period was from 1966 or the earliest date covered, to between November 2010 and January 2011. Additionally, textbooks addressing the methodology of clinical trials and International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH tripartite guidelines for clinical trials were also consulted. A narrative synthesis of methods was produced. Studies that described a method that could be used for specifying an important and/or realistic difference were included. The search identified 11,485 potentially relevant articles from the databases searched. Of these, 1,434 were selected for full-text assessment, and a further nine were identified from other sources. Fifteen clinical trial textbooks and the ICH tripartite guidelines were also reviewed. In total, 777 studies were included, and within them, seven methods were identified-anchor, distribution, health economic, opinion-seeking, pilot

  2. Methods for specifying the target difference in a randomised controlled trial: the Difference ELicitation in TriAls (DELTA) systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hislop, Jenni; Adewuyi, Temitope E; Vale, Luke D; Harrild, Kirsten; Fraser, Cynthia; Gurung, Tara; Altman, Douglas G; Briggs, Andrew H; Fayers, Peter; Ramsay, Craig R; Norrie, John D; Harvey, Ian M; Buckley, Brian; Cook, Jonathan A

    2014-05-01

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are widely accepted as the preferred study design for evaluating healthcare interventions. When the sample size is determined, a (target) difference is typically specified that the RCT is designed to detect. This provides reassurance that the study will be informative, i.e., should such a difference exist, it is likely to be detected with the required statistical precision. The aim of this review was to identify potential methods for specifying the target difference in an RCT sample size calculation. A comprehensive systematic review of medical and non-medical literature was carried out for methods that could be used to specify the target difference for an RCT sample size calculation. The databases searched were MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Methodology Register, PsycINFO, Science Citation Index, EconLit, the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), and Scopus (for in-press publications); the search period was from 1966 or the earliest date covered, to between November 2010 and January 2011. Additionally, textbooks addressing the methodology of clinical trials and International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) tripartite guidelines for clinical trials were also consulted. A narrative synthesis of methods was produced. Studies that described a method that could be used for specifying an important and/or realistic difference were included. The search identified 11,485 potentially relevant articles from the databases searched. Of these, 1,434 were selected for full-text assessment, and a further nine were identified from other sources. Fifteen clinical trial textbooks and the ICH tripartite guidelines were also reviewed. In total, 777 studies were included, and within them, seven methods were identified-anchor, distribution, health economic, opinion-seeking, pilot study, review of

  3. Temperature-size responses match latitudinal-size clines in arthropods, revealing critical differences between aquatic and terrestrial species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horne, C.R.; Hirst, Andrew G.; Atkinson, D.

    2015-01-01

    of these gradients to date, and find that their direction and magnitude co-vary among 12 arthropod orders (r2 = 0.72). Body size in aquatic species generally reduces with both warming and decreasing latitude, whereas terrestrial species have much reduced and even opposite gradients. These patterns support...... the prediction that oxygen limitation is a major controlling factor in water, but not in air. Furthermore, voltinism explains much of the variation in T-S and L-S patterns in terrestrial but not aquatic species. While body size decreases with warming and with decreasing latitude in multivoltine terrestrial......Two major intraspecific patterns of adult size variation are plastic temperature-size (T-S) responses and latitude-size (L-S) clines. Yet, the degree to which these co-vary and share explanatory mechanisms has not been systematically evaluated. We present the largest quantitative comparison...

  4. A systematic comparison of different approaches of density functional theory for the study of electrical double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Guomin; Liu, Longcheng

    2015-01-01

    Based on the best available knowledge of density functional theory (DFT), the reference-fluid perturbation method is here extended to yield different approaches that well account for the cross correlations between the Columbic interaction and the hard-sphere exclusion in an inhomogeneous ionic hard-sphere fluid. In order to quantitatively evaluate the advantage and disadvantage of different approaches in describing the interfacial properties of electrical double layers, this study makes a systematic comparison against Monte Carlo simulations over a wide range of conditions. The results suggest that the accuracy of the DFT approaches is well correlated to a coupling parameter that describes the coupling strength of electrical double layers by accounting for the steric effect and that can be used to classify the systems into two regimes. In the weak-coupling regime, the approaches based on the bulk-fluid perturbation method are shown to be more accurate than the counterparts based on the reference-fluid perturbation method, whereas they exhibit the opposite behavior in the strong-coupling regime. More importantly, the analysis indicates that, with a suitable choice of the reference fluid, the weighted correlation approximation (WCA) to DFT gives the best account of the coupling effect of the electrostatic-excluded volume correlations. As a result, a piecewise WCA approach can be developed that is robust enough to describe the structural and thermodynamic properties of electrical double layers over both weak- and strong-coupling regimes

  5. Mental Toughness and Individual Differences in Learning, Educational and Work Performance, Psychological Well-being, and Personality: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Lin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mental toughness (MT is an umbrella term that entails positive psychological resources, which are crucial across a wide range of achievement contexts and in the domain of mental health. We systematically review empirical studies that explored the associations between the concept of MT and individual differences in learning, educational and work performance, psychological well-being, personality, and other psychological attributes. Studies that explored the genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in MT are also reviewed. The findings suggest that MT is associated with various positive psychological traits, more efficient coping strategies and positive outcomes in education and mental health. Approximately 50% of the variation in MT can be accounted for by genetic factors. Furthermore, the associations between MT and psychological traits can be explained mainly by either common genetic or non-shared environmental factors. Taken together, our findings suggest a ‘mental toughness advantage’ with possible implications for developing interventions to facilitate achievement in a variety of settings.

  6. Mental Toughness and Individual Differences in Learning, Educational and Work Performance, Psychological Well-being, and Personality: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Mutz, Julian; Clough, Peter J.; Papageorgiou, Kostas A.

    2017-01-01

    Mental toughness (MT) is an umbrella term that entails positive psychological resources, which are crucial across a wide range of achievement contexts and in the domain of mental health. We systematically review empirical studies that explored the associations between the concept of MT and individual differences in learning, educational and work performance, psychological well-being, personality, and other psychological attributes. Studies that explored the genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in MT are also reviewed. The findings suggest that MT is associated with various positive psychological traits, more efficient coping strategies and positive outcomes in education and mental health. Approximately 50% of the variation in MT can be accounted for by genetic factors. Furthermore, the associations between MT and psychological traits can be explained mainly by either common genetic or non-shared environmental factors. Taken together, our findings suggest a ‘mental toughness advantage’ with possible implications for developing interventions to facilitate achievement in a variety of settings. PMID:28848466

  7. Prevalence of systolic inter-arm differences in blood pressure for different primary care populations: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christopher E; Taylor, Rod S; Shore, Angela C; Campbell, John L

    2016-11-01

    Various prevalence figures have been reported for inter-arm differences in blood pressure (IAD); variation may be explained by differing population vascular risk and by measurement method. To review the literature to derive robust estimates of IAD prevalence relevant to community populations. Systematic review and meta-analysis. MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL were searched for cross-sectional studies likely to represent general or primary care populations, reporting prevalence of IAD and employing a simultaneous method of measurement. Using study-level data, pooled estimates of mean prevalence of systolic IADs were calculated and compared using a random effects model. Eighty IAD studies were identified. Sixteen met inclusion criteria: pooled estimates of prevalence for systolic IAD ≥10 mmHg were 11.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.1 to 13.6) in hypertension, 7.4% (95% CI = 5.8 to 9.2) in diabetes, and 3.6% (95% CI = 2.3 to 5.0) for a general adult population (Pdifferences). Differences persisted for higher cut-off values. Prevalences were lower for East Asian than for Western populations and were overestimated by sequential measurement where this could be compared with simultaneous measurement within studies (relative risk for IAD: 2.9 [95% CI = 2.1 to 4.1]). Studies with higher mean absolute systolic pressures had higher prevalences for a systolic IAD ≥10 mmHg (P = 0.04). Prevalences of IADs rise in relation to underlying cardiovascular comorbidities of the population studied, and are overestimated threefold when sequential measurement is used. Population-specific variation in prevalences of IAD should be taken into account in delivering clinical care and in planning future studies. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  8. Gender differences in socioeconomic inequality of alcohol-attributable mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Charlotte; Roerecke, Michael; Behrendt, Silke; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-05-01

    The present analysis contributes to understanding the societal distribution of alcohol-attributable harm by investigating socioeconomic inequality and related gender differences in alcohol-attributable mortality. A systematic literature search was performed on Web of Science, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and ETOH from their inception until February 2013. Articles were included when they reported data on alcohol-attributable mortality by socioeconomic status (SES), operationalised as education, occupation, employment status or income. Gender-specific relative risks (RR) comparing low with high SES were pooled using random effects meta-analyses. Gender differences were additionally investigated in random effects meta-regressions. Nineteen articles from 14 countries were included. For women, significant RRs across all measures of SES, except employment status, were found, ranging between 1.75 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-2.54; occupation] and 4.78 (95% CI 2.57-8.87; income). For men, all measures of SES showed significant RRs ranging between 2.88 (95% CI 2.45-3.40; income) and 12.25 (95% CI 11.45-13.10; employment status). While RRs for men were in general slightly higher, only for occupation this gender difference was above chance (P = 0.01). Results refer to deaths 100% attributable to alcohol. The results are predominantly based on data from high-income countries, limiting generalisability. Alcohol-attributable mortality is strongly distributed to the disadvantage of persons with a low SES. Marked gender differences in this inequality were found for occupation. Possibly male-dominated occupations of low SES were more strongly related to risky drinking cultures compared with female-dominated occupations of the same SES. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  9. Comparative analyses reveal different consequences of two oxidative stress inducers, gamma irradiation and potassium tellurite, in the extremophile Deinococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimha, Anaganti; Basu, Bhakti; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Proteomic and mass spectrometric analyses revealed differential responses of D. radiodurans to two oxidative stressors. While both elicited oxidative stress alleviation response, major divergence was observed at the level of DNA repair, metabolic pathways and protein homeostasis. Response to gamma irradiation was focused on DNA repair and ROS scavenging but supported metabolism as well as protein homeostasis. Tellurite, induced oxidative stress alleviation but decreased reducing affected and adversely affected metabolism and protein homeostasis

  10. Systematic analysis of phloem-feeding insect-induced transcriptional reprogramming in Arabidopsis highlights common features and reveals distinct responses to specialist and generalist insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Verrall, Susan R; Hancock, Robert D

    2015-02-01

    Phloem-feeding insects (PFIs), of which aphids are the largest group, are major agricultural pests causing extensive damage to crop plants. In contrast to chewing insects, the nature of the plant response to PFIs remains poorly characterized. Scrutiny of the literature concerning transcriptional responses of model and crop plant species to PFIs reveals surprisingly little consensus with respect to the transcripts showing altered abundance following infestation. Nevertheless, core features of the transcriptional response to PFIs can be defined in Arabidopsis thaliana. This comparison of the PFI-associated transcriptional response observed in A. thaliana infested by the generalists Myzus persicae and Bemisia tabaci with the specialist Brevicoryne brassicae highlights the importance of calcium-dependent and receptor kinase-associated signalling. We discuss these findings within the context of the complex cross-talk between the different hormones regulating basal immune response mechanisms in plants. We identify PFI-responsive genes, highlighting the importance of cell wall-associated kinases in plant-PFI interactions, as well as the significant role of kinases containing the domain of unknown function 26. A common feature of plant-PFI interaction is enhanced abundance of transcripts encoding WRKY transcription factors. However, significant divergence was observed with respect to secondary metabolism dependent upon the insect attacker. Transcripts encoding enzymes and proteins associated with glucosinolate metabolism were decreased following attack by the generalist M. persicae but not by the specialist B. brassicae. This analysis provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular patterns associated with the plant response to PFIs and suggests that plants recognize and respond to perturbations in the cell wall occurring during PFI infestation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights

  11. Systematic biomarker discovery and coordinative validation for different primary nephrotic syndromes using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Eun; Lee, Yu Ho; Kim, Se-Yun; Kim, Yang Gyun; Moon, Ju-Young; Jeong, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, Tae Won; Ihm, Chun-Gyoo; Kim, Sooah; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Kim, Dong Ki; Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Chan-Duck; Park, Cheol Whee; Lee, Do Yup; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this study is to identify systematic biomarker panel for primary nephrotic syndromes from urine samples by applying a non-target metabolite profiling, and to validate their utility in independent sampling and analysis by multiplex statistical approaches. Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a nonspecific kidney disorder, which is mostly represented by minimal change disease (MCD), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN). Since urine metabolites may mirror disease-specific functional perturbations in kidney injury, we examined urine samples for distinctive metabolic changes to identify biomarkers for clinical applications. We developed unbiased multi-component covarianced models from a discovery set with 48 samples (12 healthy controls, 12 MCD, 12 FSGS, and 12 MGN). To extensively validate their diagnostic potential, new batch from 54 patients with primary NS were independently examined a year after. In the independent validation set, the model including citric acid, pyruvic acid, fructose, ethanolamine, and cysteine effectively discriminated each NS using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis except MCD-MGN comparison; nonetheless an additional metabolite multi-composite greatly improved the discrimination power between MCD and MGN. Finally, we proposed the re-constructed metabolic network distinctively dysregulated by the different NSs that may deepen comprehensive understanding of the disease mechanistic, and help the enhanced identification of NS and therapeutic plans for future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Best practice for motor imagery: a systematic literature review on motor imagery training elements in five different disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheidhauer Anne

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature suggests a beneficial effect of motor imagery (MI if combined with physical practice, but detailed descriptions of MI training session (MITS elements and temporal parameters are lacking. The aim of this review was to identify the characteristics of a successful MITS and compare these for different disciplines, MI session types, task focus, age, gender and MI modification during intervention. Methods An extended systematic literature search using 24 databases was performed for five disciplines: Education, Medicine, Music, Psychology and Sports. References that described an MI intervention that focused on motor skills, performance or strength improvement were included. Information describing 17 MITS elements was extracted based on the PETTLEP (physical, environment, timing, task, learning, emotion, perspective approach. Seven elements describing the MITS temporal parameters were calculated: study duration, intervention duration, MITS duration, total MITS count, MITS per week, MI trials per MITS and total MI training time. Results Both independent reviewers found 96% congruity, which was tested on a random sample of 20% of all references. After selection, 133 studies reporting 141 MI interventions were included. The locations of the MITS and position of the participants during MI were task-specific. Participants received acoustic detailed MI instructions, which were mostly standardised and live. During MI practice, participants kept their eyes closed. MI training was performed from an internal perspective with a kinaesthetic mode. Changes in MI content, duration and dosage were reported in 31 MI interventions. Familiarisation sessions before the start of the MI intervention were mentioned in 17 reports. MI interventions focused with decreasing relevance on motor-, cognitive- and strength-focused tasks. Average study intervention lasted 34 days, with participants practicing MI on average three times per week for 17

  13. Tooth Discoloration Induced by Different Calcium Silicate-based Cements: A Systematic Review of In Vitro Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Możyńska, Joanna; Metlerski, Marcin; Lipski, Mariusz; Nowicka, Alicja

    2017-10-01

    On the basis of many clinical observations, some calcium silicate-based cements have a high potential for staining tooth tissue. This feature greatly limits the use of those cements, particularly for anterior teeth. This review aimed to provide a systematic evaluation of published in vitro studies to determine the effect of different calcium silicate-based cements on dental tissue discoloration. This literature review was developed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. The literature search was based on all publications without a year limit. The last search was performed on October 22, 2016. An electronic search was performed on MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane, and Scopus. The articles were selected to address the following research question: Which materials based on calcium silicate-based cements have hard tissue staining potential? The necessary information was extracted by 2 authors independently using a standardized form. The search resulted in 390 titles from all databases. Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Most of the studies exhibited a moderate risk of bias. The results indicated that some materials showed a strong potential for staining, including gray and white MTA Angelus (Londrina, PR, Brazil), gray and white ProRoot MTA (Dentsply, Tulsa, OK), and Ortho MTA (BioMTA, Seoul, Korea). Individual study results showed that Biodentine (Septodont, Saint Maur des Fosses, France), Retro MTA (BioMTA), Portland cement, EndoSequence Root Repair Material (Brasseler USA, Savannah, GA), Odontocem (Australian Dental Manufacturing, Brisbane, Australia), MM-MTA (Micro Mega, Besancon Cedex, France), and MTA Ledermix (Riemser Pharma GmbH, Greiswald-Insel Riems, Germany) were materials with the smallest staining potential. This review clearly showed that some calcium silicate-based cements have a high potential for staining hard tissue. On the other hand, some showed only a small change in color, which was

  14. Race Differences in Diet Quality of Urban Food-Insecure Blacks and Whites Reveals Resiliency in Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Allyssa J; Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B; Waldstein, Shari R

    2016-12-01

    Evidence from epidemiological studies shows a link between food insecurity and diet intake or quality. However, the moderating effect of race in this relation has not yet been studied. Food insecurity (USDA Food Security Module) and diet quality (Healthy Eating Index-2010; HEI) were measured in 1741 participants from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. Data were collected from 2004 to 2009 and analyzed in 2014. Multivariable regression assessed the interaction of race and food insecurity on HEI scores, adjusting for age, sex, poverty status, single parent status, drug, alcohol and cigarette use, and comorbid diseases. The interaction of food insecurity and race was significantly associated with diet quality (p = 0.001). In the absence of food insecurity, HEI scores were similar across race. However, with each food insecurity item endorsed, HEI scores were substantially lower for Whites compared to Blacks. An ad hoc analysis revealed that Blacks were more likely than Whites to participate in SNAP (p race stratified analyses revealed that Blacks participating in SNAP showed diminished associations of food insecurity with diet quality. Study findings provide the first evidence that the influence of food insecurity on diet quality may be potentiated for Whites, but not Blacks. Additionally, results show that Blacks are more likely to participate in SNAP and show attendant buffering of the effects of food insecurity on diet quality. These findings may have important implications for understanding how food insecurity affects diet quality differentially by race.

  15. Differential co-expression and regulation analyses reveal different mechanisms underlying major depressive disorder and subsyndromal symptomatic depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Yang, Jing; Chen, Jin; Wu, Qingyuan; Gong, Wei; Zhang, Jianguo; Shao, Weihua; Mu, Jun; Yang, Deyu; Yang, Yongtao; Li, Zhiwei; Xie, Peng

    2015-04-03

    Recent depression research has revealed a growing awareness of how to best classify depression into depressive subtypes. Appropriately subtyping depression can lead to identification of subtypes that are more responsive to current pharmacological treatment and aid in separating out depressed patients in which current antidepressants are not particularly effective. Differential co-expression analysis (DCEA) and differential regulation analysis (DRA) were applied to compare the transcriptomic profiles of peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with two depressive subtypes: major depressive disorder (MDD) and subsyndromal symptomatic depression (SSD). Six differentially regulated genes (DRGs) (FOSL1, SRF, JUN, TFAP4, SOX9, and HLF) and 16 transcription factor-to-target differentially co-expressed gene links or pairs (TF2target DCLs) appear to be the key differential factors in MDD; in contrast, one DRG (PATZ1) and eight TF2target DCLs appear to be the key differential factors in SSD. There was no overlap between the MDD target genes and SSD target genes. Venlafaxine (Efexor™, Effexor™) appears to have a significant effect on the gene expression profile of MDD patients but no significant effect on the gene expression profile of SSD patients. DCEA and DRA revealed no apparent similarities between the differential regulatory processes underlying MDD and SSD. This bioinformatic analysis may provide novel insights that can support future antidepressant R&D efforts.

  16. Systematic examination of publicly-available information reveals the diverse and extensive corporate political activity of the food industry in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Mialon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The political influence of the food industry, referred to as corporate political activity (CPA, represents a potential barrier to the development and implementation of effective public health policies for non-communicable diseases prevention. This paper reports on the feasibility and limitations of using publicly-available information to identify and monitor the CPA of the food industry in Australia. Methods A systematic search was conducted for information from food industry, government and other publicly-available data sources in Australia. Data was collected in relation to five key food industry actors: the Australian Food and Grocery Council; Coca Cola; McDonald’s; Nestle; and Woolworths, for the period January 2012 to February 2015. Data analysis was guided by an existing framework for classifying CPA strategies of the food industry. Results The selected food industry actors used multiple CPA strategies, with ‘information and messaging’ and ‘constituency building’ strategies most prominent. Conclusions The systematic analysis of publicly-available information over a limited period was able to identify diverse and extensive CPA strategies of the food industry in Australia. This approach can contribute to accountability mechanisms for NCD prevention.

  17. Systematic examination of publicly-available information reveals the diverse and extensive corporate political activity of the food industry in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialon, Melissa; Swinburn, Boyd; Allender, Steven; Sacks, Gary

    2016-03-22

    The political influence of the food industry, referred to as corporate political activity (CPA), represents a potential barrier to the development and implementation of effective public health policies for non-communicable diseases prevention. This paper reports on the feasibility and limitations of using publicly-available information to identify and monitor the CPA of the food industry in Australia. A systematic search was conducted for information from food industry, government and other publicly-available data sources in Australia. Data was collected in relation to five key food industry actors: the Australian Food and Grocery Council; Coca Cola; McDonald's; Nestle; and Woolworths, for the period January 2012 to February 2015. Data analysis was guided by an existing framework for classifying CPA strategies of the food industry. The selected food industry actors used multiple CPA strategies, with 'information and messaging' and 'constituency building' strategies most prominent. The systematic analysis of publicly-available information over a limited period was able to identify diverse and extensive CPA strategies of the food industry in Australia. This approach can contribute to accountability mechanisms for NCD prevention.

  18. Cross-National Differences in Psychosocial Factors of Perinatal Depression: A Systematic Review of India and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Yukiko; Lazarus, Anisha; Kitamura, Toshinori

    2017-01-01

    Perinatal depression is prevalent worldwide. However, there are few available studies that discuss the different cultural factors affecting perinatal depression within Asian countries. This study aims to compare the literature regarding related factors relating to perinatal depression in India and Japan, and to synthesize the evidence common to both countries in addition to the country-specific evidence. We conducted a systematic review using several databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, Pubmed, Ovid, SCOPUS, IndMED, and ICHUSI). Keywords were “antenatal depression” or “postpartum depression”, and “India” or “Japan”. Both Japanese and English language papers were reviewed. The identified evidence was compared between the two countries, as well as with non-Asian countries based on previous reports. In total, 15 articles on India and 35 on Japan were reviewed. Although several factors were shared between the two countries as well as with other non-Asian countries (vulnerable personality, being abused, age, marital conflict, and lower socio-demographic status), some differing factors were identified between India and Japan and non-Asian countries; India: poor socioeconomic status, living only with the husband, pregnancy not welcomed by the husband, a female baby, and poor relationship with in-laws; Japan: infertility treatment, conflict with work–life balance, poor relationships with biological mother or in-laws, and concerns about social relations with the other mother’s friends. To conclude, involving the family and community may be important for implementing both global standardized and culture-specific interventions. In India, treatment involving the in-laws may be effective because large family structure is a significant predictor of perinatal depression. In Japan, a family/community approach involving not only the mother’s family of origin but also the working environment is essential. PMID:29207561

  19. Cross-National Differences in Psychosocial Factors of Perinatal Depression: A Systematic Review of India and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegata, Mizuki; Ohashi, Yukiko; Lazarus, Anisha; Kitamura, Toshinori

    2017-12-04

    Perinatal depression is prevalent worldwide. However, there are few available studies that discuss the different cultural factors affecting perinatal depression within Asian countries. This study aims to compare the literature regarding related factors relating to perinatal depression in India and Japan, and to synthesize the evidence common to both countries in addition to the country-specific evidence. We conducted a systematic review using several databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, Pubmed, Ovid, SCOPUS, IndMED, and ICHUSI). Keywords were "antenatal depression" or "postpartum depression", and "India" or "Japan". Both Japanese and English language papers were reviewed. The identified evidence was compared between the two countries, as well as with non-Asian countries based on previous reports. In total, 15 articles on India and 35 on Japan were reviewed. Although several factors were shared between the two countries as well as with other non-Asian countries (vulnerable personality, being abused, age, marital conflict, and lower socio-demographic status), some differing factors were identified between India and Japan and non-Asian countries; India: poor socioeconomic status, living only with the husband, pregnancy not welcomed by the husband, a female baby, and poor relationship with in-laws; Japan: infertility treatment, conflict with work-life balance, poor relationships with biological mother or in-laws, and concerns about social relations with the other mother's friends. To conclude, involving the family and community may be important for implementing both global standardized and culture-specific interventions. In India, treatment involving the in-laws may be effective because large family structure is a significant predictor of perinatal depression. In Japan, a family/community approach involving not only the mother's family of origin but also the working environment is essential.

  20. Cross-National Differences in Psychosocial Factors of Perinatal Depression: A Systematic Review of India and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuki Takegata

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal depression is prevalent worldwide. However, there are few available studies that discuss the different cultural factors affecting perinatal depression within Asian countries. This study aims to compare the literature regarding related factors relating to perinatal depression in India and Japan, and to synthesize the evidence common to both countries in addition to the country-specific evidence. We conducted a systematic review using several databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, Pubmed, Ovid, SCOPUS, IndMED, and ICHUSI. Keywords were “antenatal depression” or “postpartum depression”, and “India” or “Japan”. Both Japanese and English language papers were reviewed. The identified evidence was compared between the two countries, as well as with non-Asian countries based on previous reports. In total, 15 articles on India and 35 on Japan were reviewed. Although several factors were shared between the two countries as well as with other non-Asian countries (vulnerable personality, being abused, age, marital conflict, and lower socio-demographic status, some differing factors were identified between India and Japan and non-Asian countries; India: poor socioeconomic status, living only with the husband, pregnancy not welcomed by the husband, a female baby, and poor relationship with in-laws; Japan: infertility treatment, conflict with work–life balance, poor relationships with biological mother or in-laws, and concerns about social relations with the other mother’s friends. To conclude, involving the family and community may be important for implementing both global standardized and culture-specific interventions. In India, treatment involving the in-laws may be effective because large family structure is a significant predictor of perinatal depression. In Japan, a family/community approach involving not only the mother’s family of origin but also the working environment is essential.

  1. Is the presence of Modic changes associated with the outcomes of different treatments? A systematic critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Rikke K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modic changes (MCs have been identified as a diagnostic subgroup associated with low back pain (LBP. The aetiology of MCs is still unknown and there is no effective treatment available. If MCs constitute a specific subgroup of LBP, it seems reasonable to expect different effects from different treatments. The objective of this systematic critical literature review was therefore to investigate if there is evidence in the literature that the presence of MCs at baseline is associated with a favourable outcome depending on the treatment provided for LBP. Methods The databases MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for relevant articles from 1984 to December 2010. A checklist including items related to the research questions and quality of the articles was used for data extraction and quality assessment. Of the 1650 articles found, five (six studies were included in this review but because the studies were so heterogeneous, the results have been reported separately for each study. Results The treatments studied were: lumbar epidural steroid injections (n = 1, lumbar intradiscal steroid injections (n = 2, lumbar disc replacement (n = 1, fusion surgery (n = 1 and exercise therapy (n = 1. One of the two studies investigating treatment with intradiscal steroid injections and the study investigating fusion surgery reported that MCs were positively associated with the outcomes of pain and disability. The other study on lumbar intradiscal steroid injections and the study on lumbar epidural steroid injections reported mixed results, whereas the study on lumbar disc replacement and the study on exercise therapy reported that MCs were not associated with the outcomes of pain and disability. Conclusions The available studies on the topic were too few and too heterogeneous to reach a definitive conclusion and it is therefore still unclear if MCs may be of clinical importance when guiding or prescribing the 'right' treatment for a patient with LBP.

  2. A high-density ERP study reveals latency, amplitude, and topographical differences in multiple sclerosis patients versus controls.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whelan, R

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify latency, amplitude and topographical differences in event-related potential (ERP) components between multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and controls and to compare ERP findings with results from the paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT). METHODS: Fifty-four subjects (17 relapsing remitting (RRMS) patients, 16 secondary progressive (SPMS) patients, and 21 controls) completed visual and auditory oddball tasks while data were recorded from 134 EEG channels. Latency and amplitude differences, calculated using composite mean amplitude measures, were tested using an ANOVA. Topographical differences were tested using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). RESULTS: In the visual modality, P2, P3 amplitudes and N2 latency were significantly different across groups. In the auditory modality, P2, N2, and P3 latencies and N1 amplitude were significantly different across groups. There were no significant differences between RRMS and SPMS patients on any ERP component. There were topographical differences between MS patients and controls for both early and late components for the visual modality, but only in the early components for the auditory modality. PASAT score correlated significantly with auditory P3 latency for MS patients. CONCLUSIONS: There were significant ERP differences between MS patients and controls. SIGNIFICANCE: The present study indicated that both early sensory and later cognitive ERP components are impaired in MS patients relative to controls.

  3. Systematic Identification, Evolution and Expression Analysis of the Zea mays PHT1 Gene Family Reveals Several New Members Involved in Root Colonization by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Xu, Yunjian; Jiang, Huanhuan; Jiang, Chaosheng; Du, Yibin; Gong, Cheng; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Suwen; Han, Guomin; Cheng, Beijiu

    2016-06-13

    The Phosphate Transporter1 (PHT1) family of genes plays pivotal roles in the uptake of inorganic phosphate from soils. However, there is no comprehensive report on the PHT1 family in Zea mays based on the whole genome. In the present study, a total of 13 putative PHT1 genes (ZmPHT1;1 to 13) were identified in the inbred line B73 genome by bioinformatics methods. Then, their function was investigated by a yeast PHO84 mutant complementary experiment and qRT-PCR. Thirteen ZmPHT1 genes distributed on six chromosomes (1, 2, 5, 7, 8 and 10) were divided into two paralogues (Class A and Class B). ZmPHT1;1/ZmPHT1;9 and ZmPHT1;9/ZmPHT1;13 are produced from recent segmental duplication events. ZmPHT1;1/ZmPHT1;13 and ZmPHT1;8/ZmPHT1;10 are produced from early segmental duplication events. All 13 putative ZmPHT1s can completely or partly complement the yeast Pi-uptake mutant, and they were obviously induced in maize under low Pi conditions, except for ZmPHT1;1 (p < 0.01), indicating that the overwhelming majority of ZmPHT1 genes can respond to a low Pi condition. ZmPHT1;2, ZmPHT1;4, ZmPHT1;6, ZmPHT1;7, ZmPHT1;9 and ZmPHT1;11 were up-regulated by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), implying that these genes might participate in mediating Pi absorption and/or transport. Analysis of the promoters revealed that the MYCS and P1BS element are widely distributed on the region of different AMF-inducible ZmPHT1 promoters. In light of the above results, five of 13 ZmPHT1 genes were newly-identified AMF-inducible high-affinity phosphate transporters in the maize genome. Our results will lay a foundation for better understanding the PHT1 family evolution and the molecular mechanisms of inorganic phosphate transport under AMF inoculation.

  4. Transcriptome and proteomic analyses reveal multiple differences associated with chloroplast development in the spaceflight-induced wheat albino mutant mta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Shi

    Full Text Available Chloroplast development is an integral part of plant survival and growth, and occurs in parallel with chlorophyll biosynthesis. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying chloroplast development in hexaploid wheat. Here, we obtained a spaceflight-induced wheat albino mutant mta. Chloroplast ultra-structural observation showed that chloroplasts of mta exhibit abnormal morphology and distribution compared to wild type. Photosynthetic pigments content was also significantly decreased in mta. Transcriptome and chloroplast proteome profiling of mta and wild type were done to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs and proteins (DEPs, respectively. In total 4,588 DEGs including 1,980 up- and 2,608 down-regulated, and 48 chloroplast DEPs including 15 up- and 33 down-regulated were identified in mta. Classification of DEGs revealed that most were involved in chloroplast development, chlorophyll biosynthesis, or photosynthesis. Besides, transcription factors such as PIF3, GLK and MYB which might participate in those pathways were also identified. The correlation analysis between DEGs and DEPs revealed that the transcript-to-protein in abundance was functioned into photosynthesis and chloroplast relevant groups. Real time qPCR analysis validated that the expression level of genes encoding photosynthetic proteins was significantly decreased in mta. Together, our results suggest that the molecular mechanism for albino leaf color formation in mta is a thoroughly regulated and complicated process. The combined analysis of transcriptome and proteome afford comprehensive information for further research on chloroplast development mechanism in wheat. And spaceflight provides a potential means for mutagenesis in crop breeding.

  5. A closer look at cognitive control: Differences in resource allocation during updating, inhibition and switching as revealed by pupillometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rondeel, E.W.M.; Steenbergen, H. van; Holland, R.W.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated resource allocation, as measured by pupil dilation, in tasks measuring updating (2 Back task), inhibition (Stroop task) and switching (Number Switch task). Because each cognitive control component has unique characteristics, differences in patterns of resource

  6. Systematic analysis of off-target effects in an RNAi screen reveals microRNAs affecting sensitivity to TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enright Anton J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA inhibition by siRNAs is a frequently used approach to identify genes required for specific biological processes. However RNAi screening using siRNAs is hampered by non-specific or off target effects of the siRNAs, making it difficult to separate genuine hits from false positives. It is thought that many of the off-target effects seen in RNAi experiments are due to siRNAs acting as microRNAs (miRNAs, causing a reduction in gene expression of unintended targets via matches to the 6 or 7 nt 'seed' sequence. We have conducted a careful examination of off-target effects during an siRNA screen for novel regulators of the TRAIL apoptosis induction pathway(s. Results We identified 3 hexamers and 3 heptamer seed sequences that appeared multiple times in the top twenty siRNAs in the TRAIL apoptosis screen. Using a novel statistical enrichment approach, we systematically identified a further 17 hexamer and 13 heptamer seed sequences enriched in high scoring siRNAs. The presence of one of these seeds sequences (which could explain 6 of 8 confirmed off-target effects is sufficient to elicit a phenotype. Three of these seed sequences appear in the human miRNAs miR-26a, miR-145 and miR-384. Transfection of mimics of these miRNAs protects several cell types from TRAIL-induced cell death. Conclusions We have demonstrated a role for miR-26a, miR-145 and miR-26a in TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Further these results show that RNAi screening enriches for siRNAs with relevant off-target effects. Some of these effects can be identified by the over-representation of certain seed sequences in high-scoring siRNAs and we demonstrate the usefulness of such systematic analysis of enriched seed sequences.

  7. Does the pulse pressure in people of European, African and South Asian descent differ? A systematic review and meta-analysis of UK data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, C.; Bhopal, R.; Redekop, W. K.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the pulse pressures (PPs) in people of African and South Asian descent differ from those of the European-origin White (henceforth, White) in the UK. A systematic literature review was carried out using MEDLINE 1966-2006 and EMBASE 1980-2006. The

  8. Gender and age differences in the core triad of impairments in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden-Cremers, P.J.M. van; Eeten, E. van; Groen, W.B.; Deurzen, P.A.M. van; Oosterling, I.J.; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2014-01-01

    Autism is an extensively studied disorder in which the gender disparity in prevalence has received much attention. In contrast, only a few studies examine gender differences in symptomatology. This systematic review and meta-analysis of 22 peer reviewed original publications examines gender

  9. Medical end-of-life decisions: Does its use differ in vulnerable patient groups? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, J.A.C.; Deschepper, R.; Pasman, R.; Deliens, L.

    2012-01-01

    Medical end-of-life decisions, defined as end-of-life practices with a potential or certain life-shortening effect, precede almost 50% of deaths in Western countries, and receive ample medical-ethical attention. This systematic review aims to detect whether there are differences in the prevalence of

  10. Resolving the infection process reveals striking differences in the contribution of environment, genetics and phylogeny to host-parasite interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duneau, David; Luijckx, Pepijn; Ben-Ami, Frida; Laforsch, Christian; Ebert, Dieter

    2011-02-22

    Infection processes consist of a sequence of steps, each critical for the interaction between host and parasite. Studies of host-parasite interactions rarely take into account the fact that different steps might be influenced by different factors and might, therefore, make different contributions to shaping coevolution. We designed a new method using the Daphnia magna - Pasteuria ramosa system, one of the rare examples where coevolution has been documented, in order to resolve the steps of the infection and analyse the factors that influence each of them. Using the transparent Daphnia hosts and fluorescently-labelled spores of the bacterium P. ramosa, we identified a sequence of infection steps: encounter between parasite and host; activation of parasite dormant spores; attachment of spores to the host; and parasite proliferation inside the host. The chances of encounter had been shown to depend on host genotype and environment. We tested the role of genetic and environmental factors in the newly described activation and attachment steps. Hosts of different genotypes, gender and species were all able to activate endospores of all parasite clones tested in different environments; suggesting that the activation cue is phylogenetically conserved. We next established that parasite attachment occurs onto the host oesophagus independently of host species, gender and environmental conditions. In contrast to spore activation, attachment depended strongly on the combination of host and parasite genotypes. Our results show that different steps are influenced by different factors. Host-type-independent spore activation suggests that this step can be ruled out as a major factor in Daphnia-Pasteuria coevolution. On the other hand, we show that the attachment step is crucial for the pronounced genetic specificities of this system. We suggest that this one step can explain host population structure and could be a key force behind coevolutionary cycles. We discuss how different

  11. Resolving the infection process reveals striking differences in the contribution of environment, genetics and phylogeny to host-parasite interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laforsch Christian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection processes consist of a sequence of steps, each critical for the interaction between host and parasite. Studies of host-parasite interactions rarely take into account the fact that different steps might be influenced by different factors and might, therefore, make different contributions to shaping coevolution. We designed a new method using the Daphnia magna - Pasteuria ramosa system, one of the rare examples where coevolution has been documented, in order to resolve the steps of the infection and analyse the factors that influence each of them. Results Using the transparent Daphnia hosts and fluorescently-labelled spores of the bacterium P. ramosa, we identified a sequence of infection steps: encounter between parasite and host; activation of parasite dormant spores; attachment of spores to the host; and parasite proliferation inside the host. The chances of encounter had been shown to depend on host genotype and environment. We tested the role of genetic and environmental factors in the newly described activation and attachment steps. Hosts of different genotypes, gender and species were all able to activate endospores of all parasite clones tested in different environments; suggesting that the activation cue is phylogenetically conserved. We next established that parasite attachment occurs onto the host oesophagus independently of host species, gender and environmental conditions. In contrast to spore activation, attachment depended strongly on the combination of host and parasite genotypes. Conclusions Our results show that different steps are influenced by different factors. Host-type-independent spore activation suggests that this step can be ruled out as a major factor in Daphnia-Pasteuria coevolution. On the other hand, we show that the attachment step is crucial for the pronounced genetic specificities of this system. We suggest that this one step can explain host population structure and could be a key

  12. Transcriptomics and metabolite analysis reveals the molecular mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis branch pathway in different Senecio cruentus cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehua Jin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The cyanidin (Cy, pelargonidin (Pg and delphinidin (Dp pathways are the three major branching anthocyanin biosynthesis pathways that regulate flavonoid metabolic flux and are responsible for red, orange and blue flower colors, respectively. Different species have evolved to develop multiple regulation mechanisms that form the branched pathways. In the current study, five Senecio cruentus cultivars with different colors were investigated. We found that the white and yellow cultivars do not accumulate anthocyanin and that the blue, pink and carmine cultivars mainly accumulate Dp, Pg and Cy in differing densities. Subsequent transcriptome analysis determined that there were 43 unigenes encoding anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in the blue cultivar. We also combined chemical and transcriptomic analyses to investigate the major metabolic pathways that are related to the observed differences in flower pigmentation in the series of S. cruentus. The results showed that mutations of the ScbHLH17 and ScCHI1/2 coding regions abolish anthocyanin formation in the white and the yellow cultivars; the competition of the ScF3’H1, ScF3’5’H and ScDFR1/2 genes for naringenin determines the differences in branching metabolic flux of the Cy, Dp and Pg pathways. Our findings provide new insights into the regulation of anthocyanin branching and also supplement gene resources (including ScF3’5’H, ScF3’H and ScDFRs for flower color modification of ornamentals.

  13. CE-MS-based metabolomics reveals the metabolic profile of maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa) strains with different cultivation characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mayumi; Miyagi, Atsuko; Yoneyama, Shozo; Gisusi, Seiki; Tokuji, Yoshihiko; Kawai-Yamada, Maki

    2017-12-01

    Maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa [Dicks.] Gray) is generally cultured using the sawdust of broadleaf trees. The maitake strain Gf433 has high production efficiency, with high-quality of fruiting bodies even when 30% of the birch sawdust on the basal substrate is replaced with conifer sawdust. We performed metabolome analysis to investigate the effect of different cultivation components on the metabolism of Gf433 and Mori52 by performing CE-MS on their fruiting bodies in different cultivation conditions to quantify the levels of amino acids, organic acids, and phosphorylated organic acids. We found that amino acid and organic acid content in Gf433 were not affected by the kind of sawdust. However, Gf433 contained more organic acids and less amino acids than Mori52, and Gf433 also contained more chitin compared with Mori52. We believe that these differences in the metabolome contents of the two strains are related to the high production efficiency of Gf433.

  14. Comparative analysis of kisspeptin-immunoreactivity reveals genuine differences in the hypothalamic Kiss1 systems between rats and mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Agnete; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Franceschini, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    cells, only after axonal transport inhibition. Interestingly, the density of kisspeptin innervation in the anterior periventricular area was higher in female compared to male in both species. Species differences in the ARC were evident, with the mouse ARC containing dense fibers, while the rat ARC......-immunoreactivity in the mouse compared to the rat, independently of brain region and gender. In the female mouse AVPV high numbers of kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurons were present, while in the rat, the female AVPV displays a similar number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurons compared to the level of Kiss1 mRNA expressing...... contains clearly discernable cells. In addition, we show a marked sex difference in the ARC, with higher kisspeptin levels in females. These findings show that the translation of Kiss1 mRNA and/or the degradation/transportation/release of kisspeptins are different in mice and rats....

  15. Epitope mapping of the major allergen from Atlantic cod in Spanish population reveals different IgE-binding patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gordo, Marina; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos; Lin, Jing; Bardina, Ludmilla; Cases, Barbara; Ibáñez, Maria Dolores; Vivanco, Fernando; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier; Sampson, Hugh A

    2013-07-01

    IgE-epitope mapping of allergens reveal important information about antigen components involved in allergic reactions. The peptide-based microarray immunoassay has been used to map epitopes of some food allergens. We developed a peptide microarray immunoassay to map allergenic epitopes in parvalbumin from Atlantic cod (Gad m 1), the most consumed cod species in Spain. Sera from 13 fish-allergic patients with specific IgE to cod parvalbumin were used. A library of overlapping peptides was synthesized, representing the primary sequence of Gad m 1. Peptides were used to analyze allergen-specific IgE antibodies in patient sera. 100% of the patients recognized one antigenic region of 15 amino acids in length in Gad m 1. This region only partially correlated with one of the three antigenic determinants of Gad c 1 (Allergen M), parvalbumin from Baltic cod (Gadus callarias). In the 3D model of the protein, this region was located on the surface of the protein. We have identified a relevant antigenic region in Gad m 1. This epitope could be considered as a severity marker and provides additional information to improve fish allergy diagnosis and the design of safe immunotherapeutic tools. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. RACE DIFFERENCES IN DIET QUALITY OF URBAN FOOD-INSECURE BLACKS AND WHITES REVEALS RESLIENCY IN BLACKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Allyssa J.; Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Waldstein, Shari R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Evidence from epidemiological studies shows a link between food insecurity and diet intake or quality. However, the moderating effect of race in this relation has not yet been studied. Methods Food insecurity (USDA Food Security Module) and diet quality (Healthy Eating Index-2010; HEI) were measured in 1,741 participants from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. Data were collected from 2004–2009 and analyzed in 2014. Multivariable regression assessed the interaction of race and food insecurity on HEI scores, adjusting for age, sex, poverty status, single parent status, drug, alcohol, and cigarette use, and co-morbid diseases. Results The interaction of food insecurity and race was significantly associated with diet quality (p=.001). In the absence of food insecurity, HEI scores were similar across race. However, with each food insecurity item endorsed, HEI scores were substantially lower for Whites compared to Blacks. An ad-hoc analysis revealed that Blacks were more likely than Whites to participate in SNAP (p quality. Conclusions Study findings provide the first evidence that the influence of food insecurity on diet quality may be potentiated for Whites, but not Blacks. Additionally, results show that Blacks are more likely to participate in SNAP, and show attendant buffering of the effects of food insecurity on diet quality. These findings may have important implications for understanding how food insecurity affects diet quality differentially by race. PMID:27294760

  17. Content Validity of Patient-Reported Outcome Instruments used with Pediatric Patients with Facial Differences: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickert, Natasha M; Wong Riff, Karen W Y; Mansour, Mark; Forrest, Christopher R; Goodacre, Timothy E E; Pusic, Andrea L; Klassen, Anne F

    2018-01-01

    Objective The aim of this systematic review was to identify patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments used in research with children/youth with conditions associated with facial differences to identify the health concepts measured. Design MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched from 2004 to 2016 to identify PRO instruments used in acne vulgaris, birthmarks, burns, ear anomalies, facial asymmetries, and facial paralysis patients. We performed a content analysis whereby the items were coded to identify concepts and categorized as positive or negative content or phrasing. Results A total of 7,835 articles were screened; 6 generic and 11 condition-specific PRO instruments were used in 96 publications. Condition-specific instruments were for acne (four), oral health (two), dermatology (one), facial asymmetries (two), microtia (one), and burns (one). The PRO instruments provided 554 items (295 generic; 259 condition specific) that were sorted into 4 domains, 11 subdomains, and 91 health concepts. The most common domain was psychological (n = 224 items). Of the identified items, 76% had negative content or phrasing (e.g., "Because of the way my face looks I wish I had never been born"). Given the small number of items measuring facial appearance (n = 19) and function (n = 22), the PRO instruments reviewed lacked content validity for patients whose condition impacted facial function and/or appearance. Conclusions Treatments can change facial appearance and function. This review draws attention to a problem with content validity in existing PRO instruments. Our team is now developing a new PRO instrument called FACE-Q Kids to address this problem.

  18. Different Toxicity of Cetuximab and Panitumumab in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Treatment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, Fausto; Ardito, Raffaele; Ghidini, Antonio; Zaniboni, Alberto; Ghidini, Michele; Barni, Sandro; Tomasello, Gianluca

    2018-01-01

    Over the last few years only one large randomized phase III study has tried to prospectively assess the safety of cetuximab and panitumumab in a head-to-head comparison. Despite the similar overall toxicity profile, cetuximab and panitumumab retain peculiar safety characteristics that deserve to be deeply investigated. We conducted a systematic review for randomized trials in PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and EMBASE using the terms ("cetuximab" or "panitumumab") AND ("colorectal cancer" OR "colorectal carcinoma"). Data of adverse events were aggregated to obtain pooled incidence rates of prespecified adverse events. Incidence of skin toxicities was the primary outcome. A χ2 test was used for comparisons of proportions and an odds ratio (OR) was calculated for comparison. A total of 38 studies were included for analysis. Cetuximab was associated with fewer G3-4 skin toxicities (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.53-0.62; p < 0.001), slightly more frequent G3-4 acne-like rash (OR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.48; p = 0.04), and paronychia (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.1-1.7), but fewer cases of skin fissures (OR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.44-0.93; p = 0.02) and pruritus (OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.35-0.58; p < 0.001) than PANI. In conclusion, this meta-analysis shows that cetuximab- and panitumumab-based chemotherapy have different toxicity profiles in terms of the rate of severe adverse events. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Words do matter: a systematic review on how different terminology for the same condition influences management preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Brooke; Barratt, Alexandra; Copp, Tessa; Moynihan, Ray; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2017-07-10

    Changing terminology for low-risk, screen-detected conditions has now been recommended by several expert groups in order to prevent overdiagnosis and reduce the associated harms of overtreatment. However, the effect of terminology on patients' preferences for management is not well understood. This review aims to synthesise existing studies on terminology and its impact on management decision making. Systematic review. Studies were included that compared two or more terminologies to describe the same condition and measured the effect on treatment or management preferences and/or choices. Studies were identified via database searches from inception to April 2017, and from reference lists. Two authors evaluated the eligibility of studies with verification from the study team, extracted and crosschecked data, and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Of the 1399 titles identified, seven studies, all of which included hypothetical scenarios, met the inclusion criteria. Six studies were quantitative and one was qualitative. Six of the studies were of high quality. Studies covered a diverse range of conditions: ductal carcinoma in situ (3), gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (1), conjunctivitis (1), polycystic ovary syndrome (1) and a bony fracture (1). The terminologies compared in each study varied based on the condition assessed. Based on a narrative synthesis of the data, when a more medicalised or precise term was used to describe the condition, it generally resulted in a shift in preference towards more invasive managements, and/or higher ratings of anxiety and perceived severity of the condition. Different terminology given for the same condition influenced management preferences and psychological outcomes in a consistent pattern in these studies. Changing the terminology may be one strategy to reduce patient preferences for aggressive management responses to low-risk conditions. PROSPERO: CRD42016035643. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless

  20. A systematic assessment of the current capacity to act in nutrition in West Africa: cross-country similarities and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Sodjinou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although it is widely accepted that lack of capacity is one of the barriers to scaling up nutrition in West Africa, there is a paucity of information about what capacities exist and the capacities that need to be developed to accelerate progress toward improved nutrition outcomes in the region. Objective: To systematically assess the current capacity to act in nutrition in the West Africa region and explore cross-country similarities and differences. Design: Data were collected from 13 West African countries through interviews with government officials, key development partners, tertiary-level training institutions, and health professional schools. The assessment was based on a conceptual framework of four interdependent levels (tools; skills; staff and infrastructure; and structures, systems and roles. In each of the surveyed countries, we assessed capacity assets and gaps at individual, organizational, and systemic levels. Results: Important similarities and differences in capacity assets and gaps emerged across all the surveyed countries. There was strong momentum to improve nutrition in nearly all the surveyed countries. Most of the countries had a set of policies on nutrition in place and had set up multisectoral, multi-stakeholder platforms to coordinate nutrition activities, although much remained to be done to improve the effectiveness of these platforms. Many initiatives aimed to reduce undernutrition were ongoing in the region, but there did not seem to be clear coordination between them. Insufficient financial resources to implement nutrition activities were a major problem in all countries. The bulk of financial allocations for nutrition was provided by development partners, even though some countries, such as Niger, Nigeria, and Senegal, had a national budget line for nutrition. Sporadic stock-outs of nutrition supplies were reported in most of the countries as a result of a weak logistic and supply chain system. They

  1. Soil-derived microbial consortia enriched with different plant biomass reveal distinct players acting in lignocellulose degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lima Brossi, Maria Julia; Jiménez Avella, Diego; Cortes Tolalpa, Larisa; van Elsas, Jan

    Here, we investigated how different plant biomass, and-for one substrate-pH, drive the composition of degrader microbial consortia. We bred such consortia from forest soil, incubated along nine aerobic sequential - batch enrichments with wheat straw (WS1, pH 7.2; WS2, pH 9.0), switchgrass (SG, pH

  2. Genome-wide analysis reveals signatures of selection for important traits in domestic sheep from different ecoregions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaohua; Ji, Zhibin; Wang, Guizhi; Chao, Tianle; Hou, Lei; Wang, Jianmin

    2016-11-03

    Throughout a long period of adaptation and selection, sheep have thrived in a diverse range of ecological environments. Mongolian sheep is the common ancestor of the Chinese short fat-tailed sheep. Migration to different ecoregions leads to changes in selection pressures and results in microevolution. Mongolian sheep and its subspecies differ in a number of important traits, especially reproductive traits. Genome-wide intraspecific variation is required to dissect the genetic basis of these traits. This research resequenced 3 short fat-tailed sheep breeds with a 43.2-fold coverage of the sheep genome. We report more than 17 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and 2.9 million indels and identify 143 genomic regions with reduced pooled heterozygosity or increased genetic distance to each other breed that represent likely targets for selection during the migration. These regions harbor genes related to developmental processes, cellular processes, multicellular organismal processes, biological regulation, metabolic processes, reproduction, localization, growth and various components of the stress responses. Furthermore, we examined the haplotype diversity of 3 genomic regions involved in reproduction and found significant differences in TSHR and PRL gene regions among 8 sheep breeds. Our results provide useful genomic information for identifying genes or causal mutations associated with important economic traits in sheep and for understanding the genetic basis of adaptation to different ecological environments.

  3. Gender-Differentiated parenting revisited : Meta-analysis reveals very few differences in parental control of boys and girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endendijk, Joyce J.; Groeneveld, Marleen G.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Mesman, Judi

    2016-01-01

    Although various theories describe mechanisms leading to differential parenting of boys and girls, there is no consensus about the extent to which parents do treat their sons and daughters differently. The last meta-analyses on the subject were conducted more than fifteen years ago, and changes in

  4. Characteristics of juvenile survivors reveal spatio-temporal differences in early life stage survival of Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Böttcher, U.

    2014-01-01

    with previous modeling studies on the survival chances of early-stage larvae and with general spatio-temporal patterns of larval prey availability suggests that differences in survival are related to food availability during the early larval stage. Results are discussed in relation to the recruitment process...

  5. 7T T-2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging reveals cortical phase differences between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooden, S.; Doan, N.T.; Versluis, M.J.; Goos, J.D.C.; Webb, A.G.; Oleksik, A.M.; van der Flier, W.M.; Scheltens, P.; Barkhof, F.; Weverlinge-Rynsburger, A.W.E.; Blauw, G. J.; Reiber, J.H.C.; van Buchem, M.A.; Milles, J.; van der Grond, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore regional iron-related differences in the cerebral cortex, indicative of Alzheimer's disease pathology, between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD, LOAD, respectively) patients using 7T magnetic resonance phase images. High-resolution T

  6. Polyamines and cellular metabolism in plants: transgenic approaches reveal different responses to diamine putrescine versus higher polyamines spermidine and spermine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autar K. Mattoo; Subhash C. Minocha; Rakesh Minocha; Avtar K. Handa

    2010-01-01

    Distribution of biogenic amines--the diamine putrescine (Put), triamine spermidine (Spd), and tetraamine spermine (Spm)--differs between species with Put and Spd being particularly abundant and Spm the least abundant in plant cells. These amines are important for cell viability and their intracellular levels are tightly regulated, which have made it difficult to...

  7. Gene Expression Architecture of Mouse Dorsal and Tail Skin Reveals Functional Differences in Inflammation and Cancer | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inherited germline polymorphisms can cause gene expression levels in normal tissues to differ substantially between individuals. We present an analysis of the genetic architecture of normal adult skin from 470 genetically unique mice, demonstrating the effect of germline variants, skin tissue location, and perturbation by exogenous inflammation or tumorigenesis on gene signaling pathways.

  8. Genetic variability among Trichuris ovis isolates from different hosts in Guangdong Province, China revealed by sequences of three mitochondrial genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Guo-Hua; Li, Jia-Yuan; Xu, Min-Jun; Ye, Yong-Gang; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Song, Hui-Qun; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2013-02-01

    This study examined sequence variation in three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions, namely cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (nad5) and cytochrome b (cytb), among Trichuris ovis isolates from different hosts in Guangdong Province, China. A portion of the cox1 (pcox1), nad5 (pnad5) and cytb (pcytb) genes was amplified separately from individual whipworms by PCR, and was subjected to sequencing from both directions. The size of the sequences of pcox1, pnad5 and pcytb was 618, 240 and 464 bp, respectively. Although the intra-specific sequence variations within T. ovis were 0-0.8% for pcox1, 0-0.8% for pnad5 and 0-1.9% for pcytb, the inter-specific sequence differences among members of the genus Trichuris were significantly higher, being 24.3-26.5% for pcox1, 33.7-56.4% for pnad5 and 24.8-26.1% for pcytb, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses using combined sequences of pcox1, pnad5 and pcytb, with three different computational algorithms (maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference), indicated that all of the T. ovis isolates grouped together with high statistical support. These findings demonstrated the existence of intra-specific variation in mtDNA sequences among T. ovis isolates from different hosts, and have implications for studying molecular epidemiology and population genetics of T. ovis.

  9. Comparative Proteomics Reveals Differences in Host-Pathogen Interaction between Infectious and Commensal Relationship with Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Garrido

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the leading food-borne poisoning in industrialized countries. While the bacteria causes disease in humans, it merely colonizes the gut in poultry or pigs, where seems to establish a commensal relationship. Until now, few studies have been conducted to elucidate the relationship between C. jejuni and its different hosts. In this work, a comparative proteomics approach was used to identify the underlying mechanisms involved in the divergent outcome following C. jejuni infection in human and porcine host. Human (INT-407 and porcine (IPEC-1 intestinal cell lines were infected by C. jejuni for 3 h (T3h and 24 h (T24h. C. jejuni infection prompted an intense inflammatory response at T3h in human intestinal cells, mainly characterized by expression of proteins involved in cell spreading, cell migration and promotion of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Proteomic analysis evidenced significantly regulated biofunctions in human cells related with engulfment and endocytosis, and supported by canonical pathways associated to infection such as caveolar- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis signaling. In porcine IPEC-1 cells, inflammatory response as well as signaling pathways that control cellular functions such as cell migration, endocytosis and cell cycle progression resulted downregulated. These differences in the host response to infection were supported by the different pattern of adhesion and invasion proteins expressed by C. jejuni in human and porcine cells. No marked differences in expression of virulence factors involved in adaptive response and iron acquisition functions were observed. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that both host and pathogen factors are responsible for commensal or infectious character of C. jejuni in different hosts.

  10. Postnatal mandible growth in wild and laboratory mice: Differences revealed from bone remodeling patterns and geometric morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Vargas, Jessica; Muñoz-Muñoz, Francesc; Martinez-Maza, Cayetana; Molinero, Amalia; Ventura, Jacint

    2017-08-01

    Comparative information on the variation in the temporospatial patterning of mandible growth in wild and laboratory mice during early postnatal ontogeny is scarce but important to understand variation among wild rodent populations. Here, we compare mandible growth between two ontogenetic series from the second to the eighth week of postnatal life, corresponding to two different groups of mice reared under the same conditions: the classical inbred strain C57BL/6J, and Mus musculus domesticus. We characterize the ontogenetic patterns of bone remodeling of the mandibles belonging to these laboratory and wild mice by analyzing bone surface, as well as examine their ontogenetic form changes and bimodular organization using geometric morphometrics. Through ontogeny, the two mouse groups display similar directions of mandible growth, according to the temporospatial distribution of bone remodeling fields. The allometric shape variation of the mandibles of these mice entails the relative enlargement of the ascending ramus. The organization of the mandible into two modules is confirmed in both groups during the last postnatal weeks. However, especially after weaning, the mandibles of wild and laboratory mice differ in the timing and localization of several remodeling fields, in addition to exhibiting different patterns of shape variation and differences in size. The stimulation of dentary bone growth derived from the harder post-weaning diet might account for some features of postnatal mandible growth common to both groups. Nonetheless, a large component of the postnatal growth of the mouse mandible appears to be driven by the inherent genetic programs, which might explain between-group differences. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Proteomic profiles reveal age-related changes in coelomic fluid of sea urchin species with different life spans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Andrea

    2013-05-01

    Sea urchins have a different life history from humans and traditional model organisms used to study the process of aging. Sea urchins grow indeterminately, reproduce throughout their life span and some species have been shown to exhibit negligible senescence with no increase in mortality rate at advanced ages. Despite these properties, different species of sea urchins are reported to have very different natural life spans providing a unique model to investigate cellular mechanisms underlying life span determination and negligible senescence. To gain insight into the biological changes that accompany aging in these animals, proteomic profiles were examined in coelomic fluid from young and old sea urchins of three species with different life spans: short-lived Lytechinus variegatus, long-lived Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus which has an intermediate life span. The proteomic profiles of cell-free coelomic fluid were complex with many proteins exhibiting different forms and extensive post-translational modifications. Approximately 20% of the protein spots on 2-D gels showed more than two-fold change with age in each of the species. Changes that are consistent with age in all three species may prove to be useful biomarkers for age-determination for these commercially fished marine invertebrates and also may provide clues to mechanisms of negligible senescence. Among the proteins that change with age, the ectodomain of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) was significantly increased in the coelomic fluid of all three sea urchin species suggesting that the Wnt signaling pathway should be further investigated for its role in negligible senescence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Large-scale expression analysis reveals distinct microRNA profiles at different stages of human neurodevelopment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short non-coding RNAs predicted to regulate one third of protein coding genes via mRNA targeting. In conjunction with key transcription factors, such as the repressor REST (RE1 silencing transcription factor, miRNAs play crucial roles in neurogenesis, which requires a highly orchestrated program of gene expression to ensure the appropriate development and function of diverse neural cell types. Whilst previous studies have highlighted select groups of miRNAs during neural development, there remains a need for amenable models in which miRNA expression and function can be analyzed over the duration of neurogenesis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed large-scale expression profiling of miRNAs in human NTera2/D1 (NT2 cells during retinoic acid (RA-induced transition from progenitors to fully differentiated neural phenotypes. Our results revealed dynamic changes of miRNA patterns, resulting in distinct miRNA subsets that could be linked to specific neurodevelopmental stages. Moreover, the cell-type specific miRNA subsets were very similar in NT2-derived differentiated cells and human primary neurons and astrocytes. Further analysis identified miRNAs as putative regulators of REST, as well as candidate miRNAs targeted by REST. Finally, we confirmed the existence of two predicted miRNAs; pred-MIR191 and pred-MIR222 associated with SLAIN1 and FOXP2, respectively, and provided some evidence of their potential co-regulation. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we demonstrate that regulation of miRNAs occurs in precise patterns indicative of their roles in cell fate commitment, progenitor expansion and differentiation into neurons and glia. Furthermore, the similarity between our NT2 system and primary human cells suggests their roles in molecular pathways critical for human in vivo neurogenesis.

  13. A realistic in vitro exposure revealed seasonal differences in (pro-)inflammatory effects from ambient air in Fribourg, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisig, Christoph; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Ambient air pollutant levels vary widely in space and time, therefore thorough local evaluation of possible effects is needed. In vitro approaches using lung cell cultures grown at the air-liquid interface and directly exposed to ambient air can offer a reliable addition to animal experimentations and epidemiological studies. To evaluate the adverse effects of ambient air in summer and winter a multi-cellular lung model (16HBE14o-, macrophages, and dendritic cells) was exposed in a mobile cell exposure system. Cells were exposed on up to three consecutive days each 12 h to ambient air from Fribourg, Switzerland, during summer and winter seasons. Higher particle number, particulate matter mass, and nitrogen oxide levels were observed in winter ambient air compared to summer. Good cell viability was seen in cells exposed to summer air and short-term winter air, but cells exposed three days to winter air were compromised. Exposure of summer ambient air revealed no significant upregulation of oxidative stress or pro-inflammatory genes. On the opposite, the winter ambient air exposure led to an increased oxidative stress after two exposure days, and an increase in three assessed pro-inflammatory genes already after 12 h of exposure. We found that even with a short exposure time of 12 h adverse effects in vitro were observed only during exposure to winter but not summer ambient air. With this work we have demonstrated that our simple, fast, and cost-effective approach can be used to assess (adverse) effects of ambient air.

  14. Repeated exposure to immobilization or two different footshock intensities reveals differential adaptation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabasa, Cristina; Muñoz-Abellán, Cristina; Daviu, Núria; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2011-05-03

    Factors involved in adaptation to repeated stress are not well-characterized. For instance, acute footshock (FS) of high intensity appears to be less severe than immobilization (IMO) in light of the speed of post-stress recovery of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and other physiological variables. However, repeated exposure to IMO consistently resulted in reduction of the HPA response to the same stressor (adaptation), whereas failure to adapt has been usually reported after FS. Thus, in the present work we directly compared the activation of HPA axis and other physiological changes in response to both acute and repeated exposure to IMO and two intensities of FS (medium and high) in adult male rats. Control rats were exposed to the FS boxes but they did not receive shocks. Daily repeated exposure to IMO resulted in significant adaptation of the overall ACTH and corticosterone responses to the stressor. Such a reduction was also observed with repeated exposure to FS boxes and FS-medium, whereas repeated exposure to FS-high only resulted in a small reduction of the corticosterone response during the post-stress period. This suggests that some properties of FS-high make adaptation to it difficult. Interestingly, overall changes in food intake and body weight gain throughout the week of exposure to the stressors reveal a greater impact of IMO than FS-high, indicating that factors other than the intensity of a stressor, at least when evaluated in function of the above physiological variables, can influence HPA adaptation. Since FS exposure is likely to cause more pain than IMO, activation of nociceptive signals above a certain level may negatively affect HPA adaptation to repeated stressors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Full investigation of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) presenting to four different clinical specialties reveals significant differences and undiagnosed morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivayoganathan, Dhakshana; Maruthini, Deivanayagam; Glanville, Julie M; Balen, Adam H

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the spectrum of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) symptoms in patients from four different specialist clinics. A prospective cross-sectional observational study. The study was conducted at the infertility, gynaecology, endocrine and dermatology clinics at Leeds General Infirmary, U.K. Seventy women presenting with features of PCOS: 20 from infertility, 17 from gynaecology, 17 from dermatology and 16 from endocrine clinics. Participants were assessed for symptoms and signs of PCOS and underwent a full endocrine and metabolic profile and a pelvic ultrasound scan. All subjects had experienced menstrual problems, 81% were overweight, 86% had polycystic ovaries on ultrasound, 56% had hirsutism, 53% had acne, 23% had acanthosis nigricans, 16% had alopecia and 38% had previously undiagnosed impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or diabetes. A significant difference between the four clinic groups existed with regard to menstrual patterns (p = 0.0234), frequency distribution of presenting symptoms and the percentages of patients with PCOS who had already been diagnosed as having PCOS (p = 0.0088). This study emphasizes the importance of understanding the full spectrum of PCOS as presented to different specialty clinics. Not only is the syndrome under diagnosed but also are the significant associated morbidities such as IGT and type 2 diabetes. Different specialists need to appreciate the spectrum of health problems for women with PCOS that may extend beyond the specific symptoms that precipitated the initial referral.

  16. Generational differences of the frontline nursing workforce in relation to job satisfaction: what does the literature reveal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Deborah A

    2013-01-01

    The job satisfaction of registered nurses has been found to be associated with retention, organizational commitment, workforce safety, and cost savings to health care organizations. Satisfaction of the workforce is vital because nursing turnover can be detrimental for a labor force that is growing older. However, the summation of the most important variables that are linked to job satisfaction has been difficult to discern in part because the workforce includes 3 main generations (ie, Baby Boomers, Gen Xers, and Millennials) with unique work values that drive their job satisfiers. This article provides a review of existing literature to examine the differences in variables that are linked to job satisfaction that exist between the generational cohorts. Differences in stress sources, need for work-life balance, and compensation are discussed. The knowledge about generationally driven variables that influence job satisfaction can help managers develop strategies to maintain a diverse nursing workforce.

  17. Metabolomics reveals differences in postprandial responses to breads and fasting metabolic characteristics associated with postprandial insulin demand in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzami, Ali A; Shrestha, Aahana; Morrison, David A; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mykkänen, Hannu

    2014-06-01

    Changes in serum metabolic profile after the intake of different food products (e.g., bread) can provide insight into their interaction with human metabolism. Postprandial metabolic responses were compared after the intake of refined wheat (RWB), whole-meal rye (WRB), and refined rye (RRB) breads. In addition, associations between the metabolic profile in fasting serum and the postprandial concentration of insulin in response to different breads were investigated. Nineteen postmenopausal women with normal fasting glucose and normal glucose tolerance participated in a randomized, controlled, crossover meal study. The test breads, RWB (control), RRB, and WRB, providing 50 g of available carbohydrate, were each served as a single meal. The postprandial metabolic profile was measured using nuclear magnetic resonance and targeted LC-mass spectrometry and was compared between different breads using ANOVA and multivariate models. Eight amino acids had a significant treatment effect (P insulin. Women with higher fasting concentrations of leucine and isoleucine and lower fasting concentrations of sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines had higher insulin responses despite similar glucose concentration after all kinds of bread (cross-validated ANOVA, P = 0.048). High blood concentration of branched-chain amino acids, i.e., leucine and isoleucine, has been associated with the increased risk of diabetes, which suggests that additional consideration should be given to bread proteins in understanding the beneficial health effects of different kinds of breads. The present study suggests that the fasting metabolic profile can be used to characterize the postprandial insulin demand in individuals with normal glucose metabolism that can be used for establishing strategies for the stratification of individuals in personalized nutrition. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Comparison of expressed human and mouse sodium/iodide sym-porters reveals differences in transport properties and subcellular localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayem, M.; Basquin, C.; Navarro, V.; Carrier, P.; Marsault, R.; Lindenthal, S.; Pourcher, T. [Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Sch Med, CEA, DSV, iBEB, SBTN, TIRO, F-06107 Nice (France); Chang, P. [CNRS, UPMC Biol Dev, UMR 7009, F-06230 Villefranche Sur Mer (France); Huc, S.; Darrouzet, E. [CEA Valrho, DSV, iBEB, SBTN, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France)

    2008-07-01

    The active transport of iodide from the blood stream into thyroid follicular cells is mediated by the Na{sup +}/I{sup -} sym-porter (NIS). We studied mouse NIS (mNIS) and found that it catalyzes iodide transport into transfected cells more efficiently than human NIS (hNIS). To further characterize this difference,we compared {sup 125}I, uptake in the transiently transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. We found that the Vmax for mNIS was four times higher than that for hNIS, and that the iodide transport constant (Km) was 2-5-fold lower for hNIS than mNIS. We also performed immuno-cyto-localization studies and observed that the subcellular distribution of the two ortho-logs differed. While the mouse protein was predominantly found at the plasma membrane, its human ortho-log was intracellular in {approx} 40% of the expressing cells. Using cell surface protein-labeling assays, we found that the plasma membrane localization frequency of the mouse protein was only 2-5-fold higher than that of the human protein, and therefore cannot alone account for,x values. We reasoned that the difference in the obtained Vmax the observed difference could also be caused by a higher turnover number for iodide transport in the mouse protein. We then expressed and analyzed chimeric proteins. The data obtained with these constructs suggest that the iodide recognition site could be located in the region extending from the N-terminus to transmembrane domain 8, and that the region between transmembrane domain 5 and the C-terminus could play a role in the subcellular localization of the protein. (authors)

  19. Scene perception and memory revealed by eye movements and receiver-operating characteristic analyses: Does a cultural difference truly exist?

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Kris; Rotello, Caren M.; Li, Xingshan; Rayner, Keith

    2008-01-01

    Cultural differences have been observed in scene perception and memory: Chinese participants purportedly attend to the background information more than did American participants. We investigated the influence of culture by recording eye movements during scene perception and while participants made recognition memory judgements. Real-world pictures with a focal object on a background were shown to both American and Chinese participants while their eye movements were recorded. Later, memory for...

  20. A novel Zika virus mouse model reveals strain specific differences in virus pathogenesis and host inflammatory immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Tripathi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a mosquito borne flavivirus, which was a neglected tropical pathogen until it emerged and spread across the Pacific Area and the Americas, causing large human outbreaks associated with fetal abnormalities and neurological disease in adults. The factors that contributed to the emergence, spread and change in pathogenesis of ZIKV are not understood. We previously reported that ZIKV evades cellular antiviral responses by targeting STAT2 for degradation in human cells. In this study, we demonstrate that Stat2-/- mice are highly susceptible to ZIKV infection, recapitulate virus spread to the central nervous system (CNS, gonads and other visceral organs, and display neurological symptoms. Further, we exploit this model to compare ZIKV pathogenesis caused by a panel of ZIKV strains of a range of spatiotemporal history of isolation and representing African and Asian lineages. We observed that African ZIKV strains induce short episodes of severe neurological symptoms followed by lethality. In comparison, Asian strains manifest prolonged signs of neuronal malfunctions, occasionally causing death of the Stat2-/- mice. African ZIKV strains induced higher levels of inflammatory cytokines and markers associated with cellular infiltration in the infected brain in mice, which may explain exacerbated pathogenesis in comparison to those of the Asian lineage. Interestingly, viral RNA levels in different organs did not correlate with the pathogenicity of the different strains. Taken together, we have established a new murine model that supports ZIKV infection and demonstrate its utility in highlighting intrinsic differences in the inflammatory response induced by different ZIKV strains leading to severity of disease. This study paves the way for the future interrogation of strain-specific changes in the ZIKV genome and their contribution to viral pathogenesis.

  1. Gender differences in the structural connectome of the teenage brain revealed by generalized q-sampling MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeu-Sheng Tyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of whether there are biological differences between male and female brains is a fraught one, and political positions and prior expectations seem to have a strong influence on the interpretation of scientific data in this field. This question is relevant to issues of gender differences in the prevalence of psychiatric conditions, including autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, Tourette's syndrome, schizophrenia, dyslexia, depression, and eating disorders. Understanding how gender influences vulnerability to these conditions is significant. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI provides a non-invasive method to investigate brain microstructure and the integrity of anatomical connectivity. Generalized q-sampling imaging (GQI has been proposed to characterize complicated fiber patterns and distinguish fiber orientations, providing an opportunity for more accurate, higher-order descriptions through the water diffusion process. Therefore, we aimed to investigate differences in the brain's structural network between teenage males and females using GQI. This study included 59 (i.e., 33 males and 26 females age- and education-matched subjects (age range: 13 to 14 years. The structural connectome was obtained by graph theoretical and network-based statistical (NBS analyses. Our findings show that teenage male brains exhibit better intrahemispheric communication, and teenage female brains exhibit better interhemispheric communication. Our results also suggest that the network organization of teenage male brains is more local, more segregated, and more similar to small-world networks than teenage female brains. We conclude that the use of an MRI study with a GQI-based structural connectomic approach like ours presents novel insights into network-based systems of the brain and provides a new piece of the puzzle regarding gender differences.

  2. Removal of reproductive suppression reveals latent sex differences in brain steroid hormone receptors in naked mole-rats, Heterocephalus glaber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Mo, Kaiguo; Peragine, Deane E; Monks, D Ashley; Holmes, Melissa M

    2015-01-01

    Naked mole-rats are eusocial mammals, living in large colonies with a single breeding female and 1-3 breeding males. Breeders are socially dominant, and only the breeders exhibit traditional sex differences in circulating gonadal steroid hormones and reproductive behaviors. Non-reproductive subordinates also fail to show sex differences in overall body size, external genital morphology, and non-reproductive behaviors. However, subordinates can transition to breeding status if removed from their colony and housed with an opposite-sex conspecific, suggesting the presence of latent sex differences. Here, we assessed the expression of steroid hormone receptor and aromatase messenger RNA (mRNA) in the brains of males and females as they transitioned in social and reproductive status. We compared in-colony subordinates to opposite-sex subordinate pairs that were removed from their colony for either 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, or until they became breeders (i.e., produced a litter). Diencephalic tissue was collected and mRNA of androgen receptor (Ar), estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1), progesterone receptor (Pgr), and aromatase (Cyp19a1) was measured using qPCR. Testosterone, 17β-estradiol, and progesterone from serum were also measured. As early as 1 week post-removal, males exhibited increased diencephalic Ar mRNA and circulating testosterone, whereas females had increased Cyp19a1 mRNA in the diencephalon. At 1 month post-removal, females exhibited increased 17β-estradiol and progesterone. The largest changes in steroid hormone receptors were observed in breeders. Breeding females had a threefold increase in Cyp19a1 and fivefold increases in Esr1 and Pgr, whereas breeding males had reduced Pgr and increased Ar. These data demonstrate that sex differences in circulating gonadal steroids and hypothalamic gene expression emerge weeks to months after subordinate animals are removed from reproductive suppression in their home colony.

  3. A closer look at cognitive control: Differences in resource allocation during updating, inhibition and switching as revealed by pupillometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eefje eRondeel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated resource allocation, as measured by pupil dilation, in tasks measuring updating (2-Back task, inhibition (Stroop task and switching (Number Switch task. Because each cognitive control component has unique characteristics, differences in patterns of resource allocation were expected. Pupil and behavioral data from 35 participants were analysed. In the 2-Back task (requiring correct matching of current stimulus identity at trial p with the stimulus two trials back, p-2 we found that better performance (low total of errors made in the task was positively correlated to the mean pupil dilation during correctly responding to targets. In the Stroop task, pupil dilation on incongruent trials was higher than those on congruent trials. Incongruent versus congruent trial pupil dilation differences were positively related to reaction time differences between incongruent and congruent trials. Furthermore, on congruent Stroop trials, pupil dilation was negatively related to reaction times, presumably because more effort allocation paid off in terms of faster responses. In addition, pupil dilation on correctly-responded-to congruent trials predicted a weaker Stroop interference effect in terms of errors, probably because pupil dilation on congruent trials were diagnostic of task motivation, resulting in better performance. In the Number Switch task we found higher pupil dilation in switch as compared to non-switch trials. On the Number Switch task, pupil dilation was not related to performance. We also explored error-related pupil dilation in all tasks. The results provide new insights in the diversity of the cognitive control components in terms of resource allocation as a function of individual differences, task difficulty and error processing.

  4. Voxel-based morphometry analysis reveals frontal brain differences in participants with ADHD and their unaffected siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bralten, Janita; Greven, Corina U.; Franke, Barbara; Mennes, Maarten; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Rommelse, Nanda N.J.; Hartman, Catharina; van der Meer, Dennis; O’Dwyer, Laurence; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on structural brain alterations in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been inconsistent. Both ADHD and brain volumes have a strong genetic loading, but whether brain alterations in patients with ADHD are familial has been underexplored. We aimed to detect structural brain alterations in adolescents and young adults with ADHD compared with healthy controls. We examined whether these alterations were also found in their unaffected siblings, using a uniquely large sample. Methods We performed voxel-based morphometry analyses on MRI scans of patients with ADHD, their unaffected siblings and typically developing controls. We identified brain areas that differed between participants with ADHD and controls and investigated whether these areas were different in unaffected siblings. Influences of medication use, age, sex and IQ were considered. Results Our sample included 307 patients with ADHD, 169 unaffected siblings and 196 typically developing controls (mean age 17.2 [range 8–30] yr). Compared with controls, participants with ADHD had significantly smaller grey matter volume in 5 clusters located in the precentral gyrus, medial and orbitofrontal cortex, and (para)cingulate cortices. Unaffected siblings showed intermediate volumes significantly different from controls in 4 of these clusters (all except the precentral gyrus). Medication use, age, sex and IQ did not have an undue influence on the results. Limitations Our sample was heterogeneous, most participants with ADHD were taking medication, and the comparison was cross-sectional. Conclusion Brain areas involved in decision making, motivation, cognitive control and motor functioning were smaller in participants with ADHD than in controls. Investigation of unaffected siblings indicated familiality of 4 of the structural brain differences, supporting their potential in molecular genetic analyses in ADHD research. PMID:26679925

  5. Comparison of expressed human and mouse sodium/iodide sym-porters reveals differences in transport properties and subcellular localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayem, M.; Basquin, C.; Navarro, V.; Carrier, P.; Marsault, R.; Lindenthal, S.; Pourcher, T.; Chang, P.; Huc, S.; Darrouzet, E.

    2008-01-01

    The active transport of iodide from the blood stream into thyroid follicular cells is mediated by the Na + /I - sym-porter (NIS). We studied mouse NIS (mNIS) and found that it catalyzes iodide transport into transfected cells more efficiently than human NIS (hNIS). To further characterize this difference,we compared 125 I, uptake in the transiently transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. We found that the Vmax for mNIS was four times higher than that for hNIS, and that the iodide transport constant (Km) was 2-5-fold lower for hNIS than mNIS. We also performed immuno-cyto-localization studies and observed that the subcellular distribution of the two ortho-logs differed. While the mouse protein was predominantly found at the plasma membrane, its human ortho-log was intracellular in ∼ 40% of the expressing cells. Using cell surface protein-labeling assays, we found that the plasma membrane localization frequency of the mouse protein was only 2-5-fold higher than that of the human protein, and therefore cannot alone account for,x values. We reasoned that the difference in the obtained Vmax the observed difference could also be caused by a higher turnover number for iodide transport in the mouse protein. We then expressed and analyzed chimeric proteins. The data obtained with these constructs suggest that the iodide recognition site could be located in the region extending from the N-terminus to transmembrane domain 8, and that the region between transmembrane domain 5 and the C-terminus could play a role in the subcellular localization of the protein. (authors)

  6. Gender differences in the structural connectome of the teenage brain revealed by generalized q-sampling MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyan, Yeu-Sheng; Liao, Jan-Ray; Shen, Chao-Yu; Lin, Yu-Chieh; Weng, Jun-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    The question of whether there are biological differences between male and female brains is a fraught one, and political positions and prior expectations seem to have a strong influence on the interpretation of scientific data in this field. This question is relevant to issues of gender differences in the prevalence of psychiatric conditions, including autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Tourette's syndrome, schizophrenia, dyslexia, depression, and eating disorders. Understanding how gender influences vulnerability to these conditions is significant. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) provides a non-invasive method to investigate brain microstructure and the integrity of anatomical connectivity. Generalized q-sampling imaging (GQI) has been proposed to characterize complicated fiber patterns and distinguish fiber orientations, providing an opportunity for more accurate, higher-order descriptions through the water diffusion process. Therefore, we aimed to investigate differences in the brain's structural network between teenage males and females using GQI. This study included 59 (i.e., 33 males and 26 females) age- and education-matched subjects (age range: 13 to 14 years). The structural connectome was obtained by graph theoretical and network-based statistical (NBS) analyses. Our findings show that teenage male brains exhibit better intrahemispheric communication, and teenage female brains exhibit better interhemispheric communication. Our results also suggest that the network organization of teenage male brains is more local, more segregated, and more similar to small-world networks than teenage female brains. We conclude that the use of an MRI study with a GQI-based structural connectomic approach like ours presents novel insights into network-based systems of the brain and provides a new piece of the puzzle regarding gender differences.

  7. Global genomic analysis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas reveals significant molecular differences compared to ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Stefan; Fernandez-del Castillo, Carlos; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Crippa, Stefano; Deshpande, Vikram; Lauwers, Gregory Y; Warshaw, Andrew L; Thayer, Sarah P; Iafrate, A John

    2009-03-01

    To determine whether intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMNs) have a different genetic background compared with ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The biologic and clinical behavior of IPMNs and IPMN-associated adenocarcinomas is different from PDAC in having a less aggressive tumor growth and significantly improved survival. Up to date, the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical behavior of IPMNs are incompletely understood. 128 cystic pancreatic lesions were prospectively identified during the course of 2 years. From the corresponding surgical specimens, 57 IPMNs were separated and subdivided by histologic criteria into those with low-grade dysplasia, moderate dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, and invasive cancer. Twenty specimens were suitable for DNA isolation and subsequent performance of array CGH. While none of the IPMNs with low-grade dysplasia displayed detectable chromosomal aberrations, IPMNs with moderate and high-grade dysplasia showed frequent copy number alterations. Commonly lost regions were located on chromosome 5q, 6q, 10q, 11q, 13q, 18q, and 22q. The incidence of loss of chromosome 5q, 6q, and 11q was significantly higher in IPMNs with high-grade dysplasia or invasion compared with PDAC. Ten of 13 IPMNs with moderate dysplasia or malignancy had loss of part or all of chromosome 6q, with a minimal deleted region between linear positions 78.0 and 130.0. This study is the first to use array CGH to characterize IPMNs. Recurrent cytogenetic alterations were identified and were different than those described in PDAC. Array CGH may help distinguish between these 2 entities and give insight into the differences in their biology and prognosis.

  8. AFM force spectroscopy reveals how subtle structural differences affect the interaction strength between Candida albicans and DC-SIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Riet, Joost; Reinieren-Beeren, Inge; Figdor, Carl G; Cambi, Alessandra

    2015-11-01

    The fungus Candida albicans is the most common cause of mycotic infections in immunocompromised hosts. Little is known about the initial interactions between Candida and immune cell receptors, such as the C-type lectin dendritic cell-specific intracellular cell adhesion molecule-3 (ICAM-3)-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), because a detailed characterization at the structural level is lacking. DC-SIGN recognizes specific Candida-associated molecular patterns, that is, mannan structures present in the cell wall of Candida. The molecular recognition mechanism is however poorly understood. We postulated that small differences in mannan-branching may result in considerable differences in the binding affinity. Here, we exploit atomic force microscope-based dynamic force spectroscopy with single Candida cells to gain better insight in the carbohydrate recognition capacity of DC-SIGN. We demonstrate that slight differences in the N-mannan structure of Candida, that is, the absence or presence of a phosphomannan side chain, results in differences in the recognition by DC-SIGN as follows: (i) it contributes to the compliance of the outer cell wall of Candida, and (ii) its presence results in a higher binding energy of 1.6 kB T. The single-bond affinity of tetrameric DC-SIGN for wild-type C. albicans is ~10.7 kB T and a dissociation constant kD of 23 μM, which is relatively strong compared with other carbohydrate-protein interactions described in the literature. In conclusion, this study shows that DC-SIGN specifically recognizes mannan patterns on C. albicans with high affinity. Knowledge on the binding pocket of DC-SIGN and its pathogenic ligands will lead to a better understanding of how fungal-associated carbohydrate structures are recognized by receptors of the immune system and can ultimately contribute to the development of new anti-fungal drugs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of native thin filaments reveal species-specific differences in regulatory strand densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cammarato, Anthony, E-mail: acammara@burnham.org [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 East Concord Street, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Craig, Roger [Department of Cell Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655 (United States); Lehman, William [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 East Concord Street, Boston, MA 02118 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom striated muscle contraction is regulated by the thin filament troponin-tropomyosin complex. Homologous regulatory components are shared among vertebrate and arthropod muscles; however, unique protein extensions and/or components characterize the latter. The Troponin T (TnT) isoforms of Drosophila indirect flight and tarantula femur muscle for example contain distinct C-terminal extensions and are {approx}20% larger overall than their vertebrate counterpart. Using electron microscopy and three-dimensional helical reconstruction of native Drosophila, tarantula and frog muscle thin filaments we have identified species-specific differences in tropomyosin regulatory strand densities. The strands on the arthropod thin filaments were significantly larger in diameter than those from vertebrates, although not significantly different from each other. These findings reflect differences in the regulatory troponin-tropomyosin complex, which are likely due to the larger TnT molecules aligning and extending along much of the tropomyosin strands' length. Such an arrangement potentially alters the physical properties of the regulatory strands and may help establish contractile characteristics unique to certain arthropod muscles.

  10. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals molecular mechanism of seedling roots of different salt tolerant soybean genotypes in responses to salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Ma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that limit agricultural yield. To understand salt-responsive protein networks in soybean seedling, the extracted proteins from seedling roots of two different genotypes (Lee 68 and Jackson were analyzed under salt stress by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Sixty-eight differentially expressed proteins were detected and identified. The identified proteins were involved in 13 metabolic pathways and cellular processes. Proteins correlated to brassinosteroid and gilbberellin signalings were significantly increased only in the genotype Lee 68 under salt stress; abscisic acid content was positively correlated with this genotype; proteins that can be correlated to Ca2+ signaling were more strongly enhanced by salt stress in the seedling roots of genotype Lee 68 than in those of genotype Jackson; moreover, genotype Lee 68 had stronger capability of reactive oxygen species scavenging and cell K+/Na+ homeostasis maintaining in seedling roots than genotype Jackson under salt stress. Since the genotype Lee 68 has been described in literature as being tolerant and Jackson as sensitive, we hypothesize that these major differences in the genotype Lee 68 might contribute to salt tolerance. Combined with our previous comparative proteomics analysis on seedling leaves, the similarities and differences between the salt-responsive protein networks found in the seedling leaves and roots of both the genotypes were discussed. Such a result will be helpful in breeding of salt-tolerant soybean cultivars.

  11. Identification of riboflavin: revealing different metabolic characteristics between Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and MG1655.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinran; Wang, Qian; Qi, Qingsheng

    2015-06-01

    There are many physiological differences between Escherichia coli B and K-12 strains, owing to their different origins. Deeper insight into the metabolic and regulative mechanisms of these strains will inform improved usage of these industrial workhorses. In the present study, we observed that BL21 fermentation broth gradually turned yellow during cultivation. By spectral analysis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry identification, we confirmed for the first time that the yellow substance accumulated in the fermentation broth is riboflavin. Comparing the enzyme sequences involved in riboflavin metabolism between BL21 and MG1655, we identified a site mutation on the 115 residue of bifunctional riboflavin kinase/FMN adenylyltransferase (RibF) in BL21. This His115Leu mutation was found to reduce enzyme activity to 55% of that of MG1655, which is probably one reason for riboflavin accumulation in BL21. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that genes of the entire branch of the riboflavin and FAD biosynthesis pathways in BL21 were up-regulated. Several physiological and metabolic characteristics of BL21 and MG1655 were found to be different, and may also be related to the riboflavin accumulation. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Co-localisation studies of Arabidopsis SR splicing factors reveal different types of speckles in plant cell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorkovic, Zdravko J.; Hilscher, Julia; Barta, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    SR proteins are multidomain splicing factors which are important for spliceosome assembly and for regulation of alternative splicing. In mammalian nuclei these proteins localise to speckles from where they are recruited to transcription sites. By using fluorescent protein fusion technology and different experimental approaches it has been shown that Arabidopsis SR proteins, in addition to diffuse nucleoplasmic staining, localise into an irregular nucleoplasmic network resembling speckles in mammalian cells. As Arabidopsis SR proteins fall into seven conserved sub-families we investigated co-localisation of members of the different sub-families in transiently transformed tobacco protoplast. Here we demonstrate the new finding that members of different SR protein sub-families localise into distinct populations of nuclear speckles with no, partial or complete co-localisation. This is particularly interesting as we also show that these proteins do interact in a yeast two-hybrid assay as well as in pull-down and in co-immunopreciptiation assays. Our data raise the interesting possibility that SR proteins are partitioned into distinct populations of nuclear speckles to allow a more specific recruitment to the transcription/pre-mRNA processing sites of particular genes depending on cell type and developmental stage

  13. Individual differences in laughter perception reveal roles for mentalizing and sensorimotor systems in the evaluation of emotional authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGettigan, C; Walsh, E; Jessop, R; Agnew, Z K; Sauter, D A; Warren, J E; Scott, S K

    2015-01-01

    Humans express laughter differently depending on the context: polite titters of agreement are very different from explosions of mirth. Using functional MRI, we explored the neural responses during passive listening to authentic amusement laughter and controlled, voluntary laughter. We found greater activity in anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPFC) to the deliberate, Emitted Laughs, suggesting an obligatory attempt to determine others' mental states when laughter is perceived as less genuine. In contrast, passive perception of authentic Evoked Laughs was associated with greater activity in bilateral superior temporal gyri. An individual differences analysis found that greater accuracy on a post hoc test of authenticity judgments of laughter predicted the magnitude of passive listening responses to laughter in amPFC, as well as several regions in sensorimotor cortex (in line with simulation accounts of emotion perception). These medial prefrontal and sensorimotor sites showed enhanced positive connectivity with cortical and subcortical regions during listening to involuntary laughter, indicating a complex set of interacting systems supporting the automatic emotional evaluation of heard vocalizations. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of native thin filaments reveal species-specific differences in regulatory strand densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cammarato, Anthony; Craig, Roger; Lehman, William

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom striated muscle contraction is regulated by the thin filament troponin-tropomyosin complex. Homologous regulatory components are shared among vertebrate and arthropod muscles; however, unique protein extensions and/or components characterize the latter. The Troponin T (TnT) isoforms of Drosophila indirect flight and tarantula femur muscle for example contain distinct C-terminal extensions and are ∼20% larger overall than their vertebrate counterpart. Using electron microscopy and three-dimensional helical reconstruction of native Drosophila, tarantula and frog muscle thin filaments we have identified species-specific differences in tropomyosin regulatory strand densities. The strands on the arthropod thin filaments were significantly larger in diameter than those from vertebrates, although not significantly different from each other. These findings reflect differences in the regulatory troponin-tropomyosin complex, which are likely due to the larger TnT molecules aligning and extending along much of the tropomyosin strands' length. Such an arrangement potentially alters the physical properties of the regulatory strands and may help establish contractile characteristics unique to certain arthropod muscles.

  15. Structural Analyses of Avocado sunblotch viroid Reveal Differences in the Folding of Plus and Minus RNA Strands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine Delan-Forino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Viroids are small pathogenic circular single-stranded RNAs, present in two complementary sequences, named plus and minus, in infected plant cells. A high degree of complementarities between different regions of the RNAs allows them to adopt complex structures. Since viroids are naked non-coding RNAs, interactions with host factors appear to be closely related to their structural and catalytic characteristics. Avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd, a member of the family Avsunviroidae, replicates via a symmetric RNA-dependant rolling-circle process, involving self-cleavage via hammerhead ribozymes. Consequently, it is assumed that ASBVd plus and minus strands adopt similar structures. Moreover, by computer analyses, a quasi-rod-like secondary structure has been predicted. Nevertheless, secondary and tertiary structures of both polarities of ASBVd remain unsolved. In this study, we analyzed the characteristic of each strand of ASBVd through biophysical analyses. We report that ASBVd transcripts of plus and minus polarities exhibit differences in electrophoretic mobility under native conditions and in thermal denaturation profiles. Subsequently, the secondary structures of plus and minus polarities of ASBVd were probed using the RNA-selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE method. The models obtained show that both polarities fold into different structures. Moreover, our results suggest the existence of a kissing-loop interaction within the minus strand that may play a role in in vivo viroid life cycle.

  16. Assessment of small RNA sorting into different extracellular fractions revealed by high-throughput sequencing of breast cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosar, Juan Pablo; Gámbaro, Fabiana; Sanguinetti, Julia; Bonilla, Braulio; Witwer, Kenneth W.; Cayota, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Intercellular communication can be mediated by extracellular small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs). Circulating sRNAs are being intensively studied for their promising use as minimally invasive disease biomarkers. To date, most attention is centered on exosomes and microRNAs as the vectors and the secreted species, respectively. However, this field would benefit from an increased understanding of the plethora of sRNAs secreted by different cell types in different extracellular fractions. It is still not clear if specific sRNAs are selected for secretion, or if sRNA secretion is mostly passive. We sequenced the intracellular sRNA content (19–60 nt) of breast epithelial cell lines (MCF-7 and MCF-10A) and compared it with extracellular fractions enriched in microvesicles, exosomes and ribonucleoprotein complexes. Our results are consistent with a non-selective secretion model for most microRNAs, although a few showed secretion patterns consistent with preferential secretion. On the contrary, 5′ tRNA halves and 5′ RNA Y4-derived fragments of 31–33 were greatly and significantly enriched in the extracellular space (even in non-mammary cell lines), where tRNA halves were detected as part of ∼45 kDa ribonucleoprotein complexes. Overall, we show that different sRNA families have characteristic secretion patterns and open the question of the role of these sRNAs in the extracellular space. PMID:25940616

  17. Health effects of different dietary iron intakes: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Domellöf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background : The present literature review is part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR issued in 2004. Objective : The objective of this systematic literature review was to assess the health effects of different intakes of iron, at different life stages (infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly, and during pregnancy and lactation, in order to estimate the requirement for adequate growth, development, and maintenance of health. Methods : The initial literature search resulted in 1,076 abstracts. Out of those, 276 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Of those, 49 were considered relevant and were quality assessed (A, B, or C. An additional search on iron and diabetes yielded six articles that were quality assessed. Thus, a total of 55 articles were evaluated. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing (grade 1, probable (grade 2, suggestive (grade 3, and inconclusive (grade 4. Results : There is suggestive evidence that prevention or treatment of iron deficiency (ID and iron deficiency anemia (IDA improves cognitive, motoric, and behavioral development in young children, and that treatment of IDA improves attention and concentration in school children and adult women. There is insufficient evidence to show negative health effects of iron intakes in doses suggested by the NNR 4. There is insufficient evidence to suggest that normal birth weight, healthy, exclusively breast-fed infants need additional dietary iron before 6 months of life in the Nordic countries.An iron concentration of 4–8 mg/L in infant formulas seems to be safe and effective for normal birth weight infants. There is probable evidence that iron supplements (1–2 mg/kg/day given up to 6 months of age to infants with low birth weight (<2,500 g prevents IDA and possibly reduce the risk of behavioral problems later on. There is probable evidence that

  18. A 3-lever discrimination procedure reveals differences in the subjective effects of low and high doses of MDMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, David N; Langen, Anna-Lena; Schenk, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Drug discrimination studies have suggested that the subjective effects of low doses of (±)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) are readily differentiated from those of d-amphetamine (AMPH) and that the discriminative stimulus properties are mediated by serotonergic and dopaminergic mechanisms, respectively. Previous studies, however, have primarily examined responses to doses that do not produce substantial increases in extracellular dopamine. The present study determined whether doses of MDMA that produce increases in synaptic dopamine would also produce subjective effects that were more like AMPH and were sensitive to pharmacological manipulation of D1-like receptors. A three-lever drug discrimination paradigm was used. Rats were trained to respond on different levers following saline, AMPH (0.5mg/kg, IP) or MDMA (1.5mg/kg, IP) injections. Generalization curves were generated for a range of different doses of both drugs and the effect of the D1-like antagonist, SCH23390 on the discriminative stimulus effects of different doses of MDMA was determined. Rats accurately discriminated MDMA, AMPH and saline. Low doses of MDMA produced almost exclusive responding on the MDMA lever but at doses of 3.0mg/kg MDMA or higher, responding shifted to the AMPH lever. The AMPH response produced by higher doses of MDMA was attenuated by pretreatment with SCH23390. The data suggest that low doses and higher doses of MDMA produce distinct discriminative stimuli. The shift to AMPH-like responding following administration of higher doses of MDMA, and the decrease in this response following administration of SCH23390 suggests a dopaminergic component to the subjective experience of MDMA at higher doses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Different levels of UV-B resistance in Vaccinium corymbosum cultivars reveal distinct backgrounds of phenylpropanoid metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo Escobar, Ana; Magnum de Oliveira Silva, Franklin; Acevedo, Patricio; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Alberdi, Miren; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie

    2017-09-01

    UV-B radiation induces several physiological and biochemical effects that can influence regulatory plant processes. Vaccinium corymbosum responds differently to UV-B radiation depending on the UV-B resistance of cultivars, according to their physiological and biochemical features. In this work, the effect of two levels of UV-B radiation during long-term exposure on the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and the expression of genes associated with flavonoid biosynthesis as well as the absolute quantification of secondary metabolites were studied in two contrasting UV-B-resistant cultivars (Legacy, resistant and Bluegold, sensitive). Multivariate analyses were performed to understand the role of phenylpropanoids in UV-B defense mechanisms. The amount of phenylpropanoid compounds was generally higher in Legacy than in Bluegold. Different expression levels of flavonoid biosynthetic genes for both cultivars were transiently induced, showing that even in longer period of UV-B exposure; plants are still adjusting their phenylpropanoids at the transcription levels. Multivariate analysis in Legacy indicated no significant correlation between gene expression and the levels of the flavonoids and phenolic acids. By contrast, in the Bluegold cultivar higher number of correlations between secondary metabolite and transcript levels was found. Taken together, the results indicated different adjustments between the cultivars for a successful UV-B acclimation. While the sensitive cultivar depends on metabolite adjustments to respond to UV-B exposure, the resistant cultivar also possesses an intrinsically higher antioxidant and UV-B screening capacity. Thus, we conclude that UV-B resistance involves not only metabolite level adjustments during the acclimation period, but also depends on the intrinsic metabolic status of the plant and metabolic features of the phenylpropanoid compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Grouping subjects based on conditioning criteria reveals differences in acquisition rates and in strength of conditioning-specific reflex modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Bell, Carrie A; Schreurs, Bernard G

    2017-11-01

    Averaging behavioral data such as the nictitating membrane response (NMR) across subjects can conceal important individual and group differences. Analyses were conducted of NMR data from rabbits that were grouped based on the point during NMR conditioning when subjects produced 8 conditioned responses (CR) in a set of 10 trials. This resulted in five groups (Early Day 1, Late Day 1, Early Day 2, Late Day 2, Early Day 3) in which group differences in CR acquisition rates were found. Percent (%) CRs were not found to increase monotonically and between-session differences in % CR were found. Conditioning-specific reflex modification (CRM) of the NMR is a type of enhanced reflexive responding of the NMR that is detected when the unconditioned stimulus (US) is presented in the absence of the conditioned stimulus (CS) following paired classical conditioning. CRM occurred in some subjects in all five groups. Subjects from both the group that was fastest and the group that was slowest to reach the learning criterion had unconditioned response (UR) topographies following NMR conditioning that strongly resembled the CR-UR response sequence elicited during NMR conditioning. This finding was most pronounced when the US duration used to assess CRM was equivalent to that used during NMR conditioning, further evidence to support the hypothesis that CRM is a CR that has generalized from the CS to the US. While grouping data based on conditioning criteria did not facilitate identifying individuals more predisposed to exhibiting CRM, strong CRM only occurred in the groups that reached the conditioning criterion the fastest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mycophilic or mycophobic? Legislation and guidelines on wild mushroom commerce reveal different consumption behaviour in European countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Peintner

    Full Text Available Mycophiles forage for and pick vast quantities of a wide variety of wild mushroom species. As a result, mushroom intoxications are comparatively frequent in such countries with mycophiles. Thus, national governments are forced to release guidelines or enact legislation in order to ensure the safe commerce of wild mushrooms due to food safety concerns. It is in these guidelines and laws that one can observe whether a country is indeed mycophobic or mycophilic. Furthermore, these laws and guidelines provide valuable information on mushroom preferences and on the consumption habits of each country. As such we were interested in the questions as to whether mushroom consumption behaviour was different within Europe, and if it was possible to discover the typical or distinctive culinary preferences of Slavic or Romanic speaking people, people from special geographical regions or from different zones. This work is based on the analysis of edible mushroom lists available in specific guidelines or legislation related to the consumption and commerce of mushrooms in 27 European countries. The overall diversity of edible mushrooms authorised to be commercialised in Europe is very high. However, only 60 out of a total 268 fungal species can be cultivated. This highlights the importance of guidelines or legislation for the safe commerce of wild mushrooms. The species richness and composition of the mushrooms listed for commerce is very heterogeneous within Europe. The consumption behaviour is not only language-family-related, but is strongly influenced by geographical location and neighbouring countries. Indicator species were detected for different European regions; most of them are widespread fungi, and thus prove culture-specific preferences for these mushrooms. Our results highlight tradition and external input such as trade and cultural exchange as strong factors shaping mushroom consumption behaviour.

  2. Use of field-portable ultrasonography reveals differences in developmental phenology and maternal egg provisioning in two sympatric viviparous snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkman, Amanda M; Chism, Kenneth R; Bronikowski, Anne M; Brummett, Lilly J; Combrink, Lucia L; Davis, Courtney L; Holden, Kaitlyn G; Kabey, Nicole M; Miller, David A W

    2018-03-01

    A thorough understanding of the life cycles underlying the demography of wild species is limited by the difficulty of observing hidden life-history traits, such as embryonic development. Major aspects of embryonic development, such as the rate and timing of development, and maternal-fetal interactions can be critical features of early-life fitness and may impact population trends via effects on individual survival. While information on development in wild snakes and lizards is particularly limited, the repeated evolution of viviparity and diversity of reproductive mode in this clade make it a valuable subject of study. We used field-portable ultrasonography to investigate embryonic development in two sympatric garter snake species, Thamnophis sirtalis and Thamnophis elegans in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California. This approach allowed us to examine previously hidden reproductive traits including the timing and annual variation in development and differences in parental investment in young. Both species are viviparous, occupy similar ecological niches, and experience the same annual environmental conditions. We found that T. sirtalis embryos were more developmentally advanced than T. elegans embryos during June of three consecutive years. We also found that eggs increased in volume more substantially across developmental stages in T. elegans than in T. sirtalis , indicating differences in maternal provisioning of embryos via placental transfer of water. These findings shed light on interspecific differences in parental investment and timing of development within the same environmental context and demonstrate the value of field ultrasonography for pursuing questions relating to the evolution of reproductive modes, and the ecology of development.

  3. Nucleus-specific expression in the multinuclear mushroom-forming fungus Agaricus bisporus reveals different nuclear regulatory programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrmann, Thies; Pelkmans, Jordi F; Ohm, Robin A; Vos, Aurin M; Sonnenberg, Anton S M; Baars, Johan J P; Wösten, Han A B; Reinders, Marcel J T; Abeel, Thomas

    2018-04-24

    Many fungi are polykaryotic, containing multiple nuclei per cell. In the case of heterokaryons, there are different nuclear types within a single cell. It is unknown what the different nuclear types contribute in terms of mRNA expression levels in fungal heterokaryons. Each cell of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus contains two to 25 nuclei of two nuclear types originating from two parental strains. Using RNA-sequencing data, we assess the differential mRNA contribution of individual nuclear types and its functional impact. We studied differential expression between genes of the two nuclear types, P1 and P2, throughout mushroom development in various tissue types. P1 and P2 produced specific mRNA profiles that changed through mushroom development. Differential regulation occurred at the gene level, rather than at the locus, chromosomal, or nuclear level. P1 dominated mRNA production throughout development, and P2 showed more differentially up-regulated genes in important functional groups. In the vegetative mycelium, P2 up-regulated almost threefold more metabolism genes and carbohydrate active enzymes (cazymes) than P1, suggesting phenotypic differences in growth. We identified widespread transcriptomic variation between the nuclear types of A. bisporus Our method enables studying nucleus-specific expression, which likely influences the phenotype of a fungus in a polykaryotic stage. Our findings have a wider impact to better understand gene regulation in fungi in a heterokaryotic state. This work provides insight into the transcriptomic variation introduced by genomic nuclear separation. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  4. Scene perception and memory revealed by eye movements and receiver-operating characteristic analyses: does a cultural difference truly exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kris; Rotello, Caren M; Li, Xingshan; Rayner, Keith

    2009-02-01

    Cultural differences have been observed in scene perception and memory: Chinese participants purportedly attend to the background information more than did American participants. We investigated the influence of culture by recording eye movements during scene perception and while participants made recognition memory judgements. Real-world pictures with a focal object on a background were shown to both American and Chinese participants while their eye movements were recorded. Later, memory for the focal object in each scene was tested, and the relationship between the focal object (studied, new) and the background context (studied, new) was manipulated. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves show that both sensitivity and response bias were changed when objects were tested in new contexts. However, neither the decrease in accuracy nor the response bias shift differed with culture. The eye movement patterns were also similar across cultural groups. Both groups made longer and more fixations on the focal objects than on the contexts. The similarity of eye movement patterns and recognition memory behaviour suggests that both Americans and Chinese use the same strategies in scene perception and memory.

  5. Microbiology Meets Archaeology: Soil Microbial Communities Reveal Different Human Activities at Archaic Monte Iato (Sixth Century BC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margesin, Rosa; Siles, José A; Cajthaml, Tomas; Öhlinger, Birgit; Kistler, Erich

    2017-05-01

    Microbial ecology has been recognized as useful in archaeological studies. At Archaic Monte Iato in Western Sicily, a native (indigenous) building was discovered. The objective of this study was the first examination of soil microbial communities related to this building. Soil samples were collected from archaeological layers at a ritual deposit (food waste disposal) in the main room and above the fireplace in the annex. Microbial soil characterization included abundance (cellular phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), viable bacterial counts), activity (physiological profiles, enzyme activities of viable bacteria), diversity, and community structure (bacterial and fungal Illumina amplicon sequencing, identification of viable bacteria). PLFA-derived microbial abundance was lower in soils from the fireplace than in soils from the deposit; the opposite was observed with culturable bacteria. Microbial communities in soils from the fireplace had a higher ability to metabolize carboxylic and acetic acids, while those in soils from the deposit metabolized preferentially carbohydrates. The lower deposit layer was characterized by higher total microbial and bacterial abundance and bacterial richness and by a different carbohydrate metabolization profile compared to the upper deposit layer. Microbial community structures in the fireplace were similar and could be distinguished from those in the two deposit layers, which had different microbial communities. Our data confirmed our hypothesis that human consumption habits left traces on microbiota in the archaeological evidence; therefore, microbiological residues as part of the so-called ecofacts are, like artifacts, key indicators of consumer behavior in the past.

  6. Specific interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting bacteria--as revealed by different combinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaderlund, Lotta; Arthurson, Veronica; Granhall, Ulf; Jansson, Janet K.

    2008-05-15

    The interactions between two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 and Paenibacillus brasilensis PB177, two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Glomus mosseae and G. intraradices) and one pathogenic fungus (Microdochium nivale) were investigated on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivar Tarso) in a greenhouse trial. PB177, but not SBW25, had strong inhibitory effects on M. nivale in dual culture plate assays. The results from the greenhouse experiment show very specific interactions; e.g. the two AM fungi react differently when interacting with the same bacteria on plants. G. intraradices (single inoculation or together with SBW25) increased plant dry weight on M. nivale infested plants, suggesting that the pathogenic fungus is counteracted by G. intraradices, but PB177 inhibited this positive effect. This is an example of two completely different reactions between the same AM fungus and two species of bacteria, previously known to enhance plant growth and inhibit pathogens. When searching for plant growth promoting microorganisms it is therefore important to test for the most suitable combination of plant, bacteria and fungi in order to get satisfactory plant growth benefits.

  7. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles reveal novel candidate genes associated with meat quality at different age stages in hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Yan, Feng-Bin; Li, Fang; Jiang, Ke-Ren; Li, Dong-Hua; Han, Rui-Li; Li, Zhuan-Jan; Jiang, Rui-Rui; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Kang, Xiang-Tao; Sun, Gui-Rong

    2017-04-05

    Poultry meat quality is associated with breed, age, tissue and other factors. Many previous studies have focused on distinct breeds; however, little is known regarding the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in different age stages, such as DNA methylation. Here, we compared the global DNA methylation profiles between juvenile (20 weeks old) and later laying-period (55 weeks old) hens and identified candidate genes related to the development and meat quality of breast muscle using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing. The results showed that the later laying-period hens, which had a higher intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition capacity and water holding capacity (WHC) and less tenderness, exhibited higher global DNA methylation levels than the juvenile hens. A total of 2,714 differentially methylated regions were identified in the present study, which corresponded to 378 differentially methylated genes, mainly affecting muscle development, lipid metabolism, and the ageing process. Hypermethylation of the promoters of the genes ABCA1, COL6A1 and GSTT1L and the resulting transcriptional down-regulation in the later laying-period hens may be the reason for the significant difference in the meat quality between the juvenile and later laying-period hens. These findings contribute to a better understanding of epigenetic regulation in the skeletal muscle development and meat quality of chicken.

  8. Similarities and differences between the brain networks underlying allocentric and egocentric spatial learning in rat revealed by cytochrome oxidase histochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, S; Begega, A; Méndez, M; Méndez-López, M; Arias, J L

    2012-10-25

    The involvement of different brain regions in place- and response-learning was examined using a water cross-maze. Rats were trained to find the goal from the initial arm by turning left at the choice point (egocentric strategy) or by using environmental cues (allocentric strategy). Although different strategies were required, the same maze and learning conditions were used. Using cytochrome oxidase histochemistry as a marker of cellular activity, the function of the 13 diverse cortical and subcortical regions was assessed in rats performing these two tasks. Our results show that allocentric learning depends on the recruitment of a large functional network, which includes the hippocampal CA3, dentate gyrus, medial mammillary nucleus and supramammillary nucleus. Along with the striatum, these last three structures are also related to egocentric spatial learning. The present study provides evidence for the contribution of these regions to spatial navigation and supports a possible functional interaction between the two memory systems, as their structural convergence may facilitate functional cooperation in the behaviours guided by more than one strategy. In summary, it can be argued that spatial learning is based on dynamic functional systems in which the interaction of brain regions is modulated by task requirements. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Bursts and Lulls of Multimodal Interaction: Temporal Distributions of Behavior Reveal Differences Between Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Drew H; Dale, Rick; Louwerse, Max M; Kello, Christopher T

    2018-04-06

    Recent studies of naturalistic face-to-face communication have demonstrated coordination patterns such as the temporal matching of verbal and non-verbal behavior, which provides evidence for the proposal that verbal and non-verbal communicative control derives from one system. In this study, we argue that the observed relationship between verbal and non-verbal behaviors depends on the level of analysis. In a reanalysis of a corpus of naturalistic multimodal communication (Louwerse, Dale, Bard, & Jeuniaux, ), we focus on measuring the temporal patterns of specific communicative behaviors in terms of their burstiness. We examined burstiness estimates across different roles of the speaker and different communicative modalities. We observed more burstiness for verbal versus non-verbal channels, and for more versus less informative language subchannels. Using this new method for analyzing temporal patterns in communicative behaviors, we show that there is a complex relationship between verbal and non-verbal channels. We propose a "temporal heterogeneity" hypothesis to explain how the language system adapts to the demands of dialog. Copyright © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. Transcriptome analysis reveals differences in mechanisms regulating cessation of luteal function in pregnant and non-pregnant dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatta, Sophie; Rehrauer, Hubert; Gram, Aykut; Boos, Alois; Kowalewski, Mariusz Pawel

    2017-09-27

    In the domestic dog, corpora lutea (CL) are the only source of progesterone (P4), both in pregnant and non-pregnant cycles because there is no placental steroidogenesis. The absence of an endogenous luteolysin in absence of pregnancy results in long-lasting physiological pseudopregnancy, strongly contrasting with the acute luteolysis observed prepartum. The underlying biological mechanisms and the involvement of P4 signalling remain, however, not fully understood. Therefore, here, next-generation sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed on CL from the late luteal phase and compared with normally luteolyzing CL collected at the prepartum P4 decrease. The contrast "luteal regression over luteolysis" yielded 1595 differentially expressed genes (DEG). The CL in late luteal regression were predominantly associated with functional terms linked to extracellular matrix (p = 5.52e-05). Other terms related to transcriptional activity (p = 2.45e-04), and steroid hormone signalling (p = 2.29e-04), which were more highly represented in late regression than during luteolysis. The prepartum luteolysis was associated with immune inflammatory responses (p = 2.87e-14), including acute-phase reaction (p = 4.10e-06). Immune system-related events were also more highly represented in CL derived from normal luteolysis (p = 7.02e-04), compared with those from dogs in which luteolysis was induced with an antigestagen (1480 DEG in total). Additionally, the withdrawal of P4 at mid-gestation resulted in 92 DEG; over-represented terms enriched in antigestagen-treated dogs were related to the inflammatory response (p = 0.005) or response to IL1 (p = 7.29e-05). Terms related to proliferation, e.g., centrosome organization (p = 0.002) and steroid metabolic processes (p = 0.001), prevailed at mid-gestation. Thereby, our results revealed the nature of luteotropic effects of P4 within canine CL. It appears that, even though they result in diminished steroidogenic output, the effect of

  11. An RT distribution analysis of relatedness proportion effects in lexical decision and semantic categorization reveals different mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Bianca; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of the semantic priming effect is known to increase as the proportion of related prime-target pairs in an experiment increases. This relatedness proportion (RP) effect was studied in a lexical decision task at a short prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (240 ms), which is widely assumed to preclude strategic prospective usage of the prime. The analysis of the reaction time (RT) distribution suggested that the observed RP effect reflected a modulation of a retrospective semantic matching process. The pattern of the RP effect on the RT distribution found here is contrasted to that reported in De Wit and Kinoshita's (2014) semantic categorization study, and it is concluded that the RP effect is driven by different underlying mechanisms in lexical decision and semantic categorization.

  12. A novel approach to eliminate Wolbachia infections in Nasonia vitripennis revealed different antibiotic resistance between two bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Yang; Wang, Yan-Kun; Zhi, Cong-Cong; Xiao, Jin-Hua; Huang, Da-Wei

    2014-06-01

    Wolbachia are widespread in insects and can manipulate host reproduction. Nasonia vitripennis is a widely studied organism with a very high prevalence of Wolbachia infection. To study the effect of Wolbachia infection in Nasonia spp., it is important to obtain noninfected individuals by artificial methods. Current methods that employ sugar water-containing antibiotics can successfully eliminate Wolbachia from the parasitic wasps; however, treatment of at least three generations is required. Here, we describe a novel, feasible, and effective approach to eliminate Wolbachia from N. vitripennis by feeding fly pupae continuously offering antibiotics to Nasonia populations, which shortened the time to eliminate the pathogens to two generations. Additionally, the Wolbachia Uni and CauB strains have obviously different rifampicin-resistance abilities, which is a previously unknown phenomenon. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Glycan analysis of Fonsecaea monophora from clinical and environmental origins reveals different structural profile and human antigenic response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Reis Burjack

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dematiaceous fungi constitute a large and heterogeneous group, characterized by having a dark pigment, the dihydroxynaftalen melanin - DHN, inside their cell walls. In nature they are found mainly as soil microbiota or decomposing organic matter, and are spread in tropical and subtropical regions. The fungus Fonsecaea monophora causes chromoblastomycosis in humans, and possesses essential mechanisms that may enhance pathogenicity, proliferation and dissemination inside the host. Glycoconjugates confer important properties to these pathogenic microorganisms. In this work, structural characterization of glycan structures present in two different strains of F. monophora MMHC82 and FE5p4, from clinical and environmental origins, respectively, was performed. Each one were grown on Minimal Medium (MM and Czapeck-Dox (CD medium, and the water soluble cell wall glycoconjugates and exopolysaccharides (EPS were evaluated by NMR, methylation and principal component analysis (PCA. By combining the methylation and 2D NMR analyses, it was possible to visualize the glycosidic profiles of the complex carbohydrate mixtures. Significant differences were observed in β-D-Galf-(1→5 and (1→6 linkages, α- and β-D-Glcp-(1→3, (1→4 and (1→6 units, as well as in α-D-Manp. PCA from 1H-NMR data showed that MMHC82 from CD medium showed a higher variation in the cell wall carbohydrates, mainly related to O-2 substituted β-D-Galf (δ 106.0/5.23 and δ 105.3/5.23 units. In order to investigate the antigenic response of the glycoconjugates, these were screened against serum from chromoblastomycosis patients. The antigen which contained the cell wall of MMHC82 grown in MM had β-D-Manp units that promoted higher antigenic response. The distribution of these fungal species in nature and the knowledge of how cell wall polysaccharides and glycoconjugates structure vary, may contribute to the better understanding and the elucidation of the pathology caused by this

  14. Tensor Analysis Reveals Distinct Population Structure that Parallels the Different Computational Roles of Areas M1 and V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, Jeffrey S; Kaufman, Matthew T; Ryu, Stephen I; Shenoy, Krishna V; Cunningham, John P; Churchland, Mark M

    2016-11-01

    Cortical firing rates frequently display elaborate and heterogeneous temporal structure. One often wishes to compute quantitative summaries of such structure-a basic example is the frequency spectrum-and compare with model-based predictions. The advent of large-scale population recordings affords the opportunity to do so in new ways, with the hope of distinguishing between potential explanations for why responses vary with time. We introduce a method that assesses a basic but previously unexplored form of population-level structure: when data contain responses across multiple neurons, conditions, and times, they are naturally expressed as a third-order tensor. We examined tensor structure for multiple datasets from primary visual cortex (V1) and primary motor cortex (M1). All V1 datasets were 'simplest' (there were relatively few degrees of freedom) along the neuron mode, while all M1 datasets were simplest along the condition mode. These differences could not be inferred from surface-level response features. Formal considerations suggest why tensor structure might differ across modes. For idealized linear models, structure is simplest across the neuron mode when responses reflect external variables, and simplest across the condition mode when responses reflect population dynamics. This same pattern was present for existing models that seek to explain motor cortex responses. Critically, only dynamical models displayed tensor structure that agreed with the empirical M1 data. These results illustrate that tensor structure is a basic feature of the data. For M1 the tensor structure was compatible with only a subset of existing models.

  15. Infant VEPs reveal neural correlates of implicit naming: Lateralized differences between lexicalized versus name-unknown pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, Suzy J.; Plunkett, Kim; Duta, Mihaela D.

    2015-01-01

    Recent behavioural studies with toddlers have demonstrated that simply viewing a picture in silence triggers a cascade of linguistic processing which activates a representation of the picture’s name (Mani and Plunkett, 2010, 2011). Electrophysiological studies have also shown that viewing a picture modulates the auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) triggered by later speech, from early in the second year of life (Duta et al., 2012; Friedrich and Friederici, 2005; Mani et al., 2011) further supporting the notion that picture viewing gives rise to a representation of the picture’s name against which later speech can be matched. However, little is known about how and when the implicit name arises during picture viewing, or about the electrophysiological activity which supports this linguistic process. We report differences in the visual evoked potentials (VEPs) of fourteen-month-old infants who saw photographs of animals and objects, some of which were name-known (lexicalized), while waiting for an auditory label to be presented. During silent picture viewing, lateralized neural activity was selectively triggered by lexicalized items, as compared to nameless items. Lexicalized items generated a short-lasting negative-going deflection over frontal, left centro-temporal, and left occipital regions shortly after the picture appeared (126–225 ms). A positive deflection was also observed over the right hemisphere (particularly centro-temporal regions) in a later, longer-lasting window (421–720 ms). The lateralization of these differences in the VEP suggests the possible involvement of linguistic processes during picture viewing, and may reflect activity involved in the implicit activation of the picture’s name. PMID:26232744

  16. Tensor Analysis Reveals Distinct Population Structure that Parallels the Different Computational Roles of Areas M1 and V1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S Seely

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cortical firing rates frequently display elaborate and heterogeneous temporal structure. One often wishes to compute quantitative summaries of such structure-a basic example is the frequency spectrum-and compare with model-based predictions. The advent of large-scale population recordings affords the opportunity to do so in new ways, with the hope of distinguishing between potential explanations for why responses vary with time. We introduce a method that assesses a basic but previously unexplored form of population-level structure: when data contain responses across multiple neurons, conditions, and times, they are naturally expressed as a third-order tensor. We examined tensor structure for multiple datasets from primary visual cortex (V1 and primary motor cortex (M1. All V1 datasets were 'simplest' (there were relatively few degrees of freedom along the neuron mode, while all M1 datasets were simplest along the condition mode. These differences could not be inferred from surface-level response features. Formal considerations suggest why tensor structure might differ across modes. For idealized linear models, structure is simplest across the neuron mode when responses reflect external variables, and simplest across the condition mode when responses reflect population dynamics. This same pattern was present for existing models that seek to explain motor cortex responses. Critically, only dynamical models displayed tensor structure that agreed with the empirical M1 data. These results illustrate that tensor structure is a basic feature of the data. For M1 the tensor structure was compatible with only a subset of existing models.

  17. Pup Vibrissae Stable Isotopes Reveal Geographic Differences in Adult Female Southern Sea Lion Habitat Use during Gestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair M M Baylis

    Full Text Available Individuals within populations often differ substantially in habitat use, the ecological consequences of which can be far reaching. Stable isotope analysis provides a convenient and often cost effective means of indirectly assessing the habitat use of individuals that can yield valuable insights into the spatiotemporal distribution of foraging specialisations within a population. Here we use the stable isotope ratios of southern sea lion (Otaria flavescens pup vibrissae at the Falkland Islands, in the South Atlantic, as a proxy for adult female habitat use during gestation. A previous study found that adult females from one breeding colony (Big Shag Island foraged in two discrete habitats, inshore (coastal or offshore (outer Patagonian Shelf. However, as this species breeds at over 70 sites around the Falkland Islands, it is unclear if this pattern is representative of the Falkland Islands as a whole. In order to characterize habitat use, we therefore assayed carbon (δ13C and nitrogen (δ15N ratios from 65 southern sea lion pup vibrissae, sampled across 19 breeding colonies at the Falkland Islands. Model-based clustering of pup isotope ratios identified three distinct clusters, representing adult females that foraged inshore, offshore, and a cluster best described as intermediate. A significant difference was found in the use of inshore and offshore habitats between West and East Falkland and between the two colonies with the largest sample sizes, both of which are located in East Falkland. However, habitat use was unrelated to the proximity of breeding colonies to the Patagonian Shelf, a region associated with enhanced biological productivity. Our study thus points towards other factors, such as local oceanography and its influence on resource distribution, playing a prominent role in inshore and offshore habitat use.

  18. Blood pathway analyses reveal differences between prediabetic subjects with or without dyslipidaemia. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Jaakko; Taipale, Tuukka; Seppälä, Ilkka; Raitoharju, Emma; Mononen, Nina; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Waldenberger, Melanie; Illig, Thomas; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Juonala, Markus; Viikari, Jorma; Kähönen, Mika; Raitakari, Olli; Lehtimäki, Terho

    2017-10-01

    Prediabetes often occurs together with dyslipidaemia, which is paradoxically treated with statins predisposing to type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined peripheral blood pathway profiles in prediabetic subjects with (PR D ) and without dyslipidaemia (PR 0 ) and compared these to nonprediabetic controls without dyslipidaemia (C 0 ). The participants were from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, including 1240 subjects aged 34 to 49 years. Genome-wide expression data of peripheral blood and gene set enrichment analysis were used to investigate the differentially expressed genes and enriched pathways between different subtypes of prediabetes. Pathways for cholesterol synthesis, interleukin-12-mediated signalling events, and downstream signalling in naïve CD8+ T-cells were upregulated in the PR 0 group in comparison with controls (C 0 ). The upregulation of these pathways was independent of waist circumference, blood pressure, smoking status, and insulin. Adjustment for CRP left the CD8+ T-cell signalling and interleukin-12-mediated signalling event pathway upregulated. The cholesterol synthesis pathway was also upregulated when all prediabetic subjects (PR 0 and PR D ) were compared with the nonprediabetic control group. No pathways were upregulated or downregulated when the PR D group was compared with the C 0 group. Five genes in the PR 0 group and 1 in the PR D group were significantly differentially expressed in comparison with the C 0 group. Blood cell gene expression profiles differ significantly between prediabetic subjects with and without dyslipidaemia. Whether this classification may be used in detection of prediabetic individuals at a high risk of cardiovascular complications remains to be examined. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. ACL deficient potential copers and non-copers reveal different isokinetic quadriceps strength profiles in the early stage after injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitzen, I; Eitzen, TJ; Holm, I; Snyder-Mackler, L; Risberg, MA

    2011-01-01

    Background Isokinetic muscle strength tests using the peak torque value is the most frequently included quadriceps muscle strength measurement for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injured subjects. Aims The purpose of this study was to investigate quadriceps muscle performance during the whole isokinetic curve in ACL deficient subjects classified as potential copers or non-copers, and investigate whether these curve profiles were associated with single-leg hop performance. We hypothesized that quadriceps muscle torque at other knee flexion angles than peak torque would give more information about quadriceps muscle strength deficits. Furthermore, we hypothesized that there would be significant torque differences between potential copers and non-copers, and a significant relationship between angle specific torque values and single-leg hop performance. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 2 Methods Seventy-six individuals with a complete unilateral ACL rupture within the last 3 months were included. The subjects were classified into potential copers and non-copers according to the criteria from Fitzgerald et al12. Isokinetic quadriceps muscle tests were performed at 60°/sec (Biodex 6000). Mean torque values were calculated for peak torque as well as for specific knee flexion angles. The one-leg hop and the 6 meter timed hop tests were included and symmetry indices were used. Results The peak torque value did not identify the largest quadriceps muscle strength deficit. Rather, these were established at knee flexion angles of less than 40°. There were significant differences in angle specific torque values between potential copers and non-copers (p<0.05). Moderate to strong associations were disclosed between angle specific torque values and single-leg hop performance, but only for non-copers (r≥0.32– 0.58). Conclusions Angle specific quadriceps muscle torque values of less than 40° of knee flexion provide more information on the quadriceps

  20. Secretome weaponries of Cochliobolus lunatus interacting with potato leaf at different temperature regimes reveal a CL[xxxx]LHM - motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Bengyella; Waikhom, Sayanika Devi; Roy, Pranab; Bhardwaj, Pardeep Kumar; Singh, Mohendro Wakambam; Goyari, Sailendra; Sharma, Chandradev K; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra

    2014-03-20

    Plant and animal pathogenic fungus Cochliobolus lunatus cause great economic damages worldwide every year. C. lunatus displays an increased temperature dependent-virulence to a wide range of hosts. Nonetheless, this phenomenon is poorly understood due to lack of insights on the coordinated secretome weaponries produced by C. lunatus under heat-stress conditions on putative hosts. To understand the mechanism better, we dissected the secretome of C. lunatus interacting with potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) leaf at different temperature regimes. C. lunatus produced melanized colonizing hyphae in and on potato leaf, finely modulated the ambient pH as a function of temperature and secreted diverse set of proteins. Using two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-D) and mass spectrometry (MS) technology, we observed discrete secretomes at 20°C, 28°C and 38°C. A total of 21 differentially expressed peptide spots and 10 unique peptide spots (that did not align on the gels) matched with 28 unique protein models predicted from C. lunatus m118 v.2 genome peptides. Furthermore, C. lunatus secreted peptides via classical and non-classical pathways related to virulence, proteolysis, nucleic acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, heat stress, signal trafficking and some with unidentified catalytic domains. We have identified a set of 5 soluble candidate effectors of unknown function from C. lunatus secretome weaponries against potato crop at different temperature regimes. Our findings demonstrate that C. lunatus has a repertoire of signature secretome which mediates thermo-pathogenicity and share a leucine rich "CL[xxxx]LHM"-motif. Considering the rapidly evolving temperature dependent-virulence and host diversity of C. lunatus, this data will be useful for designing new protection strategies.

  1. Isolation of a candidate human telomerase catalytic subunit gene, which reveals complex splicing patterns in different cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, A; Bowtell, D D; Abud, H E; Hime, G R; Venter, D J; Keese, P K; Duncan, E L; Reddel, R R; Jefferson, R A

    1997-11-01

    Telomerase is a multicomponent reverse transcriptase enzyme that adds DNA repeats to the ends of chromosomes using its RNA component as a template for synthesis. Telomerase activity is detected in the germline as well as the majority of tumors and immortal cell lines, and at low levels in several types of normal cells. We have cloned a human gene homologous to a protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Euplotes aediculatus that has reverse transcriptase motifs and is thought to be the catalytic subunit of telomerase in those species. This gene is present in the human genome as a single copy sequence with a dominant transcript of approximately 4 kb in a human colon cancer cell line, LIM1215. The cDNA sequence was determined using clones from a LIM1215 cDNA library and by RT-PCR, cRACE and 3'RACE on mRNA from the same source. We show that the gene is expressed in several normal tissues, telomerase-positive post-crisis (immortal) cell lines and various tumors but is not expressed in the majority of normal tissues analyzed, pre-crisis (non-immortal) cells and telomerase-negative immortal (ALT) cell lines. Multiple products were identified by RT-PCR using primers within the reverse transcriptase domain. Sequencing of these products suggests that they arise by alternative splicing. Strikingly, various tumors, cell lines and even normal tissues (colonic crypt and testis) showed considerable differences in the splicing patterns. Alternative splicing of the telomerase catalytic subunit transcript may be important for the regulation of telomerase activity and may give rise to proteins with different biochemical functions.

  2. Species used for drug testing reveal different inhibition susceptibility for 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

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    Gabriele Möller

    Full Text Available Steroid-related cancers can be treated by inhibitors of steroid metabolism. In searching for new inhibitors of human 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17beta-HSD 1 for the treatment of breast cancer or endometriosis, novel substances based on 15-substituted estrone were validated. We checked the specificity for different 17beta-HSD types and species. Compounds were tested for specificity in vitro not only towards recombinant human 17beta-HSD types 1, 2, 4, 5 and 7 but also against 17beta-HSD 1 of several other species including marmoset, pig, mouse, and rat. The latter are used in the processes of pharmacophore screening. We present the quantification of inhibitor preferences between human and animal models. Profound differences in the susceptibility to inhibition of steroid conversion among all 17beta-HSDs analyzed were observed. Especially, the rodent 17beta-HSDs 1 were significantly less sensitive to inhibition compared to the human ortholog, while the most similar inhibition pattern to the human 17beta-HSD 1 was obtained with the marmoset enzyme. Molecular docking experiments predicted estrone as the most potent inhibitor. The best performing compound in enzymatic assays was also highly ranked by docking scoring for the human enzyme. However, species-specific prediction of inhibitor performance by molecular docking was not possible. We show that experiments with good candidate compounds would out-select them in the rodent model during preclinical optimization steps. Potentially active human-relevant drugs, therefore, would no longer be further developed. Activity and efficacy screens in heterologous species systems must be evaluated with caution.

  3. Anatomy of Student Models in Adaptive Learning Systems: A Systematic Literature Review of Individual Differences from 2001 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakic, Jelena; Granic, Andrina; Glavinic, Vlado

    2015-01-01

    This study brings an evidence-based review of user individual characteristics employed as sources of adaptation in recent adaptive learning systems. Twenty-two user individual characteristics were explored in a systematically designed search procedure, while 17 of them were identified as sources of adaptation in final selection. The content…

  4. Reactivity and recovery from different types of work measured by catecholamines and cortisol : a systematic literature overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluiter, J.K; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.; Meijman, T.F.; van der Beek, A.J.

    Objectives-To review occupational health, laboratory, and sports Literature on neuroendocrine reactivity and recovery from mental, combined mental and physical, or physical tasks. Methods-A systematic literature search was performed in eight databases. Studies with catecholamines or cortisol as

  5. Different functions of the insect soluble and membrane-bound trehalase genes in chitin biosynthesis revealed by RNA interference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trehalase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes trehalose to yield two glucose molecules, plays a pivotal role in various physiological processes. In recent years, trehalase proteins have been purified from several insect species and are divided into soluble (Tre-1 and membrane-bound (Tre-2 trehalases. However, no functions of the two trehalases in chitin biosynthesis in insects have yet been reported. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The membrane-bound trehalase of Spodoptera exigua (SeTre-2 was characterized in our laboratory previously. In this study, we cloned the soluble trehalase gene (SeTre-1 and investigated the tissue distribution and developmental expression pattern of the two trehalase genes. SeTre-1 was expressed highly in cuticle and Malpighian tubules, while SeTre-2 was expressed in tracheae and fat body. In the midgut, the two trehalase genes were expressed in different locations. Additionally, the expression profiles of both trehalase mRNAs and their enzyme activities suggest that they may play different roles in chitin biosynthesis. The RNA interference (RNAi of either SeTre-1 or SeTre-2 was gene-specific and effective, with efficiency rates up to 83% at 72 h post injection. After RNAi of SeTre-1 and SeTre-2, significant higher mortality rates were observed during the larva-pupa stage and pupa-adult stage, and the lethal phenotypes were classified and analyzed. Additionally, the change trends of concentration of trehalose and glucose appeared reciprocally in RNAi-mutants. Moreover, knockdown of SeTre-1 gene largely inhibited the expression of chitin synthase gene A (CHSA and reduced the chitin content in the cuticle to two-thirds relative to the control insects. The chitin synthase gene B (CHSB expression, however, was inhibited more by the injection of dsRNA for SeTre-2, and the chitin content in the midgut decreased by about 25%. CONCLUSIONS: SeTre-1 plays a major role in CHSA expression and chitin synthesis in the cuticle, and SeTre-2

  6. Physiological response curves reveal differences among season advancement and timing of grazing experimental treatments in a coastal Alaskan wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffler, A. J.; Kelsey, K.; Beard, K. H.; Choi, R. T.; Welker, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The phenology of northern ecosystems is rapidly changing as high latitude regions warm. Spring green-up has advanced 1-3 days per decade since the early 1980's and sea ice retreat is likely to further accelerate the arrival of spring in coastal Alaska. One result of spring advancement is a phenological mismatch with the arrival of migratory geese that bread in the region. As green-up advances, geese arrive into a phenologically older system where vegetation has a higher C:N ratio than younger grasses with potential consequences for goose nutrition and C and N cycling. In 2014 and 2015 we established a season advancement X timing of grazing experiment to examine the ecosystem consequences of this mismatch. We used a LI-Cor 8100 automated, chamber-based C flux system to monitor hourly net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in eight plots: four were warmed in June to advance the growing season, four received ambient temperatures; two each experienced early, typical, late, or no grazing. The experiment is replicated six times, but the automated system is capable of measuring only one block; other blocks are measured twice weekly with a portable system. We fit physiological light response curves to weekly data and used incident sunlight to estimate daily NEE. Results suggest that daily carbon uptake ranged from ca. 0.6 to 4.5 g m-2 d-1 in the different treatments. Carbon uptake in the season advancement plots was lower than in the ambient plots by ca. 0.5 g m-2 d-1 averaged during the summer. Delaying grazing into the later season, the expectation of climate change, greatly increased NEE to 4.5 g m-2 d-1, a value much greater than the typical grazing period in 2015. Completely eliminating grazing from the system resulted in NEE of 2.9 g m-2 d-1. Differences were likely driven by warmer soils enhancing respiration, removal of photosynthetic biomass, and grazing maintaining tissue in a young, highly photosynthetic form. Overall our results suggest that timing of grazing in the

  7. Different foraging preferences of hummingbirds on artificial and natural flowers reveal mechanisms structuring plant-pollinator interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglianesi, María A; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Schleuning, Matthias

    2015-05-01

    In plant-pollinator networks, the floral morphology of food plants is an important determinant of the interaction niche of pollinators. Studies on foraging preferences of pollinators combining experimental and observational approaches may help to understand the mechanisms behind patterns of interactions and niche partitioning within pollinator communities. In this study, we tested whether morphological floral traits were associated with foraging preferences of hummingbirds for artificial and natural flower types in Costa Rica. We performed field experiments with artificial feeders, differing in length and curvature of flower types, to quantify the hummingbirds' interaction niche under unlimited nectar resources. To quantify the interaction niche under real-world conditions of limited nectar resources, we measured foraging preferences of hummingbirds for a total of 34 plant species. Artificial feeders were visited by Eupherusa nigriventris and Phaethornis guy in the pre-montane forest, and Lampornis calolaemus in the lower montane forest. Under experimental conditions, all three hummingbird species overlapped their interaction niches and showed a preference for the short artificial flower type over the long-straight and the long-curved flower types. Under natural conditions, the two co-occurring hummingbird species preferred to feed on plant species with floral traits corresponding to their bill morphology. The short-billed hummingbird E. nigriventris preferred to feed on short and straight flowers, whereas the long- and curved-billed P. guy preferred long and curved natural flowers. The medium-size billed species L. calolaemus preferred to feed on flowers of medium length and did not show preferences for plant species with specific corolla curvature. Our results show that floral morphological traits constrain access by short-billed hummingbird species to nectar resources. Morphological constraints, therefore, represent one important mechanism structuring trophic

  8. Biodiversity among Lactobacillus helveticus Strains Isolated from Different Natural Whey Starter Cultures as Revealed by Classification Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Monica; Trivisano, Carlo; Fabrizi, Enrico; Neviani, Erasmo; Gardini, Fausto

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus is a homofermentative thermophilic lactic acid bacterium used extensively for manufacturing Swiss type and aged Italian cheese. In this study, the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of strains isolated from different natural dairy starter cultures used for Grana Padano, Parmigiano Reggiano, and Provolone cheeses was investigated by a classification tree technique. A data set was used that consists of 119 L. helveticus strains, each of which was studied for its physiological characters, as well as surface protein profiles and hybridization with a species-specific DNA probe. The methodology employed in this work allowed the strains to be grouped into terminal nodes without difficult and subjective interpretation. In particular, good discrimination was obtained between L. helveticus strains isolated, respectively, from Grana Padano and from Provolone natural whey starter cultures. The method used in this work allowed identification of the main characteristics that permit discrimination of biotypes. In order to understand what kind of genes could code for phenotypes of technological relevance, evidence that specific DNA sequences are present only in particular biotypes may be of great interest. PMID:14711641

  9. Differential SPL gene expression patterns reveal candidate genes underlying flowering time and architectural differences in Mimulus and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Stacy A; Preston, Jill C

    2014-04-01

    Evolutionary transitions in growth habit and flowering time responses to variable environmental signals have occurred multiple times independently across angiosperms and have major impacts on plant fitness. Proteins in the SPL family of transcription factors collectively regulate flowering time genes that have been implicated in interspecific shifts in annuality/perenniality. However, their potential importance in the evolution of angiosperm growth habit has not been extensively investigated. Here we identify orthologs representative of the major SPL gene clades in annual Arabidopsis thaliana and Mimulus guttatus IM767, and perennial A. lyrata and M. guttatus PR, and characterize their expression. Spatio-temporal expression patterns are complex across both diverse tissues of the same taxa and comparable tissues of different taxa, consistent with genic sub- or neo-functionalization. However, our data are consistent with a general role for several SPL genes in the promotion of juvenile to adult phase change and/or flowering time in Mimulus and Arabidopsis. Furthermore, several candidate genes were identified for future study whose differential expression correlates with growth habit and architectural variation in annual versus perennial taxa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Label-Free Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Puccinia psidii Uredospores Reveals Differences of Fungal Populations Infecting Eucalyptus and Guava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quecine, Maria Carolina; Leite, Thiago Falda; Bini, Andressa Peres; Regiani, Thais; Franceschini, Lívia Maria; Budzinski, Ilara Gabriela Frasson; Marques, Felipe Garbelini; Labate, Mônica Teresa Veneziano; Guidetti-Gonzalez, Simone; Moon, David Henry; Labate, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Puccinia psidii sensu lato (s.l.) is the causal agent of eucalyptus and guava rust, but it also attacks a wide range of plant species from the myrtle family, resulting in a significant genetic and physiological variability among populations accessed from different hosts. The uredospores are crucial to P. psidii dissemination in the field. Although they are important for the fungal pathogenesis, their molecular characterization has been poorly studied. In this work, we report the first in-depth proteomic analysis of P. psidii s.l. uredospores from two contrasting populations: guava fruits (PpGuava) and eucalyptus leaves (PpEucalyptus). NanoUPLC-MSE was used to generate peptide spectra that were matched to the UniProt Puccinia genera sequences (UniProt database) resulting in the first proteomic analysis of the phytopathogenic fungus P. psidii. Three hundred and fourty proteins were detected and quantified using Label free proteomics. A significant number of unique proteins were found for each sample, others were significantly more or less abundant, according to the fungal populations. In PpGuava population, many proteins correlated with fungal virulence, such as malate dehydrogenase, proteossomes subunits, enolases and others were increased. On the other hand, PpEucalyptus proteins involved in biogenesis, protein folding and translocation were increased, supporting the physiological variability of the fungal populations according to their protein reservoirs and specific host interaction strategies.

  11. ERP to chess stimuli reveal expert-novice differences in the amplitudes of N2 and P3 components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael J; Gobet, Fernand; Chassy, Philippe; Ramchandani, Payal Nanik

    2013-10-01

    ERP experiments were conducted to analyze the underlying neural events when chess players make simple judgments of a board position. Fourteen expert players and 14 age-matched novices viewed, for each of four tasks, 128 unique positions on a mini (4 × 4) chess board each presented for 0.5 s. The tasks were to respond: (a) if white king was in check, (b) if black knight was present, (c) if white king was not in check, and (d) if no black knight was present. Experts showed an enhanced N2 with check targets and a larger P3 with knight targets, relative to novices. Expert-novice differences in posterior N2 began as early as 240 ms on check-related searches. Results were consistent with the view that prolonged N2 components reflect matching of current perceptual input to memory, and thus are sensitive to experts' superior pattern recognition and memory retrieval of chunks. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  12. Cdc42 and RhoA reveal different spatio-temporal dynamics upon local stimulation with Semaphorin-3A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico eIseppon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Small RhoGTPases, such as Cdc42 and RhoA, are key players in integrating external cues and intracellular signaling pathways that regulate growth cone (GC motility. Indeed, Cdc42 is involved in actin polymerization and filopodia formation, whereas RhoA induces GC collapse and neurite retraction through actomyosin contraction. In this study we employed Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET microscopy to study the spatio-temporal dynamics of Cdc42 and RhoA in GCs in response to local Semaphorin-3A stimulation obtained with lipid vesicles filled with Semaphorin-3A and positioned near the selected GC using optical tweezers. We found that Cdc42 and RhoA were activated at the leading edge of NG108-15 neuroblastoma cells during spontaneous cycles of protrusion and retraction, respectively. The release of Semaphorin-3A brought to a progressive activation of RhoA within 30 seconds from the stimulus in the central region of the GC that collapsed and retracted. In contrast, the same stimulation evoked waves of Cdc42 activation propagating away from the stimulated region. A more localized stimulation obtained with Sema3A coated beads placed on the GC, led to Cdc42 active waves that propagated in a retrograde manner with a mean period of 70 seconds, and followed by GC retraction. Therefore, Semaphorin-3A activates both Cdc42 and RhoA with a complex and different spatial-temporal dynamics.

  13. Sample Entropy and Traditional Measures of Heart Rate Dynamics Reveal Different Modes of Cardiovascular Control During Low Intensity Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Weippert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear parameters of heart rate variability (HRV have proven their prognostic value in clinical settings, but their physiological background is not very well established. We assessed the effects of low intensity isometric (ISO and dynamic (DYN exercise of the lower limbs on heart rate matched intensity on traditional and entropy measures of HRV. Due to changes of afferent feedback under DYN and ISO a distinct autonomic response, mirrored by HRV measures, was hypothesized. Five-minute inter-beat interval measurements of 43 healthy males (26.0 ± 3.1 years were performed during rest, DYN and ISO in a randomized order. Blood pressures and rate pressure product were higher during ISO vs. DYN (p < 0.001. HRV indicators SDNN as well as low and high frequency power were significantly higher during ISO (p < 0.001 for all measures. Compared to DYN, sample entropy (SampEn was lower during ISO (p < 0.001. Concluding, contraction mode itself is a significant modulator of the autonomic cardiovascular response to exercise. Compared to DYN, ISO evokes a stronger blood pressure response and an enhanced interplay between both autonomic branches. Non-linear HRV measures indicate a more regular behavior under ISO. Results support the view of the reciprocal antagonism being only one of many modes of autonomic heart rate control. Under different conditions; the identical “end product” heart rate might be achieved by other modes such as sympathovagal co-activation as well.

  14. An Org-1-Tup transcriptional cascade reveals different types of alary muscles connecting internal organs in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhatmi, Hadi; Schaub, Christoph; Bataillé, Laetitia; Reim, Ingolf; Frendo, Jean-Louis; Frasch, Manfred; Vincent, Alain

    2014-10-01

    The T-box transcription factor Tbx1 and the LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Islet1 are key components in regulatory circuits that generate myogenic and cardiogenic lineage diversity in chordates. We show here that Org-1 and Tup, the Drosophila orthologs of Tbx1 and Islet1, are co-expressed and required for formation of the heart-associated alary muscles (AMs) in the abdomen. The same holds true for lineage-related muscles in the thorax that have not been described previously, which we name thoracic alary-related muscles (TARMs). Lineage analyses identified the progenitor cell for each AM and TARM. Three-dimensional high-resolution analyses indicate that AMs and TARMs connect the exoskeleton to the aorta/heart and to different regions of the midgut, respectively, and surround-specific tracheal branches, pointing to an architectural role in the internal anatomy of the larva. Org-1 controls tup expression in the AM/TARM lineage by direct binding to two regulatory sites within an AM/TARM-specific cis-regulatory module, tupAME. The contributions of Org-1 and Tup to the specification of Drosophila AMs and TARMs provide new insights into the transcriptional control of Drosophila larval muscle diversification and highlight new parallels with gene regulatory networks involved in the specification of cardiopharyngeal mesodermal derivatives in chordates. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Single Stem Cell Imaging and Analysis Reveals Telomere Length Differences in Diseased Human and Mouse Skeletal Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisia D. Tichy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Muscle stem cells (MuSCs contribute to muscle regeneration following injury. In many muscle disorders, the repeated cycles of damage and repair lead to stem cell dysfunction. While telomere attrition may contribute to aberrant stem cell functions, methods to accurately measure telomere length in stem cells from skeletal muscles have not been demonstrated. Here, we have optimized and validated such a method, named MuQ-FISH, for analyzing telomere length in MuSCs from either mice or humans. Our analysis showed no differences in telomere length between young and aged MuSCs from uninjured wild-type mice, but MuSCs isolated from young dystrophic mice exhibited significantly shortened telomeres. In corroboration, we demonstrated that telomere attrition is present in human dystrophic MuSCs, which underscores its importance in diseased regenerative failure. The robust technique described herein provides analysis at a single-cell resolution and may be utilized for other cell types, especially rare populations of cells.

  16. 7T T₂*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging reveals cortical phase differences between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooden, Sanneke; Doan, Nhat Trung; Versluis, Maarten J; Goos, Jeroen D C; Webb, Andrew G; Oleksik, Ania M; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Weverling-Rynsburger, Annelies W E; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Reiber, Johan H C; van Buchem, Mark A; Milles, Julien; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore regional iron-related differences in the cerebral cortex, indicative of Alzheimer's disease pathology, between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD, LOAD, respectively) patients using 7T magnetic resonance phase images. High-resolution T2(∗)-weighted scans were acquired in 12 EOAD patients and 17 LOAD patients with mild to moderate disease and 27 healthy elderly control subjects. Lobar peak-to-peak phase shifts and regional mean phase contrasts were computed. An increased peak-to-peak phase shift was found for all lobar regions in EOAD patients compared with LOAD patients (p < 0.05). Regional mean phase contrast in EOAD patients was higher than in LOAD patients in the superior medial and middle frontal gyrus, anterior and middle cingulate gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior and inferior parietal gyrus, and precuneus (p ≤ 0.042). These data suggest that EOAD patients have an increased iron accumulation, possibly related to an increased amyloid deposition, in specific cortical regions as compared with LOAD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Label-Free Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Puccinia psidii Uredospores Reveals Differences of Fungal Populations Infecting Eucalyptus and Guava.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Quecine

    Full Text Available Puccinia psidii sensu lato (s.l. is the causal agent of eucalyptus and guava rust, but it also attacks a wide range of plant species from the myrtle family, resulting in a significant genetic and physiological variability among populations accessed from different hosts. The uredospores are crucial to P. psidii dissemination in the field. Although they are important for the fungal pathogenesis, their molecular characterization has been poorly studied. In this work, we report the first in-depth proteomic analysis of P. psidii s.l. uredospores from two contrasting populations: guava fruits (PpGuava and eucalyptus leaves (PpEucalyptus. NanoUPLC-MSE was used to generate peptide spectra that were matched to the UniProt Puccinia genera sequences (UniProt database resulting in the first proteomic analysis of the phytopathogenic fungus P. psidii. Three hundred and fourty proteins were detected and quantified using Label free proteomics. A significant number of unique proteins were found for each sample, others were significantly more or less abundant, according to the fungal populations. In PpGuava population, many proteins correlated with fungal virulence, such as malate dehydrogenase, proteossomes subunits, enolases and others were increased. On the other hand, PpEucalyptus proteins involved in biogenesis, protein folding and translocation were increased, supporting the physiological variability of the fungal populations according to their protein reservoirs and specific host interaction strategies.

  18. Spatiotemporal maps reveal regional differences in the effects on gut motility for Lactobacillus reuteri and rhamnosus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, R Y; Pasyk, M; Wang, B; Forsythe, P; Bienenstock, J; Mao, Y-K; Sharma, P; Stanisz, A M; Kunze, W A

    2013-03-01

    Commensal bacteria such as probiotics that are neuroactive acutely affect the amplitudes of intestinal migrating motor complexes (MMCs). What is lacking for an improved understanding of these motility effects are region specific measurements of velocity and frequency. We have combined intraluminal pressure recordings with spatiotemporal diameter maps to analyze more completely effects of different strains of beneficial bacteria on motility. Intraluminal peak pressure (PPr) was measured and video recordings made of mouse ex vivo jejunum and colon segments before and after intraluminal applications of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) or Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938). Migrating motor complex frequency and velocity were calculated. JB-1 decreased jejunal frequencies by 56% and 34% in colon. Jejunal velocities increased 171%, but decreased 31% in colon. Jejunal PPr decreased by 55% and in colon by 21%. DSM 17938 increased jejunal frequencies 63% and in colon 75%; jejunal velocity decreased 57%, but increased in colon 146%; jejunal PPr was reduced 26% and 12% in colon. TRAM-34 decreased frequency by 71% and increased velocity 200% for jejunum, but increased frequency 46% and velocity 50% for colon; PPr was decreased 59% for jejunum and 39% for colon. The results show that probiotics and other beneficial bacteria have strain and region-specific actions on gut motility that can be successfully discriminated using spatiotemporal mapping of diameter changes. Effects are not necessarily the same in colon and jejunum. Further research is needed on the detailed effects of the strains on enteric neuron currents for each gut region. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Nutritional and reproductive signaling revealed by comparative gene expression analysis in Chrysopa pallens (Rambur at different nutritional statuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benfeng Han

    Full Text Available The green lacewing, Chrysopa pallens Rambur, is one of the most important natural predators because of its extensive spectrum of prey and wide distribution. However, what we know about the nutritional and reproductive physiology of this species is very scarce.By cDNA amplification and Illumina short-read sequencing, we analyzed transcriptomes of C. pallens female adult under starved and fed conditions. In total, 71236 unigenes were obtained with an average length of 833 bp. Four vitellogenins, three insulin-like peptides and two insulin receptors were annotated. Comparison of gene expression profiles suggested that totally 1501 genes were differentially expressed between the two nutritional statuses. KEGG orthology classification showed that these differentially expression genes (DEGs were mapped to 241 pathways. In turn, the top 4 are ribosome, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, biosynthesis of amino acids and carbon metabolism, indicating a distinct difference in nutritional and reproductive signaling between the two feeding conditions.Our study yielded large-scale molecular information relevant to C. pallens nutritional and reproductive signaling, which will contribute to mass rearing and commercial use of this predaceous insect species.

  20. Nutritional and reproductive signaling revealed by comparative gene expression analysis in Chrysopa pallens (Rambur) at different nutritional statuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Benfeng; Zhang, Shen; Zeng, Fanrong; Mao, Jianjun

    2017-01-01

    The green lacewing, Chrysopa pallens Rambur, is one of the most important natural predators because of its extensive spectrum of prey and wide distribution. However, what we know about the nutritional and reproductive physiology of this species is very scarce. By cDNA amplification and Illumina short-read sequencing, we analyzed transcriptomes of C. pallens female adult under starved and fed conditions. In total, 71236 unigenes were obtained with an average length of 833 bp. Four vitellogenins, three insulin-like peptides and two insulin receptors were annotated. Comparison of gene expression profiles suggested that totally 1501 genes were differentially expressed between the two nutritional statuses. KEGG orthology classification showed that these differentially expression genes (DEGs) were mapped to 241 pathways. In turn, the top 4 are ribosome, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, biosynthesis of amino acids and carbon metabolism, indicating a distinct difference in nutritional and reproductive signaling between the two feeding conditions. Our study yielded large-scale molecular information relevant to C. pallens nutritional and reproductive signaling, which will contribute to mass rearing and commercial use of this predaceous insect species.