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  1. Slightly flexed knee position within a standard knee coil: MR delineation of the anterior cruciate ligament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niitsu, M.; Itai, Y. [Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 (Japan); Ikeda, K. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of positioning the knee slightly flexed within a standard MR knee coil in delineation of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Within the confined space of a commercially available knee coil, knee could bend as much as 30 , average 17 of flexion. Sets of oblique sagittal MR images were obtained at both fully extended and slightly flexed positions. Twenty-two normal knees and 18 knees with ACL tears were examined and paired MR images were evaluated by two observers. Compared with knee extension, the MR images for knee flexion provided better clarity in 57 % of reviews of full length of the ACL and 53 % of the femoral attachment. In the extended position the anterior margin of the ligament was obscured due to partial averaging with the intercondylar roof. We recommend examining the knee in an achievable flexed position within the standard knee coil. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 6 refs.

  2. Slightly flexed knee position within a standard knee coil: MR delineation of the anterior cruciate ligament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niitsu, M.; Itai, Y.; Ikeda, K.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of positioning the knee slightly flexed within a standard MR knee coil in delineation of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Within the confined space of a commercially available knee coil, knee could bend as much as 30 , average 17 of flexion. Sets of oblique sagittal MR images were obtained at both fully extended and slightly flexed positions. Twenty-two normal knees and 18 knees with ACL tears were examined and paired MR images were evaluated by two observers. Compared with knee extension, the MR images for knee flexion provided better clarity in 57 % of reviews of full length of the ACL and 53 % of the femoral attachment. In the extended position the anterior margin of the ligament was obscured due to partial averaging with the intercondylar roof. We recommend examining the knee in an achievable flexed position within the standard knee coil. (orig.)

  3. Slight hypercalcemia is not associated with positive responses in the Comet Assay in male rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Anette; Hamel, Annie; Schaefer, Katrien; Cardoso, Renato; Beilstein, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Maintenance of physiological levels of intracellular and extracellular calcium is essential for life. Increased intracellular calcium levels are involved in cell death (apoptosis and necrosis) and are associated with positive responses in the Comet assay in vitro. In addition, high calcium and vitamin D intakes were reported to induce apoptosis in adipose tissue in obese mice and to increase DNA-migration in the Comet assay. To investigate increased serum concentration of calcium as a potential confounding factor in the regulatory Comet assay in vivo, we induced mild hypercalcemia in male Wistar rats by 3-day continuous intravenous infusion of calcium gluconate and performed the Comet assay in the liver in line with regulatory guidelines. The results of the study showed that mild increases in serum calcium concentration (up to 1.4 times above the concurrent control) and increased urinary calcium concentration (up to 27.8 times above the concurrent control) results in clinical signs like mild tremor, faster respiration rate and decreased activity in a few animals. However, under the conditions of the study, no increase in the %Tail DNA in the Comet assay and no indication of liver damage as determined by histopathological means were observed. Thus, mild increases in plasma calcium did not lead to positive results in a genotoxicity assessment by the Comet assay in the rat liver. This result is important as it confirms the reliability of this assay for regulatory evaluation of safety. Copyright © 2017 DSM Nutritional Products AG. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bacterial community succession during pig manure and wheat straw aerobic composting covered with a semi-permeable membrane under slight positive pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuangshuang; Fang, Chen; Sun, Xiaoxi; Han, Lujia; He, Xueqin; Huang, Guangqun

    2018-07-01

    Bacteria play an important role in organic matter degradation and maturity during aerobic composting. This study analyzed composting with or without a membrane cover in laboratory-scale aerobic composting reactor systems. 16S rRNA gene analysis was used to study the bacterial community succession during composting. The richness of the bacterial community decreased and the diversity increased after covering with a semi-permeable membrane and applying a slight positive pressure. Principal components analysis based on operational taxonomic units could distinguish the main composting phases. Linear Discriminant Analysis Effect Size analysis indicated that covering with a semi-permeable membrane reduced the relative abundance of anaerobic Clostridiales and pathogenic Pseudomonas and increased the abundance of Cellvibrionales. In membrane-covered aerobic composting systems, the relative abundance of some bacteria could be affected, especially anaerobic bacteria. Covering could effectively promote fermentation, reduce emissions and ensure organic fertilizer quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Human language reveals a universal positivity bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Clark, Eric M; Desu, Suma; Frank, Morgan R; Reagan, Andrew J; Williams, Jake Ryland; Mitchell, Lewis; Harris, Kameron Decker; Kloumann, Isabel M; Bagrow, James P; Megerdoomian, Karine; McMahon, Matthew T; Tivnan, Brian F; Danforth, Christopher M

    2015-02-24

    Using human evaluation of 100,000 words spread across 24 corpora in 10 languages diverse in origin and culture, we present evidence of a deep imprint of human sociality in language, observing that (i) the words of natural human language possess a universal positivity bias, (ii) the estimated emotional content of words is consistent between languages under translation, and (iii) this positivity bias is strongly independent of frequency of word use. Alongside these general regularities, we describe interlanguage variations in the emotional spectrum of languages that allow us to rank corpora. We also show how our word evaluations can be used to construct physical-like instruments for both real-time and offline measurement of the emotional content of large-scale texts.

  6. Correcting slightly less simple movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Aivar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets in sequence suggests that whole sequences of movements are planned together. Planning related segments of a movement together makes it possible to optimise the whole sequence, but it means that some parts are planned quite long in advance, so that it is likely that they will have to be modified. In the present study we examined how people respond to changes that occur while they are moving to the first target of a sequence. Subjects moved a stylus across a digitising tablet. They moved from a specified starting point to two targets in succession. The first of these targets was always at the same position but it could have one of two sizes. The second target could be in one of two different positions and its size was different in each case. On some trials the first target changed size, and on some others the second target changed size and position, as soon as the subject started to move. When the size of the first target changed the subjects slowed down the first segment of their movements. Even the peak velocity, which was only about 150 ms after the change in size, was lower. Beside this fast response to the change itself, the dwell time at the first target was also affected: its duration increased after the change. Changing the size and position of the second target did not influence the first segment of the movement, but also increased the dwell time. The dwell time was much longer for a small target, irrespective of its initial size. If subjects knew in advance which target could change, they moved faster than if they did not know which could change. Taken together, these

  7. Recent adaptive events in human brain revealed by meta-analysis of positively selected genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Analysis of positively-selected genes can help us understand how human evolved, especially the evolution of highly developed cognitive functions. However, previous works have reached conflicting conclusions regarding whether human neuronal genes are over-represented among genes under positive selection. METHODS AND RESULTS: We divided positively-selected genes into four groups according to the identification approaches, compiling a comprehensive list from 27 previous studies. We showed that genes that are highly expressed in the central nervous system are enriched in recent positive selection events in human history identified by intra-species genomic scan, especially in brain regions related to cognitive functions. This pattern holds when different datasets, parameters and analysis pipelines were used. Functional category enrichment analysis supported these findings, showing that synapse-related functions are enriched in genes under recent positive selection. In contrast, immune-related functions, for instance, are enriched in genes under ancient positive selection revealed by inter-species coding region comparison. We further demonstrated that most of these patterns still hold even after controlling for genomic characteristics that might bias genome-wide identification of positively-selected genes including gene length, gene density, GC composition, and intensity of negative selection. CONCLUSION: Our rigorous analysis resolved previous conflicting conclusions and revealed recent adaptation of human brain functions.

  8. Slightly enriched uranium fuel for a PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notari, C.; Marajofsky, A.

    1997-01-01

    An improved fuel element design for a PHWR using slightly enriched uranium fuel is presented. It maintains the general geometric disposition of the currently used in the argentine NPP's reactors, replacing the outer ring of rods by rods containing annular pellets. Power density reduction is achieved with modest burnup losses and the void volume in the pellets can be used to balance these two opposite effects. The results show that with this new design, the fuel can be operated at higher powers without violating thermohydraulic limits and this means an improvement in fuel management flexibility, particularly in the transition from natural uranium to slightly enriched uranium cycle. (author)

  9. Percutaneous penetration through slightly damaged skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper B

    2005-01-01

    with human skin. A slight damage to the barrier integrity was induced by pre-treatment of the skin with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) before pesticide exposure. The experimental model with 3 h pre-treatment with SLS (0.1% or 0.3%) assured a significant but controlled damage to the barrier integrity, a damage...

  10. Interrogating Key Positions of Size-Reduced TALE Repeats Reveals a Programmable Sensor of 5-Carboxylcytosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Sara; Giess, Mario; Koch, Oliver; Summerer, Daniel

    2016-12-16

    Transcription-activator-like effector (TALE) proteins consist of concatenated repeats that recognize consecutive canonical nucleobases of DNA via the major groove in a programmable fashion. Since this groove displays unique chemical information for the four human epigenetic cytosine nucleobases, TALE repeats with epigenetic selectivity can be engineered, with potential to establish receptors for the programmable decoding of all human nucleobases. TALE repeats recognize nucleobases via key amino acids in a structurally conserved loop whose backbone is positioned very close to the cytosine 5-carbon. This complicates the engineering of selectivities for large 5-substituents. To interrogate a more promising structural space, we engineered size-reduced repeat loops, performed saturation mutagenesis of key positions, and screened a total of 200 repeat-nucleobase interactions for new selectivities. This provided insight into the structural requirements of TALE repeats for affinity and selectivity, revealed repeats with improved or relaxed selectivity, and resulted in the first selective sensor of 5-carboxylcytosine.

  11. Analysis of a PHWR slightly enriched fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notari, C.; Marajofsky, A.

    1994-01-01

    It is widely known that the use of slightly enriched uranium in PHWR reactors presents economic advantages derived from the fact that less uranium is required for producing the same amount of energy. Several studies related with the use of this alternative in Atucha I NPP have been performed. The fuel assembly geometry considered up to now has been almost identical to the natural uranium one. In this work a modification consisting in the use of annular pellets in the outer ring of the cluster is analyzed. This design produces several performance benefits. The redistribution of the power in the fuel improves the maximum to average bundle power ratio. The improvement achieved depends on the void volume in the pellets which at the same time represents a certain burnup decrease. These parameters (power ratios and burnup loss) are quantified for the Atucha I and Embalse NPPs. This design improves the fuel behaviour with respect to the burnup extension derived from the slight enrichment. It is also interesting in case an overall power increase is considered. (author). 16 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  12. Cryptanalysis of SFLASH with Slightly Modified Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Vivien; Fouque, Pierre-Alain; Stern, Jacques

    SFLASH is a signature scheme which belongs to a family of multivariate schemes proposed by Patarin et al. in 1998 [9]. The SFLASH scheme itself has been designed in 2001 [8] and has been selected in 2003 by the NESSIE European Consortium [6] as the best known solution for implementation on low cost smart cards. In this paper, we show that slight modifications of the parameters of SFLASH within the general family initially proposed renders the scheme insecure. The attack uses simple linear algebra, and allows to forge a signature for an arbitrary message in a question of minutes for practical parameters, using only the public key. Although SFLASH itself is not amenable to our attack, it is worrying to observe that no rationale was ever offered for this "lucky" choice of parameters.

  13. Stratification of antibody-positive subjects by antibody level reveals an impact of immunogenicity on pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Hoofring, Sarah A; Wu, Yu; Vu, Thuy; Ma, Peiming; Swanson, Steven J; Chirmule, Narendra; Starcevic, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The availability of highly sensitive immunoassays enables the detection of antidrug antibody (ADA) responses of various concentrations and affinities. The analysis of the impact of antibody status on drug pharmacokinetics (PK) is confounded by the presence of low-affinity or low-concentration antibody responses within the dataset. In a phase 2 clinical trial, a large proportion of subjects (45%) developed ADA following weekly dosing with AMG 317, a fully human monoclonal antibody therapeutic. The antibody responses displayed a wide range of relative concentrations (30 ng/mL to >13 μg/mL) and peaked at various times during the study. To evaluate the impact of immunogenicity on PK, AMG 317 concentration data were analyzed following stratification by dose group, time point, antibody status (positive or negative), and antibody level (relative concentration). With dose group as a stratifying variable, a moderate reduction in AMG 317 levels (AMG 317 levels was revealed when antibody data was stratified by both time point and antibody level. In general, high ADA concentrations (>500 ng/mL) and later time points (week 12) were associated with significantly (up to 97%) lower trough AMG 317 concentrations. The use of quasi-quantitative antibody data and appropriate statistical methods was critical for the most comprehensive evaluation of the impact of immunogenicity on PK.

  14. SLIGHTLY IRRADIATED FUEL (SIF) INTERIM DISPOSITION PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL PRC) is proud to submit the Slightly Irradiated Fuel (SIF) Interim Disposition Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2010. The SIF Project was a set of six interrelated sub-projects that delivered unique stand-alone outcomes, which, when integrated, provided a comprehensive and compliant system for storing high risk special nuclear materials. The scope of the six sub-projects included the design, construction, testing, and turnover of the facilities and equipment, which would provide safe, secure, and compliant Special Nuclear Material (SNM) storage capabilities for the SIF material. The project encompassed a broad range of activities, including the following: Five buildings/structures removed, relocated, or built; Two buildings renovated; Structural barriers, fencing, and heavy gates installed; New roadways and parking lots built; Multiple detection and assessment systems installed; New and expanded communication systems developed; Multimedia recording devices added; and A new control room to monitor all materials and systems built. Project challenges were numerous and included the following: An aggressive 17-month schedule to support the high-profile Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) decommissioning; Company/contractor changeovers that affected each and every project team member; Project requirements that continually evolved during design and construction due to the performance- and outcome-based nature ofthe security objectives; and Restrictions imposed on all communications due to the sensitive nature of the projects In spite of the significant challenges, the project was delivered on schedule and $2 million under budget, which became a special source of pride that bonded the team. For years, the SIF had been stored at the central Hanford PFP. Because of the weapons-grade piutonium produced and stored there, the PFP had some of the tightest security on the Hanford

  15. SLIGHTLY IRRADIATED FUEL (SIF) INTERIM DISPOSITION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NORTON SH

    2010-02-23

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL PRC) is proud to submit the Slightly Irradiated Fuel (SIF) Interim Disposition Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2010. The SIF Project was a set of six interrelated sub-projects that delivered unique stand-alone outcomes, which, when integrated, provided a comprehensive and compliant system for storing high risk special nuclear materials. The scope of the six sub-projects included the design, construction, testing, and turnover of the facilities and equipment, which would provide safe, secure, and compliant Special Nuclear Material (SNM) storage capabilities for the SIF material. The project encompassed a broad range of activities, including the following: Five buildings/structures removed, relocated, or built; Two buildings renovated; Structural barriers, fencing, and heavy gates installed; New roadways and parking lots built; Multiple detection and assessment systems installed; New and expanded communication systems developed; Multimedia recording devices added; and A new control room to monitor all materials and systems built. Project challenges were numerous and included the following: An aggressive 17-month schedule to support the high-profile Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) decommissioning; Company/contractor changeovers that affected each and every project team member; Project requirements that continually evolved during design and construction due to the performance- and outcome-based nature ofthe security objectives; and Restrictions imposed on all communications due to the sensitive nature of the projects In spite of the significant challenges, the project was delivered on schedule and $2 million under budget, which became a special source of pride that bonded the team. For years, the SIF had been stored at the central Hanford PFP. Because of the weapons-grade piutonium produced and stored there, the PFP had some of the tightest security on the Hanford

  16. Biochemical characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana starch branching enzyme 2.2 reveals an enzymatic positive cooperativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wychowski, A; Bompard, C; Grimaud, F; Potocki-Véronèse, G; D'Hulst, C; Wattebled, F; Roussel, X

    2017-09-01

    Starch Branching Enzymes (SBE) catalyze the formation of α(1 → 6) branching points on starch polymers: amylopectin and amylose. SBEs are classified in two groups named type 1 and 2. Both types are present in the entire plant kingdom except in some species such as Arabidopsis thaliana that expresses two type 2 SBEs: BE2.1 and BE2.2. The present work describes in vitro enzymatic characterization of the recombinant BE2.2. The function of recombinant BE2.2 was characterized in vitro using spectrophotometry assay, native PAGE and HPAEC-PAD analysis. Size Exclusion Chromatography separation and SAXS experiments were used to identify the oligomeric state and for structural analysis of this enzyme. Optimal pH and temperature for BE2.2 activity were determined to be pH 7 and 25 °C. A glucosyl donor of at least 12 residues is required for BE2.2 activity. The reaction results in the transfer in an α(1 → 6) position of a glucan preferentially composed of 6 glucosyl units. In addition, BE2.2, which has been shown to be monomeric in absence of substrate, is able to adopt different active forms in presence of branched substrates, which affect the kinetic parameters. BE2.2 has substrate specificity similar to those of the other type-2 BEs. We propose that the different conformations of the enzyme displaying more or less affinity toward its substrates would explain the adjustment of the kinetic data to the Hill equation. This work describes the enzymatic parameters of Arabidopsis BE2.2. It reveals for the first time conformational changes for a branching enzyme, leading to a positive cooperative binding process of this enzyme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  17. Satellite remote sensing reveals a positive impact of living oyster reefs on microalgal biofilm development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Echappé

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing (RS is routinely used for the large-scale monitoring of microphytobenthos (MPB biomass in intertidal mudflats and has greatly improved our knowledge of MPB spatio-temporal variability and its potential drivers. Processes operating on smaller scales however, such as the impact of benthic macrofauna on MPB development, to date remain underinvestigated. In this study, we analysed the influence of wild Crassostrea gigas oyster reefs on MPB biofilm development using multispectral RS. A 30-year time series (1985–2015 combining high-resolution (30 m Landsat and SPOT data was built in order to explore the relationship between C. gigas reefs and MPB spatial distribution and seasonal dynamics, using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI. Emphasis was placed on the analysis of a before–after control-impact (BACI experiment designed to assess the effect of oyster killing on the surrounding MPB biofilms. Our RS data reveal that the presence of oyster reefs positively affects MPB biofilm development. Analysis of the historical time series first showed the presence of persistent, highly concentrated MPB patches around oyster reefs. This observation was supported by the BACI experiment which showed that killing the oysters (while leaving the physical reef structure, i.e. oyster shells, intact negatively affected both MPB biofilm biomass and spatial stability around the reef. As such, our results are consistent with the hypothesis of nutrient input as an explanation for the MPB growth-promoting effect of oysters, whereby organic and inorganic matter released through oyster excretion and biodeposition stimulates MPB biomass accumulation. MPB also showed marked seasonal variations in biomass and patch shape, size and degree of aggregation around the oyster reefs. Seasonal variations in biomass, with higher NDVI during spring and autumn, were consistent with those observed on broader scales in other European mudflats. Our

  18. Satellite remote sensing reveals a positive impact of living oyster reefs on microalgal biofilm development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echappé, Caroline; Gernez, Pierre; Méléder, Vona; Jesus, Bruno; Cognie, Bruno; Decottignies, Priscilla; Sabbe, Koen; Barillé, Laurent

    2018-02-01

    Satellite remote sensing (RS) is routinely used for the large-scale monitoring of microphytobenthos (MPB) biomass in intertidal mudflats and has greatly improved our knowledge of MPB spatio-temporal variability and its potential drivers. Processes operating on smaller scales however, such as the impact of benthic macrofauna on MPB development, to date remain underinvestigated. In this study, we analysed the influence of wild Crassostrea gigas oyster reefs on MPB biofilm development using multispectral RS. A 30-year time series (1985-2015) combining high-resolution (30 m) Landsat and SPOT data was built in order to explore the relationship between C. gigas reefs and MPB spatial distribution and seasonal dynamics, using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Emphasis was placed on the analysis of a before-after control-impact (BACI) experiment designed to assess the effect of oyster killing on the surrounding MPB biofilms. Our RS data reveal that the presence of oyster reefs positively affects MPB biofilm development. Analysis of the historical time series first showed the presence of persistent, highly concentrated MPB patches around oyster reefs. This observation was supported by the BACI experiment which showed that killing the oysters (while leaving the physical reef structure, i.e. oyster shells, intact) negatively affected both MPB biofilm biomass and spatial stability around the reef. As such, our results are consistent with the hypothesis of nutrient input as an explanation for the MPB growth-promoting effect of oysters, whereby organic and inorganic matter released through oyster excretion and biodeposition stimulates MPB biomass accumulation. MPB also showed marked seasonal variations in biomass and patch shape, size and degree of aggregation around the oyster reefs. Seasonal variations in biomass, with higher NDVI during spring and autumn, were consistent with those observed on broader scales in other European mudflats. Our study provides the

  19. What Do Letter Migration Errors Reveal About Letter Position Coding in Visual Word Recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Colin J.; Bowers, Jeffrey S.

    2004-01-01

    Dividing attention across multiple words occasionally results in misidentifications whereby letters apparently migrate between words. Previous studies have found that letter migrations preserve within-word letter position, which has been interpreted as support for position-specific letter coding. To investigate this issue, the authors used word…

  20. Alpha-Band Activity Reveals Spontaneous Representations of Spatial Position in Visual Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Joshua J; Bsales, Emma M; Jaffe, Russell J; Awh, Edward

    2017-10-23

    An emerging view suggests that spatial position is an integral component of working memory (WM), such that non-spatial features are bound to locations regardless of whether space is relevant [1, 2]. For instance, past work has shown that stimulus position is spontaneously remembered when non-spatial features are stored. Item recognition is enhanced when memoranda appear at the same location where they were encoded [3-5], and accessing non-spatial information elicits shifts of spatial attention to the original position of the stimulus [6, 7]. However, these findings do not establish that a persistent, active representation of stimulus position is maintained in WM because similar effects have also been documented following storage in long-term memory [8, 9]. Here we show that the spatial position of the memorandum is actively coded by persistent neural activity during a non-spatial WM task. We used a spatial encoding model in conjunction with electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements of oscillatory alpha-band (8-12 Hz) activity to track active representations of spatial position. The position of the stimulus varied trial to trial but was wholly irrelevant to the tasks. We nevertheless observed active neural representations of the original stimulus position that persisted throughout the retention interval. Further experiments established that these spatial representations are dependent on the volitional storage of non-spatial features rather than being a lingering effect of sensory energy or initial encoding demands. These findings provide strong evidence that online spatial representations are spontaneously maintained in WM-regardless of task relevance-during the storage of non-spatial features. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Whole genome detection of signature of positive selection in African cattle reveals selection for thermotolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Mengistie; Lee, Wonseok; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Dessie, Tadelle; Hanotte, Olivier; Mwai, Okeyo Ally; Kemp, Stephen; Cho, Seoae; Oh, Sung Jong; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Kim, Heebal

    2017-12-01

    As African indigenous cattle evolved in a hot tropical climate, they have developed an inherent thermotolerance; survival mechanisms include a light-colored and shiny coat, increased sweating, and cellular and molecular mechanisms to cope with high environmental temperature. Here, we report the positive selection signature of genes in African cattle breeds which contribute for their heat tolerance mechanisms. We compared the genomes of five indigenous African cattle breeds with the genomes of four commercial cattle breeds using cross-population composite likelihood ratio (XP-CLR) and cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH) statistical methods. We identified 296 (XP-EHH) and 327 (XP-CLR) positively selected genes. Gene ontology analysis resulted in 41 biological process terms and six Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Several genes and pathways were found to be involved in oxidative stress response, osmotic stress response, heat shock response, hair and skin properties, sweat gland development and sweating, feed intake and metabolism, and reproduction functions. The genes and pathways identified directly or indirectly contribute to the superior heat tolerance mechanisms in African cattle populations. The result will improve our understanding of the biological mechanisms of heat tolerance in African cattle breeds and opens an avenue for further study. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Positive cell-free fetal DNA testing for trisomy 13 reveals confined placental mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, April L; Drendel, Holli M; Verbrugge, Jennifer L; Reese, Angela M; Schumacher, Katherine L; Griffith, Christopher B; Weaver, David D; Abernathy, Mary P; Litton, Christian G; Vance, Gail H

    2013-09-01

    We report on a case in which cell-free fetal DNA was positive for trisomy 13 most likely due to confined placental mosaicism. Cell-free fetal DNA testing analyzes DNA derived from placental trophoblast cells and can lead to incorrect results that are not representative of the fetus. We sought to confirm commercial cell-free fetal DNA testing results by chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis. These results were followed up by postnatal chromosome analysis of cord blood and placental tissue. First-trimester cell-free fetal DNA test results were positive for trisomy 13. Cytogenetic analysis of chorionic villus sampling yielded a mosaic karyotype of 47,XY,+13[10]/46,XY[12]. G-banded analysis of amniotic fluid was normal, 46,XY. Postnatal cytogenetic analysis of cord blood was normal. Karyotyping of tissues from four quadrants of the placenta demonstrated mosaicism for trisomy 13 in two of the quadrants and a normal karyotype in the other two. Our case illustrates several important aspects of this new testing methodology: that cell-free fetal DNA may not be representative of the fetal karyotype; that follow-up with diagnostic testing of chorionic villus sampling and/or amniotic fluid for abnormal test results should be performed; and that pretest counseling regarding the full benefits, limitations, and possible testing outcomes of cell-free fetal DNA screening is important.

  3. mRNA profiling reveals determinants of trastuzumab efficiency in HER2-positive breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia von der Heyde

    Full Text Available Intrinsic and acquired resistance to the monoclonal antibody drug trastuzumab is a major problem in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer. A deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms could help to develop new agents. Our intention was to detect genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs affecting trastuzumab efficiency in cell culture. Three HER2-positive breast cancer cell lines with different resistance phenotypes were analyzed. We chose BT474 as model of trastuzumab sensitivity, HCC1954 as model of intrinsic resistance, and BTR50, derived from BT474, as model of acquired resistance. Based on RNA-Seq data, we performed differential expression analyses on these cell lines with and without trastuzumab treatment. Differentially expressed genes between the resistant cell lines and BT474 are expected to contribute to resistance. Differentially expressed genes between untreated and trastuzumab treated BT474 are expected to contribute to drug efficacy. To exclude false positives from the candidate gene set, we removed genes that were also differentially expressed between untreated and trastuzumab treated BTR50. We further searched for SNPs in the untreated cell lines which could contribute to trastuzumab resistance. The analysis resulted in 54 differentially expressed candidate genes that might be connected to trastuzumab efficiency. 90% of 40 selected candidates were validated by RT-qPCR. ALPP, CALCOCO1, CAV1, CYP1A2 and IGFBP3 were significantly higher expressed in the trastuzumab treated than in the untreated BT474 cell line. GDF15, IL8, LCN2, PTGS2 and 20 other genes were significantly higher expressed in HCC1954 than in BT474, while NCAM2, COLEC12, AFF3, TFF3, NRCAM, GREB1 and TFF1 were significantly lower expressed. Additionally, we inferred SNPs in HCC1954 for CAV1, PTGS2, IL8 and IGFBP3. The latter also had a variation in BTR50. 20% of the validated subset have already been mentioned in literature. For half of them we

  4. Analysis of image versus position, scale and direction reveals pattern texture anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland eLehoucq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pattern heterogeneities and anisotropies often carry significant physical information. We provide a toolbox which: (i cumulates analysis in terms of position, direction and scale; (ii is as general as possible; (iii is simple and fast to understand, implement, execute and exploit.It consists in dividing the image into analysis boxes at a chosen scale; in each box an ellipse (the inertia tensor is fitted to the signal and thus determines the direction in which the signal is more present. This tensor can be averaged in position and/or be used to study the dependence with scale. This choice is formally linked with Leray transforms and anisotropic wavelet analysis. Such protocol is intutively interpreted and consistent with what the eye detects: relevant scales, local variations in space, priviledged directions. It is fast and parallelizable.Its several variants are adaptable to the user's data and needs. It is useful to statistically characterize anisotropies of 2D or 3D patterns in which individual objects are not easily distinguished, with only minimal pre-processing of the raw image, and more generally applies to data in higher dimensions.It is less sensitive to edge effects, and thus better adapted for a multiscale analysis down to small scale boxes, than pair correlation function or Fourier transform.Easy to understand and implement,it complements more sophisticated methods such as Hough transform or diffusion tensor imaging.We use it on various fracture patterns (sea ice cover, thin sections of granite, granular materials, to pinpoint the maximal anisotropy scales. The results are robust to noise and to user choices. This toolbox could turn also useful for granular materials, hard condensed matter, geophysics, thin films, statistical mechanics, characterisation of networks, fluctuating amorphous systems, inhomogeneous and disordered systems, or medical imaging, among others.

  5. Probing of RNA structures in a positive sense RNA virus reveals selection pressures for structural elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Kyle E; Choudhary, Krishna; Aviran, Sharon; Perry, Keith L

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In single stranded (+)-sense RNA viruses, RNA structural elements (SEs) play essential roles in the infection process from replication to encapsidation. Using selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension sequencing (SHAPE-Seq) and covariation analysis, we explore the structural features of the third genome segment of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), RNA3 (2216 nt), both in vitro and in plant cell lysates. Comparing SHAPE-Seq and covariation analysis results revealed multiple SEs in the coat protein open reading frame and 3′ untranslated region. Four of these SEs were mutated and serially passaged in Nicotiana tabacum plants to identify biologically selected changes to the original mutated sequences. After passaging, loop mutants showed partial reversion to their wild-type sequence and SEs that were structurally disrupted by mutations were restored to wild-type-like structures via synonymous mutations in planta. These results support the existence and selection of virus open reading frame SEs in the host organism and provide a framework for further studies on the role of RNA structure in viral infection. Additionally, this work demonstrates the applicability of high-throughput chemical probing in plant cell lysates and presents a new method for calculating SHAPE reactivities from overlapping reverse transcriptase priming sites. PMID:29294088

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Saliva in HIV-positive Heroin Addicts Reveals Proteins Correlated with Cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominy, Stephen; Brown, Joseph N.; Ryder, Mark I.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains high despite effective antiretroviral therapies. Multiple etiologies have been proposed over the last few years to account for this phenomenon, including the neurotoxic effects of antiretrovirals and co-morbid substance abuse. However, no underlying molecular mechanism has been identified. Emerging evidence in several fields has linked the gut to brain diseases, but the effect of the gut on the brain during HIV infection has not been explored. Saliva is the most accessible gut biofluid, and is therefore of great scientific interest for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. This study presents a longitudinal, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics study investigating saliva samples taken from 8 HIV-positive (HIV+) and 11 -negative (HIV-) heroin addicts. In the HIV+ group, 58 proteins were identified that show significant correlations with cognitive scores and that implicate disruption of protein quality control pathways by HIV. Notably, no proteins from the HIV- heroin addict cohort showed significant correlations with cognitive scores. In addition, the majority of correlated proteins have been shown to be associated with exosomes, allowing us to propose that the salivary glands and/or oral epithelium may modulate brain function during HIV infection through the release of discrete packets of proteins in the form of exosomes.

  7. Predictive coding of visual object position ahead of moving objects revealed by time-resolved EEG decoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogendoorn, Hinze; Burkitt, Anthony N

    2018-05-01

    Due to the delays inherent in neuronal transmission, our awareness of sensory events necessarily lags behind the occurrence of those events in the world. If the visual system did not compensate for these delays, we would consistently mislocalize moving objects behind their actual position. Anticipatory mechanisms that might compensate for these delays have been reported in animals, and such mechanisms have also been hypothesized to underlie perceptual effects in humans such as the Flash-Lag Effect. However, to date no direct physiological evidence for anticipatory mechanisms has been found in humans. Here, we apply multivariate pattern classification to time-resolved EEG data to investigate anticipatory coding of object position in humans. By comparing the time-course of neural position representation for objects in both random and predictable apparent motion, we isolated anticipatory mechanisms that could compensate for neural delays when motion trajectories were predictable. As well as revealing an early neural position representation (lag 80-90 ms) that was unaffected by the predictability of the object's trajectory, we demonstrate a second neural position representation at 140-150 ms that was distinct from the first, and that was pre-activated ahead of the moving object when it moved on a predictable trajectory. The latency advantage for predictable motion was approximately 16 ± 2 ms. To our knowledge, this provides the first direct experimental neurophysiological evidence of anticipatory coding in human vision, revealing the time-course of predictive mechanisms without using a spatial proxy for time. The results are numerically consistent with earlier animal work, and suggest that current models of spatial predictive coding in visual cortex can be effectively extended into the temporal domain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of slight thinning of managed coniferous forest on landscape appreciation and psychological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Norimasa; Saito, Haruo; Fujiwara, Akio; Horiuchi, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the influence of slight thinning (percentage of woods: 16.6%, basal area: 9.3%) on landscape appreciation and the psychological restorative effect of an on-site setting by exposing respondents to an ordinarily managed coniferous woodland. The experiments were conducted in an experimental plot in the same coniferous woodland in May (unthinned) and October 2013 (thinned). The respondents were the same 15 individuals for both experiments. Respondents were individually exposed to the enclosed plot and the forest-view plot within the same tent for 15 min. In both sessions, respondents were required to answer three questionnaires measuring their mood (Profile of Mood States), emotion (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), and feeling of restoration (Restorative Outcome Scale) to investigate the psychological restorative effect before and after the experiment. They completed two other questionnaires measuring appreciation for the environment (Semantic Differential) and the restorative properties of the environment (Perceived Restorativeness Scale) following the experiments. We first analyzed the difference in landscape appreciation between the unthinned and thinned conditions. We did not find any statistical difference in appreciation for the environment (Semantic Differential) or the restorative properties of the environment (Perceived Restorativeness Scale); rather, we found that weather conditions had a primary influence on landscape appreciation. With respect to the psychological restorative effect, a two-way repeated analysis of valiance (ANOVA) revealed significant main effects for a selection of indices, depending on the presence or absence of thinning. However, multiple comparison analyses revealed that these effects seemed to be due to the difference in the experimental experience rather than the presence or absence of thinning. In conclusion, the effect of the slight thinning of the managed coniferous forest was too weak to be reflected in the

  9. Study of comportment of trioctylphosphine oxide by coat slight chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meddour, Laaldja; Azzouz Abdelkrim

    1996-04-01

    The synthesis and characterisation process of the extractant agent 'Trioctylphosphine oxide' (TOPO) are not very developped in the literature. However, in order to identify this agent (TOPO) in its synthesis process, we attempt several analysis methods. The coat slight chromatography proves the simple and accessible method, that explains the choice of this study. In the present work, we have analysed the TOPO by coat slight chromatography with the intention of finding a better solvent

  10. Mixture models reveal multiple positional bias types in RNA-Seq data and lead to accurate transcript concentration estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Tuerk

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Accuracy of transcript quantification with RNA-Seq is negatively affected by positional fragment bias. This article introduces Mix2 (rd. "mixquare", a transcript quantification method which uses a mixture of probability distributions to model and thereby neutralize the effects of positional fragment bias. The parameters of Mix2 are trained by Expectation Maximization resulting in simultaneous transcript abundance and bias estimates. We compare Mix2 to Cufflinks, RSEM, eXpress and PennSeq; state-of-the-art quantification methods implementing some form of bias correction. On four synthetic biases we show that the accuracy of Mix2 overall exceeds the accuracy of the other methods and that its bias estimates converge to the correct solution. We further evaluate Mix2 on real RNA-Seq data from the Microarray and Sequencing Quality Control (MAQC, SEQC Consortia. On MAQC data, Mix2 achieves improved correlation to qPCR measurements with a relative increase in R2 between 4% and 50%. Mix2 also yields repeatable concentration estimates across technical replicates with a relative increase in R2 between 8% and 47% and reduced standard deviation across the full concentration range. We further observe more accurate detection of differential expression with a relative increase in true positives between 74% and 378% for 5% false positives. In addition, Mix2 reveals 5 dominant biases in MAQC data deviating from the common assumption of a uniform fragment distribution. On SEQC data, Mix2 yields higher consistency between measured and predicted concentration ratios. A relative error of 20% or less is obtained for 51% of transcripts by Mix2, 40% of transcripts by Cufflinks and RSEM and 30% by eXpress. Titration order consistency is correct for 47% of transcripts for Mix2, 41% for Cufflinks and RSEM and 34% for eXpress. We, further, observe improved repeatability across laboratory sites with a relative increase in R2 between 8% and 44% and reduced standard deviation.

  11. Trial sequential analysis reveals insufficient information size and potentially false positive results in many meta-analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J.; Thorlund, K.; Gluud, C.

    2008-01-01

    in 80% (insufficient information size). TSA(15%) and TSA(LBHIS) found that 95% and 91% had absence of evidence. The remaining nonsignificant meta-analyses had evidence of lack of effect. CONCLUSION: TSA reveals insufficient information size and potentially false positive results in many meta......OBJECTIVES: To evaluate meta-analyses with trial sequential analysis (TSA). TSA adjusts for random error risk and provides the required number of participants (information size) in a meta-analysis. Meta-analyses not reaching information size are analyzed with trial sequential monitoring boundaries...... analogous to interim monitoring boundaries in a single trial. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We applied TSA on meta-analyses performed in Cochrane Neonatal reviews. We calculated information sizes and monitoring boundaries with three different anticipated intervention effects of 30% relative risk reduction (TSA...

  12. Low dose irradiation of thyroid cells reveals a unique transcriptomic and epigenetic signature in RET/PTC-positive cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-El-Ardat, Khalil, E-mail: kabouela@sckcen.be [Radiobiology Unit, Molecular and Cellular Biology, GKD Building, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie - Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Universiteit Gent, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Monsieurs, Pieter [Radiobiology Unit, Molecular and Cellular Biology, GKD Building, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie - Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Anastasov, Natasa; Atkinson, Mike [Department of Radiation Sciences, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Derradji, Hanane [Radiobiology Unit, Molecular and Cellular Biology, GKD Building, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie - Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); De Meyer, Tim [Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Universiteit Gent, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Applied Mathematics, Biometrics and Process Control, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Universiteit Gent, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Bekaert, Sofie [Clinical Research Center, Faculty for Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiteit Gent, 185 De Pintelaan, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Criekinge, Wim [Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Universiteit Gent, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); and others

    2012-03-01

    The high doses of radiation received in the wake of the Chernobyl incident and the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been linked to the increased appearance of thyroid cancer in the children living in the vicinity of the site. However, the data gathered on the effect of low doses of radiation on the thyroid remain limited. We have examined the genome wide transcriptional response of a culture of TPC-1 human cell line of papillary thyroid carcinoma origin with a RET/PTC1 translocation to various doses (0.0625, 0.5, and 4 Gy) of X-rays and compared it to response of thyroids with a RET/PTC3 translocation and against wild-type mouse thyroids irradiated with the same doses using Affymetrix microarrays. We have found considerable overlap at a high dose of 4 Gy in both RET/PTC-positive systems but no common genes at 62.5 mGy. In addition, the response of RET/PTC-positive system at all doses was distinct from the response of wild-type thyroids with both systems signaling down different pathways. Analysis of the response of microRNAs in TPC-1 cells revealed a radiation-responsive signature of microRNAs in addition to dose-responsive microRNAs. Our results point to the fact that a low dose of X-rays seems to have a significant proliferative effect on normal thyroids. This observation should be studied further as opposed to its effect on RET/PTC-positive thyroids which was subtle, anti-proliferative and system-dependent.

  13. A PHWR with slightly enriched uranium about the first core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notari, C.

    1997-01-01

    Many different studies have been performed in Argentina regarding the use of slightly enriched uranium in the PHWR nuclear plants. These referred mainly to operating plants so that a transition had to be considered from the present natural uranium fuel cycle to the slightly enriched one. In this analysis, technical and economical arguments are presented which favor the use of a natural uranium initial core. The levelized fuel costs are shown to be practically insensitive to the first core and a fast transition is more influential than an initially enriched core. (author)

  14. Ponderosa pine seed-tree removal reduces stocking only slightly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald

    1969-01-01

    After ponderosa pine seed trees were removed on the Challenge Experimental Forest, California, seedling stocking fell by 3.8 percent or about 212 seedlings per acre. This loss is slightly less than that incurred from natural mortality, and one that did not reduce regeneration levels below the minimum standard.

  15. A simple coordination complex exhibiting colour change on slight ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    structure analysis. In 1979, Grenthe and co-worker. reported thermochromism of bis(NN-diethylethane-. 1,2-diamine) copper(II) perchlorate on the basis of ... ture was allowed to cool when white solid KCl sepa- rated out and it was .... A simple coordination complex exhibits colour change on slight structural modification. 733.

  16. Corrosion inhibitor development for slightly sour environments with oxygen intrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylde, J.; Wang, H.; Li, J. [Clariant Oil Services North America, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reported on a study that examined the effect of oxygen on the inhibition of carbon steel in slightly sour corrosion, and the initiation and propagation of localized attack. Oxygen can enter sour water injection systems through the vapor space in storage tanks and process system. Oxygen aggravates the corrosion attack by participating in the cathodic reaction under full or partial diffusion control. Laboratory testing results were reported in this presentation along with the development of corrosion inhibitors for such a slightly sour system. Bubble testing cells were used with continuous H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixture gas sparging and occasional oxygen intrusion of 2 to 4 hours during a week long test. Linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements and weight loss corrosion coupons were used to quantify the corrosion attack. The findings were presented in terms of the magnitude of localized attacks at different oxygen concentrations and intrusion periods, with and without the presence of corrosion inhibitors. tabs., figs.

  17. Exploring evidence of positive selection reveals genetic basis of meat quality traits in Berkshire pigs through whole genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeonsoo; Song, Ki-Duk; Seo, Minseok; Caetano-Anollés, Kelsey; Kim, Jaemin; Kwak, Woori; Oh, Jae-Don; Kim, EuiSoo; Jeong, Dong Kee; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Lee, Hak-Kyo

    2015-08-20

    Natural and artificial selection following domestication has led to the existence of more than a hundred pig breeds, as well as incredible variation in phenotypic traits. Berkshire pigs are regarded as having superior meat quality compared to other breeds. As the meat production industry seeks selective breeding approaches to improve profitable traits such as meat quality, information about genetic determinants of these traits is in high demand. However, most of the studies have been performed using trained sensory panel analysis without investigating the underlying genetic factors. Here we investigate the relationship between genomic composition and this phenotypic trait by scanning for signatures of positive selection in whole-genome sequencing data. We generated genomes of 10 Berkshire pigs at a total of 100.6 coverage depth, using the Illumina Hiseq2000 platform. Along with the genomes of 11 Landrace and 13 Yorkshire pigs, we identified genomic variants of 18.9 million SNVs and 3.4 million Indels in the mapped regions. We identified several associated genes related to lipid metabolism, intramuscular fatty acid deposition, and muscle fiber type which attribute to pork quality (TG, FABP1, AKIRIN2, GLP2R, TGFBR3, JPH3, ICAM2, and ERN1) by applying between population statistical tests (XP-EHH and XP-CLR). A statistical enrichment test was also conducted to detect breed specific genetic variation. In addition, de novo short sequence read assembly strategy identified several candidate genes (SLC25A14, IGF1, PI4KA, CACNA1A) as also contributing to lipid metabolism. Results revealed several candidate genes involved in Berkshire meat quality; most of these genes are involved in lipid metabolism and intramuscular fat deposition. These results can provide a basis for future research on the genomic characteristics of Berkshire pigs.

  18. Sample-length dependence of the critical current of slightly and significantly bent-damaged Bi2223 superconducting composite tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, S; Fujimoto, M; Okuda, H; Oh, S S; Ha, D W

    2007-01-01

    The local critical current along a sample length is different from position to position in a long sample, especially when the sample is damaged by externally applied strain. In the present work, we attempted to reveal the relation of the distribution of the local critical current to overall critical current and the sample-length dependence of critical current for slightly and significantly damaged Bi2223 composite tape samples. In the experiment, 48 cm long Bi2223 composite tape samples, composed of 48 local elements with a length of 1 cm and 8 parts with a length 6 cm, were bent by 0.37 and 1.0% to cause slight and significant damage, respectively. The V-I curve, critical current (1 μV cm -1 criterion) and n value were measured for the overall sample as well as for the local elements and parts. It was found that the critical current distributions of the 1 cm elements at 0.37 and 1.0% bending strains are described by the three-parameter- and bimodal Weibull distribution functions, respectively. The critical current of a long sample at both bending strains could be described well by substituting the distributed critical current and n value of the short elements into the series circuit model for voltage generation. Also the measured relation of average critical current to sample length could be reproduced well in the computer by a Monte Carlo simulation method. It was shown that the critical current and n value decrease with increasing sample length at both bending strains. The extent of the decrease in critical current with sample length is dependent on the criterion of the critical current; the critical current decreases only slightly under the 1 μV cm -1 criterion which is not damage-sensitive, while it decreases greatly with increasing sample length under damage-sensitive criteria such as the 1 μV one

  19. Thermodynamic fluctuations of electromagnetic field in slightly absorbing media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A.Veklenko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A theory of thermodynamic fluctuations of electromagnetic field in slightly absorbing media is developed using the quantum electrodynamics - method of $Gamma$-operators - without phenomenology. The hypothesis offered by Yury L. Klimontovich is under consideration. The necessity of correct consideration of photon-photon correlation functions is shown. The results are compared with the ones obtained with the help of standard theory based upon fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT. The latter results are shown to have no field of application at least for the case of thermally excited media of the atoms described with two-level model.

  20. Conformal bootstrap with slightly broken higher spin symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F. [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford,Andrew Wiles Building, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter,Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Zhiboedov, Alexander [Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature,Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-06-16

    We consider conformal field theories with slightly broken higher spin symmetry in arbitrary spacetime dimensions. We analyze the crossing equation in the double light-cone limit and solve for the anomalous dimensions of higher spin currents γ{sub s} with large spin s. The result depends on the symmetries and the spectrum of the unperturbed conformal field theory. We reproduce all known results and make further predictions. In particular we make a prediction for the anomalous dimensions of higher spin currents in the 3d Ising model.

  1. Circulating MicroRNAs in Plasma of Hepatitis B e Antigen Positive Children Reveal Liver-Specific Target Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Thilde Nordmann; Jacobsen, Kari Stougaard; Mirza, Aashiq Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim. Hepatitis B e antigen positive (HBeAg-positive) children are at high risk of severe complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. Liver damage is caused by the host immune response to infected hepatocytes, and we hypothesise that specific microRNAs play a role...... in this complex interaction between virus and host. The study aimed to identify microRNAs with aberrant plasma expressions in HBeAg-positive children and with liver-specific target genes. Methods. By revisiting our previous screen of microRNA plasma levels in HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative children...... with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and in healthy controls, candidate microRNAs with aberrant plasma expressions in HBeAg-positive children were identified. MicroRNAs targeting liver-specific genes were selected based on bioinformatics analysis and validated by qRT-PCR using plasma samples from 34 HBe...

  2. Nonlinear problems of the theory of heterogeneous slightly curved shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, B. Y.

    1973-01-01

    An account if given of the variational method of the solution of physically and geometrically nonlinear problems of the theory of heterogeneous slightly curved shells. Examined are the bending and supercritical behavior of plates and conical and spherical cupolas of variable thickness in a temperature field, taking into account the dependence of the elastic parameters on temperature. The bending, stability in general and load-bearing capacity of flexible isotropic elastic-plastic shells with different criteria of plasticity, taking into account compressibility and hardening. The effect of the plastic heterogeneity caused by heat treatment, surface work hardening and irradiation by fast neutron flux is investigated. Some problems of the dynamic behavior of flexible shells are solved. Calculations are performed in high approximations. Considerable attention is given to the construction of a machine algorithm and to the checking of the convergence of iterative processes.

  3. Scattering from a PEC Slightly Rough Surface in Chiral Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Akhtar Qureshi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The scattering of left circularly polarized wave from a perfectly electric conducting (PEC rough surface in isotropic chiral media is investigated. Since a slightly rough interface is assumed, the solution is obtained using perturbation method. Zeroth-order term corresponds to solution for a flat interface which helps in making a comparison with the results reported in the literature. First-order term gives the contribution from the surface perturbations, and it is used to define incoherent bistatic scattering coefficients for a Gaussian rough surface. Higher order solution is obtained in a recursive manner. Numerical results are reported for different values of chirality, correlation length, and rms height of the surface. Diffraction efficiency is defined for a sinusoidal grating.

  4. Slightly Conductive Transparent Films for Space Applications: Manufacturability and Durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppala, N.; Griffin, J.; Vemulapalli, J.; Hambourger, P. D.

    2001-01-01

    Highly transparent, slightly conductive films of co-deposited indium tin oxide (ITO) and MgF, have possible applications for environmental protection of exterior surfaces of spacecraft. Reliable preparation of films with the desired sheet resistivity (approximately 10(exp 8) ohms/square) is difficult because the electrical properties of ITO-Mg F, are highly dependent on film composition. We have investigated the use of plasma emission monitoring to improve the reproducibility of films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering. While considerable improve ment was observed, it appears that some in-situ electrical or optica l characterization will be needed for reliable production coating wit h ITO-MgF,. We have also done further evaluation of a possibly undesi rable photoconductive effect previously observed in these films.

  5. Disposal of slightly contaminated radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minns, J.L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    With regard to the disposal of solid wastes, nuclear power plants basically have two options, disposal in a Part 61 licensed low-level waste site, or receive approval pursuant to 20.2002 for disposal in a manner not otherwise authorized by the NRC. Since 1981, the staff has reviewed and approved 30 requests for disposal of slightly contaminated radioactive materials pursuant to Section 20.2002 (formerly 20.302) for nuclear power plants located in non-Agreement States. NRC Agreement States have been delegated the authority for reviewing and approving such disposals (whether onsite or offsite) for nuclear power plants within their borders. This paper describes the characteristics of the waste disposed of, the review process, and the staff`s guidelines.

  6. The slightly-enriched spectral shift control reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, W.R.; Lee, J.C.; Larsen, E.W. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Edlund, M.C. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering)

    1991-11-01

    An advanced converter reactor design utilizing mechanical spectral shift control rods in a conventional pressurized water reactor configuration is under investigation. The design is based on the principle that a harder spectrum during the early part of the fuel cycle will result in large neutron captures in fertile {sup 238}U, which can then be burned in situ in a softer spectrum later in the cycle. Preliminary design calculations performed during FY 89 showed that the slightly-enriched spectral shift reactor design offers the benefit of substantially increased fuel resource utilization with the proven safety characteristics of the pressurized water reactor technology retained. Optimization of the fuel design and development of fuel management strategies were carried out in FY 90, along with effort to develop and validate neutronic methodology for tight-lattice configurations with hard spectra. During FY 91, the final year of the grant, the final Slightly-Enriched Spectral Shift Reactor (SESSR) design was determined, and reference design analyses were performed for the assemblies as well as the global core configuration, both at the beginning of cycle (BOC) and with depletion. The final SESSR design results in approximately a 20% increase in the utilization of uranium resources, based on equilibrium fuel cycle analyses. Acceptable pin power peaking is obtained with the final core design, with assembly peaking factors equal to less than 1.04 for spectral shift control rods both inserted and withdrawn, and global peaking factors at BOC predicted to be 1.4. In addition, a negative Moderation Temperature Coefficient (MTC) is maintained for BOC, which is difficult to achieve with conventional advanced converter designs based on a closed fuel cycle. The SESSR design avoids the need for burnable poison absorber, although they could be added if desired to increase the cycle length while maintaining a negative MTC.

  7. The slightly-enriched spectral shift control reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.R.; Lee, J.C.; Larsen, E.W.; Edlund, M.C.

    1991-11-01

    An advanced converter reactor design utilizing mechanical spectral shift control rods in a conventional pressurized water reactor configuration is under investigation. The design is based on the principle that a harder spectrum during the early part of the fuel cycle will result in large neutron captures in fertile 238 U, which can then be burned in situ in a softer spectrum later in the cycle. Preliminary design calculations performed during FY 89 showed that the slightly-enriched spectral shift reactor design offers the benefit of substantially increased fuel resource utilization with the proven safety characteristics of the pressurized water reactor technology retained. Optimization of the fuel design and development of fuel management strategies were carried out in FY 90, along with effort to develop and validate neutronic methodology for tight-lattice configurations with hard spectra. During FY 91, the final year of the grant, the final Slightly-Enriched Spectral Shift Reactor (SESSR) design was determined, and reference design analyses were performed for the assemblies as well as the global core configuration, both at the beginning of cycle (BOC) and with depletion. The final SESSR design results in approximately a 20% increase in the utilization of uranium resources, based on equilibrium fuel cycle analyses. Acceptable pin power peaking is obtained with the final core design, with assembly peaking factors equal to less than 1.04 for spectral shift control rods both inserted and withdrawn, and global peaking factors at BOC predicted to be 1.4. In addition, a negative Moderation Temperature Coefficient (MTC) is maintained for BOC, which is difficult to achieve with conventional advanced converter designs based on a closed fuel cycle. The SESSR design avoids the need for burnable poison absorber, although they could be added if desired to increase the cycle length while maintaining a negative MTC

  8. The slightly-enriched spectral shift control reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.R.; Lee, J.C.; Edlund, M.C.

    1990-06-01

    An advanced converter reactor design utilizing mechanical spectral shift control rods in a conventional pressurized water reactor configuration is under investigation. The design is based on the principle that a harder spectrum during the early part of the fuel cycle will result in larger neutron captures in fertile 238 U, which can then be burned in situ in a softer spectrum later in the cycle. Preliminary design calculations performed during FY 89 show that the slightly-enriched spectral shift reactor design offers the benefit of substantially increased fuel resource utilization with the proven safety characteristics of the pressurized water reactor technology retained. Optimization of the fuel design and development of fuel management strategies have been carried out in FY 90, along with effort to develop and validate neutronic methodology for tight-lattice configurations with hard spectra. During FY 91, the final year of the grant, effort will focus on performing the final design calculations and continuing the research to develop improved methods for tight lattice analysis

  9. Effects of slightly acidic electrolysed drinking water on mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Hideaki; Shibata, Yoshiko; Obata, Takahiro; Kawagoe, Masami; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Sato, Masayoshi; Toida, Kazumi; Kushima, Hidemi; Matsuda, Yukihisa

    2011-10-01

    Slightly acidic electrolysed (SAE) water is a sanitizer with strong bactericidal activity due to hypochlorous acid. We assessed the safety of SAE water as drinking water for mice at a 5 ppm total residual chlorine (TRC) concentration to examine the possibility of SAE water as a labour- and energy-saving alternative to sterile water. We provided SAE water or sterile water to mice for 12 weeks, during which time we recorded changes in body weight and weekly water and food intakes. At the end of the experiment, all of the subject animals were sacrificed to assess serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and creatinine levels and to examine the main organs histopathologically under a light microscope. In addition, we investigated the bacteria levels of both types of water. We found no difference in functional and morphological health condition indices between the groups. Compared with sterile water, SAE water had a relatively higher ability to suppress bacterial growth. We suggest that SAE water at 5 ppm TRC is a safe and useful alternative to sterile water for use as drinking water in laboratory animal facilities.

  10. Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) Academic Librarian Positions during 2013: What Carnegie Classifications Reveal about Desired STEM Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trei, Kelli

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the requirements and preferences of 171 science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) academic librarian positions in the United States as advertised in 2013. This analysis compares the STEM background experience preferences with the Carnegie rankings of the employing institution. The research examines the extent to which…

  11. Clearance of slightly radioactive material from radiological control in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfeldt, S.

    1995-01-01

    Clearance from radiological control of slightly radioactive material arising from operation or decommissioning of nuclear installations has been practiced in Germany for nearly two decades. Meanwhile, for the clearance of metal generally approved and applicable recommendations for clearance levels have been issued. For other materials like building waste, case-by-case decisions are made by the state licensing authorities. Efforts to implement consistent sets of clearance levels for all kinds of material are under way. As several decommissioning projects will soon generate large amounts of materials from dismantling, a solution needs to be reached soon. The legal framework in Germany governing the use of atomic energy consists of the Atomic Energy Act and several ordinances. Rules and guidelines including the recommendations of the German Commission for Radiation Protection (SSK) exist on a lower level and are not legally binding. Several generic studies for the derivation of clearance levels for metals and building debris with alpha, beta, and gamma contamination have been performed on behalf of the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, which oriented themselves on an individual dose of 10 microSv/a in agreement with IAEA recommendations. Stochastic models have been used for establishing the connection between specific activity of the material to be released and the resulting individual doses, with significant advantages over deterministic scenarios. In the future, for new SSK recommendations or an ordinance on clearance, the increase of masses from demolition of installations, higher recycling rates in the conventional sector and harmonization with international regulations and standards have to be taken into account

  12. Microbial Metabolism in Soil at Subzero Temperatures: Adaptation Mechanisms Revealed by Position-Specific 13C Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel K. Bore

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although biogeochemical models designed to simulate carbon (C and nitrogen (N dynamics in high-latitude ecosystems incorporate extracellular parameters, molecular and biochemical adaptations of microorganisms to freezing remain unclear. This knowledge gap hampers estimations of the C balance and ecosystem feedback in high-latitude regions. To analyze microbial metabolism at subzero temperatures, soils were incubated with isotopomers of position-specifically 13C-labeled glucose at three temperatures: +5 (control, -5, and -20°C. 13C was quantified in CO2, bulk soil, microbial biomass, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC after 1, 3, and 10 days and also after 30 days for samples at -20°C. Compared to +5°C, CO2 decreased 3- and 10-fold at -5 and -20°C, respectively. High 13C recovery in CO2 from the C-1 position indicates dominance of the pentose phosphate pathway at +5°C. In contrast, increased oxidation of the C-4 position at subzero temperatures implies a switch to glycolysis. A threefold higher 13C recovery in microbial biomass at -5 than +5°C points to synthesis of intracellular compounds such as glycerol and ethanol in response to freezing. Less than 0.4% of 13C was recovered in DOC after 1 day, demonstrating complete glucose uptake by microorganisms even at -20°C. Consequently, we attribute the fivefold higher extracellular 13C in soil than in microbial biomass to secreted antifreeze compounds. This suggests that with decreasing temperature, intracellular antifreeze protection is complemented by extracellular mechanisms to avoid cellular damage by crystallizing water. The knowledge of sustained metabolism at subzero temperatures will not only be useful for modeling global C dynamics in ecosystems with periodically or permanently frozen soils, but will also be important in understanding and controlling the adaptive mechanisms of food spoilage organisms.

  13. Mutational studies reveal a complex set of positive and negative control elements within the chicken vitellogenin II promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, S N; Davis, D L; Burch, J B

    1991-05-01

    The endogenous chicken vitellogenin II (VTGII) gene is transcribed exclusively in hepatocytes in response to estrogen. We previously identified two estrogen response elements (EREs) upstream of this gene. We now present an analysis of the VTGII promoter activated by these EREs in response to estrogen. Chimeric VTGII-CAT genes were cotransfected into LMH chicken hepatoma cells along with an estrogen receptor expression vector, and transient CAT expression was assayed after culturing the cells in the absence or presence of estrogen. An analysis of constructs bearing deletions downstream of the more proximal ERE indicated that promoter elements relevant to transcription in LMH cells extend to between -113 and -96. The relative importance of sequences within the VTGII promoter was examined by using 10 contiguous linker scanner mutations spanning the region from -117 to -24. Although most of these mutations compromised VTGII promoter function, one dramatically increased expression in LMH cells and also rendered the VTGII promoter capable of being activated by cis-linked EREs in fibroblasts cotransfected with an estrogen receptor expression vector. Gel retardation and DNase I footprinting assays revealed four factor-binding sites within this promoter. We demonstrate that three of these sites bind C/EBP, SP1, and USF (or related factors), respectively; the fourth site binds a factor that we denote TF-V beta. The biological relevance of these findings is suggested by the fact that three of these binding sites map to sites previously shown to be occupied in vivo in response to estrogen.

  14. Phylodynamic analysis of clinical and environmental Vibrio cholerae isolates from Haiti reveals diversification driven by positive selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarian, Taj; Ali, Afsar; Johnson, Judith A; Mohr, David; Prosperi, Mattia; Veras, Nazle M; Jubair, Mohammed; Strickland, Samantha L; Rashid, Mohammad H; Alam, Meer T; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Katz, Lee S; Tarr, Cheryl L; Colwell, Rita R; Morris, J Glenn; Salemi, Marco

    2014-12-23

    Phylodynamic analysis of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data is a powerful tool to investigate underlying evolutionary processes of bacterial epidemics. The method was applied to investigate a collection of 65 clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio cholerae from Haiti collected between 2010 and 2012. Characterization of isolates recovered from environmental samples identified a total of four toxigenic V. cholerae O1 isolates, four non-O1/O139 isolates, and a novel nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 isolate with the classical tcpA gene. Phylogenies of strains were inferred from genome-wide SNPs using coalescent-based demographic models within a Bayesian framework. A close phylogenetic relationship between clinical and environmental toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains was observed. As cholera spread throughout Haiti between October 2010 and August 2012, the population size initially increased and then fluctuated over time. Selection analysis along internal branches of the phylogeny showed a steady accumulation of synonymous substitutions and a progressive increase of nonsynonymous substitutions over time, suggesting diversification likely was driven by positive selection. Short-term accumulation of nonsynonymous substitutions driven by selection may have significant implications for virulence, transmission dynamics, and even vaccine efficacy. Cholera, a dehydrating diarrheal disease caused by toxigenic strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, emerged in 2010 in Haiti, a country where there were no available records on cholera over the past 100 years. While devastating in terms of morbidity and mortality, the outbreak provided a unique opportunity to study the evolutionary dynamics of V. cholerae and its environmental presence. The present study expands on previous work and provides an in-depth phylodynamic analysis inferred from genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms of clinical and environmental strains from dispersed geographic settings in

  15. Gene expression profiling reveals novel regulation by bisphenol-A in estrogen receptor-α-positive human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, David W.; Feng, Yuxin; Yang, Jun; Puga, Alvaro; Lee, Adrian V.; Khan, Sohaib A.

    2006-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) shows proliferative actions in uterus and mammary glands and may influence the development of male and female reproductive tracts in utero or during early postnatal life. Because of its ability to function as an estrogen receptor (ER) agonist, BPA has the potential to disrupt normal endocrine signaling through regulation of ER target genes. Some genes are regulated by both estradiol (E2) and BPA, but those exclusive to either agent have not been described. Using a yeast strain incorporating a vitellogenin A2 ERE-LacZ reporter gene into the genome, we found that BPA induced expression of the reporter in colonies transformed with the ERα expression plasmid, illustrating BPA-mediated regulation within a chromatin context. Additionally, a reporter gene transiently transfected into the endometrial cancer (Ishikawa) cell line also showed BPA activity, although at 100-fold less potency than E2. To compare global gene expression in response to BPA and E2, we used a variant of the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line stably expressing HA-tagged ERα. Cultures were treated for 3 h with an ethanol vehicle, E2 (10 -8 M), or BPA (10 -6 M), followed by isolation of RNA and microarray analysis with the human U95A probe array (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA, USA). More than 300 genes were changed 2-fold or more by either or both agents, with roughly half being up-regulated and half down-regulated. A number of growth- and development-related genes, such as HOXC1 and C6, Wnt5A, Frizzled, TGFβ-2, and STAT inhibitor 2, were found to be affected exclusively by BPA. We used quantitative real-time PCR to verify regulation of the HOXC6 gene, which showed decreased expression of approximately 2.5-fold by BPA. These results reveal novel effects by BPA and E2, raising interesting possibilities regarding the role of endocrine disruptors in sexual development

  16. The elastic T-stress for slightly curved or kinked cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dong-Feng; Li, Chen-Feng; Qing, Hai

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a solution for the elastic T-stress at the tip of a slightly curved or kinked crack based on a perturbation approach. Compared to other exact or numerical solutions the present solution is accurate for considerable deviations from straightness. The T-stress variation as crack...... extends along a curved trajectory is subsequently examined. It is predicted that T-stress always keeps negative during crack extension when the crack has an initial negative T-stress. In the case of a positive T-stress and non-zero first and second stress intensity factors initially accompanying the crack......, the T-stress is not positive with increasing the extension length until a threshold is exceeded. Based on directional stability criterion with respect to the sign of the T-stress, this result implies that for a straight crack with a positive T-stress, the crack extension path will not turn immediately...

  17. When Slights Beget Slights: Attachment Anxiety, Subjective Time, and Intrusion of the Relational Past in the Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Kassandra; Wilson, Anne E

    2016-12-01

    Every close relationship has a history, but how people manage their relational past varies and can have important implications in the present. The current research investigated the role of subjective representation of time: How feeling subjectively close (vs. distant) to a past relational transgression (vs. kind act) predicted "kitchen thinking"-the tendency to bring to mind relational past memories in new, unrelated contexts. We explored the role of attachment anxiety as a predictor of subjective time perception and kitchen thinking. We found support for our hypothesis that when negative memories felt subjectively closer relative to positive memories, people were more likely to kitchen think (Studies 1-3). Kitchen thinking, in turn, predicted negative relationship outcomes (Study 4). Furthermore, people high (vs. low) in attachment anxiety were less likely to perceive the timing of their relational memories adaptively, accounting for more kitchen thinking and in turn, maladaptive relational outcomes. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  18. Biomediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate in a Slightly Acidic Hot Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L.

    2015-12-01

    A slightly acidic hot spring named "Female Tower" (T=73.5 °C, pH=6.64) is located in the Jifei Geothermal Field, Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The precipitates in the hot spring are composed of large amounts of calcite, aragonite, and sulfur. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses revealed that the microbial mats were formed of various coccoid, rod-shaped, and filamentous microbes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the intracellular sulfur granules were commonly associated with these microbes. A culture-independent molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the majority of the bacteria in the spring were sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. In the spring water, H2S concentration was up to 60 ppm, while SO42- concentration was only about 10 ppm. We speculated that H2S might be utilized by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in this hot spring water, leading to the intracellular formation of sulfur granules. In the meantime, this reaction increased the pH in the micron-scale microdomains, which fostered the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the microbial mats. The results of this study indicated that the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria could play an important role in calcium carbonate precipitation in slightly acidic hot spring environments.

  19. Integrative Approach with Electrophysiological and Theoretical Methods Reveals a New Role of S4 Positively Charged Residues in PKD2L1 Channel Voltage-Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Tomohiro; Tsumoto, Kunichika; Yamada, Kazunori; Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Hirose, Shinichi; Nomura, Hideki; Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Kurachi, Yoshihisa; Inoue, Ryuji; Mori, Yasuo

    2017-08-29

    Numerical model-based simulations provide important insights into ion channel gating when experimental limitations exist. Here, a novel strategy combining numerical simulations with patch clamp experiments was used to investigate the net positive charges in the putative transmembrane segment 4 (S4) of the atypical, positively-shifted voltage-dependence of polycystic kidney disease 2-like 1 (PKD2L1) channel. Charge-neutralising mutations (K452Q, K455Q and K461Q) in S4 reduced gating charges, positively shifted the Boltzmann-type activation curve [i.e., open probability (P open )-V curve] and altered the time-courses of activation/deactivation of PKD2L1, indicating that this region constitutes part of a voltage sensor. Numerical reconstruction of wild-type (WT) and mutant PKD2L1-mediated currents necessitated, besides their voltage-dependent gating parameters, a scaling factor that describes the voltage-dependence of maximal conductance, G max . Subsequent single-channel conductance (γ) measurements revealed that voltage-dependence of G max in WT can be explained by the inward-rectifying property of γ, which is greatly changed in PKD2L1 mutants. Homology modelling based on PKD2 and Na V Ab structures suggest that such voltage dependence of P open and γ in PKD2L1 could both reflect the charged state of the S4 domain. The present conjunctive experimental and theoretical approaches provide a framework to explore the undetermined mechanism(s) regulating TRP channels that possess non-classical voltage-dependent properties.

  20. Comparative analysis of calculations and experiment for uranium-graphite lattices with natural and slightly-enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrennikov, N.N.; Shchukin, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    Three sets of experiments carried out at different times and in different laboratories on measuring the material parameter for uranium-graphite lattices using natural and slightly enriched uranium are analyzed. Comparison with the calculations by the TRIFOGR and MCU (the Monte Carlo method) codes reveals resonable agreement between the calculation and experiment (of the order of 0.4% in K eff ). 17 refs.; 3 tabs

  1. A case of chronic effusive-constrictive pericarditis with slight myocardial involvement caused by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horimoto, Masashi; Funayama, Naoki; Takenaka, Takashi; Igarashi, Takeki; Sekiguchi, Morie.

    1985-01-01

    A 25-year-old female was admitted with shortness of breath and abdominal swelling. Six years before the admission, she had received resection of 7th to 9th left ribs and subsequent radiation of 5,000 rads to the thorax for the treatment of rib osteoblastoma. One year after the radiation, marked pericardial effusion associated with acute pericarditis was observed and was improved by digitalization and diuretic therapy. Since two years after the radiation, she had felt easy fatigability, swelling of face and foot, and transient faintness on more than 10 meters running. On admission, chest X-ray photograph showed increased pulmonary vascularity without cardiac enlargement. Electrocardiogram indicated systolic right ventricular strain, mitral P, and nonspecific S-T segment depression in left precordial leads. Two-dimensional echocardiography presented pericardial effusion with posterior pericardial thickening, while M-mode echocardiography showed diastolic posterior movement of interventricular septum and diastolic flattening of left ventricular posterior wall. Cardiac catheterization revealed marked elevation of mean right atrial pressure, pulmonary arterial diastolic pressure, right and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, accompanied with their equalization. In addition, pressure waves of right and left ventricle showed diastolic dip and plateau. Phono-cardiogram and apexcardiogram presented pericardial knock sound and systolic retraction, respectively. Cardiac angiography showed diastolic restriction of left ventricle without any stenosis of coronary artery. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest revealed thickening of anterior and left lateral pericardium with expansion of inferior vena cava, and abdominal CT revealed ascites with slight enlargements of liver and spleen. From above obtained data, chronic effusive-constrictive pericarditis, which was attributed to radiation, was strongly suggested. (J.P.N.)

  2. A novel low-temperature-active β-glucosidase from symbiotic Serratia sp. TN49 reveals four essential positions for substrate accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junpei; Zhang, Rui; Shi, Pengjun; Huang, Huoqing; Meng, Kun; Yuan, Tiezheng; Yang, Peilong; Yao, Bin

    2011-10-01

    A 2,373-bp full-length gene (bglA49) encoding a 790-residue polypeptide (BglA49) with a calculated mass of 87.8 kDa was cloned from Serratia sp. TN49, a symbiotic bacterium isolated from the gut of longhorned beetle (Batocera horsfieldi) larvae. The deduced amino acid sequence of BglA49 showed the highest identities of 80.1% with a conceptually translated protein from Pantoea sp. At-9b (EEW02556), 38.3% with the identified glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 3 β-glucosidase from Clostridium stercorarium NCBI 11754 (CAB08072), and sp. G5 (ABL09836) and Paenibacillus sp. C7 (AAX35883). The recombinant enzyme (r-BglA49) was expressed in Escherichia coli and displayed the typical characteristics of low-temperature-active enzymes, such as low temperature optimum (showing apparent optimal activity at 35°C), activity at low temperatures (retaining approximately 60% of its maximum activity at 20°C and approximately 25% at 10°C). Compared with the thermophilic GH 3 β-glucosidase, r-BglA49 had fewer hydrogen bonds and salt bridges and less proline residues. These features might relate to the increased structure flexibility and higher catalytic activity at low temperatures of r-BglA49. The molecular docking study of four GH 3 β-glucosidases revealed five conserved positions contributing to substrate accommodation, among which four positions of r-BglA49 (R192, Y228, D260, and E449) were identified to be essential based on site-directed mutagenesis analysis.

  3. Gene Expression Profiling Reveals a Massive, Aneuploidy-Dependent Transcriptional Deregulation and Distinct Differences between Lymph Node–Negative and Lymph Node–Positive Colon Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grade, Marian; Hörmann, Patrick; Becker, Sandra; Hummon, Amanda B.; Wangsa, Danny; Varma, Sudhir; Simon, Richard; Liersch, Torsten; Becker, Heinz; Difilippantonio, Michael J.; Ghadimi, B. Michael; Ried, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    To characterize patterns of global transcriptional deregulation in primary colon carcinomas, we did gene expression profiling of 73 tumors [Unio Internationale Contra Cancrum stage II (n = 33) and stage III (n = 40)] using oligonucleotide microarrays. For 30 of the tumors, expression profiles were compared with those from matched normal mucosa samples. We identified a set of 1,950 genes with highly significant deregulation between tumors and mucosa samples (P 5-fold average expression difference between normal colon mucosa and carcinomas, including up-regulation of MYC and of HMGA1, a putative oncogene. Furthermore, we identified 68 genes that were significantly differentially expressed between lymph node–negative and lymph node–positive tumors (P deregulated genes were validated using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR in >40 tumor and normal mucosa samples with good concordance between the techniques. Finally, we established a relationship between specific genomic imbalances, which were mapped for 32 of the analyzed colon tumors by comparative genomic hybridization, and alterations of global transcriptional activity. Previously, we had conducted a similar analysis of primary rectal carcinomas. The systematic comparison of colon and rectal carcinomas revealed a significant overlap of genomic imbalances and transcriptional deregulation, including activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade, suggesting similar pathogenic pathways. PMID:17210682

  4. Moth wing scales slightly increase the absorbance of bat echolocation calls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyao Zeng

    Full Text Available Coevolutionary arms races between predators and prey can lead to a diverse range of foraging and defense strategies, such as countermeasures between nocturnal insects and echolocating bats. Here, we show how the fine structure of wing scales may help moths by slightly increasing sound absorbance at frequencies typically used in bat echolocation. Using four widespread species of moths and butterflies, we found that moth scales are composed of honeycomb-like hollows similar to sound-absorbing material, but these were absent from butterfly scales. Micro-reverberation chamber experiments revealed that moth wings were more absorbent at the frequencies emitted by many echolocating bats (40-60 kHz than butterfly wings. Furthermore, moth wings lost absorbance at these frequencies when scales were removed, which suggests that some moths have evolved stealth tactics to reduce their conspicuousness to echolocating bats. Although the benefits to moths are relatively small in terms of reducing their target strengths, scales may nonetheless confer survival advantages by reducing the detection distances of moths by bats by 5-6%.

  5. Structural analysis of respiratory syncytial virus reveals the position of M2-1 between the matrix protein and the ribonucleoprotein complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Gabriella; Holl, Jens M; Williams, Grant M; Alonas, Eric; Vanover, Daryll; Lifland, Aaron W; Gudheti, Manasa; Guerrero-Ferreira, Ricardo C; Nair, Vinod; Yi, Hong; Graham, Barney S; Santangelo, Philip J; Wright, Elizabeth R

    2014-07-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a member of the Paramyxoviridae family of nonsegmented, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA genome viruses, is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants, young children, and the elderly or immunocompromised. There are many open questions regarding the processes that regulate human RSV (hRSV) assembly and budding. Here, using cryo-electron tomography, we identified virus particles that were spherical, filamentous, and asymmetric in structure, all within the same virus preparation. The three particle morphologies maintained a similar organization of the surface glycoproteins, matrix protein (M), M2-1, and the ribonucleoprotein (RNP). RNP filaments were traced in three dimensions (3D), and their total length was calculated. The measurements revealed the inclusion of multiple full-length genome copies per particle. RNP was associated with the membrane whenever the M layer was present. The amount of M coverage ranged from 24% to 86% in the different morphologies. Using fluorescence light microscopy (fLM), direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM), and a proximity ligation assay (PLA), we provide evidence illustrating that M2-1 is located between RNP and M in isolated viral particles. In addition, regular spacing of the M2-1 densities was resolved when hRSV viruses were imaged using Zernike phase contrast (ZPC) cryo-electron tomography. Our studies provide a more complete characterization of the hRSV virion structure and substantiation that M and M2-1 regulate virus organization. hRSV is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children as well as elderly or immunocompromised individuals. We used cryo-electron tomography and Zernike phase contrast cryo-electron tomography to visualize populations of purified hRSV in 3D. We observed the three distinct morphologies, spherical, filamentous, and asymmetric, which maintained comparable organizational profiles

  6. Balanced conditions or slight mass gain of glaciers in the Lahaul and Spiti region (northern India, Himalaya during the nineties preceded recent mass loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vincent

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The volume change of the Chhota Shigri Glacier (India, 32° 20 N, 77° 30' E between 1988 and 2010 has been determined using in situ geodetic measurements. This glacier has experienced only a slight mass loss between 1988 and 2010 (−3.8 ± 2.0 m w.e. (water equivalent corresponding to −0.17 ± 0.09 m w.e. yr−1. Using satellite digital elevation models (DEM differencing and field measurements, we measure a negative mass balance (MB between 1999 and 2010 (−4.8 ± 1.8 m w.e. corresponding to −0.44 ± 0.16 m w.e. yr−1. Thus, we deduce a slightly positive or near-zero MB between 1988 and 1999 (+1.0 ± 2.7 m w.e. corresponding to +0.09 ± 0.24 m w.e. yr−1. Furthermore, satellite DEM differencing reveals that the MB of the Chhota Shigri Glacier (−0.39 ± 0.15 m w.e. yr−1 has been only slightly less negative than the MB of a 2110 km2 glaciarized area in the Lahaul and Spiti region (−0.44 ± 0.09 m w.e. yr−1 during 1999−2011. Hence, we conclude that the ice wastage is probably moderate in this region over the last 22 yr, with near equilibrium conditions during the nineties, and an ice mass loss after. The turning point from balanced to negative mass budget is not known but lies probably in the late nineties and at the latest in 1999. This positive or near-zero MB for Chhota Shigri Glacier (and probably for the surrounding glaciers of the Lahaul and Spiti region during at least part of the 1990s contrasts with a recent compilation of MB data in the Himalayan range that indicated ice wastage since 1975. However, in agreement with this compilation, we confirm more negative balances since the beginning of the 21st century.

  7. 4D-CT scans reveal reduced magnitude of respiratory liver motion achieved by different abdominal compression plate positions in patients with intrahepatic tumors undergoing helical tomotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yong, E-mail: hu.yong@zs-hospital.sh.cn; Zhou, Yong-Kang, E-mail: zhouyk2009@163.com; Chen, Yi-Xing, E-mail: chen.yixing@zs-hospital.sh.cn; Shi, Shi-Ming, E-mail: shiming32@126.com; Zeng, Zhao-Chong, E-mail: zeng.zhaochong@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, 180 Feng Lin Road, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: While abdominal compression (AC) can be used to reduce respiratory liver motion in patients receiving helical tomotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma, the nature and extent of this effect is not well described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in magnitude of three-dimensional liver motion with abdominal compression using four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) images of several plate positions. Methods: From January 2012 to October 2015, 72 patients with intrahepatic carcinoma and divided into four groups underwent 4D-CT scans to assess respiratory liver motion. Of the 72 patients, 19 underwent abdominal compression of the cephalic area between the subxiphoid and umbilicus (group A), 16 underwent abdominal compression of the caudal region between the subxiphoid area and the umbilicus (group B), 11 patients underwent abdominal compression of the caudal umbilicus (group C), and 26 patients remained free breathing (group D). 4D-CT images were sorted into ten-image series, according to the respiratory phase from the end inspiration to the end expiration, and then transferred to treatment planning software. All liver contours were drawn by a single physician and confirmed by a second physician. Liver relative coordinates were automatically generated to calculate the liver respiratory motion in different axial directions to compile the 10 ten contours into a single composite image. Differences in respiratory liver motion were assessed with a one-way analysis of variance test of significance. Results: The average respiratory liver motion in the Y axial direction was 4.53 ± 1.16, 7.56 ± 1.30, 9.95 ± 2.32, and 9.53 ± 2.62 mm in groups A, B, C, and D, respectively, with a significant change among the four groups (p < 0.001). Abdominal compression was most effective in group A (compression plate on the subxiphoid area), with liver displacement being 2.53 ± 0.93, 4.53 ± 1.16, and 2.14 ± 0.92 mm on the X-, Y-, and Z

  8. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  9. Systematic analysis of immune infiltrates in high-grade serous ovarian cancer reveals CD20, FoxP3 and TIA-1 as positive prognostic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Milne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tumor-infiltrating T cells are associated with survival in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC, but their functional status is poorly understood, especially relative to the different risk categories and histological subtypes of EOC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tissue microarrays containing high-grade serous, endometrioid, mucinous and clear cell tumors were analyzed immunohistochemically for the presence of lymphocytes, dendritic cells, neutrophils, macrophages, MHC class I and II, and various markers of activation and inflammation. In high-grade serous tumors from optimally debulked patients, positive associations were seen between intraepithelial cells expressing CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45RO, CD25, TIA-1, Granzyme B, FoxP3, CD20, and CD68, as well as expression of MHC class I and II by tumor cells. Disease-specific survival was positively associated with the markers CD8, CD3, FoxP3, TIA-1, CD20, MHC class I and class II. In other histological subtypes, immune infiltrates were less prevalent, and the only markers associated with survival were MHC class II (positive association in endometrioid cases and myeloperoxidase (negative association in clear cell cases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Host immune responses to EOC vary widely according to histological subtype and the extent of residual disease. TIA-1, FoxP3 and CD20 emerge as new positive prognostic factors in high-grade serous EOC from optimally debulked patients.

  10. Comparative activity of tigecycline and tetracycline on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria revealed by a multicentre study in four North European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Lennart E; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Vaara, Martti

    2011-01-01

    This study involves a multicentre surveillance of tigecycline and tetracycline activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria from primary care centres (PCCs), general hospital wards (GHWs) and intensive care units (ICUs) in Denmark (n = 9), Finland (n = 10), Norway (n = 7) and Sweden (n...

  11. Choice and utilization of slightly enriched uranium fuel for high performance research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerles, J.M.; Schwartz, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    Problems relating to the replacement of highly enriched (90% or 93% U 235 ) uranium fuel: by moderately enriched (20% or 40% in U 235 ) metallic uranium fuel and slightly enriched (3% or 8% in U 235 ) uranium oxide fuel are discussed

  12. Genomic Characterization of Variable Surface Antigens Reveals a Telomere Position Effect as a Prerequisite for RNA Interference-Mediated Silencing in Paramecium tetraurelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranasic, Damir; Oppermann, Timo; Cheaib, Miriam; Cullum, John; Schmidt, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antigenic or phenotypic variation is a widespread phenomenon of expression of variable surface protein coats on eukaryotic microbes. To clarify the mechanism behind mutually exclusive gene expression, we characterized the genetic properties of the surface antigen multigene family in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia and the epigenetic factors controlling expression and silencing. Genome analysis indicated that the multigene family consists of intrachromosomal and subtelomeric genes; both classes apparently derive from different gene duplication events: whole-genome and intrachromosomal duplication. Expression analysis provides evidence for telomere position effects, because only subtelomeric genes follow mutually exclusive transcription. Microarray analysis of cultures deficient in Rdr3, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, in comparison to serotype-pure wild-type cultures, shows cotranscription of a subset of subtelomeric genes, indicating that the telomere position effect is due to a selective occurrence of Rdr3-mediated silencing in subtelomeric regions. We present a model of surface antigen evolution by intrachromosomal gene duplication involving the maintenance of positive selection of structurally relevant regions. Further analysis of chromosome heterogeneity shows that alternative telomere addition regions clearly affect transcription of closely related genes. Consequently, chromosome fragmentation appears to be of crucial importance for surface antigen expression and evolution. Our data suggest that RNAi-mediated control of this genetic network by trans-acting RNAs allows rapid epigenetic adaptation by phenotypic variation in combination with long-term genetic adaptation by Darwinian evolution of antigen genes. PMID:25389173

  13. Conserved intron positions in FGFR genes reflect the modular structure of FGFR and reveal stepwise addition of domains to an already complex ancestral FGFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebscher, Nicole; Deichmann, Christina; Sudhop, Stefanie; Fritzenwanker, Jens Holger; Green, Stephen; Hassel, Monika

    2009-10-01

    We have analyzed the evolution of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) tyrosine kinase genes throughout a wide range of animal phyla. No evidence for an FGFR gene was found in Porifera, but we tentatively identified an FGFR gene in the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens. The gene encodes a protein with three immunoglobulin-like domains, a single-pass transmembrane, and a split tyrosine kinase domain. By superimposing intron positions of 20 FGFR genes from Placozoa, Cnidaria, Protostomia, and Deuterostomia over the respective protein domain structure, we identified ten ancestral introns and three conserved intron groups. Our analysis shows (1) that the position of ancestral introns correlates to the modular structure of FGFRs, (2) that the acidic domain very likely evolved in the last common ancestor of triploblasts, (3) that splicing of IgIII was enabled by a triploblast-specific insertion, and (4) that IgI is subject to substantial loss or duplication particularly in quickly evolving genomes. Moreover, intron positions in the catalytic domain of FGFRs map to the borders of protein subdomains highly conserved in other serine/threonine kinases. Nevertheless, these introns were introduced in metazoan receptor tyrosine kinases exclusively. Our data support the view that protein evolution dating back to the Cambrian explosion took place in such a short time window that only subtle changes in the domain structure are detectable in extant representatives of animal phyla. We propose that the first multidomain FGFR originated in the last common ancestor of Placozoa, Cnidaria, and Bilateria. Additional domains were introduced mainly in the ancestor of triploblasts and in the Ecdysozoa.

  14. Effect of hypnosis on masseter EMG recorded during the 'resting' and a slightly open jaw posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Enaizan, N; Davey, K J; Lyons, M F; Cadden, S W

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to determine whether minimal levels of electromyographic activity in the masseter muscle are altered when individuals are in a verified hypnotic state. Experiments were performed on 17 volunteer subjects (8 male, 9 female) all of whom gave informed consent. The subjects were dentate and had no symptoms of pain or masticatory dysfunction. Surface electromyograms (EMGs) were made from the masseter muscles and quantified by integration following full-wave rectification and averaging. The EMGs were obtained (i) with the mandible in 'resting' posture; (ii) with the mandible voluntarily lowered (but with the lips closed); (iii) during maximum voluntary clenching (MVC). The first two recordings were made before, during and after the subjects were in a hypnotic state. Susceptibility to hypnosis was assessed with Spiegel's eye-roll test, and the existence of the hypnotic state was verified by changes in ventilatory pattern. On average, EMG levels expressed as percentages of MVC were less: (i) when the jaw was deliberately lowered as opposed to being in the postural position: (ii) during hypnosis compared with during the pre- and post-hypnotic periods. However, analysis of variance followed by post hoc tests with multiple comparison corrections (Bonferroni) revealed that only the differences between the level during hypnosis and those before and after hypnosis were statistically significant (P hypnosis, it appears that part of that EMG is of biological origin. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Biomarker screening of oral cancer cell lines revealed sub-populations of CD133-, CD44-, CD24- and ALDH1- positive cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall K

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC ranks sixth worldwide for cancer-related mortality. For the past several decades the mainstay of treatment for HNSCC has been surgery and external beam radiation, although more recent trials combining chemotherapy and radiation have demonstrated improvements. However, cancer recurrence and treatment failures continue to occur in a significant percentage of patients. Recent advances in tumor biology have led to the discovery that many cancers, including HNSCC, may contain subpopulations of cells with stem cell-like properties that may explain relapse and recurrence. The objective of this study was to screen existing oral cancer cell lines for biomarkers specific for cells with stem cell-like properties. RNA was isolated for RT-PCR screening using primers for specific mRNA of the biomarkers: CD44, CD24, CD133, NANOG, Nestin, ALDH1, and ABCG2 in CAL27, SCC25 and SCC15 cells. This analysis revealed that some oral cancer cell lines (CAL27 and SCC25 may contain small subpopulations of adhesion- and contact-independent cells (AiDC that also express tumor stem cell markers, including CD44, CD133, and CD24. In addition, CAL27 cells also expressed the intracellular tumor stem cell markers, ALDH1 and ABCG2. Isolation and culture of the adhesion- and contact-independent cells from CAL27 and SCC25 populations revealed differential proliferation rates and more robust inhibition by the MEK inhibitor PD98059, as well as the chemotherapeutic agents Cisplatin and Paclitaxel, within the AiDC CAL27 cells. At least one oral cancer cell line (CAL27 contained subpopulations of cells that express specific biomarkers associated with tumor stem cells which were morphologically and phenotypically distinct from other cells within this cell line.

  16. Optimal management of fuel in nuclear reactors with slightly enriched uranium and heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serghiuta, D.

    1994-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis presents the general principles guiding the optimal management of the fuel in CANDU type reactors with slightly enriched uranium. A method is devised which is based on the specific physical characteristics of this type of reactors and makes use of the multipurpose mathematical programming satisfying economical and nuclear safety requirements. The main goal of this work was the establishing of a refueling optimal methodology at equilibrium maintaining the reactor critical during operation. It also minimizes the fuel cycle cost through minimization of the utilized fissile material and at the same time by maximizing the reactor duty time through an optimal chain of refilling operations. This work can be considered as a contribution to a future project of CANDU type reactor core based on slightly enriched uranium. 74 Figs., 9 Tabs., 62 Refs

  17. Slightly uneven electric field trigatron employed in tens of microseconds charging time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiajin; Yang, Jianhua; Zhang, Jiande; Zhang, Huibo; Yang, Xiao

    2014-09-01

    To solve the issue of operation instability for the trigatron switch in the application of tens of microseconds or even less charging time, a novel trigatron spark gap with slightly uneven electric field was presented. Compared with the conventional trigatron, the novel trigatron was constructed with an obvious field enhancement on the edge of the opposite electrode. The selection of the field enhancement was analyzed based on the theory introduced by Martin. A low voltage trigatron model was constructed and tested on the tens of microseconds charging time platform. The results show that the character of relative range was improved while the trigger character still held a high level. This slightly uneven electric field typed trigatron is willing to be employed in the Tesla transformer - pulse forming line system.

  18. Ratio of sheath thickness to Debye length for a slightly ionized continuum plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.

    1980-01-01

    The penetration of plasma sheaths for spherical probes in a slightly ionized continuum plasma has been computed for values of epsilon (the ratio of ion to electron temperature) of 0.01 and 1.0 with rhosub(p) (the ratio of probe radius to plasma Debye length) set at 5.10,20 and 30. Values of the potential drops at the sheath boundaries are presented

  19. Relativistic acceleration of captured particles by a longitudinal wave in a slightly inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erokhin, N.S.; Zol'nikova, N.N.; Mikhajlovskaya, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    Relativistic acceleration of charged particles, captured by a longitudinal wave in a slightly inhomogeneous plasma without an external magnetic field is considered numerically and analytically. It is shown that with the growth of the plasma inhomogeneity parameter the maximum energy of accelerated captured particles exponentially increases. Attention is paid to the possibility of 'eternal' confinement and, respectively, unlimited acceleration of captured particles by an undamped longitudinal wave in a plasma without a magnetic field

  20. High polysilicon TFT field effect mobility reached thanks to slight phosphorus content in the active layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghdoudi, M.; Rogel, R.; Alzaied, N.; Fathallah, M.; Mohammed-Brahim, T.

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with the effect of slightly phosphorus atoms introduced during deposition of polysilicon films. Polysilicon films are used as an active layer in thin film transistors (TFTs) fabricated on glass substrates at a maximum temperature of 600 deg. C.Three phosphorus atoms contents, determined by the value of the phosphine to silane ratio: Γ (3.7 x 10 -7 , 8 x 10 -7 , 26 x 10 -6 ), are used to optimize the active layer quality. The in-situ doped layers induce a better stability of the electrical characteristics, a higher mobility and lower value of the threshold voltage for the slightly doped active layers [M. Zaghdoudi, M.M. Abdelkrim, M. Fathallah, T. Mohammed-Brahim and F. Le-Bihan Control of the weak phosphorus doping in polysilicon, Materials Science and Forum, Vols. 480-481 (2005) pp.305.]. The present work shows that the effect of slightly phosphorus content improves the quality of oxide/polysilicon interface and decreases the defects density. Degradation of electrical properties is shown to originate from the creation of defect at the channel-interface oxide and in the grain boundaries. The effect of temperature change on the electrical properties was studied and the behaviour was also analyzed

  1. Effect of aquatic plants on 95Zr concentration in slightly polluted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jianjun; Yang Ziyin; Chen Hui

    2004-01-01

    Effect of three aquatic plants (Ceratophyllum demersum, Azolla caroliniana and Eichhornia crassipes) on 95 Zr concentration in slightly polluted water was studied by using isotope tracer techniques. The results showed that the aquatic plants had strong ability of 95 Zr concentration in water. The concentration factor (CF) were from 56.78 to 112.94, so three aquatic plants were suggested be bio-indicators for 95 Zr polluted water. The specific activity of 95 Zr in water decreased with time when the aquatic plants were put in slightly 95 Zr polluted water. The descent of specific activity of 95 Zr in water was very quick during the beginning period (0-3d). The time for the specific activity reduced to 50% was only 3 days, indicating that theres aquatic plants could be used to purge slightly 95 Zr polluted water. The effect of Eichhornia crassipes on purging 95 Zr in water was the best among the three aquatic plants. The specific activity of 95 Zr in bottom clay only decreased 5% after putting aquatic plants in water, indicating that desorption of 95 Zr from bottom clay was not easy. As the bottom clay had strong ability of adsorption and fixation to 95 Zr, the effect of aquatic plant on purging 95 Zr adsorbed by bottom clay was not visible

  2. Parametric analysis and design of a screw extruder for slightly non-Newtonian (pseudoplastic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.I. Orisaleye

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Extruders have found application in the food, polymer and pharmaceutical industries. Rheological characteristics of materials are important in the specification of design parameters of screw extruders. Biopolymers, which consist of proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides, are shear-thinning (pseudoplastic within normal operating ranges. However, analytical models to predict and design screw extruders for non-Newtonian pseudoplastic materials are rare. In this study, an analytical model suitable to design a screw extruder for slightly non-Newtonian materials was developed. The model was used to predict the performance of the screw extruder while processing materials with power law indices slightly deviating from unity (the Newtonian case. Using non-dimensional analysis, the effects of design and operational parameters were investigated. Expressions to determine the optimum channel depth and helix angle were also derived. The model is capable of predicting the performance of the screw extruder within the range of power law indices considered (1/2⩽n⩽1. The power law index influences the choice of optimum channel depth and helix angle of the screw extruder. Keywords: Screw extruder, Slightly non-Newtonian, Shear-thinning, Pseudoplastic, Biopolymer, Power law

  3. Analysis of HLA class II haplotypes in the Cayapa indians of ecuador: A novel DRBI allele reveals evidence for convergent evolution and balancing selection at position 86

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titus-Trachtenberg, E.A.; Erlich, H. (Roche Molecular Systems, Alameda, CA (United States)); Rickards, O.; De Stefano, G.F. (Universita di Roma, Rome (Italy))

    1994-07-01

    PCR amplification, oligonucleotide probe typing, and sequencing were used to analyze the HLA class II loci (DRB1, DQA1, DAB1, and DPB1) of an isolated South Amerindian tribe. Here the authors report HLA class II variation, including the identification of a new DRB1 allele, several novel DR/DQ haplotypes, and an unusual distribution of DPB1 alleles, among the Cayapa Indians (N=100) of Ecuador. A general reduction of HLA class II allelic variation in the Cayapa is consistent with a population bottleneck during the colonization of the Americas. The new Cayapa DRB1 allele, DRB1[sup *]08042, which arose by a G[yields]T point mutation in the parental DRB1[sup *]0802, contains a novel Val codon (GTT) at position 86. The generation of DRB1[sup *]08042 (Val-86) from DRB1[sup *]0802 (Gly-86) in the Cayapa, by a different mechanism than the (GT[yields]TG) change in the creation of DRB1[sub *]08041 (Val-86) from DRB1[sup *]0802 in Africa, implicates selection in the convergent evolution of position 86 DR[beta] variants. The DRB1[sup *]08042 allele has not been found in >1,800 Amerindian haplotypes and thus presumably arose after the Cayapa separated from other South American Amerindians. Selection pressure for increased haplotype diversity can be inferred in the generation and maintenance of three new DRB1[sup *]08042 haplotypes and several novel DR/DQ haplotypes in this population. The DPB1 allelic distribution in the Cayapa is also extraordinary, with two alleles, DPB1[sup *]1401, a very rare allele in North American Amerindian populations, and DPB1[sup *]0402, the most common Amerindian DPB1 allele, constituting 89% of the Cayapa DPB1. These data are consistent with the postulated rapid rate of evolution as noted for the class I HLA-B locus of other South American Indians. 34 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Subtype Specific Differences in NS5A Domain II Reveals Involvement of Proline at Position 310 in Cyclosporine Susceptibility of Hepatitis C Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israr-ul H. Ansari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is susceptible to cyclosporine (CsA and other cyclophilin (CypA inhibitors, but the genetic basis of susceptibility is controversial. Whether genetic variation in NS5A alters cell culture susceptibility of HCV to CypA inhibition is unclear. We constructed replicons containing NS5A chimeras from genotypes 1a, 2a and 4a to test how variation in carboxy terminal regions of NS5A altered the genotype 1b CsA susceptibility. All chimeric replicons including genotype 1b Con1LN-wt replicon exhibited some cell culture sensitivity to CsA with genotype 4a being most sensitive and 1a the least. The CypA binding pattern of truncated NS5A genotypes correlated with the susceptibility of these replicons to CsA. The Con1LN-wt replicon showed increased susceptibility towards CsA when proline at position 310P was mutated to either threonine or alanine. Furthermore, a 15 amino acid long peptide fused N terminally to GFP coding sequences confirmed involvement of proline at 310 in CypA binding. Our findings are consistent with CypA acting on multiple prolines outside of the previously identified CypA binding sites. These results suggest multiple specific genetic variants between genotype 1a and 1b in the C-terminus of NS5A alter the CsA susceptibility of replicons, and some variants may oppose the effects of others.

  5. Complete plastid genomes from Ophioglossum californicum, Psilotum nudum, and Equisetum hyemale reveal an ancestral land plant genome structure and resolve the position of Equisetales among monilophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grewe Felix

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plastid genome structure and content is remarkably conserved in land plants. This widespread conservation has facilitated taxon-rich phylogenetic analyses that have resolved organismal relationships among many land plant groups. However, the relationships among major fern lineages, especially the placement of Equisetales, remain enigmatic. Results In order to understand the evolution of plastid genomes and to establish phylogenetic relationships among ferns, we sequenced the plastid genomes from three early diverging species: Equisetum hyemale (Equisetales, Ophioglossum californicum (Ophioglossales, and Psilotum nudum (Psilotales. A comparison of fern plastid genomes showed that some lineages have retained inverted repeat (IR boundaries originating from the common ancestor of land plants, while other lineages have experienced multiple IR changes including expansions and inversions. Genome content has remained stable throughout ferns, except for a few lineage-specific losses of genes and introns. Notably, the losses of the rps16 gene and the rps12i346 intron are shared among Psilotales, Ophioglossales, and Equisetales, while the gain of a mitochondrial atp1 intron is shared between Marattiales and Polypodiopsida. These genomic structural changes support the placement of Equisetales as sister to Ophioglossales + Psilotales and Marattiales as sister to Polypodiopsida. This result is augmented by some molecular phylogenetic analyses that recover the same relationships, whereas others suggest a relationship between Equisetales and Polypodiopsida. Conclusions Although molecular analyses were inconsistent with respect to the position of Marattiales and Equisetales, several genomic structural changes have for the first time provided a clear placement of these lineages within the ferns. These results further demonstrate the power of using rare genomic structural changes in cases where molecular data fail to provide strong phylogenetic

  6. High sensitivity detection of Plasmodium species reveals positive correlations between infections of different species, shifts in age distribution and reduced local variation in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Thomas A

    2009-03-01

    demonstrates that application of molecular diagnosis reveals patterns of malaria risk that are significantly different from those obtained by standard LM. Results provide insight relevant to design of malaria control and eradication strategies.

  7. Process for the selective cracking of straight-chained and slightly branched hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorring, R L; Shipman, G F

    1975-01-23

    The invention describes a method for the selective (hydro) cracking of petroleum materials, containing normal straight-chained and/or slightly branched-chained hydrocarbons. The mixture is brought into contact with a selective, crystalline alumino silicate zeolite cracking catalyst housing a silicon oxide/aluminum oxide ratio of at least about 12 and a constraint index of about 1 to 12 under cracking conditions. A zeolite catalyst with a crystal size of up to 0.05 ..mu.. is used. Solidification point and viscosity in particular of oils are to be lowered through the catalytic dewaxing.

  8. Elimination of slightly radioactive liquid effluent by dilution. Its consequences (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, P.; Candillon, C.

    1960-01-01

    Nuclear centres often have to solve problems raised by the elimination of large volumes of slightly radioactive liquid effluent. As things stand at present, the method usually adopted consists in expelling this effluent into the main water system in order to dilute it to a maximum, and thus to lower its radioactive isotope concentration to below the norms imposed by the Public Health Service. This technique requires systematic checking of the water system and its dependences, and demands a thorough knowledge of adsorption and fixation processes. (author) [fr

  9. A finite-dimensional reduction method for slightly supercritical elliptic problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Molle

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a finite-dimensional reduction method to find solutions for a class of slightly supercritical elliptic problems. A suitable truncation argument allows us to work in the usual Sobolev space even in the presence of supercritical nonlinearities: we modify the supercritical term in such a way to have subcritical approximating problems; for these problems, the finite-dimensional reduction can be obtained applying the methods already developed in the subcritical case; finally, we show that, if the truncation is realized at a sufficiently large level, then the solutions of the approximating problems, given by these methods, also solve the supercritical problems when the parameter is small enough.

  10. Thermal behaviour of the ESR Relaxation time in slightly dirty superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwachheim, G.; Machado, S.F.; Tsallis, C.

    1978-07-01

    The thermal behaviour of the ESR relaxation rate in slightly dirty superconductors is discussed for both exchange and spin-orbit interactions between the conduction electrons and the impurities. The sensibility to the electronic density of states is exhibited by using, in a modified BCS framework, an heuristic analytic form which avoids two of three defects of a previous similar treatment. The sudden increase (decrease) of the relaxation rate immediately below the critical temperature for the exchange (spin-orbit) case is confirmed. Reasonable agreement with experimental data in LaRu 2 ; Gd is obtained [pt

  11. On the possibility of producing alumina ceramic with a slight electrical conductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Fritz

    1989-01-01

    Antistatic alumina ceramic is desirable for certain particle accelerator applications. In general, highly insulating surface close to a charged particle beam must be avoided in order to prevent the formation of ion pockets and other unwanted electrical effects. For the AA vacuum chamber (UHV), an antistatic ferrite has been produced and successfully installed. The fabrication of antistatic alumina might be possible in a similar way. By using certain metal oxides in the cement, which holds the alumina particles together, a slight conductivity could be obtained after the firing and sintering process, without deteriorating the mechanical and outgassing properties of the alumina compound.

  12. The influence of slightly different main circulation pumps on PWR coolant pressure pulsations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dach, K.; Pecinka, L.

    1989-01-01

    Pressure distribution along the core barrel circumference caused by the simultaneous operation of six main circulating pumps with slightly different revolutions obtained as a result of measurement in operated NPP is determined on the basis of the well-known Penzes method based on the solving of the wave equation with source term using the expansion into the infinite series of eigenfunctions. Results of calculations can be summarized as follows: the pressure distribution and the resulting force acting on the core barrel has a random character. The same is valid for core barrel vibrations and mainly for the joint between core barrel and pressure vessel. (orig.)

  13. Slight conductive hearing loss in children with narrowed maxilla and deep palatal vault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiki, A; Kiliç, N; Oktay, H

    2015-01-01

    PROBLEM/OBJECTIVES: Maxillary constriction and high palatal arch are associated with increased risk of chronic eustachian tube dysfunction and conductive hearing loss (CHL) due to chronic effusion. However, this relationship has not been clearly demonstrated. This study assessed CHL in school children with a narrowed maxilla and deep palatal vault. Thirty-two children with maxillary constriction were randomly selected for the study group and 28 children with normal transverse maxillary development were selected for the control group. Pure-tone audiograms were obtained for all children, and hearing levels and air-bone gaps were measured. Air-bone gap measurements in the control group ranged from 5.50 to 14.50 decibels (dB), and in the study group they were between 5.00 and 24.00 dB. In the study group, 14 (43.8%) children had slight CHL, and the remaining 18 (56.2%) children had normal hearing levels. In the control group, all of the children had normal hearing levels. Hearing levels and air-bone gaps were greater in the study group than the control group. This study showed that children with a narrowed maxilla and deep palatal vault may have slight CHL. Therefore, the onset of CHL should be followed with hearing screening programs.

  14. Natural products phytotoxicity A bioassay suitable for small quantities of slightly water-soluble compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornbos, D L; Spencer, G F

    1990-02-01

    A large variety of secondary metabolites that can inhibit germination and/or seedling growth are produced by plants in low quantities. The objective of this study was to develop a bioassay capable of reliably assessing reductions in germination percentage and seedling length of small-seeded plant species caused by exposure to minute quantities of these compounds. The germination and growth of alfalfa (Medicago saliva), annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) were evaluated against six known phytotoxins from five chemical classes; cinmethylin (a herbicidal cineole derivative) was selected as a comparison standard. Each phytotoxin, dissolved in a suitable organic solvent, was placed on water-agar in small tissue culture wells. After the solvent evaporated, imbibed seeds were placed on the agar; after three days, germination percentages and seedling lengths were measured. Compared to a commonly used filter paper procedure, this modified agar bioassay required smaller quantities of compound per seed for comparable bioassay results. This bioassay also readily permitted the measurement of seedling length, a more sensitive indicator of phytotoxicity than germination. Seedling length decreased sigmoidally as the toxin concentration increased logarithmically. Phytotoxicity was a function of both compound and plant species. Cinmethylin, a grass herbicide, reduced the length of annual ryegrass seedlings by 90-100%, whereas that of alfalfa and velvetleaf was inhibited slightly. The agar bioassay facilitated the rapid and reliable testing of slightly water-soluble compounds, requiring only minute quantities of each compound to give reproducible results.

  15. The safe, economical operation of a slightly subcritical reactor and transmutor with a small proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    I suggest that an accelerator can be used to increase the safety and neutron economy of a power reactor and a transmutor of long-lived radioactive wastes, such as minor actinides and fission products, by providing neutrons for its subcritical operation. Instead of the large subcriticality k=0.9-0.95 which we originally proposed for such transmutor, we propose to use a slightly subcritical reactor, such as k=0.99, which will avoid many of the technical difficulties that are associated with large subcriticality, such as localized power peaking, radiation damage due to injection of medium-energy protons, the high current accelerator, and the requirement for a long beam-expansion section. We analyze the power drop that occurred in Phenix reactor, and show that the operating this reactor in subcritical conditions improves safety. (author). 13 refs., 5 figs

  16. The safe, economical operation of a slightly subcritical reactor and transmutor with a small proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes methods in which an accelerator can be used to increase the safety and neutron economy of a power reactor and transmutor of long-lived radioactive wastes, such as minor actinides and fission products, by providing neutrons for its subcritical operation. Instead of the rather large subcriticality of k=0.9--0.95 which we originally proposed for such a transmutor, we propose to use a slightly subcritical reactor, such as k=0.99, which will avoid many of the technical difficulties that are associated with large subcriticality, such as localized power peaking, radiation damage due to the injection of medium-energy protons, the high current accelerator, and the requirement for a long beam-expansion section. We analyzed the power drop that occurred in Phoenix reactor, and show that the operating this reactor in subcritical condition improves its safety

  17. Phase derivative method for reconstruction of slightly off-axis digital holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Cheng-Shan; Wang, Ben-Yi; Sha, Bei; Lu, Yu-Jie; Xu, Ming-Yuan

    2014-12-15

    A phase derivative (PD) method is proposed for reconstruction of off-axis holograms. In this method, a phase distribution of the tested object wave constrained within 0 to pi radian is firstly worked out by a simple analytical formula; then it is corrected to its right range from -pi to pi according to the sign characteristics of its first-order derivative. A theoretical analysis indicates that this PD method is particularly suitable for reconstruction of slightly off-axis holograms because it only requires the spatial frequency of the reference beam larger than spatial frequency of the tested object wave in principle. In addition, because the PD method belongs to a pure local method with no need of any integral operation or phase shifting algorithm in process of the phase retrieval, it could have some advantages in reducing computer load and memory requirements to the image processing system. Some experimental results are given to demonstrate the feasibility of the method.

  18. Source apportionment of aerosol particles using polycapillary slightly focusing X-ray lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Tianxi [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China) and Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China) and Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)], E-mail: stxbeijing@163.com; Liu Zhiguo [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China) and Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China) and Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)], E-mail: liuzgbeijing@163.com; Zhu Guanghua; Liu Hui [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma Yongzhong [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Beijing, Beijing 100013 (China); Xu Qing [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100039 (China); Li Yude; Wang Guangpu; Luo Ping; Pan Qiuli; Ding Xunliang [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2009-06-11

    A micro-X-ray fluorescence (Micro-XRF) spectrometer based on a polycapillary slightly focusing X-ray lens (PSFXRL) and laboratory X-ray source was designed to carry out the source apportionment of aerosol particles. In the distribution curve of the X-ray intensity in the focal spot of PSFXRL, there was a plateau with a diameter of about 65 {mu}m. The uniformity of this plateau was about 3%. This was helpful in measuring the XRF spectrum of a single aerosol particle in which the element distributions are not uniform. The minimum detection limit (MDL) of this Micro-XRF spectrometer was 15 ppm for the Fe-K{sub {alpha}}. The origins of the aerosol particles at the exit of a subway station and a construction site were apportioned. This Micro-XRF spectrometer has potential applications in analysis of single aerosol particles.

  19. Effect of impurity correlation on the density of states in slightly compensated heavily doped semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan Nhat Quang; Nguyen Nhu Dat; Dinh Van An

    1993-07-01

    A theory is developed of the electron density of states (DOS) in slightly compensated heavily doped semiconductors which undergo a thermal treatment. The calculation is carried out within the semiclassical approach to the random impurity field, taking adequately into account high-temperature correlation among the impurities and low temperature screening due to the free carriers as well. Then, a simple analytic expression for the DOS is obtained which exhibits the same energy dependence as in the case of a random impurity distribution, but now with some correlation-induced changes in the coefficients. A numerical estimation on non-compensated n-type sample of GaAs at a doping level of 5 x 10 18 cm -3 shows that in the tail region the correlated DOS turns out to be somewhat larger and cut less sharply than the random one. (author). 45 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  20. Turbulent mixing of a slightly supercritical van der Waals fluid at low-Mach number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battista, F.; Casciola, C. M.; Picano, F.

    2014-01-01

    Supercritical fluids near the critical point are characterized by liquid-like densities and gas-like transport properties. These features are purposely exploited in different contexts ranging from natural products extraction/fractionation to aerospace propulsion. Large part of studies concerns this last context, focusing on the dynamics of supercritical fluids at high Mach number where compressibility and thermodynamics strictly interact. Despite the widespread use also at low Mach number, the turbulent mixing properties of slightly supercritical fluids have still not investigated in detail in this regime. This topic is addressed here by dealing with Direct Numerical Simulations of a coaxial jet of a slightly supercritical van der Waals fluid. Since acoustic effects are irrelevant in the low Mach number conditions found in many industrial applications, the numerical model is based on a suitable low-Mach number expansion of the governing equation. According to experimental observations, the weakly supercritical regime is characterized by the formation of finger-like structures – the so-called ligaments – in the shear layers separating the two streams. The mechanism of ligament formation at vanishing Mach number is extracted from the simulations and a detailed statistical characterization is provided. Ligaments always form whenever a high density contrast occurs, independently of real or perfect gas behaviors. The difference between real and perfect gas conditions is found in the ligament small-scale structure. More intense density gradients and thinner interfaces characterize the near critical fluid in comparison with the smoother behavior of the perfect gas. A phenomenological interpretation is here provided on the basis of the real gas thermodynamics properties

  1. Turbulent mixing of a slightly supercritical van der Waals fluid at low-Mach number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battista, F.; Casciola, C. M. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Sapienza University, via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); Picano, F. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padova, via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    Supercritical fluids near the critical point are characterized by liquid-like densities and gas-like transport properties. These features are purposely exploited in different contexts ranging from natural products extraction/fractionation to aerospace propulsion. Large part of studies concerns this last context, focusing on the dynamics of supercritical fluids at high Mach number where compressibility and thermodynamics strictly interact. Despite the widespread use also at low Mach number, the turbulent mixing properties of slightly supercritical fluids have still not investigated in detail in this regime. This topic is addressed here by dealing with Direct Numerical Simulations of a coaxial jet of a slightly supercritical van der Waals fluid. Since acoustic effects are irrelevant in the low Mach number conditions found in many industrial applications, the numerical model is based on a suitable low-Mach number expansion of the governing equation. According to experimental observations, the weakly supercritical regime is characterized by the formation of finger-like structures – the so-called ligaments – in the shear layers separating the two streams. The mechanism of ligament formation at vanishing Mach number is extracted from the simulations and a detailed statistical characterization is provided. Ligaments always form whenever a high density contrast occurs, independently of real or perfect gas behaviors. The difference between real and perfect gas conditions is found in the ligament small-scale structure. More intense density gradients and thinner interfaces characterize the near critical fluid in comparison with the smoother behavior of the perfect gas. A phenomenological interpretation is here provided on the basis of the real gas thermodynamics properties.

  2. How does incomplete fusion show up at slightly above barrier energies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad R.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results on the onset of incomplete fusion at slightly above barrier energies are discussed in this paper. Spin-distributions of evaporation residues populated via complete and/or incomplete fusion of 12C,16O (Elab ≈ 4–7 MeV with 169Tm have been measured to probe associated ℓ–values. Particle (Z=1,2 – γ – coincidence technique has been used for channel selection. Entirely different entry state spin populations have been observed during the de-excitation of complete and incomplete composites. The complete fusion residues are found to be strongly fed over a broad spin range. While, a narrow range feeding for only high spin states has been observed in case of incomplete fusion residues. In the present work, incomplete fusion is shown to be a promising tool to populate high spin states in final reaction products. For better insight into the onset and strength of incomplete fusion, the relative contributions of complete and incomplete fusion have been deduced from the analysis of excitation functions and forward recoil ranges. A significant fraction of ICF has been observed even at energy as low as ≈ 7% above the barrier. The relative strengths of complete and incomplete fusion deduced from the analysis of forward-recoil-ranges and excitation functions complement each other. All the available results are discussed in light of the Morgenstern’s mass-asymmetry systematics. Incomplete fusion fraction is found to be large for more mass-asymmetric systems for individual projectiles, which points towards the projectile structure effect on incomplete fusion fraction. Experimentally measured forward ranges of recoils complement the existence of incomplete fusion at slightly above barrier energies, where more than one linear-momentum-transfer components associated with full- and/or partial-fusion of projectile(s have been observed. Present results conclusively demonstrate the possibility to selectively populate high spin states

  3. Experimental study of slight temperature rise combustion in trapped vortex combustors for gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, R.C.; Fan, W.J.; Xing, F.; Song, S.W.; Shi, Q.; Tian, G.H.; Tan, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Interstage turbine combustion used for improving efficiency of gas turbine was a new type of combustion mode. Operating conditions and technical requirements for this type of combustor were different from those of traditional combustor. It was expected to achieve engineering application in both ground-based and aviation gas turbine in the near future. In this study, a number of modifications in a base design were applied and examined experimentally. The trapped-vortex combustion technology was adopted for flame stability under high velocity conditions, and the preheating-fuel injection technology was used to improve the atomization and evaporation performance of liquid fuel. The experimental results indicated that stable and efficient combustion with slight temperature-rise can be achieved under the high velocity conditions of combustor inlet. Under all experimental conditions, the excess air coefficients of ignition and lean blow-out were larger than 7 and 20, respectively; pollutant emission index of NO x and the maximum wall temperature were below 2.5 g/(kg fuel) and 1050 K, respectively. Moreover, the effects of fuel injection and overall configuration on the combustion characteristics were analyzed in detail. The number increase, area increase and depth increase of fuel injectors had different influences on the stability, combustion characteristic and temperature distribution. - Highlights: • The combustion mode of slight temperature-rise (200 K) was achieved. • Effect of fuel and air injection on stability characteristic was investigated. • Impact of overall configuration on combustion performance was analyzed. • The feasibility of scheme was determined.

  4. The slightly-enriched spectral shift control reactor. Final report, September 30, 1988--September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, W.R.; Lee, J.C.; Larsen, E.W. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Edlund, M.C. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering

    1991-11-01

    An advanced converter reactor design utilizing mechanical spectral shift control rods in a conventional pressurized water reactor configuration is under investigation. The design is based on the principle that a harder spectrum during the early part of the fuel cycle will result in large neutron captures in fertile {sup 238}U, which can then be burned in situ in a softer spectrum later in the cycle. Preliminary design calculations performed during FY 89 showed that the slightly-enriched spectral shift reactor design offers the benefit of substantially increased fuel resource utilization with the proven safety characteristics of the pressurized water reactor technology retained. Optimization of the fuel design and development of fuel management strategies were carried out in FY 90, along with effort to develop and validate neutronic methodology for tight-lattice configurations with hard spectra. During FY 91, the final year of the grant, the final Slightly-Enriched Spectral Shift Reactor (SESSR) design was determined, and reference design analyses were performed for the assemblies as well as the global core configuration, both at the beginning of cycle (BOC) and with depletion. The final SESSR design results in approximately a 20% increase in the utilization of uranium resources, based on equilibrium fuel cycle analyses. Acceptable pin power peaking is obtained with the final core design, with assembly peaking factors equal to less than 1.04 for spectral shift control rods both inserted and withdrawn, and global peaking factors at BOC predicted to be 1.4. In addition, a negative Moderation Temperature Coefficient (MTC) is maintained for BOC, which is difficult to achieve with conventional advanced converter designs based on a closed fuel cycle. The SESSR design avoids the need for burnable poison absorber, although they could be added if desired to increase the cycle length while maintaining a negative MTC.

  5. A Cluster of Paralytic Poliomyelitis Cases Due to Transmission of Slightly Diverged Sabin 2 Vaccine Poliovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkova, Ekaterina A; Gmyl, Anatoly P; Yakovenko, Maria L; Ivanova, Olga E; Eremeeva, Tatyana P; Kozlovskaya, Liubov I; Shakaryan, Armen K; Lipskaya, Galina Y; Parshina, Irina L; Loginovskikh, Nataliya V; Morozova, Nadezhda S; Agol, Vadim I

    2016-07-01

    Four cases of acute flaccid paralysis caused by slightly evolved (Sabin-like) vaccine polioviruses of serotype 2 were registered in July to August 2010 in an orphanage of Biysk (Altai Region, Russia). The Biysk cluster of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) had several uncommon, if not unique, features. (i) Until this outbreak, Sabin-like viruses (in distinction to more markedly evolved vaccine-derived polioviruses [VDPVs]) were reported to cause only sporadic cases of VAPP. Consequently, VAPP cases were not considered to require outbreak-type responses. However, the Biysk outbreak completely blurred the borderline between Sabin-like viruses and VDPVs in epidemiological terms. (ii) The outbreak demonstrated a very high disease/infection ratio, apparently exceeding even that reported for wild polioviruses. The viral genome structures did not provide any substantial hints as to the underlying reason(s) for such pathogenicity. (iii) The replacement of intestinal poliovirus lineages by other Sabin-like lineages during short intervals after the disease onsets was observed in two patients. Again, the sequences of the respective genomes provided no clues to explain these events. (iv) The polioviruses isolated from the patients and their contacts demonstrated a striking heterogeneity as well as rapid and uneven evolution of the whole genomes and their parts, apparently due to extensive interpersonal contacts in a relatively small closed community, multiple bottlenecking, and recombination. Altogether, the results demonstrate several new aspects of pathogenicity, epidemiology, and evolution of vaccine-related polioviruses and underscore several serious gaps in understanding these problems. The oral poliovirus vaccine largely contributed to the nearly complete disappearance of poliovirus-caused poliomyelitis. Being generally safe, it can, in some cases, result in a paralytic disease. Two types of such outcomes are distinguished: those caused by slightly

  6. Slightly increased BMI at young age is a risk factor for future hypertension in Japanese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Someya

    Full Text Available Hypertension is developed easily in Asian adults with normal body mass index (BMI (~23 kg/m2, compared with other ethnicities with similar BMI. This study tested the hypothesis that slightly increased BMI at young age is a risk factor for future hypertension in Japanese men by historical cohort study.The study participants were 636 male alumni of the physical education school. They had available data on their physical examination at college age and follow-up investigation between 2007 and 2011. The participants were categorized into six categories: BMI at college age of <20.0 kg/m2, 20.0-21.0kg/m2, 21.0-22.0kg/m2, 22.0-23.0kg/m2, 23.0-24.0kg/m2, and ≥24.0kg/m2, and the incidence of hypertension was compared.This study covered 27-year follow-up period (interquartile range: IQR: 23-31 which included 17,059 person-years of observation. Subjects were 22 (22-22 years old at graduated college, and 49 (45-53 years old at first follow-up investigation. During the period, 120 men developed hypertension. The prevalence rates of hypertension for lowest to highest BMI categories were 9.4%, 14.6%, 16.1%, 17.5%, 30.3%, and 29.3%, respectively (p<0.001 for trend, and their hazard ratios were 1.00 (reference, 1.80 (95%CI: 0.65-4.94, 2.17 (0.83-5.64, 2.29 (0.89-5.92, 3.60 (1.37-9.47 and 4.72 (1.78-12.48, respectively (p<0.001 for trend. This trend was similar after adjustment for age, year of graduation, smoking, current exercise status and current dietary intake.Slightly increased BMI at young age is a risk factor for future hypertension in Japanese men.

  7. Workshop on mesons and mesonic states up to slightly above 1 GeV/c2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelert, W.; Sefzick, T.

    1991-04-01

    The new accelerator COSY-Juelich will provide protons with momenta up to 3.3 GeV/c. Thus an effective mass slightly above 1 GeV/c 2 can be produced in the pp-interaction. Employing higher mass targets also heavier mesons can be observed. The production of single mesons and of mesonic states with and without strangeness can be investgated at COSY. The structure of some mesons in the mass range of 950 McV/c 2 to 1020 MeV/c 2 is still not well understood. While the Φ(1020) at the upper limit of this range is believed to be of rahter pure santi s nature the content of the η'(958) meson at the lower limit of this range is still under discussion. New results suggest that what is called the f o meson (former notation S*) consists in reality of two close and narrow states; one of them being a santi s - quarks configuration while the other should be a flavour singlet which couples to ππ and Kanti K with similar strengths. Also the discussion on possible gluonium candidates is still alive. It is speculated that some of these mesons - till now supposed to have widths of 30 to 50 MeV/c 2 - could rather be an overlay of structures with much smaller widths. Another features of resonances in this region is their partial decay into the Kanti K channel if their actual mass is large enough. Strong decays in Kanti K could be a signal of a Kanti K 'molecular' nature of the resonance. In particular the atomic K + K - structure should exist. In order to have review of the physics related to these problems there was a workshop held on: MESONS and MESONIC STATES up to slightly above 1 GeV/c 2 at the ZEL - Forschungszentrum - Juelich February 19 to 20, 1990. The following contains copies of the shown transparencies and short write-ups as far as available. (orig.)

  8. Application of slightly acidic electrolyzed water for inactivating microbes in a layer breeding house.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, X X; Li, B M; Wang, C Y; Zhang, Q; Cao, W

    2013-10-01

    Lots of microorganisms exist in layer houses can cause bird diseases and worker health concerns. Spraying chemical disinfectants is an effective way to decontaminate pathogenic microorganisms in the air and on surfaces in poultry houses. Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW, pH 5.0-6.5) is an ideal, environmentally friendly broad-spectrum disinfectant to prevent and control bacterial or viral infection in layer farms. The purpose of this work was to investigate the cleaning effectiveness of SAEW for inactivating the microbes in layer houses. The effect of SAEW was evaluated by solid materials and surface disinfection in a hen house. Results indicate that SAEW with an available chlorine concentration of 250 mg/L, pH value of 6.19, and oxygen reduction potential of 974 mV inactivated 100% of bacteria and fungi in solid materials (dusts, feces, feather, and feed), which is more efficient than common chemical disinfectant such as benzalkonium chloride solution (1:1,000 vol/vol) and povidone-iodine solution (1:1,000 vol/vol). Also, it significantly reduced the microbes on the equipment or facility surfaces (P < 0.05), including floor, wall, feed trough, and water pipe surfaces. Moreover, SAEW effectively decreased the survival rates of Salmonella and Escherichia coli by 21 and 16 percentage points. In addition, spraying the target with tap water before disinfection plays an important role in spray disinfection.

  9. Inhibition of cobalt active dissolution by benzotriazole in slightly alkaline bicarbonate aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallant, Danick [Departement de Chimie, Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Departement de Biologie, Chimie et Geographie, Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 300, Allee des Ursulines, Rimouski, Quebec (Canada); E-mail: danick.gallant.1@ulaval.ca; Pezolet, Michel [Departement de Chimie, Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: michel.pezolet@chm.ulaval.ca; Simard, Stephan [Departement de Chimie, Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Departement de Biologie, Chimie et Geographie, Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 300, Allee des Ursulines, Rimouski, Quebec (Canada); E-mail: stephan_simard@uqar.qc.ca

    2007-04-20

    The efficiency of benzotriazole as inhibiting agent for the corrosion of cobalt was probed at pH ranging from 8.3 to 10.2 in a sodium bicarbonate solution, chosen to simulate mild natural environments. From electrochemical, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and ellipsometry experiments, we have demonstrated that benzotriazole markedly affects the electrodissolution reactions, which become modeled by the formation of a [Co(II)(BTA){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O] {sub n} film according to two different mechanisms. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy has shown that the polarization of a cobalt electrode at cathodic potentials with respect to its potential of zero charge allows a mechanism of specific adsorption of the neutral form of benzotriazole to take place through a suspected metal-to-molecule electron transfer and which follows Frumkin's adsorption isotherms. At the onset of the anodic dissolution, some experimental evidence suggests that these adsorbed neutral benzotriazole molecules deprotonate to yield a very thin [Co(II)(BTA){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O] {sub n} polymer-like and water-insoluble protective film, responsible for the inhibition of active dissolution processes occurring at slightly more anodic potentials. In the anodic dissolution region, deprotonated benzotriazole species present in the bulk solution favors the formation of a multilayered [Co(II)(BTA){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O] {sub n} film, which also contributes to the inhibition of any further cobalt dissolution usually observed at higher electrode potentials.

  10. Potential for recycling of slightly radioactive metals arising from decommissioning within nuclear sector in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrncir, Tomas; Strazovec, Roman; Zachar, Matej

    2017-09-07

    The decommissioning of nuclear installations represents a complex process resulting in the generation of large amounts of waste materials containing various concentrations of radionuclides. Selection of an appropriate strategy of management of the mentioned materials strongly influences the effectiveness of decommissioning process keeping in mind safety, financial and other relevant aspects. In line with international incentives for optimization of radioactive material management, concepts of recycling and reuse of materials are widely discussed and applications of these concepts are analysed. Recycling of some portion of these materials within nuclear sector (e.g. scrap metals or concrete rubble) seems to be highly desirable from economical point of view and may lead to conserve some disposal capacity. However, detailed safety assessment along with cost/benefit calculations and feasibility study should be developed in order to prove the safety, practicality and cost effectiveness of possible recycling scenarios. Paper discussed the potential for recycling of slightly radioactive metals arising from decommissioning of NPPs within nuclear sector in Slovakia. Various available recycling scenarios are introduced and method for overall assessment of various recycling scenarios is outlined including the preliminary assessment of safety and financial aspects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The use of ultrasound and slightly acidic electrolyzed water as alternative technologies in the meat industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores, D. R. M.,

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality of meat from different animal species is defined by chemical, physical sensory and microbiological characteristics, which can be influenced by procedures during the slaughter of animals. Technologies such as ultrasound (US and slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW are being studied in order to assist in food processing and in developing methods that are economically viable and environmentally sustainable. The aim of this paper is to discuss the relationship between US and SAEW in relation to tenderness, microbiology, and oxidation of meat. The meat industry was a pioneer in the use of the ultrasound, which initially aimed to determine the layer of fat on carcasses and subsequently improve the tenderness of the meat. Recently studies mention that the ultrasound and SAEW can influence the microbiological parameters. The combination of both technologies should also be considered, with the possibility of enhancing the antimicrobial effects. However, there is little information regarding oxidative parameters promoted in meat for these two alternative technologies, where the individual or when interspersed use. Knowing the actions and consequences of ultrasound and SAEW in meat will enable the opening of new perspectives about the application of these technologies in the meat industry.

  12. Highly reflective Bragg gratings in slightly etched step-index polymer optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xuehao; Pun, Chi-Fung Jeff; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Mégret, Patrice; Caucheteur, Christophe

    2014-07-28

    During the past few years, a strong progress has been made in the photo-writing of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) in polymer optical fibers (POFs), animated by the constant wish to enhance the grating reflectivity and improve the sensing performances. In this paper, we report the photo-inscription of highly reflective gratings in step-index POFs, obtained thanks to a slight etching of the cladding. We demonstrate that a cladding diameter decrease of ~12% is an ideal trade-off to produce highly reflective gratings with enhanced axial strain sensitivity, while keeping almost intact their mechanical resistance. For this, we make use of Trans-4-stilbenemethanol-doped photosensitive step-index poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) POFs. FBGs are inscribed at ~1550 nm by the scanning phase mask technique in POFs of different external diameters. Reflectivity reaching 97% is achieved for 6 mm long FBGs, compared to 25% for non-etched POFs. We also report that a cladding decrease enhances the FBG axial tension while keeping unchanged temperature and surrounding refractive index sensitivities. Finally and for the first time, a measurement is conducted in transmission with polarized light, showing that a photo-induced birefringence of 7 × 10(-6) is generated (one order of magnitude higher than the intrinsic fiber birefringence), which is similar to the one generated in silica fiber using ultra-violet laser.

  13. Irradiation program of slightly enriched fuel elements at the Atucha I nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casario, J.A.; Cesario, R.H.; Perez, R.A.; Sidelnik, J.I.

    1987-01-01

    An irradiation program of fuel elements with slightly enriched uranium is implemented, tending to the homogenization of core at Atucha I nuclear power plant. The main benefits of the enrichment program are: a) to extend the average discharge burnup of fuel elements, reducing the number of elements used to generate the same amount of energy. This implies a smaller annual consumption of elements and consequently the reduction of transport and replacement operations and of the storage pool systems as well as that of radioactive wastes; b) the saving of uranium and structural materials (Zircaloy and others). In the initial stage of program an homogeneous core enrichment of 0.85% by weight of U-235 is anticipated. The average discharge burnup of fuel elements, as estimated by previous studies, is approximately 11.6 MW d/kg U. The annual consumption of fuel elements is reduced from 396 of natural uranium to 205, with a load factor of 0.85. It is intended to reach the next equilibrium steps with an enrichment of 1.00 and 1.20% in U-235. (Author)

  14. Activities in Argentina related to the use of slightly enriched uranium in heavy water reactor NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcuera, R.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of activities related to the use of Slightly Enriched Uranium (SEU) fuel in HWR type NPPs, currently under execution in Argentina, is presented. The activities here described cover certain R and D lines as well as the main aspects of the Project 'Transition from full Natural-U to full SEU core in Atucha-I NPP'. Concerning the R and D lines, a summary is given on investigations related to reduction of void-coefficient using SEU fuel assemblies, annular pellet SEU fuel for bundle power flattening, etc. The main aspects of the above mentioned Project are outlined. At present, Atucha-I core is approaching a 40% of core load with SEU fuel, while the target of full SEU fuel core should be reached in 2-3 years. The expected exit burnup for such a core, namely 11000 MWD/tnU, is already currently obtained for SEU fuel in the present mixed core, while an increase in exit burnup of Natural-U fuel has also been obtained in very good agreement with reactor physics calculations. The comprehensive safety analysis carried out for each phase of the Project showed very moderated changes in plant behaviour under the set of postulated accidents and abnormal transients. A recent development, namely the CARA Project, aimed at unifying manufacturing of fuel assemblies for both operating NPPs in Argentina is presented in an accompanying paper. (author)

  15. Identifiability of location and magnitude of flow barriers in slightly compressible flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahrobaei, S.; Mansoori Habib Abadi, M.; Joosten, G.J.P.; Hof, Van den P.M.J.; Jansen, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Classic identifiability analysis of flow barriers in incompressible single-phase flow reveals that it is not possible to identify the location and permeability of low-permeability barriers from production data (wellbore pressures and rates), and that only averaged reservoir properties in between

  16. Identifiability of location and magnitude of flow barriers in slightly compressible flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahrobaei, S.; Mansoori Habib Abadi, M.; Joosten, G.J.P.; Van den Hof, P.; Jansen, J.D.

    2016-01-01

    Classic identifiability analysis of flow barriers in incompressible single-phase flow reveals that it is not possible to identify the location and permeability of low-permeability barriers from production data (wellbore pressures and rates), and that only averaged reservoir properties in between

  17. Corrosion of Cu-xZn alloys in slightly alkaline chloride solutions studied by stripping voltammetry and microanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosev, I; Minović, A

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of corrosion of Cu-xZn alloys (x = 10-40 wt %) in slightly alkaline chloride solutions was investigated by analysing solid reaction products by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) and dissolved reaction products by differential anodic pulse stripping (DAPS) voltammetry. The corrosion process was studied under open circuit and under potentiostatic conditions at selected potentials. Pure metals were studied comparatively so that an interacting effect of particular metal components in the alloy could be determined. All four Cu-xZn alloys show an improved behaviour compared to pure metals. Under open-circuit condition both components dissolve simultaneously in the solution. With increasing immersion time the preferential, dissolution of zinc in the solution becomes pronounced. It is the highest for Cu-10Zn and the lowest for Cu-30Zn alloy. Under potentiostatic control the dissolution mechanism depends on the electrode potential and changes from exclusive dissolution of zinc to simultaneous dissolution of both components with preferential dissolution of zinc. The latter decreases, as the electrode potential becomes more positive.

  18. Effects of sulfate and nitrate anions on aluminum corrosion in slightly alkaline solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengyi; Church, Benjamin C.

    2018-05-01

    The corrosion mechanisms and kinetics of AA1085 in Li2SO4 and LiNO3 aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery electrolytes were investigated at pH 11 using chronoamperometry. The corrosion kinetics of AA1085 is controlled by the electrolyte concentration level and the anodic potentials. AA1085 is susceptible to crystallographic pitting corrosion in Li2SO4 electrolytes. The rates of pit nucleation and pit growth both decreased at higher Li2SO4 concentrations or at lower anodic potentials. AA1085 passivates against pitting corrosion in LiNO3 electrolytes due to the formation of a thick, uniform corrosion product layer. The growth rate of the passive film was slightly enhanced by increasing the electrolyte concentration and anodic potentials. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra showed the formation of a thin sulfate-incorporated passive film on the electrode, which comprises Al2(SO)418H2O, Al(OH)SO4 and Al(OH)3, before the occurrence of pitting growth in 2 M Li2SO4 electrolyte. The thick corrosion product layer formed in 5 M LiNO3 electrolyte was composed of Al(OH)3 and AlOOH. Raman spectroscopy on deionized water, LiOH solution, Li2SO4 and LiNO3 electrolytes depicted changes of solution structure with increasing electrolyte concentration. The influence of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on the corrosion kinetics of AA1085 in Li2SO4 and LiNO3 electrolytes at pH 11 are discussed in detail.

  19. Radiological impact of very slightly radioactive copper and aluminium recovered from dismantled nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbay, H.; Chapuis, A.M.; Cahuzac, O.; Guetat, P.; Haristoy, D.; Renaud, P.

    1991-01-01

    This work is in keeping with a large evaluation of doses likely to be received by public and non nuclear workers when dismantling nuclear installations. A bibliographic study and inquiries are realized, in the nuclear field to evaluate quantities of very slightly radioactive materials, in the conventional copper and aluminium recovery fields: waste recovery, metal refinery and processing, occupational or domestic uses of the metals or their alloys. In fact copper and aluminium waste arising from the dismantling of nuclear installations are mainly electrical cables constituents including insulation material which is mainly polyvinyle chloride (PVC). Estimated quantities are relatively low compared to steel quantities arising from dismantling. The study is based on the hypothesis of two PWRs dismantled per year, estimated quantities are 200 tonnes of copper, 40 tonnes of aluminium and 500 tonnes of PVC. A special case is also studied, which is the dismantling of low and medium uranium enrichment plant in Pierrelatte (France); the plant pipework is mainly made of an aluminium and magnesium alloy: AG3. From these informations, one can define exposure scenarios which may occur with a non negligible probability. The doses likely to be received under the foreseen conditions are calculated. Reference doses are established from recommendations of international organisations as ICRP, IAEA, NEA. Comparing the calculated doses and the reference doses, the activity level of the initial waste can be deduced as to follow the recommendations. The mean specific activity of main beta-gamma emitters in copper, aluminium and PVC are of the same order of magnitude, 10Bq.g -1 . In the case of alpha emitters specific activity levels depend on the material and on the radionuclide, from 2 Bq.g -1 to 10 Bq.g -1 in copper, from 10 Bq.g -1 to 50 Bq.g -1 in aluminium

  20. Seismic distortions of a deep circular tunnel in elastic slightly anisotropic ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bobet

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tunnels must withstand not only the demands stemming from normal working conditions but also from extreme events such as earthquakes. Indeed, there is consistent evidence in the technical literature that indicates that tunnels are vulnerable to damage and must be designed to adequately support the demand imposed by the earthquake. Such demand should be estimated using dynamic numerical methods that include soil-structure interaction and incorporate realistic models for the support and surrounding ground. For preliminary analysis, however, or when the seismic demand is insufficient to take the ground beyond its elastic regime, analytical solutions may provide a reasonable estimate of the tunnel behavior, especially if the tunnel is sufficiently far from the seismic source such that a pseudo-static analysis is acceptable. Most analytical solutions are based on the assumption that the ground is isotropic, which may not be realistic, as e.g. depositional processes may result in engineering properties that depend on the direction of deposition. The work presented in the paper builds on the results by Bobet (2011, 2016 who provided closed-form solutions for deep tunnels in elastic transversely anisotropic ground; however, the paper provides much simpler solutions for those cases where the ground is slightly anisotropic. A comparison between the approximate and the exact solutions shows that the errors are negligible when the ground anisotropy is small and grow, albeit slowly, as the ground anisotropy increases. The conclusion applies to different loading conditions, drained and undrained, and to different ground-support interfaces, tied or frictionless.

  1. Urine sodium excretion increased slightly among U.S. adults between 1988 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Christine M; Hughes, Jeffery P; Cogswell, Mary E; Burt, Vicki L; Lacher, David A; Lavoie, Donna J; Rabinowitz, Daniel J; Johnson, Clifford L; Pirkle, James L

    2014-05-01

    Little information is available on temporal trends in sodium intake in the U.S. population using urine sodium excretion as a biomarker. Our aim was to assess 1988-2010 trends in estimated 24-h urine sodium (24hUNa) excretion among U.S. adults (age 20-59 y) participating in the cross-sectional NHANES. We used subsamples from a 1988-1994 convenience sample, a 2003-2006 one-third random sample, and a 2010 one-third random sample to comply with resource constraints. We estimated 24hUNa excretion from measured sodium concentrations in spot urine samples by use of calibration equations (for men and women) derived from the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure study. Estimated 24hUNa excretion increased over the 20-y period [1988-1994, 2003-2006, and 2010; means ± SEMs (n): 3160 ± 38.4 mg/d (1249), 3290 ± 29.4 mg/d (1235), and 3290 ± 44.4 mg/d (525), respectively; P-trend = 0.022]. We observed significantly higher mean estimated 24hUNa excretion in each survey period (P trends in mean estimated 24hUNa excretion remained significant (P-trend = 0.004). We observed no temporal trends in mean estimated 24hUNa excretion among BMI subgroups, nor after adjusting for BMI. Although several limitations apply to this analysis (the use of a convenience sample in 1988-1994 and using estimated 24hUNa excretion as a biomarker of sodium intake), these first NHANES data suggest that mean estimated 24hUNa excretion increased slightly in U.S. adults over the past 2 decades, and this increase may be explained by a shift in the distribution of BMI.

  2. Soil-plant transfer of radiocaesium in slightly contaminated forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarque, S.; Lucot, E.; Badot, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    During Chernobyl's accident, large areas of Western European countries, particularly forests, were contaminated with radiocaesium fallouts. Soil-plant transfer is often the first step by which 137 Cs enters the food chains and flows through the biogeochemical cycle. The present work is devoted to document the soil-plant transfer of radiocaesium in slightly contaminated forest areas. Twelve sites, representative of the various functional features and great diversity of ecological contexts of Franche-Comte region (France), were selected to sample soils and forest trees: three species (Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica, Corylus avellana) and two organs (leaves or needles and young branches) were measured. Radiocaesium activities in soils have been observed to vary in range of 61 to 280 Bq.kg -1 DW at 0-5 cm depth (8500 to 14280 Bq.m -2 ). A great correlation exists between organic carbon content and soil total radiocaesium concentration (r 2 = 0,60). The studied soils have large organic carbon contents (2,7 to 28%) and large water pH values (3,1 to 6,1). Radiocaesium activities in leaves, needles and branches varied in range of 0 to 128 Bq.kg -1 DW, 0 to 163 Bq.kg -1 DW and 0 to 180 Bq.kg -1 DW respectively. We reported a large variability of Transfer Factors, TFs (0.02 to 0.58) with respect to vegetation type, organ type and soil features. The activity concentration in the leaves and needles were generally found to be greater than those measured in the branches. No correlation was found between soil radiocaesium activity and vegetation radiocaesium activity. TFs values could be related to variations in the radiocaesium bioavailability function of the soil features. (author)

  3. Covering one eye in fixation-disparity measurement causes slight movement of fellow eye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonsz, H. J.; Bour, L. J.

    1991-01-01

    In the subjective measurement of fixation disparity (FD), the subject fuses contours presented in the peripheral macular areas of both eyes (fusion lock). The position of the eyes relative to each other is monitored by means of two haploscopically seen vertical lines presented in the central macular

  4. Potential application of surfactant systems in formulation of dosage forms with slightly soluble substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrić Svetlana R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve fast release of ibuprofen, slightly soluble model substance (0.52104 mol/l, surfactant systems for oral use with different PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil (C/diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (T ratios were investigated. Comparison between dissolution profiles for ibuprofen from formulated systems and from two commercial products, film tablets and soft capsules, is presented in this paper. Photon correlation spectroscopy has shown that after high dilution with water, surfactant systems were able to form micellar solutions. The size of micelles varies from 14.8 ± 0,075 nm to 16.2 ± 0,021 nm with increasing C/T ratio from 1:2 to 2:1. Although with increasing content of PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil larger micelles have formed, lower values of polydispersity index indicated that more homogeneous distribution of micelles size was gained. Conductometric analysis has demonstrated that system composing of C/T ratio 2:1, has shown most pronounced interaction between droplets, which can be seen as high rise of electrical conductivity with increasing water content (% (wwater/wtotal in the sample. No significant difference in percolation threshold between formulations with different C/T ratios was observed. Different surfactant systems were adsorbed on magnesium aluminometasilicate, as adsorbent with high specific active surface (≈300 m2/g, in order to investigate potential influence of adsorbent on ibuprofen dissolution rate. Formulated systems, with or without adsorbent were filled in hard gelatin capsules. The dissolution profiles of ibuprofen from different formulations were obtained in 30 minutes by dissolution apparatus with rotating baskets and compared with dissolution profiles of ibuprofen from commercial products. For formulations without adsorbent faster release of ibuprofen in first minutes of dissolution test, showed formulations with C/T ratio 2:1 and 1:1. Magnesium aluminometasilicate, as adsorbent with high specific

  5. Evaluation of comfort level in desks equipped with two personalized ventilation systems in slightly warm environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, Eusebio Z.E. [Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia - Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Lucio, Manuela J.R. [Agrupamento Vertical Professor Paula Nogueira, R. Comunidade Lusiada, 8700-000 Olhao (Portugal); Rosa, Silvia P.; Custodio, Ana L.V.; Andrade, Renata L.; Meira, Maria J.P.A. [Faculdade de Ciencias do Mar e do Ambiente - Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2010-03-15

    In this work the comfort level, namely the thermal comfort, local thermal discomfort and air quality levels, in a classroom with desks equipped with two personalized ventilation systems, in slightly warm environments, is evaluated. A manikin, a ventilated classroom desk, two indoor climate analyzers, a multi-nodal human thermal comfort numerical model and a computational fluid dynamic numerical model, are used. The classroom desk, with double occupation capacity, is used by a student, located in the right side seat. Each personalized ventilation system is equipped with one air terminal device located above the desk writing area, in front to the trunk area, and an other located below the desk writing area, in front to the legs area. The thermal comfort level is evaluated by the developed multi-nodal human thermal comfort numerical model, using a PMV value, the local thermal discomfort level, namely the draught risk and the air velocity fluctuation equivalent frequencies, is evaluated by empirical models, while the air quality level and the detailed airflow around the manikin are evaluated by the computational fluid dynamic numerical model. In the experimental tests the mean air velocity and the turbulence intensity in the upper air terminal device are 3.5 m/s and 9.7%, while in the lower air terminal device are 2.6 m/s and 15.2%. The mean air temperature in the air terminal devices is around 28 C, while the mean radiant temperature in the occupation area, the mean air temperature far from the occupation area and the internal mean air relative humidity were, respectively, 28 C, 28 C and 50%. The air velocity and temperature around the occupant are measured around 15 human body sections. The actual personalized ventilation system, which promotes an ascendant airflow around the occupant with highest air renovation rate in the respiration area, promotes acceptable thermal comfort conditions and air quality in the respiration area in accord to the present standards. The

  6. Effect of carbonate in slightly alkaline medium on the corrosion of maraging steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellanger, G.

    1994-01-01

    This study was carried out to ascertain the behavior of maraging steel identified as AMS. 65-12 and used in the tanks of the French plant for the reprocessing of radioactive water. This water has a pH of 9 and contains carbonate ions. The rest or corrosion potentials can be in the transpassive or active region due to radiolytic species. Therefore, the behavior of maraging steel was studied in these two regions. In the neighborhood of the active-passive transition potentials, maraging steel is corroded by means of intermediates. The corrosion potential does not change with carbonate at a constant pH. With carbonate and a low scan rate, the breakdown transpassive potentials are displaced towards more positive potentials and the passive potential region is broader, while at a high scan rate these potentials are displaced towards more negative values. After the beginning of the reverse scan, the current is again positive. These suggest that the corrosion kinetics are not the same. The diffusion coefficient of species inside the oxide layer was determined. ((orig.))

  7. Maternal-fetal transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, a health problem slightly studied in Mexico: case Chiapas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermina Campos-Valdez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the Trypanosoma cruzi infection prevalence in 1125 pregnant women and the transmission frequency to their children from Tapachula and Palenque, Chiapas. Materials and methods. We determined the prevalence by serology tests and the transmission frequency by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and T. cruzi reactivity capacity after 12 months. Results. Total maternal infection prevalence were 23/1 125 (2.04%, 9/600 (1.5% were from Tapachula and 14/525 (2.6% from Palenque. The seropositive women were between 20 and 35 years old, 31.8% have Premature Rapture of Membrane and 9.1% have history of perinatal death. The total percentage of positive newborns by PCR was 9/23 (39.13%, out of those 2/9 (22.2% are from Tapachula and 7/14 (50% from Palenque. The Maternal Fetal transmission frequency was. 2/9 (22.2% in Tapachula and 1/14 (7.14% in Palenque, all positive infants were asynthomatic. Conclusion. The maternal-fetal transmission rate in Chiapas State is variable; the reason could be the maternal immunological status and T. cruzi strain.

  8. Zooplankton communities in three adjacent softwater lobelia lakes of slightly differentiated morphology and trophic state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuczyńska-Kippen Natalia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an investigation of physical-chemical features of water as well as rotifer and crustacean abundance and diversity measures, relating to the taxonomic richness and species diversity index, in three lobelia lakes differing in trophic status and morphometric features. The main purpose of this study was to establish the diversity of zooplankton communities in the open water area of lobelia lakes, including extracting species common for each lake and also to find environmental predictors which are responsible for the development of zooplankton communities. Despite the fact that the three studied lakes are of the same origin, located in the same vicinity and have generally similar environmental factors, zooplankton community structure revealed a great variation in reference to species diversity (only ca. 20% of the species were common for all lakes and particularly in inhabiting species. Obrowo Lake had the most diverse assemblages of both rotifers and crustaceans compared to Modre and Pomysko lakes. In the taxonomic structure species that are rare for the Polish fauna, such as e.g. Holopedium gibberum and Heterocope appendiculata, occurred. Even though the examined lobelia lakes are ecosystems that undergo varying human-induced impacts, they still remain taxonomically very variable aquatic ecosystems, containing rare species of very high ecological status. The observed symptoms of deterioration of water quality, reflected in the zooplankton biocoenotic features, showed that the best conditions were attributed to Obrowo Lake in comparison with the two remaining lakes – Modre and Pomysko. Total nitrogen and chlorophyll a concentration were decisive for the distribution of zooplankton species in Pomysko and Obrowo lakes, while in case of Modre lake water reactivity and conductivity were of higher impact.

  9. Evidence for alternative pathways of granulosa cell death in healthy and slightly atretic bovine antral follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wezel, I L; Dharmarajan, A M; Lavranos, T C; Rodgers, R J

    1999-06-01

    Granulosa cell death is an early feature of atresia; however, there are many apparent contradictions in the literature concerning the mode of granulosa cell death. We have therefore examined this process in bovine healthy and atretic antral follicles, using a variety of established techniques. Light and electron microscopic observations indicated the presence of pyknotic or shrunken nuclei in both the membrana granulosa and the antrum. In the membrana granulosa, these nuclei were frequently crescent shaped and uniformly electron dense and were approximately the same size as healthy nuclei, all of which are typical of early apoptosis. However, these nuclei were within the membranes of a healthy granulosa cell, suggesting that phagocytosis by a neighboring granulosa cell is an unusually early event in the apoptotic pathway of granulosa cells. In the membrana granulosa, pyknotic nuclei stained intensely with hematoxylin but weakly with the DNA-intercalating stain propidium iodide. A percentage of these pyknotic nuclei stained by TUNEL (terminal deoxy-UTP nick end-labeling). However, in the antrum, the pyknotic nuclei and larger globules of DNA stained intensely with both hematoxylin and propidium iodide, but were not TUNEL positive. The comet assay of cell death produced a streak tail of randomly nicked DNA, rather than the plume of low mol wt apoptotic DNA. Globules collected from fresh follicular fluid stained intensely with propidium iodide and were shown by PAGE to contain DNA, the majority of which was high mol wt. In conclusion, granulosa cells within the membrana granulosa die by apoptosis, with phagocytosis by a neighboring cell preceding any potential budding of the nucleus or cell itself. Granulosa cells near the antrum are sloughed off into the antrum, and their death has features more consistent with that of other cell types that undergo death as a result of terminal differentiation.

  10. Investigation into formation of nanoparticles of tetravalent neptunium in slightly alkaline aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husar, Richard

    2015-01-01

    (fcc) nanocrystals under ambient environmental conditions is prevented by admixing silicic acid: amorphous Np(IV) silica colloids are formed when silicate is present in carbonate solution. Herein, the initial molar ratio of Si to Np in solution lead to the formation of Np(IV) silica particles of different composition and size where Si content determines the structure and stability of resulting colloids. Implications for different electronic structures of Np(IV) in dependence on Si content in the solid phase are given by the shift of the absorption maximum at 742 nm characteristic for Np(IV) colloids, silica excess of 5 times the magnitude of Si to Np reveal a redshift up to 6 nm in the colloidal UV-vis spectrum. Precipitation of Np(IV) particles in the ternary system results in a different coordination sphere of Np(IV) compared to the binary system, and the incorporation of Si into internal structure of Np(IV) silica colloids in coffinite-like structure is confirmed by EXAFS. TEM confirms different kinds of particle morphologies in dependence on the silica content. Silica-poor systems reveal porous particles in the micron-range which consist of irregular cross-linked hydrolyzed Np(IV) silica compartments with pores <15 nm. In contrast, long-term stabilized and silica-enriched systems are characterized by isolated particles with an average particle size of 45 nm. Agglomerates of such isolated Np(IV) silica particles appear as consolidated amorphous solids with a densely closed surface and exhibit no internal fractures. The latter mentioned morphology of Np(IV) silica particles might facilitate the migration behavior of Np(IV) in a stabilized colloidal form under environmental conditions. The silica-enriched particles with densely closed surface are long-term stabilized as colloidal dispersion (>1 year) due to repulsion effects caused by significant surface charge. Particles synthesized from Si/Np = 9/1 carry exclusively negative surface charge in nearly the whole p

  11. Mapping of a Cellulose-Deficient Mutant Named dwarf1-1 in Sorghum bicolor to the Green Revolution Gene gibberellin20-oxidase Reveals a Positive Regulatory Association between Gibberellin and Cellulose Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Carloalberto; Hirano, Ko; Stork, Jozsef; DeBolt, Seth

    2015-09-01

    Here, we show a mechanism for expansion regulation through mutations in the green revolution gene gibberellin20 (GA20)-oxidase and show that GAs control biosynthesis of the plants main structural polymer cellulose. Within a 12,000 mutagenized Sorghum bicolor plant population, we identified a single cellulose-deficient and male gametophyte-dysfunctional mutant named dwarf1-1 (dwf1-1). Through the Sorghum propinquum male/dwf1-1 female F2 population, we mapped dwf1-1 to a frameshift in GA20-oxidase. Assessment of GAs in dwf1-1 revealed ablation of GA. GA ablation was antagonistic to the expression of three specific cellulose synthase genes resulting in cellulose deficiency and growth dwarfism, which were complemented by exogenous bioactive gibberellic acid application. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we found that GA was positively regulating the expression of a subset of specific cellulose synthase genes. To cross reference data from our mapped Sorghum sp. allele with another monocotyledonous plant, a series of rice (Oryza sativa) mutants involved in GA biosynthesis and signaling were isolated, and these too displayed cellulose deficit. Taken together, data support a model whereby suppressed expansion in green revolution GA genes involves regulation of cellulose biosynthesis. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Slight Hydronephrosis in Newborns and Breast-fed Infants: Can the Presence of Vesicoureteral Reflux Be Predicted?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrocal, T.; Pablo, T. de; Gutierrez, J.; Prieto, C.; Hoyo, M. L. del

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the value of slight-to moderate echo graphically detected hydronephrosis in newborns and breast-fed infants that might serve as indicator for Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), and to evaluate the necessity of performing micturating cystourethrougraphy (MCUG) in these patients. There were reviewed MCUG of 237 patients (174 boys and 63 girls between the ages of 0 and 18 months) with slight echo graphically detected hydronephrosis in order to evaluate the presence of primary VUR. Patients with secondary reflux or those that presented anomalies which made impossible an exact reflux gradind were excluded. However, normal kidneys with reflux which were contralateral to hydronephrotic kidneys were included in the study. For a statistical analysis of the data, each kidney was considered separately, thereby forming a total of 474 kidneys. Slight hydronephrosis was diagnosed when the renal pelvis anteroposterior diameter was observed to measure between 0.5 and 1.5 cm. The International Grading System was used to grade reflux during MCUG. Of the 474 kidneys evaluated, 306 showed slight hydromephrosis in the echography. Only 98 of these presented reflux (32%) (14 grade 1.50 grade II, 32 grade III and 2 grade IV). The echography was normal (i. e. hydronephrosis not present) in 52 kidneys with reflux (31%) which were contralateral to hydronephrotic kidneys, although 38 of these had reflux of grade II or higher. The echography showed slight hydronephrosis in 208 kidneys that did not have reflux during MCUG (68%). There were no significant differences in the incidence of VUR among normal or hydronephrotic kidneys. There is a poor correlation between slight hydronephrosis and presence or grade of reflux in newborns and breast-fed infants. The latter should not, therefore, be considered an indication for MCUC. (Author) 33 refs

  13. Impacts of long-term nitrogen fertilization on acid buffering rates and mechanisms of a slightly calcareous clay soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yuting; Vries, de Wim; Thomas, Ben W.; Hao, Xiying; Shi, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    Acidification of cropland soils is a serious problem in China that may cause long term pH decline, which threatens the sustainability of soil fertility and crop yields. The objective of this research was to investigate those rates and mechanisms for a slightly calcareous soil. The field data were

  14. Discretization of space and time: a slight modification to the Newtonian gravitation which implies the existence of black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Roatta , Luca

    2017-01-01

    Assuming that space and time can only have discrete values, it is shown how deformed space and time cause gravitational attraction, whose law in a discrete context is slightly different from the Newtonian, but to it exactly coincident at large distance. This difference is directly connected to the existence of black holes, which result to have the structure of a hollow sphere.

  15. Paleoecologic Implications of Ichnofossils Associated with Slightly Skeletonized Body Fossils, Middle Cambrian of the Barrandian Area, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuláš, Radek; Fatka, O.; Szabad, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2012), s. 199-210 ISSN 1042-0940 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1521 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Middle Cambrian * ichnofossils * slightly skeletonized fauna * Barrandian area Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.727, year: 2012

  16. Data base for a CANDU-PHW operating on a once-through, slightly enriched uranium cycle (AECL-6594)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    This report, prepared for INFCE, gives data for an extrapolated 1000 MW(e) CANDU-PHW design operating on a once-through fuel cycle with a feed fuel of slightly enriched uranium - 1.2 weight % U-235 in uranium. The effects of varying fuel enrichment, maximum channel power, and economic parameters are also discussed

  17. The metastasis suppressor KISS1 is an intrinsically disordered protein slightly more extended than a random coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez de Opakua, Alain; Merino, Nekane; Villate, Maider; Cordeiro, Tiago N; Ormaza, Georgina; Sánchez-Carbayo, Marta; Diercks, Tammo; Bernadó, Pau; Blanco, Francisco J

    2017-01-01

    The metastasis suppressor KISS1 is reported to be involved in the progression of several solid neoplasias, making it a promising molecular target for controlling their metastasis. The KISS1 sequence contains an N-terminal secretion signal and several dibasic sequences that are proposed to be the proteolytic cleavage sites. We present the first structural characterization of KISS1 by circular dichroism, multi-angle light scattering, small angle X-Ray scattering and NMR spectroscopy. An analysis of the KISS1 backbone NMR chemical shifts does not reveal any preferential conformation and deviation from a random coil ensemble. The backbone 15N transverse relaxation times indicate a mildly reduced mobility for two regions that are rich in bulky residues. The small angle X-ray scattering curve of KISS1 is likewise consistent with a predominantly random coil ensemble, although an ensemble optimization analysis indicates some preference for more extended conformations possibly due to positive charge repulsion between the abundant basic residues. Our results support the hypothesis that KISS1 mostly samples a random coil conformational space, which is consistent with its high susceptibility to proteolysis and the generation of Kisspeptin fragments.

  18. Revealing roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2018-01-01

    against the motorway’s grain. Based on moving with selected walkers who conduct ‘deliberately slow travelling’, and tracing the narratives of time-based civic art projects, the chapter explores the spectral dimensions of motorways in the UK. The chapter ends by positioning their streams of traffic as much...

  19. Slight respiratory irritation but not inflammation in mice exposed to (1→3-β-D-glucan aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Korpi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Airway irritation effects after single and repeated inhalation exposures to aerosols of β-glucan (grifolan were investigated in mice. In addition, the effects on serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE production and histopathological inflammation in the respiratory tract were studied. The β-glucan aerosols provoked slight sensory irritation in the airways, but the response was not concentration dependent at the levels studied. Slight pulmonary irritation was observed after repeated exposures. No effect was found on the serum total IgE levels, and no signs of inflammation were seen in the airways 6 h after the final exposure. The results suggest that, irrespective of previous fungal sensitization of the animals, inhaled β-glucan may cause symptoms of respiratory tract irritation but without apparent inflammation. Respiratory tract irritation reported after inhalation of fungi may not be entirely attributed to β-glucan.

  20. In Healthy Young Men, a Short Exhaustive Exercise Alters the Oxidative Stress Only Slightly, Independent of the Actual Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Finkler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the apparent disagreement regarding the effect of a typical cycling progressive exercise, commonly used to assess VO2max, on the kinetics of ex vivo copper induced peroxidation of serum lipids. Thirty-two (32 healthy young men, aged 24–30 years, who do not smoke and do not take any food supplements, participated in the study. Blood was withdrawn from each participant at three time points (before the exercise and 5 minutes and one hour after exercise. Copper induced peroxidation of sera made of the blood samples was monitored by spectrophotometry. For comparison, we also assayed TBARS concentration and the activity of oxidation-related enzymes. The physical exercise resulted in a slight and reversible increase of TBARS and slight changes in the activities of the studied antioxidant enzymes and the lag preceding peroxidation did not change substantially. Most altered parameters returned to baseline level one hour after exercise. Notably, the exercise-induced changes in OS did not correlate with the physical fitness of the subjects, as evaluated in this study (VO2max = 30–60 mL/min/kg. We conclude that in healthy young fit men a short exhaustive exercise alters only slightly the OS, independent of the actual physical fitness.

  1. In Healthy Young Men, a Short Exhaustive Exercise Alters the Oxidative Stress Only Slightly, Independent of the Actual Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkler, Maya; Hochman, Ayala; Pinchuk, Ilya; Lichtenberg, Dov

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the apparent disagreement regarding the effect of a typical cycling progressive exercise, commonly used to assess VO2max, on the kinetics of ex vivo copper induced peroxidation of serum lipids. Thirty-two (32) healthy young men, aged 24-30 years, who do not smoke and do not take any food supplements, participated in the study. Blood was withdrawn from each participant at three time points (before the exercise and 5 minutes and one hour after exercise). Copper induced peroxidation of sera made of the blood samples was monitored by spectrophotometry. For comparison, we also assayed TBARS concentration and the activity of oxidation-related enzymes. The physical exercise resulted in a slight and reversible increase of TBARS and slight changes in the activities of the studied antioxidant enzymes and the lag preceding peroxidation did not change substantially. Most altered parameters returned to baseline level one hour after exercise. Notably, the exercise-induced changes in OS did not correlate with the physical fitness of the subjects, as evaluated in this study (VO2max = 30-60 mL/min/kg). We conclude that in healthy young fit men a short exhaustive exercise alters only slightly the OS, independent of the actual physical fitness.

  2. Excessive blood pressure elevation upon awakening involves an exaggerated cardiac response to slight physical activity: a possible mechanism underlying the risk of 'morning surge'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamatsu, Yoshimasa; Takeda, Yutaka; Tanaka, Satoru; Yamamoto, Koji; Yamashita, Sumiyo; Sugiura, Tomonori; Dohi, Yasuaki; Kimura, Genjiro

    2012-10-01

    An exaggerated elevation in blood pressure around waking potentially increases the risk of cardiovascular events, even in individuals with normal blood pressure at other-fold of day. The impact of such a transient blood pressure elevation is disproportionate to its short duration, and the reason has not been elucidated. We hypothesize that individuals with such a blood pressure abnormality receive a cardiovascular overload, even from slight physical activities that are frequently undertaken in daily life. A total of 16 patients with essential hypertension (52 ± 15 years) staying at hospital for lifestyle education participated in this study. Morning blood pressure elevation was assessed with 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Cardiovascular responses to unloaded pedaling, including blood pressure changes, were assessed in a limited maximum exercise test using an electronically braked bicycle ergometer. Changes in the systolic blood pressure caused by unloaded pedaling correlated positively with the elevation in systolic blood pressure around waking (r = 0.52, P = 0.05). Moreover, waking elevation of the systolic blood pressure correlated with changes in all of the following cardiovascular variables during unloaded pedaling: heart rate (r = 0.69, P = 0.003), oxygen consumption (r = 0.73, P = 0.001), oxygen pulse (r = 0.62, P = 0.001), and rate pressure product (r = 0.64, P = 0.008), respectively. These observations indicate that individuals with prominent blood pressure elevation upon awakening also experience cardiovascular overload from slight physical activities.

  3. Relationship of condylar position to disc position and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Incesu, L.; Taskaya-Yilmaz, N. E-mail: nergizy@omu.edu.tr; Oeguetcen-Toller, M.; Uzun, E

    2004-09-01

    Introduction/objective: The purpose of this study was to assess whether condylar position, as depicted by magnetic resonance imaging, was an indicator of disc morphology and position. Methods and material: One hundred and twenty two TMJs of 61 patients with temporomandibular joint disorder were examined. Condylar position, disc deformity and degree of anterior disc displacement were evaluated by using magnetic resonance imaging. Results and discussion: Posterior condyle position was found to be the main feature of temporomandibular joints with slight and moderate anterior disc displacement. No statistical significance was found between the condylar position, and reducing and nonreducing disc positions. On the other hand, superior disc position was found to be statistically significant for centric condylar position. Conclusion: It was concluded that posterior condyle position could indicate anterior disc displacement whereas there was no relation between the position of condyle and the disc deformity.

  4. Electronic Phase Separation in the Slightly Underdoped Iron Pnictide Superconductor Ba1-xKxFe2As2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, J.T.; Inosov, D.S.; Niedermayer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Here we present a combined study of the slightly underdoped novel pnictide superconductor Ba1-xKxFe2As2 by means of x-ray powder diffraction, neutron scattering, muon-spin rotation (µSR), and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). Static antiferromagnetic order sets in below Tm70 K as inferred from......-state regions on a lateral scale of several tens of nanometers. Our findings indicate that such mesoscopic phase separation can be considered an intrinsic property of some iron pnictide superconductors....

  5. Relativistic transformation law of quantum fields: A slight generalization consistent with the equivalence of all Lorentz frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingraham, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The well-known relativistic transformation law of quantum fields satisfies the relativity principle, which asserts the complete equivalence of all Lorentz (inertial) frames as far as physical measurements go. We point out a slight generalization which is allowed by the relativity principle, but violates a further, tacit assumption usually made in connection with it but which is actually logically independent of it and subject to a feasible experimental test. The interest of the generalization is that it permits the incorporation of an ultraviolet cutoff in a simple, direct way which avoids the usual difficulties

  6. Velocity and turbulence measurements of oil-water flow in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes using PIV

    OpenAIRE

    Kumara, W.A.S.; Halvorsen, Britt; Melaaen, Morten Christian

    2009-01-01

    Oil-water flows in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes are investigated using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). PIV offers a powerful non-invasive tool to study such flow fields. The experiments are conducted in a 15 m long, 56 mm diameter, inclinable steel pipe using Exxsol D60 oil (viscosity 1.64 mPa s, density 790 kg/m3) and water (viscosity 1.0 mPa s, density 996 kg/m3) as test fluids. The test pipe inclination is changed in the range from 5° upward to 5° downward. The experiments are ...

  7. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  8. Spectral and Spatial UV Sky Radiance Measurements at a Seaside Resort Under Clear Sky and Slightly Overcast Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmann, Henner; Stick, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Spatial measurements of the diffusely scattered sky radiance at a seaside resort under clear sky and slightly overcast conditions have been used to calculate the sky radiance distribution across the upper hemisphere. The measurements were done in the summer season when solar UV radiation is highest. The selected wavelengths were 307, 350 and 550 nm representing the UVB, UVA and VIS band. Absolute values of radiance differ considerably between the wavelengths. Normalizing the measured values by use of direct solar radiance made the spatial distributions of unequal sky radiance comparable. The results convey a spatial impression of the different distributions of the radiance at the three wavelengths. Relative scattered radiance intensity is one order of magnitude greater in UVB than in VIS, whereas in UVA lies roughly in between. Under slightly overcast conditions scattered radiance is increased at all three wavelengths by about one order of magnitude. These measurements taken at the seaside underline the importance of diffuse scattered radiance. The effect of shading parts of the sky can be estimated from the distribution of sky radiance. This knowledge might be useful for sun seekers and in the treatment of people staying at the seaside for therapeutic purposes. © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  9. Performances for confocal X-ray diffraction technology based on polycapillary slightly focusing X-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hehe; Liu, Zhiguo [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Sun, Tianxi, E-mail: stxbeijing@163.com [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Peng, Song [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma, Yongzhong [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Beijing, Beijing 100013 (China); Sun, Weiyuan; Li, Yude; Lin, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Weigang; Zhao, Guangcui; Luo, Ping; Pan, Qiuli; Ding, Xunliang [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2013-09-21

    The confocal X-ray diffraction (XRD) technology based on a polycapillary slightly focusing X-ray lens (PSFXRL) in excitation channel and a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens (PPXRL) with a long input focal distance in detection channel was developed. The output focal spot of the PSFXRL and the input focal spot of the PPXRL were adjusted in confocal configuration, and only the X-rays from the volume overlapped by these foci could be accordingly detected. This confocal configuration was helpful in decreasing background. The convergence of the beam focused by the PSFXRL and divergence of the beam which could be collected by the PPXRL with a long input focal distance were both about 9 mrad at 8 keV. This was helpful in improving the resolution of lattice spacing of this confocal XRD technology. The gain in power density of such PSFXRL and PPXRL was about 120 and 7 at 11 keV, respectively, which was helpful in using the low power source to perform XRD analysis efficiently. The performances of this confocal XRD technology were provided, and some common plastics were analyzed. The experimental results demonstrated that the confocal diffraction technology base on polycapillary slightly focusing X-ray optics had wide potential applications.

  10. The effect of slightly warm temperature on work performance and comfort in open-plan offices - a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maula, H; Hongisto, V; Östman, L; Haapakangas, A; Koskela, H; Hyönä, J

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a temperature of 29°C on performance in tasks involving different cognitive demands and to assess the effect on perceived performance, subjective workload, thermal comfort, perceived working conditions, cognitive fatigue, and somatic symptoms in a laboratory with realistic office environment. A comparison was made with a temperature of 23°C. Performance was measured on the basis of six different tasks that reflect different stages of cognitive performance. Thirty-three students participated in the experiment. The exposure time was 3.5 h in both thermal conditions. Performance was negatively affected by slightly warm temperature in the N-back working memory task. Temperature had no effect on performance in other tasks focusing on psychomotor, working memory, attention, or long-term memory capabilities. Temperature had no effect on perceived performance. However, slightly warm temperature caused concentration difficulties. Throat symptoms were found to increase over time at 29°C, but no temporal change was seen at 23°C. No effect of temperature on other symptoms was found. As expected, the differences in thermal comfort were significant. Women perceived a temperature of 23°C colder than men. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Resveratrol does not influence metabolic risk markers related to cardiovascular health in overweight and slightly obese subjects: a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne M van der Made

    Full Text Available In vitro and animal studies have shown positive effects of resveratrol on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, but human studies specifically designed to examine these effects are lacking.The primary outcome parameter of this study in overweight and slightly obese subjects was the effect of resveratrol on apoA-I concentrations. Secondary outcome parameters were effects on other markers of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, glucose metabolism, and markers for inflammation and endothelial function.This randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study was conducted in 45 overweight and slightly obese men (n = 25 and women (n = 20 with a mean age of 61 ± 7 years. Subjects received in random order resveratrol (150 mg per day or placebo capsules for 4 weeks, separated by a 4-week wash-out period. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of each intervention period.Compliance was excellent as indicated by capsule count and changes in resveratrol and dihydroresveratrol concentrations. No difference between resveratrol and placebo was found in any of the fasting serum or plasma metabolic risk markers (mean ± SD for differences between day 28 values of resveratrol vs. placebo: apoA-I; 0.00 ± 0.12 g/L (P = 0.791, apoB100; -0.01 ± 0.11 g/L (P = 0.545, HDL cholesterol; 0.00 ± 0.09 mmol/L (P = 0.721, LDL cholesterol -0.03 ± 0.57 mmol/L (P = 0.718, triacylglycerol; 0.10 ± 0.54 mmol/L (P = 0.687, glucose; -0.08 ± 0.28 mmol/L (P = 0.064, insulin; -0.3 ± 2.5 mU/L (P = 0.516. Also, no effects on plasma markers for inflammation and endothelial function were observed. No adverse events related to resveratrol intake were observed.150 mg of daily resveratrol intake for 4 weeks does not change metabolic risk markers related to cardiovascular health in overweight and slightly obese men and women. Effects on glucose metabolism warrant further study.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01364961.

  12. Beyond prone position in percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosette, Jean J M C H; Tsakiris, Peter; Ferrandino, Michael N; Elsakka, Ahmed M; Rioja, Jorge; Preminger, Glenn M

    2008-12-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is traditionally performed with the patient in the prone position. To assess the efficacy and safety of the prone and supine positions, particularly in obese patients and in those with staghorn calculi. A Medline search was conducted for articles published during the last 10 yr related to PNL in the prone and supine positions. This search revealed 9 published studies for supine and 25 for prone PNL. None of the supine PNL studies reported visceral injuries, while transfusion rates were 0.0-9.4% and stone-free rates were 69.6-95.0%. One study of supine PNL evaluated a significant proportion of obese patients. Prone PNL studies in obese patients report transfusion rates of 3.2-8.8% and stone-free rates of 79.0-89.2%. In the only randomized study, excluding obese patients and staghorn calculi, operative time favors the supine position. A nonrandomized comparative study demonstrated similar complication rates with insignificant improvement in treatment success for supine PNL; however, when comparing series with similar proportions of staghorn calculi cases, there are slightly improved outcomes for prone PNL. Moreover, comparison of weighted means favors prone PNL. For obese patients and staghorn calculi, prone PNL appears to be associated with decreased operative times with similar bleeding rates and slightly better stone-free rates than supine PNL.

  13. Method validation for determination of heavy metals in wine and slightly alcoholic beverages by ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voica, Cezara; Dehelean, Adriana; Pamula, A, E-mail: cezara.voica@itim-cj.r [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    The Organisation International de la Vigne et du Vin (OIV) fixed an uppermost level for some heavy metals in wine. Consequently, the need to determine very low concentration of elements that may be present in wine in trace and ultra trace levels occurred. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICP-MS is considered an excellent tool for detailed characterization of the elementary composition of many samples, including samples of drinks. In this study a method of quantitative analysis for the determination of toxic metals (Cr, As, Cd, Ni, Hg, Pb) in wines and slightly alcoholic beverages by ICP-MS was validated. Several parameters have been taken into account and evaluated for the validation of method, namely: linearity, the minimum detection limit, the limit of quantification, accuracy and uncertainty.

  14. Application of mineral fertilizers in Bulgaria and their efficiency on the slightly leached chernozems of the Dobroudja region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nankova, M.; Kirchev, H.; Penchev, E.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past years the agriculture in Bulgaria is undergoing a process of reconstruction and structural changes. The utilization of mineral fertilizers has gradually increased since 1948 and reached its summit in 1981 when about 227 kg/ha NPK have been used. Nowadays these norms have been were and in 1996 they were only 35 kg/ha at the expense of applying N-fertilizers mainly in wheat. The efficiency of the applied nutrients was estimated on slightly leached chernozem in the period 1967-1997. The regular long term fertilization of N 120 P 60 K 0 had a favorable effect on grain yield in an agronomical and economic aspect (5070 kg/ha). The highest grain yield was received at fertilization with N 120 P 120 K 120 (5230 kg/ha). Refs. 4 (author)

  15. Monte Carlo analysis of the slightly enriched uranium-D2O critical experiment LTRIIA (AWBA Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, J. Jr.; Shore, J.M.

    1981-11-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory LTRIIA slightly-enriched uranium-D 2 O critical experiment was analyzed with ENDF/B-IV data and the RCP01 Monte Carlo program, which modeled the entire assembly in explicit detail. The integral parameters delta 25 and delta 28 showed good agreement with experiment. However, calculated K/sub eff/ was 2 to 3% low, due primarily to an overprediction of U238 capture. This is consistent with results obtained in similar analyses of the H 2 O-moderated TRX critical experiments. In comparisons with the VIM and MCNP2 Monte Carlo programs, good agreement was observed for calculated reeaction rates in the B 2 =0 cell

  16. Method validation for determination of heavy metals in wine and slightly alcoholic beverages by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voica, Cezara; Dehelean, Adriana; Pamula, A

    2009-01-01

    The Organisation International de la Vigne et du Vin (OIV) fixed an uppermost level for some heavy metals in wine. Consequently, the need to determine very low concentration of elements that may be present in wine in trace and ultra trace levels occurred. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICP-MS is considered an excellent tool for detailed characterization of the elementary composition of many samples, including samples of drinks. In this study a method of quantitative analysis for the determination of toxic metals (Cr, As, Cd, Ni, Hg, Pb) in wines and slightly alcoholic beverages by ICP-MS was validated. Several parameters have been taken into account and evaluated for the validation of method, namely: linearity, the minimum detection limit, the limit of quantification, accuracy and uncertainty.

  17. Economical benefits for the use of slightly enriched fuel elements at the Atucha-I nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidelnik, J.I.; Sosa, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The fuel represents a very important factor in the operative cost of the Atucha I nuclear power plant. This cost is drastically reduced with the use of fuel elements of slightly enriched uranium. The annual saving is analyzed with actual values for fuel elements with an enrichment of 0.85% by weight of U-235. With the reactor core in equilibrium state the annual saving achieved is approximately 7.5-10 u$s. According to the present irradiation plan, the benefit for the transition period is studied. An analysis of the sensitivity to differential increments in factors determining the cost of fuel elements or to changes in manufacturing losses is also performed, calculating its effect on the waste, the storage of irradiated elements and the amount of UO 2 required. (Author)

  18. Effect of acute, slightly increased intra-abdominal pressure on intestinal permeability and oxidative stress in a rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Leng

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH is known as a common, serious complication in critically ill patients. Bacterial translocation and permeability changes are considered the pathophysiological bases for IAH-induced enterogenic endotoxemia and subsequent multiorgan failure. Nevertheless, the effects of slightly elevated intra-abdominal pressures (IAPs on the intestinal mucosa and the associated mechanisms remain unclear. METHODS: To investigate the acute effects of different nitrogen pneumoperitoneum grades on colonic mucosa, male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to six groups with different IAPs (0 [control], 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 mmHg, n = 6/group. During 90 min of exposure, we dynamically monitored the heart rate and noninvasive hemodynamic parameters. After gradual decompression, arterial blood gas analyses were conducted. Thereafter, structural injuries to the colonic mucosa were identified using light microscopy. Colon permeability was determined using the expression of tight junction proteins, combined with fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FD-4 absorption. The pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance was determined based on the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and antioxidant enzymes. RESULTS: IAH significantly affected the histological scores of the colonic mucosa, tight junction protein expression, mucosal permeability, and pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance. Interestingly, elevations of IAP that were lower than the threshold for IAH also showed a similar, undesirable effect. In the 8 mmHg group, mild hyponatremia, hypocalcemia, and hypoxemia occurred, accompanied by reduced blood and abdominal perfusion pressures. Mild microscopic inflammatory infiltration and increased MDA levels were also detected. Moreover, an 8-mm Hg IAP markedly inhibited the expression of tight junction proteins, although no significant differences in FD-4 permeability were observed between the 0- and 8-mmHg groups. CONCLUSIONS: Acute exposure to slightly

  19. Position Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Position Information Data Asset provides the ability to search for active SSA position descriptions using various search criteria. An individual may search by PD...

  20. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  1. Ubiquitous positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Mannings, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This groundbreaking resource offers a practical, in-depth understanding of Ubiquitous Positioning - positioning systems that identify the location and position of people, vehicles and objects in time and space in the digitized networked economy. The future and growth of ubiquitous positioning will be fueled by the convergence of many other areas of technology, from mobile telematics, Internet technology, and location systems, to sensing systems, geographic information systems, and the semantic web. This first-of-its-kind volume explores ubiquitous positioning from a convergence perspective, of

  2. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...... are the practice maintenance and the practice change position, with different sorts of adapting in between. Media discourse can become a resource for a resistant position against social control or for an appropriating position in favour of space for action. Regardless of the current relation to a particular media......This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...

  3. Transparency masters for mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1980-01-01

    Transparency Masters for Mathematics Revealed focuses on master diagrams that can be used for transparencies for an overhead projector or duplicator masters for worksheets. The book offers information on a compilation of master diagrams prepared by John R. Stafford, Jr., audiovisual supervisor at the University of Missouri at Kansas City. Some of the transparencies are designed to be shown horizontally. The initial three masters are number lines and grids that can be used in a mathematics course, while the others are adaptations of text figures which are slightly altered in some instances. The

  4. Late onset of neutral lipid storage disease due to novel PNPLA2 mutations causing total loss of lipase activity in a patient with myopathy and slight cardiac involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missaglia, Sara; Maggi, Lorenzo; Mora, Marina; Gibertini, Sara; Blasevich, Flavia; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Moro, Laura; Cassandrini, Denise; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Gerevini, Simonetta; Tavian, Daniela

    2017-05-01

    Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy (NLSDM) presents with skeletal muscle myopathy and severe dilated cardiomyopathy in nearly 40% of cases. NLSDM is caused by mutations in the PNPLA2 gene, which encodes the adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Here we report clinical and genetic findings of a patient carrying two novel PNPLA2 mutations (c.696+4A>G and c.553_565delGTCCCCCTTCTCG). She presented at age 39 with right upper limb abduction weakness slowly progressing over the years with asymmetric involvement of proximal upper and lower limb muscles. Cardiological evaluation through ECG and heart echo scan was normal until the age 53, when mild left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was detected. Molecular analysis revealed that only one type of PNPLA2 transcript, with exon 5 skipping, was expressed in patient cells. Such aberrant mRNA causes the production of a shorter ATGL protein, lacking part of the catalytic domain. This is an intriguing case, displaying severe PNPLA2 mutations with clinical presentation characterized by slight cardiac impairment and full expression of severe asymmetric myopathy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Correction of the equilibrium temperature caused by slight evaporation of water in protein crystal growth cells during long-term space experiments at International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takahisa; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Yoshizaki, Izumi; Tsukamoto, Katsuo; Murayama, Kenta; Fukuyama, Seijiro; Hosokawa, Kouhei; Oshi, Kentaro; Ito, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Tomoya; Tachibana, Masaru; Miura, Hitoshi

    2015-08-01

    The normal growth rates of the {110} faces of tetragonal hen egg-white lysozyme crystals, R, were measured as a function of the supersaturation σ parameter using a reflection type interferometer under μG at the International Space Station (NanoStep Project). Since water slightly evaporated from in situ observation cells during a long-term space station experiment for several months, equilibrium temperature T(e) changed, and the actual σ, however, significantly increased mainly due to the increase in salt concentration C(s). To correct σ, the actual C(s) and protein concentration C(p), which correctly represent the measured T(e) value in space, were first calculated. Second, a new solubility curve with the corrected C(s) was plotted. Finally, the revised σ was obtained from the new solubility curve. This correction method successfully revealed that the 2.8% water was evaporated from the solution, leading to 2.8% increase in the C(s) and C(p) of the solution.

  6. Visualization of cross-sectional flow structure during condensation of steam in a slightly inclined horizontal tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puseya, Andree; Kim, H. [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, T. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    These flow characteristics called flow patterns still depend on a proper visualization technique in order to identify such local distribution. These proper distributions will have a dependence on the inclination of the tube as well, as it was demonstrated by Lips and Mayer. This work is focused on presenting an experimental investigation to visualize the cross sectional two-phase flow structure for condensation of steam in a horizontal tube and identify the liquid-gas interface using the axial-viewing technique. This innovative technique developed by Hewitt and more recently used in visualization works by Badie, permits the achievement to identify those systems in the area of interest by looking directly into the two-phase flow system during condensation of steam inside a pipe with technology such a high speed camera. An experimental work to visualize and locate the liquid-gas interface for steam condensation in horizontal tubes with slightly inclination was developed on this research The experimental results shows that the axial viewing technique works well with condensation phenomena and can be used for further developments in the field such as determination of liquid film geometry and calculation of void fraction.

  7. Draft genome sequence of Dethiosulfovibrio salsuginis DSM 21565T an anaerobic, slightly halophilic bacterium isolated from a Colombian saline spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cárdenas, Carolina; López, Gina; Alzate-Ocampo, José David; González, Laura N; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Restrepo, Silvia; Baena, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    A bacterium belonging to the phylum Synergistetes , genus Dethiosulfovibrio was isolated in 2007 from a saline spring in Colombia. Dethiosulfovibrio salsuginis USBA 82 T ( DSM 21565 T = KCTC 5659 T ) is a mesophilic, strictly anaerobic, slightly halophilic, Gram negative bacterium with a diderm cell envelope. The strain ferments peptides, amino acids and a few organic acids. Here we present the description of the complete genome sequencing and annotation of the type species Dethiosulfovibrio salsuginis USBA 82 T . The genome consisted of 2.68 Mbp with a 53.7% G + C . A total of 2609 genes were predicted and of those, 2543 were protein coding genes and 66 were RNA genes. We detected in USBA 82 T genome six Synergistetes conserved signature indels (CSIs), specific for Jonquetella, Pyramidobacter and Dethiosulfovibrio . The genome of D. salsuginis contained, as expected, genes related to amino acid transport, amino acid metabolism and thiosulfate reduction. These genes represent the major gene groups of Synergistetes , related with their phenotypic traits, and interestingly, 11.8% of the genes in the genome belonged to the amino acid fermentation COG category. In addition, we identified in the genome some ammonification genes such as nitrate reductase genes. The presence of proline operon genes could be related to de novo synthesis of proline to protect the cell in response to high osmolarity. Our bioinformatics workflow included antiSMASH and BAGEL3 which allowed us to identify bacteriocins genes in the genome.

  8. Novel Synthesis of Slightly Fluorinated Graphene Quantum Dots with Luminescent and Paramagnetic Properties through Thermal Cutting of Fluorinated Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qian; Xiao, Wenqing; Zheng, Yongping; Lin, Yuda; Li, Jiaxin; Ye, Qingying; Huang, Zhigao

    2018-01-01

    A novel approach has been developed to synthesize slightly fluorinated graphene quantum dots (GQDs-F) through thermal cutting of highly fluorinated graphene. The fluorinated graphene with substantial structure defects is fragile and is readily attacked. The direct evaporation of abundant CFn (n = 2, 3) groups near structure defects lead to the loss of adjacent skelton C atoms, and the fluorinated graphene can be thermally cut into GQDs-F with a relatively uniform nanosize in pyrolysis at 810 K. The GQDs-F with a low F/C atomic ratio of ca. 0.03 exhibit excitation wavelength-dependent properties with multicolor photoluminescence (PL) from blue to green. At the same time, F adatoms that are most likely located at the edges of GQDs-F have a high efficiency of introducing paramagnetic centres, and GQDs-F show a strong paramagnetism because of sp3-type defects and magnetic zigzag edges. The graphene quantum dots with such multimodal capabilities should have great applied value in material science. PMID:29316730

  9. Visualization of two-phase gas-liquid flow regimes in horizontal and slightly-inclined circular tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Livia Alves [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: livia@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br; Cunha Filho, Jurandyr; Su, Jian [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Engineering Program], Emails: cunhafilho@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, sujian@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br; Faccini, Jose Luiz Horacio [Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: faccini@ien.gov.br

    2010-07-01

    In this paper a flow visualization study was performed for two-phase gas-liquid flow in horizontal and slightly inclined tubes. The test section consists of a 2.54 cm inner diameter stainless steel circular tube, followed by a transparent acrylic tube with the same inner diameter. The working fluids were air and water, with liquid superficial velocities ranging from 0:11 to 3:28 m/s and gas superficial velocities ranging from 0:27 to 5:48 m/s. Flow visualization was executed for upward flow at 5 deg and 10 deg and downward flow at 2:5 deg, 5 deg and 10 deg, as well as for horizontal flow. The visualization technique consists of a high-speed digital camera that records images at rates of 125 and 250 frames per second of a concurrent air-water mixture through a transparent part of the tube. From the obtained images, the flow regimes were identified (except for annular flow), observing the effect of inclination angles on flow regime transition boundaries. Finally, the experimental results were compared with empirical and theoretical flow pattern maps available in literature. (author)

  10. Neutronics and thermalhydraulics characteristics of the CANDU core fueled with slightly enriched uranium 0.9% U235

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raica, V.; Sindile, A.

    1999-01-01

    The interest concerning the slightly enriched uranium (SEU) fuel cycle is due to the possibility to adapt (to convert) the current reactor design using natural uranium fuel to this cycle. Preliminary evaluations based on discharged fuel burnup estimates versus enrichment and on Canadian experience in fuel irradiation suggest that for a 0.93% U-235 enrichment no design modifications are required, not even for the fuel bundle. The purpose of this paper is to resume the results of the studies carried on in order to clarify this problem. The calculation methodology used in reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics analyses that were performed adapted and developed the AECL suggested methodology. In order to prove the possibility to use the SEU 0.93% without any design modification, all the main elements from the CANDU Reactor Physics Design Manual were studied. Also, some thermal-hydraulics analyses were performed to ensure that the operating and safety parameters were respected. The estimations sustain the assumption that the current reactor and fuel bundle design is compatible to the using of the SEU 0.93% fuel. (author)

  11. Influence of slight microstructural gradients on the surface properties of Ti6Al4V irradiated by UV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo-Moreno, A.M.; Multigner, M.; Pacha-Olivenza, M.A.; Lieblich, M.; Jimenez, J.A.; Gonzalez-Carrasco, J.L.; Gonzalez-Martin, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Ti6Al4V alloy is one of the most widely used materials for biomedical implants. Among its properties, it is remarkable the photoactivity displayed by its passive layer, which is mainly composed by titanium dioxide. However, variations in the processing conditions may yield to differences in the microstructure which can be reflected on the surface properties of the machined product. From contact angle measurements taken on different zones of samples removed from a commercial bar of Ti6Al4V, it has been shown that the modifications of the surface Gibbs energy suffered by the alloy under UV irradiation have a radial dependence. This behaviour is related to slight microstructural changes of the alloy, particularly with an increase in the volume fraction of the β-phase when moving to the interior of the sample, which alters the composition and/or microstructure of the passive layer along its radius. This study shows that gradients in the microstructure and physical properties are sample size dependent and are likely related to thermal gradients during processing.

  12. Effect of long-term fertilization with different norms and rates of nutrients on slightly lashed chernozem fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nankova, M.; Kirchev, C.; Penchev, E.

    1999-01-01

    As a result from a 30-year fertilization with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium applied with different norms and rates, the nutrition regime of slightly leached chernozems was considerably altered. A significant increase of mineral nitrogen, especially of its nitrate form, was observed down the profile (140-200 cm) when applying nitrogen norms of 120 and 180 kg/ha. A high correlation between yield and nitrate nitrogen content was registered under these conditions. During the period of fertilization mentioned above, phosphorus available in soil changed from low to moderate to good and very good depending to the phosphorus fertilization norm. A considerable enrichment of the root-deep layer with available phosphorus was established. A similar tendency was registered for water-soluble and available potassium content in the surface layer in accordance with the potassium dressing. The correlation and path-coefficients calculated for the period of study show a strong relation between yield and the autumn-winter moisture reserve, rainfalls in May and in April-June; these are considered to guarantee the efficiency of mineral fertilization on yield. Refs. 4 (author)

  13. Pressure Dependence of the Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition of Nanopore Water Doped Slightly with Hydroxylamine, and a Phase Behavior Predicted for Pure Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoe, Atsushi; Iwaki, Shinji; Oguni, Masaharu; Tôzaki, Ken-ichi

    2014-09-01

    Phase transition behaviors of confined pure water and confined water doped with a small amount of hydroxylamine (HA) with a mole fraction of xHA = 0.03 were examined by high-pressure differential thermal analyses at 0.1, 50, 100, and 150 MPa; the average diameters of silica pores used were 2.0 and 2.5 nm. A liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) of the confined HA-doped water was clearly observed and its pressurization effect could be evaluated, unlike in the experiments on undoped water. It was found that pressurization causes the transition temperature (Ttrs) to linearly decrease, indicating that the low-temperature phase has a lower density than the high-temperature one. Transition enthalpy (ΔtrsH) decreased steeply with increasing pressure. Considering the linear decrease in Ttrs with increasing pressure, the steep decrease in ΔtrsH indicates that the LLPT effect of the HA-doped water attenuates with pressure. We present a new scenario of the phase behavior concerning the LLPT of pure water based on the analogy from the behavior of slightly HA-doped water, where a liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP) and a coexistence line are located in a negative-pressure regime but not in a positive-pressure one. It is reasonably understood that doping a small amount of HA into water results in negative chemical pressurization and causes the LLPT to occur even at ambient pressure.

  14. Distribution of equilibrium burnup for an homogeneous core with fuel elements of slightly enriched uranium (0.85% U-235) at Atucha I nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidelnik, J.I.; Perez, R.A.; Salom, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    At Atucha I, the present fuel management with natural uranium comprises three burnup areas and one irradiation path, sometimes performing four steps in the reactor core, according to the requirements. The discharge burnup is 6.0 Mw d/kg U for a waste reactivity of 6.5 m k and a heavy water purity of 99.75%. This is a preliminary study to obtain the distribution of equilibrium burnup of an homogeneous core with slightly enriched uranium (0.85% by weight U-235), using the time-averaged method implemented in the code PUMA and a representative model of one third of core and fixed rod position. It was found a strategy of three areas and two paths that agrees with the present limits of channel power and specific power in fuel rod. The discharge burnup obtained is 11.6 Mw d/kg U. This strategy is calculated with the same method and a full core representation model is used to verify the obtained results. (Author)

  15. Titan Casts Revealing Shadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in

  16. Seasonal variations of natural ventilation and radon-222 exhalation in a slightly rising dead-end tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Frédéric; Richon, Patrick; Gautam, Umesh; Tiwari, Dilli Ram; Shrestha, Prithvi; Sapkota, Soma Nath

    2007-01-01

    The concentration activity of radon-222 has been monitored, with some interruptions, from 1997 to 2005 in the end section of a slightly rising, dead-end, 38-m long tunnel located in the Phulchoki hill, near Kathmandu, Nepal. While a high concentration varying from 6 x 10(3) Bq m(-3) to 10 x 10(3) Bq m(-3) is observed from May to September (rainy summer season), the concentration remains at a low level of about 200 Bq m(-3) from October to March (dry winter season). This reduction of radon concentration is associated with natural ventilation of the tunnel, which, contrary to expectations for a rising tunnel, takes place mainly from October to March when the outside air temperature drops below the average tunnel temperature. This interpretation is supported by temperature measurements in the atmosphere of the tunnel, a few meters away from the entrance. The temporal variations of the diurnal amplitude of this temperature indeed follow the ventilation rate deduced from the radon measurements. In the absence of significant ventilation (summer season), the radon exhalation flux at the rock surface into the tunnel atmosphere can be inferred; it exhibits a yearly variation with additional transient reductions associated with heavy rainfall, likely to be due to water infiltration. No effect of atmospheric pressure variations on the radon concentration is observed in this tunnel. This experiment illustrates how small differences in the location and geometry of a tunnel can lead to vastly different behaviours of the radon concentration versus time. This observation has consequences for the estimation of the dose rate and the practicability of radon monitoring for tectonic purposes in underground environments.

  17. International collaboration to study the feasibility of implementing the use of slightly enriched uranium fuel in the Embalse CANDU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouben, B.; Chow, H.C.; Leung, L.K.H.; Inch, W.; Fink, J.; Moreno, C.

    2004-01-01

    In the last few years, Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited have collaborated on a study of the technical feasibility of implementing Slightly Enriched Uranium (SEU) fuel in the Embalse CANDU reactor in Argentina. The successful conversion to SEU fuel of the other Argentine heavy-water reactor, Atucha 1, served as a good example. SEU presents an attractive incentive from the point of view of fuel utilization: if fuel enriched to 0.9% 235 U were used in Embalse instead of natural uranium, the average fuel discharge burnup would increase significantly (by a factor of about 2), with consequent reduction in fuel requirements, leading to lower fuel-cycle costs and a large reduction in spent-fuel volume per unit energy produced. Another advantage is the change in the axial power shape: with SEU fuel, the maximum bundle power in a channel decreases and shifts towards the coolant inlet end, consequently increasing the thermalhydraulics safety margin. Two SEU fuel carriers, the traditional 37-element bundle and the 43-element CANFLEX bundle, which has enhanced thermalhydraulic characteristics as well as lower peak linear element ratings, have been examined. The feasibility study gave the organizations an excellent opportunity to perform cooperatively a large number of analyses, e.g., in reactor physics, thermalhydraulics, fuel performance, and safety. A Draft Plan for a Demonstration Irradiation of SEU fuel in Embalse was prepared. Safety analyses have been performed for a number of hypothetical accidents, such as Large Loss of Coolant, Loss of Reactivity Control, and an off-normal condition corresponding to introducing 8 SEU bundles in a channel (instead of 2 or 4 bundles). There are concrete safety improvements which result from the reduced maximum bundle powers and their shift towards the inlet end of the fuel channel. Further improvements in safety margins would accrue with CANFLEX. In conclusion, the analyses identified no issues that

  18. Simultaneous intake of beta-glucan and plant stanol esters affects lipid metabolism in slightly hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuwissen, Elke; Mensink, Ronald P

    2007-03-01

    Intake of food products rich in water-soluble fiber beta-glucan and products enriched with plant stanol esters lower serum cholesterol. Combining 2 functional food ingredients into one food product may achieve additional reductions of serum cholesterol. Our objective was to investigate the effects of a simultaneous intake of beta-glucan plus plant stanol esters on lipid metabolism in mildly hypercholesterolemic volunteers. In a randomized, controlled, 3-period crossover study, 40 mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women received muesli in random order twice a day for 4 wk, which provided, in total, 5 g control fiber from wheat (control muesli), 5 g oat beta-glucan (beta-glucan muesli), or 5 g oat beta-glucan plus 1.5 g plant stanols (combination muesli). beta-Glucan muesli decreased serum LDL cholesterol by 5.0% compared with control muesli (P = 0.013). Combination muesli reduced LDL cholesterol by 9.6% compared with control muesli (P < 0.001), and by 4.4% compared with beta-glucan muesli (P = 0.036). Serum HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations did not differ after the 3 treatments. Compared with control muesli, beta-glucan muesli increased bile acid synthesis (P = 0.043) and decreased cholesterol absorption (P = 0.011). Addition of plant stanols did not influence bile acid synthesis but decreased cholesterol absorption (P < 0.001) and raised cholesterol synthesis (P = 0.016) compared with control muesli, and the plant stanols decreased cholesterol absorption compared with beta-glucan muesli (P = 0.004). The combination muesli decreased serum concentrations of sitostanol compared with control muesli (P = 0.010). Plasma concentrations of lipid-soluble antioxidants did not differ after the 3 treatments. beta-Glucan muesli effectively lowered serum LDL cholesterol concentrations. The addition of plant stanol esters to beta-glucan-enriched muesli further lowered serum LDL cholesterol, although effects were slightly less than predicted.

  19. New Green Tea Cultivar 'Yumewakaba' which Quality is High on Aroma and Taste by Slight Half Fermentation of Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Hiroshi; Honda, Yusuke; Nakajima, Kenta; Sasaki, Koji; Kobayashi, Akira; Tanaka, Eri; Kume, Nobuo; Sakai, Takashi; Shimazaki, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Iwao; Okano, Nobuo; Kyougoku, Hideo; Funakoshi, Shouji; Kitada, Kaichi; Fuchinoue, Yasumoto; Tanaka, Mankichi

    New green tea cultivar‘Yumewakaba’has been bred at the Green Tea and Local Products Laboratory of Saitama Prefectural Agriculture and Forestry Research Center. The clone was crossed between‘Yabukita’and Saitama No.9’in 1968. Local adaptability, tolerance to bark split frost injury, and Blister blight were tested at 17 prefectural tea experiment stations from 1994 to 2002. It was registered as ‘Norin No.53’and named ‘Yumewakaba’in 20The characteristics of the cultivar are as follows The shape of the cultivar is erect type, and spread of tea bush is the same as‘Yabukita’.The size of mature leaves are smaller than those of ‘Yabukita’. Immature leaves are lustrougreen and soft. The rooting ability of nursery plants are high and taking roots after planting is good. The plucking time of the first crop of this cultivar in Saitama is 1 or 2 days later than that of ‘Yabukita’.‘Yumewakaba’is middle budding cultivar. The yield of 1st or 2nd crop is the same that of‘Yabukita. ‘Yumewakaba’is resistance to cold drought and bark split frost injury. Thlevel of resistance to freezing injur y is stronger than that of ‘Yabukita’ The damage Anthracnose is less than that of ‘Yabukita. The appearance is better than that of ‘Yabukita’, and the quality of liquor is the same as ‘Yabukita’. The quality of processed goods from slightly half fermented leaves of this cultivar is high on the aroma and the taste. ‘Yumewakaba’is suitable for northern tea producing areas, and cool semi-mountainousareas.

  20. Researcher positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Khawaja, Iram

    2009-01-01

    abstract  This article focuses on the complex and multi-layered process of researcher positioning, specifically in relation to the politically sensitive study of marginalised and ‘othered' groups such as Muslims living in Denmark. We discuss the impact of different ethnic, religious and racial...... political and personal involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives on research and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance of constant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioning as a researcher influences the research...

  1. Analysis of positive control STR experiments reveals that results obtained for FGA, D3S1358, and D13S317 condition the success rate of the analysis of routine reference samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murigneux, Valentine; Dufour, Anne-Béatrice; Lobry, Jean R; Pène, Laurent

    2014-07-01

    About 120,000 reference samples are analyzed each year in the Forensic Laboratory of Lyon. A total of 1640 positive control experiments used to validate and optimize the analytical method in the routine process were submitted to a multivariate exploratory data analysis approach with the aim of better understanding the underlying sources of variability. The peak heights of the 16 genetic markers targeted by the AmpFℓSTR(®) Identifiler(®) STR kit were used as variables of interest. Six different 3130xl genetic analyzers located in the same controlled environment were involved. Two major sources of variability were found: (i) the DNA load of the sample modulates all peak heights in a similar way so that the 16 markers are highly correlated, (ii) the genetic analyzer used with a locus-specific response for peak height and a better sensitivity for the most recently acquired. Three markers (FGA, D3S1358, and D13S317) were found to be of special interest to predict the success rate observed in the routine process. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Radiographic positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.L.; Dennis, C.A.; May, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book concentrates on the routine radiographic examinations commonly performed. It details the wide variety of examinations possible and their place in initial learning and in the radiology department as references for those occasions when an unusual examination is requested. This book provides information ranging from basic terminology to skeletal positioning to special procedures. Positions are discussed and supplemented with a picture of a patient, the resulting radiograph, and a labeled diagram. Immobilization and proper shielding of the patient are also shown

  3. Position encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goursky, Vsevolod

    1975-01-01

    A circuitry for deriving the quotient of signal delivered by position-sensitive detectors is described. Digital output is obtained in the form of 10- to 12-bit words. Impact position may be determined with 0.25% accuracy when the dynamic range of the energy signal is less 1:10, and 0.5% accuracy when the dynamic range is 1:20. The division requires an average time of 5μs for 10-bit words

  4. Position encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goursky, V.

    1975-05-01

    This paper describes circuitry for deriving the quotient of signals delivered by position-sensitive detectors. Digital output is obtained in the form of 10 to 12 bit words. Impact position may be determined with 0.25% accuracy when the dynamic range of the energy signal is less than 1:10, and 0.5% accuracy when the dynamic range is 1:20. The division requires an average time of 5μs for 10-bit words [fr

  5. Experimental study of air-cooled water condensation in slightly inclined circular tube using infrared temperature measurement technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyungdae [Nuclear Engineering Department, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Tae-Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Eok, E-mail: dekim@knu.ac.kr [Department of Precision Mechanical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Sangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Air-cooled condensation experiments in an inclined Pyrex glass tube were performed. • High-resolution wall temperature data and flow regime formations could be obtained. • The local heat flux was strongly dependent on the air-side heat transfer. • A CFD analysis was conducted for calculating the local heat flux distribution. - Abstract: This study presents the results of an investigation of the air-cooled water condensation heat transfer characteristics inside a slightly inclined circular tube made of transparent Pyrex glass. The high-resolution wall temperature data and stratified film formations could be obtained with the assistance of an infrared (IR) thermometry technique and side-view visualization using a CCD camera. In all experimental cases, the condensation flow patterns were in the fully-stratified flow region. In addition, the experimentally measured void fraction corresponded well with the logarithmic mean void fraction model. The local temperature differences in the cooling air flow across the condenser tube and high-resolution temperature profiles on the tube’s outer wall were obtained in the experimental measurements. Under the experimental conditions of this study, the local heat flux distributions in the longitudinal direction of the test tube were strongly dependent on the cooling air velocity. And, with the help of IR thermometry, the tube outer wall temperature data at 45 local points could be measured. From the data, the asymmetry distribution of the local wall temperatures and the accurate location of the transition from two-phase mixture to single phase liquid inside the tube could be obtained. Also, the analysis of the thermal resistances by condensation, wall conduction and air convection showed that the air convective heat transfer behavior can play a dominant role to the local heat transfer characteristics. Finally, in order to obtain the local heat flux distribution along the tube’s outer wall, a two

  6. Unsteady fluid flow in a slightly curved annular pipe: The impact of the annulus on the flow physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaris, Gerasimos A. T.; Karahalios, George T.

    2017-02-01

    The motivation of the present study is threefold. Mainly, the etiological explanation of the Womersley number based on physical reasoning. Next, the extension of a previous work [Messaris, Hadjinicolaou, and Karahalios, "Unsteady fluid flow in a slightly curved pipe: A comparative study of a matched asymptotic expansions solution with a single analytical solution," Phys. Fluids 28, 081901 (2016)] to the annular pipe flow. Finally, the discussion of the effect of the additional stresses generated by a catheter in an artery and exerted on the arterial wall during an in vivo catheterization. As it is known, the square of the Womersley number may be interpreted as an oscillatory Reynolds number which equals to the ratio of the inertial to the viscous forces. The adoption of a modified Womersley number in terms of the annular gap width seems therefore more appropriate to the description of the annular flow than an ordinary Womersley number defined in terms of the pipe radius. On this ground, the non-dimensional equations of motion are approximately solved by two analytical methods: a matched asymptotic expansions method and a single. In the first method, which is valid for very large values of the Womersley number, the flow region consists of the main core and the two boundary layers formed at the inner and outer boundaries. In the second, the fluid is considered as one region and the Womersley number can vary from finite values, such that they fit to the blood flow in the aorta and the main arteries, to infinity. The single solution predicts increasing circumferential and decreasing axial stresses with increasing catheter radius at a prescribed value of the Womersley parameter in agreement with analogous results from other theoretical and numerical solutions. It also predicts the formation of pinches on the secondary flow streamlines and a third boundary layer, additional to those formed at the boundary walls. Finally, we show that the insertion of a catheter in an

  7. Multicolor immunofluorescence reveals that p63- and/or K5-positive progenitor cells contribute to normal breast epithelium and usual ductal hyperplasia but not to low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boecker, Werner; Stenman, Göran; Schroeder, Tina; Schumacher, Udo; Loening, Thomas; Stahnke, Lisa; Löhnert, Catharina; Siering, Robert Michael; Kuper, Arthur; Samoilova, Vera; Tiemann, Markus; Korsching, Eberhard; Buchwalow, Igor

    2017-05-01

    We contend that knowledge about the cellular composition of normal breast epithelium is a prerequisite for understanding proliferative breast disease. Against this background, we used multicolor immunofluorescence to study normal breast epithelium and two types of intraepithelial proliferative breast lesion for expression of the p63, basal keratin K5, glandular keratin K8/18, SMA, ER-alpha, and Ki67. We studied eight normal breast epithelium samples, 12 cases of usual ductal hyperplasia, and 33 cases of low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (9 flat epithelial atypia, 14 low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ and 10 cases of lobular neoplasia). Usual ductal hyperplasia showed striking similarity to normal luminal breast epithelium including p63+ and/or K5+ luminal progenitor cells and the full spectrum of luminal progeny cells. In normal breast epithelium and usual ductal hyperplasia, expression of ER-alpha was associated with lack of expression of the proliferation antigen Ki67. In contrast, we found in both types of low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia robust expression of keratin K8/18 and a positive association between ER-alpha and Ki67 expression. However, these lesions were consistently negative for p63 and/or K5. Our observational study supports the view that usual ductal hyperplasia and low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia are different entities rather than part of a spectrum of the same disease. We propose a new operational model of cell differentiation that may serve to better understand correlations between normal breast epithelium and proliferative breast diseases. From our data we conclude that p63+ and/or K5+ progenitor cells contribute to maintenance of normal epithelium and usual ductal hyperplasia, but not to low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia of the breast.

  8. Neuroleptic malignant-like syndrome with a slight elevation of creatine-kinase levels and respiratory failure in a patient with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei L

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Li Wei,1,2 Yinghui Chen1,2 1Department of Neurology, Jinshan Hospital, 2Department of Neurology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China Abstract: Neuroleptic malignant-like syndrome (NMLS is a rare but catastrophic complication of drug treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD. Sudden withdrawal and abrupt reduction of antiparkinsonian drugs are major risk factors. Just as its name suggests, the clinical features of NMLS are similar to neuroleptic malignant syndrome, which is a dangerous adverse response to antipsychotic drugs. Both of these conditions can present with hyperthermia, marked muscle rigidity, altered consciousness, autonomic dysfunction, and elevated serum creatine-kinase (CK levels. However, we describe a special NMLS case with a slight elevation of CK levels and respiratory failure in the full course of her treatment. The patient, a 68-year-old woman with a 4-years history of Parkinson's disease, presented with hyperthermia and severe muscular rigidity. During the course of her treatment, her maximum temperature was extremely high (above 41°C. At the beginning, the diagnosis of NMLS secondary to dopamine decrease was difficult to make, because her initial blood examination revealed that her serum CK levels were mildly elevated and decreased to normal range rapidly. Although antiparkinsonian drugs and supportive treatment were applied, the patient developed an acute respiratory failure in the early course of treatment. This case report highlights that when confronted with Parkinson's patients with high body temperature and muscle rigidity, NMLS should be taken into consideration even if there is no CK elevation. Likewise, the need for supportive care is essential, because its complications are severe, even such as respiratory failure. Keywords: antiparkinsonian drugs, creatine kinase, parkinsonism–hyperpyrexia syndrome, respiratory failure

  9. Positional games

    CERN Document Server

    Hefetz, Dan; Stojaković, Miloš; Szabó, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    This text serves as a thorough introduction to the rapidly developing field of positional games. This area constitutes an important branch of combinatorics, whose aim it is to systematically develop an extensive mathematical basis for a variety of two-player perfect information games. These range from such popular games as Tic-Tac-Toe and Hex to purely abstract games played on graphs and hypergraphs. The subject of positional games is strongly related to several other branches of combinatorics such as Ramsey theory, extremal graph and set theory, and the probabilistic method. These notes cover a variety of topics in positional games, including both classical results and recent important developments. They are presented in an accessible way and are accompanied by exercises of varying difficulty, helping the reader to better understand the theory. The text will benefit both researchers and graduate students in combinatorics and adjacent fields.

  10. Researcher Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram; Mørck, Line Lerche

    2009-01-01

    involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives onresearch and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance ofconstant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioningas a researcher influences the research process. Studying the other...

  11. Position detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Toshifumi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to detect the position of an moving object in a control rod position detector, stably in a digital manner at a high accuracy and free from the undesired effects of circumstantial conditions such as the reactor temperature. Constitution: Coils connected in parallel with each other are disposed along the passage of a moving object and variable resistors and relays are connected in series with each of the coils respectively. Light emitting diodes is connected in series with the contacts of the respective relays. The resistance value of the variable resistors are adjusted depending on the changes in the circumstantial conditions and temperature distribution upon carrying out the positional detection. When the object is inserted into a coils, the relevant relay is deenergized, by which the relay contacts are closed to light up the diode. In the same manner, as the object is successively inserted into the coils, the diodes are lighted-up successively thereby enabling highly accurate and stable positional detection in a digital manner, free from the undesired effects of the circumstantial conditions. (Horiuchi, T.)

  12. Maintaining positive

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Gh. IONESCU; Adina Letitia NEGRUSA

    2004-01-01

    Maintaining positive work-force relationships includes in effective labor-management relations and making appropriate responses to current employee issues. Among the major current employee issues are protection from arbitrary dismissal, drug and alcohol abuse, privacy rights and family maters and they impact work. In our paper we discus two problems: first, the meanings of industrial democracy; second, the three principal operational concepts of industrial democracy (1) industrial democracy t...

  13. Hydrogen positions in single nanocrystals revealed by electron diffraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palatinus, Lukáš; Brázda, Petr; Boullay, P.; Pérez, O.; Klementová, Mariana; Petit, S.; Eigner, Václav; Zaarour, M.; Mintova, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 355, č. 6321 (2017), s. 166-169 ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-10035S; GA MŠk LO1603 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24510 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : hydrogen atoms * crystal structure * electron diffraction tomography * nanocrystalline materials Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 37.205, year: 2016

  14. Navicular bone position determined by positional MRI: a reproducibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Philip; Nybing, Janus D. [Copenhagen University Hospital Frederiksberg and Bispebjerg, Department of Radiology, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Johannsen, Finn E.; Stallknecht, Sandra E. [Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen, Copenhagen, NV (Denmark); Hangaard, Stine; Hansen, Bjarke B. [Copenhagen University Hospital Frederiksberg, Parker Institute, Department of Rheumatology, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Boesen, Mikael [Copenhagen University Hospital Frederiksberg and Bispebjerg, Department of Radiology, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Copenhagen University Hospital Frederiksberg, Parker Institute, Department of Rheumatology, Frederiksberg (Denmark)

    2016-02-15

    To examine intraobserver, interobserver and between-day reproducibility of positional MRI for evaluation of navicular bone height (NVH) and medial navicular position (MNP). Positional MRI (pMRI) of the foot was performed on ten healthy participants (0.25 T G-scanner). Scanning was performed in supine and standing position, respectively. Two radiologists evaluated the images in a blinded manner. Reliability and agreement were assessed by calculation of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95 % limits of agreement as a percentage of the mean (LOA%). Intraobserver and interobserver reliability was ''substantial'' in both supine and standing position (ICC 0.86-0.98) and showed good agreement (LOA% 4.9-14.7 %). Between-day reliability of navicular height and medial navicular position in standing position remained substantial (ICC 0.85-0.92) with adequate agreement (LOA% 8.3-19.8 %). In supine position between-day reliability was ''moderate'' for NVH (ICC 0.72) and ''slight'' for MNP (ICC 0.39). Agreement remained adequate between-days for MNP in supine position (LOA% 17.7 %), but it was less than adequate for NVH in supine position (LOA% 24.2 %). Navicular height and medial navicular position can be measured by pMRI in a very reproducible manner within and between observers. Increased measurement variation is observed between-days in supine position, which may be due to small positional differences or other unknown biomechanical factors. (orig.)

  15. Navicular bone position determined by positional MRI: a reproducibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Philip; Nybing, Janus D.; Johannsen, Finn E.; Stallknecht, Sandra E.; Hangaard, Stine; Hansen, Bjarke B.; Boesen, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    To examine intraobserver, interobserver and between-day reproducibility of positional MRI for evaluation of navicular bone height (NVH) and medial navicular position (MNP). Positional MRI (pMRI) of the foot was performed on ten healthy participants (0.25 T G-scanner). Scanning was performed in supine and standing position, respectively. Two radiologists evaluated the images in a blinded manner. Reliability and agreement were assessed by calculation of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95 % limits of agreement as a percentage of the mean (LOA%). Intraobserver and interobserver reliability was ''substantial'' in both supine and standing position (ICC 0.86-0.98) and showed good agreement (LOA% 4.9-14.7 %). Between-day reliability of navicular height and medial navicular position in standing position remained substantial (ICC 0.85-0.92) with adequate agreement (LOA% 8.3-19.8 %). In supine position between-day reliability was ''moderate'' for NVH (ICC 0.72) and ''slight'' for MNP (ICC 0.39). Agreement remained adequate between-days for MNP in supine position (LOA% 17.7 %), but it was less than adequate for NVH in supine position (LOA% 24.2 %). Navicular height and medial navicular position can be measured by pMRI in a very reproducible manner within and between observers. Increased measurement variation is observed between-days in supine position, which may be due to small positional differences or other unknown biomechanical factors. (orig.)

  16. The occurrence of ice production in slightly supercooled Arctic stratiform clouds as observed by ground-based remote sensors at the ARM NSA site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Damao; Wang, Zhien; Luo, Tao; Yin, Yan; Flynn, Connor

    2017-03-01

    Ice particle formation in slightly supercooled stratiform clouds is not well documented or understood. In this study, 4 years of combined lidar depolarization and radar reflectivity (Ze) measurements are analyzed to distinguish between cold drizzle and ice crystal formations in slightly supercooled Arctic stratiform clouds over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility North Slope of Alaska Utqiaġvik ("Barrow") site. Ice particles are detected and statistically shown to be responsible for the strong precipitation in slightly supercooled Arctic stratiform clouds at cloud top temperatures as high as -4°C. For ice precipitating Arctic stratiform clouds, the lidar particulate linear depolarization ratio (δpar_lin) correlates well with radar Ze at each temperature range, but the δpar_lin-Ze relationship varies with temperature ranges. In addition, lidar depolarization and radar Ze observations of ice generation characteristics in Arctic stratiform clouds are consistent with laboratory-measured temperature-dependent ice growth habits.

  17. Pooling Time Series Based on Slightly Different Questions About the Same Topic Forty Years of Survey Research on Happiness and Life Satisfaction in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. DeJonge (Tineke); R. Veenhoven (Ruut); W.M. Kalmijn (Wim); L.R. Arends (Lidia)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractSurvey research on subjective wellbeing in The Netherlands started in the early 1970s. The time series happiness and life satisfaction that have emerged since then are unfortunately based on slightly different survey items of which one part uses verbal response scales and another part

  18. EDGA amendment of slightly heavy metal loaded soil affects heavy metal solubility, crop growth and microbivorous nematodes but not bacteria and herbivorous nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, L.A.; Bloem, J.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Japenga, J.

    2005-01-01

    Phytoextraction of heavy metals is a promising technology to remediate slightly and moderately contaminated soils. To enhance crops' uptake of heavy metals, chelates such as EDGA are being tested as soil additives. Heavy metal loaded EDGA can affect soil organisms such as bacteria and nematodes in

  19. Present and perspective roles of soft X-ray tomography in tokamak plasma position measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynar, J.; Duval, B.P.; Horacek, J.; Lister, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows the importance and feasibility of real-time tomography in fusion experiments for the example of soft X-ray (SXR) position measurements. The requirement of non-magnetic real-time diagnostics in low frequencies for ITER is discussed. This is illustrated by recent results of rapid tomographic inversion of SXR measurements on tokamak TCV. Comparison with the magnetic reconstruction data has not only shown the valuable resolution capabilities of both techniques, but also revealed a slight dependence of magnetic measurements on toroidal magnetic field and an unnoticed drift of plasma position observer. A feasibility study using current hardware capacities for programmable real-time tomographic system with plasma position feedback output was carried out. A compact solution is found to be tractable opening wide perspectives for development

  20. No effect of anti-inflammatory medication on postprandial and postexercise muscle protein synthesis in elderly men with slightly elevated systemic inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dideriksen, Kasper Juel; Reitelseder, Søren; Malmgaard-Clausen, Nikolai Mølkjær

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Based on circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, some individuals develop slightly increased inflammation as they age. In elderly inflamed rats, the muscle response to protein feeding is impaired, whereas it can be maintained by treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs...... (NSAIDs). It is unknown whether this applies to elderly humans with increased inflammation. Thus, the muscle response to whey protein bolus ingestion with and without acute resistance exercise was compared between healthy elderly individuals and elderly individuals with slightly increased inflammation......protein synthetic response was measured as the fractional synthetic rate (FSR) and p70S6K phosphorylation-to-total protein ratio. RESULTS: The basal myofibrillar FSR and the myofibrillar FSR responses to whey protein bolus ingestion with and without acute resistance exercise were...

  1. Is {sup 131}I ablation necessary for patients with low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma and slightly elevated stimulated thyroglobulin after thyroidectomy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley; Mourao, Gabriela Franco, E-mail: pedrowsrosario@gmail.com [Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa

    2016-02-15

    Objective: This prospective study evaluated the recurrence rate in low-risk patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) who presented slightly elevated thyroglobulin (Tg) after thyroidectomy and who did not undergo ablation with {sup 131}I. Subjects and methods: The study included 53 low-risk patients (non aggressive histology; pT1b-3, cN0pNx, M0) with slightly elevated Tg after thyroidectomy (> 1 ng/mL, but ≤ 5 ng/mL after levothyroxine withdrawal or ≤ 2 ng/mL after recombinant human TSH). Results: The time of follow-up ranged from 36 to 96 months. Lymph node metastases were detected in only one patient (1.9%). Fifty-two patients continued to present negative neck ultrasound. None of these patients without apparent disease presented an increase in Tg. Conclusions: Low-risk patients with PTC who present slightly elevated Tg after thyroidectomy do not require ablation with {sup 131}I. (author)

  2. Highly sensitive colour change system within slight differences in metal ion concentrations based on homo-binuclear complex formation equilibrium for visual threshold detection of trace metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuguchi, Hitoshi; Atsumi, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Keigo; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Kudo, Yuki; Endo, Masatoshi; Yokota, Fumihiko; Shida, Junichi; Yotsuyanagi, Takao

    2004-01-01

    A new technique of expressing slight differences in metal ion concentrations by clear difference in colour was established for visual threshold detection of trace metal ions. The proposed method is based on rapid change of the mole fraction of the homo-binuclear complex (M 2 L) about a ligand in a narrow range of the total metal ion concentration (M T ) in a small excess, in case the second metal ion is bound to the reagent molecule which can bind two metal ions. Theoretical simulations showed that the highly sensitive colour change within slight differences in metal ion concentrations would be realized under the following conditions: (i) both of the stepwise formation constants of complex species are sufficiently large; (ii) the stepwise formation constant of the 1:1 complex (ML) is larger than that of M 2 L; and (iii) the absorption spectrum of M 2 L is far apart from the other species in the visible region. Furthermore, the boundary of the colour region in M T would be readily controlled by the total ligand concentration (L T ). Based on this theory, the proposed model was verified with the 3,3'-bis[bis(carboxymethyl)amino]methyl derivatives of sulphonephthalein dyes such as xylenol orange (XO), methylthymol blue (MTB), and methylxylenol blue (MXB), which can bind two metal ions at both ends of a π-electron conjugated system. The above-mentioned model was proved with the iron(III)-XO system at pH 2. In addition, MTB and MXB were suitable reagents for the visual threshold detection of trivalent metal ions such as iron(III), aluminium(III), gallium(III) and indium(III) ion in slightly acidic media. The proposed method has been applied successfully as a screening test for aluminium(III) ion in river water sampled at the downstream area of an old mine

  3. Study of the effect of slight variants to a 3-loop pressurized water nuclear reactor design in order to improve the reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castiglia, F.; Oliveri, E.; Taibi, S.; Vella, G.

    1992-01-01

    In order to improve the safety features of a 3-loop pressurized water nuclear reactor we propose a slight design variant consisting in the introduction of a bypass hole in the divider plate of the coolant chambers of the steam generators. The aim is to reduce both the extent and the duration of the core exposure and thus the maximum value of the peak cladding temperature, in case of a hypothetical cold leg small break loss of coolant accident. The proposal, as attested by a preliminary RELAP5/MOD3 analysis, seems to deserve some attention. (6 figures) (Author)

  4. Benign positional vertigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertigo - positional; Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo; BPPV: dizziness- positional ... Benign positional vertigo is also called benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). It is caused by a problem in the inner ear. ...

  5. Substrate recognition by complement convertases revealed in the C5-cobra venom factor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Nick Stub; Andersen, Kasper Røjkjær; Braren, Ingke

    2011-01-01

    with a protease subunit (Bb or C2a). We determined the crystal structures of the C3b homologue cobra venom factor (CVF) in complex with C5, and in complex with C5 and the inhibitor SSL7 at 4.3 Å resolution. The structures reveal a parallel two-point attachment between C5 and CVF, where the presence of SSL7 only...... slightly affects the C5-CVF interface, explaining the IgA dependence for SSL7-mediated inhibition of C5 cleavage. CVF functions as a relatively rigid binding scaffold inducing a conformational change in C5, which positions its cleavage site in proximity to the serine protease Bb. A general model...

  6. Acute exacerbation of subclinical idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis triggered by hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy in a patient with primary lung cancer and slightly focal honeycombing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Atsuya; Sanuki, Naoko; Enomoto, Tatsuji; Takeda, Toshiaki; Kunieda, Etsuo; Nakajima, Takeshi; Sayama, Koichi

    2008-01-01

    Hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for pulmonary lesions provides a high local control rate, allows completely painless ambulatory treatment, and is not associated with adverse reactions in most cases. Here we report a 70-year-old lung cancer patient with slight focal pulmonary honeycombing in whom subclinical idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was exacerbated by SBRT. This experience has important implications for the development of selection criteria prior to SBRT for pulmonary lesions. For SBRT candidates with lung tumors, attention must be paid to the presence of co-morbid interstitial pneumonia even if findings are minimal. Such patients must be informed of potential risks, and careful decision-making must take place when SBRT is being considered. (author)

  7. Non-whole beat correlation method for the identification of an unbalance response of a dual-rotor system with a slight rotating speed difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. X.; Wang, L. Z.; Jin, Z. J.; Zhang, Q.; Li, X. L.

    2013-08-01

    The efficient identification of the unbalanced responses in the inner and outer rotors from the beat vibration is the key step in the dynamic balancing of a dual-rotor system with a slight rotating speed difference. This paper proposes a non-whole beat correlation method to identify the unbalance responses whose integral time is shorter than the whole beat correlation method. The principle, algorithm and parameter selection of the proposed method is emphatically demonstrated in this paper. From the numerical simulation and balancing experiment conducted on horizontal decanter centrifuge, conclusions can be drawn that the proposed approach is feasible and practicable. This method makes important sense in developing the field balancing equipment based on portable Single Chip Microcomputer (SCMC) with low expense.

  8. The effect of a slight mis-orientation angle of c-plane sapphire substrate on surface and crystal quality of MOCVD grown GaN thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong-Woo; Suzuki, Toshimasa [Nippon Institute of Technology, 4-1 Gakuendai, Miyashiro, Saitama, 345-8501 (Japan); Aida, Hideo [NAMIKI Precision Jewel Co. Ltd., 3-8-22 Shinden, Adachi-ku, Tokyo, 123-8511 (Japan)

    2004-09-01

    The effect of a slight mis-orientation of c-plane sapphire substrate on the surface morphology and crystal quality of GaN thin films grown by MOCVD has been investigated. The mis-orientation angle of vicinal c-plane sapphire substrate was changed within the range of 0.00(zero)-1.00(one) degree, and the experimental results were compared with those on just angle (zero degree) c-plane sapphire substrate. The surface morphology and crystal quality were found to be very sensitive to mis-orientation angle. Consequently, the mis-orientation angle was optimized to be 0.15 . (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Plasma position control on Alcator C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pribyl, P.A.

    1981-05-01

    The Alcator C MHD equilibrium is investigated from the standpoint of determining the plasma position. A review of equilibrium theory is presented, indicating that the central flux surfaces of the plasma should be displaced about 1 to 2 cm from the outermost. Further, the plasma should have a slightly noncircular cross-section. A comparison is made between the observed and predicted profiles. Flux loops sensitive to plasma position generate the error signal for the feedback control circuit. This measurement agrees with other position-sensitive diagnostics, such as limiter heating, and centroids of density, soft x-ray, and electron cyclotron emission. A linear model is developed for the position control feedback system, including the vertical field SCR supply, plasma, and feedback electronics. Operation of the control system agrees well with that predicted by the model, with acceptable plasma position being maintained for the duration of the discharge. The feedback control system is in daily use for Alcator C runs

  10. Position automatic determination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This book tells of method of position determination and characteristic, control method of position determination and point of design, point of sensor choice for position detector, position determination of digital control system, application of clutch break in high frequency position determination, automation technique of position determination, position determination by electromagnetic clutch and break, air cylinder, cam and solenoid, stop position control of automatic guide vehicle, stacker crane and automatic transfer control.

  11. Converting to increased Tc-99m DTPA renal flow from slight decrease in renal flow following angioplastic procedures in a patient with unequal renal artery stenoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih Weijen; Mitchell, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    The use of Tc-99m DTPA renal flow imaging has increased in importance since the introduction of catheter angioplasty. The high diagnostic accuracy and non-invasive technique as compared to digital subtraction angiography have done much to enhance its usage in the evaluation of renal functional status. This paper reports Tc-99m DTPA renal flow imaging findings before and after angioplasty in a patient with bilateral renal artery stenosis. The slight decrease in Tc-99m DTPA renal flow on the kidney before angioplasty converted to an increase in flow on the right kidney after angioplasty. Post procedural blood flow was much higher on the right, where stenosis was previously more severe. It is hypothesized that the right kidney was protected from elevated aterial pressure by its 90% arterial stenosis while the left kidney was exposed to elevated systemic blood pressure. Because of vascular damage to the unprotected left kidney, post-angioplasty blood flow was less in the left kidney than in the ischemic but protected right kidney. (orig.) [de

  12. The Effect of Dietary Fish Oil in addition to Lifestyle Counselling on Lipid Oxidation and Body Composition in Slightly Overweight Teenage Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiken Højgaard Pedersen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs have shown potential to increase lipid oxidation and prevent obesity. Subjects. Seventy-eight boys aged 13–15 y with whole-body fat% of 30±9% were randomly assigned to consume bread with fish oil (FO (1.5 g n-3 LCPUFA/d or vegetable oil for 16 weeks. All boys were counselled to improve diet and exercise habits. Results. Lifestyle counselling resulted in decreased sugar intake but did not change the physical activity level. Whole-body fat% decreased 0.7±2.5% and 0.6±2.2%, resting metabolic rate after the intervention was 7150±1134 kJ/d versus 7150±1042 kJ/d, and the respiratory quotient was 0.89±0.05 versus 0.88±0.05, in the FO and control group, respectively. No group differences were significant. Conclusion. FO-supplementation to slightly overweight teenage boys did not result in beneficial effects on RMR, lipid oxidation, or body composition.

  13. Control of Listeria innocua Biofilms on Food Contact Surfaces with Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water and the Risk of Biofilm Cells Transfer to Duck Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hye Ri; Kwon, Mi Jin; Yoon, Ki Sun

    2018-04-01

    Biofilm formation on food contact surfaces is a potential hazard leading to cross-contamination during food processing. We investigated Listeria innocua biofilm formation on various food contact surfaces and compared the washing effect of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) at 30, 50, 70, and 120 ppm with that of 200 ppm of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) on biofilm cells. The risk of L. innocua biofilm transfer and growth on food at retail markets was also investigated. The viability of biofilms that formed on food contact surfaces and then transferred cells to duck meat was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. L. innocua biofilm formation was greatest on rubber, followed by polypropylene, glass, and stainless steel. Regardless of sanitizer type, washing removed biofilms from polypropylene and stainless steel better than from rubber and glass. Among the various SAEW concentrations, washing with 70 ppm of SAEW for 5 min significantly reduced L. innocua biofilms on food contact surfaces during food processing. Efficiency of transfer of L. innocua biofilm cells was the highest on polypropylene and lowest on stainless steel. The transferred biofilm cells grew to the maximum population density, and the lag time of transferred biofilm cells was longer than that of planktonic cells. The biofilm cells that transferred to duck meat coexisted with live, injured, and dead cells, which indicates that effective washing is essential to remove biofilm on food contact surfaces during food processing to reduce the risk of foodborne disease outbreaks.

  14. Detailed intermolecular structure of molecular liquids containing slightly distorted tetrahedral molecules with C(3v) symmetry: chloroform, bromoform, and methyl-iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothoczki, Szilvia; Temleitner, László; Pusztai, László

    2011-01-28

    Analyses of the intermolecular structure of molecular liquids containing slightly distorted tetrahedral molecules of the CXY(3)-type are described. The process is composed of the determination of several different distance-dependent orientational correlation functions, including ones that are introduced here. As a result, a complete structure classification could be provided for CXY(3) molecular liquids, namely for liquid chloroform, bromoform, and methyl-iodide. In the present work, the calculations have been conducted on particle configurations resulting from reverse Monte Carlo computer modeling: these particle arrangements have the advantage that they are fully consistent with structure factors from neutron and x-ray diffraction measurements. It has been established that as the separation between neighboring molecules increases, the dominant mutual orientations change from face-to-face to edge-to-edge, via the edge-to-face arrangements. Depending on the actual liquid, these geometrical elements (edges and faces of the distorted tetrahedra) were found to contain different atoms. From the set of liquids studied here, the structure of methyl-iodide was found to be easiest to describe on the basis of pure steric effects (molecular shape, size, and density) and the structure of liquid chloroform seems to be the furthest away from the corresponding "flexible fused hard spheres" like reference system.

  15. Environmental assessment for the recycling of slightly activated copper coil windings from the 184-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-02

    The proposed action is to recycle slightly activated copper that is currently stored in a warehouse leased by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to a scrap metal dealer. Subsequent reutilization of the copper would be unrestricted. This document addresses the potential environmental effects of recycling and reutilizing the activated copper. In addition, the potential environmental effects of possible future uses by the dealer are addressed. Direct environmental effects from the proposed action are assessed, such as air emissions from reprocessing the activated copper, as well as indirect beneficial effects, such as averting air emissions that would result from mining and smelting an equivalent quantity of copper ore. Evaluation of the human health impacts of the proposed action focuses on the pertinent issues of radiological doses and protection of workers and the public. Five alternatives to the proposed action are considered, and their associated potential impacts are addressed. The no-action alternative is the continued storage of the activated copper at the LBL warehouse. Two recycling alternatives are considered: recycling the activated copper at the Scientific Ecology Group (SEG) facility for re-use at a DOE facility and selling or giving the activated copper to a foreign government. In addition, two disposal alternatives evaluate the impacts attributable to disposing of the activated copper either at a local sanitary landfill or at the Hanford Low-Level Waste Burial Site. The proposed project and alternatives include no new construction or development of new industry.

  16. A double-blind, randomized clinical study to determine the efficacy of benzocaine 10% on histamine-induced pruritus and UVB-light induced slight sunburn pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Martin; Schwameis, Richard; Scherzer, Thomas; Lang-Zwosta, Isabelle; Nishino, Kanako; Zeitlinger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore the efficacy of the topical application of 10% benzocaine for treating pruritus and pain as compared to vehicle ointment. Twenty male subjects were treated in a randomized double-blind fashion with the investigational medicinal product (IMPD) and vehicle. Immediately after the injection of 100 µg histamine on both arms, subjects received topical treatment and pruritus was subsequently assessed with visual analogue scale (VASpruritus) and Eppendorfer questionnaire. Ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) was administered on the back to induce slight sunburn. Twelve hours after UVB application again the IMPD was applied on the right or left upper back and vehicle on the other side and pain related to sunburn was measured with VASpain and pressure algometry. A trend towards better reduction of pruritus was shown for benzocaine in VASpruritus. For the VASpain significant differences in group comparison (p = 0.02) were observed. Algometer measurements showed onset of pain reduction in the verum group after 20 min whereas in the vehicle-treated area pain relief occurred only after 60 min after application. The topically administered ointment containing 10% benzocaine was found superior over vehicle for treating pain, but not pruritus.

  17. Elimination of slightly radioactive liquid effluent by dilution. Its consequences (1960); Elimination par dilution d'effluents liquides faiblement radioactifs. Leurs consequences (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovard, P; Candillon, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Nuclear centres often have to solve problems raised by the elimination of large volumes of slightly radioactive liquid effluent. As things stand at present, the method usually adopted consists in expelling this effluent into the main water system in order to dilute it to a maximum, and thus to lower its radioactive isotope concentration to below the norms imposed by the Public Health Service. This technique requires systematic checking of the water system and its dependences, and demands a thorough knowledge of adsorption and fixation processes. (author) [French] Les centres nucleaires ont frequemment a resoudre des problemes poses par l'elimination de volumes importants d'effluents liquides faiblement radioactifs. Dans l'etat actuel des choses, la solution la plus utilisee consiste a rejeter ces effluents dans le reseau hydrographique de maniere a les diluer au maximum et abaisser ainsi leurs teneurs en isotopes radioactifs au-dessous des normes imposees par la Sante Publique. Cette technique necessite un controle systematique du reseau et de ses dependances et demande une connaissance approfondie des processus d'adsorption et de fixation. (auteur)

  18. Monte Carlo analyses of TRX slightly enriched uranium-H2O critical experiments with ENDF/B-IV and related data sets (AWBA Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, J. Jr.

    1977-12-01

    Four H 2 O-moderated, slightly-enriched-uranium critical experiments were analyzed by Monte Carlo methods with ENDF/B-IV data. These were simple metal-rod lattices comprising Cross Section Evaluation Working Group thermal reactor benchmarks TRX-1 through TRX-4. Generally good agreement with experiment was obtained for calculated integral parameters: the epi-thermal/thermal ratio of U238 capture (rho 28 ) and of U235 fission (delta 25 ), the ratio of U238 capture to U235 fission (CR*), and the ratio of U238 fission to U235 fission (delta 28 ). Full-core Monte Carlo calculations for two lattices showed good agreement with cell Monte Carlo-plus-multigroup P/sub l/ leakage corrections. Newly measured parameters for the low energy resonances of U238 significantly improved rho 28 . In comparison with other CSEWG analyses, the strong correlation between K/sub eff/ and rho 28 suggests that U238 resonance capture is the major problem encountered in analyzing these lattices

  19. Effect of UVC Radiation on Hydrated and Desiccated Cultures of Slightly Halophilic and Non-Halophilic Methanogenic Archaea: Implications for Life on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Navita; Kral, Timothy A

    2018-05-12

    Methanogens have been considered models for life on Mars for many years. In order to survive any exposure at the surface of Mars, methanogens would have to endure Martian UVC radiation. In this research, we irradiated hydrated and desiccated cultures of slightly halophilic Methanococcus maripaludis and non-halophilic Methanobacterium formicicum for various time intervals with UVC (254 nm) radiation. The survivability of the methanogens was determined by measuring methane concentrations in the headspace gas samples of culture tubes after re-inoculation of the methanogens into their growth-supporting media following exposure to UVC radiation. Hydrated M. maripaludis survived 24 h of UVC exposure, while in a desiccated condition they endured for 16 h. M. formicicum also survived UVC radiation for 24 h in a liquid state; however, in a desiccated condition, the survivability of M. formicicum was only 12 h. Some of the components of the growth media could have served as shielding agents that protected cells from damage caused by exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Overall, these results suggest that limited exposure (12⁻24 h) to UVC radiation on the surface of Mars would not necessarily be a limiting factor for the survivability of M. maripaludis and M. formicicum .

  20. Impact of diatomite on the slightly polluted algae-containing raw water treatment process using ozone oxidation coupled with polyaluminum chloride coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenchao; Wu, Chunde; Jia, Aiyin; Zhang, Zhilin; Chen, Fang

    2014-01-01

    The impact of adding diatomite on the treatment performance of slightly polluted algae-containing raw water using ozone pre-oxidation and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) coagulation was investigated. Results demonstrated that the addition of diatomite is advantageous due to reduction of the PAC dose (58.33%) and improvement of the removal efficiency of algae, turbidity, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in raw water. When the ozone concentration was 1.0 mg L⁻¹ and the PAC dosage was 2.5 mg L⁻¹, the removal rates of algae, turbidity, UV254, and TOC were improved by 6.39%, 7.06%, 6.76%, and 4.03%, respectively, with the addition of 0.4 g L⁻¹ diatomite. It has been found that the DOM presented in the Pearl River raw water mainly consisted of small molecules ( 50 kDa). After adding diatomite (0.4 g L⁻¹), the additional removal of 5.77% TOC and 14.82% UV254 for small molecules (50 kDa) could be achieved, respectively, at an ozone concentration of 1.0 mg L⁻¹ and a PAC dose of 2.5 mg L⁻¹. The growth of anabaena flos-aquae (A.F.) was observed by an atomic force microscope (AFM) before and after adding diatomite. AFM images demonstrate that diatomite may have a certain adsorption on A.F.

  1. Positive Psychology: Positive Emotions and Emotional Intelegence

    OpenAIRE

    Miloseva, Lence

    2008-01-01

    The paper focuses on the and emotional intelligence. We try to answer on some questions regarding the role which positive emotions have in our life’s. The broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 1998; 2001) predicts that positive emotions are useful in several ways. They guide present behavior, by broadening one’s attention and cognition, setting the stage for creative, explorative, and innovative pursuits. As well, positive emotions build personal and social resources to help individuals achi...

  2. SU-E-I-82: Improving CT Image Quality for Radiation Therapy Using Iterative Reconstruction Algorithms and Slightly Increasing Imaging Doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noid, G; Chen, G; Tai, A; Li, X

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms are developed to improve CT image quality (IQ) by reducing noise without diminishing spatial resolution or contrast. For CT in radiation therapy (RT), slightly increasing imaging dose to improve IQ may be justified if it can substantially enhance structure delineation. The purpose of this study is to investigate and to quantify the IQ enhancement as a result of increasing imaging doses and using IR algorithms. Methods: CT images were acquired for phantoms, built to evaluate IQ metrics including spatial resolution, contrast and noise, with a variety of imaging protocols using a CT scanner (Definition AS Open, Siemens) installed inside a Linac room. Representative patients were scanned once the protocols were optimized. Both phantom and patient scans were reconstructed using the Sinogram Affirmed Iterative Reconstruction (SAFIRE) and the Filtered Back Projection (FBP) methods. IQ metrics of the obtained CTs were compared. Results: IR techniques are demonstrated to preserve spatial resolution as measured by the point spread function and reduce noise in comparison to traditional FBP. Driven by the reduction in noise, the contrast to noise ratio is doubled by adopting the highest SAFIRE strength. As expected, increasing imaging dose reduces noise for both SAFIRE and FBP reconstructions. The contrast to noise increases from 3 to 5 by increasing the dose by a factor of 4. Similar IQ improvement was observed on the CTs for selected patients with pancreas and prostrate cancers. Conclusion: The IR techniques produce a measurable enhancement to CT IQ by reducing the noise. Increasing imaging dose further reduces noise independent of the IR techniques. The improved CT enables more accurate delineation of tumors and/or organs at risk during RT planning and delivery guidance

  3. Insulin resistance influences weight loss in non-obese women who followed a home-based exercise program and slight caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Sichieri, Rosely

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of insulin resistance status on weight changes in non-obese women who followed a home-based exercise program and slight caloric restriction over a period of 12 months. Middle-aged (25-45 year), non-obese (body mass index of 23-29.9 kg/m(2)) women were randomly assigned to control (CG) or home-based exercise group (HB). The HB group received a booklet explaining the physical exercises to be practiced at home at least three times per week (40 min/session). Both groups were required to follow a small energy restriction of 100-300 calories per day. For the analysis, women were stratified in two groups according to baseline insulin sensitivity: NIR (non-insulin resistant; n = 121) and IR (insulin resistant; n = 64). Women classified as IR at baseline had greater weight loss after 12 months of follow-up (-1.6 kg vs. -1.1 kg; p = 0.01), and HB exercise helped to reduce weight only among NIR women (-1.5 vs. -0.7; p = 0.04); no differences were observed between intervention groups for IR women (-1.5 vs. -1.7; p = 0.24). There were no differences between IR and NIR groups for lipid profile after adjustment for weight changes. Insulin resistance facilitated weight loss, and home-based exercise promoted greater weight loss only in non-insulin resistance women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Combined Effect of Thermosonication and Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water to Reduce Foodborne Pathogens and Spoilage Microorganisms on Fresh-cut Kale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of individual treatments (thermosonication [TS+DW] and slightly acidic electrolyzed water [SAcEW]) and their combination on reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and spoilage microorganisms (total bacterial counts [TBC], Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., and yeast and mold counts [YMC]) on fresh-cut kale. For comparison, the antimicrobial efficacies of sodium chlorite (SC; 100 mg/L) and sodium hypochlorite (SH; 100 mg/L) were also evaluated. Each 10 g sample of kale leaves was inoculated to contain approximately 6 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 or L. monocytogenes. Each inoculated or uninoculated samples was then dip treated with deionized water (DW; control), TS+DW, and SAcEW at various treatment conditions (temperature, physicochemical properties, and time) to assess the efficacy of each individual treatment. The efficacy of TS+DW or SAcEW was enhanced at 40 °C for 3 min, with an acoustic energy density of 400 W/L for TS+DW and available chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L for SAcEW. At 40 °C for 3 min, combined treatment of thermosonication 400 W/L and SAcEW 5 mg/L (TS+SAcEW) was more effective in reducing microorganisms compared to the individual treatments (SAcEW, SC, SH, and TS+DW) and combined treatments (TS+SC and TS+SH), which significantly (P 3.24 log CFU/g, respectively. The results suggest that the combined treatment of TS+SAcEW has the potential as a decontamination process in fresh-cut industry. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Combined effects of thermosonication and slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the microbial quality and shelf life extension of fresh-cut kale during refrigeration storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of thermosonication combined with slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAcEW) on the shelf life extension of fresh-cut kale during storage at 4 and 7 °C. Each kale (10 ± 0.2 g) was inoculated to contain approximately 6 log CFU/g of Listeria monocytogenes. Each inoculated or uninoculated samples was dip treated at 40 °C for 3 min with deionized water, thermosonication (400 W/L), SAcEW (5 mg/L), sodium chlorite (SC; 100 mg/L), sodium hypochlorite (SH; 100 mg/L), and thermosonication combined with SAcEW, SC, and SH (TS + SAcEW, TS + SC, and TS + SH, respectively). Growths of L. monocytogenes and spoilage microorganisms and changes in sensory (overall visual quality, browning, and off-odour) were evaluated. The results show that lag time and specific growth rate of each microorganism were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by treatment and storage temperature. Exceeding the unacceptable counts of spoilage microorganisms did not always result in adverse effects on sensory attributes. This study suggests that TS + SAcEW was the most effective method to prolong the shelf life of kale with an extension of around 4 and 6 days at 4 and 7 °C, respectively, and seems to be a promising method for the shelf life extension of fresh produce. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of time of administration on cholesterol-lowering by psyllium: a randomized cross-over study in normocholesterolemic or slightly hypercholesterolemic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Alun L

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports of the use of psyllium, largely in hypercholesterolemic men, have suggested that it lowers serum cholesterol as a result of the binding of bile acids in the intestinal lumen. Widespread advertisements have claimed an association between the use of soluble fibre from psyllium seed husk and a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. Given the purported mechanism of cholesterol-lowering by psyllium, we hypothesized that there would be a greater effect when psyllium is taken with breakfast than when taken at bedtime. Secondarily, we expected to confirm a cholesterol-lowering effect of psyllium in subjects with "average" cholesterol levels. Methods Sixteen men and 47 women ranging in age from 18 to 77 years [mean 53 +/- 13] with LDL cholesterol levels that were normal or slightly elevated but acceptable for subjects at low risk of coronary artery disease were recruited from general gastroenterology and low risk lipid clinics. Following a one month dietary stabilization period, they received an average daily dose of 12.7 g of psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid, in randomized order, for 8 weeks in the morning and 8 weeks in the evening. Change from baseline was determined for serum total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglycerides. Results Total cholesterol for the "AM first" group at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks was 5.76, 5.77 and 5.80 mmol/L and for the "PM first" group the corresponding values were 5.47, 5.61 and 5.57 mmol/L. No effect on any lipid parameter was demonstrated for the group as a whole or in any sub-group analysis. Conclusion The timing of psyllium administration had no effect on cholesterol-lowering and, in fact, no cholesterol-lowering was observed. Conclusions regarding the effectiveness of psyllium for the prevention of heart disease in the population at large may be premature.

  7. Long-term exposure to slightly elevated air temperature alleviates the negative impacts of short term waterlogging stress by altering nitrogen metabolism in cotton leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haimiao; Chen, Yinglong; Xu, Bingjie; Hu, Wei; Snider, John L; Meng, Yali; Chen, Binglin; Wang, Youhua; Zhao, Wenqing; Wang, Shanshan; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2018-02-01

    Short-term waterlogging and chronic elevated temperature occur frequently in the Yangtze River Valley, yet the effects of these co-occurring environments on nitrogen metabolism of the subtending leaf (a major source leaf for boll development) have received little attention. In this study, plants were exposed to two temperature regimes (31.6/26.5 °C and 34.1/29.0 °C) and waterlogging events (0 d, 3 d, 6 d) during flowering and boll development. The results showed that the effects of waterlogging stress and elevated temperature in isolation on nitrogen metabolism were quite different. Waterlogging stress not only limited NR (EC 1.6.6.1) and GS (EC 6.3.1.2) activities through the down-regulation of GhNR and GhGS expression for amino acid synthesis, but also promoted protein degradation by enhanced protease activity and peptidase activity, leading to lower organ and total biomass (reduced by 12.01%-27.63%), whereas elevated temperature inhibited protein degradation by limited protease activity and peptidase activity, promoting plant biomass accumulation. Furthermore, 2-3 °C chronic elevated temperature alleviated the negative impacts of a brief (3 d) waterlogging stress on cotton leaves, with the expression of GhNiR up-regulated, the activities of NR, GS and GOGAT (EC 1.4.7.1) increased and the activities of protease and peptidase decreased, leading to higher protein concentration and enhanced leaf biomass for EW 3 relative to AW 3 . The results of the study suggested that exposure to slightly elevated air temperature improves the cotton plants' ability to recover from short-term (3 d) waterlogging stress by sustaining processes associated with nitrogen assimilation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Want Positive Behavior? Use Positive Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chip; Freeman-Loftis, Babs

    2012-01-01

    Positive adult language is the professional use of words and tone of voice to enable students to learn in an engaged, active way. This includes learning social skills. To guide children toward choosing and maintaining positive behaviors, adults need to carefully choose the words and tone of voice used when speaking to them. Learning to use…

  9. Benign positional vertigo - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertigo - positional - aftercare; Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo - aftercare; BPPV - aftercare; Dizziness - positional vertigo ... Your health care provider may have treated your vertigo with the Epley maneuver . These are head movements ...

  10. Unsteady fluid flow in a slightly curved pipe: A comparative study of a matched asymptotic expansions solution with a single analytical solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messaris, Gerasimos A. T.; Hadjinicolaou, Maria; Karahalios, George T.

    2016-01-01

    The present work is motivated by the fact that blood flow in the aorta and the main arteries is governed by large finite values of the Womersley number α and for such values of α there is not any analytical solution in the literature. The existing numerical solutions, although accurate, give limited information about the factors that affect the flow, whereas an analytical approach has an advantage in that it can provide physical insight to the flow mechanism. Having this in mind, we seek analytical solution to the equations of the fluid flow driven by a sinusoidal pressure gradient in a slightly curved pipe of circular cross section when the Womersley number varies from small finite to infinite values. Initially the equations of motion are expanded in terms of the curvature ratio δ and the resulting linearized equations are solved analytically in two ways. In the first, we match the solution for the main core to that for the Stokes boundary layer. This solution is valid for very large values of α. In the second, we derive a straightforward single solution valid to the entire flow region and for 8 ≤ α < ∞, a range which includes the values of α that refer to the physiological flows. Each solution contains expressions for the axial velocity, the stream function, and the wall stresses and is compared to the analogous forms presented in other studies. The two solutions give identical results to each other regarding the axial flow but differ in the secondary flow and the circumferential wall stress, due to the approximations employed in the matched asymptotic expansion process. The results on the stream function from the second solution are in agreement with analogous results from other numerical solutions. The second solution predicts that the atherosclerotic plaques may develop in any location around the cross section of the aortic wall unlike to the prescribed locations predicted by the first solution. In addition, it gives circumferential wall stresses

  11. Unsteady fluid flow in a slightly curved pipe: A comparative study of a matched asymptotic expansions solution with a single analytical solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messaris, Gerasimos A. T., E-mail: messaris@upatras.gr [Department of Physics, Division of Theoretical Physics, University of Patras, GR 265 04 Rion (Greece); School of Science and Technology, Hellenic Open University, 11 Sahtouri Street, GR 262 22 Patras (Greece); Hadjinicolaou, Maria [School of Science and Technology, Hellenic Open University, 11 Sahtouri Street, GR 262 22 Patras (Greece); Karahalios, George T. [Department of Physics, Division of Theoretical Physics, University of Patras, GR 265 04 Rion (Greece)

    2016-08-15

    The present work is motivated by the fact that blood flow in the aorta and the main arteries is governed by large finite values of the Womersley number α and for such values of α there is not any analytical solution in the literature. The existing numerical solutions, although accurate, give limited information about the factors that affect the flow, whereas an analytical approach has an advantage in that it can provide physical insight to the flow mechanism. Having this in mind, we seek analytical solution to the equations of the fluid flow driven by a sinusoidal pressure gradient in a slightly curved pipe of circular cross section when the Womersley number varies from small finite to infinite values. Initially the equations of motion are expanded in terms of the curvature ratio δ and the resulting linearized equations are solved analytically in two ways. In the first, we match the solution for the main core to that for the Stokes boundary layer. This solution is valid for very large values of α. In the second, we derive a straightforward single solution valid to the entire flow region and for 8 ≤ α < ∞, a range which includes the values of α that refer to the physiological flows. Each solution contains expressions for the axial velocity, the stream function, and the wall stresses and is compared to the analogous forms presented in other studies. The two solutions give identical results to each other regarding the axial flow but differ in the secondary flow and the circumferential wall stress, due to the approximations employed in the matched asymptotic expansion process. The results on the stream function from the second solution are in agreement with analogous results from other numerical solutions. The second solution predicts that the atherosclerotic plaques may develop in any location around the cross section of the aortic wall unlike to the prescribed locations predicted by the first solution. In addition, it gives circumferential wall stresses

  12. Unsteady fluid flow in a slightly curved pipe: A comparative study of a matched asymptotic expansions solution with a single analytical solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaris, Gerasimos A. T.; Hadjinicolaou, Maria; Karahalios, George T.

    2016-08-01

    The present work is motivated by the fact that blood flow in the aorta and the main arteries is governed by large finite values of the Womersley number α and for such values of α there is not any analytical solution in the literature. The existing numerical solutions, although accurate, give limited information about the factors that affect the flow, whereas an analytical approach has an advantage in that it can provide physical insight to the flow mechanism. Having this in mind, we seek analytical solution to the equations of the fluid flow driven by a sinusoidal pressure gradient in a slightly curved pipe of circular cross section when the Womersley number varies from small finite to infinite values. Initially the equations of motion are expanded in terms of the curvature ratio δ and the resulting linearized equations are solved analytically in two ways. In the first, we match the solution for the main core to that for the Stokes boundary layer. This solution is valid for very large values of α. In the second, we derive a straightforward single solution valid to the entire flow region and for 8 ≤ α flows. Each solution contains expressions for the axial velocity, the stream function, and the wall stresses and is compared to the analogous forms presented in other studies. The two solutions give identical results to each other regarding the axial flow but differ in the secondary flow and the circumferential wall stress, due to the approximations employed in the matched asymptotic expansion process. The results on the stream function from the second solution are in agreement with analogous results from other numerical solutions. The second solution predicts that the atherosclerotic plaques may develop in any location around the cross section of the aortic wall unlike to the prescribed locations predicted by the first solution. In addition, it gives circumferential wall stresses augmented by approximately 100% with respect to the matched asymptotic expansions

  13. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...

  14. TypeScript revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Maharry, Dan

    2013-01-01

    TypeScript Revealed is a quick 100-page guide to Anders Hejlsberg's new take on JavaScript. With this brief, fast-paced introduction to TypeScript, .NET, Web and Windows 8 application developers who are already familiar with JavaScript will easily get up to speed with TypeScript and decide whether or not to start incorporating it into their own development. TypeScript is 'JavaScript for Application-scale development'; a superset of JavaScript that brings to it an additional object-oriented-like syntax familiar to .NET programmers that compiles down into simple, clean JavaScript that any browse

  15. Death in head-down position in a heavily intoxicated obese man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Donno, A; De Fazio, A; Greco, M G; Introna, F; Maglietta, R A G

    2008-07-01

    Dying in a head-down position is rare, and autopsy may reveal no morphological findings which can sufficiently explain the cause of death. The authors describe a case of positional asphyxia of a 78-year-old man, found dead hanging in head-down position inside a blackberry bush. The subject was suspended by his left leg and wedged inside a thick blackberry bush, while his right leg was free and inflected. Investigation revealed that the elderly man had last been seen after lunch in the early afternoon (about 2.00 p.m.), two days before being found. The subject had no pre-existing physical or mental condition which might have explained his death. He was 164 cm tall and weighed 90 kg (BMI: 33.4). External examination of the body revealed abrasions on the head and multiple superficial scratch marks on the hands; no external signs of violence were observed. The deceased's head was cyanotic and revealed marked petechial haemorrhages of the conjunctiva. Rigor mortis was fully developed and reddish fixed livor was observed on the face, neck and upper chest. The distribution of livor was consistent with the position of the body at the scene. Autopsy revealed marked pulmonary and cerebral oedema; the liver showed fatty vacuolization with a mild increase of connective tissue and thickening of the walls of the central veins and centrilobular sinusoids. The heart was enlarged, particularly the left ventricle, with a slight, calcified, diffuse and increased thickness of the aortic and coronary arteries. The remains of meat and vegetables in the initial phase of digestion were found inside the stomach, and there was a strong smell of alcohol. The blood alcohol concentration, ascertained by GC (Gas Chromatography), was 2.10 g/l. Toxicological assays for addictive drugs (cocaine, heroin, THC) yielded negative results. There were no features suggesting that the deceased had been the victim of an assault. The authors of this case report illustrate the main pathophysiological and

  16. Chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. In this paper the work carried out at Berkeley from the spring of 1942 to the summer of 1945 is described briefly. The aqueous chemistry of plutonium is quite remarkable. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were based on aqueous solutions, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states, while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element are reported

  17. Android Emotions Revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a method for designing facial interfaces for sociable android robots with respect to the fundamental rules of human affect expression. Extending the work of Paul Ekman towards a robotic direction, we follow the judgment-based approach for evaluating facial expressions to test...... findings are based on the results derived from a number of judgments, and suggest that before programming the facial expressions of a Geminoid, the Original should pass through the proposed procedure. According to our recommendations, the facial expressions of an android should be tested by judges, even...... in which case an android robot like the Geminoid|DK –a duplicate of an Original person- reveals emotions convincingly; when following an empirical perspective, or when following a theoretical one. The methodology includes the processes of acquiring the empirical data, and gathering feedback on them. Our...

  18. Fourier-positivity constraints on QCD dipole models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand G. Giraud

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fourier-positivity (F-positivity, i.e. the mathematical property that a function has a positive Fourier transform, can be used as a constraint on the parametrization of QCD dipole-target cross-sections or Wilson line correlators in transverse position space r. They are Bessel transforms of positive transverse momentum dependent gluon distributions. Using mathematical F-positivity constraints on the limit r→0 behavior of the dipole amplitudes, we identify the common origin of the violation of F-positivity for various, however phenomenologically convenient, dipole models. It is due to the behavior r2+ϵ, ϵ>0 softer, even slightly, than color transparency. F-positivity seems thus to conflict with the present dipole formalism when it includes a QCD running coupling constant α(r.

  19. Multi-technology positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Lohan, Elena-Simona; Wymeersch, Henk; Seco-Granados, Gonzalo; Nykänen, Ossi

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview of positioning technologies, applications and services in a format accessible to a wide variety of readers. Readers who have always wanted to understand how satellite-based positioning, wireless network positioning, inertial navigation, and their combinations work will find great value in this book. Readers will also learn about the advantages and disadvantages of different positioning methods, their limitations and challenges. Cognitive positioning, adding the brain to determine which technologies to use at device runtime, is introduced as well. Coverage also includes the use of position information for Location Based Services (LBS), as well as context-aware positioning services, designed for better user experience. • Brings understanding of positioning technology to readers from a variety of disciplines • Reviews multiple techniques, providing insight on the pros, cons and challenges related to each • Designed to be a tutorial on basic principles, avoiding unnecessary de...

  20. Navicular bone position determined by positional MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Philip; Johannsen, Finn E; Hangaard, Stine

    2016-01-01

    -scanner). Scanning was performed in supine and standing position, respectively. Two radiologists evaluated the images in a blinded manner. Reliability and agreement were assessed by calculation of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95 % limits of agreement as a percentage of the mean (LOA%). RESULTS...

  1. Highly Depleted Ethane and Slightly Depleted Methanol in Comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner: Application of Empirical g-Factors for CH3OH Near 50K

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSanti, Michael A.; Bonev, Boncho P.; Mumma, Michael J.; Villanueva, Geronimo L.

    2010-01-01

    We report high resolution (lambda/delta lambda approximately 24,000) observations of Comet 21 P/Giacobini-Zinner (21P) between approximately 2.85 -- 3.54 micrometers, obtained with NIRSPEC at Keck 2 on UT 2005 June 03 (R(sub h) = 1.12 AU, delta = 1.45 AU). These simultaneously sampled multiple emissions from the v7 band of C2H6 and the v2 and v3 bands of CH3OH, together with several hot bands of H2O, permitting a direct measure of parent volatile abundances in 21P. Our spectra reveal highly depleted C2H6 (0.13-0.14 percent relative to H2O) and CH3OH/C2H6 approximately 10, consistent with previously published abundances from observations in the IR [1,2] and millimeter sub-mm (reporting CH3OH/H2O [3]) during its previous apparition in 1998. We observed similarly high CH3OH/C2H6, and also similar rotational temperature to that measured for 21 P, in Comet 8P/Tuttle [4,5]. We used our (higher signal-to-noise) NIRSPEC observations of 8P to produce effective (empirical) CH3OH g-factors for several lines in the v2 band. These will be presented together with interpretation of our results, including constraints on the spin temperature of water. We acknowledge support from the NASA Planetary Atmospheres, Planetary Astronomy, and Astrobiology Programs and from the NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Grants Program.

  2. Pretty Easy Pervasive Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rene; Wind, Rico; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing availability of positioning based on GPS, Wi-Fi, and cellular technologies and the proliferation of mobile devices with GPS, Wi-Fi and cellular connectivity, ubiquitous positioning is becoming a reality. While offerings by companies such as Google, Skyhook, and Spotigo render...... positioning possible in outdoor settings, including urban environments with limited GPS coverage, they remain unable to offer accurate indoor positioning. We will demonstrate a software infrastructure that makes it easy for anybody to build support for accurate Wi-Fi based positioning in buildings. All...... that is needed is a building with Wi-Fi coverage, access to the building, a floor plan of the building, and a Wi-Fi enabled device. Specifically, we will explain the software infrastructure and the steps that must be completed to obtain support for positioning. And we will demonstrate the positioning obtained...

  3. Efficient expression of functional (α6β22β3 AChRs in Xenopus oocytes from free subunits using slightly modified α6 subunits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carson Kai-Kwong Ley

    Full Text Available Human (α6β2(α4β2β3 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs are essential for addiction to nicotine and a target for drug development for smoking cessation. Expressing this complex AChR is difficult, but has been achieved using subunit concatamers. In order to determine what limits expression of α6* AChRs and to efficiently express α6* AChRs using free subunits, we investigated expression of the simpler (α6β22β3 AChR. The concatameric form of this AChR assembles well, but is transported to the cell surface inefficiently. Various chimeras of α6 with the closely related α3 subunit increased expression efficiency with free subunits and produced pharmacologically equivalent functional AChRs. A chimera in which the large cytoplasmic domain of α6 was replaced with that of α3 increased assembly with β2 subunits and transport of AChRs to the oocyte surface. Another chimera replacing the unique methionine 211 of α6 with leucine found at this position in transmembrane domain 1 of α3 and other α subunits increased assembly of mature subunits containing β3 subunits within oocytes. Combining both α3 sequences in an α6 chimera increased expression of functional (α6β22β3 AChRs to 12-fold more than with concatamers. This is pragmatically useful, and provides insights on features of α6 subunit structure that limit its expression in transfected cells.

  4. Positive criminology in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronel, Natti; Segev, Dana

    2014-11-01

    The discourse regarding offender rehabilitation has been criticized by various scholars who have claimed that reducing negative causes and managing risk will not automatically prompt positive human development and elements that are associated with desistance. Positive criminology is an innovative concept that challenges the common preoccupation with negative elements, by placing emphasis on human encounters and forces of inclusion that are experienced positively by target individuals and that can promote crime desistance. However, as the concept is relatively new, there are still no guiding principles for the practice of positive criminology that could direct research and the criminal justice system. This article attempts to fill that gap by providing principles that could be practiced by criminal justice personnel and examples of different interventions that reflect positive criminology. The article also provides ideological explanations for adopting the concept of positive criminology in practice. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Slight Hydronephrosis in Newborns and Breast-fed Infants: Can the Presence of Vesicoureteral Reflux Be Predicted?; Hidronefrosis leve en neonatos y lactantes: puede predecirse la presencia del reflujo vesicoureteral?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrocal, T.; Pablo, T. de; Gutierrez, J.; Prieto, C.; Hoyo, M. L. del [Hospital Universitario La Paz. Madrid (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the value of slight-to moderate echo graphically detected hydronephrosis in newborns and breast-fed infants that might serve as indicator for Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), and to evaluate the necessity of performing micturating cystourethrougraphy (MCUG) in these patients. There were reviewed MCUG of 237 patients (174 boys and 63 girls between the ages of 0 and 18 months) with slight echo graphically detected hydronephrosis in order to evaluate the presence of primary VUR. Patients with secondary reflux or those that presented anomalies which made impossible an exact reflux gradind were excluded. However, normal kidneys with reflux which were contralateral to hydronephrotic kidneys were included in the study. For a statistical analysis of the data, each kidney was considered separately, thereby forming a total of 474 kidneys. Slight hydronephrosis was diagnosed when the renal pelvis anteroposterior diameter was observed to measure between 0.5 and 1.5 cm. The International Grading System was used to grade reflux during MCUG. Of the 474 kidneys evaluated, 306 showed slight hydromephrosis in the echography. Only 98 of these presented reflux (32%) (14 grade 1.50 grade II, 32 grade III and 2 grade IV). The echography was normal (i. e. hydronephrosis not present) in 52 kidneys with reflux (31%) which were contralateral to hydronephrotic kidneys, although 38 of these had reflux of grade II or higher. The echography showed slight hydronephrosis in 208 kidneys that did not have reflux during MCUG (68%). There were no significant differences in the incidence of VUR among normal or hydronephrotic kidneys. There is a poor correlation between slight hydronephrosis and presence or grade of reflux in newborns and breast-fed infants. The latter should not, therefore, be considered an indication for MCUC. (Author) 33 refs.

  6. BCR-ABL1- positive chronic myeloid leukemia with erythrocytosis presenting as polycythemia vera: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornea, Mihaela I Precup; Levrat, Emmanuel; Pugin, Paul; Betticher, Daniel C

    2015-04-08

    The World Health Organization classification of chronic myeloproliferative disease encompasses eight entities of bone marrow neoplasms, among them Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1-positive chronic myeloid leukemia and polycythemia vera. Polycythemia vera requires, in the majority of cases (95%), the negativity of Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 rearrangement and the presence of the Janus kinase 2 mutation. We report a case of erythrocytosis as the primary manifestation of a chronic myeloid leukemia, with the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome and the Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 fusion gene, and in the absence of any Janus kinase 2 mutation. A 68-year-old Caucasian woman, with a history of cigarette consumption and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (undergoing continuous positive airway pressure treatment) had presented to our institution with fatigue and a hemoglobin level of 18.6g/L, with slight leukocytosis at 16G/L, and no other anomalies on her complete blood cell count. Examination of her arterial blood gases found only a slight hypoxemia; erythropoietin and ferritin levels were very low and could not explain a secondary erythrocytosis. Further analyses revealed the absence of any Janus kinase 2 mutation, thus excluding polycythemia vera. Taken together with a high vitamin B12 level, we conducted a Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 gene analysis and bone marrow cytogenetic analysis, both of which returned positive, leading to the diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia. To date, this case is the first description of a Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1-positive chronic myeloid leukemia, presenting with erythrocytosis as the initial manifestation, and mimicking a Janus kinase 2 V617F-negative polycythemia vera. Her impressive response to imatinib

  7. Den positive psykologis metoder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Frans Ørsted; Mørck, Line Lerche; Nissen, Poul Erik

    En antologi der giver en introduktion til en række af de metoder der anvendes til forskning, assessment, test, udviklingsarbejde og intervention indenfor den positive psykologi.......En antologi der giver en introduktion til en række af de metoder der anvendes til forskning, assessment, test, udviklingsarbejde og intervention indenfor den positive psykologi....

  8. Modern management positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Petar M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze contemporary managerial positions such as program manager, project portfolio manager, crisis manager and others. The idea is to promote managerial positions in Serbia, which is quite unjustifiably undervalued, primarily because of the lack of knowledge in the field of management and other issues related to management education.

  9. Positioning and locking apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

    1985-06-19

    A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

  10. Positioning health professional identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ole; Krogh Christensen, Mette; Mørcke, Anne Mette

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on positioning theory, the purpose of this paper is to characterize the activities and positions of students and supervisors at workplaces and on-campus skills training sites across the higher health professional educations of medicine, sports science, and nursing. Furthermore, the study ...... explored the impact of work-based learning (WBL) and skills training on students’ personal professional identity development....

  11. Phantom position dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorson, M.R.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1981-01-01

    Sensitivity of the Hanford dosimeter response to its position relative to the phantom and the neutron source has always been recognized. A thorough investigation was performed to quantify dosimeter response according to: (a) dosimeter position on phantom, (b) dosimeter distance from phantom, and (c) angular relationship of dosimeter relative to neutron source and phantom. Results were obtained for neutron irradiation at several different energies

  12. Position display device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Yukio.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To provide a device capable of easily and quickly reading mutual mounting relations of control bodies such as control rods mounted on a nuclear reactor and positions to which the control bodies are driven. Structure: A scanning circuit is provided to scan positions of controllably mounted control bodies such as control rods. Values detected by scanning the positions are converted into character signals according to the values and converted into preranked color signals. The character signals and color signals are stored in a memory circuit by synchronous signals in synchronism with the scanning in the scanning circuit. Outputs of the memory circuit are displayed by a display unit such as a color Braun tube in accordance with the synchronous signals to provide color representations according to positions to which control bodies are driven in the same positional relation as the mounting of the control bodies. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. Review of Positional Nystagmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio BENITO-OREJAS

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Any change of position of the head (dynamic or static can trigger a nystagmus or increase the spontaneous. This nystagmus we call it positional. We intend to review in this chapter its definition, clinical features, etiology and the way of exploring it. Method: narrative review. Results: Positional vertigo is the most frequent vestibular disorder, and most of the times of peripheral cause. Characteristics of nystagmus or its association with other neurological symptoms are sufficient grounds to request a magnetic resonance, which will provide additional information on very few occasions. Discussion: The study of the positional nystagmus as a procedure to rule out central pathology has lost much of its relevance. Signs that Nylén defined mixed findings peripheral and central, making complex classification. Conclusion: Regardless of how to bring the patient change position (very slow or fast, if it appears an atypical nystagmus should rule out a central origin.

  14. POSITIONING STRATEGIES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakhshir Ghassan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The positioning strategy has suffered serious changes in the last few decades, being influenced by the rapid development of competition and the growing focus on specific traits belonging to the market, to the consumer or to the product. The purpose of this paper is to present the developments of theoretical positioning strategies and the orientation from more simple, product oriented strategies, to ones more oriented towards the client and with a briefer period of time. The world is moving in a much faster pace than in the past, thanks to communication development so companies are obliged to adopt more specific strategies in order for them to be effective. This essay represents a literary review presenting a documentary research within the scientific articles and strategy and positioning books. The paper begins with the analysis of company strategies and the marketing strategies in general. The first author to group the product positioning strategies is Porter with his three generic strategies. Following the development of brands and because of the lack of competitiveness in the simple generic positioning strategies, this paper has also presented the newer positioning strategies proposed by Kotler, Treacy & Wiersema, and also more complex ones such as Bowman's Strategy Clock and Blankson and Kalafatis positioning strategy based on the type of the consumer. The fast expansion of local brands in all categories has led to mistakes in positioning strategies, categories also presented in the current essay. The results of this study show that new positioning strategies are more and more based on the consumer and market segments and on the product specification - which have also evolved in the last decades. Adaptability to fast changes in the competitive market will represent the future positioning strategies.

  15. Positional Concerns and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    that invoking envy or subjective well-being is not fully satisfying for regulating positional concerns. More compelling reasons seem, in complement with efficiency, to be related to considerations for equality. In other words, if institutions could have strong reasons to pay attention to and regulate positional...... their implications for economics, positional concerns imply important normative dimensions. There have been presumed to be a symptom of envy, reduce people’s happiness, and create problems of social interaction or economic inefficiencies. Individuals are, for instance, prone to pick states of the world that improve...... concerns, it would be in virtue of their impact on the social product and individuals’ conditions of living....

  16. Stress Management: Positive Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Positive thinking helps with stress management and can even improve your health. Practice overcoming negative self-talk ... with optimism is a key part of effective stress management. And effective stress management is associated with ...

  17. Den positive psykologis metoder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen introducerer til de mange metoder, som anvendes i positiv psykologi. dette sker ud fra en reflekteret tilgang, der ligeledes rummer bidrag fra kritisk psykologi med det formål at nuancere den positive psykologis forståelser...

  18. Clinical Positioning Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Lars Peter Hedegaard; Christensen, Mette Krogh; Rytter, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present a case study of residents’ clinical experiences and communication in outpatient oncology consultations. We apply positioning theory, a dynamic alternative to role theory, to investigate how oncology residents and patients situate themselves as persons with rights...... and duties. Drawing from seven qualitative interviews and six days of observation, we investigate the residents’ social positioning and their conversations with patients or supervisors. Our focus is on how (a) relational shifts in authority depend on each situation and its participants; (b) storylines...... establish acts and positions and narratively frame what participants can expect from a medical consultation viewed as a social episode; and (c) the positioning of rights and duties can lead to misunderstandings and frustrations. We conclude that residents and patients locate themselves in outpatient...

  19. Fluorescent optical position sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2005-11-15

    A fluorescent optical position sensor and method of operation. A small excitation source side-pumps a localized region of fluorescence at an unknown position along a fluorescent waveguide. As the fluorescent light travels down the waveguide, the intensity of fluorescent light decreases due to absorption. By measuring with one (or two) photodetectors the attenuated intensity of fluorescent light emitted from one (or both) ends of the waveguide, the position of the excitation source relative to the waveguide can be determined by comparing the measured light intensity to a calibrated response curve or mathematical model. Alternatively, excitation light can be pumped into an end of the waveguide, which generates an exponentially-decaying continuous source of fluorescent light along the length of the waveguide. The position of a photodetector oriented to view the side of the waveguide can be uniquely determined by measuring the intensity of the fluorescent light emitted radially at that location.

  20. POSITIONING STRATEGIES DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Shakhshir Ghassan

    2014-01-01

    The positioning strategy has suffered serious changes in the last few decades, being influenced by the rapid development of competition and the growing focus on specific traits belonging to the market, to the consumer or to the product. The purpose of this paper is to present the developments of theoretical positioning strategies and the orientation from more simple, product oriented strategies, to ones more oriented towards the client and with a briefer period of time. The world is moving in...

  1. Position measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Shuichi; Maruyama, Mayumi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device capable of measuring accurate position and distance easily even at places where operator can not easily access, such as cell facilities for vitrifying radioactive wastes. Referring to a case of the vitrifying cell, an objective equipment settled in the cell is photographed by a photographing device. The image is stored in a position measuring device by way of an image input device. After several years, when the objective equipment is exchanged, a new objective equipment is photographed by a photographing device. The image is also stored in the position measuring device. The position measuring device compares the data of both of the images on the basis of pixel unit. Based on the image of the equipment before the exchange as a reference, extent of the displacement of the installation position of the equipment on the image after the exchange caused by installation error and manufacturing error is determined to decide the position of the equipment after exchange relative to the equipment before exchange. (I.S.)

  2. Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for eliminating malodor. The authors of the General Dentistry article feel that future research is necessary to determine what role undetected odorants may play in oral malodor, as well as more well designed, randomized clinical trials to compare the effectiveness of tongue scrapers, ...

  3. Plasma position control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Haruhiko.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct position control stably to various plasmas and reduce the burden on the control coil power source. Constitution: Among the proportional, integration and differentiation controls, a proportional-differentiation control section and an integration control section are connected in parallel. Then, a signal switching circuit is disposed to the control signal input section for the proportional-differentiation control section such that either a present position of plasmas or deviation between the present plasma position and an aimed value can be selected as a control signal depending on the control procedures or the state of the plasmas. For instance, if a rapid response is required for the control, the deviation between the present plasma position and the aimed value is selected as the input signal to conduct proportional, integration and differentiation controls. While on the other hand, if it is intended to reduce the burden on the control coil power source, it is adapted such that the control signal inputted to the proportional-differentiation control section itself can select the present plasma position. (Yoshihara, H.)

  4. Uncharged positive electrode composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi

    1977-03-08

    An uncharged positive-electrode composition contains particulate lithium sulfide, another alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound other than sulfide, e.g., lithium carbide, and a transition metal powder. The composition along with a binder, such as electrolytic salt or a thermosetting resin is applied onto an electrically conductive substrate to form a plaque. The plaque is assembled as a positive electrode within an electrochemical cell opposite to a negative electrode containing a material such as aluminum or silicon for alloying with lithium. During charging, lithium alloy is formed within the negative electrode and transition metal sulfide such as iron sulfide is produced within the positive electrode. Excess negative electrode capacity over that from the transition metal sulfide is provided due to the electrochemical reaction of the other than sulfide alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound.

  5. Position indication apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, T

    1964-02-24

    A plurality of magnetically operated switches are spaced equally in the hollow tube of a control rod actuating mechanism. One side of each switch is connected, via a low resistance, to a corresponding tap of a low resistance voltage divider network consisting of an equivalent number of low resistance sections with the opposite side of each switch connected to a common conducting wire A. To both ends of the voltage dividing network are connected, respectively, conducting wires B and C. Wires A, B, and C are further coupled to a fuel rod position indicator comprising a voltmeter and power source external to the control rod actuating member. The control rod actuating member is adapted to slide in the hollow tube so that switches passing a position facing a magnet secured to the lower end of the actuating member are rendered closed. Hence, the position of the control rod may be read by reading the voltage off the meter.

  6. Positioning devices for patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavens, M.

    1981-01-01

    It has been suggested that it is very important to position patients reproducibly at different stages of radiotherapy treatment planning and treatment, or similar procedures. Devices have been described for positioning a patient's upper and lower thorax. This invention provides reproducible positioning for a female patient's breasts, for example in planning treatment of and treating breast tumours. The patient is placed prone, using for example an upper thorax device. A support device is placed central to and beneath her breasts to partially displace them outwards. The device may be triangular in section with one apex contacting the chest wall at the sternum. Restraining straps may be provided to hold the breasts against the support device. Means may be provided to take a healthy breast from the path of radiation through the tumour. (author)

  7. Positioning and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogowski Jerzy B.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents national report of Poland for IAG on positioning and applications. The selected research presented was carried out at leading Polish research institutions and concern precise multi-GNSS satellite positioning - relative and absolute - and also GNSS-based ionosphere and troposphere modelling and studies. The research resulted in noticeable advancements in these subjects confirmed by the development of new algorithms and methods. New and improved methods of precise GNSS positioning were developed, and also GNSS metrology was studied. New advanced troposphere models were presented and tested. In particular, these models allowed testing IPW variability on regional and global scales. Also, new regional ionosphere monitoring web-based services were developed and launched.

  8. Massive Galileon positivity bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rham, Claudia; Melville, Scott; Tolley, Andrew J.; Zhou, Shuang-Yong

    2017-09-01

    The EFT coefficients in any gapped, scalar, Lorentz invariant field theory must satisfy positivity requirements if there is to exist a local, analytic Wilsonian UV completion. We apply these bounds to the tree level scattering amplitudes for a massive Galileon. The addition of a mass term, which does not spoil the non-renormalization theorem of the Galileon and preserves the Galileon symmetry at loop level, is necessary to satisfy the lowest order positivity bound. We further show that a careful choice of successively higher derivative corrections are necessary to satisfy the higher order positivity bounds. There is then no obstruction to a local UV completion from considerations of tree level 2-to-2 scattering alone. To demonstrate this we give an explicit example of such a UV completion.

  9. Focus groups reveal consumer ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    According to qualitative research, Salvadoreans are ambivalent about the use of contraceptives. Since complete responsibility for management of the CSM project was accepted by the Association Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), the agency which operates the contraceptive social marketing project in El Salvador, in November 1980, the need for decisions in such areas as product price increases, introduction of new condom brands, promotion of the vaginal foaming tablet, and assessment of product sales performance had arisen. The ICSMP funded market research, completed during 1983, was intended to provide the data on which such decisions by ADS could be based. The qualitative research involved 8 focus groups, comprised of men and women, aged 18-45, contraceptive users and nonusers, from the middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the city of San Salvador and other suburban areas. In each group a moderator led discussion of family planning and probed respondents for specific attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding the use of contraceptives. To assess attitudes at a more emotional level, moderators asked respondents to "draw" their ideas on certain issues. A marked discrepancy was revealed between respondents' intellectual responses to the issues raised in group discussion, as opposed to their feelings expressed in the drawings. Intellectually, participants responded very positively to family planning practice, but when they were asked to draw their perceptions, ambivalent feelings emerged. Drawings of both the user and the nonuser convey primarily negative aspects for either choice. The user is tense and moody toward her children; the nonuser loses her attractiveness and "dies." Figures also show drawings of some of the attitudes of single and married male participants. 1 drawing shows an incomplete and a complete circle, symbolizing a sterilized man (incomplete) and a nonsterilized man (complete). Another picture depicts a chained man who has lost his freedom

  10. Nucleosome Positioning and Epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, David; Bruinsma, Robijn

    2008-03-01

    The role of chromatin structure in gene regulation has recently taken center stage in the field of epigenetics, phenomena that change the phenotype without changing the DNA sequence. Recent work has also shown that nucleosomes, a complex of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer, experience a sequence dependent energy landscape due to the variation in DNA bend stiffness with sequence composition. In this talk, we consider the role nucleosome positioning might play in the formation of heterochromatin, a compact form of DNA generically responsible for gene silencing. In particular, we discuss how different patterns of nucleosome positions, periodic or random, could either facilitate or suppress heterochromatin stability and formation.

  11. Use of position sensitive detectors in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soussaline, F.

    1982-10-01

    Medical imagery is a field where developments in physics, engineering and instrumentation can be applied directly to human diagnosis and treatment. The need to detect ever-smaller anomalies and to measure increasingly slight variations in metabolic parameters has led to a high degree of complexity in radiographic, echographic and nuclear medicine instrumentation. The wide-spread use of digital circuits and more generally the development of data processing systems and mathematical algorithms has allowed the introduction of new techniques such as emission and transmission tomography, digitalised radiography, synchronised gamma cardiology and nuclear magnetic resonance. For reasons of brevity this article is confined to the presentation of some concepts and results in the field of computer-assisted tomography and a discussion on the main parameters of imagery systems using position detectors

  12. Discovery of fossil lamprey larva from the Lower Cretaceous reveals its three-phased life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mee-mann; Wu, Feixiang; Miao, Desui; Zhang, Jiangyong

    2014-10-28

    Lampreys are one of the two surviving jawless vertebrate groups and one of a few vertebrate groups with the best exemplified metamorphosis during their life cycle, which consists of a long-lasting larval stage, a peculiar metamorphosis, and a relatively short adulthood with a markedly different anatomy. Although the fossil records have revealed that many general features of extant lamprey adults were already formed by the Late Devonian (ca. 360 Ma), little is known about the life cycle of the fossil lampreys because of the lack of fossilized lamprey larvae or transformers. Here we report the first to our knowledge discovery of exceptionally preserved premetamorphic and metamorphosing larvae of the fossil lamprey Mesomyzon mengae from the Lower Cretaceous of Inner Mongolia, China. These fossil ammocoetes look surprisingly modern in having an eel-like body with tiny eyes, oral hood and lower lip, anteriorly positioned branchial region, and a continuous dorsal skin fin fold and in sharing a similar feeding habit, as judged from the detritus left in the gut. In contrast, the larger metamorphosing individuals have slightly enlarged eyes relative to large otic capsules, thickened oral hood or pointed snout, and discernable radials but still anteriorly extended branchial area and lack a suctorial oral disk, which characterize the early stages of the metamorphosis of extant lampreys. Our discovery not only documents the larval conditions of fossil lampreys but also indicates the three-phased life cycle in lampreys emerged essentially in their present mode no later than the Early Cretaceous.

  13. Positive expectations encourage generalization from a positive intergroup interaction to outgroup attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Matthew P; Hehman, Eric; Gaertner, Samuel L; Dovidio, John F

    2015-01-01

    The current research reveals that while positive expectations about an anticipated intergroup interaction encourage generalization of positive contact to outgroup attitudes, negative expectations restrict the effects of contact on outgroup attitudes. In Study 1, when Blacks and Whites interacted with positive expectations, interaction quality predicted outgroup attitudes to a greater degree than when groups interacted with negative expectations. When expectations (Studies 2 and 3) and the actual interaction quality (Study 4) were manipulated orthogonally, negative expectations about the interaction predicted negative outgroup attitudes, regardless of actual interaction quality. By contrast, participants holding positive expectations who experienced a positive interaction expressed positive outgroup attitudes, whereas when they experienced a negative interaction, they expressed outgroup attitudes as negative as those with negative expectations. Across all four studies, positive expectations encouraged developing outgroup attitudes consistent with interaction quality. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  14. Attitude and position tracking

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Candy, LP

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several applications require the tracking of attitude and position of a body based on velocity data. It is tempting to use direction cosine matrices (DCM), for example, to track attitude based on angular velocity data, and to integrate the linear...

  15. Logotherapy and positive psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar R. Oro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychology omitted to approach, during almost a century, the positive aspects from persons, like creativity, humor, optimism, hope, forgiveness, life meaning, and happiness. These themes are approached by Positive Psychology, with Seligman like the principal exponent. Psychology was dedicated to explore the negative aspects from human beings improving human health. Nevertheless, this pathogenic model could not prevent mental disease. Concepts of Positive Psychology have a solid antecedent in Víktor Frankl ́s studies, which is the Logotherapy founder. This allows incorporating another perspective to approach positive aspects, from a philosophical and anthropological focus. Although the ways adopted by Frank and Seligman are different, both considered main aspects of human existence. Nevertheless, they investigated in different countries (from Europe and EE.UU.; in different circumstances (concentration camps, deaths, tortures; vs. academic context; in different historical periods and different social contexts (a country that lost the war and other that gave freedom to Europeans. In this work is used the concept life sense as the focus in professional formation and psychotherapy approach. 

  16. Delegation. Position Statement. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board, Connie; Bushmiaer, Margo; Davis-Alldritt, Linda; Fekaris, Nina; Morgitan, Judith; Murphy, M. Kathleen; Yow, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the delegation of nursing tasks in the school setting can be a valuable tool for the school nurse, when based on the nursing definition of delegation and in compliance with state nursing regulations and guidance. Delegation in school nursing is a complex process in which…

  17. Precise Point Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaohong

    the airborne lidar system misalignment angle by automating the matching of lidar data with ground truth. Kinematic GPS positioning has been widely used, but the available commercial software systems are normally only suitable for the short or medium range kinematic baseline. However, in polar areas, airborne...

  18. Positionality at the Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Vanner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As a Western feminist supporting and researching gender equality in education in postcolonial contexts, I often wonder: Am I doing more harm than good? The privilege of my social location means that my efforts to support education in postcolonial contexts risk being patronizing, insulting, threatening, imperialist, and recolonizing. Yet neglecting and ignoring postcolonial contexts similarly reflects and reproduces a privileged position. I provide a tentative framework designed to address positionality, power, and privilege while creating an ethical research process for working in a postcolonial context. Beginning with an identification of positionality, the objectives of research, and guiding theoretical frameworks to situate the research in relation to the participants and context, I proceed to establish a methodology designed to minimize the negative effects of power and maximize participants’ empowerment. I position myself as a bricoleur, layering feminist standpoint theory and postcolonial theory, and propose the collaborative data collection and analysis techniques, with particular attention to ethical and cultural sensitivity, using a social constructivist approach to grounded theory. This article highlights the need for Western researchers to reflect upon the power dynamics of their research in postcolonial contexts and develop a strategy for conducting empowering research that prevents the misrepresentation and exploitation of participants. Observations from my doctoral thesis data collection provide examples of how these concepts were operationalized in practice as well as reflections on the disconnect between theorizing and conducting ethical research in postcolonial contexts.

  19. Immunizations. Position Statement. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Nichole; Garrett, Jennifer; Teskey, Carmen; Duncan, Kay; Strasser, Kathy; Burrows-Mezu, Alicia L.

    2015-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that immunizations are essential to primary prevention of disease from infancy through adulthood. Promotion of immunizations by the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) is central to the public health focus of school nursing practice…

  20. The optimal viewing position effect in printed versus cursive words: Evidence of a reading cost for the cursive font.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danna, Jérémy; Massendari, Delphine; Furnari, Benjamin; Ducrot, Stéphanie

    2018-06-13

    Two eye-movement experiments were conducted to examine the effects of font type on the recognition of words presented in central vision, using a variable-viewing-position technique. Two main questions were addressed: (1) Is the optimal viewing position (OVP) for word recognition modulated by font type? (2) Is the cursive font more appropriate than the printed font in word recognition in children who exclusively write using a cursive script? In order to disentangle the role of perceptual difficulty associated with the cursive font and the impact of writing habits, we tested French adults (Experiment 1) and second-grade French children, the latter having exclusively learned to write in cursive (Experiment 2). Results revealed that the printed font is more appropriate than the cursive for recognizing words in both adults and children: adults were slightly less accurate in cursive than in printed stimuli recognition and children were slower to identify cursive stimuli than printed stimuli. Eye-movement measures also revealed that the OVP curves were flattened in cursive font in both adults and children. We concluded that the perceptual difficulty of the cursive font degrades word recognition by impacting the OVP stability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. STRATEGIC MARKET POSITION OF THE GDANSK AIRPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Ćwikliński

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Airports are a key link of the air transport infrastructure, which is a part of the whole transportation system. Their potential is determined by a network of airlines relations and affects the long-term, strategic position in the market of aviation services. The most possible scenario of the macro-environment of the Gdansk Airport has a relatively high predictability and generally positive influencing on the potential for development in the next years. Only international and demographic areas can constitute a barrier to achieving the strategic objectives. Gdansk Airport takes permanently the third position on the Polish market. Strategic gap analysis leads to the conclusion that, compared to its main competitors Airport Gdansk has a gap of compliance trends, but in relation to smaller regional airports excess gap. GDN services are located in the square "Star" in the BCG matrix. This airport has prepared an investment program till 2035. The dynamics of the projected increase in the number of passengers and air operations in Gdansk is generally slightly higher than the growth nationwide forecasts. The strategic challenge for next years will be to strengthen the status of the GDN as a Polish aviation gateway to Scandinavia.

  2. Can liming reduce cadmium (Cd) accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa) in slightly acidic soils? A contradictory dynamic equilibrium between Cd uptake capacity of roots and Cd immobilisation in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongjie; Chen, Jiangmin; Huang, Qina; Tang, Shaoqing; Wang, Jianlong; Hu, Peisong; Shao, Guosheng

    2018-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in rice is strongly controlled by liming, but information on the use of liming to control Cd accumulation in rice grown in slightly acidic soils is inconsistent. Here, pot experiments were carried out to investigate the mechanisms of liming on Cd accumulation in two rice varieties focusing on two aspects: available/exchangeable Cd content in soils that were highly responsive to liming, and Cd uptake and transport capacity in the roots of rice in terms of Cd accumulation-relative gene expression. The results showed that soil availability and exchangeable iron, manganese, zinc and Cd contents decreased with increased liming, and that genes related to Cd uptake (OsNramp5 and OsIRT1) were sharply up-regulated in the roots of the two rice varieties. Thus, iron, manganese, zinc and Cd contents in rice plants increased under low liming applications but decreased in response to high liming applications. However, yield and rice quantities were only slightly affected. These results indicated that Cd accumulation in rice grown in slightly acidic soils presents a contradictory dynamic equilibrium between Cd uptake capacity by roots and soil Cd immobilisation in response to liming. The enhanced Cd uptake capacity under low liming dosages increases risks to human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Net positive energy buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A.; Barreiro, E.; Sanchez Zabala, V.

    2010-01-01

    Buildings are great consumers of energy, being responsible for almost 36% of CO2 emissions in Europe. Though there are many initiatives towards the reduction of energy consumption and CO2 emissions in buildings, many of the alternatives are diminished due to a lack of a unique and holistic approach to the problem. This paper reports a new innovative concept of Positive Energy Buildings (EB+), as well as an integral methodology that covers the overall design process for achieving them. The methodology evaluates energy efficiency solutions at different scales, from building site to generation systems. An educational building design in Navarra serves as a case study to check the feasibility of the proposed methodology. The study concludes that the key to achieve a Positive Energy Building is a minimized energy demand, complemented by efficient facilities and enhanced by distributed power generation from renewable sources. (Author).

  4. Conflict, Memory, and Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to bring the dialogical and multivoiced dimension of conflict to the fore in the study of how people remember a particular event in the past. Drawing from different case studies, it contains analyses of how subjects identifying with different political actors in the Basque...... conflict adopted their respective positions, and interpretation of the conflict, and how, in light of same, they reconstruct the failed peace process that took place in 2006 between the terrorist group ETA (Euzkadi ta Azcatasuna, or Basque Country and Freedom in English) and the Spanish government. Results...... show that the positioning adopted by participants gives rise to a certain form of interpreting the conflict, which, in turn, affects how the peace process is remembered. This occurs within a particular argumentative context in which each version constitutes an implicit response to a competing...

  5. Are Parton Distributions Positive?

    CERN Document Server

    Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Altarelli, Guido; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1999-01-01

    We show that the naive positivity conditions on polarized parton distributions which follow from their probabilistic interpretation in the naive parton model are reproduced in perturbative QCD at the leading log level if the quark and gluon distribution are defined in terms of physical processes. We show how these conditions are modified at the next-to-leading level, and discuss their phenomenological implications, in particular in view of the determination of the polarized gluon distribution

  6. Are parton distributions positive?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte, Stefano; Altarelli, Guido; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1999-01-01

    We show that the naive positivity conditions on polarized parton distributions which follow from their probabilistic interpretation in the naive parton model are reproduced in perturbative QCD at the leading log level if the quark and gluon distribution are defined in terms of physical processes. We show how these conditions are modified at the next-to-leading level, and discuss their phenomenological implications, in particular in view of the determination of the polarized gluon distribution

  7. Spatial Search, Position Papers

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Spatial Studies, UCSB

    2014-01-01

    The Spatial Search specialist meeting in Santa Barbara (December 2014) brought together 35 academic and industry representatives from computational, geospatial, and cognitive sciences with interest in focused discussions on the development of an interdisciplinary research agenda to advance spatial search from scientific and engineering viewpoints. The position papers from participants represent the shared expertise that guided discussions and the formulation of research questions about proces...

  8. Barebacking and sexual position

    OpenAIRE

    Grundy-Bowers, M.; Hardy, S.; McKeown, E.

    2015-01-01

    Bareback sex continues to fuel the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men but despite the fact that much academic attention has been focused on the sexual behaviour of this population few authors have considered the significance of sexual position. In order to explore this relatively under-examined factor, interviews were conducted with 13 HIV-negative and unknown status gay men who had recently engaged in bareback sex. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis and through the lens...

  9. The strategic research positioning:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viala, Eva Silberschmidt

    to provide new insights into ‘immigrant’ parents’ perspective on home/school partnership in Denmark. The majority of the immigrant parents came from non-Western countries, and they had already been ‘labelled’ difficult in terms of home/school partnership. This calls for what I call ‘strategic research...... positioning’, meaning critical reflections about the relationship and power balance between the researcher and the researched. The paper focus' on challenges and dilemmas linked to this position....

  10. Review of HRP Positions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Reliability Studies

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Human Reliability Program (HRP), published as 10 CFR Part 712, is currently being reviewed and revised to address concerns identified during its implementation. Although these ''page changes'' primarily incorporate clarification of terms and language, the following discussion relates to broadening the definition of positions that require HRP certification that is found in {section}712.10.

  11. Position indicating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellchenfeld, M.M.; Connors, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a position indicating device for producing an indication of the position of a displaceable structure comprising: a position representing member mounted for movement in response to displacement of the structure; sensing elements spaced apart along the defined path such that each element is associated with a respective location along the defined path; means operatively coupling the elements into respective pairs of elements, having, for each pair of elements, an output producing a signal only when a single element of its respective pair is responding to the presence of the member; signal producing members each operative for producing a signal representing a predetermined logic state in response to a predetermined input signal, the number of the signal producing members being smaller than the number of the sensing elements; and circuit means operatively connecting the outputs to the signal producing members for causing a signal at each output to produce a predetermined input signal at a corresponding signal producing member and for causing a predetermined input signal to be produced at least one the signal producing member whenever a signal is present at either one of at least two of the outputs

  12. Photon beam position monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzay, Tuncer M.; Shu, Deming

    1995-01-01

    A photon beam position monitor for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade "shadowing". Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation.

  13. Beam Position Monitor Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Stephen R.

    1996-07-01

    The design of beam position monitors often involves challenging system design choices. Position transducers must be robust, accurate, and generate adequate position signal without unduly disturbing the beam. Electronics must be reliable and affordable, usually while meeting tough requirements on precision. accuracy, and dynamic range. These requirements may be difficult to achieve simultaneously, leading the designer into interesting opportunities for optimization or compromise. Some useful techniques and tools are shown. Both finite element analysis and analytic techniques will be used to investigate quasi-static aspects of electromagnetic fields such as the impedance of and the coupling of beam to striplines or buttons. Finite-element tools will be used to understand dynamic aspects of the electromagnetic fields of beams, such as wake-fields and transmission-line and cavity effects in vacuum-to-air feed through. Mathematical modeling of electrical signals through a processing chain will be demonstrated, in particular to illuminate areas where neither a pure time-domain nor a pure frequency-domain analysis is obviously advantageous. Emphasis will be on calculational techniques, in particular on using both time-domain and frequency domain approaches to the applicable parts of interesting problems

  14. Position reconstruction in LUX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerib, D. S.; Alsum, S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Brás, P.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; Dobi, A.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Fallon, S. R.; Fan, A.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Genovesi, J.; Ghag, C.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kamdin, K.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Palladino, K. J.; Pease, E. K.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solmaz, M.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W. C.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Velan, V.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Xu, J.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.

    2018-02-01

    The (x, y) position reconstruction method used in the analysis of the complete exposure of the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment is presented. The algorithm is based on a statistical test that makes use of an iterative method to recover the photomultiplier tube (PMT) light response directly from the calibration data. The light response functions make use of a two dimensional functional form to account for the photons reflected on the inner walls of the detector. To increase the resolution for small pulses, a photon counting technique was employed to describe the response of the PMTs. The reconstruction was assessed with calibration data including 83mKr (releasing a total energy of 41.5 keV) and 3H (β- with Q = 18.6 keV) decays, and a deuterium-deuterium (D-D) neutron beam (2.45 MeV) . Within the detector's fiducial volume, the reconstruction has achieved an (x, y) position uncertainty of σ = 0.82 cm and σ = 0.17 cm for events of only 200 and 4,000 detected electroluminescence photons respectively. Such signals are associated with electron recoils of energies ~0.25 keV and ~10 keV, respectively. The reconstructed position of the smallest events with a single electron emitted from the liquid surface (22 detected photons) has a horizontal (x, y) uncertainty of 2.13 cm.

  15. Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus Mitochondrial Population Genomics Reveals Structure, Divergence, and Evidence for Heteroplasmy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette A Halley

    Full Text Available Herein, we evaluated the concordance of population inferences and conclusions resulting from the analysis of short mitochondrial fragments (i.e., partial or complete D-Loop nucleotide sequences versus complete mitogenome sequences for 53 bobwhites representing six ecoregions across TX and OK (USA. Median joining (MJ haplotype networks demonstrated that analyses performed using small mitochondrial fragments were insufficient for estimating the true (i.e., complete mitogenome haplotype structure, corresponding levels of divergence, and maternal population history of our samples. Notably, discordant demographic inferences were observed when mismatch distributions of partial (i.e., partial D-Loop versus complete mitogenome sequences were compared, with the reduction in mitochondrial genomic information content observed to encourage spurious inferences in our samples. A probabilistic approach to variant prediction for the complete bobwhite mitogenomes revealed 344 segregating sites corresponding to 347 total mutations, including 49 putative nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants (SNVs distributed across 12 protein coding genes. Evidence of gross heteroplasmy was observed for 13 bobwhites, with 10 of the 13 heteroplasmies involving one moderate to high frequency SNV. Haplotype network and phylogenetic analyses for the complete bobwhite mitogenome sequences revealed two divergent maternal lineages (dXY = 0.00731; FST = 0.849; P < 0.05, thereby supporting the potential for two putative subspecies. However, the diverged lineage (n = 103 variants almost exclusively involved bobwhites geographically classified as Colinus virginianus texanus, which is discordant with the expectations of previous geographic subspecies designations. Tests of adaptive evolution for functional divergence (MKT, frequency distribution tests (D, FS and phylogenetic analyses (RAxML provide no evidence for positive selection or hybridization with the sympatric scaled quail

  16. Genes under positive selection in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lise; Bollback, Jonathan P; Dimmic, Matt

    2007-01-01

    We used a comparative genomics approach to identify genes that are under positive selection in six strains of Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri, including five strains that are human pathogens. We find that positive selection targets a wide range of different functions in the E. coli genome......, including cell surface proteins such as beta barrel porins, presumably because of the involvement of these genes in evolutionary arms races with other bacteria, phages, and/or the host immune system. Structural mapping of positively selected sites on trans-membrane beta barrel porins reveals...... that the residues under positive selection occur almost exclusively in the extracellular region of the proteins that are enriched with sites known to be targets of phages, colicins, or the host immune system. More surprisingly, we also find a number of other categories of genes that show very strong evidence...

  17. Positively deflected anomaly mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Nobuchika

    2002-01-01

    We generalize the so-called 'deflected anomaly mediation' scenario to the case where threshold corrections of heavy messengers to the sparticle squared masses are positive. A concrete model realizing this scenario is also presented. The tachyonic slepton problem can be fixed with only a pair of messengers. The resultant sparticle mass spectrum is quite different from that in the conventional deflected anomaly mediation scenario, but is similar to the one in the gauge mediation scenario. The lightest sparticle is mostly B-ino

  18. Triangulation positioning system network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sfendourakis Marios

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents ongoing work on localization and positioning through triangulation procedure for a Fixed Sensors Network - FSN.The FSN has to work as a system.As the triangulation problem becomes high complicated in a case with large numbers of sensors and transmitters, an adequate grid topology is needed in order to tackle the detection complexity.For that reason a Network grid topology is presented and areas that are problematic and need further analysis are analyzed.The Network System in order to deal with problems of saturation and False Triangulations - FTRNs will have to find adequate methods in every sub-area of the Area Of Interest - AOI.Also, concepts like Sensor blindness and overall Network blindness, are presented. All these concepts affect the Network detection rate and its performance and ought to be considered in a way that the network overall performance won’t be degraded.Network performance should be monitored contentiously, with right algorithms and methods.It is also shown that as the number of TRNs and FTRNs is increased Detection Complexity - DC is increased.It is hoped that with further research all the characteristics of a triangulation system network for positioning will be gained and the system will be able to perform autonomously with a high detection rate.

  19. 2D position sensitive microstrip sensors with charge division along the strip Studies on the position measurement error

    CERN Document Server

    Bassignana, D; Fernandez, M; Jaramillo, R; Lozano, M; Munoz, F.J; Pellegrini, G; Quirion, D; Vila, I; Vitorero, F

    2013-01-01

    Position sensitivity in semiconductor detectors of ionizing radiation is usually achieved by the segmentation of the sensing diode junction in many small sensing elements read out separately as in the case of conventional microstrips and pixel detectors. Alternatively, position sensitivity can be obtained by splitting the ionization signal collected by one single electrode amongst more than one readout channel with the ratio of the collected charges depending on the position where the signal was primary generated. Following this later approach, we implemented the charge division method in a conventional microstrip detector to obtain position sensitivity along the strip. We manufactured a proofof-concept demonstrator where the conventional aluminum electrodes were replaced by slightly resistive electrodes made of strongly doped poly-crystalline silicon and being readout at both strip ends. Here, we partially summarize the laser characterization of this first proof-of-concept demonstrator with special emphasis ...

  20. Supine Percutaneous Nephrolithotripsy in Double-S Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Giuseppe; De Lisa, Antonello

    2018-01-01

    At present, the percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) is performed both in supine and in prone position. The aim of this paper is to describe an innovative position during PCNL. We describe a supine position. The patient's legs are slightly abducted at the hips. The thorax is laterally tilted (inclination 30°-35°) and kept in the right position by one or two gel pads placed between the scapula and the vertebrae. External genitalia can be accessed at any time, so that it is always possible to use flexible instruments in the upper urinary tract. We used this position for a period of 12 months to treat with PCNL 45 patients with renal lithiasis. All the procedures were successfully completed without complications, using the position we are describing. The following are some of its benefits: an easier positioning of the patient; a better exposure of the flank for an easier access to the posterior renal calyces of the kidney; a lower risk of pressure injuries compared to positions foreseeing the use of knee crutches; the possibility of combined procedures (ECIRS) through the use of flexible instruments; and a good fluoroscopic visualization of the kidney not overlapped by the vertebrae. This position is effective, safe, easy, and quick to prepare and allows for combined anterograde/retrograde operations.

  1. Supine Percutaneous Nephrolithotripsy in Double-S Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Giusti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. At present, the percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL is performed both in supine and in prone position. The aim of this paper is to describe an innovative position during PCNL. Methods. We describe a supine position. The patient’s legs are slightly abducted at the hips. The thorax is laterally tilted (inclination 30°–35° and kept in the right position by one or two gel pads placed between the scapula and the vertebrae. External genitalia can be accessed at any time, so that it is always possible to use flexible instruments in the upper urinary tract. We used this position for a period of 12 months to treat with PCNL 45 patients with renal lithiasis. Results. All the procedures were successfully completed without complications, using the position we are describing. The following are some of its benefits: an easier positioning of the patient; a better exposure of the flank for an easier access to the posterior renal calyces of the kidney; a lower risk of pressure injuries compared to positions foreseeing the use of knee crutches; the possibility of combined procedures (ECIRS through the use of flexible instruments; and a good fluoroscopic visualization of the kidney not overlapped by the vertebrae. Conclusions. This position is effective, safe, easy, and quick to prepare and allows for combined anterograde/retrograde operations.

  2. Positive Community Norm Survey 2011 : Methodology and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This survey established a baseline understanding of the positive norms that exist in Idaho, plus reveal the gaps in knowledge and perceived norms with regard to impaired driving. These gaps will indicate the most effective opportunities for future co...

  3. Positive void reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, D.J.

    1992-09-01

    This report is a review of some of the important aspects of the analysis of large loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). One important aspect is the calculation of positive void reactivity. To study this subject the lattice physics codes used for void worth calculations and the coupled neutronic and thermal-hydraulic codes used for the transient analysis are reviewed. Also reviewed are the measurements used to help validate the codes. The application of these codes to large LOCAs is studied with attention focused on the uncertainty factor for the void worth used to bias the results. Another aspect of the subject dealt with in the report is the acceptance criteria that are applied. This includes the criterion for peak fuel enthalpy and the question of whether prompt criticality should also be a criterion. To study the former, fuel behavior measurements and calculations are reviewed. (Author) (49 refs., 2 figs., tab.)

  4. Conference - La discipline positive

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Eduquer avec fermeté et bienveillance Véronique Genevay Jeudi 31 mai à 19h00 CERN Meyrin, Salle du Conseil 503-1-001 Venez vous familiariser avec la pensée et le positionnement développé dans la discipline positive. Une approche ni permissive, ni punitive, qui vise à enseigner aux enfants des compétences comme la confiance en soi, l’autonomie, le respect de soi-même et le respect mutuel, la responsabilité, la coopération… Inscrivez-vous : https://indico.cern.ch/e/disciplinepositive   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch ou (+41) 022 766 37 38

  5. Position paper on mesotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Rashmi; Garg, Vijay Kumar; Mysore, Venkataram

    2011-01-01

    Mesotherapy is a controversial cosmetic procedure which has received publicity among the lay people, in the internet and in the media. It refers to minimally invasive techniques which consist of the use of intra- or subcutaneous injections containing liquid mixture of compounds (pharmaceutical and homeopathic medications, plant extracts, vitamins and other ingredients) to treat local medical and cosmetic conditions. This position paper has examined the available evidence and finds that acceptable scientific evidence for its effectiveness and safety is lacking. IADVL taskforce, therefore would like to state that the use of this technique remains controversial at present. Further research and well-designed controlled scientific studies are required to substantiate the claims of benefit of this mode of therapy.

  6. Position paper on mesotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Sarkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesotherapy is a controversial cosmetic procedure which has received publicity among the lay people, in the internet and in the media. It refers to minimally invasive techniques which consist of the use of intra- or subcutaneous injections containing liquid mixture of compounds (pharmaceutical and homeopathic medications, plant extracts, vitamins and other ingredients to treat local medical and cosmetic conditions. This position paper has examined the available evidence and finds that acceptable scientific evidence for its effectiveness and safety is lacking. IADVL taskforce, therefore would like to state that the use of this technique remains controversial at present. Further research and well-designed controlled scientific studies are required to substantiate the claims of benefit of this mode of therapy.

  7. Galileo positioning technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lohan, Elena; Sand, Stephan; Hurskainen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This book covers multi-band Galileo receivers (especially E1-E5 bands of Galileo) and addresses all receiver building blocks, from the antenna and front end, through details of the baseband receiver processing blocks, up to the navigation processing, including the Galileo message structure and Position, Velocity, Time (PVT) computation. Moreover, hybridization solutions with communications systems for improved localization are discussed and an open-source GNSS receiver platform (available for download) developed at Tampere University of Technology (TUT) is addressed in detail. • Takes a holistic approach to GALILEO and related systems, such as EGNOS and hybrid solutions on mobile phones; • Provides an invaluable reference to Binary Offset Carrier modulations and related families, which are some of the trademarks of GALILEO; • Includes a detailed survey of GALILEO receiver research in Europe and existing software-defined radio (SDR) GALILEO receiver implementations; • Addresses the multiple challen...

  8. ISSP Position Stand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryba, Tatiana; Stambulova, Natalia; Si, Gangyan

    2013-01-01

    The multicultural landscape of contemporary sport sets a challenge to rethink sport and exercise psychology research and practice through a culturally re␣exive lens. This ISSP Position Stand provides a rigorous synthesis and engagement with existing scholarship to outline a roadmap for future work...... in the ␣eld. The shift to culturally competent sport and exercise psychology implies: (a) recognizing hidden ethnocentric philosophical assumptions permeating much of the current theory, research, and practice; (b) transitioning to professional ethics in which difference is seen as not inherent and ␣xed...... but as relational and ␣uid; and (c) focusing on meaning (instead of cause) in cross-cultural and cultural research projects, and cultural praxis work. In the paper, we ␣rst provide an overview of the concepts of cultural competence and ethics of difference. Second, we present a step-by-step approach for developing...

  9. Revealed preference with limited consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, T.; Seel, C.

    2014-01-01

    We derive revealed preference tests for models where individuals use consideration sets to simplify their consumption problem. Our basic test provides necessary and sufficient conditions for consistency of observed choices with the existence of consideration set restrictions. The same conditions can

  10. Decision Making and Revealed Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis...

  11. The Power of Positive Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español The Power of Positive Emotions KidsHealth / For Teens / The Power ... great one. 2. Practice Positivity Every Day Building habits that encourage us to feel more positive emotions ...

  12. Bayesian inference reveals positive but subtle effects of experimental fishery closures on marine predator demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barham, Barbara J.; Barham, Peter J.; Campbell, Kate J.; Crawford, Robert J. M.; Grigg, Jennifer; Horswill, Cat; Morris, Taryn L.; Pichegru, Lorien; Steinfurth, Antje; Weller, Florian; Winker, Henning

    2018-01-01

    Global forage-fish landings are increasing, with potentially grave consequences for marine ecosystems. Predators of forage fish may be influenced by this harvest, but the nature of these effects is contentious. Experimental fishery manipulations offer the best solution to quantify population-level impacts, but are rare. We used Bayesian inference to examine changes in chick survival, body condition and population growth rate of endangered African penguins Spheniscus demersus in response to 8 years of alternating time–area closures around two pairs of colonies. Our results demonstrate that fishing closures improved chick survival and condition, after controlling for changing prey availability. However, this effect was inconsistent across sites and years, highlighting the difficultly of assessing management interventions in marine ecosystems. Nevertheless, modelled increases in population growth rates exceeded 1% at one colony; i.e. the threshold considered biologically meaningful by fisheries management in South Africa. Fishing closures evidently can improve the population trend of a forage-fish-dependent predator—we therefore recommend they continue in South Africa and support their application elsewhere. However, detecting demographic gains for mobile marine predators from small no-take zones requires experimental time frames and scales that will often exceed those desired by decision makers. PMID:29343602

  13. Structural biology. Structures of the CRISPR-Cmr complex reveal mode of RNA target positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, D.W.; Zhu, Y.; Staals, R.H.J.; Kornfeld, J.E.; Shinkai, A.; Oost, van der J.; Nogales, E.; Doudna, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive immunity in bacteria involves RNA-guided surveillance complexes that use CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-associated (Cas) proteins together with CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) to target invasive nucleic acids for degradation. Whereas type I and type II CRISPR-Cas

  14. Stratification of Antibody-Positive Subjects by Antibody Level Reveals an Impact of Immunogenicity on Pharmacokinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Lei; Hoofring, Sarah A.; Wu, Yu; Vu, Thuy; Ma, Peiming; Swanson, Steven J.; Chirmule, Narendra; Starcevic, Marta

    2012-01-01

    The availability of highly sensitive immunoassays enables the detection of antidrug antibody (ADA) responses of various concentrations and affinities. The analysis of the impact of antibody status on drug pharmacokinetics (PK) is confounded by the presence of low-affinity or low-concentration antibody responses within the dataset. In a phase 2 clinical trial, a large proportion of subjects (45%) developed ADA following weekly dosing with AMG 317, a fully human monoclonal antibody therapeutic....

  15. Revealing Word Order: Using Serial Position in Binomials to Predict Properties of the Speaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Rumen; Smirnova, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Three studies test the link between word order in binomials and psychological and demographic characteristics of a speaker. While linguists have already suggested that psychological, cultural and societal factors are important in choosing word order in binomials, the vast majority of relevant research was focused on general factors and on broadly…

  16. Detecting positive quadrant dependence and positive function dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janic-Wróblewska, A.; Kallenberg, W.C.M.; Ledwina, T.

    2004-01-01

    There is a lot of interest in positive dependence going beyond linear correlation. In this paper three new rank tests for testing independence against positive dependence are introduced. The first one is directed on positive quadrant dependence, the second and third one concentrate on positive

  17. Detecting positive quadrant dependence and positive function dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janic-Wróblewska, A.; Kallenberg, W.C.M.; Ledwina, T.

    2003-01-01

    There is a lot of interest in positive dependence going beyond linear correlation. In this paper three new rank tests for testing independence against positive dependence are introduced. The first one is directed on positive quadrant dependence, the second and third one concentrate on positive

  18. SQUID position sensor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Rodney

    1996-11-01

    I describe the development of an inductance position sensor for the STEP (satellite test of the equivalence principle) accelerometer. I have measured the inductance (with an experimental error of 0.5%) of a single-turn thin-film niobium pick-up coil as a function of the distance from a thin-film niobium disc (both at 4.2 K and superconducting). The circular pick-up coil had a diameter of 4 cm with a track width of 0264-9381/13/11A/022/img1. The disc (mock test mass) had a diameter of 4 cm. The distance range between the coil and disc was set by the range of a low-temperature differential capacitance sensor: 0 - 2 mm with a resolution of 0264-9381/13/11A/022/img2. The full range of the low-temperature translation stage was 0 - 4 mm. The inductance was measured using an LCR meter in a four-wire configuration. The measured inductance was compared to the inductance of a circular loop above a superconducting plane. Due to the fact that the thin-film disc is of finite size, the calculation differed from experiment by as much as 12%. I have also calculated the inductance by segmenting the thin-film niobium disc into 500 concentric rings (each with a width of 0264-9381/13/11A/022/img3). A discrepancy between calculation and experiment of approximately 3% was found.

  19. Gathering positive experience

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Last Monday, the new CERN Machine Advisory Committee (CMAC) met for the first time, and we had good news to tell its members. Over the weekend, injection tests for both LHC beams were successfully carried out. In other words, we’ve had beam in the LHC for the first time since September 2008. That’s a good feeling, but it’s no reason for complacency. There’s still a long way to go before first physics at the new energy frontier. As the Bulletin has reported over recent weeks, we’re gathering a lot of positive experience with the new quench detection and protection system (QPS), which is already allowing us to monitor the LHC far better than we were able to in the past. So far, the QPS for three of the LHC’s eight sectors has been put through its paces, and we’ve also power tested those sectors to 2000 amperes, the equivalent of around 1.2 TeV per beam. The next step is to slowly increase the current to 4000 amperes, and...

  20. Interacting Effects Induced by Two Neighboring Pits Considering Relative Position Parameters and Pit Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfang Huang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For pre-corroded aluminum alloy 7075-T6, the interacting effects of two neighboring pits on the stress concentration are comprehensively analyzed by considering various relative position parameters (inclination angle θ and dimensionless spacing parameter λ and pit depth (d with the finite element method. According to the severity of the stress concentration, the critical corrosion regions, bearing high susceptibility to fatigue damage, are determined for intersecting and adjacent pits, respectively. A straightforward approach is accordingly proposed to conservatively estimate the combined stress concentration factor induced by two neighboring pits, and a concrete application example is presented. It is found that for intersecting pits, the normalized stress concentration factor Ktnor increases with the increase of θ and λ and always reaches its maximum at θ = 90°, yet for adjacent pits, Ktnor decreases with the increase of λ and the maximum value appears at a slight asymmetric location. The simulations reveal that Ktnor follows a linear and an exponential relationship with the dimensionless depth parameter Rd for intersecting and adjacent cases, respectively.

  1. AIDS Cholangiopathy in an Asymptomatic, Previously Undiagnosed Late-Stage HIV-Positive Patient from Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Gao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available AIDS-associated cholangiopathy is a form of biliary tract inflammation with stricture formation seen in AIDS patients who are severely immunosuppressed. It is no longer common in countries in which HAART therapy is widely employed but is still seen in underdeveloped countries. The majority of patients are symptomatic at the time of presentation. Herein, we describe a seventy-four-year-old woman who presented with unilateral leg swelling after a prolonged airplane flight. She was otherwise entirely asymptomatic. Routine laboratory testing was notable for a hypochromic microcytic anemia, slight leukopenia, and mild hypoalbuminemia. Liver enzymes were all elevated. Deep venous thrombosis was confirmed, and a CT scan of the chest disclosed no pulmonary emboli. However, the visualized portion of the abdomen showed dilatation of the common bile and pancreatic ducts. This was confirmed on ultrasonography and MRCP, and no obstructive lesions were noted. An ERCP revealed a dilated common bile duct without filling defects or strictures. A balloon occlusion cholangiogram showed strictures and beading of the intrahepatic ducts. Shortly thereafter, serology for HIV returned positive along with a depressed CD4 cell count, and the patient was diagnosed with AIDS-associated cholangiography.

  2. A New Position Measurement System Using a Motion-Capture Camera for Wind Tunnel Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousok Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the characteristics of wind tunnel tests, a position measurement system that can minimize the effects on the flow of simulated wind must be established. In this study, a motion-capture camera was used to measure the displacement responses of structures in a wind tunnel test, and the applicability of the system was tested. A motion-capture system (MCS could output 3D coordinates using two-dimensional image coordinates obtained from the camera. Furthermore, this remote sensing system had some flexibility regarding lab installation because of its ability to measure at relatively long distances from the target structures. In this study, we performed wind tunnel tests on a pylon specimen and compared the measured responses of the MCS with the displacements measured with a laser displacement sensor (LDS. The results of the comparison revealed that the time-history displacement measurements from the MCS slightly exceeded those of the LDS. In addition, we confirmed the measuring reliability of the MCS by identifying the dynamic properties (natural frequency, damping ratio, and mode shape of the test specimen using system identification methods (frequency domain decomposition, FDD. By comparing the mode shape obtained using the aforementioned methods with that obtained using the LDS, we also confirmed that the MCS could construct a more accurate mode shape (bending-deflection mode shape with the 3D measurements.

  3. Foramen magnum position in bipedal mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Gabrielle A; Kirk, E Christopher

    2013-11-01

    The anterior position of the human foramen magnum is often explained as an adaptation for maintaining balance of the head atop the cervical vertebral column during bipedalism and the assumption of orthograde trunk postures. Accordingly, the relative placement of the foramen magnum on the basicranium has been used to infer bipedal locomotion and hominin status for a number of Mio-Pliocene fossil taxa. Nonetheless, previous studies have struggled to validate the functional link between foramen magnum position and bipedal locomotion. Here, we test the hypothesis that an anteriorly positioned foramen magnum is related to bipedalism through a comparison of basicranial anatomy between bipeds and quadrupeds from three mammalian clades: marsupials, rodents and primates. Additionally, we examine whether strepsirrhine primates that habitually assume orthograde trunk postures exhibit more anteriorly positioned foramina magna compared with non-orthograde strepsirrhines. Our comparative data reveal that bipedal marsupials and rodents have foramina magna that are more anteriorly located than those of quadrupedal close relatives. The foramen magnum is also situated more anteriorly in orthograde strepsirrhines than in pronograde or antipronograde strepsirrhines. Among the primates sampled, humans exhibit the most anteriorly positioned foramina magna. The results of this analysis support the utility of foramen magnum position as an indicator of bipedal locomotion in fossil hominins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Climate change policy position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) is a firm believer in the need to take action to mitigate the risks associated with climate change, and that clear government policy is called for. The principles of sustainable development must guide this policy development effort. The initiatives required to address greenhouse gas emissions over both the short and long term must be carefully considered, and it is up to industries to ensure their production efficiency and emission intensity. Promoting improved performance of industries in Canada and developing technology that can be deployed internationally for larger global effects represents Canada's best contribution to progress on greenhouse gas emissions. The increase in energy demand along with increases in population and economic growth have contributed to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions despite improved energy efficiency in industry. Significant damage to the economy will result if Canada is to meet its commitment under the Kyoto Protocol, forcing the country to buy large quantities of foreign credits instead of using those funds for increased research and development. CAPP indicated that an effective plan must be: balanced, equitable, responsible, competitive, focused on technology and innovation, and based on agreements on sectoral plans. Each of these principles were discussed, followed by the fundamentals of approach for upstream oil and gas. The framework for climate change policy was described as well as the elements of a sector plan. CAPP wants to work with all levels of government on an appropriate plan for Canada, that considers our unique circumstances. Canada can play a significant role on the international stage by properly implementing the policy position proposed by the CAPP without unnecessary risks to the economy. refs

  5. Exposing Position Uncertainty in Middleware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langdal, Jakob; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Toftkjær, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, the goal for positioning middleware is to provide developers with seamless position transparency, i.e., providing a connection between the application domain and the positioning sensors while hiding the complexity of the positioning technologies in use. A key part of the hidden com...

  6. Thruster allocation for dynamical positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, K.; van den Berg, J.B.; Blank, E.; Archer, C.; Redeker, M.; Kutter, M.; Hemker, P.

    2010-01-01

    Positioning a vessel at a fixed position in deep water is of great importance when working offshore. In recent years a Dynamical Positioning (DP) system was developed at Marin [2]. After the measurement of the current position and external forces (like waves, wind etc.), each thruster of the vessel

  7. Positive Technologies for Understanding and Promoting Positive Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños, Rosa María; Carrillo, Alba; Etchemendy, Ernestina; Botella, Cristina

    2017-10-26

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have become increasingly present in our lives, and their use has spread considerably. This paper presents a review of the way ICTs can help practitioners and researchers to study, promote, and train positive emotions. It is framed within the field of Positive Technologies: the applied scientific approach to the study of the use of technology to improve the quality of personal experience, with the goal of increasing wellbeing. First, the article presents an introduction to the topic of technologies and positive emotions. Then, it describes how ICTs can aid in monitoring, assessing, promoting, modifying, and training positive emotions. Finally, implications and future directions of the role of Positive Technologies in positive emotions are discussed. The authors conclude that, in the near future, Positive Technologies and the field of positive emotions will interact synergistically, producing an exponential growth in the understanding and promotion of positive emotions.

  8. PosQ: Unsupervised Fingerprinting and Visualization of GPS Positioning Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Weckemann, Kay

    . This paper proposes PosQ, a system for unsupervised fingerprinting and visualization of GPS positioning quality. PosQ provides quality maps to position-based applications and visual overlays to users and managers to reveal the positioning quality in a local environment. The system reveals the quality both...

  9. Secure positioning in wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capkun, Srdjan; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    So far, the problem of positioning in wireless networks has been studied mainly in a non-adversarial settings. In this work, we analyze the resistance of positioning techniques to position and distance spoofing attacks. We propose a mechanism for secure positioning of wireless devices, that we call...... Verifiable Multilateration. We then show how this mechanism can be used to secure positioning in sensor networks. We analyze our system through simulations....

  10. Efficacy of slightly acidic electrolyzed water in killing or reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on iceberg lettuce and tomatoes under simulated food service operation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangloli, Philipus; Hung, Yen-Con

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of slightly acidic electrolyzed (SAEO) water in killing or removing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on iceberg lettuce and tomatoes by washing and chilling treatment simulating protocols used in food service kitchens. Whole lettuce leaves and tomatoes were spot-inoculated with 100 μL of a mixture of 5 strains of E. coli O157:H7. Washing lettuce with SAEO water for 15 s reduced the pathogen by 1.4 to 1.6 log CFU/leaf, but the treatments did not completely inactivate the pathogen in the wash solution. Increasing the washing time to 30 s increased the reductions to 1.7 to 2.3 log CFU/leaf. Sequential washing in SAEO water for 15 s and then chilling in SAEO water for 15 min also increased the reductions to 2.0 to 2.4 log CFU/leaf, and no cell survived in chilling solution after treatment. Washing tomatoes with SAEO water for 8 s reduced E. coli O157:H7 by 5.4 to 6.3 log CFU/tomato. The reductions were increased to 6.6 to 7.6 log CFU/tomato by increasing the washing time to 15 s. Results suggested that application of SAEO water to wash and chill lettuce and tomatoes in food service kitchens could minimize cross-contamination and reduce the risk of E. coli O157:H7 present on the produce. SAEO water is equally or slightly better than acidic electrolyzed (AEO) water for inactivation of bacteria on lettuce and tomato surfaces. In addition, SAEO water may have the advantages over AEO water on its stability, no chlorine smell, and low corrosiveness. Therefore, SAEO water may have potential for produce wash to enhance food safety. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Position detectors, methods of detecting position, and methods of providing positional detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, David M.; Harding, L. Dean; Larsen, Eric D.

    2002-01-01

    Position detectors, welding system position detectors, methods of detecting various positions, and methods of providing position detectors are described. In one embodiment, a welding system positional detector includes a base that is configured to engage and be moved along a curved surface of a welding work piece. At least one position detection apparatus is provided and is connected with the base and configured to measure angular position of the detector relative to a reference vector. In another embodiment, a welding system positional detector includes a weld head and at least one inclinometer mounted on the weld head. The one inclinometer is configured to develop positional data relative to a reference vector and the position of the weld head on a non-planar weldable work piece.

  12. No praise, please: Depressive symptoms, reactivity to positive social interaction, and fear of positive evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenberger, Julia; Wiggert, Nicole; Agroskin, Dmitrij; Wilhelm, Frank H; Blechert, Jens

    2017-03-01

    Depression is characterized by depressed mood and loss of interest or pleasure. Resulting alterations in emotional reactivity have been explained by three different accounts: 'positive attenuation', 'negative potentiation', and 'emotion context insensitivity'. Despite the importance of depression-related emotional alteration in social interactions, research with naturalistic interpersonal stimuli is scarce and underlying mechanisms largely unknown. Hence, the present study examined subjective emotional reactivity to brief negative, positive, and neutral social-evaluative videos as a function of depressive symptoms in an adult sample (N = 84). Fear of positive evaluation (FPE) and fear of negative evaluation (FNE), often conceptualized as cognitive components of social anxiety, were examined as possible mediators. Results revealed that more depression symptoms were related to diminished pleasantness responses to both positive and neutral videos. When considering all three video conditions simultaneously, only responses to positive videos remained significantly related to depression scores, supporting the 'positive attenuation' account. Moreover, FPE was found to uniquely mediate the relationship between depressive symptoms and pleasantness responses to positive videos. Results indicate that emotional reactivity to positive interpersonal stimuli is relevant for theoretical and clinical considerations of depression. This research underlines the importance of FPE not only for understanding social anxiety but also depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. End-threaded intramedullary positive profile screw ended self-tapping pin (Admit pin) - A cost-effective novel implant for fixing canine long bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanana, Mitin; Kumar, Adarsh; Tyagi, Som Prakash; Singla, Amit Kumar; Sharma, Arvind; Farooq, Uiase Bin

    2018-02-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical efficacy of end-threaded intramedullary pinning for management of various long bone fractures in canines. This study was conducted in two phases, managing 25 client-owned dogs presented with different fractures. The technique of application of end-threaded intramedullary pinning in long bone fractures was initially standardized in 6 clinical patients presented with long bone fractures. In this phase, end-threaded pins of different profiles, i.e., positive and negative, were used as the internal fixation technique. On the basis of results obtained from standardization phase, 19 client-owned dogs clinically presented with different fractures were implanted with end-threaded intramedullary positive profile screw ended self-tapping pin in the clinical application phase. The patients, allocated randomly in two groups, when evaluated postoperatively revealed slight pin migration in Group-I (negative profile), which resulted in disruption of callus site causing delayed union in one case and large callus formation in other two cases whereas no pin migration was observed in Group-II (positive profile). Other observations in Group-I was reduced muscle girth and delayed healing time as compared to Group-II. In clinical application, phase 21 st and 42 nd day post-operative radiographic follow-up revealed no pin migration in any of the cases, and there was no bone shortening or fragment collapse in end-threaded intramedullary positive profile screw ended self-tapping pin. The end-threaded intramedullary positive profile screw ended self-tapping pin used for fixation of long bone fractures in canines can resist pin migration, pin breakage, and all loads acting on the bone, i.e., compression, tension, bending, rotation, and shearing to an extent with no post-operative complications.

  14. False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.

  15. Positive Psychology and Positive Education: Old Wine in New Bottles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2012-01-01

    The recently fashionable theories of positive psychology have educational ramifications at virtually every level of engagement, culminating in the model of positive education. In this critical review, I scrutinize positive education as a potential theory in educational psychology. Special attention is given to conceptual controversies and…

  16. Ego depletion and positive illusions: does the construction of positivity require regulatory resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Frey, Dieter

    2007-09-01

    Individuals frequently exhibit positive illusions about their own abilities, their possibilities to control their environment, and future expectations. The authors propose that positive illusions require resources of self-control, which is considered to be a limited resource similar to energy or strength. Five studies revealed that people with depleted self-regulatory resources indeed exhibited a less-optimistic sense of their own abilities (Study 1), a lower sense of subjective control (Study 2), and less-optimistic expectations about their future (Study 3). Two further studies shed light on the underlying psychological process: Ego-depleted (compared to nondepleted) individuals generated/retrieved less positive self-relevant attributes (Studies 4 and 5) and reported a lower sense of general self-efficacy (Study 5), which both partially mediated the impact of ego depletion on positive self-views (Study 5).

  17. Photoinactivation of mcr-1 positive Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caires, C. S. A.; Leal, C. R. B.; Rodrigues, A. C. S.; Lima, A. R.; Silva, C. M.; Ramos, C. A. N.; Chang, M. R.; Arruda, E. J.; Oliveira, S. L.; Nascimento, V. A.; Caires, A. R. L.

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae, mostly in Escherichia coli due to the mcr-1 gene, has revealed the need to develop alternative approaches in treating mcr-1 positive bacterial infections. This is because colistin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic and one of the ‘last-resort’ antibiotics for multidrug resistant bacteria. The present study evaluated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the efficacy of photoinactivation processes to kill a known mcr-1 positive E. coli strain. Eosin methylene-blue (EMB) was investigated as a photoantimicrobial agent for inhibiting the growth of a mcr-1 positive E. coli strain obtained from a patient with a diabetic foot infection. The photoantimicrobial activity of EMB was also tested in a non-multidrug resistant E. coli strain. The photoinactivation process was tested using light doses in the 30-45 J cm-2 range provided by a LED device emitting at 625 nm. Our findings demonstrate that a mcr-1 positive E. coli strain is susceptible to photoinactivation. The results show that the EMB was successfully photoactivated, regardless of the bacterial multidrug resistance; inactivating the bacterial growth by oxidizing the cells in accordance with the generation of the oxygen reactive species. Our results suggest that bacterial photoinactivation is an alternative and effective approach to kill mcr-1 positive bacteria.

  18. Taking a radical position: Evidence for position specific radical representations in Chinese character recognition using masked priming ERP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Fan eSu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the investigation of orthographic representation of Chinese characters, one question that has stimulated much research is whether radicals (character components are specified for spatial position in a character (e.g. Ding, Peng, & Taft, 2004; Tsang & Chen, 2009. Differing from previous work, component or radical position information in this study is conceived in terms of relative frequency across different positions of characters containing it. A lexical decision task in a masked priming paradigm focusing on radicals with preferred position of occurrence was conducted. A radical position that encompasses more characters than other positions was identified to be the preferred position of a particular radical. The prime that was exposed for 96ms might share a radical with the target in the same or different positions. Moreover, the shared radical appeared either in its preferred or non-preferred position in the target. While response latencies only revealed the effect of graphical similarity, both effects of graphical similarity and radical position preference were found in the ERP results. The former effect was reflected in greater positivity in occipital P1 and greater negativity in N400 for radicals in different positions in prime and target characters. The latter effect manifested as greater negativity in occipital N170 and greater positivity in frontal P200 in the same time window elicited by radicals in their non-preferred position. Equally interesting was the reversal of the effect of radical position preference in N400 with greater negativity associated with radicals in preferred position. These findings identify the early ERP components associated with activation of position-specific radical representations in the orthographic lexicon, and reveal the change in the nature of competition from processing at the radical level to the lexical level.

  19. Positive year for Alberta power pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid-Carlson, D.

    1997-01-01

    The electricity power pool in Alberta completed its first year under deregulation. Results to date indicate that the competitive market has operated as intended. The effects of electricity pricing on the oil industry following deregulation were described, given the fact that electricity prices represent the second largest cost item to the oil industry after labour. The peculiarities of the mechanism of electricity pricing (based on hourly matching of supply offers to demand bids) were explained, highlighting the opportunities and risks to the oil industry caused by the hourly price variations and the difficulties involved in accurately forecasting on-peak and off-peak prices a full year in advance. In 1996 predicted average price was $14 to $17/MWh. The actual average price was $13.40/MWh. The general conclusion was that Alberta continues to have a surplus of electricity generation and is well positioned to to take advantage of its low generating costs, at least over the longer term. Short term bidding practices, however, may results in slightly higher system marginal prices

  20. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENT Doctor Near You Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Patient Health Information ... relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . What Is CPAP? The most common and effective nonsurgical treatment for ...

  1. Communication Games Reveal Preparation Contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameedi, Alley; Tavakoli, Armin; Marques, Breno; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    A communication game consists of distributed parties attempting to jointly complete a task with restricted communication. Such games are useful tools for studying limitations of physical theories. A theory exhibits preparation contextuality whenever its predictions cannot be explained by a preparation noncontextual model. Here, we show that communication games performed in operational theories reveal the preparation contextuality of that theory. For statistics obtained in a particular family of communication games, we show a direct correspondence with correlations in spacelike separated events obeying the no-signaling principle. Using this, we prove that all mixed quantum states of any finite dimension are preparation contextual. We report on an experimental realization of a communication game involving three-level quantum systems from which we observe a strong violation of the constraints of preparation noncontextuality.

  2. The chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity of plutonium chemistry was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were aqueous solution based, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, it was found that an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element will be reported

  3. Plan competitions reveal entrepreneurial talent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madison, Alison L.

    2011-05-15

    Monthly economic diversity column for Tri-City Herald business section. Excerpt below: There’s something to be said for gaining valuable real-world experience in a structured, nurturing environment. Take for instance learning to scuba dive in the comfort of my resort pool rather than immediately hanging out with sharks while I figure out little things like oxygen tanks and avoiding underwater panic attacks. Likewise, graduate students are getting some excellent, supportive real-world training through university business plan competitions. These competitions are places where smart minds, new technologies, months of preparation and coaching, and some healthy pre-presentation jitters collide to reveal not only solid new business ideas, but also some promising entrepreneurial talent. In fact, professionals from around our region descend upon college campuses every spring to judge these events, which help to bridge the gap between academics and the real technology and business-driven economy.

  4. Collective Behaviour: Physiology Determines Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Jens; Seebacher, Frank

    2018-04-23

    An animal's position within a group affects feeding - front positions generally offer richer pickings. However, a new study shows that position can be influenced by feeding because big meals reduce scope for locomotion. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Introducing Positive Psychology to SLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Mercer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA). This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work,…

  6. Authors attain comparable or slightly higher rates of citation publishing in an open access journal (CytoJournal compared to traditional cytopathology journals - A five year (2007-2011 experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora K Frisch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The era of Open Access (OA publication, a platform which serves to better disseminate scientific knowledge, is upon us, as more OA journals are in existence than ever before. The idea that peer-reviewed OA publication leads to higher rates of citation has been put forth and shown to be true in several publications. This is a significant benefit to authors and is in addition to another relatively less obvious but highly critical component of the OA charter, i.e. retention of the copyright by the authors in the public domain. In this study, we analyzed the citation rates of OA and traditional non-OA publications specifically for authors in the field of cytopathology. Design: We compared the citation patterns for authors who had published in both OA and traditional non-OA peer-reviewed, scientific, cytopathology journals. Citations in an OA publication (CytoJournal were analyzed comparatively with traditional non-OA cytopathology journals (Acta Cytologica, Cancer Cytopathology, Cytopathology, and Diagnostic Cytopathology using the data from web of science citation analysis site (based on which the impact factors (IF are calculated. After comparing citations per publication, as well as a time adjusted citation quotient (which takes into account the time since publication, we also analyzed the statistics after excluding the data for meeting abstracts. Results: Total 28 authors published 314 publications as articles and meeting abstracts (25 authors after excluding the abstracts. The rate of citation and time adjusted citation quotient were higher for OA in the group where abstracts were included (P < 0.05 for both. The rates were also slightly higher for OA than non-OA when the meeting abstracts were excluded, but the difference was statistically insignificant (P = 0.57 and P = 0.45. Conclusion : We observed that for the same author, the publications in the OA journal attained a higher rate of citation than the publications in the

  7. Critical experiments in AQUILON with fuels slightly enriched in uranium 235 or in plutonium; Experiences critiques dans aquilon portant sur des combustibles legerement enrichis en uranium 235 et en plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabrillac, M; Ledanois, G; Lourme, P; Naudet, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Reactivity comparisons have been, made in Aquilon II between geometrically identical lattices differing only by the composition of the fuel. The fuel elements consist in metallic uranium single rods with either slight differences of the isotopic composition (0.69 - 0.71 - 0.83 - 0.86 per cent of uranium 235) or slight additions of plutonium (0.043 per cent). Five lattices pitches have bean used, in order to produce a large variation of spectrum. Two additional sets of plutonium fuels are prepared to be used in the same conditions. The double comparisons: natural enriched 235 versus natural-enriched plutonium are made in such a way that a very precise interpretation is permitted. The results are perfectly consistent which seems to prove that the calculation methods are convenient. Further it can been inferred that the usual data, namely for the ratio of the {eta} of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu seem reliable. (authors) [French] On a compare neutroniquement dans Aquilon II des reseaux geometriquement identiques mais comportant de petites differences de composition du combustible. EL s'agit de barres d'uranium metallique, les unes avec des teneurs differentes en isotopes 235 (0,69 - 0,71 - 0,83 - 0,86 pour cent) les autres comportant une legere addition de plutonium (0,043 pour cent). Les comparaisons ont ete faites a cinq pas differents, de maniere a mettre en jeu une assez large variation de spectre. Deux autres jeux de combustible au plutonium seront utilises ulterieurement dans les memes conditions. Les resultats des mesures se presentent sous forme de doubles comparaisons: naturel-enrichi 235/naturel-enrichi plutonium. On s'est place dans des conditions qui permettent des interpretations tres precises. Les resultats sont remarquablement coherents, ce qui semble montrer que les methodes de calcul sont bien adaptees, Ils tendent d'autre part a prouver que les valeurs numeriques admises dans la litterature, notamment pour le rapport des {eta} de l'U 235 et de Pu 239

  8. Polyurethane - positioning aids in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzen, G.; Boeck, E.G.; Thelen, M.; Kutzner, J.

    1985-01-01

    A simple and cheap method is described for the manufacturing of individual positioning aids made of foamed polyurethane. Some examples are given to demonstrate the applicability of these positioning aids for the irradiation of different body regions. The reproducibility of the radiation field in the head and neck area was investigated with and without positioning aid. It was proved that the field is adjusted more exactly when positioning aids are applied. The dosimetric investigations performed showed a negligible influence of foamed polyurethane on the radiation quality. So the positioning aids could be left within the radiation field when drawing the field borders. (orig.) [de

  9. Active vibration control of clamped beams using positive position feedback controllers with moment pair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Chang Joo; Jeong, Weui Bong; Hong, Chin Suk

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the active vibration control of clamp beams using positive position feedback (PPF) controllers with a sensor/ moment pair actuator. The sensor/moment pair actuator which is the non-collocated configuration leads to instability of the control system when using the direct velocity feedback (DVFB) control. To alleviate the instability problem, a PPF controller is considered in this paper. A parametric study of the control system with PPF controller is first conducted to characterize the effects of the design parameters (gain and damping ratio in this paper) on the stability and performance. The gain of the controller is found to affect only the relative stability. Increasing the damping ratio of the controller slightly improves the stability condition while the performance gets worse. In addition, the higher mode tuned PPF controller affects the system response at the lower modes significantly. Based on the characteristics of PPF controllers, a multi-mode controllable SISO PPF controller is then considered and tuned to different modes (in this case, three lowest modes) numerically and experimentally. The multi-mode PPF controller can be achieved to have a high gain margin. Moreover, it reduces the vibration of the beam significantly. The vibration levels at the tuned modes are reduced by about 11 dB

  10. The false positive exercise test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritani, Kohshiro; Matsuda, Yasuo; Ozaki, Masaharu; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Ichiyama, Masaji; Matsuda, Masako; Kusukawa, Reizo

    1986-01-01

    Exercise tests with sublingual nitroglycerin were performed on 7 patients with true positive and 8 patients with false positive exercise test results. Four of 7 patients with true positive changes and 8 patients with false positive changes underwent exercise cardiac scintigraphy. Scintigrams showed perfusion defects in 4 patients with true positive outcomes, and no perfusion defect in 8 patients with false positive outcomes. Exercise tests with sublingual nitroglycerin were performed with the same load as that without nitroglycerin. In all 7 patients with true positive exercise test results, ST segment depression observed in the control exercise test was not observed in the nitroglycerin exercise test. In the false positive patients, ST segment depression observed in the control exercise test remained unchanged in 7 of 8 patients receiving nitroglycerin. Exercise tests with sublingual nitroglycerin as well as exercise cardiac scintigraphy are valuable tods in differentiating false positive from true positive patients. Furthermore, these data suggest that ST segment depression in the false positive patients may not be related to myocardial ischemia. (author)

  11. Study of a Slightly Enriched R Reactor Fuel by Means of a Pulsed Neutron Source; Etude d'un reacteur a combustible legerement enrichi (rubeole) a l'aide de sources pulsees de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagot, M.; Tellier, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1962-04-01

    A Be O moderated reactor using slightly enriched uranium oxide as fuel was studied by the pulsed neutron source technique. The neutron lifetime was measured in two different cores without reflector, then attempts were made at the measurement of great negative reactivities introduced into the reactor under the following forms: decrease of the volume of the un reflected core, introduction of absorbing cadmium rods, removal of fuel at the periphery of the critical core while maintaining a constant height, and substitution of fuel elements by less reactive elements. In all cases, the results are compared with the data obtained by another type of experiment or by computation. (author) [French] Nous avons applique la methode des sources pulsees de neutrons a un reacteur utilisant de l'oxyde d'uranium legerement enrichi, modere a l'oxyde de beryllium et, apres avoir mesure le temps de vie des neutrons dans deux coeurs differents non reflechis, nous avons porte notre effort, sur la mesure de reactivites negatives importantes introduites dans le reacteur sous differentes formes: - diminution du volume du coeur non reflechi, - introduction de barres absorbantes en cadmium, - enlevement de combustible a la peripherie du coeur critique, tout en conservant une hauteur constante, - substitution d'elements de combustible par des elements moins reactifs. Dans tous les cas, les resultats sont compares aux valeurs obtenues par un autre type d'experience ou par le calcul. (auteur)

  12. Study of a Slightly Enriched R Reactor Fuel by Means of a Pulsed Neutron Source; Etude d'un reacteur a combustible legerement enrichi (rubeole) a l'aide de sources pulsees de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagot, M; Tellier, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1962-04-01

    A Be O moderated reactor using slightly enriched uranium oxide as fuel was studied by the pulsed neutron source technique. The neutron lifetime was measured in two different cores without reflector, then attempts were made at the measurement of great negative reactivities introduced into the reactor under the following forms: decrease of the volume of the un reflected core, introduction of absorbing cadmium rods, removal of fuel at the periphery of the critical core while maintaining a constant height, and substitution of fuel elements by less reactive elements. In all cases, the results are compared with the data obtained by another type of experiment or by computation. (author) [French] Nous avons applique la methode des sources pulsees de neutrons a un reacteur utilisant de l'oxyde d'uranium legerement enrichi, modere a l'oxyde de beryllium et, apres avoir mesure le temps de vie des neutrons dans deux coeurs differents non reflechis, nous avons porte notre effort, sur la mesure de reactivites negatives importantes introduites dans le reacteur sous differentes formes: - diminution du volume du coeur non reflechi, - introduction de barres absorbantes en cadmium, - enlevement de combustible a la peripherie du coeur critique, tout en conservant une hauteur constante, - substitution d'elements de combustible par des elements moins reactifs. Dans tous les cas, les resultats sont compares aux valeurs obtenues par un autre type d'experience ou par le calcul. (auteur)

  13. A Sleep Position Trainer for positional sleep apnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laub, Rasmus R; Tønnesen, Philip; Jennum, Poul J

    2017-01-01

    We tested the effect of the Sleep Position Trainer, a vibrational device, for positional sleep apnea in an open, randomized controlled trial with 101 patients, where 52 patients were allocated to Sleep Position Trainer and 49 patients to a non-treatment control group for 2 months (Part 1). All...... patients were then followed as a cohort for a period of 6 months with use of the Sleep Position Trainer (Part 2). The participants were assessed with polygraphy at entry, and after 2 and 6 months. The mean apnea-hypopnea index supine was 35 per h (SD, 18) in the Sleep Position Trainer group and 38 per h...... (SD, 15) in the control group at entry. In a per protocol analysis, the mean total apnea-hypopnea index at entry and after 2 months in the Sleep Position Trainer group was 18 per h (SD, 10) and 10 per h (SD, 9; P

  14. Hubble Images Reveal Jupiter's Auroras

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    These images, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, reveal changes in Jupiter's auroral emissions and how small auroral spots just outside the emission rings are linked to the planet's volcanic moon, Io. The images represent the most sensitive and sharply-detailed views ever taken of Jovian auroras.The top panel pinpoints the effects of emissions from Io, which is about the size of Earth's moon. The black-and-white image on the left, taken in visible light, shows how Io and Jupiter are linked by an invisible electrical current of charged particles called a 'flux tube.' The particles - ejected from Io (the bright spot on Jupiter's right) by volcanic eruptions - flow along Jupiter's magnetic field lines, which thread through Io, to the planet's north and south magnetic poles. This image also shows the belts of clouds surrounding Jupiter as well as the Great Red Spot.The black-and-white image on the right, taken in ultraviolet light about 15 minutes later, shows Jupiter's auroral emissions at the north and south poles. Just outside these emissions are the auroral spots. Called 'footprints,' the spots are created when the particles in Io's 'flux tube' reach Jupiter's upper atmosphere and interact with hydrogen gas, making it fluoresce. In this image, Io is not observable because it is faint in the ultraviolet.The two ultraviolet images at the bottom of the picture show how the auroral emissions change in brightness and structure as Jupiter rotates. These false-color images also reveal how the magnetic field is offset from Jupiter's spin axis by 10 to 15 degrees. In the right image, the north auroral emission is rising over the left limb; the south auroral oval is beginning to set. The image on the left, obtained on a different date, shows a full view of the north aurora, with a strong emission inside the main auroral oval.The images were taken by the telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 between May 1994 and September 1995.This image and other images and data

  15. Are positive emotions just as "positive" across cultures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Janxin; Wang, Jennifer; Koo, Kelly

    2011-08-01

    Whereas positive emotions and feeling unequivocally good may be at the heart of well-being among Westerners, positive emotions often carry negative associations within many Asian cultures. Based on a review of East-West cultural differences in dialectical emotions, or co-occurring positive and negative feelings, we predicted culture to influence the association between positive emotions and depression, but not the association between negative emotions and depression. As predicted, in a survey of over 600 European-, immigrant Asian-, and Asian American college students, positive emotions were associated with depression symptoms among European Americans and Asian Americans, but not immigrant Asians. Negative emotions were associated with depression symptoms among all three groups. We also found initial evidence that acculturation (i.e., nativity) may influence the role of positive emotions in depression: Asian Americans fell "in between" the two other groups. These findings suggest the importance of studying the role of culture in positive emotions and in positive psychology. The use of interventions based on promoting positive emotions in clinical psychology among Asian clients is briefly discussed. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  16. Postural hemodynamic changes after turning to prone position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Микола Віталійович Лизогуб

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background of study. Prone position is one of the most complex positions for anesthesiologist as it is accompanied by several physiological changes that can lead to specific complications. Hemodynamic changes are most controversial.Aim of study was to establish hemodynamic changes in non-anaesthetized patients in prone position depending on body mass index.Material and methods. We examined central hemodynamics in 40 patients the day before surgery using thoracic rheography in supine position, in prone position 5 min after turning and in prone position 20 min after turning. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to body mass index (18-25 and 26-35.Results. Patients with normal body weight did not have any hemodynamic changes after turning to prone position. Patients with increased body weight had higher cardiac index. After turning to prone position obese patients’ cardiac output and cardiac index reduced 22% comparing with supine position. After 20 min in prone position these hemodynamic parameters were found to be reduced to the same level.Conclusion. Significant hemodynamic changes after turning from supine to prone position were revealed only in patients with increased body mass index. In these patients cardiac index in prone position was reduced by 22% comparing to supine position

  17. Prioritizing Positivity: An Effective Approach to Pursuing Happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalino, Lahnna I.; Algoe, Sara B.; Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2017-01-01

    A decade of research reveals the benefits of positive emotions for mental and physical health; however, recent empirical work suggests the explicit pursuit of happiness may backfire. The present study hypothesized that the pursuit of happiness is not inherently self-defeating; in particular, individuals who seek positivity, as exemplified by how they make decisions about how to organize their day-to-day lives, may be happier. This individual difference is labeled prioritizing positivity. In a community sample of young to older adults (N = 233), prioritizing positivity predicted a host of well-being outcomes (positive emotions, depressive symptomology). In addition, people high in prioritizing positivity have greater resources, and these links are explained by more frequent experiences of positive emotions. In sum, the present study suggests that seeking happiness, although a delicate art, may be a worthwhile pursuit. PMID:25401290

  18. Exploring positive hospital ward soundscape interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackrill, J; Jennings, P; Cain, R

    2014-11-01

    Sound is often considered as a negative aspect of an environment that needs mitigating, particularly in hospitals. It is worthwhile however, to consider how subjective responses to hospital sounds can be made more positive. The authors identified natural sound, steady state sound and written sound source information as having the potential to do this. Listening evaluations were conducted with 24 participants who rated their emotional (Relaxation) and cognitive (Interest and Understanding) response to a variety of hospital ward soundscape clips across these three interventions. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed that the 'Relaxation' response was significantly affected (n(2) = 0.05, p = 0.001) by the interventions with natural sound producing a 10.1% more positive response. Most interestingly, written sound source information produced a 4.7% positive change in response. The authors conclude that exploring different ways to improve the sounds of a hospital offers subjective benefits that move beyond sound level reduction. This is an area for future work to focus upon in an effort to achieve more positively experienced hospital soundscapes and environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Areva at March 31, 2012: 2.4% revenue growth to 2026 million euros (+1.3% on a comparable basis); Backlog growth of 12 months to 45.1 billion euros (+3.7%), down slightly over 3 months (-1.0%)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, Patricia; Briand, Pauline; Michaut, Maxime; Rosso, Jerome; Scorbiac, Marie de; Repaire, Philippine du

    2012-01-01

    AREVA generated consolidated revenue of 2.026 billion euros in the first quarter of 2012, up 2.4% (+1.3% like for like) compared with the same period in 2011. The increase in revenue in the Mining Business Group (+11.9% reported, +6.5% like for like), the Reactors and Services Business Group (+5.8% reported, +6.0% like for like) and the Renewable Energies Business Group (+198.2% reported, +199.8% like for like) offsets the expected decrease in revenue in the Front End Business Group (-17.2% reported, -18.3% like for like). Foreign exchange had a positive impact of 29 million euros over the period, while changes in consolidation scope had a negative impact of 8 million euros. The Group had 45.1 billion euros in backlog at March 31, 2012, up 3.7% in relation to March 31, 2011 and down slightly (-1.0%) from December 31, 2011. Backlog growth in the Front End, Reactors and Services and Back End Business Groups offsets the decrease in backlog in the Mining and Renewable Energies Business Groups. Order cancellations as a result of the Fukushima accident totaled 612 million euros at March 31, 2012, compared with 464 million euros at December 31, 2011

  20. Revealing tact within postnatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, Elizabeth; Payne, Deborah; Wilson, Sally; Paddy, Ann; Heard, Kate

    2014-02-01

    In this article, we explore the nature of good postnatal care through a hermeneutic unpacking of the notion of tact, drawing on the philosophical writings of Heidegger, Gadamer, and van Manen. The tactful encounters considered were from a hermeneutic research study within a small, rural birthing center in New Zealand. Insights drawn from the analysis were as follows: the openness of listening, watching and being attuned that builds a positive mode of engagement, recognizing that the distance the woman needs from her nurse/midwife is a call of tact, that tact is underpinned by a spirit of care, within tact there are moods and tact might require firmness, and that all of these factors come together to build trust. We conclude that the attunement of tact requires that the staff member has time to spend with a woman, enough energy to engage, and a spirit of care. Women know that tactful practice builds their confidence and affects their mothering experience. Tact cannot be assumed; it needs to be nurtured and sheltered.

  1. 4-D single particle tracking of synthetic and proteinaceous microspheres reveals preferential movement of nuclear particles along chromatin - poor tracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacher, Christian P; Reichenzeller, Michaela; Athale, Chaitanya; Herrmann, Harald; Eils, Roland

    2004-11-23

    The dynamics of nuclear organization, nuclear bodies and RNPs in particular has been the focus of many studies. To understand their function, knowledge of their spatial nuclear position and temporal translocation is essential. Typically, such studies generate a wealth of data that require novel methods in image analysis and computational tools to quantitatively track particle movement on the background of moving cells and shape changing nuclei. We developed a novel 4-D image processing platform (TIKAL) for the work with laser scanning and wide field microscopes. TIKAL provides a registration software for correcting global movements and local deformations of cells as well as 2-D and 3-D tracking software. With this new tool, we studied the dynamics of two different types of nuclear particles, namely nuclear bodies made from GFP-NLS-vimentin and microinjected 0.1 mum - wide polystyrene beads, by live cell time-lapse microscopy combined with single particle tracking and mobility analysis. We now provide a tool for the automatic 3-D analysis of particle movement in parallel with the acquisition of chromatin density data. Kinetic analysis revealed 4 modes of movement: confined obstructed, normal diffusion and directed motion. Particle tracking on the background of stained chromatin revealed that particle movement is directly related to local reorganization of chromatin. Further a direct comparison of particle movement in the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm exhibited an entirely different kinetic behaviour of vimentin particles in both compartments. The kinetics of nuclear particles were slightly affected by depletion of ATP and significantly disturbed by disruption of actin and microtubule networks. Moreover, the hydration state of the nucleus had a strong impact on the mobility of nuclear bodies since both normal diffusion and directed motion were entirely abolished when cells were challenged with 0.6 M sorbitol. This effect correlated with the compaction of chromatin

  2. Positive mood broadens visual attention to positive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadlinger, Heather A; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2006-03-01

    In an attempt to investigate the impact of positive emotions on visual attention within the context of Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build model, eye tracking was used in two studies to measure visual attentional preferences of college students (n=58, n=26) to emotional pictures. Half of each sample experienced induced positive mood immediately before viewing slides of three similarly-valenced images, in varying central-peripheral arrays. Attentional breadth was determined by measuring the percentage viewing time to peripheral images as well as by the number of visual saccades participants made per slide. Consistent with Fredrickson's theory, the first study showed that individuals induced into positive mood fixated more on peripheral stimuli than did control participants; however, this only held true for highly-valenced positive stimuli. Participants under induced positive mood also made more frequent saccades for slides of neutral and positive valence. A second study showed that these effects were not simply due to differences in emotional arousal between stimuli. Selective attentional broadening to positive stimuli may act both to facilitate later building of resources as well as to maintain current positive affective states.

  3. Accentuate the Positive: Positive Sentiments and Status in Task Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Alison J.; Lancianese, Donna A.

    2007-01-01

    We explore the capacity of positive sentiments, those enduring affective states one achieves when one likes another, to impact status structures. Do positive sentiments combine with existing aspects of interaction to create status hierarchies and potentially change the social order, or do they moderate the effects of extant structure by dampening…

  4. Workaholism as positive social deviance

    OpenAIRE

    Belousov, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    The article justifies a potential research of workaholism as a social phenomenon within the positive deviance approach. In this paper, the authors provide definitions of positive deviance by foreign and Russian scholars as well as analyse how such behaviors depart from the norms of a referent group and adduce a number of studies positively assessing the concept. Finally, the authors conclude that workaholism can be regarded as a supraconformal behavior that can boost economic, cultural and sc...

  5. An ultrasound-based comparative study on carotid plaques in HIV-positive patients vs. atherosclerotic and arteritis patients: atherosclerotic or inflammatory lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Paolo; Perilli, Francesco; Lillo, Antonio; Carito, Valentina; Epifani, Giuseppe; Bellacosa, Chiara; Pastore, Giuseppe; Regina, Guido

    2007-02-01

    We have previously described two cases of HIV-1-positive patients undergoing surgery for stenosis of the internal carotid arteries. Histology revealed an extensive inflammatory infiltration of the vascular wall and no evidence of atheromasic plaque. This unexpected pattern of carotid damage prompted us to perform a more accurate investigation of the characteristics of carotid plaques in a group of HIV-positive patients. The results were compared with those obtained from young patients affected by atherosclerosis of the epi-aortic vessels and patients with arteritis. The patients underwent ultrasonography of the epi-aortic vessels using one of the latest generation power color-Doppler with 7.5 MHz probes. The study population included 61 HIV-positive patients and 47 HIV-negative patients (37 atherosclerotic and 10 with arteritis). Compared with HIV-negative atherosclerotic patients, there were significantly higher proportions of HIV-positive patients with iso-hypoechogenic lesions (81.8 vs. 29%) that were homogeneous both in their parietal and endoluminal portions (96.7 vs. 21.6% and 88.5 vs. 54.0%, respectively), with a smooth or slightly irregular surface (99.0 vs. 56.7%) (P=0.001 for all differences). No statistically significant differences were seen between HIV-positive and arteritis patients. Our study evidenced that the ultrasonographic structure of the epi-aortic lesions in HIV-positive patients substantially differ from those of the plaques in atherosclerotic patients, although they share similar characteristics with patients affected by arteritis. Further investigations are warranted to better define the structure and the mechanism of onset of these lesions.

  6. Authors attain comparable or slightly higher rates of citation publishing in an open access journal (CytoJournal) compared to traditional cytopathology journals - A five year (2007-2011) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Nora K; Nathan, Romil; Ahmed, Yasin K; Shidham, Vinod B

    2014-01-01

    The era of Open Access (OA) publication, a platform which serves to better disseminate scientific knowledge, is upon us, as more OA journals are in existence than ever before. The idea that peer-reviewed OA publication leads to higher rates of citation has been put forth and shown to be true in several publications. This is a significant benefit to authors and is in addition to another relatively less obvious but highly critical component of the OA charter, i.e. retention of the copyright by the authors in the public domain. In this study, we analyzed the citation rates of OA and traditional non-OA publications specifically for authors in the field of cytopathology. We compared the citation patterns for authors who had published in both OA and traditional non-OA peer-reviewed, scientific, cytopathology journals. Citations in an OA publication (CytoJournal) were analyzed comparatively with traditional non-OA cytopathology journals (Acta Cytologica, Cancer Cytopathology, Cytopathology, and Diagnostic Cytopathology) using the data from web of science citation analysis site (based on which the impact factors (IF) are calculated). After comparing citations per publication, as well as a time adjusted citation quotient (which takes into account the time since publication), we also analyzed the statistics after excluding the data for meeting abstracts. Total 28 authors published 314 publications as articles and meeting abstracts (25 authors after excluding the abstracts). The rate of citation and time adjusted citation quotient were higher for OA in the group where abstracts were included (P citation than the publications in the traditional non-OA journals in the field of cytopathology over a 5 year period (2007-2011). However, this increase was statistically insignificant if the meeting abstracts were excluded from the analysis. Overall, the rates of citation for OA and non-OA were slightly higher to comparable.

  7. "They have said that I was slightly depressed but there are circumstances that bring that on": How Middle-Aged and Older African American Men Describe Perceived Stress and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Emily K; Bergner, Erin M; Griffith, Derek M

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have focused on how men perceive stress and depression, and even fewer have examined how men of a specific racial or ethnic group describe their experiences of these conditions. African American men tend to define health in ways that are inclusive of their physical health, health behaviors, and mental health, but research has largely failed to explore how men put their health and mental health in social contexts. The objective of this article is to explore how middle-aged and older African American men who self-identify as having depression: 1) differentiate stress from depression; and 2) describe depression. Using data from semi-structured, individual interviews conducted between March and April 2014, we used a phenomenological approach to examine how men describe, experience, and perceive stress and depression. Nashville, Tennessee. 18 African American men aged 35-76 years who self-reported a previous or current diagnosis of depression. Men talked about the experiences of stress and how many of them viewed chronic stress as expected and depression as a normal part of life. They used phrases like being "slightly depressed" or "I take a light antidepressant" to describe how they feel and what they are doing to feel better. Within these narratives, men had difficulty distinguishing between stress and depression and they primarily explained that depression was the result of external stressors and strains. Men may have difficulty distinguishing between stress and depression and they may frame the causes of depression in ways that decrease their perceived culpability for its causes and limit their perceived control over the causes of depression.

  8. CDDIS_VLBI_products_positions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Station positions and velocity solutions in Software INdependent EXchange (SINEX) format derived from analysis of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data....

  9. Aliasing errors in measurements of beam position and ellipticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekdahl, Carl

    2005-01-01

    Beam position monitors (BPMs) are used in accelerators and ion experiments to measure currents, position, and azimuthal asymmetry. These usually consist of discrete arrays of electromagnetic field detectors, with detectors located at several equally spaced azimuthal positions at the beam tube wall. The discrete nature of these arrays introduces systematic errors into the data, independent of uncertainties resulting from signal noise, lack of recording dynamic range, etc. Computer simulations were used to understand and quantify these aliasing errors. If required, aliasing errors can be significantly reduced by employing more than the usual four detectors in the BPMs. These simulations show that the error in measurements of the centroid position of a large beam is indistinguishable from the error in the position of a filament. The simulations also show that aliasing errors in the measurement of beam ellipticity are very large unless the beam is accurately centered. The simulations were used to quantify the aliasing errors in beam parameter measurements during early experiments on the DARHT-II accelerator, demonstrating that they affected the measurements only slightly, if at all

  10. Psychometric properties of the positivity scale - Brazilian version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Callegaro Borsa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Positivity Scale (P-Scale. Participants were 730 subjects (65% women, aged from 17 to 70 years old (M = 31.0 years; SD = 11.43, from 21 Brazilian states. The sample was randomly split in two halves to cross-validate the results. With the first half of the sample (n1 = 365, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA was conducted. With the second half of the sample (n2 = 365, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA assessed the fit of the exploratory model. Convergent validity and group differences were also evaluated. The EFA and CFA presented a one-dimensional structure for the P-Scale. Moderate correlations were found between the P-Scale and mental-health, subjective happiness and life-satisfaction. The levels of positivity presented a low positive correlation with age, educational level and financial income. Slightly significant effects were found for occupational status and marital status. Positivity appears to be more closely related to personal dispositions than to sociodemographic aspects. Our results suggest that the P-Scale is a reliable measure with which to evaluate the levels of positivity in Brazil.

  11. Aliasing errors in measurements of beam position and ellipticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdahl, Carl

    2005-09-01

    Beam position monitors (BPMs) are used in accelerators and ion experiments to measure currents, position, and azimuthal asymmetry. These usually consist of discrete arrays of electromagnetic field detectors, with detectors located at several equally spaced azimuthal positions at the beam tube wall. The discrete nature of these arrays introduces systematic errors into the data, independent of uncertainties resulting from signal noise, lack of recording dynamic range, etc. Computer simulations were used to understand and quantify these aliasing errors. If required, aliasing errors can be significantly reduced by employing more than the usual four detectors in the BPMs. These simulations show that the error in measurements of the centroid position of a large beam is indistinguishable from the error in the position of a filament. The simulations also show that aliasing errors in the measurement of beam ellipticity are very large unless the beam is accurately centered. The simulations were used to quantify the aliasing errors in beam parameter measurements during early experiments on the DARHT-II accelerator, demonstrating that they affected the measurements only slightly, if at all.

  12. A POSITIVE APPROACH TO COUNTER PROFESSIONAL BURNOUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Evgenievna Vodopiyanova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to identify the positive determinants of preventing professional burnout. Based on the literature review and analysis of previous studies was found that positive working conditions can be considered as factors of burnout. It is revealed that such indicators of work engagement as vigor and enthusiasm interfere with burnout, and the preoccupation activity, on the contrary, promotes its emergence. Also with the help of regression analysis the contribution of indicators of enthusiasm by work in each subscale of professional burnout that will allow to analyse mechanisms of its prevention in more detail is revealed. The results of this research can be applied to a psychological assistance to representatives of an actor's profession, and also to counteraction to burnout in other professional groups. In particular, development of subjectivity of experts could be a basis for programs of burnout prevention: development of cognitive and existential activity of the subject of a vital and professional way, expansion of sensibleness of personal resources and skills of a constructive coping with professional and existential stresses.

  13. Effects of supine, prone, and lateral positions on cardiovascular and renal variables in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pump, Bettina; Talleruphuus, Ulrik; Christensen, Niels Juel

    2002-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that changing the direction of the transverse gravitational stress in horizontal humans modulates cardiovascular and renal variables. On different study days, 14 healthy males were placed for 6 h in either the horizontal supine or prone position following 3 h of being...... supine. Eight of the subjects were in addition investigated in the horizontal left lateral position. Compared with supine, the prone position slightly increased free water clearance (349 +/- 38 vs. 447 +/- 39 ml/6 h, P = 0.05) and urine output (1,387 +/- 55 vs. 1,533 +/- 52 ml/6 h, P = 0...

  14. Variable-Position Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Stoneburner, J. D.; Jacobi, N.; Wang, T. G.

    1983-01-01

    Method of acoustic levitation supports objects at positions other than acoustic nodes. Acoustic force is varied so it balances gravitational (or other) force, thereby maintaining object at any position within equilibrium range. Levitation method applicable to containerless processing. Such objects as table-tennis balls, hollow plastic spheres, and balsa-wood spheres levitated in laboratory by new method.

  15. Control rod position control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubukata, Shinji.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a control rod position control device which stores data such as of position signals and driving control rod instruction before and after occurrence of abnormality in control for the control rod position for controlling reactor power and utilized the data effectively for investigating the cause of abnormality. Namely, a plurality of individual control devices have an operation mismatching detection circuit for outputting signals when difference is caused between a driving instruction given to the control rod position control device and the control rod driving means and signals from a detection means for detecting an actual moving amount. A general control device collectively controls the individual control devices. In addition, there is also disposed a position storing circuit for storing position signals at least before and after the occurrence of the control rod operation mismatching. With such procedures, the cause of the abnormality can be determined based on the position signals before and after the occurrence of control rod mismatching operation stored in the position storing circuit. Accordingly, the abnormality cause can be determined to conduct restoration in an early stage. (I.S.)

  16. Positive Psychology and Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    Positive psychology has been an influential movement within psychology in the early years of the twenty-first century. It is now timely to assess the value of its contribution to career education and guidance. This paper provides a critique of this perspective. Positive psychology can enrich approaches to career development. It can provide a…

  17. Indoor Positioning System using Bluetooth

    OpenAIRE

    Sahil Puri

    2015-01-01

    This Paper on Bluetooth Indoor Positioning System is the intersection of Bluetooth Technology and Indoor Positioning Systems. Almost every smartphone today is Bluetooth enabled, making the use of the technology more flexible. We aim at using the RSSI value of Bluetooth signals to track the location of a device.

  18. Positioning intermediary organisations in innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lente, van H.; Boon, W.P.C.; Klerkx, L.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Intermediary organisations are important in innovation systems and their contributions seem to increase. The central ambition of this paper is to understand and analyse the position of intermediaries within innovation networks. We use so-called positioning theory, where roles are outcomes

  19. Signature Strengths in Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…

  20. Positive Parenting and Challenging Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    Positive parenting focuses on developing proactive ways to teach and reinforce desirable behaviors, as opposed to focusing on reacting to and attempting to decrease negative behaviors. Dr. Sheldon Braaten, Executive Director of Behavioral Institute for Children and Adolescents, offers some keys for setting up and using a positive reinforcement…

  1. Manifolds of positive scalar curvature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, S [Department of Mathematics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame (United States)

    2002-08-15

    This lecture gives an survey on the problem of finding a positive scalar curvature metric on a closed manifold. The Gromov-Lawson-Rosenberg conjecture and its relation to the Baum-Connes conjecture are discussed and the problem of finding a positive Ricci curvature metric on a closed manifold is explained.

  2. Introducing positive psychology to SLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mercer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA. This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work, including the humanistic movement in language teaching, models of motivation, the concept of an affective filter, studies of the good language learner, and the concepts related to the self. There are reasons for both encouragement and caution as studies inspired by positive psychology are undertaken. Papers in this special issue of SSLLT cover a range of quantitative and qualitative methods with implications for theory, research, and teaching practice. The special issue serves as a springboard for future research in SLA under the umbrella of positive psychology.

  3. THE LIMITS OF POSITIVE INTERVENTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Hervás

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive interventions have been developed extensively in recent years and they have been tested and applied in very diverse settings. Despite the fact that most of the findings regarding their efficacy can be considered from positive to very positive, the possibility that, in some cases, positive interventions may have unexpected or even iatrogenic effects cannot be discarded. In this article, research from several sources is reviewed in order to inform decisions about what interventions might be inadequate for cases with specific characteristics or vulnerability traits. Finally, the importance of using positive interventions with caution and rigor even when working with individuals who do not have overt problems or psychological disorders is discussed.

  4. Positivity VII (Zaanen Centennial Conference)

    CERN Document Server

    Pagter, Ben; Gaans, Onno; Veraar, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of Positivity VII, held from 22-26 July 2013, in Leiden, the Netherlands. Positivity is the mathematical field concerned with ordered structures and their applications in the broadest sense of the word. A biyearly series of conferences is devoted to presenting the latest developments in this lively and growing discipline. The lectures at the conference covered a broad spectrum of topics, ranging from order-theoretic approaches to stochastic processes, positive solutions of evolution equations and positive operators on vector lattices, to order structures in the context of algebras of operators on Hilbert spaces. The contributions in the book reflect this variety and appeal to university researchers in functional analysis, operator theory, measure and integration theory and operator algebras. Positivity VII was also the Zaanen Centennial Conference to mark the 100th birth year of Adriaan Cornelis Zaanen, who held the chair of Analysis in Leiden for more than 25 years and was ...

  5. MHSP with position detection capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natal da Luz, H. [Physics Dept., University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Physics Dept., University of Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Veloso, J.F.C.A. [Physics Dept., University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal) and Physics Dept., University of Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)]. E-mail: jveloso@fis.ua.pt; Mendes, N.F.C. [Physics Dept., University of Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Santos, J.M.F. dos [Physics Dept., University of Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Mir, J.A. [CCLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-01

    The first implementation of a position sensitive readout for a Micro Hole and Strip Plate (MHSP) is described and tested. The readout consists on a resistive layer crossing the anodes and connected to a preamplifier on each side. By weighing the charge pulses on both preamplifiers it is possible to determine the interaction point. A 100-200 {omega} resistance layer between consecutive strips was found to be the best compromise between position linearity and energy resolution. Preliminary results using 22.1 keV X-rays present a good linearity between the measured and the actual position with a mean deviation of about 0.15 mm and a position resolution of 1.6 mm full-width at half-maximum (FWHM), being limited by the analogue division electronic circuit. The performance of the MHSP position detector will be presented and discussed for 1D readout.

  6. Cerebral perfusion imaging in HIV positive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundley, Kshama; Chowdhury, D.; Lele, V.R.; Lele, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Twelve human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients were studied by SPECT cerebral perfusion imaging 1 hour post injection of 15 mCi of 99m Tc-ECD under ideal conditions with a triple head gamma camera (Prism 3000 X P LEUHR), fanbeam collimators followed by Folstein Mini Mental Status Examination (FMMSE) and AIDS dementia complex (ADC) staging on the same day. All 12 patients were male, in the age range of 23-45 y (mean 31 y). The infected status was diagnosed by ELISA (10 patients) or Western blot (5 patients). The interval between diagnosis and imaging ranged from 1 month - 35 months (mean 15.3 months). Two patients were alcoholic and 2 were smokers. None of them had CNS disorder clinically. ADC staging and FMMSE could be performed in 4 patients. Two patients were normal (stage 0) and 2 were subclinical (stage 0.5) on ADC staging. FMMSE revealed normal or near normal status (mean score 35; maximum score 36). Cerebral perfusion images were interpreted simultaneously by 3 observers blind towards history and examination using semi-quantitative and quantitative methods by consensus. It revealed multiple areas of hypoperfusion, viz. temporal (11 patients (91 %), parietal 10 patients (83%), frontal 9 patients (75%, pre and post central gyrus 7 patients (58%), occipital 6 patients (50%) cingulate gyrus and cerebellum 5 patients (41%) and thalamic in 2 patients (16%). Hyper perfusion in caudate nuclei was noted in 10 patients (83%). The study reveals presence of multiple perfusion abnormalities on cerebral perfusion imaging in HIV positive patients who have normal/near normal mental status suggesting precedence of perfusion abnormality over clinically apparent mental deficit

  7. Location Fingerprint Extraction for Magnetic Field Magnitude Based Indoor Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhua Shao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smartphone based indoor positioning has greatly helped people in finding their positions in complex and unfamiliar buildings. One popular positioning method is by utilizing indoor magnetic field, because this feature is stable and infrastructure-free. In this method, the magnetometer embedded on the smartphone measures indoor magnetic field and queries its position. However, the environments of the magnetometer are rather harsh. This harshness mainly consists of coarse-grained hard/soft-iron calibrations and sensor electronic noise. The two kinds of interferences decrease the position distinguishability of the magnetic field. Therefore, it is important to extract location features from magnetic fields to reduce these interferences. This paper analyzes the main interference sources of the magnetometer embedded on the smartphone. In addition, we present a feature distinguishability measurement technique to evaluate the performance of different feature extraction methods. Experiments revealed that selected fingerprints will improve position distinguishability.

  8. Group identity and positive deviance in work groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon Joung; Choi, Jin Nam

    2017-12-05

    This study examines why and how identity cognitions, including group identification and individual differentiation, influence the positive deviance of employees. We identify the risk-taking intention of employees as a critical psychological mechanism to overcome stigma-induced identity threat of positive deviance. The analysis of data collected from 293 members comprising 66 work teams reveals that the relationship between individual differentiation and positive deviance is partially mediated by risk-taking intention. The indirect effect of group identification on positive deviance through risk-taking intention is also significant and positive in groups with low conformity pressure, whereas the same indirect effect is neutralized in groups with high conformity pressure. The current analysis offers new insights into the way the group context and the identity cognition of members explain the development of positive deviance and workplace creativity.

  9. Positioning performance of a maglev fine positioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wronosky, J.B.; Smith, T.G.; Jordan, J.D.; Darnold, J.R.

    1996-12-01

    A wafer positioning system was recently developed by Sandia National Laboratories for an Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) research tool. The system, which utilizes a magnetically levitated fine stage to provide ultra-precise positioning in all six degrees of freedom, incorporates technological improvements resulting from four years of prototype development experience. System enhancements, implemented on a second generation design for an ARPA National Center for Advanced Information Component Manufacturing (NCAICM) project, introduced active structural control for the levitated structure of the system. Magnetic levitation (maglev) is emerging as an important technology for wafer positioning systems in advanced lithography applications. The advantages of maglev stem from the absence of physical contact. The resulting lack of friction enables accurate, fast positioning. Maglev systems are mechanically simple, accomplishing full six degree-of-freedom suspension and control with a minimum of moving parts. Power-efficient designs, which reduce the possibility of thermal distortion of the platen, are achievable. Manufacturing throughput will be improved in future systems with the addition of active structural control of the positioning stages. This paper describes the design, implementation, and functional capability of the maglev fine positioning system. Specifics regarding performance design goals and test results are presented.

  10. Revealing conceptual understanding of international business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sue Ashley; Dr. Harmen Schaap; Prof.Dr. Elly de Bruijn

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students’ conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual

  11. Puerto Rico Revealed Preference Survey Data 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. Revealed preference data is...

  12. COMPETITIVE SOCIAL POSITION OF THE COUNTRY: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Chornodid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence of the country's competitive position, a comparative analysis according to international indexes and indicators is provided. Also the competitive social benefits of the country are described. The real situation of the competitive social benefits is considered on international standards and assessments. The estimation of the position of Ukraine is given in terms of freedom, network readiness index, the index of competitiveness of travel and tourism.

  13. Positive /sup 67/Ga-citrate scintigraphy: Vertebral, satellite lymph node and gallbladder foci in a case of gastroenteritis with salmonella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popa, N; Lens, E; Dubois, J L; Blase, F

    1982-03-01

    We report a case of salmonella gastroenteritis with recurrent fever and sepsis, slight transient lumbar pain and positive /sup 67/Ga-citrate scintigraphy. The /sup 67/Ga scan made a major contribution to the positive diagnosis of a subclinical spondylodiscite and to the correct treatment leading to the disappearance of the infectious foci.

  14. Positivity of the English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloumann, Isabel M.; Danforth, Christopher M.; Harris, Kameron Decker; Bliss, Catherine A.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2012-01-01

    Over the last million years, human language has emerged and evolved as a fundamental instrument of social communication and semiotic representation. People use language in part to convey emotional information, leading to the central and contingent questions: (1) What is the emotional spectrum of natural language? and (2) Are natural languages neutrally, positively, or negatively biased? Here, we report that the human-perceived positivity of over 10,000 of the most frequently used English words exhibits a clear positive bias. More deeply, we characterize and quantify distributions of word positivity for four large and distinct corpora, demonstrating that their form is broadly invariant with respect to frequency of word use. PMID:22247779

  15. Electrostatic beam-position monitor

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1969-01-01

    Electrostatic beam-position monitor installed in its final location (bake-out cover removed). The ISR will contain about 110 of these monitors. Their accuracy is better than 1 mm, their band width about 1 MHz.

  16. Diagnosing Dementia—Positive Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Diagnosing Dementia—Positive Signs Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of ... easy, affordable blood test that could accurately diagnose Alzheimer's disease (AD)—even before symptoms began to show? Researchers ...

  17. Radar Plan Position Indicator Scope

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radar Plan Position Indicator Scope is the collection of weather radar imagery for the period prior to the beginning of the Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) system...

  18. Positivity of the English language.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M Kloumann

    Full Text Available Over the last million years, human language has emerged and evolved as a fundamental instrument of social communication and semiotic representation. People use language in part to convey emotional information, leading to the central and contingent questions: (1 What is the emotional spectrum of natural language? and (2 Are natural languages neutrally, positively, or negatively biased? Here, we report that the human-perceived positivity of over 10,000 of the most frequently used English words exhibits a clear positive bias. More deeply, we characterize and quantify distributions of word positivity for four large and distinct corpora, demonstrating that their form is broadly invariant with respect to frequency of word use.

  19. Temporal trends in BMI in Argentina by socio-economic position and province-level economic development, 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine, Paul J; Diez Roux, Ana V; Wing, Jeffrey J; Alazraqui, Marcio; Spinelli, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    We investigated temporal trends in BMI, and assessed hypothesized predictors of trends including socio-economic position (SEP) and province-level economic development, in Argentina. Using multivariable linear regression, we evaluated cross-sectional patterning and temporal trends in BMI and examined heterogeneity in these associations by SEP and province-level economic development with nationally representative samples from Argentina in 2005 and 2009. We calculated mean annual changes in BMI for men and women to assess secular trends. Women, but not men, exhibited a strong cross-sectional inverse association between SEP and BMI, with the lowest-SEP women having an average BMI 2.55 kg/m(2) greater than the highest-SEP women. Analysis of trends revealed a mean annual increase in BMI of 0.19 kg/m(2) and 0.15 kg/m(2) for women and men, respectively, with slightly greater increases occurring in provinces with greater economic growth. No significant heterogeneity in trends existed by individual SEP. BMI is increasing rapidly over time in Argentina irrespective of various sociodemographic characteristics. Higher BMI remains more common in women of lower SEP compared with those of higher SEP.

  20. Stanford Linear Collider magnet positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wand, B.T.

    1991-08-01

    For the installation of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) the positioning and alignment of the beam line components was performed in several individual steps. In the following the general procedures for each step are outlined. The calculation of ideal coordinates for the magnets in the entire SLC will be discussed in detail. Special emphasis was given to the mathematical algorithms and geometry used in the programs to calculate these ideal positions. 35 refs., 21 figs

  1. Beam position optimisation for IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, L.; Hoban, P.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The introduction of IMRT has not generally resulted in the use of optimised beam positions because to find the global solution of the problem a time consuming stochastic optimisation method must be used. Although a deterministic method may not achieve the global minimum it should achieve a superior dose distribution compared to no optimisation. This study aimed to develop and test such a method. The beam optimisation method developed relies on an iterative process to achieve the desired number of beams from a large initial number of beams. The number of beams is reduced in a 'weeding-out' process based on the total fluence which each beam delivers. The process is gradual, with only three beams removed each time (following a small number of iterations), ensuring that the reduction in beams does not dramatically affect the fluence maps of those remaining. A comparison was made between the dose distributions achieved when the beams positions were optimised in this fashion and when the beams positions were evenly distributed. The method has been shown to work quite effectively and efficiently. The Figure shows a comparison in dose distribution with optimised and non optimised beam positions for 5 beams. It can be clearly seen that there is an improvement in the dose distribution delivered to the tumour and a reduction in the dose to the critical structure with beam position optimisation. A method for beam position optimisation for use in IMRT optimisations has been developed. This method although not necessarily achieving the global minimum in beam position still achieves quite a dramatic improvement compared with no beam position optimisation and is very efficiently achieved. Copyright (2001) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  2. Health Physics Positions Data Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Borges, T.; Stafford, R.S.; Lu, P.Y.; Carter, D.

    1992-05-01

    The Health Physics Positions (HPPOS) Data Base of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is a collection of summaries of NRC staff positions on a wide range of topics in radiation protection (health physics). The bases for the data base are 247 original documents in the form of letters, memoranda, and excerpts from technical reports. The HPPOS Data Base was developed by the NRC Headquarters and Regional Offices to help ensure uniformity in inspections, enforcement, and licensing actions

  3. Induction position for spinal anaesthesia: Sitting versus lateral position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, K.; Afshan, G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of induction position on block characteristics (sensory and motor nerves) and haemodynamic stability in elderly patients with isobaric bupivacaine. Patient comfort was also looked at. Methods: The randomized single blinded study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from September 2007 to August 2008. A total of 70 patients aged >60 years of both genders were included. Spinal anaesthesia was performed either in sitting or lateral position according to random allocation. Assessments of sensory, motor block and heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were recorded for 20 minutes. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Results: There was no significant difference for haemodynamic variables heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The onset of anaesthesia was faster in the sitting group (4.5 minutes vs 5.4 minutes). The motor block characteristics were similar in both the groups. The majority of patients who reported 'very comfortable' for induction position belonged to the lateral group. Conclusion: Both sitting and lateral positions have similar effects on sensory and motor blockade and haemodynamic stability. However, patients generally found lateral position very comfortable. (author)

  4. Partially slotted crystals for a high-resolution γ-camera based on a position sensitive photomultiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giokaris, N.; Loudos, G.; Maintas, D.; Karabarbounis, A.; Lembesi, M.; Spanoudaki, V.; Stiliaris, E.; Boukis, S.; Gektin, A.; Pedash, V.; Gayshan, V.

    2005-01-01

    Partially slotted crystals have been designed and constructed and have been used to evaluate the performance with respect to the spatial resolution of a γ-camera based on a position-sensitive photomultiplier. It is shown that the resolution obtained with such a crystal is only slightly worse than the one obtained with a fully pixelized one whose cost, however, is much higher

  5. Patient positioning and its influence on dose distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, J.; Moss, R.; Watkins, P.

    2000-01-01

    In comparison to conventional radiotherapy, the positioning of a patient for BNCT treatment has some unique aspects. In particular, the neutron beam coming from the core of a nuclear research reactor is fixed and horizontal. In particular, a head fixation mask, which is prepared at the patient referral hospital, is included in the CT images. The mask allows reproducible positioning for use during the treatment. Fiducial markers placed on the mask before imaging, provide reference points. The INEEL treatment planning code used in Petten produces a beam angle, and beam line entrance and exit co-ordinates. These are related to the fiducial marker co-ordinates. A spreadsheet, named COSINE, developed at Petten produces positioning co-ordinates from the data produced by the rtt MC code. These co-ordinates are related to a positioning frame, which allows the marking of the beams on the mask. In order to have reliable treatment data, the influence of small deviations of angle or target point on dose distribution must be known. To demonstrate this, a number of beams have been calculated with the Petten beam, with slight variations and compared with an approved plan. (author)

  6. [Effects of a Positive Psychotherapy Program on Positive Affect, Interpersonal Relations, Resilience, and Mental Health Recovery in Community-Dwelling People with Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Na, Hyunjoo

    2017-10-01

    Recently, the interest in positive psychotherapy is growing, which can help to encourage positive relationships and develop strengths of people. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of a positive psychotherapy program on positive affect, interpersonal relations, resilience, and mental health recovery in community-dwelling people with schizophrenia. The research was conducted using a randomized control group pretest-posttest design. A total of 57 adults with schizophrenia participated in this study. The study participants in experimental group received a positive psychotherapy program (n=28) and the participants in control group received only the usual treatment in community centers (n=29). The positive psychotherapy program was provided for 5 weeks (of 10 sessions, held twice/week, for 60 minutes). The study outcomes included positive affect, interpersonal relations, resilience, and mental health recovery. The collected data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA for examining study hypothesis. Results showed that interpersonal relations (F=11.83, p=.001) and resilience (F=9.62, p=.003) significantly increased in the experimental group compared to the control group. Although experimental group showed a slight increase in positive affect, it was not significant. The study findings confirm that the positive psychotherapy program is effective for improving interpersonal relations and resilience of community-dwelling people with schizophrenia. Based on the findings, we believe that the positive psychotherapy program would be acceptable and helpful to improve recovery of mental health in schizophrenia. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  7. [Positioning diagnosis of benign positional paroxysmal vertigo by VNG].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Chen, Taisheng; Lin, Peng; Song, Wei; Dong, Hong

    2009-07-01

    To analyze the value of positioning diagnosis of VNG (Videonystagmograph) in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). One hundred and twenty-six patients with BPPV were enrolled in this retrospective study. Their positional nystagmus recorded by VNG in Dix-Hallpike and roll tests were analyzed to summarize the characteristics of nystagmus on nystagmography of various BPPV. Of 126 patients with BPPV diagnosed in our center, the posterior semicircular canals (PSC) were involved in 98 patients (77.8%), whereas the horizontal semicircular canal (HSC) and anterior semicircular canal (ASC) were involved in 17 (13.5%) and 5 (3.9%), respectively. Six patients (4.8%) confirmed combined-BPPV had HSC-BPPV and ipsilateral PSC-BPPV. Twenty-eight patients with PSC-BPPV had reversal phase on nystagmography. The nystagmus of patients with P/ASC-canalithiasis showed upward/downward on the vertical phase of nystagmography and orientated the opposite side on horizontal phase in the head hanging position, and the nystagmus reversed when returned to sit. Nystagmus on horizontal phase could be provoked when the head turned to both sides of the roll tests in patients with HSC-BPPV. If the nystagmus and the head-turning shared the same direction, then HSC-canalithiasis was confirmed, and the direction of the head-turning which provoked the stronger nystagmus indicates the lesion side. If the nystagmus and the head-turning had the opposite direction, then HSC-cupulolithiasis was confirmed, and the direction of the head-turning which provoked the weaker nystagmus indicates the lesion side. Positional nystagmus can be recorded objectively using VNG, According to which positioning the semicircular canal involved would be easier and more accurate. The recording conserved also could be helpful for clinical diagnosis and repositioning of BPPV.

  8. Comparison of nasal continuous positive airway pressure delivered by seven ventilators using simulated neonatal breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevhammar, Thomas; Nilsson, Kjell; Zetterström, Henrik; Jonsson, Baldvin

    2013-05-01

    Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) is an established treatment for respiratory distress in neonates. Most modern ventilators are able to provide NCPAP. There have been no large studies examining the properties of NCPAP delivered by ventilators. The aim of this study was to compare pressure stability and imposed work of breathing (iWOB) for NCPAP delivered by ventilators using simulated neonatal breathing. Experimental in vitro study. Research laboratory in Sweden. None. Neonatal breathing was simulated using a mechanical lung simulator. Seven ventilators were tested at different CPAP levels using two breath profiles. Pressure stability and iWOB were determined. Results from three ventilators revealed that they provided a slight pressure support. For these ventilators, iWOB could not be calculated. There were large differences in pressure stability and iWOB between the tested ventilators. For simulations using the 3.4-kg breath profile, the pressure swings around the mean pressure were more than five times greater, and iWOB more than four times higher, for the system with the highest measured values compared with the system with the lowest. Overall, the Fabian ventilator was the most pressure stable system. Evita XL and SERVO-i were found more pressure stable than Fabian in some simulations. The results for iWOB were in accordance with pressure stability for systems that allowed determination of this variable. Some of the tested ventilators unexpectedly provided a minor degree of pressure support. In terms of pressure stability, we have not found any advantages of ventilators as a group compared with Bubble CPAP, Neopuff, and variable flow generators that were tested in our previous study. The variation between individual systems is great within both categories. The clinical importance of these findings needs further investigation.

  9. Position coincidence optical identifications using Texas interferometer radio positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozyan, E.P.

    1979-01-01

    1048 radio source positions measured with the Texas Interferometer were searched for optical identifications on glass copies of the Palomar Sky Survey E and O plates, resulting in 242 identifications and 806 blank fields. Finding charts are presented for 124 of the 125 new identifications not previously reported in the literature, and for 73 blank fields containing nearby optical objects which may be real identifications. This brings the cumulative number of Texas radio positions searched to 2015, producing 864 optical identifications and 1151 blank fields

  10. Serial position learning in honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randolf Menzel

    Full Text Available Learning of stimulus sequences is considered as a characteristic feature of episodic memory since it contains not only a particular item but also the experience of preceding and following events. In sensorimotor tasks resembling navigational performance, the serial order of objects is intimately connected with spatial order. Mammals and birds develop episodic(-like memory in serial spatio-temporal tasks, and the honeybee learns spatio-temporal order when navigating between the nest and a food source. Here I examine the structure of the bees' memory for a combined spatio-temporal task. I ask whether discrimination and generalization are based solely on simple forms of stimulus-reward learning or whether they require sequential configurations. Animals were trained to fly either left or right in a continuous T-maze. The correct choice was signaled by the sequence of colors (blue, yellow at four positions in the access arm. If only one of the possible 4 signals is shown (either blue or yellow, the rank order of position salience is 1, 2 and 3 (numbered from T-junction. No learning is found if the signal appears at position 4. If two signals are shown, differences at positions 1 and 2 are learned best, those at position 3 at a low level, and those at position 4 not at all. If three or more signals are shown these results are corroborated. This salience rank order again appeared in transfer tests, but additional configural phenomena emerged. Most of the results can be explained with a simple model based on the assumption that the four positions are equipped with different salience scores and that these add up independently. However, deviations from the model are interpreted by assuming stimulus configuration of sequential patterns. It is concluded that, under the conditions chosen, bees rely most strongly on memories developed during simple forms of associative reward learning, but memories of configural serial patterns contribute, too.

  11. Release from Proactive Interference with Positive and Negative Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F. Richaro; King, Brent

    2004-01-01

    Using the release from proactive interference (RPI) task, college students (n = 40) received 4 trials comprised of 3-word triads of either positive (P) or negative (N) words. Word-triad recall served as the dependent measure, and results revealed typical buildup of PI (i.e., no significant group X trial interaction across Trials 1-3). Significant…

  12. The influence of nationality and playing position on relative age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    for this phenomenon, termed the relative age effect (RAE), is that children born in the ... of countries have introduced modified games or weight categories in some ... A review of an online database (http://www.itsrugby.co.uk/) revealed the names ... positive SR indicated a higher than expected number of births in that quarter.

  13. Interactions between electrons in the field of a positive ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heideman, A.G.M.; Eck, J. van.

    1976-01-01

    Recent studies on the (auto)ionization of atoms by means of electron-atom collisions reveal the existence of phenomena probably brought about by post-collision interactions in the vicinity of a positive ion. In this article, a review of the subject is given in relation to the research program of the Utrecht atomic physics group

  14. Head and neck position sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Bridget; McNair, Peter; Taylor, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic minor cervical strains are common place in high-impact sports (e.g. tackling) and premature degenerative changes have been documented in sports people exposed to recurrent impact trauma (e.g. scrummaging in rugby) or repetitive forces (e.g. Formula 1 racing drivers, jockeys). While proprioceptive exercises have been an integral part of rehabilitation of injuries in the lower limb, they have not featured as prominently in the treatment of cervical injuries. However, head and neck position sense (HNPS) testing and re-training may have relevance in the management of minor sports-related neck injuries, and play a role in reducing the incidence of ongoing pain and problems with function. For efficacious programmes to be developed and tested, fundamental principles associated with proprioception in the cervical spine should be considered. Hence, this article highlights the importance of anatomical structures in the cervical spine responsible for position sense, and how their interaction with the CNS affects our ability to plan and execute effective purposeful movements. This article includes a review of studies examining position sense in subjects with and without pathology and describes the effects of rehabilitation programmes that have sought to improve position sense. In respect to the receptors providing proprioceptive information for the CNS, the high densities and complex arrays of spindles found in cervical muscles suggest that these receptors play a key role. There is some evidence suggesting that ensemble encoding of discharge patterns from muscle spindles is relayed to the CNS and that a pattern recognition system is used to establish joint position and movement. Sensory information from neck proprioceptive receptors is processed in tandem with information from the vestibular system. There are extensive anatomical connections between neck proprioceptive inputs and vestibular inputs. If positional information from the vestibular system is inaccurate or

  15. Relativistic positioning systems: Numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchades Colmenero, Neus

    The position of users located on the Earth's surface or near it may be found with the classic positioning systems (CPS). Certain information broadcast by satellites of global navigation systems, as GPS and GALILEO, may be used for positioning. The CPS are based on the Newtonian formalism, although relativistic post-Newtonian corrections are done when they are necessary. This thesis contributes to the development of a different positioning approach, which is fully relativistic from the beginning. In the relativistic positioning systems (RPS), the space-time position of any user (ship, spacecraft, and so on) can be calculated with the help of four satellites, which broadcast their proper times by means of codified electromagnetic signals. In this thesis, we have simulated satellite 4-tuples of the GPS and GALILEO constellations. If a user receives the signals from four satellites simultaneously, the emission proper times read -after decoding- are the user "emission coordinates". In order to find the user "positioning coordinates", in an appropriate almost inertial reference system, there are two possibilities: (a) the explicit relation between positioning and emission coordinates (broadcast by the satellites) is analytically found or (b) numerical codes are designed to calculate the positioning coordinates from the emission ones. Method (a) is only viable in simple ideal cases, whereas (b) allows us to consider realistic situations. In this thesis, we have designed numerical codes with the essential aim of studying two appropriate RPS, which may be generalized. Sometimes, there are two real users placed in different positions, which receive the same proper times from the same satellites; then, we say that there is bifurcation, and additional data are needed to choose the real user position. In this thesis, bifurcation is studied in detail. We have analyzed in depth two RPS models; in both, it is considered that the satellites move in the Schwarzschild's space

  16. Cadastral Database Positional Accuracy Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, N. M.; Omar, A. H.; Ramli, S. N. M.; Omar, K. M.; Din, N.

    2017-10-01

    Positional Accuracy Improvement (PAI) is the refining process of the geometry feature in a geospatial dataset to improve its actual position. This actual position relates to the absolute position in specific coordinate system and the relation to the neighborhood features. With the growth of spatial based technology especially Geographical Information System (GIS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), the PAI campaign is inevitable especially to the legacy cadastral database. Integration of legacy dataset and higher accuracy dataset like GNSS observation is a potential solution for improving the legacy dataset. However, by merely integrating both datasets will lead to a distortion of the relative geometry. The improved dataset should be further treated to minimize inherent errors and fitting to the new accurate dataset. The main focus of this study is to describe a method of angular based Least Square Adjustment (LSA) for PAI process of legacy dataset. The existing high accuracy dataset known as National Digital Cadastral Database (NDCDB) is then used as bench mark to validate the results. It was found that the propose technique is highly possible for positional accuracy improvement of legacy spatial datasets.

  17. Soil surface temperatures reveal moderation of the urban heat island effect by trees and shrubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edmondson, Jill L; Stott, Iain; Davies, Zoe G

    2016-01-01

    months increased by 0.6 °C over the 5 km from the city outskirts to the centre. Trees and shrubs in non-domestic greenspace reduced mean maximum daily soil surface temperatures in the summer by 5.7 °C compared to herbaceous vegetation, but tended to maintain slightly higher temperatures in winter. Trees...... in domestic gardens, which tend to be smaller, were less effective at reducing summer soil surface temperatures. Our findings reveal that the UHI effects soil temperatures at a city-wide scale, and that in their moderating urban soil surface temperature extremes, trees and shrubs may help to reduce...

  18. Positive Youth Psychology: Lessons from Positive Peer Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinebach, Christoph; Steinebach, Ursula; Brendtro, Larry K.

    2013-01-01

    Positive Peer Culture (PPC) is a strength-oriented approach developed by Vorrath and Brendtro (1985) to prevent or reverse negative peer influence by building a climate of peer concern and respect. PPC operates in a range of settings including residential treatment, alternative schools, juvenile justice, and youth leadership groups. It is an…

  19. CONTEMPLATIVE POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: INTRODUCING MINDFULNESS INTO POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausiàs Cebolla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although mindfulness is included in many positive psychology manuals as a “positive” technique, the implications of its use have scarcely been developed and the relationship between mindfulness and human well-being has barely been researched. Analyzing the main strengths of the two fields, the possibilities for their integration and the potential contradictions between their messages is essential in order to establish connections. Mindfulness is more than a meditation technique. It has implicit within it a set of values and ethical conditions that coincide to a great extent with the proposed assumptions from positive psychology, such as the development of kindness, compassion, and positive emotions. The aim of this paper is to present, on the one hand, the commonalities and similarities, and on the other, the differences between mindfulness and positive psychology. We also present the main studies that have investigated the role of mindfulness and contemplative practices on human well-being. Finally future research will be discussed and intervention suggested in order to bring the two proposals together.

  20. Wetland Microtopographic Structure is Revealed with Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, J.; Stovall, A. E.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Slesak, R.

    2017-12-01

    Wetland microtopographic structure and its function has been the subject of research for decades, and several investigations suggest that microtopography is generated by autogenic ecohydrologic processes. But due to the difficulty of capturing the true spatial variability of wetland microtopography, many of the hypotheses for self-organization have remained elusive to test. We employ a novel method of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) that reveals an unprecedented high-resolution (structure of wetland microtopography in 10 black ash (Fraxinus nigra) stands of northern Minnesota, USA. Here we present the first efforts to synthesize this information and show that TLS provides a good representation of real microtopographic structure, where TLS accurately measured hummock height, but occlusion of low points led to a slight negative bias. We further show that TLS can accurately locate microtopographic high points (hummocks), as well as estimate their height and area. Using these new data, we estimate distributions in both microtopographic elevation and hummock area in each wetland and relate these to monitored hydrologic regime; in doing so, we test hypotheses linking emergent microtopographic patterns to putative hydrologic controls. Finally, we discuss future efforts to enumerate consequent influences of microtopography on wetland systems (soil properties and vegetation composition).

  1. Antiproton source beam position system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagwell, T.; Holmes, S.; McCarthy, J.; Webber, R.

    1984-05-01

    The TeV I Beam Position Monitor (BPM) system is designed to provide a useful diagnostic tool during the commissioning and operational phases of the antiproton source. Simply stated the design goal is to provide single turn position information for intensities of > 1x10 9 particles, and multi-turn (clocked orbit) information for beam intensities of > 1x10 7 particles, both with sub-millimeter resolution. It is anticipated that the system will be used during commissioning for establishing the first turn through the Debuncher and Accumulator, for aligning injection orbits, for providing information necessary to correct closed orbits, and for measuring various machine parameters (e.g. tunes, dispersion, aperture, chromaticity). During normal antiproton operation the system will be used to monitor the beam position throughout the accumulation process

  2. Low back pain: an assessment using positional MRI and MDT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Karen; Alexander, Lyndsay A; Cooper, Kay; Hancock, Elizabeth; Ross, Jenny; Smith, Francis W

    2013-04-01

    Current guidelines advise against the use of routine imaging for low back pain. Positional MRI can provide enhanced assessment of the lumbar spine in functionally loaded positions which are often relevant to the presenting clinical symptoms. The purpose of this case report is to highlight the use of positional MRI in the assessment and classification of a subject with low back pain. A low back pain subject underwent a Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy (MDT) assessment and positional MRI scan of the lumbar spine. The MDT assessment classified the subject as "other" since the subjective history indicated a possible posterior derangement whilst the objective assessment indicated a possible anterior derangement. Positional MRI scanning in flexed, upright and extended sitting postures confirmed the MDT assessment findings to reveal a dynamic spinal stenosis which reduced in flexion and increased in extension. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Autobiographical memories for negative and positive events in war contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio L. Manzanero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the phenomenological qualities of self-reported negative and positive memories. The study was conducted in the Gaza Strip, Palestine, and a total of 134 autobiographical memories about negative and positive events were analyzed using a version of the Phenomenological Questionnaire for Autobiographical Memory (Manzanero & López, 2007. Participants were university students, 80 percent were women and 20 percent were men. Results showed that negative memories are more confused, more complex, and decay more over time than positive ones. In contrast, no differences were found between positive and negative memories on sensory information, spatial location, vividness, definition, accessibility, fragmentation, recall perspective, doubts about the accuracy of the memory, and how much participants recovered and talked about the event. High Dimensional Visualization (HDV graph revealed that there were individual differences between negative and positive memories but no consistent differences across participants.

  4. The Promise of Positive Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Positive Psychology has demonstrated its usefulness in studying and contributing to individual well being. The next big challenge for this new field is to help improving the social and cultural conditions in which people live. Three specific goals are discussed: A more complete understanding of human nature; forging a more sustainable and more fair social contract; and a rediscovery of the joys of existence. If Positive Psychology will be able to support these goals, it will become an important contributor to the evolution of human consciousness and the evolution of culture.

  5. The 'revealed preferences' theory: Assumptions and conjectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, C.H.

    1983-01-01

    Being kind of intuitive psychology the 'Revealed-Preferences'- theory based approaches towards determining the acceptable risks are a useful method for the generation of hypotheses. In view of the fact that reliability engineering develops faster than methods for the determination of reliability aims the Revealed-Preferences approach is a necessary preliminary help. Some of the assumptions on which the 'Revealed-Preferences' theory is based will be identified and analysed and afterwards compared with experimentally obtained results. (orig./DG) [de

  6. THE TRADE POSITION OF POLAND IN THE ICT SERVICES SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Talar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper includes analysis and assessment of trade in the ICT services performance of Poland. This study is looked at the trade position, essentially on the basis of the share in the world ICT services exports, revealed comparative advantage (RCA, and trade coverage ratio. It also identifies trends of the world trade in the ICT services. The statistics are derived from the basis of UNCTAD and Eurostat. International trade in the ICT ser-vices sector has specific characteristics and the interpretation of results of this trade is to take account of the particular nature of the ICT services. Poland is currently not revealed comparative advantage in the ICT services exports, but has had positive balance. Practically all trade indicators for Poland show very strong growth, which indicate a significant improvement in its ICT services trade position.

  7. Personal determinants of positive states and stress in psychology students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Kozhukhar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We report study results of personality characteristics as predictors of positive states (active, optimistic, emotional, subjective comfort and stress experience in adults with one higher education and ongoing training in Psychology. The respondents were 107 people aged 23 to 52 years. Diagnostic methods we used were: "SMIL" (L. Sobchik, Optimism and Activity Scale (adapted by E. Vodopyanova, C. Izard Differential Emotions Scale (adapted by A. Leonova, Subjective Comfort Scale (adapted by A. Leonova, PSM-25 Scale by Lemyr-Tessier-Fillion. The regression analysis revealed that in subjects ongoing training in Psychology, basic predictor of positive emotions and stress experience is anxiety. Cluster analysis revealed three types of subjects by their positive states experiences, which differ primarily by the level of baseline anxiety and related personality characteristics. The group of risk comprised Psychology students with a tendency to depression and negative emotions and specific personality profile.

  8. Community College Faculty Recruitment: Predictors of Applicant Attraction to Faculty Positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Paul A.; Kjorlien, Chad L.

    2000-01-01

    Utilizes MBA students' biographical data and reactions to simulated position ads for community college business faculty positions to identify predictors of applicant decisions. Reveals four significant predictors of participants' ratings of simulated positions: applicant's current job satisfaction, spouse's contribution to household income,…

  9. Different positions of uncertain lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenum, Helle

    On the basis of my ethnographic research in Denmark and Spain, I will investigate and compare four different positions of illegality in two different national contexts. Legal and institutional practices on the one hand produce the conditions for migrant illegality as such, but are also decisive...... for both the lived experience as irregular migrant and the opportunities for agency and strategizing among migrants....

  10. Positive Psychology: Transforming Young Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Mitchell, Martin L.

    2011-01-01

    To reach responsible independence, young people must become invested in setting their life course. A rich history of research and practice shows that democratic group climates foster autonomy and prosocial behavior. This article explores principles and practices for creating positive peer cultures to develop strengths and help youth meet their…

  11. Positivity bounds for Sivers functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Zhongbo; Soffer, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    We generalize a positivity constraint derived initially for parity-conserving processes to the parity-violating ones, and use it to derive non-trivial bounds on several Sivers functions, entering in the theoretical description of single spin asymmetry for various processes.

  12. Collective irrationality and positive feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolis, Stamatios C; Zabzina, Natalia; Latty, Tanya; Sumpter, David J T

    2011-04-26

    Recent experiments on ants and slime moulds have assessed the degree to which they make rational decisions when presented with a number of alternative food sources or shelter. Ants and slime moulds are just two examples of a wide range of species and biological processes that use positive feedback mechanisms to reach decisions. Here we use a generic, experimentally validated model of positive feedback between group members to show that the probability of taking the best of options depends crucially on the strength of feedback. We show how the probability of choosing the best option can be maximized by applying an optimal feedback strength. Importantly, this optimal value depends on the number of options, so that when we change the number of options the preference of the group changes, producing apparent "irrationalities". We thus reinterpret the idea that collectives show "rational" or "irrational" preferences as being a necessary consequence of the use of positive feedback. We argue that positive feedback is a heuristic which often produces fast and accurate group decision-making, but is always susceptible to apparent irrationality when studied under particular experimental conditions.

  13. Collective irrationality and positive feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatios C Nicolis

    Full Text Available Recent experiments on ants and slime moulds have assessed the degree to which they make rational decisions when presented with a number of alternative food sources or shelter. Ants and slime moulds are just two examples of a wide range of species and biological processes that use positive feedback mechanisms to reach decisions. Here we use a generic, experimentally validated model of positive feedback between group members to show that the probability of taking the best of options depends crucially on the strength of feedback. We show how the probability of choosing the best option can be maximized by applying an optimal feedback strength. Importantly, this optimal value depends on the number of options, so that when we change the number of options the preference of the group changes, producing apparent "irrationalities". We thus reinterpret the idea that collectives show "rational" or "irrational" preferences as being a necessary consequence of the use of positive feedback. We argue that positive feedback is a heuristic which often produces fast and accurate group decision-making, but is always susceptible to apparent irrationality when studied under particular experimental conditions.

  14. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Niels; Hansen, Søren; Bloch, Sune Land

    2017-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) remains the most frequent cause of vertigo. The TRV chair is a mechanical device suited for optimization of managing complex cases of BPPV. Although the use of repositioning devices in the management of BPPV is increasing, no applicable guide for the TRV...

  15. Positive Pedagogy for Sport Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Richard L.; Harvey, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The literature suggests that, despite some challenges in their implementation, player/athlete-centred, inquiry-based approaches to teaching games and coaching team sport can improve game playing ability, increase player/athlete motivation and provide positive affective experiences of learning. A range of these approaches, including Teaching Games…

  16. Efficient GPS Position Determination Algorithms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nguyen, Thao Q

    2007-01-01

    ... differential GPS algorithm for a network of users. The stand-alone user GPS algorithm is a direct, closed-form, and efficient new position determination algorithm that exploits the closed-form solution of the GPS trilateration equations and works...

  17. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Apnea? Lifestyle change including weight loss and exercise can help to improve sleep apnea and its related health problems. Sleep positioning and oral appliances have also been found to be effective. In cases when non-invasive treatments fail, a ...

  18. False Positives in Exoplanet Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuquire, Jacob; Kasper, David; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Kar, Aman; Sorber, Rebecca; Suhaimi, Afiq; KELT (Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope)

    2018-06-01

    Our team at the University of Wyoming uses a 0.6 m telescope at RBO (Red Buttes Observatory) to help confirm results on potential exoplanet candidates from low resolution, wide field surveys shared by the KELT (Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope) team. False positives are common in this work. We carry out transit photometry, and this method comes with special types of false positives. The most common false positive seen at the confirmation level is an EB (eclipsing binary). Low resolution images are great in detecting multiple sources for photometric dips in light curves, but they lack the precision to decipher single targets at an accurate level. For example, target star KC18C030621 needed RBO’s photometric precision to determine there was a nearby EB causing exoplanet type light curves. Identifying false positives with our telescope is important work because it helps eliminate the waste of time taken by more expensive telescopes trying to rule out negative candidate stars. It also furthers the identification of other types of photometric events, like eclipsing binaries, so they can be studied on their own.

  19. On persistently positively expansive maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Arbieto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we prove that any C¹-persistently positively expansive map is expanding. This improves a result due to Sakai (Sakai 2004.Neste artigo, mostramos que todo mapa C¹-persistentemente positivamente expansivo e expansor. Isto melhora um resultado devido a Sakai (Sakai 2004.

  20. Mallinckrodt's position on SLR production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    The potential of the short-lived radionuclides used in nuclear medicine applications and Mallinckrodt's position are discussed. An update of Mallinckrodt's activities and future plans are also given. The keen interest of Mallinckrodt, Inc., in the application and development of short-lived radionuclides for medical use is stressed, as well as envisioned innovations

  1. Marijuana and Children. Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endsley, Patricia; Embrey, Mary Louise

    2014-01-01

    Registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) promote wellness and disease prevention to improve health outcomes for our nation's children. It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the marijuana plant remain under the United States Drug Enforcement Agency's (DEA) Schedule I…

  2. Evaluation of a miniature electromagnetic position tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, Johann; Figl, Michael; Kollmann, Christian; Bergmann, Helmar; Birkfellner, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    The advent of miniaturized electromagnetic digitizers opens a variety of potential clinical applications for computer aided interventions using flexible instruments; endoscopes or catheters can easily be tracked within the body. With respect to the new applications, the systematic distortions induced by various materials such as closed metallic loops, wire guides, catheters, and ultrasound scan heads were systematically evaluated in this paper for a new commercial tracking system. We employed the electromagnetic tracking system Aurora trade mark sign (Mednetix/CH, NDI/Can); data were acquired using the serial port of a PC running SuSE Linux 7.1 (SuSE, Gmbh, Nuernberg). Objects introduced into the digitizer volume included wire loops of different diameters, wire guides, optical tracking tools, an ultrasonic (US) scan head, an endoscope with radial ultrasound scan head and various other objects used in operating rooms and interventional suites. Beyond this, we determined the influence of a C-arm fluoroscopy unit. To quantify the reliability of the system, the miniaturized sensor was mounted on a nonmetallic measurement rack while the transmitter was fixed at three different distances within the digitizer range. The tracker was shown to be more sensitive to distortions caused by materials close to the emitter (average distortion error 13.6 mm±16.6 mm for wire loops positioned at a distance between 100 mm and 200 mm from the emitter). Distortions caused by materials near the sensor (distances smaller than 100 mm) are small (typical error 2.2 mm±1.9 mm). The C-arm fluoroscopy unit caused considerable distortions and limits the reliability of the tracker (distortion error 18.6 mm±24.9 mm). Distortions resulting from the US scan head are high at distances smaller than about 100 mm from the emitter. The distortions also increase when the scan head is positioned horizontally and close to the sensor (average error 4.1 mm±1.5 mm when the scan head is positioned within a

  3. Multiple sclerosis and positive lyme serology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Lana-Peixoto

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available As Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB may clinically mimick multiple sclerosis (MS the presence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in serum of patients with a MS-like disease in non-edemic areas for Lyme disease may be troublesome. We report the case of a 45-year-old white female with the diagnosis of relapsing/ remitting form of MS due to a 15-year history of optic neuritis and recurrent episodes of motor and sensation disturbance in the upper right limb and in both lower extremites associated with bladder dysfunction. A magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed multiple high intensity periventricular white matter lesions. The patient had been exposed to ticks but did not recall the presence of erythema migrans. ELISA for Lyme disease was positive in two different laboratories and the positive serology was confirmed by Western blotting. No convincing reponse followed treatment with ceftriaxone. Although it is clear that the patient had been infect by Borrelia burgdorferi the relationship of this spirochetal infection with the neurological disease could not be ascertained.

  4. Laterality influences schooling position in rainbowfish, Melanotaenia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibost, Anne-Laurence; Brown, Culum

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral lateralization is a widespread trait among animals, is often manifested as side biases in behaviour (laterality) and has been suggested to provide fitness benefits. Here we examined the influence of laterality on the organisation of fish schools using rainbowfish (Melanotaenia spp) as model species. The pattern and strength of laterality for each individual was determined by examining eye preferences whilst examining their reflection in a mirror. Schools of four fish of known laterality were then created and the preferred position for each fish within the school was repeatedly observed in a flume. Fish which showed right eye preferences in the mirror test preferentially adopted a position on the left side of the school. Conversely, fish that showed left eye preferences in the mirror test or where non-lateralised preferentially adopted a position slightly to the right side of the school. However, this general pattern varied depending on the species and sex of the school. Our results strongly implicate individual laterality in the geometry of school formation.

  5. Measurement of the depolarization rate of positive muons in copper and aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauster, W.B.; Heffner, R.H.; Huang, C.Y.; Hutson, R.L.; Leon, M.; Parkin, D.M.; Schillaci, M.E.; Triftshaeuser, W.; Wampler, W.R.

    1977-01-01

    Positive muon spin rotation experiments for polycrystalline Cu and Al from 19 K to temperatures near the melting points are reported. At low temperatures, the depolarization associated with localization of the muons at octahedral interstitial sites is seen in Cu, while in Al only slight depolarization is observed below 250 K. At high temperatures, no evidence for trapping of positive muons at vacancies in thermal equilibrium is found for either metal. It is concluded that the muons either diffuse too slowly to find vacancies or, if they do find vacancies, are bound too weakly to remain trapped. (author)

  6. 3 Ways to Increase Positive Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español 3 Ways to Increase Positive Emotions KidsHealth / For Teens / 3 Ways to Increase Positive ... to give yourself a boost. Track Your Positive Emotions Name the positive emotions you're already familiar ...

  7. Examining the Effects of Different Ring Configurations and Equatorial Fluorine Atom Positions on CO 2 Sorption in [Cu(bpy) 2 SiF 6

    KAUST Repository

    Forrest, Katherine A.

    2013-10-02

    Simulations of CO2 sorption were performed in a metal-organic material (MOM) that is part of a "SIFSIX" family of compounds that has remarkable carbon dioxide capture and separation properties. The MOM considered here has the formula [Cu(bpy)2SiF6] (bpy = 4,4′-bipyridine). This hydrophobic MOM is both water-stable and CO 2-specific with significant sorption capacity under ambient conditions. The crystal structure reveals bpy rings and equatorial fluorine atoms in multiple possible orientations; the static disorder has been modeled based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction data revealing several possible relatives of atoms in the crystal structure. With regards to the bpy rings, the structure can be interpreted as two pyridyl rings with coplanar configurations within a unit cell (configuration 1), a twisted bpy ring conformation in which orthogonal pyridyl rings have C4 symmetry about the Cu2+ ion (configuration 2), and a twisted bpy ring conformation in which the two orthogonal pyridyl rings are facing one another within a unit cell (configuration 3). Further, the equatorial fluorine atoms can be positioned such that all atoms are eclipsed with the square grid (position A), oriented at a 21.3 angle with respect to the square grid (position B), and oriented at a 45 angle with respect to the square grid (position C). It was observed that experimental data for CO2 sorption were only consistent with sorption into configurations 1 and 3 with any of the possible equatorial fluorine atom positions at ambient temperatures, although simulations using position A produced slightly higher uptakes in these bpy ring configurations. It is demonstrated that the orientation of the bpy rings in configurations 1 and 3 allows more space for the sorbate molecules and thus promotes favorable MOM-sorbate interactions, resulting in isotherms in line with the experimental results. The results from this study suggests that [Cu(bpy)2SiF 6] in either configuration 1 or 3 with CO2 present in

  8. Revealing Conceptual Understanding of International Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Sue; Schaap, Harmen; de Bruijn, Elly

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students' conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual understanding in higher education. Essays and concept…

  9. Abrasive supply for ancient Egypt revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltz, C.; Bichler, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the major research scheme 'Synchronization of Civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in the 2nd Millennium B.C' instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine 30 elements in pumice from archaeological excavations to reveal their specific volcanic origin. In ancient time, the widespread pumiceous products of several eruptions in the Aegean region have been used as abrasive tools and were therefore popular trade objects. The correlation of such archaeological findings to a specific eruption of known age would therefore allow to certify a maximum age of the respective stratum ('dating by first appearance'). Pumices from the Aegean region can easily be distinguished by their trace element distribution patterns. This has been shown by previous studies of the group. The elements Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zr and Zn were determined in 16 samples of pumice lumps from excavations in Tell-el-Dab'a and Tell-el-Herr (Egypt). Two irradiation cycles and five measurement runs were applied. To show the accuracy of the results obtained, typical samples of the most important pumice sources in the Aegean region, particularly from Milos, Nisyros, Kos and Thera were analyzed together with the Egyptian samples of unknown origin. A reliable identification of the samples is achieved by comparing these results to the database compiled in previous studies. The geographical positions of these islands are shown. Within the error range, most of the elements determined in typical representatives of Milos, Nisyros, Kos and Santorini were in perfect agreement with values from the literature. On the basis of the Cluster graphics presented, it is possible to relate unknown pumice to its primary source, just by comparing the relation of a few elements, like Ta-Eu and Th-Hf. One concludes that all samples except one can be related to the Minoan eruption of Thera

  10. Structure-activity studies of RFamide peptides reveal subtype-selective activation of neuropeptide FF1 and FF2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Maria; Rathmann, Daniel; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2011-06-06

    Selectivity is a major issue in closely related multiligand/multireceptor systems. In this study we investigated the RFamide systems of hNPFF₁R and hNPFF₂R that bind the endogenous peptide hormones NPFF, NPAF, NPVF, and NPSF. By use of a systematic approach, we characterized the role of the C-terminal dipeptide with respect to agonistic properties using synthesized [Xaa 7]NPFF and [Xaa 8]NPFF analogues. We were able to identify only slight differences in potency upon changing the position of Arg 7, as all modifications resulted in identical behavior at the NPFF₁R and NPFF₂R. However, the C-terminal Phe 8 was able to be replaced by Trp or His with only a minor loss in potency at the NPFF₂R relative to the NPFF₁R. Analogues with shorter side chains, such as α-amino-4-guanidino butyric acid ([Agb 7]NPFF) or phenylglycine ([Phg 8]NPFF), decreased efficacy for the NPFF₁ R to 25-31 % of the maximal response, suggesting that these agonist-receptor complexes are more susceptible to structural modifications. In contrast, mutations to the conserved Asp 6.59 residue in the third extracellular loop of both receptors revealed a higher sensitivity toward the hNPFF₂R receptor than toward hNPFF₁R. These data provide new insight into the subtype-specific agonistic activation of the NPFF₁ and NPFF(2) receptors that are necessary for the development of selective agonists. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. REVEAL: Software Documentation and Platform Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael A.; Veibell, Victoir T.; Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2008-01-01

    The Research Environment for Vehicle Embedded Analysis on Linux (REVEAL) is reconfigurable data acquisition software designed for network-distributed test and measurement applications. In development since 2001, it has been successfully demonstrated in support of a number of actual missions within NASA s Suborbital Science Program. Improvements to software configuration control were needed to properly support both an ongoing transition to operational status and continued evolution of REVEAL capabilities. For this reason the project described in this report targets REVEAL software source documentation and deployment of the software on a small set of hardware platforms different from what is currently used in the baseline system implementation. This report specifically describes the actions taken over a ten week period by two undergraduate student interns and serves as a final report for that internship. The topics discussed include: the documentation of REVEAL source code; the migration of REVEAL to other platforms; and an end-to-end field test that successfully validates the efforts.

  12. Mechanism of the Glycosidic Bond Cleavage of Mismatched Thymine in Human Thymine DNA Glycosylase Revealed by Classical Molecular Dynamics and Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaan, Natalia; Crehuet, Ramon; Imhof, Petra

    2015-09-24

    Base excision of mismatched or damaged nucleotides catalyzed by glycosylase enzymes is the first step of the base excision repair system, a machinery preserving the integrity of DNA. Thymine DNA glycosylase recognizes and removes mismatched thymine by cleaving the C1'-N1 bond between the base and the sugar ring. Our quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical calculations of this reaction in human thymine DNA glycosylase reveal a requirement for a positive charge in the active site to facilitate C1'-N1 bond scission: protonation of His151 significantly lowers the free energy barrier for C1'-N1 bond dissociation compared to the situation with neutral His151. Shuttling a proton from His151 to the thymine base further reduces the activation free energy for glycosidic bond cleavage. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of the H151A mutant suggest that the mutation to the smaller, neutral, residue increases the water accessibility of the thymine base, rendering direct proton transfer from the bulk feasible. Quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical calculations of the glycosidic bond cleavage reaction in the H151A mutant show that the activation free energy is slightly lower than in the wild-type enzyme, explaining the experimentally observed higher reaction rates in this mutant.

  13. Entropy inequalities from reflection positivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casini, H

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the question of whether the entropy and the Renyi entropies of the vacuum state reduced to a region of space can be represented in terms of correlators in quantum field theory. In this case, the positivity relations for the correlators are mapped into inequalities for the entropies. We write them using a real-time version of reflection positivity, which can be generalized to general quantum systems. Using this generalization we can prove an infinite sequence of inequalities which are obeyed by the Renyi entropies of integer index. There is one independent inequality involving any number of different subsystems. In quantum field theory the inequalities acquire a simple geometrical form and are consistent with the integer index Renyi entropies being given by vacuum expectation values of twisting operators in the Euclidean formulation. Several possible generalizations and specific examples are analyzed

  14. Position-sensitive radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieson, E.; Smith, G.C.; Gilvin, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus for sensing the position of radiation received has a plurality of receptors spaced in at least one line on which the position is to be determined, their outputs being associated to form at least two groups, the density of the receptors in each group varying along the line. The receptors may comprise cathode arrays of a multiwire proportional counter, with an anode array between, measuring along lines in directions x and y respectively. The density of the wires in the two groups, decreases in opposite directions. A circuit determines the ratio of the output of one group to the sum of the group outputs. In another embodiment a scintillator is viewed by a plurality of light guides, the ends of which adjacent to the scintillator form the receptors, the four groups of which each terminate on a photomultiplier. (author)

  15. Position and orientation tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burks, B.L.; DePiero, F.W.; Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Muller, R.C.; Gee, T.F.

    1998-01-01

    A position and orientation tracking system presents a laser scanning apparatus having two measurement pods, a control station, and a detector array. The measurement pods can be mounted in the dome of a radioactive waste storage silo. Each measurement pod includes dual orthogonal laser scanner subsystems. The first laser scanner subsystem is oriented to emit a first line laser in the pan direction. The second laser scanner is oriented to emit a second line laser in the tilt direction. Both emitted line lasers scan planes across the radioactive waste surface to encounter the detector array mounted on a target robotic vehicle. The angles of incidence of the planes with the detector array are recorded by the control station. Combining measurements describing each of the four planes provides data for a closed form solution of the algebraic transform describing the position and orientation of the target robotic vehicle. 14 figs

  16. Identification of Dynamically Positioned Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor I. Fossen

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Todays model-based dynamic positioning (DP systems require that the ship and thruster dynamics are known with some accuracy in order to use linear quadratic optical control theory. However, it is difficult to identify the mathematical model of a dynamically posititmed (DP ship since the ship is not persistently excited under DP. In addition the ship parameter estimation problem is nonlinear and multivariable with only position and thruster state measurements available for parameter estimation. The process and measurement noise must also be modeled in order to avoid parameter drift due to environmental disturbances and sensor failure. This article discusses an off-line parallel extended Kalman filter (EKF algorithm utilizing two measurement series in parallel to estimate the parameters in the DP ship model. Full-scale experiments with a supply vessel are used to demonstrate the convergence and robustness of the proposed parameter estimator.

  17. Classification of positive blood cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, Kim Oren; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Arpi, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    . For each classification, we tabulated episodes derived by the physicians assessment and the computer algorithm and compared 30-day mortality between concordant and discrepant groups with adjustment for age, gender, and comorbidity. RESULTS: Physicians derived 9,482 reference episodes from 21,705 positive......- vs. hospitalonset, whereas there were no material differences within the other comparison groups. CONCLUSIONS: Using data from health administrative registries, we found high agreement between the computer algorithms and the physicians assessments as regards contamination vs. bloodstream infection......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Information from blood cultures is utilized for infection control, public health surveillance, and clinical outcome research. This information can be enriched by physicians assessments of positive blood cultures, which are, however, often available from selected patient groups...

  18. The STAR Vertex Position Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llope, W.J., E-mail: llope@rice.edu [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Zhou, J.; Nussbaum, T. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Hoffmann, G.W. [University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Asselta, K. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Brandenburg, J.D.; Butterworth, J. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Camarda, T.; Christie, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Crawford, H.J. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Dong, X. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Engelage, J. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Eppley, G.; Geurts, F. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Hammond, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Judd, E. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); McDonald, D.L. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Perkins, C. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ruan, L.; Scheblein, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); and others

    2014-09-21

    The 2×3 channel pseudo Vertex Position Detector (pVPD) in the STAR experiment at RHIC has been upgraded to a 2×19 channel detector in the same acceptance, called the Vertex Position Detector (VPD). This detector is fully integrated into the STAR trigger system and provides the primary input to the minimum-bias trigger in Au+Au collisions. The information from the detector is used both in the STAR Level-0 trigger and offline to measure the location of the primary collision vertex along the beam pipe and the event “start time” needed by other fast-timing detectors in STAR. The offline timing resolution of single detector channels in full-energy Au+Au collisions is ∼100 ps, resulting in a start time resolution of a few tens of picoseconds and a resolution on the primary vertex location of ∼1 cm.

  19. Submicron position-sensitive detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugatch, V M; Rosenfeld, A B; Litovchenko, P G; Barabash, L I; Nemets, O F; Pavlenko, Yu N; Vasiliev, Yu O [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. for Nuclear Research

    1992-08-01

    A method has been developed to measure precisely the coordinates of charged particles incident between adjacent strips of a strip detector. The position sensitivity of an inter-strip gap has been studied by means of a pulsed laser beam and irradiation by [alpha]-particles of a [sup 226]Ra-source. The capacitive division of charge generated by the incident particle depends on the position of its track. Its coordinates were determined by two-dimensional amplitude analysis of the charges collected by neighbouring strips. This method of coordinate determination applied to studies of spatial and energy distributions of electromagnetic as well as charged particle beams (including radioactive ion beams) of low intensity could provide the highest level of the precision limited by the track dimensions of charged particles, i.e. percents of a micrometer. (orig.).

  20. Doripenem: position in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedhia, Harakh V; McKnight, Richard

    2009-06-01

    Doripenem is a novel carbapenem with a broad spectrum of activity against Gram-positive pathogens, anerobes and Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Doripenem exhibits rapid bactericidal activity with two- to fourfold lower MIC values for Gram-negative bacteria, compared with other carbapenems such as imipenem. Doripenem is approved for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infection and urinary tract infections. It has been successfully used in the treatment of nosocomial and ventilator-associated pneumonia. It has a potential to be the drug of choice for these conditions. This evaluation focuses on the general review of the drug, including mechanisms of resistance, clinical efficacy and the position of doripenem in clinical practice. Stability against numerous beta-lactamases, low adverse-event potential and more potent in vitro and possibly in vivo activity against P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumanni compared with existing carbapenems are attractive features.

  1. DIAGNOSIS OF FINANCIAL POSITION STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CĂRUNTU GENU ALEXANDRU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of financial position structure aimed at issues that highlight on the one hand the economic relations between asset side and liability side and on the other hand the changes that are achieved as a result of internal and external factors. In order to establish the causes that led over time to changing the structure of financial position we analyze the structure of assets, liabilities and equity. The balance sheet is a summary representing only a snapshot at a certain time that changes continuously and through which are presented economic goods, rights and obligations of the company at year-end. The balance sheet is the universal working tool that contains information on the company's heritage and performance. To achieve its purpose, namely to generate profit in conditions of intense competition the firm constitutes a heritage structure, an economic fixed and circulating capital appropriate to future needs.

  2. The evolutionary position of nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojobori Takashi

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complete genomes of three animals have been sequenced by global research efforts: a nematode worm (Caenorhabditis elegans, an insect (Drosophila melanogaster, and a vertebrate (Homo sapiens. Remarkably, their relationships have yet to be clarified. The confusion concerns the enigmatic position of nematodes. Traditionally, nematodes have occupied a basal position, in part because they lack a true body cavity. However, the leading hypothesis now joins nematodes with arthropods in a molting clade, Ecdysozoa, based on data from several genes. Results We tested the Ecdysozoa hypothesis with analyses of more than 100 nuclear protein alignments, under conditions that would expose biases, and found that it was not supported. Instead, we found significant support for the traditional hypothesis, Coelomata. Our result is robust to different rates of sequence change among genes and lineages, different numbers of taxa, and different species of nematodes. Conclusion We conclude that insects (arthropods are genetically and evolutionarily closer to humans than to nematode worms.

  3. Strategic marketing positioning of Ohrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Cuculeski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Having in mind the fact that tourism is an industry that involves the work of lots of providers, it is of great importance to especially analyse the strategic marketing approach of a destination. That should be done in order to improve the image and the position in the mind of the consumer. This paper has the aim to show an overview of the strategy in marketing overall, as well as the image that Ohrid has as a destination in terms of tourism. The SWOT analysis provides efforts in order to improve the image and to help in the strategy creation and positioning in terms of tourism. The paper is ought to be part of a bigger research project in this regard, a research project that should help Ohrid in the pursue of gaining a distinctive image and proper marketing strategy.

  4. CLIC Drive Beam Position Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, S; Gudkov, D; Soby, L; Syratchev, I

    2011-01-01

    CLIC, an electron-positron linear collider proposed to probe the TeV energy scale, is based on a two-beam scheme where RF power to accelerate a high energy luminosity beam is extracted from a high current drive beam. The drive beam is efficiently generated in a long train at modest frequency and current then compressed in length and multiplied in frequency via bunch interleaving. The drive beam decelerator requires >40000 quadrupoles, each holding a beam position monitor (BPM). Though resolution requirements are modest (2 microns) these BPMs face several challenges. They must be compact and inexpensive. They must operate below waveguide cutoff to insure locality of position signals, ruling out processing at the natural 12 GHz bunch spacing frequency. Wakefields must be kept low. We find compact conventional stripline BPM with signals processed below 40 MHz can meet requirements. Choices of mechanical design, operating frequency, bandwidth, calibration and processing algorithm are presented. Calculations of wa...

  5. Atmospheric pressure loading effects on Global Positioning System coordinate determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandam, Tonie M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Heflin, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Earth deformation signals caused by atmospheric pressure loading are detected in vertical position estimates at Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. Surface displacements due to changes in atmospheric pressure account for up to 24% of the total variance in the GPS height estimates. The detected loading signals are larger at higher latitudes where pressure variations are greatest; the largest effect is observed at Fairbanks, Alaska (latitude 65 deg), with a signal root mean square (RMS) of 5 mm. Out of 19 continuously operating GPS sites (with a mean of 281 daily solutions per site), 18 show a positive correlation between the GPS vertical estimates and the modeled loading displacements. Accounting for loading reduces the variance of the vertical station positions on 12 of the 19 sites investigated. Removing the modeled pressure loading from GPS determinations of baseline length for baselines longer than 6000 km reduces the variance on 73 of the 117 baselines investigated. The slight increase in variance for some of the sites and baselines is consistent with expected statistical fluctuations. The results from most stations are consistent with approximately 65% of the modeled pressure load being found in the GPS vertical position measurements. Removing an annual signal from both the measured heights and the modeled load time series leaves this value unchanged. The source of the remaining discrepancy between the modeled and observed loading signal may be the result of (1) anisotropic effects in the Earth's loading response, (2) errors in GPS estimates of tropospheric delay, (3) errors in the surface pressure data, or (4) annual signals in the time series of loading and station heights. In addition, we find that using site dependent coefficients, determined by fitting local pressure to the modeled radial displacements, reduces the variance of the measured station heights as well as or better than using the global convolution sum.

  6. Linear positivity and virtual probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartle, James B.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the quantum theory of closed systems based on the linear positivity decoherence condition of Goldstein and Page. The objective of any quantum theory of a closed system, most generally the universe, is the prediction of probabilities for the individual members of sets of alternative coarse-grained histories of the system. Quantum interference between members of a set of alternative histories is an obstacle to assigning probabilities that are consistent with the rules of probability theory. A quantum theory of closed systems therefore requires two elements: (1) a condition specifying which sets of histories may be assigned probabilities and (2) a rule for those probabilities. The linear positivity condition of Goldstein and Page is the weakest of the general conditions proposed so far. Its general properties relating to exact probability sum rules, time neutrality, and conservation laws are explored. Its inconsistency with the usual notion of independent subsystems in quantum mechanics is reviewed. Its relation to the stronger condition of medium decoherence necessary for classicality is discussed. The linear positivity of histories in a number of simple model systems is investigated with the aim of exhibiting linearly positive sets of histories that are not decoherent. The utility of extending the notion of probability to include values outside the range of 0-1 is described. Alternatives with such virtual probabilities cannot be measured or recorded, but can be used in the intermediate steps of calculations of real probabilities. Extended probabilities give a simple and general way of formulating quantum theory. The various decoherence conditions are compared in terms of their utility for characterizing classicality and the role they might play in further generalizations of quantum mechanics

  7. Market segmentation, targeting and positioning

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri, Mark Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Businesses may not be in a position to satisfy all of their customers, every time. It may prove difficult to meet the exact requirements of each individual customer. People do not have identical preferences, so rarely does one product completely satisfy everyone. Many companies may usually adopt a strategy that is known as target marketing. This strategy involves dividing the market into segments and developing products or services to these segments. A target marketing strategy is focused on ...

  8. Control rod position detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akita, Haruo; Ogiwara, Sakae.

    1996-01-01

    The device of the present invention is used in a back-up shut down system of an LMFBR type reactor which is easy for maintenance, has high reliability and can recognize the position of control rods accurately. Namely, a permanent magnet is disposed to a control rod extension tube connected to the lower portion of the control rod. The detector guide tube is disposed in the vicinity of the control rod extension tube. A detector having a detection coil is inserted into a detector tube. With such constitution, the control rod can be detected at one position using the following method. (1) the movement of the magnetic field of the permanent magnet is detected by the detection coil. (2) a plurality of grooves are formed on the control rod extension tube, and the movement of the grooves is detected. In addition, the detection coil is inserted into the detector guide tube, and the signals from the detection coil are inputted to a signal processing circuit disposed at the outside of the reactor vessel using an MI cable to enable the maintenance of the detector. Further, if the detector comprises a detection coil and an excitation coil, the position of a dropped control rod can be recognized at a plurality of points. (I.S.)

  9. The dilemmas of victim positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorte Marie Søndergaard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article centres on some of the dilemmas contained within victim positioning. Such dilemmas are often overlooked by the authorities involved with people subjected to relational aggression. 2 For example, when teachers rule out cases of bullying because the victim has 'participated in' or 'laughed at' some of the bullies' initiatives, or when a rape victim's status as a victim is questioned because, in the lead up to the assault, she was supposedly friendly to the rapist. In these cases, it could be useful to explore the reason for the bullying victim's apparent collusion or to better understand the premises for the rape victim's positioning options in relation to the perpetrator. In other words, it could be fruitful to explore the dynamics and dilemmas of the victim position. In this article, I aim to reflect on the motivational conditions of the victim phenomenon. These reflections are based on an analysis of qualitative data produced through interviews with school children as well as on relevant secondary literature.

  10. Identity of active methanotrophs in landfill cover soil as revealed by DNA-stable isotope probing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cébron, Aurélie; Bodrossy, Levente; Chen, Yin; Singer, Andrew C; Thompson, Ian P; Prosser, James I; Murrell, J Colin

    2007-10-01

    A considerable amount of methane produced during decomposition of landfill waste can be oxidized in landfill cover soil by methane-oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs) thus reducing greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. The identity of active methanotrophs in Roscommon landfill cover soil, a slightly acidic peat soil, was assessed by DNA-stable isotope probing (SIP). Landfill cover soil slurries were incubated with (13)C-labelled methane and under either nutrient-rich nitrate mineral salt medium or water. The identity of active methanotrophs was revealed by analysis of (13)C-labelled DNA fractions. The diversity of functional genes (pmoA and mmoX) and 16S rRNA genes was analyzed using clone libraries, microarrays and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that the cover soil was mainly dominated by Type II methanotrophs closely related to the genera Methylocella and Methylocapsa and to Methylocystis species. These results were supported by analysis of mmoX genes in (13)C-DNA. Analysis of pmoA gene diversity indicated that a significant proportion of active bacteria were also closely related to the Type I methanotrophs, Methylobacter and Methylomonas species. Environmental conditions in the slightly acidic peat soil from Roscommon landfill cover allow establishment of both Type I and Type II methanotrophs.

  11. Between Concealing and Revealing Intersexed Bodies: Parental Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danon, Limor Meoded; Krämer, Anike

    2017-08-01

    Parents of intersex children are perceived in many studies as hopeless, highly dependent on the medical system, and as gate keepers of normative gendered bodies. In this article, we challenge these perceptions and argue that parents of intersex children are problematically positioned between their children's needs for care and well-being and the socialmedical forces that aim to "normalize" them. Their in-between position leads them to establish different parental strategies within and outside of traditional sex/gender norms. We focus on three intertwined parental strategy frameworks: bodily dialogue, sex/gender framing, and concealing/revealing practices, and describe how, in each of these strategic frameworks, the parents maneuver, act in accordance with or against, react to, and challenge the medical system, social interactions, and the sex/gender paradigm. This is a comparative study based on narrative interviews with 22 parents of intersex children in Germany and Israel.

  12. Positive emotions and the social broadening effects of Barack Obama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Anthony D; Burrow, Anthony L; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E

    2012-10-01

    Past experiments have demonstrated that the cognitive broadening produced by positive emotions may extend to social contexts. Building on this evidence, we hypothesized that positive emotions triggered by thinking about Barack Obama may broaden and expand people's sense of self to include others. Results from an expressive-writing study demonstrated that African American college students prompted to write about Obama immediately prior to and after the 2008 presidential election used more plural self-references, fewer other-references, and more social references. Mediation analyses revealed that writing about Obama increased positive emotions, which in turn increased the likelihood that people thought in terms of more-inclusive superordinate categories (we and us rather than they and them). Implications of these findings for the role of positive emotions in perspective-taking and intergroup relations are considered.

  13. Positive emotions in earthquake survivors in El Salvador (2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Carmelo; Cervellón, Priscilla; Pérez-Sales, Pau; Vidales, Diana; Gaborit, Mauricio

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze, within a more extensive intervention program, the existence of positive emotions and positive coping in the refugees at the two largest shelters created after the earthquakes of El Salvador in January, 2001. One hundred and fifteen survivors were interviewed in the shelters about different aspects related to positive cognitions and emotions experienced during their sojourn at the camps, as well as their perception of aspects of posttraumatic growth. The results show that most of the people affected by the earthquake revealed a consistent pattern of positive reactions and emotions. The potential implications of these results in the individual sphere, as buffering elements to protect people from the effects of a traumatic experience receive comment.

  14. USI A-43 resolution positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    NUREG-0869 is comprised of the following documents: Proposed Regulatory Guide 1.82, Revision 1, Sump for Emergency Core Cooling and Containment Spray Systems; The Value-Impact Statement for USI A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance; and Background and Summary of Minutes of Meetings of the Committee to Review Generic Requirements Regarding Unresolved Safety Issue A-43 Resolution. The report has been assembled to facilitate obtaining for comment feedback on the position developed for resolution of USI A-43. There are no licensing requirements contained in NUREG-0869, and it should be clearly noted that this for comment report will not be used as interim requirements

  15. Patient positioning and supporting arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavens, M.; James, R.C.; Slinn, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    This patent specification describes an E.M.I. claim relating to a patient positioning and support arrangement for a computerised axial tomography system, the arrangement comprising a curved platter upon which the patient can be disposed, a table having a curved groove to accommodate the platter, and means for driving the platter slidably along the groove; the platter being formed of a substantially rigid platform shaped to conform to the groove, and a shroud, secured to the platter and disposed between the platter and the surface of the groove, so as to permit the platter to slide smoothly. (U.K.)

  16. Crystal physics with positive pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flik, G.

    1983-01-01

    The π + /μ + lattice channeling is a new method of investigation in solid state physics. In the present thesis axial and planar channeling effects could be observed for the first time in monocrystalline Tantalum for 4, 12 MeV Muons generated by the decay of implanted positive pions. It is found that pions for T + /μ + channeling is investigated in Germanium for low temperatures. For T > 80 K tetrahedral sites are found, but for T < 80 K hexaedral sites or sites in the middle of the Ge-Ge bond are preferred. (BHO)

  17. Indoor Positioning Using GPS Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Blunck, Henrik; Godsk, Torben

    2010-01-01

    It has been considered a fact that GPS performs too poorly inside buildings to provide usable indoor positioning. We analyze results of a measurement campaign to improve on the understanding of indoor GPS reception characteristics. The results show that using state-of-the-art receivers GPS...... low signal-to-noise ratios, multipath phenomena or bad satellite constellation geometry. We have also measured the indoor performance of embedded GPS receivers in mobile phones which provided lower availability and accuracy than state-of-the-art ones. Finally, we consider how the GPS performance...

  18. Positive Quasi Linear Operator Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, L.A.; Jaeger, E.F.

    2005-01-01

    Expressions for the RF quasi-linear operator are biquadratic sums over the Fourier modes (or FLR equivalent) that describe the RF electric field with a kernel that is a function of the two wave vectors, k-vector L and k-vector R , in the sum. As a result of either an implicit or explicit average over field lines or flux surfaces, this kernel only depends on one parallel wave vector, conventionally k R -vector. When k-vector is an independent component of the representation for E, the sums are demonstrably positive. However, except for closed field line systems, k-vector is dependent on the local direction of the equilibrium magnetic field, and, empirically, the absorbed energy and quasi-linear diffusion coefficients are observed to have negative features. We have formally introduced an independent k-vector sum by Fourier transforming the RF electric field (assuming straight field lines) using a field-line-length coordinate. The resulting expression is positive. We have modeled this approach by calculating the quasi linear operator for 'modes' with fixed k-vector. We form these modes by discretizing k-vector and then assigning all of the Fourier components with k-vectorthat fall within a given k-vector bin to that k-vector mode. Results will be shown as a function of the number of bins. Future work will involve implementing the expressions derived from the Fourier transform and evaluating the dependence on field line length

  19. Global positioning site environment evaluator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leffler, S.; Reeser, H.G.; Zaker, E.; Hansen, W.; Sikorski, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Development of an innovative, integrated, automated system (Global Positioning Site Environment Evaluator - GPSEETM) for surveying contaminated waste sites is described. This system makes novel use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite constellation for establishing specific locations and current times for surveying radioactive, hazardous, or mixed-waste sites. GPSEE may also be used for waste site contamination surveys after remediation activities to ensure environmental remediation is complete. A base station is established for collecting and recording data and directing field operations for field stations which may be located many miles from the base station. The field operators collect site surveying and contamination data utilizing a variety of chemical and radiological sensors. A major goal for the data collection process is to collect all data utilizing in situ sensors, thereby minimizing the need for collecting soil and water samples. Site contamination data is transmitted electronically to the base station for recording and processing. The GPSEE system is being developed for use at DOE/DOD and a variety of industrial facilities. 3 figs

  20. 7 positions in 2 hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ackerman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 7 positions in 2 hours (2013 is a drawing that documents the process of making the short film Role Reversal Rehearsal. It became quickly apparent that the process of making the work was more dynamic and interesting than the finished piece itself. Relationships between the childcare arrangements of the participants and the collective working process brought about the necessity of collaboration for parent artists. Each participant gave their time, energy and creative insight towards filming a series of birthing positions with roles reversed. The male performer became the central figure in an attempt to prompt empathy, humour, and to embody the importance of the male role in childbirth. There were two hours to choreograph, rehearse, and film the sequence. The drawing by Ackerman encapsulates the 'rhizomatic' approach to producing creative work under the constraints of parenthood. The 'arborescent' structure of hierarchy encouraged in industrial filmmaking is subsumed in favour of a horizontal structure. This new structure allows for the creative input, and flow of collaboration between all people involved - including the 3 and 5 year olds, who contributed ideas for camera and soundtrack in situ.

  1. ANALISIS POSITIONING RESTORAN CEPAT SAJI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osa Omar Sharif

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti positioning restoran cepat saji McDonald's, Kentucky Fried Chicken, California Fried Chicken, A&W, dan Texas Chicken. Penelitian dilakukan di Kota Bandung dengan mengambil sebanyak 400 responden. Analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah analisis multidimensional scaling, analisis memberikan gambaran positioning dari restoran cepat saji yang ditampilkan dalam perceptual map. Restoran cepat saji yang memiliki layanan paling baik adalah McD dan yang memiliki layanan paling buruk adalah CFC. Restoran cepat saji yang memiliki rasa makanan paling enak adalah McD dan yang memiliki rasa makanan tidak enak adalah CFC. KFC dinilai paling ideal karena selalu berhasil menduduki peringkat satu dan dua jika dilihat dari sudut pandang restoran cepat saji yang lain. Pesaing terdekat McD adalah KFC. McD mendapatkan ranking pertama dari segi atribut layanan, kebersihan, variasi makanan, dan rasa makanan. Dengan posisi seperti ini McD seharusnya tetap menjaga kualitas layanan, kebersihan, variasi makanan, dan rasa makanan agar konsumen tetap memilih untuk datang ke McD. KFC sebaiknya tetap menjaga suasana yang membuat konsumen nyaman akan suasana di dalam atau diluar restoran

  2. Position-sensitive proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    A position-sensitive proportional counter circuit uses a conventional (low-resistance, metal-wire anode) counter for spatial resolution of an ionizing event along the anode, which functions as an RC line. A pair of preamplifiers at the anode ends act as stabilized active-capacitance loads, each comprising a series-feedback, low-noise amplifier and a unity-gain, shunt-feedback amplifier whose output is connected through a feedback capacitor to the series-feedback amplifier input. The stabilized capacitance loading of the anode allows distributed RC-line position encoding and subsequent time difference decoding by sensing the difference in rise times of pulses at the anode ends where the difference is primarily in response to the distributed capacitance along the anode. This allows the use of lower resistance wire anodes for spatial radiation detection which simplifies the counter construction of handling of the anodes, and stabilizes the anode resistivity at high count rates (>10 6 counts/sec). (author)

  3. Position-sensitive superconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurakado, M.; Taniguchi, K.

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detectors and superconducting transition- edge sensors (TESs) are representative superconductor detectors having energy resolutions much higher than those of semiconductor detectors. STJ detectors are thin, thereby making it suitable for detecting low-energy X rays. The signals of STJ detectors are more than 100 times faster than those of TESs. By contrast, TESs are microcalorimeters that measure the radiation energy from the change in the temperature. Therefore, signals are slow and their time constants are typically several hundreds of μs. However, TESs possess excellent energy resolutions. For example, TESs have a resolution of 1.6 eV for 5.9-keV X rays. An array of STJs or TESs can be used as a pixel detector. Superconducting series-junction detectors (SSJDs) comprise multiple STJs and a single-crystal substrate that acts as a radiation absorber. SSJDs are also position sensitive, and their energy resolutions are higher than those of semiconductor detectors. In this paper, we give an overview of position-sensitive superconductor detectors.

  4. ROMANIA: GEOGRAPHICAL AND GEOPOLITICAL POSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Beniamin Benea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper intends to bring to the reader’s attention the importance of understanding the role education plays in creating a good geopolitical position for a state which has a good geographical position, and which is well endowed in natural resources. The case of Romania is the main focus of the paper. There is presented a peculiar strange situation of a country (Romania which is very well located from geographical point of view but which is incapable to exploit its natural endowments and special location. One reason for this situation is the fact that most people living in present Romania belong to a category named in this paper ‘individuals’. Individuals are not aware of their country’s geography and history, let alone its possible future development possibilities. They do not know the role their country could play, and living in an atomized society, they choose emigration as the easiest way to escape harsh social and economic environment. Contrary to this attitude is that of a citizen, a man conscious about his country’s potential, and which is dedicated to work hardly together with his fellows in order to promote national interests in a peaceful manner. Even there was found remnants of an ancient city close to present day Romanian territory – proves of well endowed environment – moral and psychological factors have contributed after 1990 in an crucial manner to push Romania from its civilization path back to the archaic spirit, from active urban spirit to rural mentality. In such a situation it is not uncommon for a nation to lose its means for projecting power, which could promote the value and the importance of a geographical position – transportation; rural mentality has nothing to do with modern transportation as they are technical tools with geopolitical essence for controlling space. It is a well known fact that transportation and geopolitics are closely interrelated. Furthermore, social dissolution in post communist

  5. Green positive guidance and green positive life counseling for decent work and decent lives:Some empirical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria eDi Fabio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses green positive guidance and green positive life counseling for decent work and decent lives. From a green guidance perspective, the connectedness to nature construct is important both in terms of the meaning of work and life construction. The study discussed in this article analyzed the relationship between empathy and connectedness to nature, controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. In this connection, the Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM, the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ, and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI were administered to 144 Italian high school students. The study revealed that connecteness to nature was not associated with fluid intelligence and was only moderately associated with personality traits. It was empathy that showed the highest association with connectedness to nature. The results open new opportunities for future research and interventions in green positive guidance/life counseling and green positive decent work.

  6. 4-D single particle tracking of synthetic and proteinaceous microspheres reveals preferential movement of nuclear particles along chromatin – poor tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athale Chaitanya

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dynamics of nuclear organization, nuclear bodies and RNPs in particular has been the focus of many studies. To understand their function, knowledge of their spatial nuclear position and temporal translocation is essential. Typically, such studies generate a wealth of data that require novel methods in image analysis and computational tools to quantitatively track particle movement on the background of moving cells and shape changing nuclei. Results We developed a novel 4-D image processing platform (TIKAL for the work with laser scanning and wide field microscopes. TIKAL provides a registration software for correcting global movements and local deformations of cells as well as 2-D and 3-D tracking software. With this new tool, we studied the dynamics of two different types of nuclear particles, namely nuclear bodies made from GFP-NLS-vimentin and microinjected 0.1 μm – wide polystyrene beads, by live cell time-lapse microscopy combined with single particle tracking and mobility analysis. We now provide a tool for the automatic 3-D analysis of particle movement in parallel with the acquisition of chromatin density data. Conclusions Kinetic analysis revealed 4 modes of movement: confined obstructed, normal diffusion and directed motion. Particle tracking on the background of stained chromatin revealed that particle movement is directly related to local reorganization of chromatin. Further a direct comparison of particle movement in the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm exhibited an entirely different kinetic behaviour of vimentin particles in both compartments. The kinetics of nuclear particles were slightly affected by depletion of ATP and significantly disturbed by disruption of actin and microtubule networks. Moreover, the hydration state of the nucleus had a strong impact on the mobility of nuclear bodies since both normal diffusion and directed motion were entirely abolished when cells were challenged with 0.6 M

  7. 4-D single particle tracking of synthetic and proteinaceous microspheres reveals preferential movement of nuclear particles along chromatin – poor tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacher, Christian P; Reichenzeller, Michaela; Athale, Chaitanya; Herrmann, Harald; Eils, Roland

    2004-01-01

    Background The dynamics of nuclear organization, nuclear bodies and RNPs in particular has been the focus of many studies. To understand their function, knowledge of their spatial nuclear position and temporal translocation is essential. Typically, such studies generate a wealth of data that require novel methods in image analysis and computational tools to quantitatively track particle movement on the background of moving cells and shape changing nuclei. Results We developed a novel 4-D image processing platform (TIKAL) for the work with laser scanning and wide field microscopes. TIKAL provides a registration software for correcting global movements and local deformations of cells as well as 2-D and 3-D tracking software. With this new tool, we studied the dynamics of two different types of nuclear particles, namely nuclear bodies made from GFP-NLS-vimentin and microinjected 0.1 μm – wide polystyrene beads, by live cell time-lapse microscopy combined with single particle tracking and mobility analysis. We now provide a tool for the automatic 3-D analysis of particle movement in parallel with the acquisition of chromatin density data. Conclusions Kinetic analysis revealed 4 modes of movement: confined obstructed, normal diffusion and directed motion. Particle tracking on the background of stained chromatin revealed that particle movement is directly related to local reorganization of chromatin. Further a direct comparison of particle movement in the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm exhibited an entirely different kinetic behaviour of vimentin particles in both compartments. The kinetics of nuclear particles were slightly affected by depletion of ATP and significantly disturbed by disruption of actin and microtubule networks. Moreover, the hydration state of the nucleus had a strong impact on the mobility of nuclear bodies since both normal diffusion and directed motion were entirely abolished when cells were challenged with 0.6 M sorbitol. This effect correlated

  8. Impacts of a book reading club intervention on enhancing parents' positive thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zuway-R; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of participating in a book reading club on improving parents' positive interactions with children and positive thinking. A total of 85 parent volunteers were randomized into the experimental or comparison group. The Parent Questionnaire was used to measure positive thinking and interaction with children. Additionally interview results were used to triangulate and elucidate the findings. The findings revealed a positive impact on parents' positive thinking and interaction with children and that these were significant predictors of parents' positive thinking. Implications and recommendations are presented.

  9. Comparison of pulsar positions from timing and very long baseline astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. B.; Coles, W. A.; Hobbs, G.; Shannon, R. M.; Manchester, R. N.; Kerr, M.; Yuan, J. P.; Wang, N.; Bailes, M.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Dai, S.; Dempsey, J.; Keith, M. J.; Lasky, P. D.; Levin, Y.; Osłowski, S.; Ravi, V.; Reardon, D. J.; Rosado, P. A.; Russell, C. J.; Spiewak, R.; van Straten, W.; Toomey, L.; Wen, L.; You, X.-P.; Zhu, X.-J.

    2017-07-01

    Pulsar positions can be measured with high precision using both pulsar timing methods and very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). Pulsar timing positions are referenced to a solar-system ephemeris, whereas VLBI positions are referenced to distant quasars. Here, we compare pulsar positions from published VLBI measurements with those obtained from pulsar timing data from the Nanshan and Parkes radio telescopes in order to relate the two reference frames. We find that the timing positions differ significantly from the VLBI positions (and also differ between different ephemerides). A statistically significant change in the obliquity of the ecliptic of 2.16 ± 0.33 mas is found for the JPL ephemeris DE405, but no significant rotation is found in subsequent JPL ephemerides. The accuracy with which we can relate the two frames is limited by the current uncertainties in the VLBI reference source positions and in matching the pulsars to their reference source. Not only do the timing positions depend on the ephemeris used in computing them, but also different segments of the timing data lead to varying position estimates. These variations are mostly common to all ephemerides, but slight changes are seen at the 10 μas level between ephemerides.

  10. Navigation with ECDIS: Choosing the Proper Secondary Positioning Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Brčic

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The completion of ECDIS mandatory implementation period on-board SOLAS vessels requires certain operational, functional and educational gaping holes to be solved. It especially refers to positioning and its redundancy, which represents fundamental safety factor on-board navigating vessels. The proposed paper deals with primary and secondary positioning used in ECDIS system. Standard positioning methods are described, discussing possibilities of obtained positions’ automatic and manual implementation in ECDIS, beside default methods. With the aim of emphasizing the need and importance of using secondary positioning source in ECDIS, positioning issue from the standpoint of end-users was elaborated, representing a practical feedback of elaborated topic. The survey was conducted in the form of international questionnaire placed among OOWs, ranging from apprentice officers to captains. The result answers and discussion regarding (nonusage of secondary positioning sources in ECDIS were analysed and presented. Answers and statements were elaborated focusing not only in usage of the secondary positioning system in ECDIS, but in navigation in general. The study revealed potential risks arising from the lack of knowledge and even negligence. The paper concludes with summary of findings related to discrepancies between theoretical background, good seamanship practice and real actions taken by OOWs. Further research activities are pointed out, together with planned practical actions in raising awareness regarding navigation with ECDIS.

  11. Is valuing positive emotion associated with life satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Brock; Kuppens, Peter; De Roover, Kim; Diener, Ed

    2014-08-01

    The experience of positive emotion is closely linked to subjective well-being. For this reason, campaigns aimed at promoting the value of positive emotion have become widespread. What is rarely considered are the cultural implications of this focus on happiness. Promoting positive emotions as important for "the good life" not only has implications for how individuals value these emotional states, but for how they believe others around them value these emotions also. Drawing on data from over 9,000 college students across 47 countries we examined whether individuals' life satisfaction is associated with living in contexts in which positive emotions are socially valued. The findings show that people report more life satisfaction in countries where positive emotions are highly valued and this is linked to an increased frequency of positive emotional experiences in these contexts. They also reveal, however, that increased life satisfaction in countries that place a premium on positive emotion is less evident for people who tend to experience less valued emotional states: people who experience many negative emotions, do not flourish to the same extent in these contexts. The findings demonstrate how the cultural value placed on certain emotion states may shape the relationship between emotional experiences and subjective well-being.

  12. Ultra Wideband Indoor Positioning Technologies: Analysis and Recent Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarifi, Abdulrahman; Al-Salman, AbdulMalik; Alsaleh, Mansour; Alnafessah, Ahmad; Al-Hadhrami, Suheer; Al-Ammar, Mai A; Al-Khalifa, Hend S

    2016-05-16

    In recent years, indoor positioning has emerged as a critical function in many end-user applications; including military, civilian, disaster relief and peacekeeping missions. In comparison with outdoor environments, sensing location information in indoor environments requires a higher precision and is a more challenging task in part because various objects reflect and disperse signals. Ultra WideBand (UWB) is an emerging technology in the field of indoor positioning that has shown better performance compared to others. In order to set the stage for this work, we provide a survey of the state-of-the-art technologies in indoor positioning, followed by a detailed comparative analysis of UWB positioning technologies. We also provide an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) to analyze the present state of UWB positioning technologies. While SWOT is not a quantitative approach, it helps in assessing the real status and in revealing the potential of UWB positioning to effectively address the indoor positioning problem. Unlike previous studies, this paper presents new taxonomies, reviews some major recent advances, and argues for further exploration by the research community of this challenging problem space.

  13. Ultra Wideband Indoor Positioning Technologies: Analysis and Recent Advances †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarifi, Abdulrahman; Al-Salman, AbdulMalik; Alsaleh, Mansour; Alnafessah, Ahmad; Al-Hadhrami, Suheer; Al-Ammar, Mai A.; Al-Khalifa, Hend S.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, indoor positioning has emerged as a critical function in many end-user applications; including military, civilian, disaster relief and peacekeeping missions. In comparison with outdoor environments, sensing location information in indoor environments requires a higher precision and is a more challenging task in part because various objects reflect and disperse signals. Ultra WideBand (UWB) is an emerging technology in the field of indoor positioning that has shown better performance compared to others. In order to set the stage for this work, we provide a survey of the state-of-the-art technologies in indoor positioning, followed by a detailed comparative analysis of UWB positioning technologies. We also provide an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) to analyze the present state of UWB positioning technologies. While SWOT is not a quantitative approach, it helps in assessing the real status and in revealing the potential of UWB positioning to effectively address the indoor positioning problem. Unlike previous studies, this paper presents new taxonomies, reviews some major recent advances, and argues for further exploration by the research community of this challenging problem space. PMID:27196906

  14. Ultra Wideband Indoor Positioning Technologies: Analysis and Recent Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Alarifi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, indoor positioning has emerged as a critical function in many end-user applications; including military, civilian, disaster relief and peacekeeping missions. In comparison with outdoor environments, sensing location information in indoor environments requires a higher precision and is a more challenging task in part because various objects reflect and disperse signals. Ultra WideBand (UWB is an emerging technology in the field of indoor positioning that has shown better performance compared to others. In order to set the stage for this work, we provide a survey of the state-of-the-art technologies in indoor positioning, followed by a detailed comparative analysis of UWB positioning technologies. We also provide an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT to analyze the present state of UWB positioning technologies. While SWOT is not a quantitative approach, it helps in assessing the real status and in revealing the potential of UWB positioning to effectively address the indoor positioning problem. Unlike previous studies, this paper presents new taxonomies, reviews some major recent advances, and argues for further exploration by the research community of this challenging problem space.

  15. Hunger neurons drive feeding through a sustained, positive reinforcement signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiming; Lin, Yen-Chu; Zimmerman, Christopher A; Essner, Rachel A; Knight, Zachary A

    2016-08-24

    The neural mechanisms underlying hunger are poorly understood. AgRP neurons are activated by energy deficit and promote voracious food consumption, suggesting these cells may supply the fundamental hunger drive that motivates feeding. However recent in vivo recording experiments revealed that AgRP neurons are inhibited within seconds by the sensory detection of food, raising the question of how these cells can promote feeding at all. Here we resolve this paradox by showing that brief optogenetic stimulation of AgRP neurons before food availability promotes intense appetitive and consummatory behaviors that persist for tens of minutes in the absence of continued AgRP neuron activation. We show that these sustained behavioral responses are mediated by a long-lasting potentiation of the rewarding properties of food and that AgRP neuron activity is positively reinforcing. These findings reveal that hunger neurons drive feeding by transmitting a positive valence signal that triggers a stable transition between behavioral states.

  16. Investigating the need for scholarly communications positions in Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries member institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Mears, MLIS

    2017-04-01

    Discussion: Our survey reveals a juxtaposition occurring in AAHSL member libraries. While administrators acknowledge the need to provide scholarly communications services, they often experience budget challenges in providing a full-time position for these services.

  17. The ATLAS positive ion injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K.W.; Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the design, construction status, and beam tests to date of the positive ion injector (PII) which is replacing the tandem injector for the ATLAS heavy-ion facility. PII consists of an ECR ion source on a 350 KV platform injecting a very low velocity superconducting linac. The linac is composed of an independently-phased array of superconducting four-gap interdigital resonators which accelerate over a velocity range of .006 to .05c. In finished form, PII will be able to inject ions as heavy as uranium into the existing ATLAS linac. Although at the present time little more than 50% of the linac is operational, the indenpently-phased array is sufficiently flexible that ions in the lower half of the periodic table can be accelerated and injected into ATLAS. Results of recent operational experience will be discussed. 5 refs

  18. Optical fiber stripper positioning apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Richard W.; Sanchez, Jr., Amadeo

    1990-01-01

    An optical fiber positioning apparatus for an optical fiber stripping device is disclosed which is capable of providing precise axial alignment between an optical fiber to be stripped of its outer jacket and the cutting blades of a stripping device. The apparatus includes a first bore having a width approximately equal to the diameter of an unstripped optical fiber and a counter bore axially aligned with the first bore and dimensioned to precisely receive a portion of the stripping device in axial alignment with notched cutting blades within the stripping device to thereby axially align the notched cutting blades of the stripping device with the axis of the optical fiber to permit the notched cutting blades to sever the jacket on the optical fiber without damaging the cladding on the optical fiber. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus further includes a fiber stop which permits determination of the length of jacket to be removed from the optical fiber.

  19. GPS Position Time Series @ JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Susan; Moore, Angelyn; Kedar, Sharon; Liu, Zhen; Webb, Frank; Heflin, Mike; Desai, Shailen

    2013-01-01

    Different flavors of GPS time series analysis at JPL - Use same GPS Precise Point Positioning Analysis raw time series - Variations in time series analysis/post-processing driven by different users. center dot JPL Global Time Series/Velocities - researchers studying reference frame, combining with VLBI/SLR/DORIS center dot JPL/SOPAC Combined Time Series/Velocities - crustal deformation for tectonic, volcanic, ground water studies center dot ARIA Time Series/Coseismic Data Products - Hazard monitoring and response focused center dot ARIA data system designed to integrate GPS and InSAR - GPS tropospheric delay used for correcting InSAR - Caltech's GIANT time series analysis uses GPS to correct orbital errors in InSAR - Zhen Liu's talking tomorrow on InSAR Time Series analysis

  20. Quelle préposition ?

    CERN Document Server

    Grevisse, Maurice

    1996-01-01

    Pour bien parler ou bien écrire, il faut avant tout posséder un bon vocabulaire, puis savoir bien remuer les mots, leur faire exprimer quelque chose et agencer adroitement les propositions. Il faut aussi - et cela n'est pas négligeable - amener congrûment les divers compléments des noms, des adjectifs ou des verbes ; quand ces compléments sont de construction indirecte, c'est-à-dire quand ils doivent être introduits par une préposition, on hésite parfois sur la bonne manière de les accrocher. Ne pas négliger le bon choix! Cela ne crée pas le style, sans doute, mais peut, pour une part, témoigner de sa bonne qualité.