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  1. Noninvasive identification of significant narrowing of the left main coronary artery by dipyridamole thallium scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikamori, T.; Doi, Y.L.; Yonezawa, Y.; Yamada, M.; Seo, H.; Ozawa, T.

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of dipyridamole thallium scintigraphy with low-level exercise for the identification of left main (LM) coronary artery disease (CAD), 466 consecutive patients with CAD were studied. Thirty-eight patients (8%) had LM stenosis (diameter narrowing greater than or equal to 50%). The LM scintigraphic pattern was present in 9 of 38 patients with LMCAD and 38 of 428 CAD patients without LMCAD (24 vs 9%; p less than 0.005). This pattern was present in 6 of 9 patients with LMCAD without right CAD and in only 3 of 29 patients with LM and right CAD (67 vs 10%; p = 0.0005). Patients with LMCAD had a higher incidence of premature cessation of low-level exercise (53 vs 21%; p less than 0.0001), chest pain (68 vs 48%; p less than 0.02), blood pressure decrease of greater than or equal to 20 mm Hg (44 vs 16%; p less than 0.002) and greater ST depression (0.17 ± 0.13 vs 0.06 ± 0.10 mV; p less than 0.001) during dipyridamole loading than patients without LMCAD. Stepwise discriminant analysis revealed that the LM scintigraphic pattern and markers of ischemia during dipyridamole loading best identified (p less than 0.0001) patients with LMCAD without right CAD (sensitivity 67%, specificity 91%), but this predictability is no better than the LM scintigraphic pattern alone. The combination of clinical markers of ischemia during dipyridamole loading and scintigraphic findings of diffuse slow washout, extensive fixed defects and the LM pattern best identified (p less than 0.0001) patients with LM and right CAD (sensitivity 72%, specificity 80%)

  2. Main geological problems of Western Anatolia and the significance of the Bodrum magmatic province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Y

    2008-01-01

    Western Anatolian Extended Terrain in Turkey stretches from the Balkan region in the north to the Taurides in the south. It contains a number of major tectonic entities including the Menderes Massif, the volcanic associations and the Neogene terrestrial cover sequence. In recent years the initiation of the N-S extension is viewed as a major factor responsible from the development of all these tectonic units. The initiation of the extension is regarded going back to the early Oligocene period. The data derived from our mapping project reveal that these units have developed under different tectonic regimes during different periods; for example the Menderes Massif, began to have formed during the late Creteceous and its development continued into the Miocene period. The Magmatic associations were formed in two separated phases; the early phase began during the Eocene- Oligocene time long before the extension started. The late phase is closely associated with the extensional regime. The Neogene sedimentary successions have 3 stratigraphic units separated by unconformities. The field data displays further that the N-S extension has not been uninterrupted. A major interruption occurred during the Early Pliocene period, and a region-wide, flat-lying erosional surface, as a key horizon, was developed

  3. VNTR analysis reveals unexpected genetic diversity within Mycoplasma agalactiae, the main causative agent of contagious agalactia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayling Roger D

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma agalactiae is the main cause of contagious agalactia, a serious disease of sheep and goats, which has major clinical and economic impacts. Previous studies of M. agalactiae have shown it to be unusually homogeneous and there are currently no available epidemiological techniques which enable a high degree of strain differentiation. Results We have developed variable number tandem repeat (VNTR analysis using the sequenced genome of the M. agalactiae type strain PG2. The PG2 genome was found to be replete with tandem repeat sequences and 4 were chosen for further analysis. VNTR 5 was located within the hypothetical protein MAG6170 a predicted lipoprotein. VNTR 14 was intergenic between the hypothetical protein MAG3350 and the hypothetical protein MAG3340. VNTR 17 was intergenic between the hypothetical protein MAG4060 and the hypothetical protein MAG4070 and VNTR 19 spanned the 5' end of the pseudogene for a lipoprotein MAG4310 and the 3' end of the hypothetical lipoprotein MAG4320. We have investigated the genetic diversity of 88 M. agalactiae isolates of wide geographic origin using VNTR analysis and compared it with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. Simpson's index of diversity was calculated to be 0.324 for PFGE and 0.574 for VNTR analysis. VNTR analysis revealed unexpected diversity within M. agalactiae with 9 different VNTR types discovered. Some correlation was found between geographical origin and the VNTR type of the isolates. Conclusion VNTR analysis represents a useful, rapid first-line test for use in molecular epidemiological analysis of M. agalactiae for outbreak tracing and control.

  4. Phylogeographic analysis reveals significant spatial genetic structure of Incarvillea sinensis as a product of mountain building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shaotian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incarvillea sinensis is widely distributed from Southwest China to Northeast China and in the Russian Far East. The distribution of this species was thought to be influenced by the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Quaternary glaciation. To reveal the imprints of geological events on the spatial genetic structure of Incarvillea sinensis, we examined two cpDNA segments ( trnH- psbA and trnS- trnfM in 705 individuals from 47 localities. Results A total of 16 haplotypes was identified, and significant genetic differentiation was revealed (GST =0.843, NST = 0.975, P  Conclusions The results revealed that the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau likely resulted in the significant divergence between the lineage in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the other one outside this area. The diverse niches in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau created a wide spectrum of habitats to accumulate and accommodate new mutations. The features of genetic diversity of populations outside the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau seemed to reveal the imprints of extinction during the Glacial and the interglacial and postglacial recolonization. Our study is a typical case of the significance of the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Quaternary Glacial in spatial genetic structure of eastern Asian plants, and sheds new light on the evolution of biodiversity in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau at the intraspecies level.

  5. The kilometer-sized Main Belt asteroid population revealed by Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, E. L.; Mizuno, D. R.; Shenoy, S. S.; Woodward, C. E.; Carey, S. J.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Kraemer, K. E.; Price, S. D.

    2015-06-01

    Aims: Multi-epoch Spitzer Space Telescope 24 μm data is utilized from the MIPSGAL and Taurus Legacy surveys to detect asteroids based on their relative motion. Methods: Infrared detections are matched to known asteroids and average diameters and albedos are derived using the near Earth asteroid thermal model (NEATM) for 1865 asteroids ranging in size from 0.2 to 169 km. A small subsample of these objects was also detected by IRAS or MSX and the single wavelength albedo and diameter fits derived from these data are within the uncertainties of the IRAS and/or MSX derived albedos and diameters and available occultation diameters, which demonstrates the robustness of our technique. Results: The mean geometric albedo of the small Main Belt asteroids in this sample is pV = 0.134 with a sample standard deviation of 0.106. The albedo distribution of this sample is far more diverse than the IRAS or MSX samples. The cumulative size-frequency distribution of asteroids in the Main Belt at small diameters is directly derived and a 3σ deviation from the fitted size-frequency distribution slope is found near 8 km. Completeness limits of the optical and infrared surveys are discussed. Tables 1-3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/578/A42

  6. Design and su pply of main control rooms for nuclear progra mme in China Tecnatom has played a significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rejas, L.; Martinez, V.

    2016-01-01

    Tecnatom has played a significant role in the challenging energy development programme in China, which expects to increase the production of nuclear energy in 150 GWe in 2030. Tecnatom scope of work consisted of the design and supply of 10 main control rooms for Fuqing 1-4, Fangjiashan 1-2, Hainan 1-2 and Yangjiang 5-6 nuclear power plants. These projects have reinforced Tecnatom capabilities on human factors engineering, operation environments design, equipment qualification, fabrication, testing and installation among others, in an international and complex environment, with very tight schedules, achieving very successful results. (Author)

  7. Design and su pply of main control rooms for nuclear progra mme in China Tecnatom has played a significant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejas, L.; Martinez, V.

    2016-07-01

    Tecnatom has played a significant role in the challenging energy development programme in China, which expects to increase the production of nuclear energy in 150 GWe in 2030. Tecnatom scope of work consisted of the design and supply of 10 main control rooms for Fuqing 1-4, Fangjiashan 1-2, Hainan 1-2 and Yangjiang 5-6 nuclear power plants. These projects have reinforced Tecnatom capabilities on human factors engineering, operation environments design, equipment qualification, fabrication, testing and installation among others, in an international and complex environment, with very tight schedules, achieving very successful results. (Author)

  8. Genome scan for nonadditive heterotic trait loci reveals mainly underdominant effects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiba, Efrat; Glikaite, Ilana; Levy, Yael; Pasternak, Zohar; Fridman, Eyal

    2016-04-01

    The overdominant model of heterosis explains the superior phenotype of hybrids by synergistic allelic interaction within heterozygous loci. To map such genetic variation in yeast, we used a population doubling time dataset of Saccharomyces cerevisiae 16 × 16 diallel and searched for major contributing heterotic trait loci (HTL). Heterosis was observed for the majority of hybrids, as they surpassed their best parent growth rate. However, most of the local heterozygous loci identified by genome scan were surprisingly underdominant, i.e., reduced growth. We speculated that in these loci adverse effects on growth resulted from incompatible allelic interactions. To test this assumption, we eliminated these allelic interactions by creating hybrids with local hemizygosity for the underdominant HTLs, as well as for control random loci. Growth of hybrids was indeed elevated for most hemizygous to HTL genes but not for control genes, hence validating the results of our genome scan. Assessing the consequences of local heterozygosity by reciprocal hemizygosity and allele replacement assays revealed the influence of genetic background on the underdominant effects of HTLs. Overall, this genome-wide study on a multi-parental hybrid population provides a strong argument against single gene overdominance as a major contributor to heterosis, and favors the dominance complementation model.

  9. Genetic dissection of pheromone processing reveals main olfactory system-mediated social behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Tomohiko; Hattori, Tatsuya; Asaba, Akari; Inoue, Naokazu; Kanomata, Nobuhiro; Kikusui, Takefumi; Kobayakawa, Reiko; Kobayakawa, Ko

    2015-01-20

    Most mammals have two major olfactory subsystems: the main olfactory system (MOS) and vomeronasal system (VNS). It is now widely accepted that the range of pheromones that control social behaviors are processed by both the VNS and the MOS. However, the functional contributions of each subsystem in social behavior remain unclear. To genetically dissociate the MOS and VNS functions, we established two conditional knockout mouse lines that led to either loss-of-function in the entire MOS or in the dorsal MOS. Mice with whole-MOS loss-of-function displayed severe defects in active sniffing and poor survival through the neonatal period. In contrast, when loss-of-function was confined to the dorsal MOB, sniffing behavior, pheromone recognition, and VNS activity were maintained. However, defects in a wide spectrum of social behaviors were observed: attraction to female urine and the accompanying ultrasonic vocalizations, chemoinvestigatory preference, aggression, maternal behaviors, and risk-assessment behaviors in response to an alarm pheromone. Functional dissociation of pheromone detection and pheromonal induction of behaviors showed the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON)-regulated social behaviors downstream from the MOS. Lesion analysis and neural activation mapping showed pheromonal activation in multiple amygdaloid and hypothalamic nuclei, important regions for the expression of social behavior, was dependent on MOS and AON functions. Identification of the MOS-AON-mediated pheromone pathway may provide insights into pheromone signaling in animals that do not possess a functional VNS, including humans.

  10. Transcriptome Sequencing Revealed Significant Alteration of Cortical Promoter Usage and Splicing in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing Qin; Wang, Xi; Beveridge, Natalie J.; Tooney, Paul A.; Scott, Rodney J.; Carr, Vaughan J.; Cairns, Murray J.

    2012-01-01

    Background While hybridization based analysis of the cortical transcriptome has provided important insight into the neuropathology of schizophrenia, it represents a restricted view of disease-associated gene activity based on predetermined probes. By contrast, sequencing technology can provide un-biased analysis of transcription at nucleotide resolution. Here we use this approach to investigate schizophrenia-associated cortical gene expression. Methodology/Principal Findings The data was generated from 76 bp reads of RNA-Seq, aligned to the reference genome and assembled into transcripts for quantification of exons, splice variants and alternative promoters in postmortem superior temporal gyrus (STG/BA22) from 9 male subjects with schizophrenia and 9 matched non-psychiatric controls. Differentially expressed genes were then subjected to further sequence and functional group analysis. The output, amounting to more than 38 Gb of sequence, revealed significant alteration of gene expression including many previously shown to be associated with schizophrenia. Gene ontology enrichment analysis followed by functional map construction identified three functional clusters highly relevant to schizophrenia including neurotransmission related functions, synaptic vesicle trafficking, and neural development. Significantly, more than 2000 genes displayed schizophrenia-associated alternative promoter usage and more than 1000 genes showed differential splicing (FDRschizophrenia-associated transcriptional diversity within the STG, and revealed variants with important implications for the complex pathophysiology of schizophrenia. PMID:22558445

  11. Transcriptome sequencing revealed significant alteration of cortical promoter usage and splicing in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Qin Wu

    Full Text Available While hybridization based analysis of the cortical transcriptome has provided important insight into the neuropathology of schizophrenia, it represents a restricted view of disease-associated gene activity based on predetermined probes. By contrast, sequencing technology can provide un-biased analysis of transcription at nucleotide resolution. Here we use this approach to investigate schizophrenia-associated cortical gene expression.The data was generated from 76 bp reads of RNA-Seq, aligned to the reference genome and assembled into transcripts for quantification of exons, splice variants and alternative promoters in postmortem superior temporal gyrus (STG/BA22 from 9 male subjects with schizophrenia and 9 matched non-psychiatric controls. Differentially expressed genes were then subjected to further sequence and functional group analysis. The output, amounting to more than 38 Gb of sequence, revealed significant alteration of gene expression including many previously shown to be associated with schizophrenia. Gene ontology enrichment analysis followed by functional map construction identified three functional clusters highly relevant to schizophrenia including neurotransmission related functions, synaptic vesicle trafficking, and neural development. Significantly, more than 2000 genes displayed schizophrenia-associated alternative promoter usage and more than 1000 genes showed differential splicing (FDR<0.05. Both types of transcriptional isoforms were exemplified by reads aligned to the neurodevelopmentally significant doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1 gene.This study provided the first deep and un-biased analysis of schizophrenia-associated transcriptional diversity within the STG, and revealed variants with important implications for the complex pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  12. Seed metabolomic study reveals significant metabolite variations and correlations among different soybean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong; Rao, Jun; Shi, Jianxin; Hu, Chaoyang; Cheng, Fang; Wilson, Zoe A; Zhang, Dabing; Quan, Sheng

    2014-09-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the world's major crops, and soybean seeds are a rich and important resource for proteins and oils. While "omics" studies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, have been widely applied in soybean molecular research, fewer metabolomic studies have been conducted for large-scale detection of low molecular weight metabolites, especially in soybean seeds. In this study, we investigated the seed metabolomes of 29 common soybean cultivars through combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred sixty-nine named metabolites were identified and subsequently used to construct a metabolic network of mature soybean seed. Among the 169 detected metabolites, 104 were found to be significantly variable in their levels across tested cultivars. Metabolite markers that could be used to distinguish genetically related soybean cultivars were also identified, and metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed some significant associations within the same or among different metabolite groups. Findings from this work may potentially provide the basis for further studies on both soybean seed metabolism and metabolic engineering to improve soybean seed quality and yield. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Seed metabolomic study reveals significant metabolite variations and correlations among different soybean cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Lin; Jun Rao; Jianxin Shi; Chaoyang Hu; Fang Cheng; Zoe AWilson; Dabing Zhang; Sheng Quan

    2014-01-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the world’s major crops, and soybean seeds are a rich and important resource for proteins and oils. While “omics”studies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, have been widely applied in soybean molecular research, fewer metabolomic studies have been conducted for large-scale detection of low molecular weight metabolites, especial y in soybean seeds. In this study, we investigated the seed metabolomes of 29 common soybean cultivars through combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred sixty-nine named metabolites were identified and subsequently used to construct a metabolic network of mature soybean seed. Among the 169 detected metabolites, 104 were found to be significantly variable in their levels across tested cultivars. Metabolite markers that could be used to distinguish genetical y related soybean cultivars were also identified, and metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed some significant associations within the same or among different metabolite groups. Findings from this work may potentially provide the basis for further studies on both soybean seed metabolism and metabolic engineering to improve soybean seed quality and yield.

  14. DNA entropy reveals a significant difference in complexity between housekeeping and tissue specific gene promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David; Finan, Chris; Newport, Melanie J; Jones, Susan

    2015-10-01

    The complexity of DNA can be quantified using estimates of entropy. Variation in DNA complexity is expected between the promoters of genes with different transcriptional mechanisms; namely housekeeping (HK) and tissue specific (TS). The former are transcribed constitutively to maintain general cellular functions, and the latter are transcribed in restricted tissue and cells types for specific molecular events. It is known that promoter features in the human genome are related to tissue specificity, but this has been difficult to quantify on a genomic scale. If entropy effectively quantifies DNA complexity, calculating the entropies of HK and TS gene promoters as profiles may reveal significant differences. Entropy profiles were calculated for a total dataset of 12,003 human gene promoters and for 501 housekeeping (HK) and 587 tissue specific (TS) human gene promoters. The mean profiles show the TS promoters have a significantly lower entropy (pentropy distributions for the 3 datasets show that promoter entropies could be used to identify novel HK genes. Functional features comprise DNA sequence patterns that are non-random and hence they have lower entropies. The lower entropy of TS gene promoters can be explained by a higher density of positive and negative regulatory elements, required for genes with complex spatial and temporary expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Survey of French spine surgeons reveals significant variability in spine trauma practices in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonjon, G; Grelat, M; Dhenin, A; Dauzac, C; Lonjon, N; Kepler, C K; Vaccaro, A R

    2015-02-01

    In France, attempts to define common ground during spine surgery meetings have revealed significant variability in clinical practices across different schools of surgery and the two specialities involved in spine surgery, namely, neurosurgery and orthopaedic surgery. To objectively characterise this variability by performing a survey based on a fictitious spine trauma case. Our working hypothesis was that significant variability existed in trauma practices and that this variability was related to a lack of strong scientific evidence in spine trauma care. We performed a cross-sectional survey based on a clinical vignette describing a 31-year-old male with an L1 burst fracture and neurologic symptoms (numbness). Surgeons received the vignette and a 14-item questionnaire on the management of this patient. For each question, surgeons had to choose among five possible answers. Differences in answers across surgeons were assessed using the Index of Qualitative Variability (IQV), in which 0 indicates no variability and 1 maximal variability. Surgeons also received a questionnaire about their demographics and surgical experience. Of 405 invited spine surgeons, 200 responded to the survey. Five questions had an IQV greater than 0.9, seven an IQV between 0.5 and 0.9, and two an IQV lower than 0.5. Variability was greatest about the need for MRI (IQV=0.93), degree of urgency (IQV=0.93), need for fusion (IQV=0.92), need for post-operative bracing (IQV=0.91), and routine removal of instrumentation (IQV=0.94). Variability was lowest for questions about the need for surgery (IQV=0.42) and use of the posterior approach (IQV=0.36). Answers were influenced by surgeon specialty, age, experience level, and type of centre. Clinical practice regarding spine trauma varies widely in France. Little published evidence is available on which to base recommendations that would diminish this variability. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. 78 FR 55772 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Beauty Revealed: Images of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ..., 1965 (79 Stat. 985; 22 U.S.C. 2459), Executive Order 12047 of March 27, 1978, the Foreign Affairs...). The mailing address is U.S. Department of State, SA-5, L/PD, Fifth Floor (Suite 5H03), Washington, DC... Determinations: ``Beauty Revealed: Images of Women in Qing Dynasty Chinese Painting'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby...

  17. 77 FR 34121 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Revealing the African...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... exhibition ``Revealing the African Presence in Renaissance Europe'' imported from abroad for temporary... exhibit objects at The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, MD, from on or about October 14, 2012, until on or about January 21, 2013; at the Princeton University Art Museum, Princeton, NJ, from on or about February...

  18. Dynamic metabolome profiling reveals significant metabolic changes during grain development of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Shoumin; Dong, Kun; Deng, Xiong; Zhou, Jiaxing; Xu, Xuexin; Han, Caixia; Zhang, Wenying; Xu, Yanhao; Wang, Zhimin; Yan, Yueming

    2016-08-01

    Metabolites in wheat grains greatly influence nutritional values. Wheat provides proteins, minerals, B-group vitamins and dietary fiber to humans. These metabolites are important to human health. However, the metabolome of the grain during the development of bread wheat has not been studied so far. In this work the first dynamic metabolome of the developing grain of the elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar Zhongmai 175 was analyzed, using non-targeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for metabolite profiling. In total, 74 metabolites were identified over the grain developmental stages. Metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed that the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids, amines and lipids was interrelated. An integrated metabolic map revealed a distinct regulatory profile. The results provide information that can be used by metabolic engineers and molecular breeders to improve wheat grain quality. The present metabolome approach identified dynamic changes in metabolite levels, and correlations among such levels, in developing seeds. The comprehensive metabolic map may be useful when breeding programs seek to improve grain quality. The work highlights the utility of GC/MS-based metabolomics, in conjunction with univariate and multivariate data analysis, when it is sought to understand metabolic changes in developing seeds. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plants reveal diverse yeast and protist communities of potential significance in biofouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liébana, Raquel; Arregui, Lucía; Belda, Ignacio; Gamella, Luis; Santos, Antonio; Marquina, Domingo; Serrano, Susana

    2015-01-01

    The yeast community was studied in a municipal full-scale membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plant (MBR-WWTP). The unexpectedly high diversity of yeasts indicated that the activated sludge formed a suitable environment for them to proliferate, with cellular concentrations of 2.2 ± 0.8 × 10(3) CFU ml(-1). Sixteen species of seven genera were present in the biological reactor, with Ascomycetes being the most prevalent group (93%). Most isolates were able to grow in a synthetic wastewater medium, adhere to polyethylene surfaces, and develop biofilms of variable complexity. The relationship between yeast populations and the protists in the MBR-WWTP was also studied, revealing that some protist species preyed on and ingested yeasts. These results suggest that yeast populations may play a role in the food web of a WWTP and, to some extent, contribute to membrane biofouling in MBR systems.

  20. The nitrogen responsive transcriptome in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) reveals significant gene regulatory motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, José Héctor; Tai, Helen H; Lagüe, Martin; Zebarth, Bernie J; Strömvik, Martina V

    2016-05-19

    Nitrogen (N) is the most important nutrient for the growth of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Foliar gene expression in potato plants with and without N supplementation at 180 kg N ha(-1) was compared at mid-season. Genes with consistent differences in foliar expression due to N supplementation over three cultivars and two developmental time points were examined. In total, thirty genes were found to be over-expressed and nine genes were found to be under-expressed with supplemented N. Functional relationships between over-expressed genes were found. The main metabolic pathway represented among differentially expressed genes was amino acid metabolism. The 1000 bp upstream flanking regions of the differentially expressed genes were analysed and nine overrepresented motifs were found using three motif discovery algorithms (Seeder, Weeder and MEME). These results point to coordinated gene regulation at the transcriptional level controlling steady state potato responses to N sufficiency.

  1. Significant Locus and Metabolic Genetic Correlations Revealed in Genome-Wide Association Study of Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Laramie; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Gaspar, Helena; Walters, Raymond; Goldstein, Jackie; Anttila, Verneri; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Ripke, Stephan; Thornton, Laura; Hinney, Anke; Daly, Mark; Sullivan, Patrick F; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Breen, Gerome; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-09-01

    The authors conducted a genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa and calculated genetic correlations with a series of psychiatric, educational, and metabolic phenotypes. Following uniform quality control and imputation procedures using the 1000 Genomes Project (phase 3) in 12 case-control cohorts comprising 3,495 anorexia nervosa cases and 10,982 controls, the authors performed standard association analysis followed by a meta-analysis across cohorts. Linkage disequilibrium score regression was used to calculate genome-wide common variant heritability (single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP]-based heritability [h 2 SNP ]), partitioned heritability, and genetic correlations (r g ) between anorexia nervosa and 159 other phenotypes. Results were obtained for 10,641,224 SNPs and insertion-deletion variants with minor allele frequencies >1% and imputation quality scores >0.6. The h 2 SNP of anorexia nervosa was 0.20 (SE=0.02), suggesting that a substantial fraction of the twin-based heritability arises from common genetic variation. The authors identified one genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 12 (rs4622308) in a region harboring a previously reported type 1 diabetes and autoimmune disorder locus. Significant positive genetic correlations were observed between anorexia nervosa and schizophrenia, neuroticism, educational attainment, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and significant negative genetic correlations were observed between anorexia nervosa and body mass index, insulin, glucose, and lipid phenotypes. Anorexia nervosa is a complex heritable phenotype for which this study has uncovered the first genome-wide significant locus. Anorexia nervosa also has large and significant genetic correlations with both psychiatric phenotypes and metabolic traits. The study results encourage a reconceptualization of this frequently lethal disorder as one with both psychiatric and metabolic etiology.

  2. Pathophysiological Significance of Dermatan Sulfate Proteoglycans Revealed by Human Genetic Disorders

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    Shuji Mizumoto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The indispensable roles of dermatan sulfate-proteoglycans (DS-PGs have been demonstrated in various biological events including construction of the extracellular matrix and cell signaling through interactions with collagen and transforming growth factor-β, respectively. Defects in the core proteins of DS-PGs such as decorin and biglycan cause congenital stromal dystrophy of the cornea, spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, and Meester-Loeys syndrome. Furthermore, mutations in human genes encoding the glycosyltransferases, epimerases, and sulfotransferases responsible for the biosynthesis of DS chains cause connective tissue disorders including Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity characterized by skin hyperextensibility, joint hypermobility, and tissue fragility, and by severe skeletal disorders such as kyphoscoliosis, short trunk, dislocation, and joint laxity. Glycobiological approaches revealed that mutations in DS-biosynthetic enzymes cause reductions in enzymatic activities and in the amount of synthesized DS and also disrupt the formation of collagen bundles. This review focused on the growing number of glycobiological studies on recently reported genetic diseases caused by defects in the biosynthesis of DS and DS-PGs.

  3. Independent component analysis reveals new and biologically significant structures in micro array data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerla Srinivas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An alternative to standard approaches to uncover biologically meaningful structures in micro array data is to treat the data as a blind source separation (BSS problem. BSS attempts to separate a mixture of signals into their different sources and refers to the problem of recovering signals from several observed linear mixtures. In the context of micro array data, "sources" may correspond to specific cellular responses or to co-regulated genes. Results We applied independent component analysis (ICA to three different microarray data sets; two tumor data sets and one time series experiment. To obtain reliable components we used iterated ICA to estimate component centrotypes. We found that many of the low ranking components indeed may show a strong biological coherence and hence be of biological significance. Generally ICA achieved a higher resolution when compared with results based on correlated expression and a larger number of gene clusters with significantly enriched for gene ontology (GO categories. In addition, components characteristic for molecular subtypes and for tumors with specific chromosomal translocations were identified. ICA also identified more than one gene clusters significant for the same GO categories and hence disclosed a higher level of biological heterogeneity, even within coherent groups of genes. Conclusion Although the ICA approach primarily detects hidden variables, these surfaced as highly correlated genes in time series data and in one instance in the tumor data. This further strengthens the biological relevance of latent variables detected by ICA.

  4. Diurnal sampling reveals significant variation in CO2 emission from a tropical productive lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, P C J; Barbosa, F A R

    2014-08-01

    It is well accepted in the literature that lakes are generally net heterotrophic and supersaturated with CO2 because they receive allochthonous carbon inputs. However, autotrophy and CO2 undersaturation may happen for at least part of the time, especially in productive lakes. Since diurnal scale is particularly important to tropical lakes dynamics, we evaluated diurnal changes in pCO2 and CO2 flux across the air-water interface in a tropical productive lake in southeastern Brazil (Lake Carioca) over two consecutive days. Both pCO2 and CO2 flux were significantly different between day (9:00 to 17:00) and night (21:00 to 5:00) confirming the importance of this scale for CO2 dynamics in tropical lakes. Net heterotrophy and CO2 outgassing from the lake were registered only at night, while significant CO2 emission did not happen during the day. Dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature trends over the diurnal cycle indicated the dependence of CO2 dynamics on lake metabolism (respiration and photosynthesis). This study indicates the importance of considering the diurnal scale when examining CO2 emissions from tropical lakes.

  5. Melatonin Distribution Reveals Clues to Its Biological Significance in Basal Metazoans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopin, Modi; Levy, Oren

    2012-01-01

    Although nearly ubiquitous in nature, the precise biological significance of endogenous melatonin is poorly understood in phylogenetically basal taxa. In the present work, we describe insights into the functional role of melatonin at the most “basal” level of metazoan evolution. Hitherto unknown morphological determinants of melatonin distribution were evaluated in Nematostella vectensis by detecting melatonin immunoreactivity and examining the spatial gene expression patterns of putative melatonin biosynthetic and receptor elements that are located at opposing ends of the melatonin signaling pathway. Immuno-melatonin profiling indicated an elaborate interaction with reproductive tissues, reinforcing previous conjectures of a melatonin-responsive component in anthozoan reproduction. In situ hybridization (ISH) to putative melatonin receptor elements highlighted the possibility that the bioregulatory effects of melatonin in anthozoan reproduction may be mediated by interactions with membrane receptors, as in higher vertebrates. Another intriguing finding of the present study pertains to the prevalence of melatonin in centralized nervous structures. This pattern may be of great significance given that it 1) identifies an ancestral association between melatonin and key neuronal components and 2) potentially implies that certain effects of melatonin in basal species may be spread widely by regionalized nerve centers. PMID:23300630

  6. In vitro bioassays reveal that additives are significant contributors to the toxicity of commercial household pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Merwe, Jason P; Neale, Peta A; Melvin, Steven D; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2018-06-01

    Pesticides commonly used around households can contain additives of unknown concentrations and toxicity. Given the likelihood of these chemicals washing into urban waterways, it is important to understand the effects that these additives may have on aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to compare the toxicity of commercially available household pesticides to that of the active ingredient(s) alone. The toxicity of five household pesticides (three herbicides and two insecticides) was investigated using a bacterial cytotoxicity bioassay and an algal photosynthesis bioassay. The commercial products were up to an order of magnitude more toxic than the active ingredient(s) alone. In addition, two commercial products with the same listed active ingredients in the same ratio had a 600× difference in potency. These results clearly demonstrate that additives in commercial formulations are significant contributors to the toxicity of household pesticides. The toxicity of pesticides in aquatic systems is therefore likely underestimated by conventional chemical monitoring and risk assessment when only the active ingredients are considered. Regulators and customers should require more clarity from pesticide manufacturers about the nature and concentrations of not only the active ingredients, but also additives used in commercial formulations. In addition, monitoring programmes and chemical risk assessments schemes should develop a structured approach to assessing the toxic effects of commercial formulations, including additives, rather than simply those of the listed active ingredients. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Introduction of e-learning in dental radiology reveals significantly improved results in final examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckfessel, Sandra; Stühmer, Constantin; Bormann, Kai-Hendrik; Kupka, Thomas; Behrends, Marianne; Matthies, Herbert; Vaske, Bernhard; Stiesch, Meike; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Rücker, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Because a traditionally instructed dental radiology lecture course is very time-consuming and labour-intensive, online courseware, including an interactive-learning module, was implemented to support the lectures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of students who have worked with web-based courseware as well as the effect on their results in final examinations. Users (n(3+4)=138) had access to the e-program from any networked computer at any time. Two groups (n(3)=71, n(4)=67) had to pass a final exam after using the e-course. Results were compared with two groups (n(1)=42, n(2)=48) who had studied the same content by attending traditional lectures. In addition a survey of the students was statistically evaluated. Most of the respondents reported a positive attitude towards e-learning and would have appreciated more access to computer-assisted instruction. Two years after initiating the e-course the failure rate in the final examination dropped significantly, from 40% to less than 2%. The very positive response to the e-program and improved test scores demonstrated the effectiveness of our e-course as a learning aid. Interactive modules in step with clinical practice provided learning that is not achieved by traditional teaching methods alone. To what extent staff savings are possible is part of a further study. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rare human papillomavirus 16 E6 variants reveal significant oncogenic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommasino Massimo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to determine whether low prevalence human papillomavirus (HPV 16 E6 variants differ from high prevalence types in their functional abilities. We evaluated functions relevant to carcinogenesis for the rarely-detected European variants R8Q, R10G and R48W as compared to the commonly detected L83V. Human immortalized keratinocytes (NIKS stably transduced with the E6 variants were used in most functional assays. Low and high prevalence E6 variants displayed similar abilities in abrogation of growth arrest and inhibition of p53 elevation induced by actinomycin D. Differences were detected in the abilities to dysregulate stratification and differentiation of NIKS in organotypic raft cultures, modulate detachment induced apoptosis (anoikis and hyperactivate Wnt signaling. No distinctive phenotype could be assigned to include all rare variants. Like L83V, raft cultures derived from variants R10G and R48W similarly induced hyperplasia and aberrantly expressed keratin 5 in the suprabasal compartment with significantly lower expression of keratin 10. Unlike L83V, both variants, and particularly R48W, induced increased levels of anoikis upon suspension in semisolid medium. R8Q induced a unique phenotype characterized by thin organotypic raft cultures, low expression of keratin 10, and high expression of keratins 5 and 14 throughout all raft layers. Interestingly, in a reporter based assay R8Q exhibited a higher ability to augment TCF/β-catenin transcription. The data suggests that differences in E6 variant prevalence in cervical carcinoma may not be related to the carcinogenic potential of the E6 protein.

  9. Targeted Gene-Silencing Reveals the Functional Significance of Myocardin Signaling in the Failing Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrado, Mario; Iglesias, Raquel; Centeno, Alberto; López, Eduardo; Mikhailov, Alexander T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Myocardin (MYOCD), a potent transcriptional coactivator of smooth muscle (SM) and cardiac genes, is upregulated in failing myocardium in animal models and human end-stage heart failure (HF). However, the molecular and functional consequences of myocd upregulation in HF are still unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings The goal of the present study was to investigate if targeted inhibition of upregulated expression of myocd could influence failing heart gene expression and function. To this end, we used the doxorubicin (Dox)-induced diastolic HF (DHF) model in neonatal piglets, in which, as we show, not only myocd but also myocd-dependent SM-marker genes are highly activated in failing left ventricular (LV) myocardium. In this model, intra-myocardial delivery of short-hairpin RNAs, designed to target myocd variants expressed in porcine heart, leads on day 2 post-delivery to: (1) a decrease in the activated expression of myocd and myocd-dependent SM-marker genes in failing myocardium to levels seen in healthy control animals, (2) amelioration of impaired diastolic dysfunction, and (3) higher survival rates of DHF piglets. The posterior restoration of elevated myocd expression (on day 7 post-delivery) led to overexpression of myocd-dependent SM-marker genes in failing LV-myocardium that was associated with a return to altered diastolic function. Conclusions/Significance These data provide the first evidence that a moderate inhibition (e.g., normalization) of the activated MYOCD signaling in the diseased heart may be promising from a therapeutic point of view. PMID:22028870

  10. Targeted gene-silencing reveals the functional significance of myocardin signaling in the failing heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Torrado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myocardin (MYOCD, a potent transcriptional coactivator of smooth muscle (SM and cardiac genes, is upregulated in failing myocardium in animal models and human end-stage heart failure (HF. However, the molecular and functional consequences of myocd upregulation in HF are still unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The goal of the present study was to investigate if targeted inhibition of upregulated expression of myocd could influence failing heart gene expression and function. To this end, we used the doxorubicin (Dox-induced diastolic HF (DHF model in neonatal piglets, in which, as we show, not only myocd but also myocd-dependent SM-marker genes are highly activated in failing left ventricular (LV myocardium. In this model, intra-myocardial delivery of short-hairpin RNAs, designed to target myocd variants expressed in porcine heart, leads on day 2 post-delivery to: (1 a decrease in the activated expression of myocd and myocd-dependent SM-marker genes in failing myocardium to levels seen in healthy control animals, (2 amelioration of impaired diastolic dysfunction, and (3 higher survival rates of DHF piglets. The posterior restoration of elevated myocd expression (on day 7 post-delivery led to overexpression of myocd-dependent SM-marker genes in failing LV-myocardium that was associated with a return to altered diastolic function. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data provide the first evidence that a moderate inhibition (e.g., normalization of the activated MYOCD signaling in the diseased heart may be promising from a therapeutic point of view.

  11. Frequency of significant three vessel coronary artery disease and left main stem disease in acute coronary syndrome patients having high LDL cholesterol level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeb, S.; Achakzai, A.S.; Zeb, J.; Zeb, R.; Adil, M.; Jan, H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To calculate the frequency of significant three-vessel coronary artery and left main stem disease in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome having high LDL cholesterol level. Methodology: This observational study was performed in Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan from June 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013. All consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography admitted with acute coronary syndrome within past 30 days and having LDL cholesterol more than 130mg/dl were included in the study. Demographic data was noted. The data was analyzed by using software SPSS version 16. Results: A total number of 206 patients were included in the study. Mean age was 51.25+-8.4 years. Of them, 139(67.5%) were male and 67(32.5%) female. Hypertension was found in 87(42.2%) patients, diabetes was found in 71(34.5%) patients, 56(27.2%) were smokers, family history of CAD was present in 39(18.9%) patients. The incidence of significant three vessel coronary artery disease was 52(25.2%) and left main stem disease were present in 15(7.2%). Out of 67(32.4%) with severe triple vessel and Left main stem disease, males were 51(76.1%) and females were 16(23.9%). Patients with significant three vessel and left main stem disease were more frequently males and younger. Conclusion: Patients having acute coronary syndrome with High LDL levels are more frequently have significant three vessel and Left main stem disease.

  12. A genome scan revealed significant associations of growth traits with a major QTL and GHR2 in tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Sun, Fei; Xia, Jun Hong; Li, Jian; Fu, Gui Hong; Lin, Grace; Tu, Rong Jian; Wan, Zi Yi; Quek, Delia; Yue, Gen Hua

    2014-01-01

    Growth is an important trait in animal breeding. However, the genetic effects underpinning fish growth variability are still poorly understood. QTL mapping and analysis of candidate genes are effective methods to address this issue. We conducted a genome-wide QTL analysis for growth in tilapia. A total of 10, 7 and 8 significant QTLs were identified for body weight, total length and standard length at 140 dph, respectively. The majority of these QTLs were sex-specific. One major QTL for growth traits was identified in the sex-determining locus in LG1, explaining 71.7%, 67.2% and 64.9% of the phenotypic variation (PV) of body weight, total length and standard length, respectively. In addition, a candidate gene GHR2 in a QTL was significantly associated with body weight, explaining 13.1% of PV. Real-time qPCR revealed that different genotypes at the GHR2 locus influenced the IGF-1 expression level. The markers located in the major QTL for growth traits could be used in marker-assisted selection of tilapia. The associations between GHR2 variants and growth traits suggest that the GHR2 gene should be an important gene that explains the difference in growth among tilapia species. PMID:25435025

  13. The history of nursing in the home: revealing the significance of place in the expression of moral agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Elizabeth

    2002-06-01

    The history of nursing in the home: revealing the significance of place in the expression of moral agency The relationship between place and moral agency in home care nursing is explored in this paper. The notion of place is argued to have relevance to moral agency beyond moral context. This argument is theoretically located in feminist ethics and human geography and is supported through an examination of historical documents (1900-33) that describe the experiences and insights of American home care/private duty nurses or that are related to nursing ethics. Specifically, the role of place in inhibiting and enhancing care, justice, good relationships, and power in the practice of private duty nurses is explored. Several implications for current nursing ethics come out of this analysis. (i) The moral agency of nurses is highly nuanced. It is not only structured by nurses' relationships to patients and health professionals, i.e. moral context, it is also structured by the place of nursing care. (ii) Place has the potential to limit and enhance the power of nurses. (iii) Some aspects of nursing's conception of the good, such as what constitutes a good nurse-patient relationship, are historically and geographically relative.

  14. The study of the dynamics of migration main radiologically significant isotopes in the near and far field Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondarkov, M.; Bondarkov, D.; Maksymenko, A. [Chornobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology (Ukraine); Zheltonozhskaya, M.; Zheltonozhsky, V. [Institute for nuclear research (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    The study of the migration of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Am and Pu isotopes in soil near Chernobyl nuclear power plant area, as well as the Chernigov region, Ukraine is described. Experiments were conducted using a semiconductor spectrometry and radiochemical separation of isotopes needed. The experimental data obtained were processed using a mathematical model that takes into account in convective component (fit parameter V-- linear velocity of radionuclide movement dependent upon soil moisture) and diffusive one (fit parameter D- diffusion coefficient) migration of isotopes. The parameter values in V and D of migration, in turn, allow us to estimate halftime of decontamination top five-centimeter layer of soil. The results obtained in this paper halftime of decontamination for the various isotopes and their comparison with those obtained by us and by other authors in the past 10-20 years, confirms the trend previously noticed by a significant speeding migration Radiostrontium compared with Radiocesium. It is shown that for all the types studied soils in the late phase of Chernobyl accident halftime of decontamination of the top 5 - cm soil layer for radiostrontium, and for radioactive cesium in the order of magnitude or more greater than the period of the physical half-life of the radionuclide that is, matching in the late phase of the accident change the exposure dose of radiation is mainly determined by the physical decay of the radionuclide. According to the estimated periods decontamination upper soil horizons of different migration mobility of radionuclides in soils exclusion zone reduced in number: {sup 90}Sr> {sup 137}Cs> {sup 241}Am ≥ {sup 238-240}Pu, migration mobility of isotopes of transuranic elements is very low. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  15. Pure versus combined Merkel cell carcinomas: immunohistochemical evaluation of cellular proteins (p53, Bcl-2, and c-kit) reveals significant overexpression of p53 in combined tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jonathan H; Fleming, Kirsten E; Ly, Thai Yen; Pasternak, Sylvia; Godlewski, Marek; Doucette, Steve; Walsh, Noreen M

    2015-09-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus is of oncogenic significance in approximately 80% of Merkel cell carcinomas. Morphological subcategories of the tumor differ in regard to viral status, the rare combined type being uniformly virus negative and the predominant pure type being mainly virus positive. Indications that different biological subsets of the tumor exist led us to explore this diversity. In an Eastern Canadian cohort of cases (75 patients; mean age, 76 years [range, 43-91]; male/female ratio, 43:32; 51 [68%] pure and 24 [34%] combined tumors), we semiquantitatively compared the immunohistochemical expression of 3 cellular proteins (p53, Bcl-2, and c-kit) in pure versus combined groups. Viral status was known in a subset of cases. The significant overexpression of p53 in the combined group (mean [SD], 153.8 [117.8] versus 121.6 [77.9]; P = .01) and the increased epidermal expression of this protein (p53 patches) in the same group lend credence to a primary etiologic role for sun damage in these cases. Expression of Bcl-2 and c-kit did not differ significantly between the 2 morphological groups. A relative increase in c-kit expression was significantly associated with a virus-negative status (median [interquartile range], 100 [60-115] versus 70 [0-100]; P = .03). Emerging data reveal divergent biological pathways in Merkel cell carcinoma, each with a characteristic immunohistochemical profile. Virus-positive tumors (all pure) exhibit high retinoblastoma protein and low p53 expression, whereas virus-negative cases (few pure and all combined) show high p53 and relatively high c-kit expression. The potential biological implications of this dichotomy call for consistent stratification of these tumors in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Light and electron microscopy of the European beaver (Castor fiber) stomach reveal unique morphological features with possible general biological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowska, Natalia; Lewczuk, Bogdan; Petryński, Wojciech; Palkowska, Katarzyna; Prusik, Magdalena; Targońska, Krystyna; Giżejewski, Zygmunt; Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical, histological, and ultrastructural studies of the European beaver stomach revealed several unique morphological features. The prominent attribute of its gross morphology was the cardiogastric gland (CGG), located near the oesophageal entrance. Light microscopy showed that the CGG was formed by invaginations of the mucosa into the submucosa, which contained densely packed proper gastric glands comprised primarily of parietal and chief cells. Mucous neck cells represented beaver stomach was the presence of specific mucus with a thickness up to 950 µm (in frozen, unfixed sections) that coated the mucosa. Our observations suggest that the formation of this mucus is complex and includes the secretory granule accumulation in the cytoplasm of pit cells, the granule aggregation inside cells, and the incorporation of degenerating cells into the mucus.

  17. Whole blood transcriptional profiling reveals significant down-regulation of human leukocyte antigen class I and II genes in essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera and myelofibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibe; Riley, Caroline Hasselbalch; Thomassen, Mads

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression profiling studies in the Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms have revealed significant deregulation of several immune and inflammation genes that might be of importance for clonal evolution due to defective tumor immune surveillance. Other mechanisms might b...

  18. Cytogenetical and morphological features reveal significant differences among Venezuelan and Brazilian samples of Mugil curema (Teleostei: Mugilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Nirchio

    Full Text Available Karyotype of M. curema from the Gulf of Mexico and Brazil have been reported as possessing chromosome complement with 2n=28 and FN=48, whereas specimens from Venezuela has been reported as possessing a diploid number 2n=24 and a conserved FN (48. Although at first sight this variation suggests the presence of a chromosomal intraspecific (interpopulational variability, the possibility that we are dealing with two different species was examined. This work revisit the karyotypes of M. curema from Venezuela and Brazil, including new data on C-banding, and NOR localization, and compares morphologic characteristics of samples from both localities. Thus, besides diploid number, the constitutive heterochromatin distribution and NORs location, mark other differences between M. curema Cytotype 1 (2n=28; FN=48 and Cytotype 2 (2n=24; NF=48. Moreover, morphologic comparison revealed differences in the scale counts and pectoral fin rays: 35 scales in the middle body line and 15 pectoral fin rays in specimens possessing the karyotype 2n=28, compared with 37-39 scales in the middle body line and 17 pectoral fin rays in specimens with the karyotype 2n=24. These differences lead us to suggest that both cytotypes are not related merely to geographic polytipic variations but could correspond to different species.

  19. Networks of Food Sharing Reveal the Functional Significance of Multilevel Sociality in Two Hunter-Gatherer Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyble, Mark; Thompson, James; Smith, Daniel; Salali, Gul Deniz; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Page, Abigail E; Vinicuis, Lucio; Mace, Ruth; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2016-08-08

    Like many other mammalian and primate societies [1-4], humans are said to live in multilevel social groups, with individuals situated in a series of hierarchically structured sub-groups [5, 6]. Although this multilevel social organization has been described among contemporary hunter-gatherers [5], questions remain as to the benefits that individuals derive from living in such groups. Here, we show that food sharing among two populations of contemporary hunter-gatherers-the Palanan Agta (Philippines) and Mbendjele BaYaka (Republic of Congo)-reveals similar multilevel social structures, with individuals situated in households, within sharing clusters of 3-4 households, within the wider residential camps, which vary in size. We suggest that these groupings serve to facilitate inter-sexual provisioning, kin provisioning, and risk reduction reciprocity, three levels of cooperation argued to be fundamental in human societies [7, 8]. Humans have a suite of derived life history characteristics including a long childhood and short inter-birth intervals that make offspring energetically demanding [9] and have moved to a dietary niche that often involves the exploitation of difficult to acquire foods with highly variable return rates [10-12]. This means that human foragers face both day-to-day and more long-term energetic deficits that conspire to make humans energetically interdependent. We suggest that a multilevel social organization allows individuals access to both the food sharing partners required to buffer themselves against energetic shortfalls and the cooperative partners required for skill-based tasks such as cooperative foraging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular modelling studies of kdr mutations in voltage gated sodium channel revealed significant conformational variations contributing to insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellapu, Nanda Kumar; Gopal, Jeyakodi; Kasinathan, Gunasekaran; Purushothaman, Jambulingam

    2018-06-01

    Voltage gated sodium channels (VGSC) of mosquito vectors are the primary targets of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and other synthetic pyrethroids used in public health programmes. The knockdown resistant (kdr) mutations in VGSC are associated with the insecticide resistance especially in Anophelines. The present study is aimed to emphasize and demarcate the impact of three kdr-mutations such as L1014S, L1014F and L1014H on insecticide resistance. The membrane model of sodium transport domain of VGSC (STD-VGSC) was constructed using de novo approach based on domain and trans-membrane predictions. The comparative molecular modelling studies of wild type and mutant models of STD-VGSC revealed that L1014F mutant was observed to be near native to the wild type model in all the respects, but, L1014S and L1014H mutations showed drastic variations in the energy levels, root mean square fluctuations (RMSF) that resulted in conformational variations. The predicted binding sites also showed variable cavity volumes and RMSF in L1014S and L1014H mutants. Further, DDT also found be bound in near native manner to wild type in L1014F mutant and with variable orientation and affinities in L1014S and L1014H mutants. The variations and fluctuations observed in mutant structures explained that each mutation has its specific impact on the conformation of VGSC and its binding with DDT. The study provides new insights into the structure-function-correlations of mutant STD-VGSC structures and demonstrates the role and effects of kdr mutations on insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors.

  1. Life-table studies revealed significant effects of deforestation on the development and survivorship of Anopheles minimus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Guofa; Zhong, Daibin; Wang, Xiaoling; Wang, Ying; Yang, Zhaoqing; Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun

    2016-06-06

    Many developing countries are experiencing rapid ecological changes such as deforestation and shifting agricultural practices. These environmental changes may have an important consequence on malaria due to their impact on vector survival and reproduction. Despite intensive deforestation and malaria transmission in the China-Myanmar border area, the impact of deforestation on malaria vectors in the border area is unknown. We conducted life table studies on Anopheles minimus larvae to determine the pupation rate and development time in microcosms under deforested, banana plantation, and forested environments. The pupation rate of An. minimus was 3.8 % in the forested environment. It was significantly increased to 12.5 % in banana plantations and to 52.5 % in the deforested area. Deforestation reduced larval-to-pupal development time by 1.9-3.3 days. Food supplementation to aquatic habitats in forested environments and banana plantations significantly increased larval survival rate to a similar level as in the deforested environment. Deforestation enhanced the survival and development of An. minimus larvae, a major malaria vector in the China-Myanmar border area. Experimental determination of the life table parameters on mosquito larvae under a variety of environmental conditions is valuable to model malaria transmission dynamics and impact by climate and environmental changes.

  2. Meta-Analysis Reveals Significant Association of the 3'-UTR VNTR in SLC6A3 with Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunlong; Fan, Rongli; Li, Ming D

    2016-07-01

    Although many studies have analyzed the association of 3'-untranslated region variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in SLC6A3 with alcohol dependence (AD), the results remain controversial. This study aimed to determine whether this variant indeed has any genetic effect on AD by integrating 17 reported studies with 5,929 participants included. The A9-dominant genetic model that considers A9-repeat and non-A9 repeat as 2 genotypes and compared their frequencies in alcoholics with that in controls was adopted. Considering the potential influence of ethnicity, differences in diagnostic criteria of AD, and alcoholic subgroups, stratified meta-analyses were conducted. There existed no evidence for the presence of heterogeneity among the studied samples, indicating the results under the fixed-effects model are acceptable. We found a significant association of VNTR A9 genotypes with AD in all ethnic populations (pooled odds ratio [OR] 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00, 1.25; p = 0.045) and the Caucasian population (pooled OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.01, 1.31; p = 0.036). We also found VNTR A9 genotypes to be significantly associated with alcoholism as defined by the DSM-IV criteria (pooled OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.03, 1.36; p = 0.02). Further, we found a significant association between VNTR A9 genotypes and alcoholism associated with alcohol withdrawal seizure or delirium tremens (pooled OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.24, 1.92; p = 1.0 × 10(-4) ). In all these meta-analyses, no evidence of publication bias was detected. We concluded that the VNTR polymorphism has an important role in the etiology of AD, and individuals with at least 1 A9 allele are more likely to be dependent on alcohol than persons carrying the non-A9 allele. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  3. Breast Cancer Epidemiology of the Working-Age Female Population Reveals Significant Implications for the South Korean Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Se Kyung; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kim, Seok Won; Nam, Seok Jin; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Ahn, Jin-Seok; Park, Won; Yu, Jonghan; Park, Yeon Hee

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the economic loss due to the diagnosis of breast cancer within the female South Korean working-age population. A population-based cost analysis was performed for cancer-related diagnoses between 1999 and 2014, using respective public government funded databases. Among the five most common cancers, breast cancer mortality was strongly associated with the growth in gross domestic product between 1999 and 2014 (R=0.98). In the female population, breast cancer represented the greatest productivity loss among all cancers, which was a consequence of the peak in the incidence of breast cancer during mid-working age in the working-age population, in addition to being the most common and fastest growing cancer among South Korean women. Our study shows that breast cancer not only represents a significant disease burden for individual patients, but also contributes a real, nonnegligible loss in productivity in the South Korean economy.

  4. Significant genetic differentiation within the population of the Island of Corsica (France) revealed by y-chromosome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiani, Maria Elena; Varesi, Laurent; Mitchell, Robert John; Vona, Giuseppe

    2009-12-01

    Using 10 Y-chromosome short tandem repeat allelic and haplotypic frequencies, we examined genetic variation within the population of Corsica and its relationship with other Mediterranean populations. The most significant finding is the high level of genetic differentiation within Corsica, with strong evidence of an effective barrier to male-mediated gene flow between the south and the rest of the island. This internal differentiation most probably results from low exogamy among small isolated populations and also from the orography of the island, with a central mountain chain running the length of the island restricting human movement. This physical barrier is reflected not only in present-day intraisland linguistic and genetic differences but also in the relatedness of Corsican regions to other Mediterranean groups. Northwest and Central Corsica are much closer to West Mediterranean populations, whereas South Corsica is closer to Central-North Sardinia and East Mediterranean populations.

  5. Global genomic analysis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas reveals significant molecular differences compared to ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Stefan; Fernandez-del Castillo, Carlos; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Crippa, Stefano; Deshpande, Vikram; Lauwers, Gregory Y; Warshaw, Andrew L; Thayer, Sarah P; Iafrate, A John

    2009-03-01

    To determine whether intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMNs) have a different genetic background compared with ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The biologic and clinical behavior of IPMNs and IPMN-associated adenocarcinomas is different from PDAC in having a less aggressive tumor growth and significantly improved survival. Up to date, the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical behavior of IPMNs are incompletely understood. 128 cystic pancreatic lesions were prospectively identified during the course of 2 years. From the corresponding surgical specimens, 57 IPMNs were separated and subdivided by histologic criteria into those with low-grade dysplasia, moderate dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, and invasive cancer. Twenty specimens were suitable for DNA isolation and subsequent performance of array CGH. While none of the IPMNs with low-grade dysplasia displayed detectable chromosomal aberrations, IPMNs with moderate and high-grade dysplasia showed frequent copy number alterations. Commonly lost regions were located on chromosome 5q, 6q, 10q, 11q, 13q, 18q, and 22q. The incidence of loss of chromosome 5q, 6q, and 11q was significantly higher in IPMNs with high-grade dysplasia or invasion compared with PDAC. Ten of 13 IPMNs with moderate dysplasia or malignancy had loss of part or all of chromosome 6q, with a minimal deleted region between linear positions 78.0 and 130.0. This study is the first to use array CGH to characterize IPMNs. Recurrent cytogenetic alterations were identified and were different than those described in PDAC. Array CGH may help distinguish between these 2 entities and give insight into the differences in their biology and prognosis.

  6. Integrated genomic and immunophenotypic classification of pancreatic cancer reveals three distinct subtypes with prognostic/predictive significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartenberg, Martin; Cibin, Silvia; Zlobec, Inti; Vassella, Erik; Eppenberger-Castori, Serenella M M; Terracciano, Luigi; Eichmann, Micha; Worni, Mathias; Gloor, Beat; Perren, Aurel; Karamitopoulou, Eva

    2018-04-16

    Current clinical classification of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is unable to predict prognosis or response to chemo- or immunotherapy and does not take into account the host reaction to PDAC-cells. Our aim is to classify PDAC according to host- and tumor-related factors into clinically/biologically relevant subtypes by integrating molecular and microenvironmental findings. A well-characterized PDAC-cohort (n=110) underwent next-generation sequencing with a hotspot cancer panel, while Next-generation Tissue-Microarrays were immunostained for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, PD-L1, p63, hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor (RHAMM) and DNA mismatch-repair proteins. Previous data on FOXP3 were integrated. Immune-cell counts and protein expression were correlated with tumor-derived driver mutations, clinicopathologic features (TNM 8. 2017), survival and epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT)-like tumor budding.  Results: Three PDAC-subtypes were identified: the "immune-escape" (54%), poor in T- and B-cells and enriched in FOXP3+Tregs, with high-grade budding, frequent CDKN2A- , SMAD4- and PIK3CA-mutations and poor outcome; the "immune-rich" (35%), rich in T- and B-cells and poorer in FOXP3+Tregs, with infrequent budding, lower CDKN2A- and PIK3CA-mutation rate and better outcome and a subpopulation with tertiary lymphoid tissue (TLT), mutations in DNA damage response genes (STK11, ATM) and the best outcome; and the "immune-exhausted" (11%) with immunogenic microenvironment and two subpopulations: one with PD-L1-expression and high PIK3CA-mutation rate and a microsatellite-unstable subpopulation with high prevalence of JAK3-mutations. The combination of low budding, low stromal FOXP3-counts, presence of TLTs and absence of CDKN2A-mutations confers significant survival advantage in PDAC-patients. Immune host responses correlate with tumor characteristics leading to morphologically recognizable PDAC-subtypes with prognostic/predictive significance. Copyright ©2018

  7. Metabonomics-based analysis of Brachyspira pilosicoli's response to tiamulin reveals metabolic activity despite significant growth inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roy, Caroline Ivanne; Passey, Jade Louise; Woodward, Martin John; La Ragione, Roberto Marcello; Claus, Sandrine Paule

    2017-06-01

    Pathogenic anaerobes Brachyspira spp. are responsible for an increasing number of Intestinal Spirochaetosis (IS) cases in livestock against which few approved treatments are available. Tiamulin is used to treat swine dysentery caused by Brachyspira spp. and recently has been used to handle avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS). The therapeutic dose used in chickens requires further evaluation since cases of bacterial resistance to tiamulin have been reported. In this study, we evaluated the impact of tiamulin at varying concentrations on the metabolism of B. pilosicoli using a 1 H-NMR-based metabonomics approach allowing the capture of the overall bacterial metabolic response to antibiotic treatment. Based on growth curve studies, tiamulin impacted bacterial growth even at very low concentration (0.008 μg/mL) although its metabolic activity was barely affected 72 h post exposure to antibiotic treatment. Only the highest dose of tiamulin tested (0.250 μg/mL) caused a major metabolic shift. Results showed that below this concentration, bacteria could maintain a normal metabolic trajectory despite significant growth inhibition by the antibiotic, which may contribute to disease reemergence post antibiotic treatment. Indeed, we confirmed that B. pilosicoli remained viable even after exposition to the highest antibiotic dose. This paper stresses the need to ensure new evaluation of bacterial viability post bacteriostatic exposure such as tiamulin to guarantee treatment efficacy and decrease antibiotic resistance development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Patient-specific metrics of invasiveness reveal significant prognostic benefit of resection in a predictable subset of gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L Baldock

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas are incurable, primary brain neoplasms noted for their potential to extensively invade brain parenchyma. Current methods of clinical imaging do not elucidate the full extent of brain invasion, making it difficult to predict which, if any, patients are likely to benefit from gross total resection. Our goal was to apply a mathematical modeling approach to estimate the overall tumor invasiveness on a patient-by-patient basis and determine whether gross total resection would improve survival in patients with relatively less invasive gliomas.In 243 patients presenting with contrast-enhancing gliomas, estimates of the relative invasiveness of each patient's tumor, in terms of the ratio of net proliferation rate of the glioma cells to their net dispersal rate, were derived by applying a patient-specific mathematical model to routine pretreatment MR imaging. The effect of varying degrees of extent of resection on overall survival was assessed for cohorts of patients grouped by tumor invasiveness.We demonstrate that patients with more diffuse tumors showed no survival benefit (P = 0.532 from gross total resection over subtotal/biopsy, while those with nodular (less diffuse tumors showed a significant benefit (P = 0.00142 with a striking median survival benefit of over eight months compared to sub-totally resected tumors in the same cohort (an 80% improvement in survival time for GTR only seen for nodular tumors.These results suggest that our patient-specific, model-based estimates of tumor invasiveness have clinical utility in surgical decision making. Quantification of relative invasiveness assessed from routinely obtained pre-operative imaging provides a practical predictor of the benefit of gross total resection.

  9. Ecological Momentary Assessment of Pain, Fatigue, Depressive, and Cognitive Symptoms Reveals Significant Daily Variability in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Anna L; Murphy, Susan L; Braley, Tiffany J

    2017-11-01

    To describe the daily variability and patterns of pain, fatigue, depressed mood, and cognitive function in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Repeated-measures observational study of 7 consecutive days of home monitoring, including ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of symptoms. Multilevel mixed models were used to analyze data. General community. Ambulatory adults (N=107) with MS recruited through the University of Michigan and surrounding community. Not applicable. EMA measures of pain, fatigue, depressed mood, and cognitive function rated on a 0 to 10 scale, collected 5 times a day for 7 days. Cognitive function and depressed mood exhibited more stable within-person patterns than pain and fatigue, which varied considerably within person. All symptoms increased in intensity across the day (all Pfatigue showing the most substantial increase. Notably, this diurnal increase varied by sex and age; women showed a continuous increase from wake to bedtime, whereas fatigue plateaued after 7 pm for men (wake-bed B=1.04, P=.004). For the oldest subgroup, diurnal increases were concentrated to the middle of the day compared with younger subgroups, which showed an earlier onset of fatigue increase and sustained increases until bed time (wake-3 pm B=.04, P=.01; wake-7 pm B=.03, P=.02). Diurnal patterns of cognitive function varied by education; those with advanced college degrees showed a more stable pattern across the day, with significant differences compared with those with bachelor-level degrees in the evening (wake-7 pm B=-.47, P=.02; wake-bed B=-.45, P=.04). Findings suggest that chronic symptoms in MS are not static, even over a short time frame; rather, symptoms-fatigue and pain in particular-vary dynamically across and within days. Incorporation of EMA methods should be considered in the assessment of these chronic MS symptoms to enhance assessment and treatment strategies. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier

  10. Sorghum root-system classification in contrasting P environments reveals three main rooting types and root-architecture-related marker-trait associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Londono, Sebastian; Kavka, Mareike; Samans, Birgit; Snowdon, Rod; Wieckhorst, Silke; Uptmoor, Ralf

    2018-02-12

    Roots facilitate acquisition of macro- and micronutrients, which are crucial for plant productivity and anchorage in the soil. Phosphorus (P) is rapidly immobilized in the soil and hardly available for plants. Adaptation to P scarcity relies on changes in root morphology towards rooting systems well suited for topsoil foraging. Root-system architecture (RSA) defines the spatial organization of the network comprising primary, lateral and stem-derived roots and is important for adaptation to stress conditions. RSA phenotyping is a challenging task and essential for understanding root development. In this study, 19 traits describing RSA were analysed in a diversity panel comprising 194 sorghum genotypes, fingerprinted with a 90-k single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and grown under low and high P availability. Multivariate analysis was conducted and revealed three different RSA types: (1) a small root system; (2) a compact and bushy rooting type; and (3) an exploratory root system, which might benefit plant growth and development if water, nitrogen (N) or P availability is limited. While several genotypes displayed similar rooting types in different environments, others responded to P scarcity positively by developing more exploratory root systems, or negatively with root growth suppression. Genome-wide association studies revealed significant quantitative trait loci (P root-system development on chromosomes SBI-02 and SBI-03. Sorghum genotypes with a compact, bushy and shallow root system provide potential adaptation to P scarcity in the field by allowing thorough topsoil foraging, while genotypes with an exploratory root system may be advantageous if N or water is the limiting factor, although such genotypes showed highest P uptake levels under the artificial conditions of the present study. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Different continuous cropping spans significantly affect microbial community membership and structure in a vanilla-grown soil as revealed by deep pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wu; Zhao, Qingyun; Zhao, Jun; Xun, Weibing; Li, Rong; Zhang, Ruifu; Wu, Huasong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, soil bacterial and fungal communities across vanilla continuous cropping time-series fields were assessed through deep pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. The results demonstrated that the long-term monoculture of vanilla significantly altered soil microbial communities. Soil fungal diversity index increased with consecutive cropping years, whereas soil bacterial diversity was relatively stable. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity cluster and UniFrac-weighted principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) revealed that monoculture time was the major determinant for fungal community structure, but not for bacterial community structure. The relative abundances (RAs) of the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Basidiomycota phyla were depleted along the years of vanilla monoculture. Pearson correlations at the phyla level demonstrated that Actinobacteria, Armatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Firmicutes had significant negative correlations with vanilla disease index (DI), while no significant correlation for fungal phyla was observed. In addition, the amount of the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum accumulated with increasing years and was significantly positively correlated with vanilla DI. By contrast, the abundance of beneficial bacteria, including Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus, significantly decreased over time. In sum, soil weakness and vanilla stem wilt disease after long-term continuous cropping can be attributed to the alteration of the soil microbial community membership and structure, i.e., the reduction of the beneficial microbes and the accumulation of the fungal pathogen.

  12. Significant differences in gene expression and key genetic components associated with high growth vigor in populus section tacamahaca as revealed by comparative transcriptome analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.; Chen, M.; Li, Y.; Wang, J.; Sun, X.; Wang, J.

    2017-01-01

    To identify genetic components involved in high growth vigor in F1 Populus section Tacamahaca hybrid plants, high and low vigor plants showing significant differences in apical dominance during a rapid growth period were selected. Apical bud transcriptomes of high and low-growth-vigor hybrids and their parents were analyzed using high-throughput RNA sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 5,542 genes were differently expressed between high growth vigor hybrid and its parents, the genes were significantly enriched in pathways related to processes such as photosynthesis, pyrimidine ribonucleotide biosynthetic processes and nucleoside metabolic processes. There were 1410 differentially expressed genes between high and low growth vigor hybrid, the genes were mainly involved in photosynthesis, chlorophyll biosynthetic process, carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism and nitrogen metabolism. Moreover, a k-core of a gene co-expression network analysis was performed to identify the potential functions of genes related to high growth vigor. The functions of 8 selected candidate genes were associated mainly with circadian rhythm, water transport, cellulose catabolic processes, sucrose biosynthesis, pyrimidine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, purine nucleotide biosynthesis, meristem maintenance, and carbohydrate metabolism. Our results may contribute to a better understanding of the molecular basis of high growth vigor in hybrids and its regulation. (author)

  13. Divergent Significance of Bone Mineral Density Changes in Aging Depending on Sites and Sex Revealed through Separate Analyses of Bone Mineral Content and Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasumoto Matsui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone mineral density (aBMD is equivalent to bone mineral content (BMC divided by area. We rechecked the significance of aBMD changes in aging by examining BMC and area separately. Subjects were 1167 community-dwelling Japanese men and women, aged 40–79 years. ABMDs of femoral neck and lumbar spine were assessed by DXA twice, at 6-year intervals. The change rates of BMC and area, as well as aBMD, were calculated and described separately by the age stratum and by sex. In the femoral neck region, aBMDs were significantly decreased in all age strata by an increase in area as well as BMC loss in the same pattern in both sexes. In the lumbar spine region, aBMDs decreased until the age of 60 in women, caused by the significant BMC decrease accompanying the small area change. Very differently in men, aBMDs increased after their 50s due to BMC increase, accompanied by an area increase. Separate analyses of BMC and area change revealed that the significance of aBMD changes in aging was very divergent among sites and between sexes. This may explain in part the dissociation of aBMD change and bone strength, suggesting that we should be more cautious when interpreting the meaning of aBMD change.

  14. Laboratory simulation reveals significant impacts of ocean acidification on microbial community composition and host-pathogen interactions between the blood clam and Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Shanjie; Liu, Saixi; Su, Wenhao; Shi, Wei; Xiao, Guoqiang; Yan, Maocang; Liu, Guangxu

    2017-12-01

    It has been suggested that climate change may promote the outbreaks of diseases in the sea through altering the host susceptibility, the pathogen virulence, and the host-pathogen interaction. However, the impacts of ocean acidification (OA) on the pathogen components of bacterial community and the host-pathogen interaction of marine bivalves are still poorly understood. Therefore, 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and host-pathogen interaction analysis between blood clam (Tegillarca granosa) and Vibrio harveyi were conducted in the present study to gain a better understanding of the ecological impacts of ocean acidification. The results obtained revealed a significant impact of ocean acidification on the composition of microbial community at laboratory scale. Notably, the abundance of Vibrio, a major group of pathogens to many marine organisms, was significantly increased under ocean acidification condition. In addition, the survival rate and haemolytic activity of V. harveyi were significantly higher in the presence of haemolymph of OA treated T. granosa, indicating a compromised immunity of the clam and enhanced virulence of V. harveyi under future ocean acidification scenarios. Conclusively, the results obtained in this study suggest that future ocean acidification may increase the risk of Vibrio pathogen infection for marine bivalve species, such as blood clams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A systematic analysis of TCA Escherichia coli mutants reveals suitable genetic backgrounds for enhanced hydrogen and ethanol production using glycerol as main carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Antonio; Cabrera, Gema; Muhamadali, Howbeer; Trivedi, Drupad K; Ratray, Nicholas J W; Goodacre, Royston; Cantero, Domingo; Bolivar, Jorge

    2015-09-01

    Biodiesel has emerged as an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuels; however, the low price of glycerol feed-stocks generated from the biodiesel industry has become a burden to this industry. A feasible alternative is the microbial biotransformation of waste glycerol to hydrogen and ethanol. Escherichia coli, a microorganism commonly used for metabolic engineering, is able to biotransform glycerol into these products. Nevertheless, the wild type strain yields can be improved by rewiring the carbon flux to the desired products by genetic engineering. Due to the importance of the central carbon metabolism in hydrogen and ethanol synthesis, E. coli single null mutant strains for enzymes of the TCA cycle and other related reactions were studied in this work. These strains were grown anaerobically in a glycerol-based medium and the concentrations of ethanol, glycerol, succinate and hydrogen were analysed by HPLC and GC. It was found that the reductive branch is the more relevant pathway for the aim of this work, with malate playing a central role. It was also found that the putative C4-transporter dcuD mutant improved the target product yields. These results will contribute to reveal novel metabolic engineering strategies for improving hydrogen and ethanol production by E. coli. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Distribution of Eight QT-Prolonging Drugs and Their Main Metabolites Between Postmortem Cardiac Tissue and Blood Reveals Potential Pitfalls in Toxicological Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Christian R; Jornil, Jakob R; Andersen, Ljubica V

    2018-01-01

    significantly higher compared to femoral and cardiac blood concentrations, with two exceptions. The median cardiac tissue-to-femoral blood concentration ratio (Kb) ranged from 2.2 (venlafaxine) to 15 (nortriptyline). The inter-individual fold difference between the minimum and maximum Kb ranged from 2.6-fold (Z......-hydroxynortriptyline) to 61 (venlafaxine). For 12 compounds, postmortem redistribution appeared to be minimal, whereas four compounds displayed some degree of postmortem redistribution. Citalopram and quetiapine were selected for in-depth analysis of the relation between the toxicological interpretation and femoral blood...

  17. Family-based Association Analyses of Imputed Genotypes Reveal Genome-Wide Significant Association of Alzheimer’s disease with OSBPL6, PTPRG and PDCL3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Christine; Hooli, Basavaraj V.; Mullin, Kristina; Liu, Tian; Roehr, Johannes T; Mattheisen, Manuel; Parrado, Antonio R.; Bertram, Lars; Lange, Christoph; Tanzi, Rudolph E.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic basis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is complex and heterogeneous. Over 200 highly penetrant pathogenic variants in the genes APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2 cause a subset of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (EOFAD). On the other hand, susceptibility to late-onset forms of AD (LOAD) is indisputably associated to the ε4 allele in the gene APOE, and more recently to variants in more than two-dozen additional genes identified in the large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and meta-analyses reports. Taken together however, although the heritability in AD is estimated to be as high as 80%, a large proportion of the underlying genetic factors still remain to be elucidated. In this study we performed a systematic family-based genome-wide association and meta-analysis on close to 15 million imputed variants from three large collections of AD families (~3,500 subjects from 1,070 families). Using a multivariate phenotype combining affection status and onset age, meta-analysis of the association results revealed three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that achieved genome-wide significance for association with AD risk: rs7609954 in the gene PTPRG (P-value = 3.98·10−08), rs1347297 in the gene OSBPL6 (P-value = 4.53·10−08), and rs1513625 near PDCL3 (P-value = 4.28·10−08). In addition, rs72953347 in OSBPL6 (P-value = 6.36·10−07) and two SNPs in the gene CDKAL1 showed marginally significant association with LOAD (rs10456232, P-value: 4.76·10−07; rs62400067, P-value: 3.54·10−07). In summary, family-based GWAS meta-analysis of imputed SNPs revealed novel genomic variants in (or near) PTPRG, OSBPL6, and PDCL3 that influence risk for AD with genome-wide significance. PMID:26830138

  18. Significant strain accumulation between the deformation front and landward out-of-sequence thrusts in accretionary wedge of SW Taiwan revealed by cGPS and SAR interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    High strain accumulation across the fold-and-thrust belt in Southwestern Taiwan are revealed by the Continuous GPS (cGPS) and SAR interferometry. This high strain is generally accommodated by the major active structures in fold-and-thrust belt of western Foothills in SW Taiwan connected to the accretionary wedge in the incipient are-continent collision zone. The active structures across the high strain accumulation include the deformation front around the Tainan Tableland, the Hochiali, Hsiaokangshan, Fangshan and Chishan faults. Among these active structures, the deformation pattern revealed from cGPS and SAR interferometry suggest that the Fangshan transfer fault may be a left-lateral fault zone with thrust component accommodating the westward differential motion of thrust sheets on both side of the fault. In addition, the Chishan fault connected to the splay fault bordering the lower-slope and upper-slope of the accretionary wedge which could be the major seismogenic fault and an out-of-sequence thrust fault in SW Taiwan. The big earthquakes resulted from the reactivation of out-of-sequence thrusts have been observed along the Nankai accretionary wedge, thus the assessment of the major seismogenic structures by strain accumulation between the frontal décollement and out-of-sequence thrusts is a crucial topic. According to the background seismicity, the low seismicity and mid-crust to mantle events are observed inland and the lower- and upper- slope domain offshore SW Taiwan, which rheologically implies the upper crust of the accretionary wedge is more or less aseimic. This result may suggest that the excess fluid pressure from the accretionary wedge not only has significantly weakened the prism materials as well as major fault zone, but also makes the accretionary wedge landward extension, which is why the low seismicity is observed in SW Taiwan area. Key words: Continuous GPS, SAR interferometry, strain rate, out-of-sequence thrust.

  19. Urine Proteomics Revealed a Significant Correlation Between Urine-Fibronectin Abundance and Estimated-GFR Decline in Patients with Bardet-Biedl Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Caterino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:/Aims: Renal disease is a common cause of morbidity in patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS, however the severity of kidney dysfunction is highly variable. To date, there is little information on the pathogenesis, the risk and predictor factors for poor renal outcome in this setting. The present study aims to analyze the spectrum of urinary proteins in BBS patients, in order to potentially identify 1 disease-specific proteomic profiles that may differentiate the patients from normal subjects; 2 urinary markers of renal dysfunction. Methods: Fourteen individuals (7 males and 7 females with a clinical diagnosis of BBS have been selected in this study. A pool of 10 aged-matched males and 10 aged-matched females have been used as controls for proteomic analysis. The glomerular filtration rate (eGFR has been estimated using the CKD-EPI formula. Variability of eGFR has been retrospectively assessed calculating average annual eGFR decline (ΔeGFR in a mean follow-up period of 4 years (3-7. Results: 42 proteins were significantly over- or under-represented in BBS patients compared with controls; the majority of these proteins are involved in fibrosis, cell adhesion and extracellular matrix organization. Statistic studies revealed a significant correlation between urine fibronectin (u-FN (r2=0.28; p<0.05, CD44 antigen (r2 =0.35; p<0.03 and lysosomal alfa glucosidase ( r20.27; p<0.05 abundance with the eGFR. In addition, u-FN (r2 =0.2389; p<0.05 was significantly correlated with ΔeGFR. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that urine proteome of BBS patients differs from that of normal subjects; in addition, kidney dysfunction correlated with urine abundance of known markers of renal fibrosis.

  20. Transcriptomic analysis of the late stages of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) berry ripening reveals significant induction of ethylene signaling and flavor pathways in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Grant R; Ghan, Ryan; Schlauch, Karen A; Tillett, Richard L; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ferrarini, Alberto; Delledonne, Massimo; Zenoni, Sara; Fasoli, Marianna; Pezzotti, Mario

    2014-12-19

    Grapevine berry, a nonclimacteric fruit, has three developmental stages; the last one is when berry color and sugar increase. Flavors derived from terpenoid and fatty acid metabolism develop at the very end of this ripening stage. The transcriptomic response of pulp and skin of Cabernet Sauvignon berries in the late stages of ripening between 22 and 37 °Brix was assessed using whole-genome micorarrays. The transcript abundance of approximately 18,000 genes changed with °Brix and tissue type. There were a large number of changes in many gene ontology (GO) categories involving metabolism, signaling and abiotic stress. GO categories reflecting tissue differences were overrepresented in photosynthesis, isoprenoid metabolism and pigment biosynthesis. Detailed analysis of the interaction of the skin and pulp with °Brix revealed that there were statistically significantly higher abundances of transcripts changing with °Brix in the skin that were involved in ethylene signaling, isoprenoid and fatty acid metabolism. Many transcripts were peaking around known optimal fruit stages for flavor production. The transcript abundance of approximately two-thirds of the AP2/ERF superfamily of transcription factors changed during these developmental stages. The transcript abundance of a unique clade of ERF6-type transcription factors had the largest changes in the skin and clustered with genes involved in ethylene, senescence, and fruit flavor production including ACC oxidase, terpene synthases, and lipoxygenases. The transcript abundance of important transcription factors involved in fruit ripening was also higher in the skin. A detailed analysis of the transcriptome dynamics during late stages of ripening of grapevine berries revealed that these berries went through massive transcriptional changes in gene ontology categories involving chemical signaling and metabolism in both the pulp and skin, particularly in the skin. Changes in the transcript abundance of genes involved in

  1. Physicochemical state of the nanotopographic surface of commercially pure titanium following anodization-hydrothermal treatment reveals significantly improved hydrophilicity and surface energy profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebe, Jun; Ito, Shigeki; Miura, Shingo; Miyata, Kyohei; Ishibashi, Kanji

    2012-01-01

    A method of coating commercially pure titanium (cpTi) implants with a highly crystalline, thin hydroxyapatite (HA) layer using discharge anodic oxidation followed by hydrothermal treatment (Spark discharged Anodic oxidation treatment ; SA-treated cpTi) has been reported for use in clinical dentistry. We hypothesized that a thin HA layer with high crystallinity and nanostructured anodic titanium oxide film on such SA-treated cpTi implant surfaces might be a crucial function of their surface-specific potential energy. To test this, we analyzed anodic oxide (AO) cpTi and SA-treated cpTi disks by SEM and AFM. Contact angles and surface free energy of each disk surface was measured using FAMAS software. High-magnification SEM and AFM revealed the nanotopographic structure of the anodic titanium oxide film on SA-treated cpTi; however, this was not observed on the AO cpTi surface. The contact angle and surface free energy measurements were also significantly different between AO cpTi and SA-treated cpTi surfaces (Tukey's, P<0.05). These data indicated that the change of physicochemical properties of an anodic titanium oxide film with HA crystals on an SA-treated cpTi surface may play a key role in the phenomenon of osteoconduction during the process of osseointegration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Genome of the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis), a globally significant invasive species, reveals key functional and evolutionary innovations at the beetle-plant interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Duane D; Scully, Erin D; Pauchet, Yannick; Hoover, Kelli; Kirsch, Roy; Geib, Scott M; Mitchell, Robert F; Waterhouse, Robert M; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Arsala, Deanna; Benoit, Joshua B; Blackmon, Heath; Bledsoe, Tiffany; Bowsher, Julia H; Busch, André; Calla, Bernarda; Chao, Hsu; Childers, Anna K; Childers, Christopher; Clarke, Dave J; Cohen, Lorna; Demuth, Jeffery P; Dinh, Huyen; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Dolan, Amanda; Duan, Jian J; Dugan, Shannon; Friedrich, Markus; Glastad, Karl M; Goodisman, Michael A D; Haddad, Stephanie; Han, Yi; Hughes, Daniel S T; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Johnston, J Spencer; Jones, Jeffery W; Kuhn, Leslie A; Lance, David R; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Lee, Sandra L; Lin, Han; Lynch, Jeremy A; Moczek, Armin P; Murali, Shwetha C; Muzny, Donna M; Nelson, David R; Palli, Subba R; Panfilio, Kristen A; Pers, Dan; Poelchau, Monica F; Quan, Honghu; Qu, Jiaxin; Ray, Ann M; Rinehart, Joseph P; Robertson, Hugh M; Roehrdanz, Richard; Rosendale, Andrew J; Shin, Seunggwan; Silva, Christian; Torson, Alex S; Jentzsch, Iris M Vargas; Werren, John H; Worley, Kim C; Yocum, George; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Gibbs, Richard A; Richards, Stephen

    2016-11-11

    Relatively little is known about the genomic basis and evolution of wood-feeding in beetles. We undertook genome sequencing and annotation, gene expression assays, studies of plant cell wall degrading enzymes, and other functional and comparative studies of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, a globally significant invasive species capable of inflicting severe feeding damage on many important tree species. Complementary studies of genes encoding enzymes involved in digestion of woody plant tissues or detoxification of plant allelochemicals were undertaken with the genomes of 14 additional insects, including the newly sequenced emerald ash borer and bull-headed dung beetle. The Asian longhorned beetle genome encodes a uniquely diverse arsenal of enzymes that can degrade the main polysaccharide networks in plant cell walls, detoxify plant allelochemicals, and otherwise facilitate feeding on woody plants. It has the metabolic plasticity needed to feed on diverse plant species, contributing to its highly invasive nature. Large expansions of chemosensory genes involved in the reception of pheromones and plant kairomones are consistent with the complexity of chemical cues it uses to find host plants and mates. Amplification and functional divergence of genes associated with specialized feeding on plants, including genes originally obtained via horizontal gene transfer from fungi and bacteria, contributed to the addition, expansion, and enhancement of the metabolic repertoire of the Asian longhorned beetle, certain other phytophagous beetles, and to a lesser degree, other phytophagous insects. Our results thus begin to establish a genomic basis for the evolutionary success of beetles on plants.

  3. RNA-Seq analysis during the life cycle of Cryptosporidium parvum reveals significant differential gene expression between proliferating stages in the intestine and infectious sporozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippuner, Christoph; Ramakrishnan, Chandra; Basso, Walter U; Schmid, Marc W; Okoniewski, Michal; Smith, Nicholas C; Hässig, Michael; Deplazes, Peter; Hehl, Adrian B

    2018-05-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a major cause of diarrhoea in humans and animals. There are no vaccines and few drugs available to control C. parvum. In this study, we used RNA-Seq to compare gene expression in sporozoites and intracellular stages of C. parvum to identify genes likely to be important for successful completion of the parasite's life cycle and, thereby, possible targets for drugs or vaccines. We identified 3774 protein-encoding transcripts in C. parvum. Applying a stringent cut-off of eight fold for determination of differential expression, we identified 173 genes (26 coding for predicted secreted proteins) upregulated in sporozoites. On the other hand, expression of 1259 genes was upregulated in intestinal stages (merozoites/gamonts) with a gene ontology enrichment for 63 biological processes and upregulation of 117 genes in 23 metabolic pathways. There was no clear stage specificity of expression of AP2-domain containing transcription factors, although sporozoites had a relatively small repertoire of these important regulators. Our RNA-Seq analysis revealed a new calcium-dependent protein kinase, bringing the total number of known calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) in C. parvum to 11. One of these, CDPK1, was expressed in all stages, strengthening the notion that it is a valid drug target. By comparing parasites grown in vivo (which produce bona fide thick-walled oocysts) and in vitro (which are arrested in sexual development prior to oocyst generation) we were able to confirm that genes encoding oocyst wall proteins are expressed in gametocytes and that the proteins are stockpiled rather than generated de novo in zygotes. RNA-Seq analysis of C. parvum revealed genes expressed in a stage-specific manner and others whose expression is required at all stages of development. The functional significance of these can now be addressed through recent advances in transgenics for C. parvum, and may lead to the identification of viable drug and vaccine

  4. Bovine teat microbiome analysis revealed reduced alpha diversity and significant changes in taxonomic profiles in quarters with a history of mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene eFalentin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is a mammary gland inflammatory disease often due to bacterial infections. Like many other infections, it used to be considered as a host-pathogen interaction driven by host and bacterial determinants. Until now, the involvement of the bovine mammary gland microbiota in the host-pathogen interaction has been poorly investigated, and mainly during the infectious episode. In this study, the bovine teat microbiome was investigated in 31 quarters corresponding to 27 animals, which were all free of inflammation at sampling time but which had different histories regarding mastitis: from no episode of mastitis on all the previous lactations (Healthy quarter, Hq to one or several clinical mastitis events (Mastitic quarter, Mq. Several quarters whose status was unclear (possible history of subclinical mastitis were classified as NDq. Total bacterial DNA was extracted from foremilk samples and swab samples of the teat canal. Taxonomic profiles were determined by pyrosequencing on 16s amplicons of the V3-4 region. Hq quarters showed a higher diversity compared to Mq ones (Shannon index: ~8 and 6, respectively. Clustering of the quarters based on their bacterial composition made it possible to separate Mq and Hq quarters into two separate clusters (C1 and C2, respectively. Discriminant analysis of taxonomic profiles between these clusters revealed several differences and allowed the identification of taxonomic markers in relation to mastitis history. C2 quarters were associated with a higher proportion of the Clostridia class (including genera such as Ruminococcus, Oscillospira, Roseburia, Dorea, etc., the Bacteroidetes phylum (Prevotella, Bacteroides, Paludibacter, etc., and the Bifidobacteriales order (Bifidobacterium, whereas C1 quarters showed a higher proportion of the Bacilli class (Staphylococcus and Chlamydiia class. These results indicate that microbiota is altered in udders which have already developed mastitis, even far from the

  5. Probing Genomic Aspects of the Multi-Host Pathogen Clostridium perfringens Reveals Significant Pangenome Diversity, and a Diverse Array of Virulence Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Kiu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is an important cause of animal and human infections, however information about the genetic makeup of this pathogenic bacterium is currently limited. In this study, we sought to understand and characterise the genomic variation, pangenomic diversity, and key virulence traits of 56 C. perfringens strains which included 51 public, and 5 newly sequenced and annotated genomes using Whole Genome Sequencing. Our investigation revealed that C. perfringens has an “open” pangenome comprising 11667 genes and 12.6% of core genes, identified as the most divergent single-species Gram-positive bacterial pangenome currently reported. Our computational analyses also defined C. perfringens phylogeny (16S rRNA gene in relation to some 25 Clostridium species, with C. baratii and C. sardiniense determined to be the closest relatives. Profiling virulence-associated factors confirmed presence of well-characterised C. perfringens-associated exotoxins genes including α-toxin (plc, enterotoxin (cpe, and Perfringolysin O (pfo or pfoA, although interestingly there did not appear to be a close correlation with encoded toxin type and disease phenotype. Furthermore, genomic analysis indicated significant horizontal gene transfer events as defined by presence of prophage genomes, and notably absence of CRISPR defence systems in >70% (40/56 of the strains. In relation to antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, tetracycline resistance genes (tet and anti-defensins genes (mprF were consistently detected in silico (tet: 75%; mprF: 100%. However, pre-antibiotic era strain genomes did not encode for tet, thus implying antimicrobial selective pressures in C. perfringens evolutionary history over the past 80 years. This study provides new genomic understanding of this genetically divergent multi-host bacterium, and further expands our knowledge on this medically and veterinary important pathogen.

  6. Probing Genomic Aspects of the Multi-Host Pathogen Clostridium perfringens Reveals Significant Pangenome Diversity, and a Diverse Array of Virulence Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiu, Raymond; Caim, Shabhonam; Alexander, Sarah; Pachori, Purnima; Hall, Lindsay J

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is an important cause of animal and human infections, however information about the genetic makeup of this pathogenic bacterium is currently limited. In this study, we sought to understand and characterise the genomic variation, pangenomic diversity, and key virulence traits of 56 C. perfringens strains which included 51 public, and 5 newly sequenced and annotated genomes using Whole Genome Sequencing. Our investigation revealed that C. perfringens has an "open" pangenome comprising 11667 genes and 12.6% of core genes, identified as the most divergent single-species Gram-positive bacterial pangenome currently reported. Our computational analyses also defined C. perfringens phylogeny (16S rRNA gene) in relation to some 25 Clostridium species, with C. baratii and C. sardiniense determined to be the closest relatives. Profiling virulence-associated factors confirmed presence of well-characterised C. perfringens -associated exotoxins genes including α-toxin ( plc ), enterotoxin ( cpe ), and Perfringolysin O ( pfo or pfoA ), although interestingly there did not appear to be a close correlation with encoded toxin type and disease phenotype. Furthermore, genomic analysis indicated significant horizontal gene transfer events as defined by presence of prophage genomes, and notably absence of CRISPR defence systems in >70% (40/56) of the strains. In relation to antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, tetracycline resistance genes ( tet ) and anti-defensins genes ( mprF ) were consistently detected in silico ( tet : 75%; mprF : 100%). However, pre-antibiotic era strain genomes did not encode for tet , thus implying antimicrobial selective pressures in C. perfringens evolutionary history over the past 80 years. This study provides new genomic understanding of this genetically divergent multi-host bacterium, and further expands our knowledge on this medically and veterinary important pathogen.

  7. A novel method for RNA extraction from FFPE samples reveals significant differences in biomarker expression between orthotopic and subcutaneous pancreatic cancer patient-derived xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Malachia; Adamian, Yvess; Brown, Mark; Maawy, Ali; Chang, Alexander; Lee, Jacqueline; Gharibi, Armen; Katz, Matthew H; Fleming, Jason; Hoffman, Robert M; Bouvet, Michael; Doebler, Robert; Kelber, Jonathan A

    2017-01-24

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) can identify and validate new biomarkers of cancer onset, progression and therapy resistance. Substantial archives of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cancer samples from patients represent a rich resource for linking molecular signatures to clinical data. However, performing NGS on FFPE samples is limited by poor RNA purification methods. To address this hurdle, we developed an improved methodology for extracting high-quality RNA from FFPE samples. By briefly integrating a newly-designed micro-homogenizing (mH) tool with commercially available FFPE RNA extraction protocols, RNA recovery is increased by approximately 3-fold while maintaining standard A260/A280 ratios and RNA quality index (RQI) values. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the mH-purified FFPE RNAs are longer and of higher integrity. Previous studies have suggested that pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) gene expression signatures vary significantly under in vitro versus in vivo and in vivo subcutaneous versus orthotopic conditions. By using our improved mH-based method, we were able to preserve established expression patterns of KRas-dependency genes within these three unique microenvironments. Finally, expression analysis of novel biomarkers in KRas mutant PDAC samples revealed that PEAK1 decreases and MST1R increases by over 100-fold in orthotopic versus subcutaneous microenvironments. Interestingly, however, only PEAK1 levels remain elevated in orthotopically grown KRas wild-type PDAC cells. These results demonstrate the critical nature of the orthotopic tumor microenvironment when evaluating the clinical relevance of new biomarkers in cells or patient-derived samples. Furthermore, this new mH-based FFPE RNA extraction method has the potential to enhance and expand future FFPE-RNA-NGS cancer biomarker studies.

  8. Genome Wide Expression Profiling of Cancer Cell Lines Cultured in Microgravity Reveals Significant Dysregulation of Cell Cycle and MicroRNA Gene Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Vidyasekar

    Full Text Available Zero gravity causes several changes in metabolic and functional aspects of the human body and experiments in space flight have demonstrated alterations in cancer growth and progression. This study reports the genome wide expression profiling of a colorectal cancer cell line-DLD-1, and a lymphoblast leukemic cell line-MOLT-4, under simulated microgravity in an effort to understand central processes and cellular functions that are dysregulated among both cell lines. Altered cell morphology, reduced cell viability and an aberrant cell cycle profile in comparison to their static controls were observed in both cell lines under microgravity. The process of cell cycle in DLD-1 cells was markedly affected with reduced viability, reduced colony forming ability, an apoptotic population and dysregulation of cell cycle genes, oncogenes, and cancer progression and prognostic markers. DNA microarray analysis revealed 1801 (upregulated and 2542 (downregulated genes (>2 fold in DLD-1 cultures under microgravity while MOLT-4 cultures differentially expressed 349 (upregulated and 444 (downregulated genes (>2 fold under microgravity. The loss in cell proliferative capacity was corroborated with the downregulation of the cell cycle process as demonstrated by functional clustering of DNA microarray data using gene ontology terms. The genome wide expression profile also showed significant dysregulation of post transcriptional gene silencing machinery and multiple microRNA host genes that are potential tumor suppressors and proto-oncogenes including MIR22HG, MIR17HG and MIR21HG. The MIR22HG, a tumor-suppressor gene was one of the highest upregulated genes in the microarray data showing a 4.4 log fold upregulation under microgravity. Real time PCR validated the dysregulation in the host gene by demonstrating a 4.18 log fold upregulation of the miR-22 microRNA. Microarray data also showed dysregulation of direct targets of miR-22, SP1, CDK6 and CCNA2.

  9. Main Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Boncz (Peter); L. Liu (Lei); M. Tamer Özsu

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractPrimary storage, presently known as main memory, is the largest memory directly accessible to the CPU in the prevalent Von Neumann model and stores both data and instructions (program code). The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them. It is also called Random

  10. PCR reveals significantly higher rates of Trypanosoma cruzi infection than microscopy in the Chagas vector, Triatoma infestans: High rates found in Chuquisaca, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucero David E

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Andean valleys of Bolivia are the only reported location of sylvatic Triatoma infestans, the main vector of Chagas disease in this country, and the high human prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in this region is hypothesized to result from the ability of vectors to persist in domestic, peri-domestic, and sylvatic environments. Determination of the rate of Trypanosoma infection in its triatomine vectors is an important element in programs directed at reducing human infections. Traditionally, T. cruzi has been detected in insect vectors by direct microscopic examination of extruded feces, or dissection and analysis of the entire bug. Although this technique has proven to be useful, several drawbacks related to its sensitivity especially in the case of small instars and applicability to large numbers of insects and dead specimens have motivated researchers to look for a molecular assay based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR as an alternative for parasitic detection of T. cruzi infection in vectors. In the work presented here, we have compared a PCR assay and direct microscopic observation for diagnosis of T. cruzi infection in T. infestans collected in the field from five localities and four habitats in Chuquisaca, Bolivia. The efficacy of the methods was compared across nymphal stages, localities and habitats. Methods We examined 152 nymph and adult T. infestans collected from rural areas in the department of Chuquisaca, Bolivia. For microscopic observation, a few drops of rectal content obtained by abdominal extrusion were diluted with saline solution and compressed between a slide and a cover slip. The presence of motile parasites in 50 microscopic fields was registered using 400× magnification. For the molecular analysis, dissection of the posterior part of the abdomen of each insect followed by DNA extraction and PCR amplification was performed using the TCZ1 (5' – CGA GCT CTT GCC CAC ACG GGT GCT – 3

  11. Main Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Boncz, Peter; Liu, Lei; Özsu, M.

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractPrimary storage, presently known as main memory, is the largest memory directly accessible to the CPU in the prevalent Von Neumann model and stores both data and instructions (program code). The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them. It is also called Random Access Memory (RAM), to indicate that load/store instructions can access data at any location at the same cost, is usually implemented using DRAM chips, which are connected to the CPU and other per...

  12. Main findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Licensing regimes vary from country to country. When the license regime involves several regulators and several licenses, this may lead to complex situations. Identifying a leading organisation in charge of overall coordination including preparation of the licensing decision is a useful practice. Also, if a stepwise licensing process is implemented, it is important to fix in legislation decisions and/or time points and to identify the relevant actors. There is considerable experience in civil and mining engineering that can be applied when constructing a deep geological disposal facility. Specific challenges are, however, the minimization of disturbances to the host rock and the understanding of its long-term behavior. Construction activities may affect the geo-hydraulic and geochemical properties of the various system components which are important safety features of the repository system. Clearly defined technical specifications and an effective quality management plan are important in ensuring successful repository implementation which is consistent with safety requirements. Monitoring plan should also be defined in advance. The regulatory organization should prepare itself to the licensing review before construction by allocating sufficient resources. It should increase its competence, e.g., by interacting early with the implementer and through its own R and D. This will allow the regulator to define appropriate technical conditions associated to the construction license and to elaborate a relevant inspection plan of the construction work. After construction, obtaining the operational license is the most important and crucial step. Main challenges include (a) establishing sufficient confidence so that the methods for closing the individual disposal units comply with the safety objectives and (b) addressing the issue of ageing of materials during a 50-100 years operational period. This latter challenge is amplified when reversibility/retrievability is required

  13. MAIN ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Reflection on Some Issues Regarding the System of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics Zhang Xingmao The establishment of the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics, as the symbol of China's entry into the socialist society with Chinese characteristics, is the significant development of Marist theory of social formation. The Chinese model is framed and defined by the socialist system with Chinese characteristics, therefore the study of different levels and aspects of the Chinese model should be related to the relevant Chinese system to guarantee a scientific interpretation. Under the fundamental system of socialism, the historical and logical starting point of the formation of socialism with Chinese characteristics lies in eliminating the private ownership first and then allowing the existence and rapid development of the non-public sectors of the economy. With the gradual establishment and on the basis of the basic economic system in the preliminary stage of Socialism, and with the adaptive adjustments in the economic, political, cultural, and social systems, the socialist system with Chinese characteristics is gradually formed.

  14. A putative Lynch syndrome family carrying MSH2 and MSH6 variants of uncertain significance-functional analysis reveals the pathogenic one

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantelinen, Jukka; Hansen, Thomas V O; Kansikas, Minttu

    2011-01-01

    Inherited pathogenic mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes, MSH2, MLH1, MSH6, and PMS2 predispose to Lynch syndrome (LS). However, the finding of a variant or variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in affected family members complicates the risk assessment. Here, we describe a putative LS...

  15. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Mahonia bealei (Berberidaceae) reveals a significant expansion of the inverted repeat and phylogenetic relationship with other angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ji; Yang, Bingxian; Zhu, Wei; Sun, Lianli; Tian, Jingkui; Wang, Xumin

    2013-10-10

    Mahonia bealei (Berberidaceae) is a frequently-used traditional Chinese medicinal plant with efficient anti-inflammatory ability. This plant is one of the sources of berberine, a new cholesterol-lowering drug with anti-diabetic activity. We have sequenced the complete nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast (cp) genome of M. bealei. The complete cp genome of M. bealei is 164,792 bp in length, and has a typical structure with large (LSC 73,052 bp) and small (SSC 18,591 bp) single-copy regions separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs 36,501 bp) of large size. The Mahonia cp genome contains 111 unique genes and 39 genes are duplicated in the IR regions. The gene order and content of M. bealei are almost unarranged which is consistent with the hypothesis that large IRs stabilize cp genome and reduce gene loss-and-gain probabilities during evolutionary process. A large IR expansion of over 12 kb has occurred in M. bealei, 15 genes (rps19, rpl22, rps3, rpl16, rpl14, rps8, infA, rpl36, rps11, petD, petB, psbH, psbN, psbT and psbB) have expanded to have an additional copy in the IRs. The IR expansion rearrangement occurred via a double-strand DNA break and subsequence repair, which is different from the ordinary gene conversion mechanism. Repeat analysis identified 39 direct/inverted repeats 30 bp or longer with a sequence identity ≥ 90%. Analysis also revealed 75 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci and almost all are composed of A or T, contributing to a distinct bias in base composition. Comparison of protein-coding sequences with ESTs reveals 9 putative RNA edits and 5 of them resulted in non-synonymous modifications in rpoC1, rps2, rps19 and ycf1. Phylogenetic analysis using maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) was performed on a dataset composed of 65 protein-coding genes from 25 taxa, which yields an identical tree topology as previous plastid-based trees, and provides strong support for the sister relationship between Ranunculaceae and Berberidaceae

  16. Genomic profiling of plasmablastic lymphoma using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH: revealing significant overlapping genomic lesions with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xin-Yan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmablastic lymphoma (PL is a subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL. Studies have suggested that tumors with PL morphology represent a group of neoplasms with clinopathologic characteristics corresponding to different entities including extramedullary plasmablastic tumors associated with plasma cell myeloma (PCM. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the genetic similarities and differences among PL, DLBCL (AIDS-related and non AIDS-related and PCM using array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Results Examination of genomic data in PL revealed that the most frequent segmental gain (> 40% include: 1p36.11-1p36.33, 1p34.1-1p36.13, 1q21.1-1q23.1, 7q11.2-7q11.23, 11q12-11q13.2 and 22q12.2-22q13.3. This correlated with segmental gains occurring in high frequency in DLBCL (AIDS-related and non AIDS-related cases. There were some segmental gains and some segmental loss that occurred in PL but not in the other types of lymphoma suggesting that these foci may contain genes responsible for the differentiation of this lymphoma. Additionally, some segmental gains and some segmental loss occurred only in PL and AIDS associated DLBCL suggesting that these foci may be associated with HIV infection. Furthermore, some segmental gains and some segmental loss occurred only in PL and PCM suggesting that these lesions may be related to plasmacytic differentiation. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, the current study represents the first genomic exploration of PL. The genomic aberration pattern of PL appears to be more similar to that of DLBCL (AIDS-related or non AIDS-related than to PCM. Our findings suggest that PL may remain best classified as a subtype of DLBCL at least at the genome level.

  17. Full investigation of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) presenting to four different clinical specialties reveals significant differences and undiagnosed morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivayoganathan, Dhakshana; Maruthini, Deivanayagam; Glanville, Julie M; Balen, Adam H

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the spectrum of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) symptoms in patients from four different specialist clinics. A prospective cross-sectional observational study. The study was conducted at the infertility, gynaecology, endocrine and dermatology clinics at Leeds General Infirmary, U.K. Seventy women presenting with features of PCOS: 20 from infertility, 17 from gynaecology, 17 from dermatology and 16 from endocrine clinics. Participants were assessed for symptoms and signs of PCOS and underwent a full endocrine and metabolic profile and a pelvic ultrasound scan. All subjects had experienced menstrual problems, 81% were overweight, 86% had polycystic ovaries on ultrasound, 56% had hirsutism, 53% had acne, 23% had acanthosis nigricans, 16% had alopecia and 38% had previously undiagnosed impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or diabetes. A significant difference between the four clinic groups existed with regard to menstrual patterns (p = 0.0234), frequency distribution of presenting symptoms and the percentages of patients with PCOS who had already been diagnosed as having PCOS (p = 0.0088). This study emphasizes the importance of understanding the full spectrum of PCOS as presented to different specialty clinics. Not only is the syndrome under diagnosed but also are the significant associated morbidities such as IGT and type 2 diabetes. Different specialists need to appreciate the spectrum of health problems for women with PCOS that may extend beyond the specific symptoms that precipitated the initial referral.

  18. A putative Lynch syndrome family carrying MSH2 and MSH6 variants of uncertain significance-functional analysis reveals the pathogenic one

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantelinen, Jukka; Hansen, Thomas V O; Kansikas, Minttu

    2011-01-01

    Inherited pathogenic mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes, MSH2, MLH1, MSH6, and PMS2 predispose to Lynch syndrome (LS). However, the finding of a variant or variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in affected family members complicates the risk assessment. Here, we describe a putative LS...... and the tumor pathological data suggested that the missense variation in MSH2, the more common susceptibility gene in LS, would be the predisposing alteration. However, MSH2 VUS was surprisingly found to be MMR proficient in an in vitro MMR assay and a tolerant alteration in silico. By supplying evidence...... identified VUS before predictive gene testing and genetic counseling are offered to a family....

  19. Polyomic profiling reveals significant hepatic metabolic alterations in glucagon-receptor (GCGR knockout mice: implications on anti-glucagon therapies for diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molloy Mark P

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucagon is an important hormone in the regulation of glucose homeostasis, particularly in the maintenance of euglycemia and prevention of hypoglycemia. In type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM, glucagon levels are elevated in both the fasted and postprandial states, which contributes to inappropriate hyperglycemia through excessive hepatic glucose production. Efforts to discover and evaluate glucagon receptor antagonists for the treatment of T2DM have been ongoing for approximately two decades, with the challenge being to identify an agent with appropriate pharmaceutical properties and efficacy relative to potential side effects. We sought to determine the hepatic & systemic consequence of full glucagon receptor antagonism through the study of the glucagon receptor knock-out mouse (Gcgr-/- compared to wild-type littermates. Results Liver transcriptomics was performed using Affymetric expression array profiling, and liver proteomics was performed by iTRAQ global protein analysis. To complement the transcriptomic and proteomic analyses, we also conducted metabolite profiling (~200 analytes using mass spectrometry in plasma. Overall, there was excellent concordance (R = 0.88 for changes associated with receptor knock-out between the transcript and protein analysis. Pathway analysis tools were used to map the metabolic processes in liver altered by glucagon receptor ablation, the most notable being significant down-regulation of gluconeogenesis, amino acid catabolism, and fatty acid oxidation processes, with significant up-regulation of glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis, and cholesterol biosynthetic processes. These changes at the level of the liver were manifested through an altered plasma metabolite profile in the receptor knock-out mice, e.g. decreased glucose and glucose-derived metabolites, and increased amino acids, cholesterol, and bile acid levels. Conclusions In sum, the results of this study suggest that the complete ablation

  20. A large scale survey reveals that chromosomal copy-number alterations significantly affect gene modules involved in cancer initiation and progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigudosa Juan C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent observations point towards the existence of a large number of neighborhoods composed of functionally-related gene modules that lie together in the genome. This local component in the distribution of the functionality across chromosomes is probably affecting the own chromosomal architecture by limiting the possibilities in which genes can be arranged and distributed across the genome. As a direct consequence of this fact it is therefore presumable that diseases such as cancer, harboring DNA copy number alterations (CNAs, will have a symptomatology strongly dependent on modules of functionally-related genes rather than on a unique "important" gene. Methods We carried out a systematic analysis of more than 140,000 observations of CNAs in cancers and searched by enrichments in gene functional modules associated to high frequencies of loss or gains. Results The analysis of CNAs in cancers clearly demonstrates the existence of a significant pattern of loss of gene modules functionally related to cancer initiation and progression along with the amplification of modules of genes related to unspecific defense against xenobiotics (probably chemotherapeutical agents. With the extension of this analysis to an Array-CGH dataset (glioblastomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas we demonstrate the validity of this approach to investigate the functional impact of CNAs. Conclusions The presented results indicate promising clinical and therapeutic implications. Our findings also directly point out to the necessity of adopting a function-centric, rather a gene-centric, view in the understanding of phenotypes or diseases harboring CNAs.

  1. Re-analysis of RNA-Sequencing Data on Apple Stem Grooving Virus infected Apple reveals more significant differentially expressed genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipin Balan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq technology has enabled the researchers to investigate the host global gene expression changes in plant-virus interactions which helped to understand the molecular basis of virus diseases. The re-analysis of RNA-Seq studies using most updated genome version and the available best analysis pipeline will produce most accurate results. In this study, we re-analysed the Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV infected apple shoots in comparison with that of virus-free in vitro shoots [1] using the most updated Malus x domestica genome downloaded from Phytozome database. The re-analysis was done by using HISAT2 software and Cufflinks program was used to mine the differentially expressed genes. We found that ~20% more reads was mapped to the latest genome using the updated pipeline, which proved the significance of such re-analysis. The comparison of the updated results with that of previous was done. In addition, we performed protein-protein interaction (PPI to investigate the proteins affected by ASGV infection.

  2. Significant Association between Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Uranium-Reducing Microbial Communities as Revealed by a Combined Massively Parallel Sequencing-Indicator Species Approach▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Erick; Wu, Wei-Min; Leigh, Mary Beth; Carley, Jack; Carroll, Sue; Gentry, Terry; Luo, Jian; Watson, David; Gu, Baohua; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Kitanidis, Peter K.; Jardine, Philip M.; Zhou, Jizhong; Criddle, Craig S.; Marsh, Terence L.; Tiedje, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing has provided a more affordable and high-throughput method to study microbial communities, although it has mostly been used in an exploratory fashion. We combined pyrosequencing with a strict indicator species statistical analysis to test if bacteria specifically responded to ethanol injection that successfully promoted dissimilatory uranium(VI) reduction in the subsurface of a uranium contamination plume at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center in Tennessee. Remediation was achieved with a hydraulic flow control consisting of an inner loop, where ethanol was injected, and an outer loop for flow-field protection. This strategy reduced uranium concentrations in groundwater to levels below 0.126 μM and created geochemical gradients in electron donors from the inner-loop injection well toward the outer loop and downgradient flow path. Our analysis with 15 sediment samples from the entire test area found significant indicator species that showed a high degree of adaptation to the three different hydrochemical-created conditions. Castellaniella and Rhodanobacter characterized areas with low pH, heavy metals, and low bioactivity, while sulfate-, Fe(III)-, and U(VI)-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio, Anaeromyxobacter, and Desulfosporosinus) were indicators of areas where U(VI) reduction occurred. The abundance of these bacteria, as well as the Fe(III) and U(VI) reducer Geobacter, correlated with the hydraulic connectivity to the substrate injection site, suggesting that the selected populations were a direct response to electron donor addition by the groundwater flow path. A false-discovery-rate approach was implemented to discard false-positive results by chance, given the large amount of data compared. PMID:20729318

  3. Significant association between sulfate-reducing bacteria and uranium-reducing microbial communities as revealed by a combined massively parallel sequencing-indicator species approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Erick; Wu, Wei-Min; Leigh, Mary Beth; Carley, Jack; Carroll, Sue; Gentry, Terry; Luo, Jian; Watson, David; Gu, Baohua; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Kitanidis, Peter K; Jardine, Philip M; Zhou, Jizhong; Criddle, Craig S; Marsh, Terence L; Tiedje, James M

    2010-10-01

    Massively parallel sequencing has provided a more affordable and high-throughput method to study microbial communities, although it has mostly been used in an exploratory fashion. We combined pyrosequencing with a strict indicator species statistical analysis to test if bacteria specifically responded to ethanol injection that successfully promoted dissimilatory uranium(VI) reduction in the subsurface of a uranium contamination plume at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center in Tennessee. Remediation was achieved with a hydraulic flow control consisting of an inner loop, where ethanol was injected, and an outer loop for flow-field protection. This strategy reduced uranium concentrations in groundwater to levels below 0.126 μM and created geochemical gradients in electron donors from the inner-loop injection well toward the outer loop and downgradient flow path. Our analysis with 15 sediment samples from the entire test area found significant indicator species that showed a high degree of adaptation to the three different hydrochemical-created conditions. Castellaniella and Rhodanobacter characterized areas with low pH, heavy metals, and low bioactivity, while sulfate-, Fe(III)-, and U(VI)-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio, Anaeromyxobacter, and Desulfosporosinus) were indicators of areas where U(VI) reduction occurred. The abundance of these bacteria, as well as the Fe(III) and U(VI) reducer Geobacter, correlated with the hydraulic connectivity to the substrate injection site, suggesting that the selected populations were a direct response to electron donor addition by the groundwater flow path. A false-discovery-rate approach was implemented to discard false-positive results by chance, given the large amount of data compared.

  4. Modulation of ethylene responses by OsRTH1 overexpression reveals the biological significance of ethylene in rice seedling growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Xin; Wen, Chi-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    Overexpression of Arabidopsis Reversion-To-ethylene Sensitivity1 (RTE1) results in whole-plant ethylene insensitivity dependent on the ethylene receptor gene Ethylene Response1 (ETR1). However, overexpression of the tomato RTE1 homologue Green Ripe (GR) delays fruit ripening but does not confer whole-plant ethylene insensitivity. It was decided to investigate whether aspects of ethylene-induced growth and development of the monocotyledonous model plant rice could be modulated by rice RTE1 homologues (OsRTH genes). Results from a cross-species complementation test in Arabidopsis showed that OsRTH1 overexpression complemented the rte1-2 loss-of-function mutation and conferred whole-plant ethylene insensitivity in an ETR1-dependent manner. In contrast, OsRTH2 and OsRTH3 overexpression did not complement rte1-2 or confer ethylene insensitivity. In rice, OsRTH1 overexpression substantially prevented ethylene-induced alterations in growth and development, including leaf senescence, seedling leaf elongation and development, coleoptile elongation or curvature, and adventitious root development. Results of subcellular localizations of OsRTHs, each fused with the green fluorescent protein, in onion epidermal cells suggested that the three OsRTHs were predominantly localized to the Golgi. OsRTH1 may be an RTE1 orthologue of rice and modulate rice ethylene responses. The possible roles of auxins and gibberellins in the ethylene-induced alterations in growth were evaluated and the biological significance of ethylene in the early stage of rice seedling growth is discussed. PMID:22451723

  5. Comparative Proteomic Characterization of 4 Human Liver-Derived Single Cell Culture Models Reveals Significant Variation in the Capacity for Drug Disposition, Bioactivation, and Detoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sison-Young, Rowena L C; Mitsa, Dimitra; Jenkins, Rosalind E; Mottram, David; Alexandre, Eliane; Richert, Lysiane; Aerts, Hélène; Weaver, Richard J; Jones, Robert P; Johann, Esther; Hewitt, Philip G; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus; Goldring, Christopher E P; Kitteringham, Neil R; Park, B Kevin

    2015-10-01

    In vitro preclinical models for the assessment of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) are usually based on cryopreserved primary human hepatocytes (cPHH) or human hepatic tumor-derived cell lines; however, it is unclear how well such cell models reflect the normal function of liver cells. The physiological, pharmacological, and toxicological phenotyping of available cell-based systems is necessary in order to decide the testing purpose for which they are fit. We have therefore undertaken a global proteomic analysis of 3 human-derived hepatic cell lines (HepG2, Upcyte, and HepaRG) in comparison with cPHH with a focus on drug metabolizing enzymes and transport proteins (DMETs), as well as Nrf2-regulated proteins. In total, 4946 proteins were identified, of which 2722 proteins were common across all cell models, including 128 DMETs. Approximately 90% reduction in expression of cytochromes P450 was observed in HepG2 and Upcyte cells, and approximately 60% in HepaRG cells relative to cPHH. Drug transporter expression was also lower compared with cPHH with the exception of MRP3 and P-gp (MDR1) which appeared to be significantly expressed in HepaRG cells. In contrast, a high proportion of Nrf2-regulated proteins were more highly expressed in the cell lines compared with cPHH. The proteomic database derived here will provide a rational basis for the context-specific selection of the most appropriate 'hepatocyte-like' cell for the evaluation of particular cellular functions associated with DILI and, at the same time, assist in the construction of a testing paradigm which takes into account the in vivo disposition of a new drug. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology.

  6. Identification of the main processes underlying ecosystem functioning in the Eastern English Channel, with a focus on flatfish species, as revealed through the application of the Atlantis end-to-end model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardin, Raphaël; Fulton, Elizabeth A.; Lehuta, Sigrid; Rolland, Marie; Thébaud, Olivier; Travers-Trolet, Morgane; Vermard, Youen; Marchal, Paul

    2018-02-01

    The ecosystem model Atlantis was used to investigate the key dynamics and processes that structure the Eastern English Channel ecosystem, with a particular focus on two commercial flatfish species, sole (Solea solea) and plaice (Pleuronectes platessa). This complex model was parameterized with data collected from diverse sources (a literature review, survey data, as well as landings and stock assessment information) and tuned so both simulated biomass and catch fit 2002-2011 observations. Here, the outputs are mainly presented for the two focus species and for some other vertebrates found to be important in the trophic network. The calibration process revealed the importance of coastal areas in the Eastern English Channel and of nutrient inputs from estuaries: a lack of river nutrients decreases the productivity of nursery grounds and adversely affects the production of sole and plaice. The role of discards in the trophic network is also highlighted. While sole and plaice did not have a strong influence on the trophic network of vertebrates, they are important predators for benthic invertebrates and compete for food with crustaceans, whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and other demersal fish. We also found that two key species, cod (Gadus morhua) and whiting, thoroughly structured the Eastern English Channel trophic network.

  7. Ecosystem scale acoustic sensing reveals humpback whale behavior synchronous with herring spawning processes and re-evaluation finds no effect of sonar on humpback song occurrence in the Gulf of Maine in fall 2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Gong

    Full Text Available We show that humpback-whale vocalization behavior is synchronous with peak annual Atlantic herring spawning processes in the Gulf of Maine. With a passive, wide-aperture, densely-sampled, coherent hydrophone array towed north of Georges Bank in a Fall 2006 Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS experiment, vocalizing whales could be instantaneously detected and localized over most of the Gulf of Maine ecosystem in a roughly 400-km diameter area by introducing array gain, of 18 dB, orders of magnitude higher than previously available in acoustic whale sensing. With humpback-whale vocalizations consistently recorded at roughly 2000/day, we show that vocalizing humpbacks (i were overwhelmingly distributed along the northern flank of Georges Bank, coinciding with the peak spawning time and location of Atlantic herring, and (ii their overall vocalization behavior was strongly diurnal, synchronous with the formation of large nocturnal herring shoals, with a call rate roughly ten-times higher at night than during the day. Humpback-whale vocalizations were comprised of (1 highly diurnal non-song calls, suited to hunting and feeding behavior, and (2 songs, which had constant occurrence rate over a diurnal cycle, invariant to diurnal herring shoaling. Before and during OAWRS survey transmissions: (a no vocalizing whales were found at Stellwagen Bank, which had negligible herring populations, and (b a constant humpback-whale song occurrence rate indicates the transmissions had no effect on humpback song. These measurements contradict the conclusions of Risch et al. Our analysis indicates that (a the song occurrence variation reported in Risch et al. is consistent with natural causes other than sonar, (b the reducing change in song reported in Risch et al. occurred days before the sonar survey began, and (c the Risch et al. method lacks the statistical significance to draw the conclusions of Risch et al. because it has a 98-100% false-positive rate

  8. SubID, a non-median dichotomization tool for heterogeneous populations, reveals the pan-cancer significance of INPP4B and its regulation by EVI1 in AML.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakli Dzneladze

    Full Text Available Our previous studies demonstrated that INPP4B, a member of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, is overexpressed in a subset of AML patients and is associated with lower response to chemotherapy and shorter survival. INPP4B expression analysis in AML revealed a right skewed frequency distribution with 25% of patients expressing significantly higher levels than the majority. The 75% low/25% high cut-off revealed the prognostic power of INPP4B expression status in AML, which would not have been apparent with a standard median cut-off approach. Our identification of a clinically relevant non-median cut-off for INPP4B indicated a need for a generalizable non-median dichotomization approach to optimally study clinically relevant genes. To address this need, we developed Subgroup Identifier (SubID, a tool which examines the relationship between a continuous variable (e.g. gene expression, and a test parameter (e.g. CoxPH or Fisher's exact P values. In our study, Fisher's exact SubID was used to reveal EVI1 as a transcriptional regulator of INPP4B in AML; a finding which was validated in vitro. Next, we used CoxPH SubID to conduct a pan-cancer analysis of INPP4B's prognostic significance. Our analysis revealed that INPP4Blow is associated with shorter survival in kidney clear cell, liver hepatocellular, and bladder urothelial carcinomas. Conversely, INPP4Blow was shown to be associated with increased survival in pancreatic adenocarcinoma in three independent datasets. Overall, our study describes the development and application of a novel subgroup identification tool used to identify prognostically significant rare subgroups based upon gene expression, and for investigating the association between a gene with skewed frequency distribution and potentially important upstream and downstream genes that relate to the index gene.

  9. SubID, a non-median dichotomization tool for heterogeneous populations, reveals the pan-cancer significance of INPP4B and its regulation by EVI1 in AML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzneladze, Irakli; Woolley, John F; Rossell, Carla; Han, Youqi; Rashid, Ayesha; Jain, Michael; Reimand, Jüri; Minden, Mark D; Salmena, Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that INPP4B, a member of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, is overexpressed in a subset of AML patients and is associated with lower response to chemotherapy and shorter survival. INPP4B expression analysis in AML revealed a right skewed frequency distribution with 25% of patients expressing significantly higher levels than the majority. The 75% low/25% high cut-off revealed the prognostic power of INPP4B expression status in AML, which would not have been apparent with a standard median cut-off approach. Our identification of a clinically relevant non-median cut-off for INPP4B indicated a need for a generalizable non-median dichotomization approach to optimally study clinically relevant genes. To address this need, we developed Subgroup Identifier (SubID), a tool which examines the relationship between a continuous variable (e.g. gene expression), and a test parameter (e.g. CoxPH or Fisher's exact P values). In our study, Fisher's exact SubID was used to reveal EVI1 as a transcriptional regulator of INPP4B in AML; a finding which was validated in vitro. Next, we used CoxPH SubID to conduct a pan-cancer analysis of INPP4B's prognostic significance. Our analysis revealed that INPP4Blow is associated with shorter survival in kidney clear cell, liver hepatocellular, and bladder urothelial carcinomas. Conversely, INPP4Blow was shown to be associated with increased survival in pancreatic adenocarcinoma in three independent datasets. Overall, our study describes the development and application of a novel subgroup identification tool used to identify prognostically significant rare subgroups based upon gene expression, and for investigating the association between a gene with skewed frequency distribution and potentially important upstream and downstream genes that relate to the index gene.

  10. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of the Cdkl5 knockout mice revealed significant enhancement in anxiety- and fear-related behaviors and impairment in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Kosuke; Takao, Keizo; Watanabe, Aya; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Tanaka, Teruyuki

    2018-01-01

    Mutations in the Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently we have generated Cdkl5 KO mice by targeting exon 2 on the C57BL/6N background, and demonstrated postsynaptic overaccumulation of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the hippocampus. In the current study, we subjected the Cdkl5 KO mice to a battery of comprehensive behavioral tests, aiming to reveal the effects of loss of CDKL5 in a whole perspective of motor, emotional, social, and cognition/memory functions, and to identify its undetermined roles. The neurological screen, rotarod, hot plate, prepulse inhibition, light/dark transition, open field, elevated plus maze, Porsolt forced swim, tail suspension, one-chamber and three-chamber social interaction, 24-h home cage monitoring, contextual and cued fear conditioning, Barnes maze, and T-maze tests were applied on adult Cdkl5 -/Y and +/Y mice. Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a mild alteration in the gait. Analyses of emotional behaviors revealed significantly enhanced anxiety-like behaviors of Cdkl5 -/Y mice. Depressive-like behaviors and social interaction of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were uniquely altered. The contextual and cued fear conditioning of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were comparable to control mice; however, Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a significantly increased freezing time and a significantly decreased distance traveled during the pretone period in the altered context. Both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory were significantly impaired. The morphometric analysis of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed impaired dendritic arborization and immature spine development in Cdkl5 -/Y mice. These results indicate that CDKL5 plays significant roles in regulating emotional behaviors especially on anxiety- and fear-related responses, and in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory, which suggests that focus and special attention should be paid to the

  11. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of the Cdkl5 knockout mice revealed significant enhancement in anxiety- and fear-related behaviors and impairment in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Okuda

    Full Text Available Mutations in the Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5 gene cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently we have generated Cdkl5 KO mice by targeting exon 2 on the C57BL/6N background, and demonstrated postsynaptic overaccumulation of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors in the hippocampus. In the current study, we subjected the Cdkl5 KO mice to a battery of comprehensive behavioral tests, aiming to reveal the effects of loss of CDKL5 in a whole perspective of motor, emotional, social, and cognition/memory functions, and to identify its undetermined roles. The neurological screen, rotarod, hot plate, prepulse inhibition, light/dark transition, open field, elevated plus maze, Porsolt forced swim, tail suspension, one-chamber and three-chamber social interaction, 24-h home cage monitoring, contextual and cued fear conditioning, Barnes maze, and T-maze tests were applied on adult Cdkl5 -/Y and +/Y mice. Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a mild alteration in the gait. Analyses of emotional behaviors revealed significantly enhanced anxiety-like behaviors of Cdkl5 -/Y mice. Depressive-like behaviors and social interaction of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were uniquely altered. The contextual and cued fear conditioning of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were comparable to control mice; however, Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a significantly increased freezing time and a significantly decreased distance traveled during the pretone period in the altered context. Both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory were significantly impaired. The morphometric analysis of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed impaired dendritic arborization and immature spine development in Cdkl5 -/Y mice. These results indicate that CDKL5 plays significant roles in regulating emotional behaviors especially on anxiety- and fear-related responses, and in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory, which suggests that focus and special attention should be

  12. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of the Cdkl5 knockout mice revealed significant enhancement in anxiety- and fear-related behaviors and impairment in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Kosuke; Takao, Keizo; Watanabe, Aya; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Mizuguchi, Masashi

    2018-01-01

    Mutations in the Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently we have generated Cdkl5 KO mice by targeting exon 2 on the C57BL/6N background, and demonstrated postsynaptic overaccumulation of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the hippocampus. In the current study, we subjected the Cdkl5 KO mice to a battery of comprehensive behavioral tests, aiming to reveal the effects of loss of CDKL5 in a whole perspective of motor, emotional, social, and cognition/memory functions, and to identify its undetermined roles. The neurological screen, rotarod, hot plate, prepulse inhibition, light/dark transition, open field, elevated plus maze, Porsolt forced swim, tail suspension, one-chamber and three-chamber social interaction, 24-h home cage monitoring, contextual and cued fear conditioning, Barnes maze, and T-maze tests were applied on adult Cdkl5 -/Y and +/Y mice. Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a mild alteration in the gait. Analyses of emotional behaviors revealed significantly enhanced anxiety-like behaviors of Cdkl5 -/Y mice. Depressive-like behaviors and social interaction of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were uniquely altered. The contextual and cued fear conditioning of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were comparable to control mice; however, Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a significantly increased freezing time and a significantly decreased distance traveled during the pretone period in the altered context. Both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory were significantly impaired. The morphometric analysis of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed impaired dendritic arborization and immature spine development in Cdkl5 -/Y mice. These results indicate that CDKL5 plays significant roles in regulating emotional behaviors especially on anxiety- and fear-related responses, and in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory, which suggests that focus and special attention should be paid to the

  13. Fermilab Main Injector plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-07-15

    The Fermilab Main Injector is the centrepiece of the 'Fermilab III' scheme to significantly upgrade the Laboratory's existing accelerator complex. The new accelerator is designed to provide increased particle beam levels to boost the collision rate in the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider (luminosity in excess of 5 x 10{sup 31} per sq cm per s) and, if approved, would provide increased flexibility in all areas of high energy physics research.

  14. Fermilab Main Injector plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector is the centrepiece of the 'Fermilab III' scheme to significantly upgrade the Laboratory's existing accelerator complex. The new accelerator is designed to provide increased particle beam levels to boost the collision rate in the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider (luminosity in excess of 5 x 10 31 per sq cm per s) and, if approved, would provide increased flexibility in all areas of high energy physics research

  15. Maine coast winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  16. FERMILAB: Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) project is the centerpiece of the Laboratory's Fermilab III programme for the 1990s. Designed to support a luminosity of at least 5x10 31 cm -2 s -1 in the Tevatron collider, it will also provide new capabilities for rare neutral kaon decay and neutrino oscillation studies. The Fermilab Main Injector 8-150 GeV synchrotron is designed to replace the existing Main Ring which seriously limits beam intensities for the Tevatron and the antiproton production target. The project has passed several significant milestones and is now proceeding rapidly towards construction. The project received a $11.65M appropriation in 1992 and has been given $15M for the current fiscal year. Through the Energy Systems Acquisition Advisory Board (ESAAB) process, the US Department of Energy (DoE) has authorized funds for construction of the underground enclosure and service building where the Main Injector will touch the Tevatron, and to the preparation of bids for remaining project construction

  17. FERMILAB: Main Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-06-15

    The Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) project is the centerpiece of the Laboratory's Fermilab III programme for the 1990s. Designed to support a luminosity of at least 5x10{sup 31} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the Tevatron collider, it will also provide new capabilities for rare neutral kaon decay and neutrino oscillation studies. The Fermilab Main Injector 8-150 GeV synchrotron is designed to replace the existing Main Ring which seriously limits beam intensities for the Tevatron and the antiproton production target. The project has passed several significant milestones and is now proceeding rapidly towards construction. The project received a $11.65M appropriation in 1992 and has been given $15M for the current fiscal year. Through the Energy Systems Acquisition Advisory Board (ESAAB) process, the US Department of Energy (DoE) has authorized funds for construction of the underground enclosure and service building where the Main Injector will touch the Tevatron, and to the preparation of bids for remaining project construction.

  18. TRIGA reactor main systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Villa, M.

    2007-01-01

    This module describes the main systems of low power (<2 MW) and higher power (≥2 MW) TRIGA reactors. The most significant difference between the two is that forced reactor cooling and an emergency core cooling system are generally required for the higher power TRIGA reactors. However, those TRIGA reactors that are designed to be operated above 3 MW also use a TRIGA fuel that is specifically designed for those higher power outputs (3 to 14 MW). Typical values are given for the respective systems although each TRIGA facility will have unique characteristics that may only be determined by the experienced facility operators. Due to the inherent wide scope of these research reactor facilities construction and missions, this training module covers those systems found at most operating TRIGA reactor facilities but may also discuss non-standard equipment that was found to be operationally useful although not necessarily required. (author)

  19. In Vivo Imaging Reveals Significant Tumor Vascular Dysfunction and Increased Tumor Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Expression Induced by High Single-Dose Irradiation in a Pancreatic Tumor Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Azusa [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chen, Yonghong; Bu, Jiachuan; Mujcic, Hilda [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Wouters, Bradly G. [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); DaCosta, Ralph S., E-mail: rdacosta@uhnres.utoronto.ca [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Techna Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of high-dose irradiation on pancreatic tumor vasculature and microenvironment using in vivo imaging techniques. Methods and Materials: A BxPC3 pancreatic tumor xenograft was established in a dorsal skinfold window chamber model and a subcutaneous hind leg model. Tumors were irradiated with a single dose of 4, 12, or 24 Gy. The dorsal skinfold window chamber model was used to assess tumor response, vascular function and permeability, platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium, and tumor hypoxia for up to 14 days after 24-Gy irradiation. The hind leg model was used to monitor tumor size, hypoxia, and vascularity for up to 65 days after 24-Gy irradiation. Tumors were assessed histologically to validate in vivo observations. Results: In vivo fluorescence imaging revealed temporary vascular dysfunction in tumors irradiated with a single dose of 4 to 24 Gy, but most significantly with a single dose of 24 Gy. Vascular functional recovery was observed by 14 days after irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, irradiation with 24 Gy caused platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium within hours to days after irradiation. Vascular permeability was significantly higher in irradiated tumors compared with nonirradiated controls 14 days after irradiation. This observation corresponded with increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in irradiated tumors. In the hind leg model, irradiation with a single dose of 24 Gy led to tumor growth delay, followed by tumor regrowth. Conclusions: Irradiation of the BxPC3 tumors with a single dose of 24 Gy caused transient vascular dysfunction and increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Such biological changes may impact tumor response to high single-dose and hypofractionated irradiation, and further investigations are needed to better understand the clinical outcomes of stereotactic body radiation therapy.

  20. Main Memory DBMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Boncz (Peter); L. Liu (Lei); M. Tamer Özsu

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractA main memory database system is a DBMS that primarily relies on main memory for computer data storage. In contrast, normal database management systems employ hard disk based persisntent storage.

  1. Maine's Employability Skills Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

  2. Turbine main engines

    CERN Document Server

    Main, John B; Herbert, C W; Bennett, A J S

    1965-01-01

    Turbine Main Engines deals with the principle of operation of turbine main engines. Topics covered include practical considerations that affect turbine design and efficiency; steam turbine rotors, blades, nozzles, and diaphragms; lubricating oil systems; and gas turbines for use with nuclear reactors. Gas turbines for naval boost propulsion, merchant ship propulsion, and naval main propulsion are also considered. This book is divided into three parts and begins with an overview of the basic mode of operation of the steam turbine engine and how it converts the pressure energy of the ingoing ste

  3. Maine highway safety plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Each September 1, the MeBHS must provide NHTSA a comprehensive plan to reduce : traffic crashes and resulting deaths, injuries and property damage. The Highway Safety : Plan (HSP) serves as Maines application for available federal funds for these ...

  4. Maine Field Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2000 NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service established the Maine Field Station in Orono, ME to have more direct involvement in the conservation of the living...

  5. Maine's forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    George L. McCaskill; William H. McWilliams; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall

    2011-01-01

    The second annual inventory of Maine's forests was completed in 2008 after more than 3,160 forested plots were measured. Forest land occupies almost 17.7 million acres, which represents 82 percent of the total land area of Maine. The dominant forest-type groups are maple/beech/yellow birch, spruce/fir, white/red/jack pine, and aspen/white birch. Statewide volume...

  6. Maine Forests 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    George L. McCaskill; Thomas Albright; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Cassandra M. Kurtz; William H. McWilliams; Patrick D. Miles; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson; Richard H. Widmann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The third 5-year annualized inventory of Maine's forests was completed in 2013 after more than 3170 forested plots were measured. Maine contains more than 17.6 million acres of forest land, an area that has been quite stable since 1960, covering more than 82 percent of the total land area. The number of live trees greater than 1 inch in diameter are approaching 24...

  7. Main sequence mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunish, W.M.; Guzik, J.A.; Willson, L.A.; Bowen, G.

    1987-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that variable stars may experience mass loss, driven, at least in part, by oscillations. The class of stars we are discussing here are the δ Scuti variables. These are variable stars with masses between about 1.2 and 2.25 M/sub θ/, lying on or very near the main sequence. According to this theory, high rotation rates enhance the rate of mass loss, so main sequence stars born in this mass range would have a range of mass loss rates, depending on their initial rotation velocity and the amplitude of the oscillations. The stars would evolve rapidly down the main sequence until (at about 1.25 M/sub θ/) a surface convection zone began to form. The presence of this convective region would slow the rotation, perhaps allowing magnetic braking to occur, and thus sharply reduce the mass loss rate. 7 refs

  8. Main facts 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the main facts of the studies carried out by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches (DER) of Electricite de France: new applications of electricity, classical and nuclear thermal power plants, electrical equipment, environment protection, monitoring and plants operations

  9. Main designations and attributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The chapter presents the main designations and attributions of the LNMRI - Brazilian National Laboratory of Metrology of Ionizing Radiation, the Cooperative Center in Radiation Protection and Medical Preparations for Accidents with Radiation; the Treaty for fully banning of nuclear tests and the Regional Center for Training of IAEA

  10. Maine Bouguer Gravity Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the state of Maine. Number of columns is 197 and number of rows is 292. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  11. Main facts 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the main facts of the studies carried out by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches (DER) of Electricite de France: new applications of electricity, classical and nuclear thermal power plants, electrical equipment, environment protection, network analysis, information and informatic equipment

  12. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  13. Renovating the Main Building

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    CERN's "Main Building" is exactly that. The Organization's central hub, with hundreds of staff and visitors passing through its doors every day, will soon be getting a well-earned facelift. Refurbishment work will proceed in phases, starting with the Salle des Pas Perdus, the concourse between the Council Chamber and the Main Auditorium. By the end of August, informal seating areas will be installed, electronic display panels will provide practical information and improved sound insulation will enhance conditions in the auditoria and surrounding meeting rooms.   In light green the area that will undergo the facelift. Work will start in July. The ground floor is home to the entrance to Restaurant No. 1, the bank, the post office, the travel agent, the Users Office, the Staff Association, the notice boards etc. Step up to the first floor to access CERN's largest lecture theatre, the Council Chamber and its "Pas Perdus" lobby. Everyone who works at or visits CERN i...

  14. Project evaluation: main characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Moutinho, Nuno

    2010-01-01

    — The evaluation process of real investment projects must consider not only the traditional financial approach, but also non-financial aspects. Non financial analysis can provide additional relevant information about projects. We investigate financial and non-financial areas most relevant in project appraisal. We present main critical success factors and areas of analysis that lead to the perception of project success. Finally, companies are segmented to verify its financial and non-financial...

  15. Marketing Maine Tablestock Potatoes

    OpenAIRE

    Berney, Gerald; Grajewski, Gregory; Hinman, Don; Prater, Marvin E.; Taylor, April

    2010-01-01

    The Marketing Services Division of USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) was asked by USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Program Leader and ARS’s New England Soil and Water Research Laboratory personnel to help with existing efforts to assist Maine fresh potato farmers in their search for alternative marketing strategies, and reverse the recent decline in the profitability of their operations. ARS researchers previously had conducted an exhaustive study defining possibl...

  16. Improved Culture Medium (TiKa) for Mycobacterium avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis (MAP) Matches qPCR Sensitivity and Reveals Significant Proportions of Non-viable MAP in Lymphoid Tissue of Vaccinated MAP Challenged Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Tim J.; Munshil, Tulika; Melvang, Heidi Mikkelsen

    2017-01-01

    The quantitative detection of viable pathogen load is an important tool in determining the degree of infection in animals and contamination of foodstuffs. Current conventional culture methods are limited in their ability to determine these levels in Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis......Ka culture equates well with qPCR and provides important evidence that accuracy in estimating viable MAP load using DNA tests alone may vary significantly between samples of mucosal and lymphatic origin....... (MAP) due to slow growth, clumping and low recoverability issues. The principle goal of this study was to evaluate a novel culturing process (TiKa) with unique ability to stimulate MAP growth from low sample loads and dilutions. We demonstrate it was able to stimulate a mean 29-fold increase...

  17. Summary of main points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In conjunction with its 6. annual meeting, the WPDD in close co-operation with the FSC held a Topical session on 'Stakeholder Involvement in Decommissioning' on November 14, 2005. The session was attended by 36 participants totally representing 14 NEA member countries and 2 international organisations. Two keynote addresses were given at the Topical Session. The first one treated of what is needed for robust decisions and how to bring all stakeholders into the debate. In the second keynote address a summary was made on what have been said on stakeholder involvement in decommissioning during earlier meetings of the WPDD. The main part of the session was then devoted to views from different stakeholders regarding their role and their involvement. This part contained viewpoints from local communities (Kaevlinge in Sweden and Port Hope in Canada), authorities (Scottish Executive and CSNC) and operators (EDF from France and EWN from Germany). Case studies from the decommissioning of Dounrey in the UK and from Trojan and Main Yankee in the USA were presented in the end part of the Topical session followed by a summary and lessons learnt report by the Rapporteur. A detailed programme of the Topical session can be seen in Appendix 1

  18. Genome-Scale Co-Expression Network Comparison across Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Reveals Significant Conservation at the Regulon Level of Local Regulators Despite Their Dissimilar Lifestyles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrineh, Peyman; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Aminael; Hosseinkhan, Nazanin; Narimani, Zahra; Marchal, Kathleen; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Availability of genome-wide gene expression datasets provides the opportunity to study gene expression across different organisms under a plethora of experimental conditions. In our previous work, we developed an algorithm called COMODO (COnserved MODules across Organisms) that identifies conserved expression modules between two species. In the present study, we expanded COMODO to detect the co-expression conservation across three organisms by adapting the statistics behind it. We applied COMODO to study expression conservation/divergence between Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, and Bacillus subtilis. We observed that some parts of the regulatory interaction networks were conserved between E. coli and S. enterica especially in the regulon of local regulators. However, such conservation was not observed between the regulatory interaction networks of B. subtilis and the two other species. We found co-expression conservation on a number of genes involved in quorum sensing, but almost no conservation for genes involved in pathogenicity across E. coli and S. enterica which could partially explain their different lifestyles. We concluded that despite their different lifestyles, no significant rewiring have occurred at the level of local regulons involved for instance, and notable conservation can be detected in signaling pathways and stress sensing in the phylogenetically close species S. enterica and E. coli. Moreover, conservation of local regulons seems to depend on the evolutionary time of divergence across species disappearing at larger distances as shown by the comparison with B. subtilis. Global regulons follow a different trend and show major rewiring even at the limited evolutionary distance that separates E. coli and S. enterica. PMID:25101984

  19. Meta-analysis Reveals Genome-Wide Significance at 15q13 for Nonsyndromic Clefting of Both the Lip and the Palate, and Functional Analyses Implicate GREM1 As a Plausible Causative Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Kerstin U.; Ahmed, Syeda Tasnim; Böhmer, Anne C.; Sangani, Nasim Bahram; Varghese, Sheryil; Klamt, Johanna; Schuenke, Hannah; Gültepe, Pinar; Hofmann, Andrea; Rubini, Michele; Aldhorae, Khalid Ahmed; Steegers-Theunissen, Regine P.; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Reiter, Rudolf; Borck, Guntram; Knapp, Michael; Nakatomi, Mitsushiro; Graf, Daniel; Mangold, Elisabeth; Peters, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Nonsyndromic orofacial clefts are common birth defects with multifactorial etiology. The most common type is cleft lip, which occurs with or without cleft palate (nsCLP and nsCLO, respectively). Although genetic components play an important role in nsCLP, the genetic factors that predispose to palate involvement are largely unknown. In this study, we carried out a meta-analysis on genetic and clinical data from three large cohorts and identified strong association between a region on chromosome 15q13 and nsCLP (P = 8.13×10−14 for rs1258763; relative risk (RR): 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32–1.61)) but not nsCLO (P = 0.27; RR: 1.09 (0.94–1.27)). The 5 kb region of strongest association maps downstream of Gremlin-1 (GREM1), which encodes a secreted antagonist of the BMP4 pathway. We show during mouse embryogenesis, Grem1 is expressed in the developing lip and soft palate but not in the hard palate. This is consistent with genotype-phenotype correlations between rs1258763 and a specific nsCLP subphenotype, since a more than two-fold increase in risk was observed in patients displaying clefts of both the lip and soft palate but who had an intact hard palate (RR: 3.76, CI: 1.47–9.61, Pdifflip or palate defects in Grem1-deficient mice, wild type embryonic palatal shelves developed divergent shapes when cultured in the presence of ectopic Grem1 protein (P = 0.0014). The present study identified a non-coding region at 15q13 as the second, genome-wide significant locus specific for nsCLP, after 13q31. Moreover, our data suggest that the closely located GREM1 gene contributes to a rare clinical nsCLP entity. This entity specifically involves abnormalities of the lip and soft palate, which develop at different time-points and in separate anatomical regions. PMID:26968009

  20. Visualization of atherosclerosis as detected by coronary artery calcium and carotid intima-media thickness reveals significant atherosclerosis in a cross-sectional study of psoriasis patients in a tertiary care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santilli, S; Kast, D R; Grozdev, I; Cao, L; Feig, R L; Golden, J B; Debanne, S M; Gilkeson, R C; Orringer, C E; McCormick, T S; Ward, N L; Cooper, K D; Korman, N J

    2016-07-22

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin and joints that may also have systemic inflammatory effects, including the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Multiple epidemiologic studies have demonstrated increased rates of CVD in psoriasis patients, although a causal link has not been established. A growing body of evidence suggests that sub-clinical systemic inflammation may develop in psoriasis patients, even from a young age. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of atherosclerosis and identify specific clinical risk factors associated with early vascular inflammation. We conducted a cross-sectional study of a tertiary care cohort of psoriasis patients using coronary artery calcium (CAC) score and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) to detect atherosclerosis, along with high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) to measure inflammation. Psoriasis patients and controls were recruited from our tertiary care dermatology clinic. Presence of atherosclerosis was defined using validated numeric values within CAC and CIMT imaging. Descriptive data comparing groups was analyzed using Welch's t test and Pearson Chi square tests. Logistic regression was used to analyze clinical factors associated with atherosclerosis, and linear regression to evaluate the relationship between psoriasis and hsCRP. 296 patients were enrolled, with 283 (207 psoriatic and 76 controls) having all data for the hsCRP and atherosclerosis analysis. Atherosclerosis was found in 67.6 % of psoriasis subjects versus 52.6 % of controls; Psoriasis patients were found to have a 2.67-fold higher odds of having atherosclerosis compared to controls [95 % CI (1.2, 5.92); p = 0.016], after adjusting for age, gender, race, BMI, smoking, HDL and hsCRP. In addition, a non-significant trend was found between HsCRP and psoriasis severity, as measured by PASI, PGA, or BSA, again after adjusting for confounders. A tertiary care cohort of psoriasis patients have a high prevalence of early

  1. Ostial left main coronary stenosis in a frequent flyer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, John F

    2009-05-15

    A 52 year old gentleman presented with chest pain, after a long distance flight from India; he had made long haul flights every 2 weeks over the last 5 years as part of his job. His ECG revealed T wave inversion in leads V1-3. Cardiac biomarkers including troponin were negative; we proceeded to exercise stress testing (EST). This revealed 2 mm ST depression at 2 min of the standard Bruce protocol, associated with chest pain. He was taken immediately to the coronary catheterization laboratory; engagement of the left main caused pressure damping with 6 French, then 5 French diagnostic Judkins left 4 catheters. An ostial left main stenosis was seen; the right and left coronary trees otherwise had no significant stenoses. He had normal LV function. He underwent inpatient CABG 7 days later.

  2. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  3. Current Russian patriotism: matter, features, main directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovinov Vladimir Ilich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers understanding and the main point of patriotism as one of high cultural values. The main approaches that reveal different sides of this phenomenon, its role and importance in a history of Russia in the 21st century are inferred from the analysis of viewpoints of Russian thinkers and contemporary researchers. The patriotism formation problems in Russian society and their condition are defined, the need of patriotic level rise as one of the conditions for great Russia rebirth is substantiated.

  4. Main injector synchronous timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokland, W.; Steimel, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Synchronous Timing System is designed to provide sub-nanosecond timing to instrumentation during the acceleration of particles in the Main Injector. Increased energy of the beam particles leads to a small but significant increase in speed, reducing the time it takes to complete a full turn of the ring by 61 nanoseconds (or more than 3 rf buckets). In contrast, the reference signal, used to trigger instrumentation and transmitted over a cable, has a constant group delay. This difference leads to a phase slip during the ramp and prevents instrumentation such as dampers from properly operating without additional measures. The Synchronous Timing System corrects for this phase slip as well as signal propagation time changes due to temperature variations. A module at the LLRF system uses a 1.2 Gbit/s G-Link chip to transmit the rf clock and digital data (e.g. the current frequency) over a single mode fiber around the ring. Fiber optic couplers at service buildings split off part of this signal for a local module which reconstructs a synchronous beam reference signal. This paper describes the background, design and expected performance of the Synchronous Timing System. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  5. Main injector synchronous timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokland, Willem; Steimel, James

    1998-01-01

    The Synchronous Timing System is designed to provide sub-nanosecond timing to instrumentation during the acceleration of particles in the Main Injector. Increased energy of the beam particles leads to a small but significant increase in speed, reducing the time it takes to complete a full turn of the ring by 61 nanoseconds (or more than 3 rf buckets). In contrast, the reference signal, used to trigger instrumentation and transmitted over a cable, has a constant group delay. This difference leads to a phase slip during the ramp and prevents instrumentation such as dampers from properly operating without additional measures. The Synchronous Timing System corrects for this phase slip as well as signal propagation time changes due to temperature variations. A module at the LLRF system uses a 1.2 Gbit/s G-Link chip to transmit the rf clock and digital data (e.g. the current frequency) over a single mode fiber around the ring. Fiber optic couplers at service buildings split off part of this signal for a local module which reconstructs a synchronous beam reference signal. This paper describes the background, design and expected performance of the Synchronous Timing System

  6. Space shuttle main engine vibration data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewallen, Pat

    1986-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine Vibration Data Base is described. Included is a detailed description of the data base components, the data acquisition process, the more sophisticated software routines, and the future data acquisition methods. Several figures and plots are provided to illustrate the various output formats accessible to the user. The numerous vibration data recall and analysis capabilities available through automated data base techniques are revealed.

  7. Diagnosing in building main pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telegin, L.G.; Gorelov, A.S.; Kurepin, B.N.; Orekhov, V.I.; Vasil' yev, G.G.; Yakovlev, Ye. I.

    1984-01-01

    General principles are examined for technical diagnosis in building main pipelines. A technique is presented for diagnosis during construction, as well as diagnosis of the technical state of the pipeline-construction machines and mechanisms. The survey materials could be used to set up construction of main pipelines.

  8. Maine Agricultural Foods. Project SEED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat

    This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas, blueberries,…

  9. Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoddy, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Scope: The Main Propulsion Test Article integrated the main propulsion subsystem with the clustered Space Shuttle Main Engines, the External Tank and associated GSE. The test program consisted of cryogenic tanking tests and short- and long duration static firings including gimbaling and throttling. The test program was conducted on the S1-C test stand (Position B-2) at the National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL)/Stennis Space Center. 3 tanking tests and 20 hot fire tests conducted between December 21 1 1977 and December 17, 1980 Configuration: The main propulsion test article consisted of the three space shuttle main engines, flightweight external tank, flightweight aft fuselage, interface section and a boilerplate mid/fwd fuselage truss structure.

  10. Left main percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teirstein, Paul S; Price, Matthew J

    2012-10-23

    The introduction of drug-eluting stents and advances in catheter techniques have led to increasing acceptance of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a viable alternative to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) for unprotected left main disease. Current guidelines state that it is reasonable to consider unprotected left main PCI in patients with low to intermediate anatomic complexity who are at increased surgical risk. Data from randomized trials involving patients who are candidates for either treatment strategy provide novel insight into the relative safety and efficacy of PCI for this lesion subset. Herein, we review the current data comparing PCI with CABG for left main disease, summarize recent guideline recommendations, and provide an update on technical considerations that may optimize clinical outcomes in left main PCI. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Main: FEB3 [TP Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nt to sterilization and rinsing - One of the main components of biofilms is polysaccharides - Some pit-formi...ng bacteria such as Sphingomonas species A1 possess superchannels that directly incorporate and decompose polysaccharides - Detai...e entrance of the superchannel have been elucidated - We have obtained the crystals of ABC importer complexe...of water pipes and dental plaque are examples of biofilms. One of the main components of biofilms is polysac

  12. Decontamination of main coolant pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roofthooft, R.

    1988-01-01

    Last year a number of main coolant pumps in Belgian nuclear power plants were decontaminated. A new method has been developed to reduce the time taken for decontamination and the volume of waste to be treated. The method comprises two phases: Oxidation with permanganate in nitric acid and dissolution in oxalic acid. The decontamination of main coolant pumps can now be achieved in less than one day. The decontamination factors attained range between 15 and 150. (orig.) [de

  13. Normative significance of transnationalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    publications such as the Danish cartoons. It is argued that, although some of the usual arguments about free speech only or mainly apply domestically, many also apply transnationally; that standard arguments for multicultural recognition are difficult to apply transnationally; and that requirements of respect...

  14. Significance of thymic scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Hiromi; Oshiumi, Yoshihiko; Nakayama, Chikashi; Morita, Kazunori; Koga, Ichinari

    1978-01-01

    Thymic scintigraphy by 67 Ga-citrate and 75 Se-methionine was done on 6 cases of thymoma, and 5 cases of myasthenia gravis. Scan was positive on 5 of 6 cases of thymoma. All patients with malignant thymoma were positive. Among the 7 cases of myasthenia gravis, scintigrams revealed 2 thymomas and 1 hyperplasia on whom no thymic mass suspected. Thymic scintigraphy is useful examination when dealing with myasthenia gravis. (auth.)

  15. New Main Ring control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, K.; Anderson, L.; Ducar, R.; Franck, A.; Gomilar, J.; Hendricks, B.; Smedinghoff, J.

    1990-03-01

    The Fermilab Main Ring control system has been operational for over sixteen years. Aging and obsolescence of the equipment make the maintenance difficult. Since the advent of the Tevatron, considerable upgrades have been made to the controls of all the Fermilab accelerators except the Main Ring. Modernization of the equipment and standardization of the hardware and software have thus become inevitable. The Tevatron CAMAC serial system has been chosen as a basic foundation in order to make the Main Ring control system compatible with the rest of the accelerator complex. New hardware pieces including intelligent CAMAC modules have been designed to satisfy unique requirements. Fiber optic cable and repeaters have been installed in order to accommodate new channel requirements onto the already saturated communication medium system. 8 refs., 2 figs

  16. Radioecological monitoring of south Caucasus - main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitskishvili, M.S; Chazaradze, R.E.; Katamadze, N.M.; Intskirveli, L.N.; Chxartishvili, A.G.; Gugushvili, B.S.; Tsitskishvili, N.B.; Saneblidze, O.I.

    2002-01-01

    Basing in surrounding ambience at present radioactive on its origin possible to split into two main groups: artificial and natural radioactive. How is obvious from the most names, natural based in the nature nearly with first days of its shaping and are its by the component. Artificial - not existed or not saved in the nature - having radioactive characteristics isotopes 'appeared' as a result artificial doing atoms. Getting into surrounding ambience as a result person activity artificial (systematically or episodic detectable there) possible conditionally split into three subgroups. Artificial radioactive isotopes, got into surrounding natural ambience as a result anthropogenic activity, in principal (ecological) are distinguished from the natural radioactive isotopes by fetters and particularities to migration on ecological chains, but, consequently, and nature 'influence'. Sufficiently remind that if in biosphere practically no ecological niches, in which goes an accumulation natural, capable to give significant dozing effect; for the artificial (isotopes of iodine, isotopes a strontium, caesium) exactly ability be accumulated in separate 'niches' ecological chain or in separate organs or weaving an organism (thyroid gland for the iodine) do artificial radioisotopes hygienic extremely dangerous. Location of Caucasus in the area of approximate location of firing ranges of test, (after the series 1961-1962 conducted by USSR in the North hemisphere this were test China) and damages on Chernobyl, in the area of most intensity stratosphere - troposphere exchange, manifests themselves: 1. Early approach spring-year maximum; 2. More clear maximum in the seasonal move; 3. The Greater fallout levels in contrast with other regions of country; 4. The Greater 'sensitivity' to 'fresh' products. Structure of global fallout on the under investigation region is stipulated: 1. Decreasing the fallout levels from the north on the south. 2. Vertical fallout levels (growth with the

  17. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  18. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  19. Analysis of main artifacts in scanning probe microscopy (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekperov, S.D.; Alekperov, S.D.

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of experiment carrying methodology in the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) region is carried out, the main parameters influencing on image quality are revealed. In order to reveal the artifact reason the main components of SPM signal which are divided on 5 groups : the useful signal; noises connected with external influences and temperature drift; distortions connected with piezoceramics and piezo-scanner non-ideality; probe geometry influence; apparatus noises are considered. The main methods of removal and minimization of the given artifacts are considered. The second and third groups of main components of SPM signal are considered in the articles first part

  20. Main: FBB2 [TP Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ion of the c-ring - A subunit packing model of E. coli c-ring has been proposed - The main chain secondary s...tructure of thermophile c-ring has been obtained ATP synthase is a general term for an enzyme that can synth

  1. Main: FEA5 [TP Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al or an anti-cancer drug, is the main cause of hospital-acquired infection - Dru...e will elucidate the entire structure of the transport machinery in action to understand its functions in detail. FEA5.csml ...

  2. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Maine single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  3. CENTRE OF THE MAIN INTERESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA DELEANU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The centre of the main interests of the debtor is a legal tool meant to settle conflicts that can arise between jurisdictions in cross-border insolvencies, based on the principles of mutual recognition and co-operation.

  4. The double main sequence of Omega Centauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedin, L. R.; Piotto, G.; Anderson, J.; King, I. R.; Cassisi, S.; Momany, Y.

    Recent, high precision photometry of Omega Centauri, the biggest Galactic globular cluster, has been obtained with Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The color magnitude diagram reveals an unexpected bifurcation of colors in the main sequence (MS). The newly found double MS, the multiple turnoffs and subgiant branches, and other sequences discovered in the past along the red giant branch of this cluster add up to a fascinating but frustrating puzzle. Among the possible explanations for the blue main sequence an anomalous overabundance of helium is suggested. The hypothesis will be tested with a set of FLAMES@VLT data we have recently obtained (ESO DDT program), and with forthcoming ACS@HST images. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  5. Main: FEB2 [TP Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available y Research Group, Harima Institute, RIKEN - Taste buds in taste cells contain taste receptors that sense the...rational evaluation and developments of tastants - We have obtained micro-crystals of the heterodimer T1R2/T...ste buds in taste cells contain taste receptors that sense the taste. Taste recep...d in the surface membranes to reveal the detailed molecular mechanism by which taste receptors recognize tastants. Anal. Biochem. 21291856 FEB2.csml ...

  6. ONKALO - Main drawings in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-05-01

    The first overall site characterisation programme for a Finnish repository of spent nuclear fuel was introduced in 1982. This programme already suggested that the site confirmation for a detailed repository design and safety assessment should include characterisation performed in an underground rock characterisation facility (URCF). This idea was confirmed during the detailed site characterisation. International views have also emphasised the importance of underground characterisation before the final decision to construct the repository is taken. The underground rock characterisation facility (ONKALO) is excavated at Olkiluoto in the municipality of Eurajoki. ONKALO should be constructed to allow characterisation work for site confirmation without jeopardising long-term safety of the repository site. It should also be possible to link ONKALO later to the repository as to a part of it. The construction of ONKALO was started in 2004 and will be completed in 2014. The characterisation work has started in ONKALO and will focus on the disposal depth. In the main drawings stage, ONKALO was described at the level of detail needed for a construction permit in 2003. This meant description of the location, final structures and final systems. This summary report describes the development of design to updated main drawings in 2007 at the same level of detail (no temporary arrangements are described). The main changes are the added exhaust air shaft and advancing the controlled area's inlet air shaft to the ONKALO phase. Also the layout and the depth of the characterisation levels have been updated according to the current bedrock information. Some buildings on the surface will house sets of equipment directly connected with underground facility and this equipment is described in this report. No buildings or other equipment are described in this report, because they are not directly connected with the underground facility. The main element of ONKALO is a system of

  7. A main sequence for quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziani, Paola; Dultzin, Deborah; Sulentic, Jack W.; Del Olmo, Ascensión; Negrete, C. A.; Martínez-Aldama, Mary L.; D'Onofrio, Mauro; Bon, Edi; Bon, Natasa; Stirpe, Giovanna M.

    2018-03-01

    The last 25 years saw a major step forward in the analysis of optical and UV spectroscopic data of large quasar samples. Multivariate statistical approaches have led to the definition of systematic trends in observational properties that are the basis of physical and dynamical modeling of quasar structure. We discuss the empirical correlates of the so-called “main sequence” associated with the quasar Eigenvector 1, its governing physical parameters and several implications on our view of the quasar structure, as well as some luminosity effects associated with the virialized component of the line emitting regions. We also briefly discuss quasars in a segment of the main sequence that includes the strongest FeII emitters. These sources show a small dispersion around a well-defined Eddington ratio value, a property which makes them potential Eddington standard candles.

  8. A Main Sequence for Quasars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Marziani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The last 25 years saw a major step forward in the analysis of optical and UV spectroscopic data of large quasar samples. Multivariate statistical approaches have led to the definition of systematic trends in observational properties that are the basis of physical and dynamical modeling of quasar structure. We discuss the empirical correlates of the so-called “main sequence” associated with the quasar Eigenvector 1, its governing physical parameters and several implications on our view of the quasar structure, as well as some luminosity effects associated with the virialized component of the line emitting regions. We also briefly discuss quasars in a segment of the main sequence that includes the strongest FeII emitters. These sources show a small dispersion around a well-defined Eddington ratio value, a property which makes them potential Eddington standard candles.

  9. At ISR Main Control Room

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    After 13 years the exploitation of the Intersecting Storage Rings as a beam-beam collider went to an end. In this last year the demands were very exacting, both in terms of operating time and diversified running conditions (Annual Report 1983 p. 123). Before dismantelement the photographer made a last tour, see photos 8310889X --> 8310667X. This photo shows the Main Control Room.

  10. The Significance of Normativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Presskorn-Thygesen, Thomas

    and Weber. It does so by situating Durkheim and Weber in the context of Neo-Kantian philosophy, which prevailed among their contemporaries, and the chapter thereby reveals a series of under-thematised similarities not only with regard to their methodological positions, but also in their conception of social...... of social theory. In pursuing this overall research agenda, the dissertation contributes to a number of specific research literatures. Following two introductory and methodological chapters, Chapter 3 thus critically examines the analysis of normativity suggested in the recent attempts at transforming...... the methods of neo-classical economics into a broader form of social theory. The chapter thereby contributes to the critical discourses, particularly in philosophy of science, that challenge the validity of neo-classical economics and its underlying conception of practical rationality. In examining...

  11. Main: FEA6 [TP Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FEA6 Study on chemical biology of the deacetylase SIRT3 involved in the regulation of an energy...chondrial matrix regulates the activities of several enzymes involved in energy m...trix and found that SIRT3 regulates the activities of several enzymes involved in energy metabolism, suggest...reveal its physiology, especially biological functions of SIRT3 in the regulation of energy metabolism. FEA6.csml ... ...T3 in the regulation of energy metabolism is in progress using mouse models Acetylation and deacetylation of

  12. Main Problems and Prospects of Audit Development in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobolev Volodymyr M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses influence of the world crisis phenomena upon the national economy, shows a significant necessity of using international reporting standards. It justifies a necessity of strengthening financial control, the goal of which is to detect shortcomings in financial reports and recommendations regarding their elimination in order to ensure trustworthiness of reports. It considers main problems of audit activity and identifies necessary measures and ways of their solution. It reveals and justifies possible directions of prospective development of audit in Ukraine with consideration of the process of transition of economic subjects to international standards of financial reporting and marks out a necessity of strengthening the role of the state institutions in further audit development. It analyses the insufficient control over the quality of audit services and statistical material regarding the number and specific features of operation of audit firms and private auditors in Ukraine.

  13. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  14. JWST-MIRI spectrometer main optics design and main results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Ramón; Schoenmaker, Ton; Kroes, Gabby; Oudenhuysen, Ad; Jager, Rieks; Venema, Lars

    2017-11-01

    MIRI ('Mid InfraRed Instrument') is the combined imager and integral field spectrometer for the 5-29 micron wavelength range under development for the James Webb Space Telescope JWST. The flight acceptance tests of the Spectrometer Main Optics flight models (SMO), part of the MIRI spectrometer, are completed in the summer of 2008 and the system is delivered to the MIRI-JWST consortium. The two SMO arms contain 14 mirrors and form the MIRI optical system together with 12 selectable gratings on grating wheels. The entire system operates at a temperature of 7 Kelvin and is designed on the basis of a 'no adjustments' philosophy. This means that the optical alignment precision depends strongly on the design, tolerance analysis and detailed knowledge of the manufacturing process. Because in principle no corrections are needed after assembly, continuous tracking of the alignment performance during the design and manufacturing phases is important. The flight hardware is inspected with respect to performance parameters like alignment and image quality. The stability of these parameters is investigated after exposure to various vibration levels and successive cryogenic cool downs. This paper describes the philosophy behind the acceptance tests, the chosen test strategy and reports the results of these tests. In addition the paper covers the design of the optical test setup, focusing on the simulation of the optical interfaces of the SMO. Also the relation to the SMO qualification and verification program is addressed.

  15. Main ring transition crossing simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourbanis, I.; Ng, King-Yuen.

    1990-10-01

    We used ESME to simulate transition crossing in the Main Ring (MR). For the simulations, we followed the MR 29 cycle used currently for bar p production with a flat top of 120 GeV. In Sect. II, some inputs are discussed. In Sect. III, we present simulations with space charge turned off so that the effect of nonlinearity can be studied independently. When space charge is turned on in Sect. IV, we are faced with the problem of statistical errors due to binning, an analysis of which is given in the Appendices. Finally in Sects. V and VI, the results of simulations with space charge are presented and compared with the experimental measurements. 7 refs., 6 figs

  16. Improvement of main control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Sung Ki; Ham, Chang Sik; Kwon, Ki Chun

    1991-07-01

    Information display system, advanced alarm system and fiber optical communication system were developed to improve the main control room in nuclear power plant. Establishing the new hierachical information structure of plant operation data, plant overview status board(POSB) and digital indicator(DI) were designed and manufactured. The prototype advanced alarm system which employed the new alarm logics and algorithm compared with the conventional alarm system were developed and its effectiveness was proved. Optical communication system which has multi-drop feature and capability of upgrading to large-scale system by using BITBUS communication protocol which is proven technology, were developed. Reliability of that system was enhanced by using distributed control. (Author)

  17. The role of Main Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, H Thomas R; Chabanet, Didier; Rakar, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    ), in many countries the need emerged to understand the best methods to promote their establishment and continued success. In order to understand these issues, to contribute to the academic debate on SEs and to give useful policy advice on a truly enabling ecosystem, in November 2013 a consortium of 11...... Entrepreneurship”; to identify the “New Generation” of Social Entrepreneurs; to build an “Evolutionary Theory of Social Entrepreneurship”; to provide effective policy advices to stakeholders. In order to pursue and achieve these research objectives, the consortium implemented a complex research design...... in the social economy; - In the fifth chapter the authors address the role of the main institutions in developing (or hindering) social enterprises; - In the sixth chapter, stakeholder network maps are used to identify four ‘ecosystem types’ across the 10 partner countries; - The seventh chapter gives...

  18. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  19. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  20. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  1. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  2. Main technical topics in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Safety Authority annual report strives to present current organizational provisions and future trends in nuclear safety supervision in France and to describe the most outstanding occurrences during the past year. A first part presents nine documents concerning the main topics of 1999: aging of nuclear installations, the Offsite Emergency Plans (PPI), the impact of nuclear activities on man and the environment, the criticality hazards, EDF in 1999, the EPR project, the Andra in 1999, the transport incidents, the nuclear safety in eastern Europe. The second part presents the missions and actions of the Nuclear Installations Safety in the domains of the liabilities, the organization of the nuclear safety control, the regulations of the INB, the public information, the international relations, the crisis management, the radioactive materials transportation, the radioactive wastes. The equipment, the radiation protection and the exploitation of the pressurized water reactors are also treated just as the experimental reactors, the fuel cycle installations and the the nuclear installations dismantling. (A.L.B.)

  3. Main challenges of residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Luca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a position paper aiming to initiate a professional debate related to the aspects related to the urban dysfunctions leading to the wear of the residential areas. The paper proposes a definition of the wear process, identify the main causes leading to its occurrence and propose a number of solutions to neutralise the dysfunctions. The three wearing phases of residential areas components are emphasized, exploring their lifecycle. In order to perform the study of urban wear, the status of the residential areas components can be established and monitored, and also the variables of the function that can mathematically model the specific wear process may be considered. The paper is considered a first step for the model adjustment, to be tested and validated in the following steps. Based on the mathematical method and model, there can be created, in a potential future research, the possibility of determining the precarity degree for residential areas/neighbourhoods and cities, by minimising the subjective component of the analyses preceding the decision for renovation or regeneration.

  4. Research in auditing: main themes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Porte

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The passage of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX was a turning point in auditing and in auditors practice for the academic world. Research concerning the characterization of academic production related to auditing is in its third decade. Its analysis is accomplished by means of definition of keywords, abstracts or title, and information on thematic association within the academic production itself in auditing is undisclosed. In order to revise this gap in auditing literature, this study identified the main themes in auditing and their association in post-SOX era by analyzing the content of objectives and hypothesis of 1,650 publications in Web of Science (2002-2014. The findings in this study extended those from the study by Lesage and Wechtler (2012 from 16 auditing thematic typologies to 22. The results demonstrate that the themes audit report & financial statement users, corporate governance, audit market, external audit, socio-economic data of the company, international regulation, and fraud risk & audit risk were the most addressed in the publications about auditing. Corporate governance has a broader association with the other themes in the area. Future researches may use these themes and relate them to the methodologies applied to audit studies.

  5. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  6. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  7. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  8. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  9. Space Shuttle Main Engine Public Test Firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    A new NASA Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) roars to the approval of more than 2,000 people who came to John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., on July 25 for a flight-certification test of the SSME Block II configuration. The engine, a new and significantly upgraded shuttle engine, was delivered to NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida for use on future shuttle missions. Spectators were able to experience the 'shake, rattle and roar' of the engine, which ran for 520 seconds - the length of time it takes a shuttle to reach orbit.

  10. VAT EVASION INLEBANON: CASES AND MAIN CAUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Ismail

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Value Added Tax (VAT is a very important source oftreasuryrevenuesinLebanon. It was initially introduced inLebanon in order to reduce the budgetdeficit and help contain the debt. However, VAT evasion growth inLebanon isleading to significant VAT revenue losses because of its size and frequency.In this paper, we will highlight the contribution of VAT to the treasury revenue. Inaddition, our research has led to figure out the most significant VAT evasion casesand the way tax payers evade paying their required VAT or try to have an illegalrefund. From these tax evasion cases, we will pinpoint the main causes of suchevasions and propose solutions to limit as much as possible VAT evasion inLebanon.

  11. Main trends of the international market of educational services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Chinaeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The world education system everything will more be transformed to the multi-billion industry, one of the profitable directions of which is training of foreign students. Creation and development of successfully functioning system of the international education, attraction of a significant amount of foreign students are not only to increase the budget of higher education institution and to lift its prestige, but also and a method of promotion of policy, culture, economy, a conduct of life of the host country home. With respect there to research and practical interest has studying and the analysis of the main directions of development of the international market of educational services. This article in which changes of the main indicators reflecting the main vectors of export of education in the leading countries - exporters and in our country are considered is also devoted to these questions.The purpose of work is the analysis of development of the international market of educational services in recent years. The analysis of analytical and statistical information on the processes happening in this area, both at the international level, and in Russia is the basis.In the course of the research the methods of the analytical and logical analysis on the basis of statistical data promoting more detailed studying of dynamic and structural changes of the social and economic phenomena and processes were used.In general for the last 30 years the extent of the international student’s mobility increased more than by 6 times. The international educational market constantly develops, increasing the turnover. However flows of the international students periodically change the orientation, both on countries of source, and over the countries of training. At the same time it is possible to note that changes in structure of the largest countries recipients happen more slowly, than as a part of the countries delivering foreign students. The largest world sources of

  12. Tinkering at the main-ring lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuma, S.

    1982-08-23

    To improve production of usable antiprotons using the proton beam from the main ring and the lossless injection of cooled antiprotons into the main ring, modifications of the main ring lattice are recommended.

  13. Water budget formulation for Ahmadu Bello University, main campus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study provides a water resources management option through formulation of water budget for the main campus of the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria using secondary data obtained from various sources. The data revealed that, water consumption in the campus in the year 2005 was 3,101 m3/d and 3,125 m3/d in year ...

  14. CBA main magnet power supply ripple reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, G.; Edwards, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    The preliminary results of a development program to minimize beam perturbation resulting from ripple current generated by the CBA Main Magnet Power Supply are presented. The assessment of the magnitude and causes of the ripple generated led to a modification of the SCR Gate Driver and the addition of a bandpass amplifier correction loop which gave significant improvement. A description of the changes made and the results obtained are included. A second design approach was developed in which the timing of the SCR gate pulses is directly determined by a VCO. The results reported with this VCO Loop indicate superior performance particularly at frequencies below 60 Hz. A shunt transistor regulator design is proposed to minimize higher SCR switching frequency harmonics

  15. Functional conjugated pyridines via main-group element tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolar, Monika; Baumgartner, Thomas

    2018-03-29

    Pyridine-based materials have seen widespread attention for the development of n-type organic materials. In recent years, the incorporation of main-group elements has also explored significant advantages for the development and tunability of organic conjugated materials. The unique chemical and electronic structure of main-group elements has led to several enhancements in conventional organic materials. This Feature article highlights recent main-group based pyridine materials by discussing property enhancements and application in organic electronics.

  16. 75 FR 27863 - Savings Bank of Maine, MHC and Savings Bank of Maine, Gardiner, Maine; Approval of Conversion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision [AC-38: OTS Nos. 06947 and H 4709] Savings Bank of Maine, MHC and Savings Bank of Maine, Gardiner, Maine; Approval of Conversion Application Notice is hereby given that on May 7, 2010, the Office of Thrift Supervision approved the application of...

  17. Quasi-periodic latitudinal shift of Saturn's main auroral emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussos, E.; Palmaerts, B.; Grodent, D. C.; Radioti, K.; Krupp, N.; Yao, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The main component of the ultraviolet auroral emissions at Saturn consists in a ring of emission around each pole of the planet. This main ring of emission has been revealed to oscillate by a few degrees in the prenoon-premidnight direction with a period of 10.8h. This auroral oscillation is thought to be induced by a rotating external magnetospheric current system associated with the planetary period oscillations. Here we report, by means of auroral imaging sequences obtained with the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) on board the Cassini spacecraft, the first direct observation of an additional motion of the main emission superimposed to this oscillation. The whole main emission ring exhibits step-like displacements in latitude mainly towards dayside, decoupled from the 10.8h oscillation. These latitude shifts recur around every hour, which is a typical short periodicity at Saturn previously identified in the aurora intensity, in the charged particle fluxes and in the magnetic field. This unique observation directly demonstrates what has been inferred from past in-situ and remote measurements: the 1-hour periodicities reveal a global and fundamental magnetospheric oscillation mode that acts independently of the local magnetospheric conditions. However, the magnetospheric mechanism responsible for these 1-hour auroral shifts is still unknown. It is possible that Alfvén waves inducing hourly magnetic fluctuations might also modify the place where the field-aligned electrons precipitate in the ionosphere and produce the main emission.

  18. Atraumatic Main-En-Griffe due to Ulnar Nerve Leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aswani, Yashant; Saifi, Shenaz

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is the most common form of treatable peripheral neuropathy. However, in spite of effective chemotherapeutic agents, neuropathy and associated deformities are seldom ameliorated to a significant extent. This necessitates early diagnosis and treatment. Clinical examination of peripheral nerves is highly subjective and inaccurate. Electrophysiological studies are painful and expensive. Ultrasonography circumvents these demerits and has emerged as the preferred modality for probing peripheral nerves. We describe a 23-year-old male who presented with weakness and clawing of the medial digits of the right hand (main-en-griffe) and a few skin lesions since eighteen months. The right ulnar nerve was thickened and exquisitely tender on palpation. Ultrasonography revealed an extensive enlargement of the nerve with presence of intraneural color Doppler signals suggestive of acute neuritis. Skin biopsy was consistent with borderline tuberculoid leprosy with type 1 lepra reaction. The patient was started on WHO multidrug therapy for paucibacillary leprosy along with antiinflammatory drugs. Persistence of vascular signals at two months’ follow-up has led to continuation of the steroid therapy. The patient is compliant with the treatment and is on monthly follow-up. In this manuscript, we review multitudinous roles of ultrasonography in examination of peripheral nerves in leprosy. Ultrasonography besides diagnosing enlargement of nerves in leprosy and acute neuritis due to lepra reactions, guides the duration of anti-inflammatory therapy in lepra reactions. Further, it is relatively inexpensive, non-invasive and easily available. All these features make ultrasonography a preferred modality for examination of peripheral nerves

  19. Analysis of the Main Indicators of the Bucharest Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Madalina Gabriela ANGHEL

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this article is to achieve an analysis of the evolution and significance of the main indicators of the Bucharest Stock Exchange (stock exchange capitalization, BET index, value of the concluded transactions) over the last fifteen years. One of the significant elements in analyzing the performances of the capital market consist of the stock exchange capitalization which an essential indicator for characterizing of this domain of activity, mainly if considering the fact that it is u...

  20. DIARRHEA IN CHILDREN: MAIN CAUSES AND WAYS OF TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Bel’mer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses main questions of diagnostics of diarrhea in children. Main cause of acute diarrhea is infection, mainly viral (rotavirus, etc.. Chronic diarrhea frequently has non-infectious origin. The need of multi-aspect diagnostics of diarrhea cause in children is related to the significance of treatment of main disease. Besides, treatment of chronic and acute diarrhea include major component: adsorbents based on smectite. In total treatment of diarrhea has to be complex with the use of dietotherapy and medications: mucocytoprotectors, regulators of motoric, pre- and probiotics.Key words: children, diarrhea, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(6:135-138

  1. 30 CFR 57.6160 - Main facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main facilities. 57.6160 Section 57.6160...-Underground Only § 57.6160 Main facilities. (a) Main facilities used to store explosive material underground... facilities will not prevent escape from the mine, or cause detonation of the contents of another storage...

  2. Changes in the main masticatory muscles in CT after mandibular condyle fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raustia, A.M. (Oulu Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Prosthodontics and Stomatognathic Physiology); Oikarinen, K.S. (Oulu Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery); Pyhtinen, J. (Oulu Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)

    1990-11-01

    The aim was to study changes in the main masticatory muscles after mandibular condyle fracture as seen by CT, comparing the densities and sizes of the masseter, medial pterygoid and lateral pterygoid muscles on the fractured side with those on the non-fractured side. More or less permanent muscular changes are detectable several years after the accident, especially in the lateral pterygoid muscle, which is attached to the condylar head. This muscle was statistically significantly smaller (p<0,001) on the fractured side. Examination of the masticatory muscles immediately after the fracture and at intervals afterwards could reveal more about the pathogenesis of the changes in these muscles. (orig.).

  3. Isolators Including Main Spring Linear Guide Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goold, Ryan (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Ruebsamen, Dale Thomas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of isolators, such as three parameter isolators, including a main spring linear guide system are provided. In one embodiment, the isolator includes first and second opposing end portions, a main spring mechanically coupled between the first and second end portions, and a linear guide system extending from the first end portion, across the main spring, and toward the second end portion. The linear guide system expands and contracts in conjunction with deflection of the main spring along the working axis, while restricting displacement and rotation of the main spring along first and second axes orthogonal to the working axis.

  4. Main hematological parameters of sturgeon species (Acipenseridae (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze scientific sources on the physiological, biochemical, ecological and genetic features of the main hematological paremeters and patterns of their variability in sturgeon species (Acipenseridae. To examine the fundamental aspects of lipid and protein metabolism in blood serum and the effect of biotic and abiotic factors on them. To highlight the common features of serum enzymes. Findings. A review of scientific papers revealed that although hematological parameters of sturgeons are generally similar to those of teleosts and mammals, there are a number of significant differences. In addition, many hematological parameters are characterized by species specificity, even within a family. Special attention is given to the variability of hematological parameters under the effect of factors of both internal and external environment. The paper describes the effects of sex and age, as well as the seasons of the year on the compositio of sturgeon blood. The fundamentals of the use of serum proteins in genetic and population studies are outlined. The features of the functioning of hemoglobin in sturgeon’s red blood cells are examined. The main hematological parameters involved in the formation and maturation of sexual products, and their effect on fertility are reviewed. For example, the spawners, which hadn’t put reproductive product, are characterized by a low rate of hemoglobin, increase in erythrocyte sedimentation speed and also a rise of the level of crude protein in blood and β-lipoproteid serum.The biochemical parameters (total protein and fractions, glucose, creatinine, cholesterol, the activity of some enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase in serum are examined. Practical value. The systematized data on the main hematological parameters and patterns of their variability in sturgeon species will be useful for both scientits and fish farmers. This is due to the

  5. Asteroid family dynamics in the inner main belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykhuis, Melissa Joy

    The inner main asteroid belt is an important source of near-Earth objects and terrestrial planet impactors; however, the dynamics and history of this region are challenging to understand, due to its high population density and the presence of multiple orbital resonances. This dissertation explores the properties of two of the most populous inner main belt family groups --- the Flora family and the Nysa-Polana complex --- investigating their memberships, ages, spin properties, collision dynamics, and range in orbital and reflectance parameters. Though diffuse, the family associated with asteroid (8) Flora dominates the inner main belt in terms of the extent of its members in orbital parameter space, resulting in its significant overlap with multiple neighboring families. This dissertation introduces a new method for membership determination (the core sample method) which enables the distinction of the Flora family from the background, permitting its further analysis. The Flora family is shown to have a signature in plots of semimajor axis vs. size consistent with that expected for a collisional family dispersed as a result of the Yarkovsky radiation effect. The family's age is determined from the Yarkovsky dispersion to be 950 My. Furthermore, a survey of the spin sense of 21 Flora-region asteroids, accomplished via a time-efficient modification of the epoch method for spin sense determination, confirms the single-collision Yarkovsky-dispersed model for the family's origin. The neighboring Nysa-Polana complex is the likely source region for many of the carbonaceous near-Earth asteroids, several of which are important targets for spacecraft reconnaissance and sample return missions. Family identification in the Nysa-Polana complex via the core sample method reveals two families associated with asteroid (135) Hertha, both with distinct age and reflectance properties. The larger of these two families demonstrates a correlation in semimajor axis and eccentricity

  6. Discovering the Significance of Scientific Design Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses and defines the achievement of significance in design science research. We review the values and processes of old-science and how this mode of science attacks the complexity of scientific knowledge production through analysis. We then explain how new-science attacks...... the complexity of scientific knowledge production through synthesis. The work argues that significance of the new-science contribution in design science can be obfuscated when wrapped in old-science. This understanding helps reveal how new-science, such as design science research, constitutes its significance...

  7. Main attributes influencing spent nuclear fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreescu, N.; Ohai, D.

    1997-01-01

    All activities regarding nuclear fuel, following its discharge from the NPP, constitute the spent fuel management and are grouped in two possible back end variants, namely reprocessing (including HLW vitrification and geological disposal) and direct disposal of spent fuel. In order to select the appropriate variant it is necessary to analyse the aggregate fulfillment of the imposed requirements, particularly of the derived attributes, defined as distinguishing characteristics of the factors used in the decision making process. The main identified attributes are the following: - environmental impact, - availability of suitable sites, - non-proliferation degree, -strategy of energy, - technological complexity and technical maturity, -possible further technical improvements, - size of nuclear programme, - total costs, - public acceptance, - peculiarity of CANDU fuel. The significance of the attributes in the Romanian case, taking into consideration the present situation, as a low scenario and a high scenario corresponding to an important development of the nuclear power, after the year 2010, is presented. According to their importance the ranking of attributes is proposed . Subsequently, the ranking could be used for adequate weighing of attributes in order to realize a multi-criteria analysis and a relevant comparison of back end variants. (authors)

  8. CVD - main concepts, applications and restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliznakovska, B.; Milosevski, M.; Krawczynski, S.; Meixner, C.; Koetter, H.R.

    1993-01-01

    Despite of the fact that the existing literature covering the last two decades is plentiful with data related to CVD, this document is an attempt to provide to a reader a concise information about the nature of CVD technique at production of technologically important materials as well as to point at special references. The text is devided into three separate sections. The first section, The Main Features of CVD, is intended to give a complete comprehensive picture of the CVD technique through process description and characterization. The basic principles of thermodynamics, CVD chemical reactions classification, CVD chemical kinetics aspects and physics of CVD (with particular attention on the gas-flow phenomena) are included. As an additional aspect, in CVD unavoidable aspect however, the role of the coating/substrate compatibility on the overall process was outlined. The second section, CVD Equipment, concerns on the pecularities of the complete CVD unit pointing out the individual significances of the separate parts, i.e. pumping system, reactor chamber, control system. The aim of this section is to create to a reader a basic understanding of the arising problems but connected to be actual CVD performance. As a final goal of this review the reader's attention is turned upon the CVD applications for production of an up-to-date important class of coatings such as multilayer coatings. (orig.)

  9. Proposed Fermilab upgrade main injector project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and operate a ''Fermilab Main Injector'' (FMI), a 150 GeV proton injector accelerator, at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois. The purpose and need for this action are given of this Environmental Assessment (EA). A description of the proposed FMI and construction activities are also given. The proposed FMI would be housed in an underground tunnel with a circumference of approximately 2.1 miles (3.4 kilometers), and the construction would affect approximately 135 acres of the 6,800 acre Fermilab site. The purpose of the proposed FMI is to construct and bring into operation a new 150 GeV proton injector accelerator. This addition to Fermilab's Tevatron would enable scientists to penetrate ever more deeply into the subatomic world through the detection of the super massive particles that can be created when a proton and antiproton collide head-on. The conversion of energy into matter in these collisions makes it possible to create particles that existed only an instant after the beginning of time. The proposed FMI would significantly extend the scientific reach of the Tevatron, the world's first superconducting accelerator and highest energy proton-antiproton collider

  10. Main prospects of EDF's nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierre Bacher, M.; Jean Pierrard, M.

    1994-01-01

    Today, EDF is at a half way point in its third major standardized series, the N4 1400 MW series. The main objective agreed upon for this N4 series, was to improve the insertion of man in the control loop. After the TMI accident in 1979, selective improvements had already been introduced in the 900 series ; the 1300 series, which was the underway, was also the object of more significant improvements (for instance a digital control system) ; but it still seemed desirable that all the lessons to be learned from the accident be reflected in the third series : the fully computerized instrumentation and control system developed for the N4 series ?comparable to the one developed for Airbus ?is today the first of its kind in the world. The demand increase for electric energy dramatically stopped in 1993. However, the prospect for the coming years is more optimistic. Electricity consumption is expected to increase slowly by an average 2% per year. In this context, EDF is preparing its energy program for the nest century and takes into account that hydraulic generation capacity will remain stable and that the French thermal units fueled with coal are rather old and will have to be replaced.

  11. Prototype fast breeder reactor main options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhoje, S.B.; Chellapandi, P.

    1996-01-01

    Fast reactor programme gets importance in the Indian energy market because of continuous growing demand of electricity and resources limited to only coal and FBR. India started its fast reactor programme with the construction of 40 MWt Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR). The reactor attained its first criticality in October 1985. The reactor power will be raised to 40 MWt in near future. As a logical follow-up of FBTR, it was decided to build a prototype fast breeder reactor, PFBR. Considering significant effects of capital cost and construction period on economy, systematic efforts are made to reduce the same. The number of primary and secondary sodium loops and components have been reduced. Sodium coolant, pool type concept, oxide fuel, 20% CW D9, SS 316 LN and modified 9Cr-1Mo steel (T91) materials have been selected for PFBR. Based on the operating experience, the integrity of the high temperature components including fuel and cost optimization aspects, the plant temperatures are recommended. Steam temperature of 763 K at 16.6 MPa and a single TG of 500 MWe gross output have been decided. PFBR will be located at Kalpakkam site on the coast of Bay of Bengal. The plant life is designed for 30 y and 75% load factor. In this paper the justifications for the main options chosen are given in brief. (author). 2 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Dark current and radiation shielding studies for the ILC main linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, Nikolai V. [Fermilab; Rakhno, I. L. [Fermilab; Solyak, N. A. [Fermilab; Sukhanov, A. [Fermilab; Tropin, I. S. [Fermilab

    2016-12-05

    Electrons of dark current (DC), generated in high-gradient superconducting RF cavities (SRF) due to field emission, can be accelerated up to very high energies—19 GeV in the case of the International Linear Collider (ILC) main linac—before they are removed by focusing and steering magnets. Electromagnetic and hadron showers generated by such electrons can represent a significant radiation threat to the linac equipment and personnel. In our study, an operational scenario is analysed which is believed can be considered as the worst case scenario for the main linac regarding the DC contribution to the radiation environment in the main linac tunnel. A detailed modelling is performed for the DC electrons which are emitted from the surface of the SRF cavities and can be repeatedly accelerated in the high-gradient fields in many SRF cavities. Results of MARS15 Monte Carlo calculations, performed for the current main linac tunnel design, reveal that the prompt dose design level of 25 μSv/hr in the service tunnel can be provided by a 2.3-m thick concrete wall between the main and service ls.

  13. Modeling radiation loads in the ILC main linac and a novel approach to treat dark current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, Nilolai V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Rakhno, Igor L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Tropin, Igor S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electromagnetic and hadron showers generated by electrons of dark current (DC) can represent a significant radiation threat to the ILC linac equipment and personnel. In this study, a commissioning scenario is analysed which is considered as the worst-case scenario for the main linac regarding the DC contribution to the radiation environment in the tunnel. A normal operation scenario is analysed as well. An emphasis is made on radiation load to sensitive electronic equipment—cryogenic thermometers inside the cryomodules. Prompt and residual dose rates in the ILC main linac tunnels were also calculated in these new high-statistics runs. A novel approach was developed—as a part of general purpose Monte Carlo code MARS15—to model generation, acceleration and transport of DC electrons in electromagnetic fields inside SRF cavities. Comparisons were made with a standard approach when a set of pre-calculated DC electron trajectories is used, with a proper normalization, as a source for Monte Carlo modelling. Results of MARS15 Monte Carlo calculations, performed for the current main linac tunnel design, reveal that the peak absorbed dose in the cryogenic thermometers in the main tunnel for 20 years of operation is about 0.8 MGy. The calculated contact residual dose on cryomodules and tunnel walls in the main tunnel for typical irradiation and cooling conditions is 0.1 and 0.01 mSv/hr, respectively.

  14. Understanding, modeling, and improving main-memory database performance

    OpenAIRE

    Manegold, S.

    2002-01-01

    textabstractDuring the last two decades, computer hardware has experienced remarkable developments. Especially CPU (clock-)speed has been following Moore's Law, i.e., doubling every 18 months; and there is no indication that this trend will change in the foreseeable future. Recent research has revealed that database performance, even with main-memory based systems, can hardly benefit from the ever increasing CPU power. The reason for this is that the performance of other hardware components h...

  15. The main directions of pharmacological correction of radioinduced scleroses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrovskaya, V.F.

    1991-01-01

    Results of clinical and experimental research on pharmacological correction of radiationinduced sclerosis were summarized. Efficiency of prophylaxis main trends and drug therapy was analyzed. Application of specific pharmaceuticals (preparations directly affecting certain chains of collagen metabolism) and nonspecific pharmaceuticals (preparations of indirect affect on collagen metabolism) was given. Further research of specific pharmaceuticals was shown to be expedient. Analysis of nonspecific pharmaceuticals used in complex therapy revealed problems in evaluating their efficiency at various stages of sclerosis development

  16. Condom use with "casual" and "main" partners: what's in a name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, Celia M; Vazquez, Elizabeth A; Brown, Larry K; Litvin, Erika B; Pugatch, David

    2006-09-01

    This study examined adolescents' attitudes about and behaviors toward condom use with "casual" vs. "main" sexual partners. Participants were sexually active adolescents aged 15-21 years (n = 1316) recruited from primary care clinics and through outreach activities in three major cities in the United States. Assessment of condom use within the past 90 days, relevant attitudes, substance use, and demographic data were obtained via audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI). Participants were divided into two groups: the 65% who reported main partners only (MP group) and the 35% who had at least one casual partner (CP group). Adolescents in the MP group were more likely to be female, whereas males were significantly more likely to report casual partners. Race/ethnicity, age, education level, household income, and sexually transmitted infection (STI) history were unrelated to group status (i.e., sexual partner type). Greater substance use and riskier attitudes were reported by teens in the CP group. The number of unprotected sex acts in the past 90 days was substantial and equivalent between the main and casual partner groups (19.2 vs. 21.5, respectively). Regression analyses revealed that perceptions of main partner attitudes toward condom use and condom use expectations were significantly related to condom use with MPs, but that attitudes were not related to condom use with CPs. Adolescents with either casual or main partners may be at continued risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and STIs, given high rates of unprotected sex. Interventions that do not target attitudes and practices related to casual partners as compared with main partners may miss an opportunity to change risk behaviors. This study demonstrates the importance of understanding an adolescent's perception of partner types in order to design effective interventions.

  17. Main approaches to the study of loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burina E. A.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available this article presents the main approaches to the concepts of grief and loss study. The article describes the contribution of E. Lindemann, Z. Freud, J. Bowlby, F.E. Vasiluk, and E. Kubler-Ross. The research also contains the main forms of grief and some stadial models within the scope of problematics.

  18. Nitrogen chronology of massive main sequence stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhler, K.; Borzyszkowski, M.; Brott, I.; Langer, N.; de Koter, A.

    2012-01-01

    Context. Rotational mixing in massive main sequence stars is predicted to monotonically increase their surface nitrogen abundance with time. Aims. We use this effect to design a method for constraining the age and the inclination angle of massive main sequence stars, given their observed luminosity,

  19. Engineering Design of KSTAR tokamak main structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, K.H.; Cho, S.; Her, N.I.

    2001-01-01

    The main components of the KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) tokamak including vacuum vessel, plasma facing components, cryostat, thermal shield and magnet supporting structure are in the final stage of engineering design. Hundai Heavy Industries (HHI) has been involved in the engineering design of these components. The current configuration and the final engineering design results for the KSTAR main structure are presented. (author)

  20. Riigikogu maine ja armastus / Aune Past

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Past, Aune, 1954-

    2007-01-01

    Autor arutleb Riigikogu maine üle, toetudes TÜ ajakirjanduse ja kommunikatsiooni osakonna 2007. aastal tehtud uuringu tulemustele. Riigikogu liikmete maine paraneks, kui neil endil oleks selge, mis eesmärgil Toompeale mindi ja sellest siis ka rahvale kõneldaks

  1. MAIN TRENDS OF MODERN ART EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Kozyr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the features of the development of art education in Ukraine from the standpoint of the philosophy of modern education. Requirements of educational training standards for future teachers are outlined. This requirements determine not only what teachers need to know, to be able to do, what skills have, but also to create a construction of teacher’s highly skilled work, focused on achieving acmeologic level with the fundamental principles of national identity, socio-cultural conformity, humanism, problematic, learner-centered approach and dialogization in the learning process. The importance of the problem of science-based strategy and tactics of the further development of teacher education as an integrated system of training highly qualified specialists are disclosed due to the modern issues of the educational process. The solution to this problem is aimed at improving the content of professional education of future teachers, which is associated with significant changes in the quality teachers training, which the present day requires. The possibility of improvement of this training can be realized thanks to the classification, validate and implement an integrated system of the formation of professional skills of future teachers, aimed at optimal achievement of the goal. Thus, the main trends of today’s art education are determined. Considering the professional skills of prospective music teachers can only be provided by methodological analysis of this concept, based on the provisions of the dialectical method, system approach and the theory of knowledge and research of the phenomenon of education as a condition of the formation of the perfect work of teachers, because it will justify the skill as a multifactorial and multifaceted phenomenon of education.

  2. Layer texture of hot-rolled BCC metals and its significance for stress-corrosion cracking of main gas pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovich, Yu. A.; Isaenkova, M. G.; Krymskaya, O. A.; Morozov, N. S.

    2016-10-01

    Based on data of X-ray texture analysis of hot-rolled BCC materials it was shown that the layerwise texture inhomogeneity of products is formed during their manufacturing. The effect can be explained by saturation with interstitial impurities of the surface layer, resulting in dynamical deformation aging (DDA). DDA prevents the dislocation slip under rolling and leads to an increase of lattice parameters in the external layer. The degree of arising inhomogeneity correlates with the tendency of hot-rolled sheets and obtained therefrom tubes to stress-corrosion cracking under exploitation, since internal layers have a compressive effect on external layers, and prevents opening of corrosion cracks at the tube surface.

  3. Hillshades for the main 8 Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These hillshade datasets were derived from USGS 7.5' DEM Quads for the main 8 Hawaiian Islands. Individual DEM quads were first converted to a common datum, and...

  4. Nuclear power station main control room habitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschal, W.B.; Knous, W.S.

    1989-01-01

    The main control room at a nuclear power station must remain habitable during a variety of plant conditions and postulated events. The control room habitability requirement and the function of the heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and air treatment system are to control environmental factors, such as temperature, pressure, humidity, radiation, and toxic gas. Habitability requirements provide for the safety of personnel and enable operation of equipment required to function in the main control room. Habitability as an issue has been gaining prominence with the Advisor Committee of Reactor Safeguards and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission since the incident at Three Mile Island. Their concern is the ability of the presently installed habitability systems to control the main control room environment after an accident. This paper discusses main control room HVAC systems; the concern, requirements, and results of NRC surveys and notices; and an approach to control room habitability reviews

  5. Seasonal Composite Chlorophyll Concentrations - Gulf of Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This personal geodatabase contains raster images of chlorophyll concentrations in the Gulf of Maine. These raster images are seasonal composites, and were calculated...

  6. Collins' bypass for the main ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, S.

    1982-01-01

    Design of the bypass for the main ring at Fermilab is discussed. Specific design features discussed include space, path length, geometric closure, matching of betatron functions, and external dispersion. Bypass parameters are given

  7. Monthly Composite Chlorophyll Concentrations - Gulf of Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This personal geodatabase contains raster images of chlorophyll concentrations in the Gulf of Maine. These raster images are monthly composites, and were calculated...

  8. 2015 City of Portland, Maine, Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 2015 City of Portland Maine Lidar Data Acquisition and Processing Woolpert Order No. 75564 Contractor: Woolpert, Inc. This task is for a high resolution data set of...

  9. 2016 USGS Lidar DEM: Maine QL2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Product: These are Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data for Franklin, Oxford, Piscataquis, and Somerset Counties, Maine as part of the required deliverables for the...

  10. Molecular clusters of the main group elements

    CERN Document Server

    Driess, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    ""To summarize, Molecular Clusters of the Main Group Elements is certainly not a popular science book, nor is it a textbook; it is a very good, up-to-date collection of articles for the specialist. Als Fazit bleibt: Molecular Clusters of the Main Group Elements ist sicher kein populissenschaftliches Werk, auch kein Lehrbuch, aber eine gelungene, hoch aktuelle Zusammenstellung fen interessierten Fachmann."" -Michael Ruck, TU Dresden, Angewandte Chemie, 2004 - 116/36 + International Edition 2004 - 43/36

  11. Revisiting Reuse in Main Memory Database Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dursun, Kayhan; Binnig, Carsten; Cetintemel, Ugur; Kraska, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Reusing intermediates in databases to speed-up analytical query processing has been studied in the past. Existing solutions typically require intermediate results of individual operators to be materialized into temporary tables to be considered for reuse in subsequent queries. However, these approaches are fundamentally ill-suited for use in modern main memory databases. The reason is that modern main memory DBMSs are typically limited by the bandwidth of the memory bus, thus query execution ...

  12. Comparative genomic sequence analysis of strawberry and other rosids reveals significant microsynteny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbott Albert

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragaria belongs to the Rosaceae, an economically important family that includes a number of important fruit producing genera such as Malus and Prunus. Using genomic sequences from 50 Fragaria fosmids, we have examined the microsynteny between Fragaria and other plant models. Results In more than half of the strawberry fosmids, we found syntenic regions that are conserved in Populus, Vitis, Medicago and/or Arabidopsis with Populus containing the greatest number of syntenic regions with Fragaria. The longest syntenic region was between LG VIII of the poplar genome and the strawberry fosmid 72E18, where seven out of twelve predicted genes were collinear. We also observed an unexpectedly high level of conserved synteny between Fragaria (rosid I and Vitis (basal rosid. One of the strawberry fosmids, 34E24, contained a cluster of R gene analogs (RGAs with NBS and LRR domains. We detected clusters of RGAs with high sequence similarity to those in 34E24 in all the genomes compared. In the phylogenetic tree we have generated, all the NBS-LRR genes grouped together with Arabidopsis CNL-A type NBS-LRR genes. The Fragaria RGA grouped together with those of Vitis and Populus in the phylogenetic tree. Conclusions Our analysis shows considerable microsynteny between Fragaria and other plant genomes such as Populus, Medicago, Vitis, and Arabidopsis to a lesser degree. We also detected a cluster of NBS-LRR type genes that are conserved in all the genomes compared.

  13. Significant Locus and Metabolic Genetic Correlations Revealed in Genome-Wide Association Study of Anorexia Nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncan, Laramie; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Gaspar, Helena; Walters, Raymond K.; Goldstein, Jackie; Anttila, Verneri; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Ripke, Stephan; Thornton, Laura M.; Hinney, Anke; Daly, Mark J.; Sullivan, Patrick F; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Breen, Gerome; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Adan, RAH

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The authors conducted a genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa and calculated genetic correlations with a series of psychiatric, educational, and metabolic phenotypes. Method: Following uniformquality control and imputation procedures using the 1000 Genomes Project (phase 3) in

  14. Significant locus and metabolic genetic correlations revealed in genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncan, Laramie; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Gaspar, Helena; Walters, Raymond; Goldstein, Jackie; Anttila, Verneri; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Ripke, Stephan; Thornton, Laura; Hinney, Anke; Daly, Mark; Sullivan, Patrick F; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Breen, Gerome; Bulik, Cynthia M; Kas, Martinus J.H.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors conducted a genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa and calculated genetic correlations with a series of psychiatric, educational, and metabolic phenotypes. METHOD: Following uniform quality control and imputation procedures using the 1000 Genomes Project (phase 3)

  15. Revealing Significant Relations between Chemical/Biological Features and Activity: Associative Classification Mining for Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pulan

    2012-01-01

    Classification, clustering and association mining are major tasks of data mining and have been widely used for knowledge discovery. Associative classification mining, the combination of both association rule mining and classification, has emerged as an indispensable way to support decision making and scientific research. In particular, it offers a…

  16. Identification of sequence motifs significantly associated with antisense activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peek Andrew S

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predicting the suppression activity of antisense oligonucleotide sequences is the main goal of the rational design of nucleic acids. To create an effective predictive model, it is important to know what properties of an oligonucleotide sequence associate significantly with antisense activity. Also, for the model to be efficient we must know what properties do not associate significantly and can be omitted from the model. This paper will discuss the results of a randomization procedure to find motifs that associate significantly with either high or low antisense suppression activity, analysis of their properties, as well as the results of support vector machine modelling using these significant motifs as features. Results We discovered 155 motifs that associate significantly with high antisense suppression activity and 202 motifs that associate significantly with low suppression activity. The motifs range in length from 2 to 5 bases, contain several motifs that have been previously discovered as associating highly with antisense activity, and have thermodynamic properties consistent with previous work associating thermodynamic properties of sequences with their antisense activity. Statistical analysis revealed no correlation between a motif's position within an antisense sequence and that sequences antisense activity. Also, many significant motifs existed as subwords of other significant motifs. Support vector regression experiments indicated that the feature set of significant motifs increased correlation compared to all possible motifs as well as several subsets of the significant motifs. Conclusion The thermodynamic properties of the significantly associated motifs support existing data correlating the thermodynamic properties of the antisense oligonucleotide with antisense efficiency, reinforcing our hypothesis that antisense suppression is strongly associated with probe/target thermodynamics, as there are no enzymatic

  17. Historical Significant Volcanic Eruption Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteriacaused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or...

  18. Coronary atherosclerosis: Significance of autophagic armour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Mansi; Kaul, Deepak

    2012-09-26

    Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway of cellular components such as organelles and long-lived proteins. Though a protective role for autophagy has been established in various patho-physiologic conditions such as cancer, neurodegeneration, aging and heart failure, a growing body of evidence now reveals a protective role for autophagy in atherosclerosis, mainly by removing oxidatively damaged organelles and proteins and also by promoting cholesterol egress from the lipid-laden cells. Recent studies by Razani et al and Liao et al unravel novel pathways that might be involved in autophagic protection and in this commentary we highlight the importance of autophagy in atherosclerosis in the light of these two recent papers.

  19. What the voice reveals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ko, Sei Jin

    2007-01-01

    Given that the voice is our main form of communication, we know surprisingly little about how it impacts judgment and behavior. Furthermore, the modern advancement in telecommunication systems, such as cellular phones, has meant that a large proportion of our everyday interactions are conducted

  20. Main building fire drill safely concluded

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    Last week, a simulated fire in the stairwell of the Main Building put CERN’s emergency response procedures to the test.   Firefighters descend the stairwell in the Main Building as the simulated fire rises.   At 2 p.m. on 22 September, alarms sounded around CERN’s Main Building as an evacuation exercise got underway. A simulated fire in the  stairwell, complete with very realistic smoke, led to the evacuation of one of the busiest places at CERN. The Main Building complex includes the Carlson Wagonlit travel agency, the post office, UBS, Uniqa, the Users Office, the Staff Association and the Novae restaurant as well as the Main Auditorium, the Council Chamber and the Charpak meeting room. It was impressive to see how quickly the smoke propagated in the staircase as well as into the corridors, and equally impressive to see how smoothly, quickly and efficiently the evacuation proceeded. The...

  1. Guide to the Main Ring DO overpass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkot, F.

    1985-01-01

    The DO overpass is a modification of the beam orbit in Main Ring in order to better accommodate a Tevatron collider detector at DO. The orbit is moved up approx. 51 inches over most of the long straight section at DO, thus making the Main Ring the world's first non-planar proton synchrotron. A similar overpass, but with four times the displacement, is planned for the CDF detector at the BO straight section. The nominal separation between the beam orbit in the Main Ring and the orbit in the Tevatron is 25.5 inches. Early in the design study of a detector that would utilize the Tevatron is a anti pp collider, it was apparent that a larger separation at the detector was highly desirable. In 1981, Tom Collins proposed a specific lattice geometry in the Main Ring for achieving larger separation, called ''the screw beam''. His proposal has served as the basis for the design of both the BO and DO overpasses. The main purpose of this report is to describe in some detail the implementation of the DO overpass. Topics to be covered include: (a) geometry of the overpass orbit, (b) the new hardware in the tunnel, (c) the power supply system, (d) the control facility, (e) accelerator beam dynamics ramifications, and (f) commissioning experience. A secondary purpose is to provide a fairly complete ''bibliography'' to the sources of information on the overpass. 17 refs., 17 figs

  2. Left main coronary artery disease: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Carlos; Capodanno, Davide; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Banning, Adrian; Stone, Gregg W; Taggart, David P; Sabik, Joseph; Serruys, Patrick W

    2018-06-01

    The advent of coronary angiography in the 1960s allowed for the risk stratification of patients with stable angina. Patients with unprotected left main coronary artery disease have an increased risk of death related to the large amount of myocardium supplied by this vessel. Although coronary angiography remains the preferred imaging modality for the evaluation of left main coronary artery stenosis, this technique has important limitations. Angiograms of the left main coronary artery segment can be difficult to interpret, and almost one-third of patients can be misclassified when fractional flow reserve is used as the reference. In patients with clinically significant unprotected left main coronary artery disease, surgical revascularization was shown to improve survival compared with medical therapy and has been regarded as the treatment of choice for unprotected left main coronary artery disease. Two large-scale clinical trials published in 2016 support the usefulness of catheter-based revascularization in selected patients with unprotected left main coronary artery disease. In this Review, we describe the pathophysiology of unprotected left main coronary artery disease, discuss diagnostic approaches in light of new noninvasive and invasive imaging techniques, and detail risk stratification models to aid the Heart Team in the decision-making process for determining the best revascularization strategy for these patients.

  3. Pilot RCM application to the Diablo Canyon main stream system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groff, C.R.; Beckham, P.E.; Bych, K.H.

    1988-01-01

    In 1986 Pacific Gas ampersand Electric Company (PG ampersand E) became extremely interested in reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) after the initial review of two successful Electric Power Research Institute sponsored projects. RCM was visualized as a methodology to common sensitize the burgeoning preventive maintenance (PM) program at the Diablo Canyon plant. RCM could further the uses of predictive and condition-monitoring techniques, as well as eliminate maintenance on components whose failures were noncritical. An extensive review of maintenance and operation experience data, in conjunction with plant staff recommendations and a prioritization according to maintenance expenditures and operational/safety significance, produced the selected system: the turbine main steam supply system (main steam). The pilot project segmented the main steam system into eight subsystems to aid in analysis: (a) main steam isolation valves, (b) auxiliary feedwater pump turbine, (c) overpressure protection (steam dump), (d) main feedwater pump turbines, (e) main steam, (f) main turbine, (g) steam blowdown, and (h) moisture separator reheaters. System analysis activities, including the preparation of functional failure analyses, failure modes and effects analyses, and logic model analyses, were conducted in parallel with corrective and preventive maintenance data-gathering activities to maximize project team personnel participation during the project. Results and lessons learned are summarized

  4. Main Coast Winds - Final Scientific Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Huckaby; Harley Lee

    2006-03-15

    The Maine Coast Wind Project was developed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of small, distributed wind systems on coastal sites in Maine. The restructuring of Maine's electric grid to support net metering allowed for the installation of small wind installations across the state (up to 100kW). The study performed adds insight to the difficulties of developing cost-effective distributed systems in coastal environments. The technical hurdles encountered with the chosen wind turbine, combined with the lower than expected wind speeds, did not provide a cost-effective return to make a distributed wind program economically feasible. While the turbine was accepted within the community, the low availability has been a negative.

  5. Space Shuttle main engine product improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucci, A. D.; Klatt, F. P.

    1985-01-01

    The current design of the Space Shuttle Main Engine has passed 11 certification cycles, amassed approximately a quarter million seconds of engine test time in 1200 tests and successfully launched the Space Shuttle 17 times of 51 engine launches through May 1985. Building on this extensive background, two development programs are underway at Rocketdyne to improve the flow of hot gas through the powerhead and evaluate the changes to increase the performance margins in the engine. These two programs, called Phase II+ and Technology Test Bed Precursor program are described. Phase II+ develops a two-tube hot-gas manifold that improves the component environment. The Precursor program will evaluate a larger throat main combustion chamber, conduct combustion stability testing of a baffleless main injector, fabricate an experimental weld-free heat exchanger tube, fabricate and test a high pressure oxidizer turbopump with an improved inlet, and develop and test methods for reducing temperature transients at start and shutdown.

  6. Transition crossing in the main injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes the study of various longitudinal problems pertaining to the transition-energy crossing in the proposed Fermi Lab Main Injector. The theory indicates that the beam loss and bunch-area growth are mainly caused by the chromatic non-linear effect, which is enhanced by the space-charge force near transition. Computer simulation using the program TIBETAN shows that a ''γ T jump'' of about 1.5 unit within 1 ms is adequate to achieve a ''clean'' crossing in the currently proposed h=588 scenario. 19 refs., 4 figs

  7. The Fermilab Main Injector Technical Design Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1994-08-01

    This report contains a description of the design, cost estimate, and construction schedule of the Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) Project. The technical, cost, and schedule baselines for the FMI Project have already been established and may be found in the Fermilab Main Injector Title I Design Report, issued in August 1992. This report updates and expands upon the design and schedule for construction of all subsystem components and associated civil construction described in the Title I Design Report. The facilities described have been designed in conformance with DOE 6430.1A, "United States Department of Energy General Design Criteria."

  8. Bunch coalescing in the Fermilab Main Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildman, D.; Martin, P.; Meisner, K.; Miller, H.W.

    1987-01-01

    A new RF system has been installed in the Fermilab Main Ring to coalesce up to 13 individual bunches of protons or antiprotons into a single high-intensity bunch. The coalescing process consists of adiabatically reducing the h=1113 Main Ring RF voltage from 1 MV to less than 1 kV, capturing the debunched beam in a linearized h=53 and h=106 bucket, rotating for a quarter of a synchrotron oscillation period, and then recapturing the beam in a single h=1113 bucket. The new system is described and the results of recent coalescing experiments are compared with computer-generated particle tracking simulations

  9. Significance of Airborne Gamma-ray spectrometric data of Umm bisilla Area, central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabie, S I [Nuclear materials authority, Maadi, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Umm bisilla area, located in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt, consists mainly of basement rocks. The present investigation of the airborne spectrometric data is to define the meaningful anomalies from the raw data by applying the significance factor techniques, by calculating the significant radioactive provinces. Determination of the gross structural pattern and broad variations in composition of the crystalline basement, to define the relationships between the tectonic features of the area as interpreted from aeromagnetic data, with the significant anomalies revealed from spectrometric data was carried out through the application of different magnetic techniques. Five significant uraniferous zones were detected associated with Umm Bisilla granite, amphibolite, and grey granite. The intersection of the structural lineaments interpreted from aeromagnetic data illustrated good correlation with the significant uranium anomalous zones interpreted from spectrometric data, and indicated that the concentration is structurally. 15 figs.

  10. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    2017-01-01

    in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical...... significance are presented. First a method using importance sampling. Second a saddlepoint approximation based method. We develop algorithms to efficiently compute the approximations and compare them to naive sampling and the normal approximation. The individual merits of the methods are analysed both from....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...

  11. Significant Lactic Acidosis from Albuterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Diercks

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acidosis is a clinical entity that demands rapid assessment and treatment to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. With increased lactate use across many clinical scenarios, lactate values themselves cannot be interpreted apart from their appropriate clinical picture. The significance of Type B lactic acidosis is likely understated in the emergency department (ED. Given the mortality that sepsis confers, a serum lactate is an important screening study. That said, it is with extreme caution that we should interpret and react to the resultant elevated value. We report a patient with a significant lactic acidosis. Though he had a high lactate value, he did not require aggressive resuscitation. A different classification scheme for lactic acidosis that focuses on the bifurcation of the “dangerous” and “not dangerous” causes of lactic acidosis may be of benefit. In addition, this case is demonstrative of the potential overuse of lactates in the ED.

  12. Sense of place along a scenic byway in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marilynne Mann; Jessica Leahy

    2008-01-01

    Sense of place defines the value and meaning of location. The Rangeley Lakes area of Maine, an unusual natural environment with cultural and historic significance, was nationally recognized in 2000 by the designation of the Rangeley Lakes National Scenic Byway. A survey during the summer of 2006 sought to identify sense of place in the midst of tourism-related growth...

  13. Haemorrhage - the main presenting feature of diverticular disease of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haemqrrhage is one of the less common presentations of diverticular disease. This retrospective 5 year study of 23 patients has identified it as the main presentation (74%) among South African blacks in whom the disease is uncommon, but emerging as a clinical problem. Women constituted a statistically significant ...

  14. Revealed smooth nontransitive preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Tvede, Mich

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, we are concerned with the behavioural consequences of consumers having nontransitive preference relations. Data sets consist of finitely many observations of price vectors and consumption bundles. A preference relation rationalizes a data set provided that for every observed...... consumption bundle, all strictly preferred bundles are more expensive than the observed bundle. Our main result is that data sets can be rationalized by a smooth nontransitive preference relation if and only if prices can normalized such that the law of demand is satisfied. Market data sets consist of finitely...... many observations of price vectors, lists of individual incomes and aggregate demands. We apply our main result to characterize market data sets consistent with equilibrium behaviour of pure-exchange economies with smooth nontransitive consumers....

  15. Main principles of development stationary training facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsiptsyura, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The designation of stationary training facilities is shown and the main requirements for them are formulated. When considering the above-mentioned requirements, special attention was paid to obligatory correspondence between training experience and practical skill of an operator. It is shown, that the switchboard block is the major unit of the training facility, which should develop skills and habits of an operator

  16. Live insertion method used for main renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solkowitz, M.

    1992-01-01

    Baltimore Gas and Electric's pilot project using the live insertion method to replace a cast iron main provided excellent results. Its use on Eastern Avenue, a major state highway, was cost effective, provided gas service to customers during the work, required relatively short construction time and resulted in only minor traffic disruptions. Gas service transfers to the new main were done at customer convenience and resulted in outages of only a few hours per customer. This paper reports that the project involved inserting a 6-in. plastic line inside an existing 10-in. cast iron main. Miller Pipeline Corp., Indianapolis, supplier of the Insertec left-angle R right-angle live insertion method was contracted for the job. Miller technicians assisted BG and E forces by providing a load analysis of the main, a pushing machine and related supplies, foaming equipment and pipe cutting tools. Company forces were responsible for all preparatory work, including opening all excavations, installing bypasses, and fusing and testing the plastic pipe. Service transfers and renewals were also completed by company employees

  17. Maine Project against Bullying. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saufler, Chuck; Gagne, Cyndi

    Noting that bullying among primary school-age children has become recognized as an antecedent to more violent behavior in later grades, the 3-year Maine Project Against Bullying examined currently available research on bullying and evaluated books, curricula, media materials, and programs to identify resources and strategies which can be applied…

  18. Modern Portfolio Theory: Some Main Results

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Heinz H.

    2017-01-01

    This article summarizes some main results in modern portfolio theory. First, the Markowitz approach is presented. Then the capital asset pricing model is derived and its empirical testability is discussed. Afterwards Neumann-Morgenstern utility theory is applied to the portfolio problem. Finally, it is shown how optimal risk allocation in an economy may lead to portfolio insurance

  19. Enhancing training in the main control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuigan, K.; O'Leary, K.; Canavan, K.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003 Pickering B Nuclear of Ontario Power Generation installed a Desktop Simulator (DTS) in the Main Control Room (MCR) for training purposes. This paper will outline why this training enhancement was undertaken and the approach taken to secure its use in an active MCR environment while minimizing distractions to plant operations. (author)

  20. Main successes, achievements. Paths of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kubanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the overview of incidence of sexually transmitted infections and skin disorders over time in Russian Federation in 2004-2014 with its main positive tendencies; results of reorganisation of bed capacity of dermatovenerologic medical organizations; dermatovenerologic bed rates.

  1. Main facts 1995; Faits marquants 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This report presents the main facts of the studies carried out by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches (DER) of Electricite de France: new applications of electricity, classical and nuclear thermal power plants, electrical equipment, environment protection, monitoring and plants operations.

  2. Space transportation main engine reliability and safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jan C.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs are used to illustrate the reliability engineering and aerospace safety of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME). A technology developed is called Total Quality Management (TQM). The goal is to develop a robust design. Reducing process variability produces a product with improved reliability and safety. Some engine system design characteristics are identified which improves reliability.

  3. Water Hammer in Pumped Sewer Mains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    This publication is intended for engineers seeking an introduction to the problem of water hammer in pumped pressure mains. This is a subject of increasing interest because of the development of larger and more integrated sewer systems. Consideration of water hammer is essential for structural...

  4. D.E.R. 91 main facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, N.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents the main facts of the studies carried out by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches (DER) of Electricite de France: New applications of electricity, classical and nuclear thermal power plants, electrical equipment, environment protection, network analysis, information and informatic equipment

  5. VINKA, ten years on. Main scientific results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The VINKA facility in the TRITON swimming-pool reactor at Fontenay-aux-Roses allows the irradiation of solids at low temperatures in order to study crystalline defects. After ten years of operation the main scientific results obtained in the fields of creep and growth (chapter I), point defects (chapter II), amorphisation (chapter III) and dechanneling of particles (chapter IV) are summarised [fr

  6. Results on Fermilab main injector dipole measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.C.; Baiod, R.; DiMarco, J.; Glass, H.D.; Harding, D.J.; Martin, P.S.; Mishra, S.; Mokhtarani, A.; Orris, D.F.; russell, O.A.; Tompkins, J.C.; Walbridge, D.G.C.

    1995-06-01

    Measurements of the Productions run of Fermilab Main Injector Dipole magnets is underway. Redundant strength measurements provide a set of data which one can fit to mechanical and magnetic properties of the assembly. Plots of the field contribution from the steel supplement the usual plots of transfer function (B/I) vs. I in providing insight into the measured results

  7. D.E.R. 92 - Main facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the main facts of the studies carried out by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches (DER) of Electricite de France: new applications of electricity, classical and nuclear thermal power plants, electrical equipment, environment protection, network analysis, information and informatic equipment

  8. The historical significance of oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. V. Thirgood

    1971-01-01

    A brief history of the importance of oak in Europe, contrasting the methods used in France and Britain to propagate the species and manage the forests for continued productivity. The significance of oak as a strategic resource during the sailing-ship era is stressed, and mention is made of the early development of oak management in North America. The international...

  9. Effect of functionalization of boron nitride flakes by main group metal clusters on their optoelectronic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debdutta; Chattaraj, Pratim Kumar

    2017-10-01

    The possibility of functionalizing boron nitride flakes (BNFs) with some selected main group metal clusters, viz. OLi4, NLi5, CLi6, BLI7 and Al12Be, has been analyzed with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) based computations. Thermochemical as well as energetic considerations suggest that all the metal clusters interact with the BNF moiety in a favorable fashion. As a result of functionalization, the static (first) hyperpolarizability (β ) values of the metal cluster supported BNF moieties increase quite significantly as compared to that in the case of pristine BNF. Time dependent DFT analysis reveals that the metal clusters can lower the transition energies associated with the dominant electronic transitions quite significantly thereby enabling the metal cluster supported BNF moieties to exhibit significant non-linear optical activity. Moreover, the studied systems demonstrate broad band absorption capability spanning the UV-visible as well as infra-red domains. Energy decomposition analysis reveals that the electrostatic interactions principally stabilize the metal cluster supported BNF moieties.

  10. Electron Cloud Measurements in Fermilab Main Injector and Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffrey Scott [Indiana U.; Backfish, M. [Fermilab; Tan, C. Y. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    This conference paper presents a series of electron cloud measurements in the Fermilab Main Injector and Recycler. A new instability was observed in the Recycler in July 2014 that generates a fast transverse excitation in the first high intensity batch to be injected. Microwave measurements of electron cloud in the Recycler show a corresponding depen- dence on the batch injection pattern. These electron cloud measurements are compared to those made with a retard- ing field analyzer (RFA) installed in a field-free region of the Recycler in November. RFAs are also used in the Main Injector to evaluate the performance of beampipe coatings for the mitigation of electron cloud. Contamination from an unexpected vacuum leak revealed a potential vulnerability in the amorphous carbon beampipe coating. The diamond-like carbon coating, in contrast, reduced the electron cloud signal to 1% of that measured in uncoated stainless steel beampipe.

  11. Development of main steam safety valve set pressure evaluating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oketani, Koichiro; Manabe, Yoshihisa.

    1991-01-01

    A main steam safety valve set pressure test is conducted for all valves during every refueling outage in Japan's PWRs. Almost all operations of the test are manually conducted by a skilled worker. In order to obtain further reliability and reduce the test time, an automatic test system using a personnel computer has been developed in accordance with system concept. Quality assurance was investigated to fix system specifications. The prototype of the system was manufactured to confirm the system reliability. The results revealed that this system had high accuracy measurement and no adverse influence on the safety valve. This system was concluded to be applicable for actual use. (author)

  12. Perceiving Cardiac Rehabilitation Staff as Mainly Responsible for Exercise: A Dilemma for Future Self-Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, Parminder K; McMahon, Casey J; Locke, Sean R; Brawley, Lawrence R

    2018-03-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) exercise therapy facilitates patient recovery and better health following a cardiovascular event. However, post-CR adherence to self-managed (SM)-exercise is suboptimal. Part of this problem may be participants' view of CR staff as mainly responsible for help and program structure. Does post-CR exercise adherence for those perceiving high CR staff responsibility suffer as a consequence? Participants in this prospective, observational study were followed over 12 weeks of CR and one month afterward. High perceived staff responsibility individuals were examined for a decline in the strength of adherence-related social cognitions and exercise. Those high and low in perceived staff responsibility were also compared. High perceived staff responsibility individuals reported significant declines in anticipated exercise persistence (d = .58) and number of different SM-exercise options (d = .44). High versus low responsibility comparisons revealed a significant difference in one-month post-CR SM-exercise volume (d = .67). High perceived staff responsibility individuals exercised half of the amount of low responsibility counterparts at one month post-CR. Perceived staff responsibility and CR SRE significantly predicted SM-exercise volume, R 2 adj = .10, and persistence, R 2 adj = .18, one month post-CR. Viewing helpful well-trained CR staff as mainly responsible for participant behavior may be problematic for post-CR exercise maintenance among those more staff dependent. © 2017 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  14. Synthetic definition of biological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffington, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The central theme of the workshop is recounted and the views of the authors are summarized. Areas of broad agreement or disagreement, unifying principles, and research needs are identified. Authors' views are consolidated into concepts that have practical utility for the scientist making impact assessments. The need for decision-makers and managers to be cognizant of the recommendations made herein is discussed. Finally, bringing together the diverse views of the workshop participants, a conceptual definition of biological significance is synthesized

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...

  17. TypeScript revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Maharry, Dan

    2013-01-01

    TypeScript Revealed is a quick 100-page guide to Anders Hejlsberg's new take on JavaScript. With this brief, fast-paced introduction to TypeScript, .NET, Web and Windows 8 application developers who are already familiar with JavaScript will easily get up to speed with TypeScript and decide whether or not to start incorporating it into their own development. TypeScript is 'JavaScript for Application-scale development'; a superset of JavaScript that brings to it an additional object-oriented-like syntax familiar to .NET programmers that compiles down into simple, clean JavaScript that any browse

  18. Sediment exchange between groin fields and main-stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jie; Zhong, Deyu; Wu, Teng; Wu, Lingli

    2017-10-01

    Sediment exchange between groin fields and the main-stream influences the transport and distribution of polluted sediment that represents a hazard for rivers and neighboring floodplains. Despite its practical significance, little research has been done on the sediment exchange process itself, and existing studies used to estimate the sediment exchange by morphological change. The sediment exchange process, however, differs from morphological variation and includes two behaviors: the entrance of main-stream sediment into groin fields and the movement of groin field sediment out of groin fields. Therefore, this study aims at examining this exchange process and exploring the mechanisms of different exchange phenomena. Experiments were conducted in a mobile-bed laboratory flume by using a novel experimental method that successfully separates the movement of groin fields sediment from that of main-stream sediment. In addition to traditional measurements, such as measurements of morphological changes, surface flow velocities, and bed-form propagation, the deposition of main-stream sediment in groin fields is measured in detail. The results demonstrate that morphological change cannot reflect the sediment exchange process. The deposition of main-stream sediment in groin fields is determined by the dynamics of sediment movement, in which bedload- and suspended-sediment-dominated processes exhibit different deposition patterns. The movement of groin field sediment out of groin fields is determined mainly by local scouring around groins.

  19. Condition monitoring of main coolant pumps, Dhruva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, V.; Satheesh, C.; Acharya, V.N.; Tikku, A.C.; Mishra, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Dhruva is a 100 MW research reactor with natural uranium fuel, heavy water as moderator and primary coolant. Three Centrifugal pumps circulate the primary coolant across the core and the heat exchangers. Each pump is coupled to a flywheel (FW) assembly in order to meet operational safety requirements. All the 3 main coolant pump (MCP) sets are required to operate during operation of the reactor. The pump-sets are in operation since the year 1984 and have logged more than 1,00,000 hrs. Frequent breakdowns of its FW bearings were experienced during initial years of operation. Condition monitoring of these pumps, largely on vibration based parameters, was initiated on regular basis. Break-downs of main coolant pumps reduced considerably due to the fair accurate predictions of incipient break-downs and timely maintenance efforts. An effort is made in this paper to share the experience

  20. Alarm system for ABWR main control panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yuji; Saito, Koji [Toshiba Corp., Yokohoma (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    TOSHIBA has developed integrated digital control and instrumentation system for ABWR, which is the third-generation man machine interface system for main control room that we call A-PODIA (Advanced PODIA). A-Podia has been introduced the first actual ABWR plant in Japan. in A-PODIA, TOSHIBA has realized improvement of alarm system that all operator crews in the control room can recognize plant anomalies easily. The alarm system can recognize essential alarms for plant safety easily and understand annunciators with each integrated annunciators and their prioritized color easily by classifying alarms into plant-level essential annunciators, system-level integrated annunciators and equipment level individual annunciators with hierarchical structure. This paper describes conventional alarm system and the design philosophy, alarm system design and operation of ``Alarm System for ABWR Main Control Panels``. (author). 5 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab.

  1. Organization structure. Main activities of the Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter the organization structure as well as main activities of the Division for radiation safety, NPP decommissioning and radioactive waste management are presented. This Division of the VUJE, a.s. consists of the following sections and departments: Section for economic and technical services; Section for radiation protection of employees; Department for management of emergency situations and risk assessment; Department for implementation of nuclear power facilities decommissioning and RAW management; Department for personnel and environmental dosimetry; Department for preparation of NPP decommissioning; Department for RAW treatment technologies; Department for chemical regimes and physico-chemical analyses; Department for management of nuclear power facilities decommissioning and RAW management. Main activities of this Division are presented.

  2. Challenges of the ILC Main Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Marc

    2007-01-01

    With the completion of the ILC Reference Design Report (RDR), we begin the next phase of the project - development of the Engineering Design. Our strategy and priorities come from the identification, contained in the RDR, of scientific and engineering challenges of the ILC. First among these is the cost of the main linac which, including the associated earthworks and cooling/power systems, amounts to 60% of the ILC total cost. Next is the challenge to reach the highest practical gradient since this R and D has the largest cost leverage of any of the ongoing programs. Finally, we have to understand the beam dynamics and beam tuning processes in the main linac, as we will not have the opportunity to do full (or even large) scale tests of these before the linac is constructed.

  3. Chromaticity compensation scheme for the Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogacz, S.A.

    1993-05-01

    The current Main Injector lattice is studied in the context of full chromaticity compensation in the presence of the eddy current, saturation and the end-pack sextupole fields generated by the dipole magnets. Two families of correcting sextupole magnets are placed to compensate these fields and to adjust the chromaticity (in both planes) to some desired value. Variation of the dipole induced sextupole fields with the B-field (changing along a ramp) are modeled according to recent experimental measurements of the Main Injector dipole magnet Analysis of the required sextupole strengths is carried out along two realistic momentum ramps. The results of our calculation give quantitative insight into the requisite performance of the sextupole magnets

  4. Installation Strategy for the LHC Main Dipoles

    CERN Multimedia

    Fartoukh, Stephane David

    2004-01-01

    All positions in the LHC machine are not equivalent in terms of beam requirements on the geometry and the field quality of the main dipoles. In the presence of slightly or strongly out-of tolerance magnets, a well-defined installation strategy will therefore contribute to preserve or even optimize the performance of the machine. Based on the present status of the production, we have anticipated a list of potential issues (geometry, transfer function, field direction and random b3) which, combined by order of priority, have been taken into account to define a simple but efficient installation algorithm for the LHC main dipoles. Its output is a prescription for installing the available dipoles in sequence while reducing to an absolute minimum the number of holes required by geometry or FQ issues.

  5. The LHC Main Quadrupoles during Series Fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    Tortschanoff, Theodor; Durante, M; Hagen, P; Klein, U; Krischel, D; Payn, A; Rossi, L; Schellong, B; Schmidt, P; Simon, F; Schirm, K-M; Todesco, E

    2006-01-01

    By the end of August 2005 about 320 of the 400 main LHC quadrupole magnets have been fabricated and about 220 of them assembled into their cold masses, together with corrector magnets. About 130 of them have been cold tested in their cryostats and most of the quadrupoles exceeded their nominal excitation, i.e. 12,000 A, after no more than two training quenches. During this series fabrication, the quality of the magnets and cold masses was thoroughly monitored by means of warm magnetic field measurements, of strict geometrical checking, and of various electrical verifications. A number of modifications were introduced in order to improve the magnet fabrication, mainly correction of the coil geometry for achieving the specified field quality and measures for avoiding coil insulation problems. Further changes concern the electrical connectivity and insulation of instrumentation, and of the corrector magnets inside the cold masses. The contact resistances for the bus-bar connections to the quench protection diode...

  6. Alarm system for ABWR main control panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yuji; Saito, Koji

    1997-01-01

    TOSHIBA has developed integrated digital control and instrumentation system for ABWR, which is the third-generation man machine interface system for main control room that we call A-PODIA (Advanced PODIA). A-Podia has been introduced the first actual ABWR plant in Japan. in A-PODIA, TOSHIBA has realized improvement of alarm system that all operator crews in the control room can recognize plant anomalies easily. The alarm system can recognize essential alarms for plant safety easily and understand annunciators with each integrated annunciators and their prioritized color easily by classifying alarms into plant-level essential annunciators, system-level integrated annunciators and equipment level individual annunciators with hierarchical structure. This paper describes conventional alarm system and the design philosophy, alarm system design and operation of ''Alarm System for ABWR Main Control Panels''. (author). 5 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  7. INNOVATION DIFFUSION THEORY MAIN DEVELOPMENT STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Lisafiev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Main innovation diffusion development theory stages are: Rogers model of moving new products to the market including characteristics of its segments; mathematic substantiation of this model by Bass; Moor model taking into account gaps between adjacent market segments; Goldenberg model making it possible to predict sales drops at new product life cycle initial stages. It is reasonable to use this theory while moving innovative products to the market.

  8. The Main Properties of q-Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Nina O. Virchenko; Olena V. Ovcharenko

    2017-01-01

    Background.  The new generalization of the function of complex variable (q-function) is considered, its main properties are investigated. Such distributions have a special place among the special functions due to their widespread use in many areas of applied mathematics. Objective. The aim of the paper is to study the new generalization of the function of complex variable for application in applied sciences. Methods. To obtain scientific results the general methods of the mathematical a...

  9. Radiation shielding of the main injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, C.M.; Martin, P.S.

    1995-05-01

    The radiation shielding in the Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) complex has been carried out by adopting a number of prescribed stringent guidelines established by a previous safety analysis. Determination of the required amount of radiation shielding at various locations of the FMI has been done using Monte Carlo computations. A three dimensional ray tracing code as well as a code based upon empirical observations have been employed in certain cases

  10. Post-main-sequence planetary system evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    The fates of planetary systems provide unassailable insights into their formation and represent rich cross-disciplinary dynamical laboratories. Mounting observations of post-main-sequence planetary systems necessitate a complementary level of theoretical scrutiny. Here, I review the diverse dynamical processes which affect planets, asteroids, comets and pebbles as their parent stars evolve into giant branch, white dwarf and neutron stars. This reference provides a foundation for the interpretation and modelling of currently known systems and upcoming discoveries. PMID:26998326

  11. The BTeV main spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, P.D.

    2001-01-01

    BTeV is a second generation B-factory experiment that will use a double-arm, forward spectrometer in the C0 experimental hall at the Fermilab Tevatron. I will describe the motivation and design of the 'main spectrometer', consisting of a ring-imaging Cherenkov system for charged particle identification, an electromagnetic calorimeter of lead-tungstate crystals, a proportional tube muon system with magnetized filtering steel, and a straw-tube and silicon strip charged particle tracking system

  12. Main-sequence photometry in NGC 2808

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonanno, R.; Corsi, C.E.; Fusi Pecci, F.; Harris, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    We have obtained a color-magnitude diagram for the southern globular cluster NGC 2808, to V/sub lim/approx. =21 (about 2 mag below the main-sequence turnoff). The internal photographic errors are sigma/sub V/approx. =0.02, sigma/sub B/-Vapprox. =0.03, small enough to permit a precise definition of the turnoff region and an estimate of the ''cosmic scatter'' along the main sequence. Fitting of the CMD to VandenBerg's [Astrophys. J. Suppl. 51, 29 (1983)] isochrones shows that an excellent match to the observations is achieved for model parameters of Yapprox. =0.2, Zapprox. =0.003 ([Fe/H]approx. =-0.8), and an age of (16 +- 2) billion years. All these characteristics are within the expected range from other observational constraints; no new clues from the main-sequence data alone have arisen to help explain the presence of the anomalous blue horizontal-branch stars

  13. Isolated systems with wind power. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundsager, P.; Bindner, H.; Clausen, N.E.; Frandsen, S.; Hansen, L.H.; Hansen, J.C.

    2001-06-01

    The overall objective of this research project is to study the development of methods and guidelines rather than 'universal solutions' for the use of wind energy in isolated communities. The main specific objective of the project is to develop and present a more unified and generally applicable approach for assessing the technical and economical feasibility of isolated power supply systems with wind energy. As a part of the project the following tasks were carried out: Review of literature, field measurements in Egypt, development of an inventory of small isolated systems, overview of end-user demands, analysis of findings and development of proposed guidelines. The project is reported in one main report and four topical reports, all of them issued as Risoe reports. This is the Main Report Risoe-R-1256, summing up the activities and findings of the project and outlining an Implementation Strategy for Isolated Systems with Wind Power, applicable for international organisations such as donor agencies and development banks. (au)

  14. Snail meat: Significance and consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragićević Olgica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of snail meat goes back to prehistoric times. Different ancient nations had snails on their menu, but Helices culture as a productive activity was born as a Roman culture. Some of the most economically important edible species are: Helix aspersa (Mtiller Helixpomatia (Linne, Helix iucorum (Linne, Helix aperta (Born, Eobania vermiculata (Miiller. Together with its tasie, snail meat has several advantages over others: quite low lipid rate and calorie values versus rich mineral, essential amino acid and fatty acid content. The composition of snail meat is presented. In addition, the composition of different snail species and the part analyzed (pedal mass and visceral mass is presented. Also, the differences in composition according to the species (snail meat horse/chicken meat, beef, swine meat, fish meat are presented. The French are the world's leading consumers of snails. !n France snails come to market in a variety of ways. Estimated consumption of snails in France is around 40 000 tones/year. Total French imports account for 25% of world imports. France is also the leading exporter of prepared snails, mainly sold as preserved snails and prepared dishes. Snail imports have been much higher than exports (65 tones exported in 2002. vs. 2.700 tones imported. Despite the large consumption, only 3% of snails in France come from production (farming. Italy is in second place in the world consumption of snails, and Spain and Germany are in the third and fourth place. The development of snails consumption in Italy is followed with the same amount of production of snails in the whole biological circle. In 2001, from 24,700 tons, 9,350 tons (37.8% came from production, 6 00 tons (2.4% came from nature, and 14,750 tons (59.70% came from imports (frozen, fresh and prepared snails. In Serbia, at the beginning of 2005, we had over 400 registered farms for snail production.

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  3. Clinical significance of neonatal menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosens, Ivo; Benagiano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Past studies have clearly shown the existence of a spectrum of endometrial progesterone responses in neonatal endometrium, varying from proliferation to full decidualization with menstrual-like shedding. The bleedings represent, similar to what occurs in adult menstruation, a progesterone withdrawal bleeding. Today, the bleeding is completely neglected and considered an uneventful episode of no clinical significance. Yet clinical studies have linked the risk of bleeding to a series of events indicating fetal distress. The potential link between the progesterone response and major adolescent disorders requires to be investigated by prospective studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  13. Moral significance of phenomenal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Neil; Savulescu, Julian

    2009-01-01

    Recent work in neuroimaging suggests that some patients diagnosed as being in the persistent vegetative state are actually conscious. In this paper, we critically examine this new evidence. We argue that though it remains open to alternative interpretations, it strongly suggests the presence of consciousness in some patients. However, we argue that its ethical significance is less than many people seem to think. There are several different kinds of consciousness, and though all kinds of consciousness have some ethical significance, different kinds underwrite different kinds of moral value. Demonstrating that patients have phenomenal consciousness--conscious states with some kind of qualitative feel to them--shows that they are moral patients, whose welfare must be taken into consideration. But only if they are subjects of a sophisticated kind of access consciousness--where access consciousness entails global availability of information to cognitive systems--are they persons, in the technical sense of the word employed by philosophers. In this sense, being a person is having the full moral status of ordinary human beings. We call for further research which might settle whether patients who manifest signs of consciousness possess the sophisticated kind of access consciousness required for personhood.

  14. Clinical significance of the fabella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodevski, A.; Lazarova-Tosovska, D.; Zhivadinovik, J.; Lazareska, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: There is variable number of sesamoid bones in the human body; one of them is fabella, located in the tendon of the gastrocnemius muscle. Aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence of fabella in the Macedonian population and to discuss about clinical importance of this bone. Materials and methods: We retrospectively examined radiographs of 53 patients who had knee exams undertaken for a variety of clinical reasons, performed as a part of their medical treatment. Over a time span of six months, 53 patients (38 males and 15 females, age range 19-60 years, mean age of 36.7±12.3 years) were examined. Results: In seven (13.2%) patients of 53 analyzed reports, fabella was found in the lateral tendon of gastrocnemius muscle. We did not find a significant gender or side difference in the appearance of fabella. Conclusion: Although anatomic studies emphasized a lack of significance of the fabella, this bone has been associated with a spectrum of pathology affecting the knee as fabellar syndrome, perineal nerve injury and fracture. We should think of this sesamoid bone while performing diagnostic and surgical procedures

  15. Imaging an off-axis volcanic field in the Main Ethiopian Rift using 3-D magnetotellurics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebert, J.; Whaler, K. A.; Fisseha, S.; Hogg, C.

    2017-12-01

    In active continental rifts, asthenospheric upwelling and crustal thinning result in the ascent of melt through the crust to the surface. In the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), most volcanic activity is located in magmatic segments in the rift centre, but there are areas of significant off-axis magmatism as well. The Butajira volcanic field is part of the Silti Debre Zeyt Fault (SDZF) zone in the western Main Ethiopian Rift. It is characterized by densely clustered volcanic vents (mostly scoria cones) and by limited seismic activity, which is mainly located along the big border faults that form the edge of a steep escarpment. Seismic P-Wave tomography reveals a crustal low velocity anomaly in this area. We present newly collected Magnetotelluric (MT) data to image the electrical conductivity structure of the area. We deployed 12 LMT instruments and 27 broadband stations in the western flank of the rift to further investigate the along-rift and depth extent of a highly conductive region under the SDZF which was previously identified by MT data collected on the central volcano Aluto and along a cross-rift transverse. This large conductor was interpreted as potential pathways for magma and fluid in the crust. MT Stations were positioned in five NW-SE running 50 km long profiles, covering overall 100km along the rift and providing good coverage for a 3-D inversion of the data to image this enigmatic area of the MER.

  16. Chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. In this paper the work carried out at Berkeley from the spring of 1942 to the summer of 1945 is described briefly. The aqueous chemistry of plutonium is quite remarkable. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were based on aqueous solutions, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states, while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element are reported

  17. Android Emotions Revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a method for designing facial interfaces for sociable android robots with respect to the fundamental rules of human affect expression. Extending the work of Paul Ekman towards a robotic direction, we follow the judgment-based approach for evaluating facial expressions to test...... findings are based on the results derived from a number of judgments, and suggest that before programming the facial expressions of a Geminoid, the Original should pass through the proposed procedure. According to our recommendations, the facial expressions of an android should be tested by judges, even...... in which case an android robot like the Geminoid|DK –a duplicate of an Original person- reveals emotions convincingly; when following an empirical perspective, or when following a theoretical one. The methodology includes the processes of acquiring the empirical data, and gathering feedback on them. Our...

  18. The significance of small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-09-01

    Headwaters, defined here as first- and secondorder streams, make up 70%‒80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

  19. No significant fuel failures (NSFF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domaratzki, Z.

    1979-01-01

    It has long been recognized that no emergency core cooling system (ECCS) could be absolutely guaranteed to prevent fuel failures. In 1976 the Atomic Energy Control Board decided that the objective for an ECCS should be to prevent fuel failures, but if the objective could not be met it should be shown that the consequences are acceptable for dual failures comprising any LOCA combined with an assumed impairment of containment. Out of the review of the Bruce A plant came the definition of 'no significant fuel failures': for any postulated LOCA combined with any one mode of containment impairment the resultant dose to a person at the edge of the exclusion zone is less than the reference dose limits for dual failures

  20. Ritual Significance in Mycenaean Hairstyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu, Florence Sheng-chieh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the frescoes excavated from Bronze Age sites on the Greek mainland provide evidence for female figures in the Mycenaean society, the hairstyles of these figures have not been studied in detail. As in many other ancient cultures, hairstyles were not only an exhibition of beauty and fashion, but they also represented certain age groups or a person’s social status. The Mycenaeans inherited many of their hairstyles from their Minoan predecessors, although differences existed as well. It is also possible there may have been a shift in meaning for seemingly similar looking hairstyles from the Minoan to the Mycenaean periods. Female figures, which compose most of the Mycenaean figures in frescoes known to date, are fine examples for discussing the artistic representation and potential significance of Mycenaean hairstyles. By comparing with Minoan hairstyles, discussions of Mycenaean examples lead to conclusions in the relationship between hairstyles and ritual activities in the Mycenaean society.

  1. The energetic significance of cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2009-10-01

    While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF NUTRITION ON THE MAIN PRODUCTION OF BROCCOLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Doltu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The research was realized in the unheated greenhouse of Horting Institute Bucharest, in 2012 year. It have aimed the influence of one phase of fertilization with ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3 on inflorescences of broccoli, at a hybrid F1 - Ironman. The fertilizer was used before the formation of main inflorescences, in different doses (100 kg/ha, 150 kg/ha, without fertilizer. Harvesting was done in 4 stages. A phase of fertilization with ammonium nitrate has influenced the main production of broccoli: the variant with fertilization 150 kg/ha has obtained the highest percentage of inflorescences formed, the average weight/inflorescence largest and superior production compared with other variants. Were obtained direct linear correlations between the doses of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3 and the production aspects followed (percentage of main inflorescences harvested, average weight/inflorescence, total production, significances of the correlations very high.

  3. Rates of the main thermonuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramovich, S.N.; Guzhovskii, B.Ya.; Dunaeva, S.A.; Fomushkin, E.F.

    1992-01-01

    The data on the cross sections of main thermonuclear reactions have been estimated with an account of the latest experimental results in a form of S-factor spline presentation. Based on this estimation, the reates of these reactions in 0.0001-1 MeV temperature range in the supposition of Maxwell distribution of relative velocities have been computed. The Maxwell-Boltzmann averaged -factors were calculated according to the table values of the reaction rates. Then the -factors were approximated with the 3 order spline-function. The necessity of the account of electron shielding and intramolecular movement at low temperatures is discussed (orig.)

  4. Musculoskeletal disorders in main battle tank personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Guldager, Bernadette; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders of personnel in the main battle tank (MBT) units in the Danish army with those of personnel in other types of army units, and to investigate associations between job function in the tank, military rank, and musculoskeletal problems......, and ankle. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: There were only 4 women in the MBT group; as a consequence, female personnel were excluded from the study. The participation rate was 58.0% (n = 184) in the MBT group and 56.3% (n = 333) in the reference group. The pattern of musculoskeletal disorders among personnel...

  5. Main problems of modern radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'in, L.A.; Buldakov, L.A.; Knizhnikov, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    The results of investigations carried out in 1980-81 in the field of radiation hygiene as well as plans for 1981-85 are considered. Three main groups of problems which the radiation hygiene is facing at the present time are discussed. The determination of levels and study of regularities of ionizing radiation dose formation in the population and personnel working with ionizing radiation sources in one of the promissing directions of the investigations. Delayed irradiation aftereffects andcontaminant action ofirradiation and chemical substances are no less important. The third important problem lies in the development of protective measures and arrangements on improving state sanitary inspection in the field of radiation hygiene

  6. Some peat deposits in Penobscot County, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Cornelia Clermont; Anderson, Walter A.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty of the peat deposits in Penobscot County, Maine contain an estimated 29,282,000 short tons air-dried peat. The peat is chiefly sphagnum moss and reed-sedge of high quality according to ASTM standards for agricultural and horticultural use. Analyses show that this same volume has high fuel value, low sulfur and high hydrogen contents compared with lignite and sub-bituminous coal, which may indicate that it also has potential for fuel use. On the basis of the metallic trace element content, one area within the region containing the 20 deposits has been delineated for further bedrock studies.

  7. Main-chain supramolecular block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Si Kyung; Ambade, Ashootosh V; Weck, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Block copolymers are key building blocks for a variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to drug delivery. The material properties of block copolymers can be tuned and potentially improved by introducing noncovalent interactions in place of covalent linkages between polymeric blocks resulting in the formation of supramolecular block copolymers. Such materials combine the microphase separation behavior inherent to block copolymers with the responsiveness of supramolecular materials thereby affording dynamic and reversible materials. This tutorial review covers recent advances in main-chain supramolecular block copolymers and describes the design principles, synthetic approaches, advantages, and potential applications.

  8. Additively Manufactured Main Fuel Valve Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddleman, David; Richard, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) was utilized to fabricate a liquid hydrogen valve housing typical of those found in rocket engines and main propulsion systems. The SLM process allowed for a valve geometry that would be difficult, if not impossible to fabricate by traditional means. Several valve bodies were built by different SLM suppliers and assembled with valve internals. The assemblies were then tested with liquid nitrogen and operated as desired. One unit was also burst tested and sectioned for materials analysis. The design, test results, and planned testing are presented herein.

  9. Water Hammer in Pumped Sewer Mains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    of transients in pumped pipeline systems. This present publication can be understood as the second and revised edition of the pamphlet ”Transients in pumped sewer mains” (2006) which was published as a technical report by The EVA committee under The Danish Water Pollution Committee (The Danish Society......This publication is intended for students and engineers seeking an introduction to the problem of water transients in pumped sewer and water mains. This is a subject of increasing interest because of the development of larger and more integrated systems. Consideration of transients is essential...

  10. Main challenges in demulsifier research and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fusheng; Liu, Guoliang; Ma, Junhan; Ouyang, Jian; Yi, Xiaoling; Su, Huimin

    2017-01-01

    Main challenges in demulsifier research, such as demulsification of ASP flooding produced liquid, demulsification of heavy oil produced liquid, low temperature demulsification and fast demulsification, are summarized. Some importance technology routes to solve the challenges are proposed according to demulsification mechanisms and emulsion characteristics. The proposed routes include increasing aromaticity, molecular weight and branch degree of demulsifiers, and introducing double-function groups to demulsifiers for W/O and O/W emulsions, or groups with alkyl matching with alkyl carbon number of the crude oil into demulsifier molecule. The demulsification mechanisms of the above-mentioned research routes are described in detail.

  11. Isolated systems with wind power. Main report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsager, P.; Bindner, Henrik W.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2001-01-01

    The overall objective of this research project is to study the development of methods and guidelines rather than "universal solutions" for the use of wind energy in isolated communities. The main specific objective of the project is to develop and present amore unified and generally applicable...... approach for assessing the technical and economical feasibility of isolated power supply systems with wind energy. As a part of the project the following tasks were carried out: Review of literature, fieldmeasurements in Egypt, development of an inventory of small isolated systems, overview of end...... for Isolated Systems with Wind Power, applicable for international organisations such as donoragencies and development banks....

  12. Forensic entomology and main challenges in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Leonardo; Von Zuben, Cláudio J

    2006-01-01

    Apart from an early case report from China (13th century), the first observations on insects and other arthropods as forensic indicators were documented in Germany and France during mass exhumations in the 1880s by Reinhard, who is considered a co-founder of the discipline. After the French publication of Mégnin's popular book on the applied aspects of forensic entomology, the concept quickly spread to Canada and United States. At that time, researchers recognized that the lack of systematic observations of insects of forensic importance jeopardized their use as indicators of postmortem interval. General advances in insect taxonomy and ecology helped to fill this gap over the following decades. After World Wars, few forensic entomology cases were reported in the scientific literature. From 1960s to the 1980s, Leclercq and Nuorteva were primarily responsible for maintaining the method in Central Europe, reporting isolated cases. Since then, basic research in the USA, Russia and Canada opened the way to the routine use of Entomology in forensic investigations. Identifications of insects associated with human cadavers are relatively few in the literature of the Neotropical region and have received little attention in Brazil. This article brings an overview of historic developments in this field, the recent studies and the main problems and challenges in South America and mainly in Brazil.

  13. Main Issues in Big Data Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Moreno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Data is currently one of the most important assets for companies in every field. The continuous growth in the importance and volume of data has created a new problem: it cannot be handled by traditional analysis techniques. This problem was, therefore, solved through the creation of a new paradigm: Big Data. However, Big Data originated new issues related not only to the volume or the variety of the data, but also to data security and privacy. In order to obtain a full perspective of the problem, we decided to carry out an investigation with the objective of highlighting the main issues regarding Big Data security, and also the solutions proposed by the scientific community to solve them. In this paper, we explain the results obtained after applying a systematic mapping study to security in the Big Data ecosystem. It is almost impossible to carry out detailed research into the entire topic of security, and the outcome of this research is, therefore, a big picture of the main problems related to security in a Big Data system, along with the principal solutions to them proposed by the research community.

  14. Significant biases affecting abundance determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Roger

    2015-08-01

    I have developed two highly efficient codes to automate analyses of emission line nebulae. The tools place particular emphasis on the propagation of uncertainties. The first tool, ALFA, uses a genetic algorithm to rapidly optimise the parameters of gaussian fits to line profiles. It can fit emission line spectra of arbitrary resolution, wavelength range and depth, with no user input at all. It is well suited to highly multiplexed spectroscopy such as that now being carried out with instruments such as MUSE at the VLT. The second tool, NEAT, carries out a full analysis of emission line fluxes, robustly propagating uncertainties using a Monte Carlo technique.Using these tools, I have found that considerable biases can be introduced into abundance determinations if the uncertainty distribution of emission lines is not well characterised. For weak lines, normally distributed uncertainties are generally assumed, though it is incorrect to do so, and significant biases can result. I discuss observational evidence of these biases. The two new codes contain routines to correctly characterise the probability distributions, giving more reliable results in analyses of emission line nebulae.

  15. Astrobiological significance of chemolithoautotrophic acidophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-02-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithautotrophic bacteria) there has been a dilemma in microbiology about life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modern biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithoheterotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant roel on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  16. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  17. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  18. Statistical Significance for Hierarchical Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, Patrick K.; Liu, Yufeng; Hayes, D. Neil; Marron, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Cluster analysis has proved to be an invaluable tool for the exploratory and unsupervised analysis of high dimensional datasets. Among methods for clustering, hierarchical approaches have enjoyed substantial popularity in genomics and other fields for their ability to simultaneously uncover multiple layers of clustering structure. A critical and challenging question in cluster analysis is whether the identified clusters represent important underlying structure or are artifacts of natural sampling variation. Few approaches have been proposed for addressing this problem in the context of hierarchical clustering, for which the problem is further complicated by the natural tree structure of the partition, and the multiplicity of tests required to parse the layers of nested clusters. In this paper, we propose a Monte Carlo based approach for testing statistical significance in hierarchical clustering which addresses these issues. The approach is implemented as a sequential testing procedure guaranteeing control of the family-wise error rate. Theoretical justification is provided for our approach, and its power to detect true clustering structure is illustrated through several simulation studies and applications to two cancer gene expression datasets. PMID:28099990

  19. Main Alkaloids of Peganum harmala L. and Their Different Effects on Dicot and Monocot Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids with allelopathic activity are not as well-known as other allelochemicals. Our study revealed that total alkaloids from seeds of the medicinal plant Peganum harmala L. possessed significant growth inhibitory effect on four treated plants, with dicot plants (lettuce and amaranth being more sensitive than the tested monocot plants (wheat and ryegrass. Further investigation led to the isolation of harmaline and harmine as the main active ingredients in the total alkaloids of P. harmala seeds. Harmaline exerted potent inhibitory effects on seedling growth of treated plants, especially dicots, inhibiting root elongation of lettuce and amaranth by 31% and 47% at a very low concentration (5 µg/mL, whereas harmine exhibited much weaker non-selective inhibitory effect on the plants. Considering the high yield and poor utilization of P. harmala in China, we anticipate that this plant could be exploited as an alternative weed management tool in the future.

  20. [Clinical case of acute renal failure revealing an autoimmune hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montasser, Dina Ibrahim; Hassani, Mohamed; Zajjari, Yassir; Bahadi, Abdelali; Alayoud, Ahmed; Hamzi, Amine; Hassani, Kawtar; Moujoud, Omar; Asseraji, Mohamed; Kadiri, Moncif; Aatif, Taoufik; El Kabbaj, Driss; Benyahia, Mohamed; Allam, Mustapha; Akhmouch, Ismail; Oualim, Zouhir

    2010-04-01

    Although the clinic picture is often indicative of muscle manifestations in patients with hypothyroidism, signs and symptoms of this condition are variable from simple elevation of serum muscle enzymes with myalgia, muscle weakness, cramps to rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure which remains a rare event. Thyroid hormones affect the function of almost every body organ, and thyroid dysfunction produces a wide range of metabolic disturbances. Hypothyroidism is associated with significant effects on the kidney which the pathophysiology seems to be multifactorial, but the exact mechanisms remain poorly understood. Hypothyroidism as a cause of renal impairment is usually overlooked, leading to unnecessary diagnostic procedures. The main objective of our observation is to report a case of acute renal failure revealing an autoimmune hypothyroidism in which thyroid hormone substitution led to a significant improvement in muscular, thyroid and renal disorders. Copyright 2010 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. In-service inspection robot for PFBR main vessel- concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajendran, S; Ramakumar, M S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Div. of Remote Handling and Robotics

    1994-12-31

    In-service inspection (ISI) of critical components in a nuclear reactor is one of the foremost and important tasks which reveals the state of health of the system, thereby ensuring the safety of the plant, personnel and environment. Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is designed as a pool type reactor. A safety vessel is provided in the design which envelopes the main reactor vessel. The ISI of the main vessel is mandatory and will be carried out by a robot which will operate on this annular gap. The design of the robot is such that it can crawl around the vessel and into the gap at the bottom of the vessel relying on friction grip. The mobile robot will carry a CCTV camera and the inspection technique packages into the interspace, position and orient these to carry out the ISI of the main vessel. The paper discusses about the design features of the robot including the gripping mechanism and the crawling sequence to perform ISI of the reactor vessel. 3 figs.

  2. In-service inspection robot for PFBR main vessel- concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, S.; Ramakumar, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    In-service inspection (ISI) of critical components in a nuclear reactor is one of the foremost and important tasks which reveals the state of health of the system, thereby ensuring the safety of the plant, personnel and environment. Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is designed as a pool type reactor. A safety vessel is provided in the design which envelopes the main reactor vessel. The ISI of the main vessel is mandatory and will be carried out by a robot which will operate on this annular gap. The design of the robot is such that it can crawl around the vessel and into the gap at the bottom of the vessel relying on friction grip. The mobile robot will carry a CCTV camera and the inspection technique packages into the interspace, position and orient these to carry out the ISI of the main vessel. The paper discusses about the design features of the robot including the gripping mechanism and the crawling sequence to perform ISI of the reactor vessel. 3 figs

  3. Detection of significant protein coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, David; Juan, David; Valencia, Alfonso; Pazos, Florencio

    2015-07-01

    The evolution of proteins cannot be fully understood without taking into account the coevolutionary linkages entangling them. From a practical point of view, coevolution between protein families has been used as a way of detecting protein interactions and functional relationships from genomic information. The most common approach to inferring protein coevolution involves the quantification of phylogenetic tree similarity using a family of methodologies termed mirrortree. In spite of their success, a fundamental problem of these approaches is the lack of an adequate statistical framework to assess the significance of a given coevolutionary score (tree similarity). As a consequence, a number of ad hoc filters and arbitrary thresholds are required in an attempt to obtain a final set of confident coevolutionary signals. In this work, we developed a method for associating confidence estimators (P values) to the tree-similarity scores, using a null model specifically designed for the tree comparison problem. We show how this approach largely improves the quality and coverage (number of pairs that can be evaluated) of the detected coevolution in all the stages of the mirrortree workflow, independently of the starting genomic information. This not only leads to a better understanding of protein coevolution and its biological implications, but also to obtain a highly reliable and comprehensive network of predicted interactions, as well as information on the substructure of macromolecular complexes using only genomic information. The software and datasets used in this work are freely available at: http://csbg.cnb.csic.es/pMT/. pazos@cnb.csic.es Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. A random walk down Main Street

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Matthew Levinson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available US suburbs have often been characterized by their relatively low walk accessibility compared to more urban environments, and US urban environments have been char- acterized by low walk accessibility compared to cities in other countries. Lower overall density in the suburbs implies that activities, if spread out, would have a greater distance between them. But why should activities be spread out instead of developed contiguously? This brief research note builds a positive model for the emergence of contiguous development along “Main Street” to illustrate the trade-offs that result in the built environment we observe. It then suggests some policy interventions to place a “thumb on the scale” to choose which parcels will develop in which sequence to achieve socially preferred outcomes.

  5. Mortise terrorism on the main pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, V. A.; Nigrey, N. N.; Bronnikov, D. A.; Nigrey, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The research aim of the work is to analyze the effectiveness of the methods of physical protection of main pipelines proposed in the article from the "mortise terrorism" A mathematical model has been developed that made it possible to predict the dynamics of "mortise terrorism" in the short term. An analysis of the effectiveness of physical protection methods proposed in the article to prevent unauthorized impacts on the objects under investigation is given. A variant of a video analytics system has been developed that allows detecting violators with recognition of the types of work they perform at a distance of 150 meters in conditions of complex natural backgrounds and precipitation. Probability of detection is 0.959.

  6. Siberian snakes for the Fermilab Main Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anferov, V.A.; Baiod, R.; Courant, E.D.

    1993-01-01

    Appropriate Siberian snakes were designed to maintain the proton beam polarization during acceleration in the Fermilab Main Injector from 8 to 150 GeV. Various snake designs were investigated to find one fitting into the 14 m straight section spaces with the required spin rotation axis and the minimum orbit excursion. The authors studied both cold and warm discrete magnet snakes as well as warm snakes with helical magnets. For the warm discrete magnet snake, obtaining small orbit excursions required a nearly longitudinal snake axis, while axes near ±45 degrees are needed when using two snakes in a ring. The authors found acceptable snakes either by using superconducting magnets or by using warm magnets with a helical dipole field

  7. BANKING ETHICS: MAIN CONCEPTIONS AND PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTINA FETINIUC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Banking ethics is a specialized set of ethical standards and rules that should be followed in the activities of financial institutions and employees of the banking sector. But despite the simplicity of the definition, in the modern world, this concept becomes complex and ambiguous. The importance of studying this subject is defined by the fact that the ethical behavior of the bank and bank employees promotes banking. At present there are several conceptions of banking ethics: general ethics, regulated ethics and ethical bank. The most common practice is to regulate internal and external relations of banks and bank workers with ethical codes. At the same time, studies show the existence of problems in the banking standards of ethics, which negatively affects the financial institution. This article is intended to reflect main tendencies and problems of banking ethics at international level and experience of Republic of Moldova in this field.

  8. Seismic risks at Elsie Lake Main Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCammon, N.R.; Momenzadeh, M.; Hawson, H.H.; Nielsen, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Elsie Lake dams are located on Vancouver Island in an area of high seismic risk. A safety review in 1986 indicated potential deficiencies in the earthfill main dam with respect to modern earthquake design standards. A detailed field investigation program comprising drilling and penetration tests was carried out and the results used in an assessment of seismic stability. A 0.8 m thick less dense layer in the granular shell of the dam, possibly caused by wet construction conditions, would likely liquefy in a major earthquake but sufficient residual strength would likely remain to prevent catastrophic failure. The dam shell might undergo some distortion, and an assessment was initiated to determine the requirements for reservoir drawdown following an extreme earthquake to ensure the timely lowering of the reservoir for inspection and repair. It was suggested that an adequate evacuation capability would be 25% and 50% drawdown in not more than 30 and 50 days, respectively. 9 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  9. Natural syntax : English interrogative main clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Oresnik

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural Syntax is a developing deductive theory, a branch of Naturalness Theory. The naturalnessjudgements are couched in naturalness scales, whichfollow from the basic parameters (or «axioms» listed at the beginning of the paper. The predictions of the theory are calculated in deductions, whose chief components are apair of naturalness scales and the rules governing the alignment of corresponding naturalness values. Parallel and chiastic alignments are distinguished, in complementary distribution. Chiastic alignment is mandatory in deductions limited to unnatural environments. The paper deals with English interrogative main clauses. Within these, only the interrogatives containing wh-words exclusively insitu constitute an extremely unnatural environment and require chiastic alignment. Otherwiseparallel alignment is used. Earlier publications on Natural Syntax: Kavcic 2005a,b, Oresnik 1999, 2000a,b, 200la-f   2002, 2003a-c, 2002/03, 2004. This list cites only works written in English.

  10. PS main supply: motor-generator set.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    In picture 04 the motor is on the right in the background and the main view is of the generator. The peak power in each PS cycle drawn from the generator, up to 96 MW, is taken from the rotational kinetic energy of the rotor (a heavy-weight of 80 tons), which makes the rotational speed drop by only a few percent. The motor replenishes the average power of 2 to 4 MW. Photo 05: The motor-generator set is serviced every year and, in particular, bearings and slip-rings are carefully checked. To the left is the motor with its slip-rings visible. It has been detached from the axle and moved to the side, so that the rotor can be removed from the huge generator, looming at the right.

  11. Main clinical epidemiological features of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Montane, Daniel Marino; Prado Lage, Yulien; Lozano Salazar; Jorge Luis

    2011-01-01

    A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 95 patients with lung cancer, discharged from Neumology Service at 'Dr Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso' General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, was carried out from January, 2008 to December, 2008 in order to identify the main clinical epidemiological features of the aforementioned disease. A malignancy predominance among men aged between 56 and 65 years old, belonging to urban areas and being heavy smoker (out of 30 cigarettes per day over 30 years ), was found. Those affected without a confirmed histological type and IV clinical stage epidermoid carcinoma were predominant. Most of them had the opportunity to be treated. Increasing and intensifying health promotion and disease prevention campaigns were recommended so as to achieve the population to avoid or quit the smoking habit. (author)

  12. Main heat transfer components for SNR-300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Haas Van Dorsser, A.H.

    1976-01-01

    Early in the joint German-Belgium-Dutch fast breeder programme it was decided that all main components should be tested, if possible at full scale, before fabrication of the actual SNR-300 components. Descriptions are given of the results of testing, and subsequent modifications, of the pumps, intermediate heat exchangers, and steam generators. A full scale model of the primary pump, free surface vertical shaft centrifugal type, was constructed and tested in the 5000 cubic metres per hour pump test facility erected at Bensberg. A 70 MW model of an intermediate heat exchanger, straight tube type with floating head, was tested in the 50 MW steam generator test station at Hengelo. Also tested in the Hengelo facility was an almost full scale straight tube 50 MW steam generator and subsequently a 50 MW helical tube evaporator. The latter tests were of more than 3000 h operation and resulted in minor changes in design and manufacturing operation. (U.K.)

  13. Ownership and care in culturally significant architecture: Three case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fire resistance, as well as thermal and acoustic insulation properties that contribute to the interior comfort of dwellings. The shortcomings are mainly low ..... The building is at most only significant to students in architecture and South African ...

  14. THRESHOLD OF SIGNIFICANCE IN STRESS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena RUSE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stress management is the individual's ability to handle any situation, external conditions, to match the demands of the external environment. The researchers revealed several stages in the stress response. A first phase was called ‘‘alert reaction'' or ‘‘immediate reaction to stress‘‘, phase in which there are physiological modifications and manifestations that occur under psychological aspect. Adaptation phase is the phase in which the reactions from the first phase diminishes or disappears. Exhaustion phase is related to the diversity of stress factors and time and may exceed the resources of the human body to adapt. Influencing factors may be: limited, cognitive, perceptual, and a priori. But there is a threshold of significance in stress management. Once the reaction to external stimuli occurs, awareness is needed. The capability effect occurs, any side effect goes away and comes out the ''I AM'' effect.

  15. Association mapping of main tomato fruit sugars and organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiantao Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Association mapping has been widely used to map the significant associated loci responsible for natural variation in complex traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Sugars and organic acids are the most important metabolites in tomato fruits. We used a collection of 174 tomato accessions composed of S. lycopersicum (123 accessions and S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (51 accessions to detect significantly associated loci controlling the variation of main sugars and organic acids. The accessions were genotyped with 182 SSRs spreading over the tomato genome. Association mapping was conducted on the main sugars and organic acids detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS over two years using the mixed linear model (MLM. We detected a total of 58 significantly associated loci (P<0.001 for the 17 sugars and organic acids, including fructose, glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid. These results not only co-localized with several reported QTLs, including fru9.1/PV, suc9.1/PV, ca2.1/HS, ca3.1/PV, ca4.1/PV and ca8.1/PV, but also provided a list of candidate significantly associated loci to be functionally validated. These significantly associated loci could be used for deciphering the genetic architecture of tomato fruit sugars and organic acids and for tomato quality breeding.

  16. Main Findings: Lessons to be Learnt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This section summarizes the main lessons to be learnt from the workshop: 1 - Workshop Methodology: This method of work has proven to be successful. Participants appreciated the high level of interaction with the other colleagues, especially in view of the variety of expertise that was represented at the workshop. The method also affords the participants the opportunity to learn about the status of waste management in the host country, and to come into contact with the main actors. Conversely, the method also affords the host country programme added visibility at the international level. 2 - National Regulations and International Guidance and Bases for Criteria and Regulatory Judgement: There is reasonable consensus amongst national regulations on fundamental regulatory objectives, but much less agreement on the most appropriate criteria. Consensus is nationally and internationally hampered by the lack of common definition of concepts and terms. International guidance is interpreted in different ways in each country. International guidance is rather difficult to interpret, understand and apply. It is important that stakeholders understand the bases for regulatory judgements. 3 - Optimisation: The fundamental goals of optimisation need to be clarified. Optimisation of long-term vs. short-term safety remains problematic. The process of performing optimisation is more important than the numerical or scientific result. A transparent, stepwise and iterative process of decision making is essential for optimisation. The basic, broad rules for decision making and involvement of stakeholders need to be defined in advance. 4 - Technical Indicators for Safe Performance: The relative importance of different safety indicators varies with timescale. There is still much to be done before reaching consensus on the relative importance of different time frames. More discussion is needed on time cut-offs for regulatory compliance. More discussion on the meaning and applicability of

  17. Maine Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI) Atlas, Maine - 2007, maps in portable document format (NODC Accession 0036827)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This four volume set of Environmental Vulnerability Index Maps depicts environmental resources along the coast of Maine most at risk from oil spilled into the marine...

  18. MAIN MOLECULAR TARGETS FOR PROSTATE CANCER THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Krasnov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenic pathway plays a pivotal role in the development of benign and malignant prostate tumors. Most of the prostate neoplasms are hormone-dependent at the time of diagnosis. Therapeutic interventions aimed at reducing the level of testosterone in the blood allow to stop progression of the disease. But over time, the tumor almost inevitably starts to progress, moving in the castration-resistant state (CRPC, representing a serious problem of oncourology. In recent years, the possibility of CRRPC therapy increased significantly – there was developed a number of new drugs that effectively inhibit the development of castration-resistant tumors and significantly push back the start of chemotherapy. This review describes the major drug targets and mechanisms of action of abiraterone, enzalutamide, galeterone, VT-464 and other approved and promising CRPC therapies.

  19. EPR compared to international requirements (Mainly EUR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broecker, B.

    1996-01-01

    A number of European Utilities have entered an agreement to write common requirements dedicated to future light water nuclear power plants to be built in Europe. The activities are known under the sign EUR (European Utilities Requirements). EPR, the future European Pressurized water Reactor, is the first installation of this type which will be operational from the year 2000 onwards, must fulfill the European requirements. EPR will serve as a test whether these requirements are realistic and well balanced. At the basic design stage of EPR, this paper concentrates on four main topics: the requirements which are new compared with existing reactors and which put a major challenge to the designer; the requirements today still open and the way they can be met by the EPR or not; the points for which already today the EPR special requirements exceed the EUR; the examples where the design of the EPR has given feedback which has led to a change of the EUR. EPR and EUR are different approaches to the reactor of the future. EUR is a set of requirements which leaves a flexibility to the designer while EPR is a real project which defines the technical solutions. EPR will fulfill the EUR and will at the same time serve as a test whether these requirements are realistic. EPR will also fulfill international requirements with minor changes. (J.S.). 7 figs

  20. The two main theories on dental bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Michael; Hahnel, Sebastian; Faltermeier, Andreas; Bürgers, Ralf; Kolbeck, Carola; Handel, Gerhard; Proff, Peter

    2012-03-20

    Bruxism is characterized by non-functional contact of mandibular and maxillary teeth resulting in clenching or grating of teeth. Theories on factors causing bruxism are a matter of controversy in current literature. The dental profession has predominantly viewed peripheral local morphological disorders, such as malocclusion, as the cause of clenching and gnashing. This etiological model is based on the theory that occlusal maladjustment results in reduced masticatory muscle tone. In the absence of occlusal equilibration, motor neuron activity of masticatory muscles is triggered by periodontal receptors. The second theory assumes that central disturbances in the area of the basal ganglia are the main cause of bruxism. An imbalance in the circuit processing of the basal ganglia is supposed to be responsible for muscle hyperactivity during nocturnal dyskinesia such as bruxism. Some authors assume that bruxism constitutes sleep-related parafunctional activity (parasomnia). A recent model, which may explain the potential imbalance of the basal ganglia, is neuroplasticity. Neural plasticity is based on the ability of synapses to change the way they work. Activation of neural plasticity can change the relationship between inhibitory and excitatory neurons. It seems obvious that bruxism is not a symptom specific to just one disease. Many forms (and causes) of bruxism may exist simultaneously, as, for example, peripheral or central forms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Main physical problems of superhigh energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidus, L.I.

    1979-01-01

    A survey is given of the state and prospects for the scientific researches to be carried out at the largest charged particle accelerators now under construction. The fundamental problems of the elementary particle physics are considered which can be solved on the base of experiments at high-energy accelerators. The problems to be solved involve development of the theory of various quark number, accurate determination of the charged and neutral intermediate vector boson masses in the Weinberg-Salam theory, the problem of production of t-quark, W -+ - and Z deg bosons, Higgs mesons and investigation of their interactions, examination of quark and lepton spectra, studies on the effects of strong interactions. As a result of the investigations on hadrons at maximum momentum transfers, the data on space-time structure at short distances can be obtained. It is emphasized that there are no engineering barriers to the construction of such accelerators. The main problem lies in financial investment. A conclusion is drawn that the next generation of accelerators will be developed on the base of cooperation between many countries [ru

  2. Brand new hall in the main building

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2014-01-01

    The renovation of the UNIQA and post office premises is getting under way, with their reopening scheduled for the spring.   The renovation of the large hall in the main building (Building 500) has finally reached the home straight. As of this week, building contractors will get to work on the last part – the offices of UNIQA and La Poste. In the last week of November, the two concessions moved their offices across Route Scherrer to the same part of Building 510 where UBS was temporarily housed during the bank’s refurbishment. Their services were therefore unavailable for one day. The renovation work will last until the spring, with the new offices expected to open in May 2015. Between now and then, the windows and insulation will be completely refitted, with a view to reducing heat loss considerably, and, above all, the premises will be modernised to improve customer reception and service. For example, UNIQA’s new premises will feature a confidential area, guarantee...

  3. Fusion reactor blanket-main design aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strebkov, Yu.; Sidorov, A.; Danilov, I.

    1994-01-01

    The main function of the fusion reactor blanket is ensuring tritium breeding and radiation shield. The blanket version depends on the reactor type (experimental, DEMO, commercial) and its parameters. Blanket operation conditions are defined with the heat flux, neutron load/fluence, cyclic operation, dynamic heating/force loading, MHD effects etc. DEMO/commercial blanket design is distinguished e.g. by rather high heat load and neutron fluence - up to 100 W/cm 2 and 7 MWa/m 2 accordingly. This conditions impose specific requirements for the materials, structure, maintenance of the blanket and its most loaded components - FW and limiter. The liquid Li-Pb eutectic is one of the possible breeder for different kinds of blanket in view of its advantages one of which is the blanket convertibility that allow to have shielding blanket (borated water) or breeding one (Li-Pb eutectic). Using Li-Pb eutectic for both ITER and DEMO blankets have been considered. In the conceptual ITER design the solid eutectic blanket was carried out. The liquid eutectic breeder/coolant is suggested also for the advanced (high parameter) blanket

  4. Nail lesions as a main manifestation of lichen nitidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Sobjanek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Lichen nitidus (LN is a rare, chronic, inflammatory dermatosis usually affecting children and young adults. Nails involvement is very rare. Until now, 7 cases of LN with nail involvement have been described. Objective. To present a rare case of childhood lichen nitidus where trachyonychia was the main manifestation of the disease. Case report. A 7-year-old, Caucasian, previously healthy boy presented thumbnail longitudinal ridges, distal splitting and subungual hyperkeratosis for 7 months. Numerous mycological and bacteriological examinations were negative. Dermatological examination also revealed erythematous lesions on the proximal nail fold as well as small skin-pigmented papules on the thumb. Similar papules grouped into patches were also observed on the upper limbs, trunk and forehead. Treatment was not recommended. Conclusions . Lichen nitidus may rarely affect nails and should be considered as a possible cause of nail lesions in childhood.

  5. Soft Elasticity in Main Chain Liquid Crystal Elastomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm C. Griffin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Main chain liquid crystal elastomers exhibit several interesting phenomena, such as three different regimes of elastic response, unconventional stress-strain relationship in one of these regimes, and the shape memory effect. Investigations are beginning to reveal relationships between their macroscopic behavior and the nature of domain structure, microscopic smectic phase structure, relaxation mechanism, and sample history. These aspects of liquid crystal elastomers are briefly reviewed followed by a summary of the results of recent elastic and high-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of the shape memory effect and the dynamics of the formation of the smectic-C chevron-like layer structure. A possible route to realizing auxetic effect at molecular level is also discussed.

  6. Integrated geophysical investigations of Main Barton Springs, Austin, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saribudak, By Mustafa; Hauwert, Nico M.

    2017-03-01

    Barton Springs is a major discharge site for the Barton Springs Segment of the Edwards Aquifer and is located in Zilker Park, Austin, Texas. Barton Springs actually consists of at least four springs. The Main Barton Springs discharges into the Barton Springs pool from the Barton Springs fault and several outlets along a fault, from a cave, several fissures, and gravel-filled solution cavities on the floor of the pool west of the fault. Surface geophysical surveys [resistivity imaging, induced polarization (IP), self-potential (SP), seismic refraction, and ground penetrating radar (GPR)] were performed across the Barton Springs fault and at the vicinity of the Main Barton Springs in south Zilker Park. The purpose of the surveys was two-fold: 1) locate the precise location of submerged conduits (caves, voids) carrying flow to Main Barton Springs; and 2) characterize the geophysical signatures of the fault crossing Barton Springs pool. Geophysical results indicate significant anomalies to the south of the Barton Springs pool. A majority of these anomalies indicate a fault-like pattern, in front of the south entrance to the swimming pool. In addition, resistivity and SP results, in particular, suggest the presence of a large conduit in the southern part of Barton Springs pool. The groundwater flow-path to the Main Barton Springs could follow the locations of those resistivity and SP anomalies along the newly discovered fault, instead of along the Barton Springs fault, as previously thought.

  7. Asteroid Family Associations of Main-Belt Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Henry H.; Novakovic, Bojan; Kim, Yoonyoung; Brasser, Ramon

    2016-10-01

    We present a population-level analysis of the asteroid family associations of known main-belt comets or main-belt comet candidates (which, to date, have largely just been analyzed on individual bases as they have been discovered). In addition to family associations that have already been reported in the literature, we have identified dynamical relationships between 324P/La Sagra and the Alauda family, P/2015 X6 (PANSTARRS) and the Aeolia family, and P/2016 G1 (PANSTARRS) and the Adeona family. We will discuss the overall implications of these family associations, particularly as they pertain to the hypothesis that members of primitive asteroid family members may be more susceptible to producing observable sublimation-driven dust emission activity, and thus becoming main-belt comets. We will also discuss the significance of other dynamical and physical properties of a family or sub-family as they relate to the likelihood of that family containing one or more currently active main-belt comets.

  8. Marine sources influence fog bioaerosol composition in Namibia and Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, S. E.; Dueker, E.; Logan, J. R. V.; Weathers, K. C.

    2017-12-01

    Organic aerosol particles act as condensation nuclei for fogs and clouds (CCN) and are main determinants of fog evolution, chemical processing, and overall aerosol-fog-cloud interactions. Recent work has confirmed the presence of marine bioaerosols, but little is known about their sources, transport, taxonomic diversity or viability. The few studies that have characterized bioaerosols in fog have been limited to culture-based approaches that capture only a fraction of microbial diversity. We characterized fungal and bacterial communities in the fog in two iconic fog systems, the Coast of Maine (USA) and the Namib Desert (Namibia). The biology of fog in both systems was diverse and distinct, by geography, from dry aerosols, and from local sources. The local environment had a dominant influence on fog in both the Namib and Maine; in particular, the biology of fog in Maine, which was collected near the coast, was more similar to microbial communities from the ocean surface. In both systems, differences between pre- and post-fog aerosol communities suggest that fog events can significantly alter microbial aerosol diversity and composition. This insight into the microbial composition of fog indicates that its origin and frequency has the potential to influence the number and diversity of microorganisms that settle in a given environment, and the composition of microbial aerosol communities in ambient or clear conditions. Here we suggest that fog microbes can possess specific traits that enhance nucleation, altering the transport and deposition of marine- and soil-derived organic matter in terrestrial systems.

  9. Geology of the Cupsuptic quadrangle, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, David S.

    1966-01-01

    The Cupsuptic quadrangle, in west-central Maine, lies in a relatively narrow belt of pre-Silurian rocks extending from the Connecticut River valley across northern New Hampshire to north-central Maine. The Albee Formation, composed of green, purple, and black phyllite with interbedded-quartzite, is exposed in the core of a regional anticlinorium overlain to the southeast by greenstone of the Oquossoc Formation which in turn is overlain by black slate of the Kamankeag Formation. In the northern part of the quadrangle the Albee Formation is overlain by black slate, feldspathic graywacke, and minor greenstone of the Dixville Formation. The Kamankeag Formation is dated as 1-ate Middle Ordovician by graptolites (zone 12) found near the base of the unit. The Dixville Formation is correlated with the Kamankeag Formation and Oquossoc Formation and is considered to be Middle Ordovician. The Albee Formation is considered to be Middle to Lower Ordovician from correlations with similar rocks in northeastern and southwestern Vermont. The Oquossoc and Kamankeag Formations are correlated with the Amonoosuc and Partridge Formations of northern New Hampshire. The pre-Silurian rocks are unconformably overlain by unnamed rocks of Silurian age in the southeast, west-central, and northwest ninths of the quadrangle. The basal Silurian units are boulder to cobble polymict conglomerate and quartz-pebble conglomerate of late Lower Silurian (Upper Llandovery) age. The overlying rocks are either well-bedded slate and quartzite, silty limestone, or arenaceous limestone. Thearenaceous limestone contains Upper Silurian (Lower Ludlow) brachiopods. The stratified rocks have been intruded by three stocks of biotite-muscovite quartz monzonite, a large body of metadiorite and associated serpentinite, smaller bodies of gabbro, granodiorite, and intrusive felsite, as well as numerous diabase and quartz monzonite dikes. The metadiorite and serpentinite, and possibly the gabbro and granodiorite are Late

  10. Main tendencies meeting future energy demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, G.; Riesner, W.; Ufer, D.

    1989-09-01

    The economic development in the German Democratic Republic within the preceding 10 years has proved that future stable economic growth of about 4 to 4.5% per annum is only achievable by ways including methods of saving resources. This requires due to the close interdependences between the social development and the level of the development in the energy sector long-term growth rates of the national income of 4 to 4.5% per annum at primary energy growth rates of less than 1% per annum. It comprises three main tendencies: 1. Organization of a system with scientific-technical, technological, economic structural-political and educational measures ensuring in the long term less increase of the energy demand while keeping the economic growth at a constant level. 2. The long-term moderate extension and modernization of the GDR's energy basis is characterized by continuing use of the indigenous brown coal resources for the existing power plant capacities and for district heating. 3. The use of modern and safe nuclear power technologies defines a new and in future more and more important element of the energy basis. Currently about 10% of electricity in the GDR are covered by nuclear energy, in 2000 it will be one third, after 2000 the growth process will continue. The experience shows: If conditions of deepened scientific consideration of all technological processes and the use of modern diagnosis and computer technologies as well as permanent improvement of the safety-technological components and equipment are guaranteed an increasing use of such systems for the production of electricity and heat is socially acceptable. Ensuring a high level of education and technical training of everyone employed in the nuclear energy industry, strict safety restrictions and independent governmental control of these restrictions are important preconditions for the further development in this field. 3 refs, 5 tabs

  11. Hotel Intercontinental, en Frankfurt-Main (Alemania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apel, Otto

    1966-09-01

    Full Text Available This building has basements, and 21 storeys above the ground. The basements are occupied with the usual services, and a garage, for clients, capable of holding 500 cars. The concierge’s office, the reception office, main hall, restaurant and services are on the ground floor. On the first floor there is a large ball room, where 600 people can assemble, as well as other reception halls. On each of the 2nd to 18th floors there are thirty rooms of one type, and eighteen of another. A luxury apartment occupies the 19th floor, and a restaurant for 200 people as well as a bar is on the top floor. This hotel, which is slab shaped, fits well with its environment and is very pleasantly proportioned.Consta de: planta de sótanos, planta baja y 20 plantas de altura. La planta de sótano contiene las distintas instalaciones; dependencias del personal, etcétera, y un garaje, reservado para los viajeros, capaz de albergar 500 coches. La planta baja comprende: la conserjería, recepción, hall, restaurantes, etc. En la planta primera existe una gran sala de baile para 600 personas, salas de reuniones, etc. Las plantas, de la 2.ª a la 18.ª contienen treinta habitaciones de un tipo y dieciocho de otro, en cada planta. En la planta 19.ª hay un apartamento de lujo. Y en la última planta se distribuyen: un restaurante para 200 personas, bar, etc. El bloque, dentro de su configuración paralelepipédica, es de forma armónica y está perfectamente encajado en el paisaje urbano circundante.

  12. The AGS main magnet power supply upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, J.N.; Casella, R.; Geller, J.; Marneris, I.; Soukas, A.; Schumburg, N.

    1995-01-01

    The AGS Main Magnet Power Supply consists of a group of thyristor controlled power converters that operate from full rectify to full invert. In order to minimize ripple during the critical periods of injection and extraction 24 pulse converters are used for these portions of the cycle. The maximum voltage available in this mode is nominally 2,000 volts. The converters that are functional during this portion of the cycle are called the flat-top bank or ''F'' bank modules. During acceleration and invert where voltages of up to 12,000 volts are needed and where the ripple requirements are less stringent, groups of twelve pulse converters are operational. These converters are called the Pulsed bank or ''P'' bank modules. The original controlled rectifier system consisted of 96 large mercury filled excitron tubes divided equally between the P bank and F bank converters. These devices were extremely durable and ran successfully for over twenty years. It was, decided to replace the excitron farm with multiple arrangements of three-phase, full-wave, bridge modules that utilize silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR's or thyristors) as the switching element. In order to match the existing transformer connections and buswork, eight identical modules were required; four for the P bank system and four for the F bank system. In order to reduce noise pickup and provide electrical isolation the high level SCR gate triggers are provided via fiberoptic cable. The status of various parameters such as water flow, auxiliary power supply performance, trigger circuitry failure, over voltage, overcurrent, and loss of phase reference are monitored via a programmable logic controller (PLCs). The PLCs use isolated input and output modules for various voltage levels from TTL to 150 Vdc to 125 Vac. These devices are extremely flexible and have allowed modifications and improvements that have enhanced the performance over any equivalent hard wired system

  13. Hubble Images Reveal Jupiter's Auroras

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    These images, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, reveal changes in Jupiter's auroral emissions and how small auroral spots just outside the emission rings are linked to the planet's volcanic moon, Io. The images represent the most sensitive and sharply-detailed views ever taken of Jovian auroras.The top panel pinpoints the effects of emissions from Io, which is about the size of Earth's moon. The black-and-white image on the left, taken in visible light, shows how Io and Jupiter are linked by an invisible electrical current of charged particles called a 'flux tube.' The particles - ejected from Io (the bright spot on Jupiter's right) by volcanic eruptions - flow along Jupiter's magnetic field lines, which thread through Io, to the planet's north and south magnetic poles. This image also shows the belts of clouds surrounding Jupiter as well as the Great Red Spot.The black-and-white image on the right, taken in ultraviolet light about 15 minutes later, shows Jupiter's auroral emissions at the north and south poles. Just outside these emissions are the auroral spots. Called 'footprints,' the spots are created when the particles in Io's 'flux tube' reach Jupiter's upper atmosphere and interact with hydrogen gas, making it fluoresce. In this image, Io is not observable because it is faint in the ultraviolet.The two ultraviolet images at the bottom of the picture show how the auroral emissions change in brightness and structure as Jupiter rotates. These false-color images also reveal how the magnetic field is offset from Jupiter's spin axis by 10 to 15 degrees. In the right image, the north auroral emission is rising over the left limb; the south auroral oval is beginning to set. The image on the left, obtained on a different date, shows a full view of the north aurora, with a strong emission inside the main auroral oval.The images were taken by the telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 between May 1994 and September 1995.This image and other images and data

  14. Titan Casts Revealing Shadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in

  15. On the Statistical Properties of the Lower Main Sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelou, George C.; Bellinger, Earl P.; Hekker, Saskia; Basu, Sarbani

    2017-01-01

    Astronomy is in an era where all-sky surveys are mapping the Galaxy. The plethora of photometric, spectroscopic, asteroseismic, and astrometric data allows us to characterize the comprising stars in detail. Here we quantify to what extent precise stellar observations reveal information about the properties of a star, including properties that are unobserved, or even unobservable. We analyze the diagnostic potential of classical and asteroseismic observations for inferring stellar parameters such as age, mass, and radius from evolutionary tracks of solar-like oscillators on the lower main sequence. We perform rank correlation tests in order to determine the capacity of each observable quantity to probe structural components of stars and infer their evolutionary histories. We also analyze the principal components of classic and asteroseismic observables to highlight the degree of redundancy present in the measured quantities and demonstrate the extent to which information of the model parameters can be extracted. We perform multiple regression using combinations of observable quantities in a grid of evolutionary simulations and appraise the predictive utility of each combination in determining the properties of stars. We identify the combinations that are useful and provide limits to where each type of observable quantity can reveal information about a star. We investigate the accuracy with which targets in the upcoming TESS and PLATO missions can be characterized. We demonstrate that the combination of observations from GAIA and PLATO will allow us to tightly constrain stellar masses, ages, and radii with machine learning for the purposes of Galactic and planetary studies.

  16. On the Statistical Properties of the Lower Main Sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelou, George C.; Bellinger, Earl P.; Hekker, Saskia [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Basu, Sarbani [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2017-04-20

    Astronomy is in an era where all-sky surveys are mapping the Galaxy. The plethora of photometric, spectroscopic, asteroseismic, and astrometric data allows us to characterize the comprising stars in detail. Here we quantify to what extent precise stellar observations reveal information about the properties of a star, including properties that are unobserved, or even unobservable. We analyze the diagnostic potential of classical and asteroseismic observations for inferring stellar parameters such as age, mass, and radius from evolutionary tracks of solar-like oscillators on the lower main sequence. We perform rank correlation tests in order to determine the capacity of each observable quantity to probe structural components of stars and infer their evolutionary histories. We also analyze the principal components of classic and asteroseismic observables to highlight the degree of redundancy present in the measured quantities and demonstrate the extent to which information of the model parameters can be extracted. We perform multiple regression using combinations of observable quantities in a grid of evolutionary simulations and appraise the predictive utility of each combination in determining the properties of stars. We identify the combinations that are useful and provide limits to where each type of observable quantity can reveal information about a star. We investigate the accuracy with which targets in the upcoming TESS and PLATO missions can be characterized. We demonstrate that the combination of observations from GAIA and PLATO will allow us to tightly constrain stellar masses, ages, and radii with machine learning for the purposes of Galactic and planetary studies.

  17. PLEIADES SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE AND MAIN PERFORMANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gleyzes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available France, under the leadership of the French Space Agency (CNES, has set up a cooperative program with Austria, Belgium, Spain, Sweden, in order to develop a space Earth Observation system called PLEIADES. PLEIADES is a dual system, this means that it is intended to fulfill an extended panel of both civilian and Defense user’s needs.. This paper reports the status of the satellite after its launch and the in orbit commissioning, the PLEIADES satellite first model has been launched at the end of year 2011, the second model will be launched about 12 months later. It describes the main mission characteristics and performances status. It exposes how the system, satellite and ground segment have been designed in order to be compliant with a dual exploitation between civilian and defense partners. The system is based on the use of a set of newly European developed technologies to feature the satellite. In order to maximize the agility of the satellite, weight and inertia have been reduced using a compact hexagonal shape for the satellite bus. The optical mission consists in Earth optical observation composed of 0.7 m nadir resolution for the panchromatic band and 2.8 m nadir resolution for the four multi-spectral bands. The image swath is about 20 km. PLEIADES delivers optical high resolution products consisting in a Panchromatic image, into which is merged a four multispectral bands image, orthorectified on a Digital Terrain Model (DTM. Thanks to the huge satellite agility obtained with control momentum gyros as actuators, the optical system delivers as well instantaneous stereo images, under different stereoscopic conditions and mosaic images, issued from along the track thus enlarging the field of view. The ground segment is composed of a dual ground center located in CNES Toulouse premises in charge of preparing the dual mission command plan and of the real time contacts with the satellite through a control center. The dual ground center

  18. Apparent Brecciation Gradient, Mount Desert Island, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, A. T.; Johnson, S. E.

    2004-05-01

    Mount Desert Island, Maine, comprises a shallow level, Siluro-Devonian igneous complex surrounded by a distinctive breccia zone ("shatter zone" of Gilman and Chapman, 1988). The zone is very well exposed on the southern and eastern shores of the island and provides a unique opportunity to examine subvolcanic processes. The breccia of the Shatter Zone shows wide variation in percent matrix and clast, and may represent a spatial and temporal gradient in breccia formation due to a single eruptive or other catastrophic volcanic event. The shatter zone was divided into five developmental stages based on the extent of brecciation: Bar Harbor Formation, Sols Cliffs breccia, Seeley Road breccia, Dubois breccia, and Great Head breccia. A digital camera was employed to capture scale images of representative outcrops using a 0.5 m square Plexiglas frame. Individual images were joined in Adobe Photoshop to create a composite image of each outcrop. The composite photo was then exported to Adobe Illustrator, which was used to outline the clasts and produce a digital map of the outcrop for analysis. The fractal dimension (Fd) of each clast was calculated using NIH Image and a Euclidean distance mapping method described by Bérubé and Jébrak (1999) to quantify the morphology of the fragments, or the complexity of the outline. The more complex the fragment outline, the higher the fractal dimension, indicating that the fragment is less "mature" or has had less exposure to erosional processes, such as the injection of an igneous matrix. Sols Cliffs breccia has an average Fd of 1.125, whereas Great Head breccia has an average Fd of 1.040, with the stages between having intermediate values. The more complex clasts of the Sols Cliffs breccia with a small amount (26.38%) of matrix material suggests that it is the first stage in a sequence of brecciation ending at the more mature, matrix-supported (71.37%) breccia of Great Head. The results of this study will be used to guide isotopic

  19. Main Achievements 2003-2004 - Nuclear Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Two Departments of our Institute are engaged in nuclear studies, in the following areas: studies of the nuclear reaction mechanism at low, intermediate and high energies, studies of nuclear structure by means of gamma spectroscopy, and theoretical research concerning nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. Most of these studies are carried out in the form of international collaborations with the world-leading nuclear physics experimental facilities. Our physicists usually play an important role in these collaborative projects and often lead them. Nuclear structure experiments were performed mainly within the following European Large Scale Facilities: ALPI-INFN-Legnaro, VIVITRONIReS-Strasbourg, UNILAC/SIS-GSI-Darmstadt, K100-Cyclotron-Jyvaeskylea with the use of the GASP, GARFIELD, EUROBALL, ICARE, RISING + FRS, RITU+JUROGAM systems and with the application of RFD, HECTOR, DIAMANT, EUCLIDES ancillary detectors. Experimental data were also obtained at the Argonne National Laboratory, USA, with the GAMMASPHERE array and the ATLAS accelerator. In addition, we are involved in planning the experiments for the project of international accelerator facility of the next generation FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) at GSI. The nuclear reaction experiments were performed at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Physics in Dubna (collaborations FASA and COMBAS), in GANIL in Caen, in the Forschungszentrum Juelich at the accelerator COSY in the framework of collaboration PISA, as well as at the Warsaw Laboratory of Heavy Ions. The hadronic nuclear physics experiments were carried out exclusively at the Forschungszentrum Juelich where we have participated in international collaborations COSY11, GEM and HIRES. Recently, we have joined international detector project WASA planned at Forschungszentrum Juelich and plan to participate in the project PANDA, being constructed in GSI Darmstadt. Both detectors will be devoted to low and intermediate hadronic physics. We also

  20. Fusion protein is the main determinant of metapneumovirus host tropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Miranda; Schrauwen, Eefje J A; Herfst, Sander; van Amerongen, Geert; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Fouchier, Ron A M

    2009-06-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (AMPV-C) infect humans and birds, respectively. This study confirmed the difference in host range in turkey poults, and analysed the contribution of the individual metapneumovirus genes to host range in an in vitro cell-culture model. Mammalian Vero-118 cells supported replication of both HMPV and AMPV-C in contrast to avian quail fibroblast (QT6) cells in which only AMPV-C replicated to high titres. Inoculation of Vero-118 and QT6 cells with recombinant HMPV in which genes were exchanged with those of AMPV-C revealed that the metapneumovirus fusion (F) protein is the main determinant for host tropism. Chimeric viruses in which polymerase complex proteins were exchanged between HMPV and AMPV-C replicated less efficiently compared with HMPV in QT6 cells. Using mini-genome systems, it was shown that exchanging these polymerase proteins resulted in reduced replication and transcription efficiency in QT6 cells. Examination of infected Vero-118 and QT6 cells revealed that viruses containing the F protein of AMPV-C yielded larger syncytia compared with viruses containing the HMPV F protein. Cell-content mixing assays revealed that the F protein of AMPV-C was more fusogenic compared with the F protein of HMPV, and that the F2 region is responsible for the difference observed between AMPV-C and HMPV F-promoted fusion in QT6 and Vero-118 cells. This study provides insight into the determinants of host tropism and membrane fusion of metapneumoviruses.

  1. What is a compound? The main criteria for compoundhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altakhaineh Abdel Rahman Mitib

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the main cross-linguistic criteria for compoundhood discussed in the relevant literature, with a special focus on English, ranking them from the most reliable to the least. These criteria - orthographic, phonological, syntactic and semantic in nature - have been proposed to make a distinction between compounds and phrases. The analysis reveals that the most reliable cross-linguistic criteria to distinguish between phrases and compounds are adjacency and referentiality. With regard to the former criterion, no intervening elements can be inserted between the head and the non-head of compounds, whilst such insertion is allowed in phrases. With regard to the latter criterion, the non-head of a phrase is always referential, whereas the non-head of a compound is normally non-referential. Other criteria have been found to be partially applicable, e.g. free pluralisation of the non-head, compositionality, stress, possibilities for modification and coordination, ellipsis, orthography and the replacement of the second element by a pro-form. The study also proposes a definition for compounds that may be the most widely applicable. Finally, the study concludes with ranking the main criteria for compoundhood discussed in the study.

  2. Recurrent Syncope Attributed to Left Main Coronary Artery Severe Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS rarely manifest as recurrent syncope due to malignant ventricular arrhythmia. We report a case of a 56-year-old Chinese male with complaints of paroxysmal chest burning sensation and distress for 2 weeks as well as loss of consciousness for 3 days. The electrocardiogram (ECG revealed paroxysmal multimorphologic ventricular tachycardia during attack and normal heart rhythm during intervals. Coronary angiograph showed 90% stenosis in left main coronary artery and 80% stenosis in anterior descending artery. Two stents sized 4.0*18 mm and 2.75*18 mm were placed at left main coronary artery and anterior descending artery, respectively, during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. The patient was discharged and never had ventricular arrhythmia again during a 3-month follow-up since the PCI. This indicated that ventricular tachycardia was correlated with persistent severe myocardial ischemia. Coronary vasospasm was highly suspected to be the reason of the sudden attack and acute exacerbation. PCI is recommended in patients with both severe coronary artery stenosis and ventricular arrhythmia. Removing myocardial ischemia may stop or relieve ventricular arrhythmia and prevent cardiac arrest.

  3. Cyberbullying: another main type of bullying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonje, Robert; Smith, Peter K

    2008-04-01

    Cyberbullying has recently emerged as a new form of bullying and harassment. 360 adolescents (12-20 years), were surveyed to examine the nature and extent of cyberbullying in Swedish schools. Four categories of cyberbullying (by text message, email, phone call and picture/video clip) were examined in relation to age and gender, perceived impact, telling others, and perception of adults becoming aware of such bullying. There was a significant incidence of cyberbullying in lower secondary schools, less in sixth-form colleges. Gender differences were few. The impact of cyberbullying was perceived as highly negative for picture/video clip bullying. Cybervictims most often chose to either tell their friends or no one at all about the cyberbullying, so adults may not be aware of cyberbullying, and (apart from picture/video clip bullying) this is how it was perceived by pupils. Findings are discussed in relation to similarities and differences between cyberbullying and the more traditional forms of bullying.

  4. MAIN TRENDS OF BIOFUELS PRODUCTION IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myroslav PANCHUK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of biological resources for biofuels production in Ukraine has been carried out, and it has been shown that usage of alternative energy sources has great potential for substantially improving energy supply of the state and solving environmental problems. The directions of development and new technologies of obtaining motor fuels from biomass are systematized. It has been established that usage of different types of biofuels and their mixtures for feeding internal combustion engines involves application of modified engines in terms of structure and algorithms and usage of traditional designs of cars without significant structural changes. Moreover, the impact of biofuels on the efficient operation of the engine requires further integrated research.

  5. Description of the Main Features of the Series Production of the LHC Main Dipole Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Savary, F; Chevret, P; de Rijk, G; Fessia, P; Liénard, P; Miles, J; Modena, M; Rossi, L; Tommasini, D; Vlogaert, J; Bresson, D; Grunblatt, G; Decoene, JF; Bressani, F; Drago, G; Gagliardi, P; Eysselein, F; Gärtner, W; Lublow, P

    2008-01-01

    The series production of the LHC main dipole magnets was completed in November 2006. This paper presents the organization implemented at CERN and the milestones fixed to fullfil the technical requirements and to respect the master schedule of the machine installation. The CERN organization for the production follow-up, the quality assurance and the magnet testing, as well as the organization of the three main contractors will be described. A description of the design work and procurement of most of the specific heavy tooling and key components will be given with emphasis on the advantages and drawbacks.

  6. Light-Enhanced Antibacterial Activity of Graphene Oxide, Mainly via Accelerated Electron Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Yu; Ge, Cuicui; Fang, Ge; Wu, Renfei; Zhang, He; Chai, Zhifang; Chen, Chunying; Yin, Jun-Jie

    2017-09-05

    Before graphene derivatives can be exploited as next-generation antimicrobials, we must understand their behavior under environmental conditions. Here, we demonstrate how exposure to simulated sunlight significantly enhances the antibacterial activity of graphene oxide (GO) and reveal the underlying mechanism. Our measurements of reactive oxygen species (ROS) showed that only singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) is generated by GO exposed to simulated sunlight, which contributes only slightly to the oxidation of antioxidant biomolecules. Unexpectedly, we find the main cause of oxidation is light-induced electron-hole pairs generated on the surface of GO. These light-induced electrons promote the reduction of GO, introducing additional carbon-centered free radicals that may also enhance the antibacterial activities of GO. We conclude that GO-mediated oxidative stress mainly is ROS-independent; simulated sunlight accelerates the transfer of electrons from antioxidant biomolecules to GO, thereby destroying bacterial antioxidant systems and causing the reduction of GO. Our insights will help support the development of graphene for antibacterial applications.

  7. Pupation Behavior and Predation on Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Pupae in Maine Wild Blueberry Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballman, Elissa S; Collins, Judith A; Drummond, Francis A

    2017-12-05

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura; Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive vinegar fly and pest of soft fruits in North America, including wild blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) in Maine. Despite its presence in the continental United States for 9 yr, little is known about its natural enemy complex. Here we report the results of a 3-yr study designed to identify naturally-occurring predators in Maine's wild blueberry fields. Experiments were conducted to determine pupation site and pupation depth to understand D. suzukii's predation vulnerability. Predation rates in the field of fully-exposed, caged, and buried pupae were measured. Pitfall traps were deployed to identify the potential predator assemblage, and laboratory experiments were conducted to determine how many pupae were consumed by commonly occurring ground beetle species (Carabidae) and field crickets (Gryllus pennsylvanicus Burmeister). The most commonly collected predators were ants, ground beetles, harvestmen, and field crickets. Significantly more pupae were found to occur in the soil compared to blueberry fruit, with most pupae in the top 0.5 cm layer of soil. Pupal predation rates in the field were high, with higher rates of predation on exposed pupae compared to buried pupae. Laboratory studies revealed that ground beetles and field crickets are likely predators of D. suzukii pupae. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURE INFANTS AS A MAIN PROBLEM OF NEONATAL OPHTHALMOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Rozental’

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During more than 70 years retinopathy of premature infants (previously — retrolental retinopathy has been one of the main problems in neonatology practice. This is caused firstly by the high risk of blindness development and visual disability and secondly — by the steady increase of health care allowing infants previously believed to be incurable to survive. Success in prevention of development of severe forms of this disorder nowadays depends not only on knowledge and experience of pediatric ophthalmologists. To the great extent it is associated to efforts and awareness of all levels of medical care participating in management of premature infants: from maternity hospitals, including departments of intensity care and neonatology, to out-patients clinics. According to the review of modern literature the article contains the main data on etiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, classification, clinical manifestation, diagnostics, prophylaxis and treatment of retinopathy of premature infants. The author also noted the tendencies to reveal the disease in the modern history of the Russian Federation. It is important to say, that urgency of this problem in the Russian Federation has significantly raised during the last years due to switch since the 1st January 2012 to the live birth criteria recommended by the World Health Organization.

  9. Variations of airborne and waterborne Rn-222 in houses in Maine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, C.T.; Weiffenbach, C.V.; Norton, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    Concentrations of airborne radon ranging from 0.05 to 135 pCi/L were found in houses in Maine. To investigate the association between elevated radon concentrations in well water and the indoor airborne radon concentrations, the radon in the water supplies of these houses was measured by liquid scintillation. Monitors of airborne radon were used for dynamic studies in 18 houses, determining the component of airborne radon associated with showers, laundry and dishwashing, which liberate radon in bursts. The component of airborne radon associated with water sources was found to vary inversely with ventilation rate and directly with waterborne radon concentration, with 0.8 +- 0.2 pCi Rn/L air per nCi Rn/L water at a ventilation rate of 1.0 air change per hour. The data are pertinent to a study which has revealed significant correlations between county averages, from the National Cancer Institute, or age-adjusted cancer mortality rates in Maine and average values of radon concentrations in water for the counties. (author)

  10. Variations of airborne and waterborne Rn-222 in houses in Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, C.T.; Weiffenbach, C.V.; Norton, S.A. (Maine Univ., Orono (USA))

    1982-01-01

    Concentrations of airborne radon ranging from 0.05 to 135 pCi/L were found in houses in Maine. To investigate the association between elevated radon concentrations in well water and the indoor airborne radon concentrations, the radon in the water supplies of these houses was measured by liquid scintillation. Monitors of airborne radon were used for dynamic studies in 18 houses, determining the component of airborne radon associated with showers, laundry and dishwashing, which liberate radon in bursts. The component of airborne radon associated with water sources was found to vary inversely with ventilation rate and directly with waterborne radon concentration, with 0.8 +- 0.2 pCi Rn/L air per nCi Rn/L water at a ventilation rate of 1.0 air change per hour. The data are pertinent to a study which has revealed significant correlations between county averages, from the National Cancer Institute, or age-adjusted cancer mortality rates in Maine and average values of radon concentrations in water for the counties.

  11. Social media reveal that charismatic species are not the main attractor of ecotourists to sub-Saharan protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Anna; Toivonen, Tuuli; Heikinheimo, Vuokko; Tenkanen, Henrikki; Slotow, Rob; Di Minin, Enrico

    2017-04-10

    Charismatic megafauna are arguably considered the primary attractor of ecotourists to sub-Saharan African protected areas. However, the lack of visitation data across the whole continent has thus far prevented the investigation of whether charismatic species are indeed a key attractor of ecotourists to protected areas. Social media data can now be used for this purpose. We mined data from Instagram, and used generalized linear models with site- and country-level deviations to explore which socio-economic, geographical and biological factors explain social media use in sub-Saharan African protected areas. We found that charismatic species richness did not explain social media usage. On the other hand, protected areas that were more accessible, had sparser vegetation, where human population density was higher, and that were located in wealthier countries, had higher social media use. Interestingly, protected areas with lower richness in non-charismatic species had more users. Overall, our results suggest that more factors than simply charismatic species might explain attractiveness of protected areas, and call for more in-depth content analysis of the posts. With African countries projected to develop further in the near-future, more social media data will become available, and could be used to inform protected area management and marketing.

  12. Organizational Communication: An Analysis of the Main Perspectives, Main Concepts and Future Directions of the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Yüksel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a scholarly debate since the 1980s regarding the content, theory, methodology and applications that define the scope of organizational communication and separate it from other related disciplines. This debate is critical in the sense that it enables to identity organizational communication in a rich manner and helps us define the scope of the field and its unique characteristics. Based on this main assumption, this study addressed the major theoretical/methodological dimensions of the field (functional, interpretive, and critical, conceptualization of the most critical concepts (organization, communication, culture, voice/control in these dimensions, and current gaps and future directions of the field. This study revealed that the field of organizational communication has made great improvements since the field emerged in the last three decade with its own content, methodology, and applications and generated an adequate body of research within these different perspectives. It is shown that representation of the field by different perspectives provides richness to the field compared with the time when organizational communication was solely dominated by functional, positivist research. Key words: Functional/interpretive/critical perspectives, communication, organization, culture, control, effectiveness. Örgütsel İletişim: Alanın Ana Yaklaşımları, Ana Kavramları ve Gelecek Yönelimlerinin AnaliziÖzÖrgütsel iletişim alanının kapsamı ve bu alanı ilgili displinlerden ayıracak içerik, teori, yöntem, ve uygulamalar üzerine akademik tartışmalar 1980’li yıllardan beri devam etmektedir. Bu tartışmalar, örgütsel iletişim alanının derinlemesine anlaşılması, sınırlarının belirlenmesi ve diğer disiplinlerden ayrılan özelliklerinin anlaşılması noktasında hayati öneme sahiptir. Bu temel varsayımdan hareketle, bu çalışma alandaki temel teorik/yöntemsel yaklaşımları (işlevsel, yorumlayıcı, ele

  13. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Main Body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US DOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  14. Failure Analysis of Main Flame Deflector Nelson Studs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    NASA Structures engineers submitted two Nelson refractory studs from the main flame deflector at Launch Complex (LC) 39 A for analysis when they were observed to be missing a significant amount of material after launch. The damaged stud and an unused comparative stud were analyzed by macroscopic and microscopic examination along with metallographic evaluation of the microstructure. The stud lost material due to a combination of erosion and corrosion. Plain carbon steel readily forms an oxide layer in the coastal launch environment at Kennedy Space Center. The blast during a launch removes this brittle oxide layer, which then forms again post-launch, thereby further removing material. No indications of melting were observed.

  15. Fresh chicken as main risk factor for campylobacteriosis, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Anne; Neimann, Jakob; Engberg, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    We report the findings of a case-control study of risk factors for sporadic cases of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark. In 3 different analytical models, the main domestic risk factor identified was eating fresh, unfrozen chicken. Specifically, 28 of 74 domestically acquired case-patients were...... exposed to fresh chicken compared with 21 of 114 controls (multivariate matched odds ratio 5.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1-15.9). In contrast, a risk from eating other poultry, including previously frozen chicken, was only indicated from borderline significant 2-factor interactions. The marked increase...

  16. Service provision patterns by main diagnoses and characteristics of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, D S; Spencer, A J; Szuster, F S

    2000-06-01

    Service provision patterns may be influenced not only by clinical oral health status leading to a diagnosis and treatment plan, but also by other variables such as patient characteristics. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether associations between services provided and patient factors would persist after controlling for the main presenting diagnosis or condition. A random sample of dentists surveyed in 1993-94 provided a response rate of 74%. Private general practitioners recorded service provision data from logs of 1-2 typical days of practice. Caries (26.5%) was the most prevalent diagnosis, followed by recall/maintenance care (19.0%), pulpal/periapical infection (10.9%), and failed restorations (10.4%). Diagnoses were associated with variation in the percentage of patients receiving services in main areas of service, and also with insurance status, sex and age distributions of patients, and type of visit (chi-square; Pservices indicated statistically significant associations with patient characteristics and diagnosis categories. Controlling for diagnosis, uninsured patients and those visiting for emergencies had less favourable service patterns (e.g., higher odds of extractions, but lower odds of preventive and crown and bridge services) compared to patients who had dental insurance or visited for check-ups or other non-emergency dental problems. The influence of these factors on services provided has implications of public health importance in terms of appropriateness of care and social inequality.

  17. America Saves! Energizing Main Street's Small Businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, James [National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The America Saves! Energizing Main Street Small Businesses project engaged the 1,200-member National Main Street Center (NMSC) network of downtown organizations and other local, regional, and national partners to test a methodology for sharing customized energy efficiency information with owners of commercial buildings smaller than 50,000 square feet. Led by the National Trust for Historic Preservation’s Preservation Green Lab, the project marshalled local staff and volunteers to gather voluntarily-disclosed energy use information from participating businesses. This information was analyzed using a remote auditing tool (validated by the National Renewable Energy Lab) to assess energy savings opportunities and design retrofit strategies targeting seven building types (food service and sales, attached mixed-use, strip mall, retail, office, lodging, and schools). The original project design contemplated extensive leveraging of the Green Button protocol for sharing annualized utility data at a district scale. Due the lack of adoption of Green Button, the project partners developed customized approaches to data collection in each of twelve pilot communities. The project team encountered considerable challenges in gathering standardized annual utility data from local partners. After overcoming these issues, the data was uploaded to a data storehouse. Over 450 properties were benchmarked and the remote auditing tool was tested using full building profiles and utility records for more than 100 commercial properties in three of the pilot communities. The audit tool demonstrated potential for quickly capturing, analyzing, and communicating energy efficiency opportunities in small commercial buildings. However, the project team found that the unique physical characteristics and use patterns (partial vacancy, periodic intensive uses) of small commercial buildings required more trouble-shooting and data correction than was anticipated. In addition, the project revealed that

  18. Immunophenotyping in leukemia and its diagnostic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Kresno

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The identification of cell surface markers, defined as clusters of differentiation antigens (CD’s could be used to classify and sub-classify leukemia. Although the same antigens are expressed on normal cells, the phenotype on malignant cells are aberrantly and frequently asynchronously expressed and may be present in combinations not observed in normal blood or bone marrow. Aberrant expression of surface antigens corresponds with poor therapeutic response and short survival. Additional surface marker analysis complementary to morphologic evaluation and cytochemical staining has greatly improved our ability to characterize hematologic malignancies. A review and illustration on the diagnostic significance of immunophenotyping in leukemia will be presented. Data from 225 patients having complete assessments including morphology, cytochemistry and immunophenotyping in the period of 1994-2001 were collected and analyzed. Based on morphologic evaluation and cytochemistry, the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia were established in 51.1% and 48.9% of cases, respectively. Based on immunophenotyping AML was found in 49.0% of the cases. ALL could be classified into 4.9% pre-B-ALL, 18.7% B-ALL, and 14.7% T-ALL. Cases expressing cross-lineage antigens were found in 12.7%. The prognostic significance of these aberrant expression of antigens for those cases has yet to be established but some of the cases responded poorly to therapy. Immunophenotyping provides the tool to: 1 distinguish normal from clonal populations of leukemic cells; 2 define lineage and reveal the stage of maturation; 3 identify inappropriate expression of lineage associated antigens; 4 provides more informations to establish diagnosis and prognosis compared to standard methods. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 195-202 Keywords: Immunophenotyping, clusters of differentiation antigens, lineage associated antigens

  19. Significance of blood examination in radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Hirofumi; Nakamura, Shinobu; Ando, Atsushi; Kojima, Kazuhiko; Kikuta, Yoko.

    1978-01-01

    Blood examination made for the past 3 years revealed that the influences of chronic exposure of extremely small amounts of radiation (an average of 5 mrem/day) on peripheral blood are not detected. However, the blood examination, which is prescribed at least twice a year by law, is for determining whether or not the results of blood examination are within a normal range. Therefore, even though influences of a large amount of radiation are detected, it has little significance as a monitoring of chronic exposure of extremely small amounts of radiation. If the blood examination is used as a monitoring method for detecting exposure, it is important to compare the results with the previous ones in the same individuals. It is also necessary to increase the number of examinations and to study the blood more in detail. However, before that, the standard of the evaluation should be more defined because of its obscurity. The present blood examination is useful in managing the health generally. However, it is not good as a monitoring for chronic exposure of the extremely small amounts of radiation. Therefore, a routine biological method to be able to monitor radiation more precisely, is required. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. The measure and significance of Bateman's principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Julie M; Dean, Rebecca F; Worley, Kirsty; Richardson, David S; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2014-05-07

    Bateman's principles explain sex roles and sexual dimorphism through sex-specific variance in mating success, reproductive success and their relationships within sexes (Bateman gradients). Empirical tests of these principles, however, have come under intense scrutiny. Here, we experimentally show that in replicate groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, mating and reproductive successes were more variable in males than in females, resulting in a steeper male Bateman gradient, consistent with Bateman's principles. However, we use novel quantitative techniques to reveal that current methods typically overestimate Bateman's principles because they (i) infer mating success indirectly from offspring parentage, and thus miss matings that fail to result in fertilization, and (ii) measure Bateman gradients through the univariate regression of reproductive over mating success, without considering the substantial influence of other components of male reproductive success, namely female fecundity and paternity share. We also find a significant female Bateman gradient but show that this likely emerges as spurious consequences of male preference for fecund females, emphasizing the need for experimental approaches to establish the causal relationship between reproductive and mating success. While providing qualitative support for Bateman's principles, our study demonstrates how current approaches can generate a misleading view of sex differences and roles.

  1. CT diagnostic significance of tuboovarian abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Tieqiao; Dong Jie; Xu Quanying; An Haiqin; Sang Chunyu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To analyze computed tomographic (CT) imaging features of tuboovarian abscess as well as to discuss CT diagnostic significance. Methods: Ten patients with tuboovarian abscess were performed CT enhancing scans. Results: Ten patients manifested thick-walled, cystic-solid complex adnexal mass and indistinct margins on CT imaging. Internal thick septations and layered enhancement of the mass border on CT contrast images were common. Associated findings of CT included thickening of' the uterosacral ligaments in 9 of 10 patients, increased attenuation of the presacral and perirectal fat secondary to edema in 9 patients, serpiginous structure corresponding to a dilated, pus-filled fallopian tube in 6 patients and fluid-filled within uterine cavity in 4 patients. On CT scans, the inflammatory infiltration of adnexal abscesses involved pelvic structure included adhesion with borders of uterus in 9 patients, adhesion with rectal or sigmoid in 4 patients and pelvic wall or bowel loop in 3 patients. Two cases with peritoneal thicken showed ascites on CT images and right adnexal tuboovarian abscess in 2 patients were associated with appendicitis. Conclusion: CT can reveal pelvic adjacent organs involvement or adhesion and inflammatory infihration of pelvic floor soft-tissues or fascial planes except showing cystic solid complex mass of adnexal location so that indicating characteristics and the extent of the suspected pelvic inflammatory diseases. CT can be valuable in difficult cases of gynecologic infective diseases. (authors)

  2. Clinical significance of perceptible fetal motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, W F

    1980-09-15

    The monitoring of fetal activity during the last trimester of pregnancy has been proposed to be useful in assessing fetal welfare. The maternal perception of fetal activity was tested among 82 patients using real-time ultrasonography. All perceived fetal movements were visualized on the scanner and involved motion of the lower limbs. Conversely, 82% of all visualized motions of fetal limbs were perceived by the patients. All combined motions of fetal trunk with limbs were preceived by the patients and described as strong movements, whereas clusters of isolated, weak motions of the fetal limbs were less accurately perceived (56% accuracy). The number of fetal movements perceived during the 15-minute test period was significantly (p fetal motion was present (44 of 45 cases) than when it was absent (five of 10 cases). These findings reveal that perceived fetal motion is: (1) reliable; (2) related to the strength of lower limb motion; (3) increased with ruptured amniotic membranes; and (4) reassuring if considered to be active.

  3. The main chemical safety problems in main process of nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Fengli; Zhao Shangui; Liu Xinhua; Zhang Chunlong; Lu Dan; Liu Yuntao; Yang Xiaowei; Wang Shijun

    2014-01-01

    There are many chemical reactions in the aqueous process of nuclear fuel reprocessing. The reaction conditions and the products are different so that the chemical safety problems are different. In the paper the chemical reactions in the aqueous process of nuclear fuel reprocessing are described and the main chemical safety problems are analyzed. The reference is offered to the design and accident analysis of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. (authors)

  4. The Ulster Cycle: Cultural Significance for Irish Composers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Goff

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For more than three hundred years, Irish composers have engaged with tales from early Irish saga-literature which comprises four main series: Mythological, Ulster and Fenian cycles as well as the Cycle of Kings. This literary corpus dates from 600–1200 CE and is amongst the oldest in Europe. The fragmented history of the literature reveals a continuity of tradition in that the ancient sagas evolved from the oral Irish tradition, were gradually recorded in Irish, and kept alive in modern times through translation into the English language. The timelessness and social impact of these sagas, centuries after they were documented, resonate with Irish composers through the identification of local features and/or universal themes of redemption, triumph or tragedy depicted in the literature. The focus here is on sagas from the Ulster Cycle as they have been most celebrated by Irish composers; the majority of which have been composed since Thomas Kinsella’s successful translation of the Táin Bó Cuailnge in 1969. How the composers chose to embrace the Irish past lies in each composer’s execution of the peculiar local and universal themes exhibited in the sagas. The aim of this article is to initiate an interdisciplinary discussion of the cultural significance of this literary corpus for Irish composers by exploring an area of Irish musicological discourse that has not been hitherto documented. A brief literary background to the Ulster Cycle leads to a discussion of what prompted the composers to engage with Ulster Cycle themes at a particular time in their respective careers. An exploration of the various stylistic features employed in selected works sheds light on the cultural ideologies that prevailed in Ireland at the time of their respective composition.

  5. PROMPT Ia SUPERNOVAE ARE SIGNIFICANTLY DELAYED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskin, Cody; Scannapieco, Evan; Rhoads, James; Della Valle, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    The time delay between the formation of a population of stars and the onset of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) sets important limits on the masses and nature of SN Ia progenitors. Here, we use a new observational technique to measure this time delay by comparing the spatial distributions of SNe Ia to their local environments. Previous work attempted such analyses encompassing the entire host of each SN Ia, yielding inconclusive results. Our approach confines the analysis only to the relevant portions of the hosts, allowing us to show that even so-called prompt SNe Ia that trace star formation on cosmic timescales exhibit a significant delay time of 200-500 million years. This implies that either the majority of Ia companion stars have main-sequence masses less than 3 M sun , or that most SNe Ia arise from double white dwarf binaries. Our results are also consistent with a SNe Ia rate that traces the white dwarf formation rate, scaled by a fixed efficiency factor.

  6. Effect of main stream void distribution on cavitating hydrofoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, J.

    1993-01-01

    For the safety analysis of a loss of coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor, it is important to establish an analytical method which predicts the pump performance under gas-liquid two-phase flow condition. J.H. Kim briefly reviewed several major two-phase flow pump models, and discussed the parameters that could significantly affect two-phase pump behavior. The parameter pointed out to be of the most importance is void distribution at the pump inlet. This says that the pipe bend near the pump inlet makes the void distribution at the pump inlet nonuniform, and this matter can have a significant effect on the impeller blade performance. This paper proposes an analytical method of solution for a partially cavitating hydrofoil placed in the main stream of incompressible homogeneous bubbly two-phase flow conditions whose void fraction is exponentially distributed normal to chordline. The paper clarifies the effect of main stream void distribution parameter on the partially cavitating hydrofoil characteristics

  7. Social exposure and emotion dysregulation: Main effects in relation to nonsuicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkowitz, Rachel L; Porter, Andrew C; Heiman, Ellen R; Cole, David A

    2017-10-01

    We examined the relation of interpersonal and media exposure to nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among 340 university students in the southeastern United States (73.5% female, M age = 19.38 years, SD = 1.15). We also assessed interactions and main effects of each exposure and emotion dysregulation in relation to NSSI, testing the social learning hypothesis of NSSI. Most participants endorsed medium to high levels of exposure to NSSI via media sources. More than one-third of participants were somewhat or very familiar with someone who engaged in NSSI. Almost half reported occasional or frequent conversations about NSSI. Both exposure forms were significantly related to NSSI history. However, hurdle regression analyses revealed that interpersonal exposure and emotion dysregulation, but not media exposure, were significantly associated with NSSI history and frequency. We did not find evidence for an emotion dysregulation-by-interpersonal-exposure interaction. We discuss implications for theoretical models of NSSI, limitations, and future directions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Maine winter roads : salt, safety, environment and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    This report presents the results of a fourteen-month effort by a research team from the University of : Maine in cooperation with the Maine Department of Transportation (MaineDOT) to conduct : research, engage stakeholders, provide information, and f...

  9. Metallicity and ultraviolet excesses of late main sequence stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchkov, A.A.; Marsakov, V.A.; Shevelev, Yu.G.

    1987-01-01

    The comparison of the characteristics of ultraviolet (UV) excesses δ(U-B) and metallicity [Fe/H] distributions of F, G, and K dwarfs reveals a number of discrepancies. It is shown that they can be eliminated if we assume that UV excesses of K and late G dwarfs, and [Fe/H] values from detailed analysis for F dwarfs are underestimated. Such an assumption enables to account for low values of for F, K and late G dwarfs, and for the difference of the free terms in the metallicity - UV-excess relation for these stars as compared to early G dwarfs. In this case the F5-F9 dwarfs turn out to be more metal-rich (by 0.1 in [Fe/H]) than G and K dwarfs, and the metallicity of the Hyades cluster turns out to be larger than the solar one, [Fe/H] Hyades =+0.1. The ''conditional'' metallicity - UV-excess calibrations are obtained for four groups of main-sequence stars: F5-F9, G0-G4, G5-G9, K0-K5

  10. MAIN TENDENCIES OF NON-LINEAR TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nesterov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The first decade of the new century was marked by considerable extension of NLStechnology’s diagnostic features, first of all by means of new technologies introduction and using the ultra-high performance computers. Pragmatic market of 3D-visualizing diagnostic technologies will be formed gradually by means of harmless non-ionizing methods, allowing to fulfill multiple dynamic researches, i.e. NLS-technologies undoubtedly will come to the fore. More and more clinical therapists realize the necessity to master NLS-diagnostic equipment, because the needs for properly educated experts in this field are obvious. However, among traditional medical specialists, there is a tendency to pay more attention to researches with computed X-ray imaging and magnetic resonance imaging. That is why the NLS-technologies, unfortunately, are still hidden among more orthodox methods of diagnostics. Clinicians will be ready (in many aspects are already ready to improve their diagnostic possibilities by using the NLStechnology, often without X-CT, MRI and radionuclide methods. Nevertheless, only in strategic partnership of NLS-diagnostics experts, radiologists and clinicians may be found a key to optimal diagnostic and healing application of this, in all senses, original and efficient medical technology. The article presents the main principles of medical diagnostics using the NLSmethod. It contains generalized evaluation of the NLS-method’s diagnostic possibilities in revealing various organs’ pathologies and gives an analysis of this method development prospects.

  11. The two main approaches of moral diplomacy in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo A. Torrealba

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the international political phenomena which in the twentieth century were defined by certain scientific communities and governments of the world as ldquomoral diplomacyrdquo. Methods dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allowing to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the totality of objective and subjective factors that determined the choice of the following research methods formallogical systemic. Results the concept of ldquomoral diplomacyrdquo is considered from different points of view. The sources of information analyzed in this work ascertain that there is a relationship between the concept of laquomoral diplomacyraquo and the two main approaches to its consideration. Despite the small amount of information on the subject we managed to gather a sufficient number of documents in which the term ldquomoral diplomacyrdquo is applied to both certain types of foreign policy and some diplomatic strategies. We attempted to provide actual historical facts and identify the main scientific conceptions on the matter as well as to form new ideas and concepts that would help to distinguish between different modern political scenarios. One of these concepts is ldquoContemporary moral diplomacyrdquo that the U.S. government used as a diversion in an attempt to strengthen and extend their domination over Latin America. Scientific novelty the information presented in the article helps to understand one of the types of modern diplomatic strategies used in the activities of the United States aimed to retain control in Latin American countries and the possible actions that countries can take to defend themselves from this strategy. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in research and teaching for the consideration of various contemporary political scenarios. In particular the understanding of moral and immoral diplomatic strategies may be

  12. Main Developments and Perspectives of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Constantin ANGHELACHE PhD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors have analyzed the main economic-financial evolutions of the European Union member countries. First, we have performed the study regarding the evolution of the Gross Domestic Product growth in the European Union, by total and by comparison with other countries that play an important role in the global evolution of the economy. There are emphasized comparative data regarding the economic growth of China, which is the highest in the world. The growth rate of China is net superior to the rates recorded by USA, Japan and European Union (28 members. There can be observed a significant decrease of economic growth during the period 2008-2010, with a negative peak in 2009 (-2%-6% in the case of the United States, EU-28 and Japan. Even if China itself has felt the effects of the economic-financial crisis, the growth rate has reduced from 14% in 2007 to 9% in 2008, the decrease continued in the subsequent period, reaching some 8.5% in 2014. Then, we have analyzed the financial evolution, the exchange rate of the main currencies, the evolution of the inflation and the balance of foreign payments and international commercial exchanges. Particular attention was granted to direct foreign investments in and out the EU member states. The study is focused on the comparison of the foreign investments’ evolution during 2009-2014 for the main 10 partners of the European Union. Through this study, the results achieved by the EU during the specified periods were outlined, at each specific item within the internal, but also external relationships with other states in Europe or on wider global plan. The authors have put additional emphasis on the analysis of the period after 2007, since Romania has become member of the European Union.

  13. The significance of translation regulation in the stress response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The stress response in bacteria involves the multistage control of gene expression but is not entirely understood. To identify the translational response of bacteria in stress conditions and assess its contribution to the regulation of gene expression, the translational states of all mRNAs were compared under optimal growth condition and during nutrient (isoleucine) starvation. Results A genome-scale study of the translational response to nutritional limitation was performed in the model bacterium Lactococcus lactis. Two measures were used to assess the translational status of each individual mRNA: the fraction engaged in translation (ribosome occupancy) and ribosome density (number of ribosomes per 100 nucleotides). Under isoleucine starvation, half of the mRNAs considered were translationally down-regulated mainly due to decreased ribosome density. This pattern concerned genes involved in growth-related functions such as translation, transcription, and the metabolism of fatty acids, phospholipids and bases, contributing to the slowdown of growth. Only 4% of the mRNAs were translationally up-regulated, mostly related to prophagic expression in response to stress. The remaining genes exhibited antagonistic regulations of the two markers of translation. Ribosome occupancy increased significantly for all the genes involved in the biosynthesis of isoleucine, although their ribosome density had decreased. The results revealed complex translational regulation of this pathway, essential to cope with isoleucine starvation. To elucidate the regulation of global gene expression more generally, translational regulation was compared to transcriptional regulation under isoleucine starvation and to other post-transcriptional regulations related to mRNA degradation and mRNA dilution by growth. Translational regulation appeared to accentuate the effects of transcriptional changes for down-regulated growth-related functions under isoleucine starvation although m

  14. 30 CFR 75.302 - Main mine fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main mine fans. 75.302 Section 75.302 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.302 Main mine fans. Each coal mine shall be ventilated by one or more main mine fans. Booster fans shall not be installed underground to assist main mine...

  15. THE QUESTION OF HUMANITARIAN KNOWLEDGE: THE ESSENCE, MAIN DIRECTIONS AND METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Zavrazhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author emphasizes the role and importance of humanitarian knowledge not only in education, training future professionals, but in an objective, true evaluation of the events which occur today in the modern world. Reveals the methodological foundations, purpose, main directions and methods of humanitarian knowledge. Highlighted the special role in the Humanities.

  16. Power law of distribution of emergency situations on main gas pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, K. S.; Akulov, K. A.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents the results of the analysis of emergency situations on a main gas pipeline. A power law of distribution of emergency situations is revealed. The possibility of conducting further scientific research to ensure the predictability of emergency situations on pipelines is justified.

  17. Mutual fund flows: an analysis of the main macroeconomic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Moses Roquete

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes whether some macroeconomic factors (country risk, IBrX volatility and Interbank Certificate of Deposit are related to mutual fund flows for the period between January 2005 and August 2014. In order to investigate whether the flow series behaved differently during this period, the Chow test was conducted for September 2008 (the month in which the Lehman Brothers investment bank collapsed. The regressions were performed and the parameters were estimated through the OLS method for both periods, the first running from January 2005 to August 2008 and the second from September 2008 to August 2014. For the period between January 2005 and August 2008, all the variables, except for the Interbank Certificate of Deposit, proved significant, at a significance level of 10%. For the subsequent period, none of the variables proved significant and the R² was very low, which may merely indicate that investors failed to analyze the main macroeconomic variables for mutual fund allocations or redemptions and simply considered other aspects, such as manager performance.

  18. The main provisions of the Lithuanian National Energy Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskinis, V.; Galinis, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to set out findings from analysis of the Lithuanian economy and energy sector development and to discuss the main provisions of the draft of the updated National Energy Strategy. The paper presents a short description of tendencies in the Lithuanian economy and energy sector during transition to a free market economy. A significant reduction of final and primary energy intensity in Lithuania is confirmed by analysis based on data published in the recent national and international publications. Positive changes in the energy sector, favourable for implementation of market economy, are discussed. The methodology applied for analysis of the energy sector development and for preparation of the National Energy Strategy is presented. Strategic objectives of the Lithuanian energy sector, the measures to provide for a higher energy security and guidelines for the energy sector development are presented as well. The main provisions in the draft of the updated National Energy Strategy are established taking into consideration the obligations of Lithuania presented in the Treaty of Accession to the EU, the EU directives and other international documents. (author)

  19. MAIN DESTINATIONS AND TOURIST FLOWS ON THE YOUTH TRAVEL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisa Claudia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Global tourism has seen an explosion since the ‘60s due to the post-war global economic growth and over the past two decades it recorded a significant increase, youth travel being the main component of this growth. According to experts, this type of tourism is in full evolution, young tourists representing an increasingly important segment of the global tourism market. Many experts in the tourism industry think youth travel is the fastest growing market segment, and the previsions of the World Tourism Organization estimate that in the near future youth travel will tote up 25% of the worldwide tourism market. On one hand, this phenomenon can be explain through the cultural motivation of the young people in practicing tourism, and on the other, through the relatively low or acceptable costs of transportation, especially for the youth in well developed countries.

  20. Comprehensive chlorophyll composition in the main edible seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kewei; Ríos, José Julián; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio; Roca, María

    2017-08-01

    Natural chlorophylls present in seaweeds have been studied regarding their biological activities and health benefit effects. However, detailed studies regarding characterization of the complete chlorophyll profile either qualitatively and quantitatively are scarce. This work deals with the comprehensive spectrometric study of the chlorophyll derivatives present in the five main coloured edible seaweeds. The novel complete MS 2 characterization of five chlorophyll derivatives: chlorophyll c 2 , chlorophyll c 1 , purpurin-18 a, pheophytin d and phytyl-purpurin-18 a has allowed to obtain fragmentation patterns associated with their different structural features. New chlorophyll derivatives have been identified and quantified by first time in red, green and brown seaweeds, including some oxidative structures. Quantitative data of the chlorophyll content comes to achieve significant information for food composition databases in bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. MAIN TENDENCIES IN DEVELOPMENT OF COMMERCIAL INSURANCE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Poplyko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance market plays an important role in the economic development and has a special significance in the countries with economy of the transition period. In spite of its positive influence exerted on the development of national economy the level of  insurance service spreading is still rather low.  The paper considers main results of the activity of the Belarusian insurance organizations. Usage of statistic evaluation methods makes it possible to break them in separate groups. The conducted analysis of organizations’ financial flows (receipts, payments and profits for the period of 2005–2007 testifies to their dynamic development. Economic management subjects of non-state ownership take leading positions in this matter.Further growth of commercial insurance market greatly depends on the government efficiency to regulate the given sphere of activity. Removal of existing negative factors including creation of equal competitive conditions for all participants of the market, its demonopolization, will favor its development. 

  2. 77 FR 48565 - Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company, Maine Yankee Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... reduction in a margin of safety nor creates a new or different kind of accident from any accident previously... the probability or consequences of an accident previously evaluated; (ii) granting the exemption would... would not result in a significant construction impact because there are no construction activities...

  3. Supporting experts to handle tweet collections about significant events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hürriyetoglu, Ali; Oostdijk, Nelleke; Basar, Erkan; van den Bosch, A.; Frasincar, F.; Ittoo, A.; Nguyen, L.; Metais, E.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce Relevancer that processes a tweet set and enables generating an automatic classifier from it. Relevancer satisfies information needs of experts during significant events. Enabling experts to combine automatic procedures with expertise is the main contribution of our approach and the

  4. Deflating the shale gas potential of South Africa's Main Karoo basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel O. de Kock

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Main Karoo basin has been identified as a potential source of shale gas (i.e. natural gas that can be extracted via the process of hydraulic stimulation or ‘fracking’. Current resource estimates of 0.4–11x109 m3 (13–390 Tcf are speculatively based on carbonaceous shale thickness, area, depth, thermal maturity and, most of all, the total organic carbon content of specifically the Ecca Group’s Whitehill Formation with a thickness of more than 30 m. These estimates were made without any measurements on the actual available gas content of the shale. Such measurements were recently conducted on samples from two boreholes and are reported here. These measurements indicate that there is little to no desorbed and residual gas, despite high total organic carbon values. In addition, vitrinite reflectance and illite crystallinity of unweathered shale material reveal the Ecca Group to be metamorphosed and overmature. Organic carbon in the shale is largely unbound to hydrogen, and little hydrocarbon generation potential remains. These findings led to the conclusion that the lowest of the existing resource estimates, namely 0.4x109 m3 (13 Tcf, may be the most realistic. However, such low estimates still represent a large resource with developmental potential for the South African petroleum industry. To be economically viable, the resource would be required to be confined to a small, well-delineated ‘sweet spot’ area in the vast southern area of the basin. It is acknowledged that the drill cores we investigated fall outside of currently identified sweet spots and these areas should be targets for further scientific drilling projects. Significance: This is the first report of direct measurements of the actual gas contents of southern Karoo basin shales. The findings reveal carbon content of shales to be dominated by overmature organic matter. The results demonstrate a much reduced potential shale gas resource presented by the Whitehill

  5. Radiologically revealed spine osteoporosis in male with hypertension and coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P A Chizhov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiologically revealed spine osteoporosis in male with hypertension and coronary heart disease Objective. To study prevalence and intensity of spine osteoporosis (OP in men suffering from hypertension (H and coronary heart disease (CHD. Material and methods. 101 men with H and CHD aged 50 to 78 years (mean age 60,6±0,85 years and 37 men of control group without cardiovascular diseases aged 50-66 years (mean age 58,6±0,74 years were examined. Clinical examination, radiological, radiomorphometric spine examination and echocardioscopy were performed. Results. OP was revealed in 34,65% of main group pts what is 3,2 times more frequent than in control group (10,8%, p<0,05. OP intensity in men with H and CHD was significantly higher than in healthy people. Vfertebral fractures were revealed in 12,87+3,3% of main group pts and only in 2,7±2,7% in control group (p<0,05. OP development dependence from cardiac history duration and cardiac pathology severity was demonstrated. Conclusion. The results of the study show significantly higher prevalence of spine OP among men suffering from H and CHD. Long history and severity of cardiovascular pathology clinical signs promote OP frequency and severity increase.

  6. 33 CFR 334.20 - Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.20 Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area. (a) The... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Cape Small, Maine; naval aircraft practice mining range area. 334.20 Section 334.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters...

  7. Genes but not genomes reveal bacterial domestication of Lactococcus lactis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Passerini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The population structure and diversity of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, a major industrial bacterium involved in milk fermentation, was determined at both gene and genome level. Seventy-six lactococcal isolates of various origins were studied by different genotyping methods and thirty-six strains displaying unique macrorestriction fingerprints were analyzed by a new multilocus sequence typing (MLST scheme. This gene-based analysis was compared to genomic characteristics determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The MLST analysis revealed that L. lactis subsp. lactis is essentially clonal with infrequent intra- and intergenic recombination; also, despite its taxonomical classification as a subspecies, it displays a genetic diversity as substantial as that within several other bacterial species. Genome-based analysis revealed a genome size variability of 20%, a value typical of bacteria inhabiting different ecological niches, and that suggests a large pan-genome for this subspecies. However, the genomic characteristics (macrorestriction pattern, genome or chromosome size, plasmid content did not correlate to the MLST-based phylogeny, with strains from the same sequence type (ST differing by up to 230 kb in genome size. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The gene-based phylogeny was not fully consistent with the traditional classification into dairy and non-dairy strains but supported a new classification based on ecological separation between "environmental" strains, the main contributors to the genetic diversity within the subspecies, and "domesticated" strains, subject to recent genetic bottlenecks. Comparison between gene- and genome-based analyses revealed little relationship between core and dispensable genome phylogenies, indicating that clonal diversification and phenotypic variability of the "domesticated" strains essentially arose through substantial genomic flux within the dispensable

  8. Impact significance determination-Back to basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, David P.

    2007-01-01

    Impact significance determination is widely recognized as a vital and critical EIA activity. But impact significance related concepts are poorly understood. And the quality of approaches for impact significance determination in EIA practice remains highly variable. This article seeks to help establish a sound and practical conceptual foundation for formulating and evaluating impact significance determination approaches. It addresses the nature (what is impact significance?), the core characteristics (what are the major properties of significance determination?), the rationale (why are impact significance determinations necessary?), the procedural and substantive objectives (what do impact significance determinations seek to achieve?), and the process for making impact significance judgments (how is impact significance determination conducted?). By identifying fundamental attributes and key distinctions associated with impact significance determinations, a basis is provided for designing and evaluating impact significance determination procedures at both the regulatory and applied levels

  9. Politics and Politicians – Main Topic and Main Characters on Television News

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktorija Car

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the relationship between television as a medium, and politics and politicians as the content of television news in Croatia. The first part of the paper explains the models of ‘media logic’, ‘partisan logic’ and ‘party logic’. The second part of the paper presents the results of the research conducted on the representative sample of primetime news HTV Dnevnik for the period 1991-2009, and Nova TV Dnevnik and RTL Vijesti for the period 2005-2009. The goal of the research was to examine the presence of political topics on primetime news, as well to what extent politicians are presented as main characters. The results show a sustained decline of politics on the news and their simultaneous replacement by news on disasters and lifestyle. Further, citizens and their opinion become more important than opinions of politicians, experts and scientists. Comparing the news on public service television and on commercial televisions, the author elaborates on the internal processes and changes of the television medium and finally introduces the concept of ‘power logic’ to explain news selection and news editing on the Croatian TV channels.

  10. Regional variation in fish predation intensity: a historical perspective in the Gulf of Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witman, Jon D; Sebens, Kenneth P

    1992-06-01

    Regional variation in the intensity of fish predation on tethered brittle stars and crabs was measured at 30-33 m depths in the rocky subtidal zone at seven sites representing coastal and offshore regions of the Gulf of Maine, USA. Analysis of covariance comparing the slopes of brittle star survivorship curves followed by multiple comparisons tests revealed five groupings of sites, with significantly greater predation rates in the two offshore than in the three coastal groups. Brittle stars tethered at the three offshore sites were consumed primarily by cod, Gadus morhua, with 60-100% prey mortality occuring in 2.5 h. In striking contrast, only 6-28% of brittle star prey was consumed in the same amount of time at the four coastal sites, which were dominated by cunner, Tautogolabrus adspersus. In several coastal trials, a majority of brittle star prey remained after 24 h. The pattern of higher predation offshore held for rock crabs as well with only 2.7% of tethered crabs consumed (n=36) at coastal sites versus 57.8% of crabs (n=64) consumed at offshore sites. Another important predatory fish, the wolffish, Anarhichas lupus, consumed more tethered crabs than brittle stars. Videos and time-lapse movies indicated that cod and wolffish were significantly more abundant at offshore than at coastal sites. Three hundred years of fishing pressure in New England has severely depleted stocks of at least one important benthic predator, the cod, in coastal waters. We speculate that this human-induced predator removal has lowered predation pressure on crabs and other large mobile epibenthos in deep coastal communities. Transect data indicate that coastal sites with few cod support significantly higher densities of crabs than offshore sites with abundant cod.

  11. Thermophysical characteristics of the large main-belt asteroid (349) Dembowska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang Liang; Yang, Bin; Ji, Jianghui; Ip, Wing-Huen

    2017-12-01

    (349) Dembowska is a large, bright main-belt asteroid that has a fast rotation and an oblique spin axis. It might have experienced partial melting and differentiation. We constrain Dembowska's thermophysical properties, such as thermal inertia, roughness fraction, geometric albedo and effective diameter within 3σ uncertainty of Γ =20^{+12}_{-7} Jm-2 s-0.5 K-1, f_r=0.25^{+0.60}_{-0.25}, p_v=0.309^{+0.026}_{-0.038} and D_eff=155.8^{+7.5}_{-6.2} km, by utilizing the advanced thermophysical model to analyse four sets of thermal infrared data obtained by the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS), AKARI, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Subaru/Cooled Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectrometer (COMICS) at different epochs. In addition, by modelling the thermal light curve observed by WISE, we obtain the rotational phases of each data set. These rotationally resolved data do not reveal significant variations of thermal inertia and roughness across the surface, indicating that the surface of Dembowska should be covered by a dusty regolith layer with few rocks or boulders. Besides, the low thermal inertia of Dembowska shows no significant difference with other asteroids larger than 100 km, which indicates that the dynamical lives of these large asteroids are long enough to make their surfaces have sufficiently low thermal inertia. Furthermore, based on the derived surface thermophysical properties, as well as the known orbital and rotational parameters, we can simulate Dembowska's surface and subsurface temperatures throughout its orbital period. The surface temperature varies from ∼40 to ∼220 K, showing significant seasonal variation, whereas the subsurface temperature achieves equilibrium temperature about 120-160 K below a depth of 30-50 cm.

  12. Spatial Distribution and Site-Specific Spraying of Main Sucking Pests of Elm Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, R; Iranipour, S

    2017-06-01

    Elm trees are important landscape trees and sucking insects weaken the elm trees and produce large amounts of honeydew. The main objectives of this study were to identify main honeydew-producing pests of elm trees and do site-specific spraying against these pests. To map the spatial distribution of the sucking pests in the large scale, the study area was divided into 40 × 40 m grids and one tree was chosen randomly from each grid (a total of 55 trees). These trees were sampled twice a year in 2011 and 2012. Each sample was a 30-cm branch terminal. Eight samples were taken from each tree in four cardinal directions and two canopy levels. The number of sucking insects and leaves of each sample were counted and recorded. Spatial analysis of the data was carried out using geostatistics. Kriging was used for producing prediction maps. Insecticide application was restricted to the regions with populations higher than threshold. To identify within-tree distribution of the honeydew-producing pests, six and four elm trees were chosen in 2011 and 2012 respectively, and sampled weekly. These trees were sampled as described previously. European elm scale (EES), Gossyparia spuria (Modeer) and two species of aphids were the dominant honeydew-producing pests. The results revealed that the effects of direction, canopy level and their interactions on insect populations were not statistically significant (P < 0.05). Site-specific spraying decreased the amount of insecticides used by ca. 20%, while satisfactory control of the sucking pests and honeydew excretion was obtained. Considering the environmental and economic benefits of site-specific spraying, it is worth doing more complementary works in this area.

  13. The diameter of main pancreatic duct on endoscopic retrograde pancreatography and the appearance of main pancreatic duct on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanno, Naoaki; Yamazaki, Hideo; Toyota, Takayoshi; Nakanome, Chiyuki; Sasaki, Masayoshi; Sato, Waichi; Komatsu, Kanji.

    1990-01-01

    We have carried out a comparative study of the diameter of main pancreatic duct (MPD) on endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) with the fequency of detection of MPD by computed tomography (CT) in order to clarify the importance of MPD appearance on CT in the pancreatic and biliary diseases. The normal MPD on ERP was demonstrated by CT in a low frequency. MPD was most frequently observed in the pancreatic body on CT. The dilatation of MPD on ERP was found in both moderate and advanced pancreatitis group. However, the significant demonstration of MPD by CT was found in advanced group alone. We observed that CT finding of dilated duct correlated with that on ERP in advanced group alone. (author)

  14. Most significant preliminary results of the probabilistic safety analysis on the Juragua nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdomo, Manuel

    1995-01-01

    Since 1990 the Group for PSA Development and Applications (GDA/APS) is working on the Level-1 PSA for the Juragua-1 NPP, as a part of an IAEA Technical Assistance Project. The main objective of this study, which is still under way, is to assess, in a preliminary way, the Reactor design safety to find its potential 'weak points' at the construction stage, using a eneric data base. At the same time, the study allows the PSA team to familiarize with the plant design and analysis techniques for the future operational PSA of the plant. This paper presents the most significant preliminary results of the study, which reveal some advantages of the safety characteristics of the plant design in comparison with the homologous VVER-440 reactors and some areas, where including slight modifications would improve the plant safety, considering the level of detail at which the study is carried out. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig, 2 tabs

  15. Medicinal significance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of solasodine: A concise report of current scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids are well known phytoconstituents for their diverse pharmacological properties. Alkaloids are found in all plant parts like roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. Solasodine occurs as an aglycone part of glycoalkloids, which is a nitrogen analogue to sapogenins. Solanaceae family comprises of a number of plants with variety of natural products of medicinal significance mainly steroidal lactones, glycosides, alkaloids and flavanoids. It is a steroidal alkaloid based on a C27 cholestane skeleton. Literature survey reveals that solasodine has diuretic, anticancer, antifungal, cardiotonic, antispermatogenetic, antiandrogenic, immunomodulatory, antipyretic and various effects on central nervous system. Isolation and quantitative determination was achieved by several analytical techniques. Present review highlights the pharmacological activity of solasodine, with its analytical and tissue culture techniques, which may be helpful to the researchers to develop new molecules for the treatment of various disorders in the future.

  16. The somatically significant dose, SSD, and analog of the GSD, the genetically significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beentjes, L.B.; Duijsings, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    The medical applications of radiation comprise three main fields namely: Diagnostic Radiology, Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine. With the new weighting factors of ICRP (IC91a) the effective dose due to medical applications can be established. I is common to separate the effective dose into the genetic part and the somatic part, SED. In dealing with gonad doses it is important to account for the age of the person at the time of exposure as this will influence the number of children still to be expected from that person. The resulting dose will then be called the genetically significant dose, GSD. In a similar fashion this age factor will be important in considering the chance of tumor induction. The age of patients differs considerably from the average age of the general population. This age difference has to be accounted for if a comparison is to be made with other sources of radiation. This justifies establishing a somatically significant dose, SSD. The reduction of the SED value to a SSD for the medical field due to this phenomenon is .6 for diagnostic radiology, .5 for nuclear medicine and .3 for radiotherapy. Also the extension to more organs at risk, which result in a larger number of weighting factors published by ICRP (IC91a) tends to lower the calculated effective doses. (author)

  17. Mortality atlas of the main causes of death in Switzerland, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammartin, Frédérique; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the spatial distribution of mortality data is important for identification of high-risk areas, which in turn might guide prevention, and modify behaviour and health resources allocation. This study aimed to update the Swiss mortality atlas by analysing recent data using Bayesian statistical methods. We present average pattern for the major causes of death in Switzerland. We analysed Swiss mortality data from death certificates for the period 2008-2012. Bayesian conditional autoregressive models were employed to smooth the standardised mortality rates and assess average patterns. Additionally, we developed models for age- and gender-specific sub-groups that account for urbanisation and linguistic areas in order to assess their effects on the different sub-groups. We describe the spatial pattern of the major causes of death that occurred in Switzerland between 2008 and 2012, namely 4 cardiovascular diseases, 10 different kinds of cancer, 2 external causes of death, as well as chronic respiratory diseases, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, influenza and pneumonia, and liver diseases. In-depth analysis of age- and gender-specific mortality rates revealed significant disparities between urbanisation and linguistic areas. We provide a contemporary overview of the spatial distribution of the main causes of death in Switzerland. Our estimates and maps can help future research to deepen our understanding of the spatial variation of major causes of death in Switzerland, which in turn is crucial for targeting preventive measures, changing behaviours and a more cost-effective allocation of health resources.

  18. Toxicogenomic analysis identifies the apoptotic pathway as the main cause of hepatotoxicity induced by tributyltin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mi; Feng, Mei; Fu, Ling-Ling; Ji, Lin-Dan; Zhao, Jin-Shun; Xu, Jin

    2016-11-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is one of the most widely used organotin biocides, which has severe endocrine-disrupting effects on marine species and mammals. Given that TBT accumulates at higher levels in the liver than in any other organ, and it acts mainly as a hepatotoxic agent, it is important to clearly delineate the hepatotoxicity of TBT. However, most of the available studies on TBT have focused on observations at the cellular level, while studies at the level of genes and proteins are limited; therefore, the molecular mechanisms of TBT-induced hepatotoxicity remains largely unclear. In the present study, we applied a toxicogenomic approach to investigate the effects of TBT on gene expression in the human normal liver cell line HL7702. Gene expression profiling identified the apoptotic pathway as the major cause of hepatotoxicity induced by TBT. Flow cytometry assays confirmed that medium- and high-dose TBT treatments significantly increased the number of apoptotic cells, and more cells underwent late apoptosis in the high-dose TBT group. The genes encoding heat shock proteins (HSPs), kinases and tumor necrosis factor receptors mediated TBT-induced apoptosis. These findings revealed novel molecular mechanisms of TBT-induced hepatotoxicity, and the current microarray data may also provide clues for future studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chocolate intake is associated with better cognitive function: The Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2016-05-01

    Chocolate and cocoa flavanols have been associated with improvements in a range of health complaints dating from ancient times, and has established cardiovascular benefits. Less is known about the effects of chocolate on neurocognition and behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chocolate intake was associated with cognitive function, with adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on 968 community-dwelling participants, aged 23-98 years, from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Habitual chocolate intake was related to cognitive performance, measured with an extensive battery of neuropsychological tests. More frequent chocolate consumption was significantly associated with better performance on the Global Composite score, Visual-Spatial Memory and Organization, Working Memory, Scanning and Tracking, Abstract Reasoning, and the Mini-Mental State Examination. With the exception of Working Memory, these relations were not attenuated with statistical control for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Prospective analyses revealed no association between cognitive function and chocolate intake measured up to 18 years later. Further intervention trials and longitudinal studies are needed to explore relations between chocolate, cocoa flavanols and cognition, and the underlying causal mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. THEORETICAL QUESTIONS OF INVESTMENT RISK RESEARCH, ITS MAIN FEATURES AND CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kadyrbaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines framework methodology of investment risk. The subject of the study are the basic theoretical positions directly related to the economic category of "investment risk". The purpose of this writing is the improvement of the methodology of the study of investment risk in the investment activity. This objective is to define the tasks, which consist in the formulation of the concept of "investment risk", the development of investment risk classification to provide investors with effective protection against such risks. The implementation  of the tasks will create conditions for the growth of investments in Russia. Currently, effective investment strategy for such an increase, is among the priority directions of development of the Russian economy.The article deals with logically interrelated study of basic economic categories, influencing directly on the investment risk. Author provided classification of investments in accordance with the level of risk. Examine the matter of the financial-economic category of the concept of "investment risk" and the classification of investment risks. Specified main features of the investment risk, which allowed to reveal specifics, which consists in the redistribution of capital in various types of assets in order to maximize profits or to obtain significant social effect.

  1. Aquatic photochemistry of sulfamethazine: multivariate effects of main water constituents and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingjie; Liu, Xiangliang; Zhang, Biaojun; Zhao, Qun; Ning, Ping; Tian, Senlin

    2018-03-01

    The ubiquity of sulfonamides (SAs) in natural waters requires insight into their environmental fate for ecological risk assessment. Extensive studies focused on the effect of univariate water constituents on the photochemical fate of SAs, yet the multivariate effects of water constituents in environmentally relevant concentrations on SA photodegradation are poorly understood. Here, response surface methodology was employed to explore the integrative effects of main water constituents (dissolved organic matter (DOM), NO 3 - , HCO 3 - , Cu 2+ ) on the photodegradation of a representative SA (sulfamethazine). Results showed that besides single factors, interaction of factors also significantly impacted the photodegradation. Radical scavenging experiments indicated that triplet-excited DOM ( 3 DOM*) was responsible for the enhancing effect of DOM on the photodegradation. Additionally, DOM may also quench the 3 DOM*-mediated oxidation intermediate of sulfamethazine causing the inhibiting effect of DOM-DOM interaction. We also found that HCO 3 - was oxidized by triplet-excited sulfamethazine producing CO 3 ˙ - , and the high reactivity of CO 3 ˙ - with sulfamethazine (second-order rate constant 2.2 × 10 8 M -1 s -1 ) determined by laser flash photolysis revealed the enhancing photodegradation mechanism of HCO 3 - . This study is among the first attempts to probe the photodegradation of SAs considering the integrative effects of water constituents, which is important in accurate ecological risk assessment of organic pollutants in the aquatic environment.

  2. Demand effects of consumers’ stated and revealed preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Per; Forsell, Eskil

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of how consumers react to different quality signals is fundamental for understanding how markets work. We study the online market- place for Android apps where we compare the causal effects on demand from two quality related signals; other consumers' stated and revealed preferences toward an app. Our main result is that consumers are much more responsive to other consumers' revealed preferences, compared to others' stated preferences. A 10 percentile increase in displayed average ra...

  3. A Left Main Coronary Artery Thrombus Presenting as a Non St Elevation MI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezema, U; Daberkow, D; Delord, T; Guidry, L; Sells, N R

    2017-01-01

    Left main coronary artery (LMCA); thrombus with an acute myocardial infarction identified with coronary angiography is a clinically rare condition with an extremely high mortality rate. We present a case of LMCA thrombus that presented as a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI);. A 45-year-old woman with a history of tobacco use and hyperlipidemia presented with a complaint of 10/10 "hard pain" across her chest radiating to her left shoulder and breast which woke her from sleep. The pain was constant and severe, with no alleviation with rest. She had not experienced anything like this before. Workup revealed an upward trending troponin (1.98.989.79);, and an EKG with some tachycardia but no ST elevation or T wave changes. Her CBC, CMP and coagulation studies were unremarkable. A toxicology screen was positive for opiates and benzodiazepines, medications she was on for pain and anxiety respectively. ACS protocol was started with DAPT, LMWH, Statin, ACEi, and Beta-blocker. An angiogram revealed a large thrombus in the LM coronary artery extending into the aorta with concomitant 99 percent stenosis of distal LAD. 2D Echo w/ bubble contrast was significant for PFO, akinetic apical inferior and anterior wall. The mid antero-septum and apical lateral wall were hypokinetic. Interventional Cardiology and CTS recommended conservative management with medical optimization (Continue DAPT, heparin);, watchful waiting for the thrombus to resorb. Left main coronary artery thrombosis (LMCAT); identified during coronary angiography is a rare and challenging condition. It is a life threatening condition with an approximate incidence rate of 0.8 percent . It is thought to be secondary to plaque rupture with subsequent thrombus formation that is associated with persistent hypercoagulable state, cocaine induced plaque rupture or coronary vasospasm, post-partum state and embolization of intra-cardiac masses. The patient presentation can vary from sudden cardiac death to

  4. Oahu Sewer Main Lines, Oahu County HI, 2016, Honolulu GIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Linear features representing sewer main lines as maintained by Honolulu ENV Department of Environmental Services. Includes an inventory of sewer mains used for...

  5. SMALL MAIN-BELT ASTEROID SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY, PHASE II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains visible-wavelength (0.435-0.925 micron) spectra for 1341 main-belt asteroids observed during the second phase of the Small Main-belt Asteroid...

  6. 46 CFR 108.419 - Fire main capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Main System § 108.419 Fire main capacity. The diameter of the fire... pumps operating simultaneously. ...

  7. Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System Anomaly Detection: A Case Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The space shuttle main engine (SSME) is part of the Main Propnlsion System (MPS) which is an extremely complex system containing several sub-systems and components,...

  8. Investigation of the impact of main control room digitalization on operators cognitive reliability in nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Mu, Haiying; Jiang, Jianjun; Zhang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is a trend in nuclear power plants (NPPs) toward introducing digital and computer technologies into main control rooms (MCRs). Safe generation of electric power in NPPs requires reliable performance of cognitive tasks such as fault detection, diagnosis, and response planning. The digitalization of MCRs has dramatically changed the whole operating environment, and the ways operators interact with the plant systems. If the design and implementation of the digital technology is incompatible with operators' cognitive characteristics, it may have negative effects on operators' cognitive reliability. Firstly, on the basis of three essential prerequisites for successful cognitive tasks, a causal model is constructed to reveal the typical human performance issues arising from digitalization. The cognitive mechanisms which they impact cognitive reliability are analyzed in detail. Then, Bayesian inference is used to quantify and prioritize the influences of these factors. It suggests that interface management and unbalanced workload distribution have more significant impacts on operators' cognitive reliability.

  9. Emittance and trajectory control in the main linacs of the NLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assmann, R.; Adolphsen, C.; Bane, K.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Thompson, K.

    1996-09-01

    The main linacs of the next generation of linear colliders need to accelerate the particle beams to energies of up to 750 GeV while maintaining very small emittances. This paper describes the main mechanisms of static emittance growth in the main linacs of the Next Linear Collider (NLC). The authors present detailed simulations of the trajectory and emittance control algorithms that are foreseen for the NLC. They show that the emittance growth in the main linacs can be corrected down to about 110%. That number is significantly better than required for the NLC design luminosity

  10. Assessment of nurses' work climate at Alexandria Main University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emam, Sanaa Abdel-aziz; Nabawy, Zeinab Mohamed; Mohamed, Azzaa Hassan; Sbeira, Walaa Hashem

    2005-01-01

    Work climate is indicative of how well the organization is realizing its full potential. An accurate assessment of work climate can identify the unnecessary obstacles to nurses interfering with their best performance. The present study aims to assess nurses' work climate at Alexandria Main University Hospital. The study sample included all nurses (N=400) who were working in inpatient medical and surgical units at the Alexandria Main University Hospital who were available at the time of data collection. A structured questionnaire was developed to assess nurses' perceptions regarding the dimensions of work climate. Data was collected by individual interview using the structured questionnaire. Results indicated that the highest percentages of nurses in medical and surgical units perceived that their work climate is characterized by good way of performance management, feeling of responsibility, warmth and supportive relationships, quality of communication, morale, organizational clarity and feeling of identity and belongness to the hospital. Nurses perceived that they are lacking work climate conducive to conflict resolution, participation in decision making, opportunity for training and development, fair rewards and recognition, calculated risks, sufficient resources, effective leadership and teamwork. There were no significant difference between nurses perceptions in medical and surgical units regarding all dimensions of work climate. The highest percentage of nurses in all units were satisfied only with the feeling of responsibility, way of performance management, and quality of communication. Conflict and identity were perceived as the most important areas that need improvement in the hospital. Based on the results recommendations were given to enhance work climate through designing compensation and recognition systems, and negotiate their requirements and accomplishment based on established standards and outcomes measures. Also, encouragement of and planning for

  11. Environmental assessment -- Proposed neutrino beams at the Main Injector project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to build a beamline on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) site to accommodate an experimental research program in neutrino physics. The proposed action, called Neutrino Beams at the Main Injector (NuMI), is to design, construct, operate and decommission a facility for producing and studying a high flux beam of neutrinos in the energy range of 1 to 40 GeV (1 GeV is one billion or 10 9 electron volts). The proposed facility would initially be dedicated to two experiments, COSMOS (Cosmologically Significant Mass Oscillations) and MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search). The neutrino beam would pass underground from Fermilab to northern Minnesota. A tunnel would not be built in this intervening region because the neutrinos easily pass through the earth, not interacting, similar to the way that light passes through a pane of glass. The beam is pointed towards the MINOS detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Thus, the proposed project also includes construction, operation and decommissioning of the facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota that houses this MINOS detector. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the DOE's National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021). This EA documents DOE's evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed construction and operation of NuMI at Fermilab and its far detector facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Any future use of the facilities on the Fermilab site would require the administrative approval of the Director of Fermilab and would undergo a separate NEPA review. Fermilab is a Federal high-energy physics research laboratory in Batavia, Illinois operated on behalf of the DOE by Universities Research Association, Inc

  12. Environmental assessment -- Proposed neutrino beams at the Main Injector project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to build a beamline on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) site to accommodate an experimental research program in neutrino physics. The proposed action, called Neutrino Beams at the Main Injector (NuMI), is to design, construct, operate and decommission a facility for producing and studying a high flux beam of neutrinos in the energy range of 1 to 40 GeV (1 GeV is one billion or 10{sup 9} electron volts). The proposed facility would initially be dedicated to two experiments, COSMOS (Cosmologically Significant Mass Oscillations) and MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search). The neutrino beam would pass underground from Fermilab to northern Minnesota. A tunnel would not be built in this intervening region because the neutrinos easily pass through the earth, not interacting, similar to the way that light passes through a pane of glass. The beam is pointed towards the MINOS detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Thus, the proposed project also includes construction, operation and decommissioning of the facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota that houses this MINOS detector. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the DOE`s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021). This EA documents DOE`s evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed construction and operation of NuMI at Fermilab and its far detector facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Any future use of the facilities on the Fermilab site would require the administrative approval of the Director of Fermilab and would undergo a separate NEPA review. Fermilab is a Federal high-energy physics research laboratory in Batavia, Illinois operated on behalf of the DOE by Universities Research Association, Inc.

  13. 14 CFR 23.753 - Main float design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Main float design. 23.753 Section 23.753... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 23.753 Main float design. Each seaplane main float must meet the requirements of § 23.521. [Doc...

  14. Maine Migrant Program: 1997-1998 Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazinet, Suzanne C., Ed.

    The Maine Department of Education contracts with local educational agencies to administer the Maine Migrant Education Program. The program's overall mission is to provide the support necessary for migrant children to achieve Maine's academic standards. In 1997-98, 73 local migrant programs served 9,838 students, and 63 summer programs served 1,769…

  15. 30 CFR 57.8525 - Main fan maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main fan maintenance. 57.8525 Section 57.8525 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.8525 Main fan maintenance. Main fans shall be maintained according to either the...

  16. 30 CFR 57.8519 - Underground main fan controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground main fan controls. 57.8519 Section... Ventilation Surface and Underground § 57.8519 Underground main fan controls. All underground main fans shall have controls placed at a suitable protected location remote from the fan and preferably on the surface...

  17. 30 CFR 75.311 - Main mine fan operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main mine fan operation. 75.311 Section 75.311... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.311 Main mine fan operation. (a) Main mine fans shall be continuously operated, except as otherwise approved in the ventilation plan, or when...

  18. Supply and demand of timber for wood turning in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric H. Wharton; Robert L., Jr. Nevel; Douglas S. Powell; Douglas S. Powell

    1987-01-01

    An analytical report on the volume of wood used by the wood-turning industry in Maine, and the volume of timber from the state's timberlands that may be suitable for turnstock. Findings are based on the third forest resource survey of Maine timberlands, and an industry canvass of primary manufacturing mills using wood from Maine timberlands, both conducted in 1982...

  19. 14 CFR 27.547 - Main rotor structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Main rotor structure. 27.547 Section 27.547... structure. (a) Each main rotor assembly (including rotor hubs and blades) must be designed as prescribed in this section. (b) [Reserved] (c) The main rotor structure must be designed to withstand the following...

  20. 30 CFR 57.8518 - Main and booster fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main and booster fans. 57.8518 Section 57.8518... and Underground § 57.8518 Main and booster fans. (a) All mine main and booster fans installed and used...-cycle shutdowns or planned or scheduled fan maintenance or fan adjustments where air quality is...

  1. 46 CFR 182.610 - Main steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main steering gear. 182.610 Section 182.610 Shipping...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.610 Main steering gear. (a) A vessel must be provided with a main steering gear that is: (1) Of adequate strength and capable of steering the vessel at all service...

  2. Gene expression profiling in equine polysaccharide storage myopathy revealed inflammation, glycogenesis inhibition, hypoxia and mitochondrial dysfunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benech Philippe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several cases of myopathies have been observed in the horse Norman Cob breed. Muscle histology examinations revealed that some families suffer from a polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM. It is assumed that a gene expression signature related to PSSM should be observed at the transcriptional level because the glycogen storage disease could also be linked to other dysfunctions in gene regulation. Thus, the functional genomic approach could be conducted in order to provide new knowledge about the metabolic disorders related to PSSM. We propose exploring the PSSM muscle fiber metabolic disorders by measuring gene expression in relationship with the histological phenotype. Results Genotypying analysis of GYS1 mutation revealed 2 homozygous (AA and 5 heterozygous (GA PSSM horses. In the PSSM muscles, histological data revealed PAS positive amylase resistant abnormal polysaccharides, inflammation, necrosis, and lipomatosis and active regeneration of fibers. Ultrastructural evaluation revealed a decrease of mitochondrial number and structural disorders. Extensive accumulation of an abnormal polysaccharide displaced and partially replaced mitochondria and myofibrils. The severity of the disease was higher in the two homozygous PSSM horses. Gene expression analysis revealed 129 genes significantly modulated (p Conclusion The main disorders observed in PSSM muscles could be related to mitochondrial dysfunctions, glycogenesis inhibition and the chronic hypoxia of the PSSM muscles.

  3. Volunteering as Students significant social activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zaitseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the involvement of students in volunteer activities, examines the organization of students volunteer activities and volunteer projects realization at the university. The potential of volunteerism as an effective mechanism for addressing the urgent social problems is revealed.Theauthorstudiesexperience of volunteer services organization the I.A. Bunin State University in Yelets.

  4. The Logical-Semantic Basis for Formation of Main Components of Enterprise Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyakova Yana O.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The modern interpretation of the essence of enterprise strategy implies transformation of internal characteristics of the enterprise into key success factors in accordance with conditions of the functioning of external environment in order to ensure its sustainable leadership position in the long term and is one of the main elements of the system of enterprise strategic management in today’s business environment. The result of the conducted research is the improvement of the logical-semantic structure of main components of enterprise strategy through the implementation of research by the inductive method, which allowed to determine the logical sequence of stages of forming key success factors, reveal the conditions for transformation of main elements of each stage and conduct a semantic evaluation of the structure of main components of enterprise strategy at each individual stage to implement the processes of goal setting and evaluate results of the implementation of the chosen business strategy.

  5. Revealed preference with limited consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, T.; Seel, C.

    2014-01-01

    We derive revealed preference tests for models where individuals use consideration sets to simplify their consumption problem. Our basic test provides necessary and sufficient conditions for consistency of observed choices with the existence of consideration set restrictions. The same conditions can

  6. Decision Making and Revealed Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis...

  7. Creating Significant Learning Experiences across Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Laura E.; Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Nicoll-Senft, Joan M.; Tessier, Jack T.; Watson, Cheryl L.; Wood, Rebecca M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning to redesign courses and assess student learning. Significant improvements were found across the semester for students in the six courses, but there were differences in which taxa showed improvement in each course. The meta-analysis showed significant, positive…

  8. 23 CFR 630.1010 - Significant projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Significant projects. 630.1010 Section 630.1010 Highways... PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Work Zone Safety and Mobility § 630.1010 Significant projects. (a) A significant project is one that, alone or in combination with other concurrent projects nearby is anticipated to cause...

  9. 14 CFR 119.47 - Maintaining a principal base of operations, main operations base, and main maintenance base...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintaining a principal base of operations, main operations base, and main maintenance base; change of address. 119.47 Section 119.47 Aeronautics... Under Part 121 or Part 135 of This Chapter § 119.47 Maintaining a principal base of operations, main...

  10. Realism vs. Neoliberalism and Constructivism: Main Points of Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury V. Borovsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Following the collapse of the bipolar world realist approaches were placed under close scrutiny by neoliberals and constructivists. The legacy of the realist school actually became an object of numerous attacks, which were undertaken to demonstrate its discrepancy with new international realities. In the course of sharp debates proponents of realism managed to show the weakness of neoliberal argumentation and, further, to testify that a number of high-sounding neoliberal theories are poorlygrounded. At the same time, realism’s supporters proved themselves to be incapable of defeating constructivists. The new opponents persuasively revealed the apparent though neglected earlier controversy between the basic materialist assumptions of the realist school and the not entirely materialist tool of their reflection in the international relations, i.e. the concept of power. Only after a time realists managed to find some credible theoretical ground and make first effective steps towards building a consistent system of counterarguments against constructivism. However, ‘the constructivist assault’ caused a profound review of the realist theoretical and practical apparatus. Among currently relevant applied propositions of the school we should name assumptions of statism, of anarchy, of the significance of the power factor (while recognising the dual nature of power in international relations as well as the ‘relative gains problem’.

  11. Mars Mapping Technology Brings Main Street to Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Red Planet has long held a particular hold on the human psyche. From the Roman god of war to Orson Welles infamous Halloween broadcast, our nearest planetary neighbor has been viewed with curiosity, suspicion, and awe. Pictures of Mars from 1965 to the present reveal familiar landscapes while also challenging our perceptions and revising our understanding of the processes at work in planets. Frequent discoveries have forced significant revisions to previous theories. Although Mars shares many familiar features with Earth, such as mountains, plains, valleys, and polar ice, the conditions on Mars can vary wildly from those with which we are familiar. The apparently cold, rocky, and dusty wasteland seen through the eyes of spacecraft and Martian probes hints at a dynamic past of volcanic activity, cataclysmic meteors, and raging waters. New discoveries continue to revise our view of our next-door neighbor, and further exploration is now paving the way for a human sortie to the fourth stone from the Sun. NASA s Mars Exploration Program, a long-term effort of robotic exploration, utilizes wide-angle stereo cameras mounted on NASA s twin robot geologists, the Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs), launched in 2003. The rovers, named "Spirit" and "Opportunity," celebrated 4 Earth years of exploration on January 3, 2008, and have sent back a wealth of information on the terrain and composition of the Martian surface. Their marathon performance has far outlasted the intended 90 days of operation, and the two intrepid explorers promise more images and data.

  12. Solitary main pancreatic ductal calculus of possible biliary origin causing acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparala, Ramakrishna Prasad Chowdary; Patel, Rafiuddin; Guthrie, James Ahsley; Davies, Mervyn Huw; Guillou, Pierre J; Menon, Krishna V

    2005-09-10

    Pancreatic ductal calculi are most often associated with chronic pancreatitis. Radiological features of chronic pancreatitis are readily evident in the presence of these calculi. However, acute pancreatitis due to a solitary main pancreatic ductal calculus of biliary origin is rare. A 59-year-old man presented with a first episode of acute pancreatitis. Contrast enhanced computerized tomography (CT) scan and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) revealed a calculus in the main pancreatic duct in the head of the pancreas causing acute pancreatitis. There were no features suggestive of chronic pancreatitis on CT scanning. The episode acute pancreatitis was managed conservatively. ERCP extraction of the calculus failed as the stone was impacted in the main pancreatic duct resulting in severe acute pancreatitis. Once this resolved, a transduodenal exploration and extraction of the pancreatic ductal calculus was performed successfully. Crystallographic analysis revealed the composition of the calculus was different to that seen in chronic pancreatitis, but more in keeping with a calculus of biliary origin. This could be explained by migration of the biliary calculus via the common channel into the main pancreatic duct. Following the operation the patient made an uneventful recovery and was well at two-year follow up. Acute pancreatitis due to a solitary main pancreatic ductal calculus of biliary origin is rare. Failing endoscopic extraction, transduodenal exploration and extraction is a safe option after resolution of acute pancreatitis.

  13. Liquid crystal polymers: evidence of hairpin defects in nematic main chains, comparison with side chain polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M. H.; Brûlet, A.; Keller, P.; Cotton, J. P.

    1996-09-01

    This article describes the conformation of two species of liquid crystalline polymers as revealed by small angle neutron scattering. The results obtained with side chain polymers are recalled. The procedure used to analyze the scattering data of main chains in the nematic phase is reported in this paper. It permits a demonstration of the existence of hairpins. Comparison of both polymer species shows that in the isotropic phase, the two polymers adopt a random coil conformation. In the nematic phase, the conformations are very different; the side chains behave as a melt of penetrable random coils whereas the main chains behave as a nematic phase of non penetrable cylinders.

  14. [Actual vitamin and main foodstuffs consumption by recovered patients suffered from hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasanova, G M; Tutel'ian, A V

    2011-01-01

    Actual consumption of vitamins A, E, beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, thiamin, pyridoxine and main foodstuffs by recovered patients suffered from hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome has been given. Frequency analysis of foodstuffs consumption was used to study actual nourishment of recovered patients. Surplus consumption of fat mainly due to the use of saturated fatty acids, deficiency of poly unsaturated fatty acids, surplus sugar consumption and predominance of proteins of animal origin over proteins of vegetable origin in ration has been revealed. Deficiency of water soluble vitamins equals to 41,6-78,7% of all examined patients, deficiency of fat water soluble vitamins is lower (21,4-38,3%).

  15. Significance of Circadian Rhythms in Aerospace Operations,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    maximum during the day and a minimum at night. The differences of "efficiency" for 140 21 physical labour performed either at 1600 or at 0400 hours...magnitude of 5 - 10 % extra oxygen 120. uptake. The lower efficieny could explain the feeling of temporary night workers that nocturnal labour is...intestinal disturbances (reported in some studies only) - both, lower and higher absenteeism ; - no higher mortality rate. More recent investigations revealed

  16. Analyses between Reproductive Behaviour, Genetic Diversity and Pythium Responsiveness in Zingiber spp. reveal an adaptive significance for hemiclonality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geethu Elizabath Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMode of reproduction is generally considered to have long-range evolutionary implications on population survival. Because sexual reproduction produces genetically diverse genotypes, this mode of reproduction is predicted to positively influence the success potential of offspring in evolutionary arms race with parasites (Red queen whereas, without segregation and recombination, the obligate asexual multiplication may push a species into extinction due to the steady accumulation of deleterious mutations (Muller’s ratchet. However, the extent of linearity between reproductive strategies, genetic diversity and population fitness, and the contributions of different breeding strategies to population fitness are yet to be understood clearly. Genus Zingiber belonging to the pan-tropic family Zingiberaceae represents a good system to study contributions of different breeding behaviour on genetic diversity and population fitness, as this genus comprises species with contrasting breeding systems. In this study, we analyzed breeding behaviour, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP diversity and response to the soft-rot pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum in 18 natural populations of three wild Zingiber spp.: Z. neesanum, Z. nimmonii and Z. zerumbet, together with the obligately asexual cultivated congener, ginger (Z. officinale. Ginger showed an exceptionally narrow genetic base, and adding to this, all the tested cultivars were uniformly susceptible to soft-rot. Concordant with the postulates of Muller’s ratchet, the background selection may be continuously pushing ginger into the ancestral state, rendering it inefficient in host-pathogen coevolution. Z. neesanum and Z. nimmonii populations were sexual and genetically diverse; however, contrary to Red Queen expectations, the populations were highly susceptible to soft-rot. Z. zerumbet showed a hemiclonal breeding behaviour. The populations inhabiting forest understory were large and continuous, sexual and genetically diverse, but were susceptible, whereas populations inhabiting the revenue land were fragmented and monoclonal, but were resistant. It may be possible that, when genetic recombination becomes at a premium due to the genetic constraints imparted by habitat fragmentation or pathogen pressure, Z. zerumbet trigger asexual methods in order to preserve genotypes with adaptive fitness. A co-evolutionary feedback seems to occur between defense and reproduction in Z. zerumbet. Presumably, species with hemiclonal potential may have a fair chance to survive ecological undulations.

  17. Analyses between Reproductive Behavior, Genetic Diversity and Pythium Responsiveness in Zingiber spp. Reveal an Adaptive Significance for Hemiclonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Geethu E.; Geetha, Kiran A.; Augustine, Lesly; Mamiyil, Sabu; Thomas, George

    2016-01-01

    Mode of reproduction is generally considered to have long-range evolutionary implications on population survival. Because sexual reproduction produces genetically diverse genotypes, this mode of reproduction is predicted to positively influence the success potential of offspring in evolutionary arms race with parasites (Red queen) whereas, without segregation and recombination, the obligate asexual multiplication may push a species into extinction due to the steady accumulation of deleterious mutations (Muller’s ratchet). However, the extent of linearity between reproductive strategies, genetic diversity and population fitness, and the contributions of different breeding strategies to population fitness are yet to be understood clearly. Genus Zingiber belonging to the pan-tropic family Zingiberaceae represents a good system to study contributions of different breeding behavior on genetic diversity and population fitness, as this genus comprises species with contrasting breeding systems. In this study, we analyzed breeding behavior, amplified fragment length polymorphism diversity and response to the soft-rot pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum in 18 natural populations of three wild Zingiber spp.: Z. neesanum, Z. nimmonii, and Z. zerumbet, together with the obligately asexual cultivated congener, ginger (Z. officinale). Ginger showed an exceptionally narrow genetic base, and adding to this, all the tested cultivars were uniformly susceptible to soft-rot. Concordant with the postulates of Muller’s ratchet, the background selection may be continuously pushing ginger into the ancestral state, rendering it inefficient in host-pathogen coevolution. Z. neesanum and Z. nimmonii populations were sexual and genetically diverse; however, contrary to Red Queen expectations, the populations were highly susceptible to soft-rot. Z. zerumbet showed a hemiclonal breeding behavior. The populations inhabiting forest understory were large and continuous, sexual and genetically diverse, but were susceptible, whereas populations inhabiting the revenue land were fragmented and monoclonal, but were resistant. It may be possible that, when genetic recombination becomes at a premium due to the genetic constraints imparted by habitat fragmentation or pathogen pressure, Z. zerumbet PMID:28066470

  18. High resolution microscopy reveals significant impacts of ocean acidification and warming on larval shell development in Laternula elliptica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylenga, Christine H; Cummings, Vonda J; Ryan, Ken G

    2017-01-01

    Environmental stressors impact marine larval growth rates, quality and sizes. Larvae of the Antarctic bivalve, Laternula elliptica, were raised to the D-larvae stage under temperature and pH conditions representing ambient and end of century projections (-1.6°C to +0.4°C and pH 7.98 to 7.65). Previous observations using light microscopy suggested pH had no influence on larval abnormalities in this species. Detailed analysis of the shell using SEM showed that reduced pH is in fact a major stressor during development for this species, producing D-larvae with abnormal shapes, deformed shell edges and irregular hinges, cracked shell surfaces and even uncalcified larvae. Additionally, reduced pH increased pitting and cracking on shell surfaces. Thus, apparently normal larvae may be compromised at the ultrastructural level and these larvae would be in poor condition at settlement, reducing juvenile recruitment and overall survival. Elevated temperatures increased prodissoconch II sizes. However, the overall impacts on larval shell quality and integrity with concurrent ocean acidification would likely overshadow any beneficial results from warmer temperatures, limiting populations of this prevalent Antarctic species.

  19. Metabonomics-based analysis of Brachyspira pilosicoli's response to tiamulin reveals metabolic activity despite significant growth inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Le Roy, Caroline Ivanne; Passey, Jade Louise; Woodward, Martin John; La Ragione, Roberto Marcello; Claus, Sandrine Paule

    2017-01-01

    Pathogenic anaerobes Brachyspira spp. are responsible for an increasing number of Intestinal Spirochaetosis (IS) cases in livestock against which few approved treatments are available. Tiamulin is used to treat swine dysentery caused by Brachyspira spp. and recently has been used to handle avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS). The therapeutic dose used in chickens requires further evaluation since cases of bacterial resistance to tiamulin have been reported. In this study, we evaluated the i...

  20. High resolution microscopy reveals significant impacts of ocean acidification and warming on larval shell development in Laternula elliptica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine H Bylenga

    Full Text Available Environmental stressors impact marine larval growth rates, quality and sizes. Larvae of the Antarctic bivalve, Laternula elliptica, were raised to the D-larvae stage under temperature and pH conditions representing ambient and end of century projections (-1.6°C to +0.4°C and pH 7.98 to 7.65. Previous observations using light microscopy suggested pH had no influence on larval abnormalities in this species. Detailed analysis of the shell using SEM showed that reduced pH is in fact a major stressor during development for this species, producing D-larvae with abnormal shapes, deformed shell edges and irregular hinges, cracked shell surfaces and even uncalcified larvae. Additionally, reduced pH increased pitting and cracking on shell surfaces. Thus, apparently normal larvae may be compromised at the ultrastructural level and these larvae would be in poor condition at settlement, reducing juvenile recruitment and overall survival. Elevated temperatures increased prodissoconch II sizes. However, the overall impacts on larval shell quality and integrity with concurrent ocean acidification would likely overshadow any beneficial results from warmer temperatures, limiting populations of this prevalent Antarctic species.

  1. They’re heating up: Internet search query trends reveal significant public interest in heat-not-burn tobacco products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Theodore L.; Leas, Eric; Dredze, Mark; Cohen, Joanna E.; Ayers, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Heat-not-burn tobacco products, battery powered devices that heat leaf tobacco to approximately 500 degrees Fahrenheit to produce an inhalable aerosol, are being introduced in markets around the world. Japan, where manufacturers have marketed several heat-not-burn brands since 2014, has been the focal national test market, with the intention of developing global marketing strategies. We used Google search query data to estimate, for the first time, the scale and growth potential of heat-not-burn tobacco products. Average monthly searches for heat-not-burn products rose 1,426% (95%CI: 746,3574) between their first (2015) and second (2016) complete years on the market and an additional 100% (95%CI: 60, 173) between the products second (2016) and third years on the market (Jan-Sep 2017). There are now between 5.9 and 7.5 million heat-not-burn related Google searches in Japan each month based on September 2017 estimates. Moreover, forecasts relying on the historical trends suggest heat-not-burn searches will increase an additional 32% (95%CI: -4 to 79) during 2018, compared to current estimates for 2017 (Jan-Sep), with continued growth thereafter expected. Contrasting heat-not-burn’s rise in Japan to electronic cigarettes’ rise in the United States we find searches for heat-not-burn eclipsed electronic cigarette searches during April 2016. Moreover, the change in average monthly queries for heat-not-burn in Japan between 2015 and 2017 was 399 (95% CI: 184, 1490) times larger than the change in average monthly queries for electronic cigarettes in the Unites States over the same time period, increasing by 2,956% (95% CI: 1729, 7304) compared to only 7% (95% CI: 3,13). Our findings are a clarion call for tobacco control leaders to ready themselves as heat-not-burn tobacco products will likely garner substantial interest as they are introduced into new markets. Public health practitioners should expand heat-not-burn tobacco product surveillance, adjust existing tobacco control strategies to account for heat-not-burn tobacco products, and preemptively study the health risks/benefits, popular perceptions, and health messaging around heat-not-burn tobacco products. PMID:29020019

  2. They're heating up: Internet search query trends reveal significant public interest in heat-not-burn tobacco products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore L Caputi

    Full Text Available Heat-not-burn tobacco products, battery powered devices that heat leaf tobacco to approximately 500 degrees Fahrenheit to produce an inhalable aerosol, are being introduced in markets around the world. Japan, where manufacturers have marketed several heat-not-burn brands since 2014, has been the focal national test market, with the intention of developing global marketing strategies. We used Google search query data to estimate, for the first time, the scale and growth potential of heat-not-burn tobacco products. Average monthly searches for heat-not-burn products rose 1,426% (95%CI: 746,3574 between their first (2015 and second (2016 complete years on the market and an additional 100% (95%CI: 60, 173 between the products second (2016 and third years on the market (Jan-Sep 2017. There are now between 5.9 and 7.5 million heat-not-burn related Google searches in Japan each month based on September 2017 estimates. Moreover, forecasts relying on the historical trends suggest heat-not-burn searches will increase an additional 32% (95%CI: -4 to 79 during 2018, compared to current estimates for 2017 (Jan-Sep, with continued growth thereafter expected. Contrasting heat-not-burn's rise in Japan to electronic cigarettes' rise in the United States we find searches for heat-not-burn eclipsed electronic cigarette searches during April 2016. Moreover, the change in average monthly queries for heat-not-burn in Japan between 2015 and 2017 was 399 (95% CI: 184, 1490 times larger than the change in average monthly queries for electronic cigarettes in the Unites States over the same time period, increasing by 2,956% (95% CI: 1729, 7304 compared to only 7% (95% CI: 3,13. Our findings are a clarion call for tobacco control leaders to ready themselves as heat-not-burn tobacco products will likely garner substantial interest as they are introduced into new markets. Public health practitioners should expand heat-not-burn tobacco product surveillance, adjust existing tobacco control strategies to account for heat-not-burn tobacco products, and preemptively study the health risks/benefits, popular perceptions, and health messaging around heat-not-burn tobacco products.

  3. They're heating up: Internet search query trends reveal significant public interest in heat-not-burn tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Theodore L; Leas, Eric; Dredze, Mark; Cohen, Joanna E; Ayers, John W

    2017-01-01

    Heat-not-burn tobacco products, battery powered devices that heat leaf tobacco to approximately 500 degrees Fahrenheit to produce an inhalable aerosol, are being introduced in markets around the world. Japan, where manufacturers have marketed several heat-not-burn brands since 2014, has been the focal national test market, with the intention of developing global marketing strategies. We used Google search query data to estimate, for the first time, the scale and growth potential of heat-not-burn tobacco products. Average monthly searches for heat-not-burn products rose 1,426% (95%CI: 746,3574) between their first (2015) and second (2016) complete years on the market and an additional 100% (95%CI: 60, 173) between the products second (2016) and third years on the market (Jan-Sep 2017). There are now between 5.9 and 7.5 million heat-not-burn related Google searches in Japan each month based on September 2017 estimates. Moreover, forecasts relying on the historical trends suggest heat-not-burn searches will increase an additional 32% (95%CI: -4 to 79) during 2018, compared to current estimates for 2017 (Jan-Sep), with continued growth thereafter expected. Contrasting heat-not-burn's rise in Japan to electronic cigarettes' rise in the United States we find searches for heat-not-burn eclipsed electronic cigarette searches during April 2016. Moreover, the change in average monthly queries for heat-not-burn in Japan between 2015 and 2017 was 399 (95% CI: 184, 1490) times larger than the change in average monthly queries for electronic cigarettes in the Unites States over the same time period, increasing by 2,956% (95% CI: 1729, 7304) compared to only 7% (95% CI: 3,13). Our findings are a clarion call for tobacco control leaders to ready themselves as heat-not-burn tobacco products will likely garner substantial interest as they are introduced into new markets. Public health practitioners should expand heat-not-burn tobacco product surveillance, adjust existing tobacco control strategies to account for heat-not-burn tobacco products, and preemptively study the health risks/benefits, popular perceptions, and health messaging around heat-not-burn tobacco products.

  4. Protecting endangered species: do the main legislative tools work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Gibbs

    Full Text Available It is critical to assess the effectiveness of the tools used to protect endangered species. The main tools enabled under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA to promote species recovery are funding, recovery plan development and critical habitat designation. Earlier studies sometimes found that statistically significant effects of these tools could be detected, but they have not answered the question of whether the effects were large enough to be biologically meaningful. Here, we ask: how much does the recovery status of ESA-listed species improve with the application of these tools? We used species' staus reports to Congress from 1988 to 2006 to quantify two measures of recovery for 1179 species. We related these to the amount of federal funding, years with a recovery plan, years with critical habitat designation, the amount of peer-reviewed scientific information, and time listed. We found that change in recovery status of listed species was, at best, only very weakly related to any of these tools. Recovery was positively related to the number of years listed, years with a recovery plan, and funding, however, these tools combined explain <13% of the variation in recovery status among species. Earlier studies that reported significant effects of these tools did not focus on effect sizes; however, they are in fact similarly small. One must conclude either that these tools are not very effective in promoting species' recovery, or (as we suspect that species recovery data are so poor that it is impossible to tell whether the tools are effective or not. It is critically important to assess the effectiveness of tools used to promote species recovery; it is therefore also critically important to obtain population status data that are adequate to that task.

  5. Protecting Endangered Species: Do the Main Legislative Tools Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Katherine E.; Currie, David J.

    2012-01-01

    It is critical to assess the effectiveness of the tools used to protect endangered species. The main tools enabled under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) to promote species recovery are funding, recovery plan development and critical habitat designation. Earlier studies sometimes found that statistically significant effects of these tools could be detected, but they have not answered the question of whether the effects were large enough to be biologically meaningful. Here, we ask: how much does the recovery status of ESA-listed species improve with the application of these tools? We used species' staus reports to Congress from 1988 to 2006 to quantify two measures of recovery for 1179 species. We related these to the amount of federal funding, years with a recovery plan, years with critical habitat designation, the amount of peer-reviewed scientific information, and time listed. We found that change in recovery status of listed species was, at best, only very weakly related to any of these tools. Recovery was positively related to the number of years listed, years with a recovery plan, and funding, however, these tools combined explain species. Earlier studies that reported significant effects of these tools did not focus on effect sizes; however, they are in fact similarly small. One must conclude either that these tools are not very effective in promoting species' recovery, or (as we suspect) that species recovery data are so poor that it is impossible to tell whether the tools are effective or not. It is critically important to assess the effectiveness of tools used to promote species recovery; it is therefore also critically important to obtain population status data that are adequate to that task. PMID:22567111

  6. Stable Isotopic Shifts in Fish Bones from Multiple Archeological Coastal Middens in Penobscot Bay, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C.; Johnson, B.; Ambrose, W. G.; Bourque, B.; Dostie, P.; Crowley, E.

    2010-12-01

    The carbon and nitrogen stable isotope compositions of collagen extracted from well-preserved archeological fish bones has the potential to provide useful information on fish diets and food web dynamics over time. Previous work on the Turner Farm archaeological site in Penobscot Bay, Gulf of Maine, reveals significant shifts in fish diets have occurred since European colonization (post 1620’s). The objective of the present study was to analyze samples from other archaeological sites within Penobscot Bay to characterize the spatial extent of the isotopic shift measured at Turner Farm. Stratified cod, flounder, and sculpin bones were analyzed from eight coastal middens located approximately 50km apart from one another within Penobscot Bay. The bones were sampled from three time horizons (0kya, 0.5-1kya, and 2.2-2.4kya). All bone samples were demineralized in 0.2M HCl at 4°C for 2 to 7 days and then extracted in 0.25M NaOH at 4°C for 1 to 2 hours. After freeze-drying, the bulk isotopic composition of each sample was analyzed using the EA-IRMS. In all stratigraphic horizons analyzed, cod were more enriched in δ13C and δ15N than sculpin, and flounder were the most depleted in δ13C and δ15N . However, the isotopic offsets between the fish species decreased from 2.4kya to the present. The nitrogen isotope composition was relatively constant over time and space for all species, implying that trophic levels for the fishes analyzed have not changed significantly in Penobscot Bay for the last 2,400 years. The carbon isotope composition also appears to be constant spatially in Penobscot Bay, however, the modern signal was more depleted than the paleo signal in all three species. The difference between the modern and paleo δ13C is ~5‰ for cod and flounder, and ~9‰ for sculpin. These shifts may, in part, be explained by decreases in both primary producer and prey species diversity, as kelp forests replace eelgrass beds in the Gulf of Maine.

  7. Retraining of the 1232 Main Dipole Magnets in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Verweij, A; Bednarek, M; Bottura, L; Charifoulline, Z; Feher, S; Hagen, P; Modena, M; Le Naour, S; Romera, I; Siemko, A; Steckert, J; Tock, J Ph; Todesco, E; Willering, G; Wollmann, D

    2016-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) contains eight main dipole circuits, each of them with 154 dipole magnets powered in series. These 15-m-long magnets are wound from Nb-Ti superconducting Rutherford cables, and have active quench detection triggering heaters to quickly force the transition of the coil to the normal conducting state in case of a quench, and hence reduce the hot spot temperature. During the reception tests in 2002-2007, all these magnets have been trained up to at least 12 kA, corresponding to a beam energy of 7.1 TeV. After installation in the accelerator, the circuits have been operated at reduced currents of up to 6.8 kA, from 2010 to 2013, corresponding to a beam energy of 4 TeV. After the first long shutdown of 2013-2014, the LHC runs at 6.5 TeV, requiring a dipole magnet current of 11.0 kA. A significant number of training quenches were needed to bring the 1232 magnets up to this current. In this paper, the circuit behavior in case of a quench is presented, as well as the quench training as...

  8. Main-belt Asteroids in the K2 Uranus Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, L.; Pál, A.; Sárneczky, K.; Szabó, R.; Vinkó, J.; Szabó, Gy. M.; Kiss, Cs.; Hanyecz, O.; Marton, G.; Kiss, L. L.

    2018-02-01

    We present the K2 light curves of a large sample of untargeted main-belt asteroids (MBAs) detected with the Kepler Space Telescope. The asteroids were observed within the Uranus superstamp, a relatively large, continuous field with a low stellar background designed to cover the planet Uranus and its moons during Campaign 8 of the K2 mission. The superstamp offered the possibility of obtaining precise, uninterrupted light curves of a large number of MBAs and thus determining unambiguous rotation rates for them. We obtained photometry for 608 MBAs, and were able to determine or estimate rotation rates for 90 targets, of which 86 had no known values before. In an additional 16 targets we detected incomplete cycles and/or eclipse-like events. We found the median rotation rate to be significantly longer than that of the ground-based observations, indicating that the latter are biased toward shorter rotation rates. Our study highlights the need and benefits of further continuous photometry of asteroids.

  9. Main considerations for modelling a station blackout scenario with trace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Querol, Andrea; Turégano, Jara; Lorduy, María; Gallardo, Sergio; Verdú, Gumersindo

    2017-01-01

    In the nuclear safety field, the thermal hydraulic phenomena that take place during an accident in a nuclear power plant is of special importance. One of the most studied accidents is the Station BlackOut (SBO). The aim of the present work is the analysis of the PKL integral test facility nodalization using the thermal-hydraulic code TRACE5 to reproduce a SBO accidental scenario. The PKL facility reproduces the main components of the primary and secondary systems of its reference nuclear power plant (Philippsburg II). The results obtained with different nodalization have been compared: 3D vessel vs 1D vessel, Steam Generator (SG) modelling using PIPE or TEE components and pressurizer modelling with PIPE or PRIZER components. Both vessel nodalization (1D vessel and 3D vessel) reproduce the physical phenomena of the experiment. However, there are significant discrepancies between them. The appropriate modelling of the SG is also relevant in the results. Regarding the other nodalization (PIPE or TEE components for SG and PIPE or PRIZER components for pressurizer), do not produce relevant differences in the results. (author)

  10. Retraining of the 1232 Main Dipole Magnets in the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verweij, A. [CERN; Auchmann, B.; Bednarek, M.; Bottura, L.; Charifoulline, Z.; Feher, S. [Fermilab; Hagen, P.; Modena, M.; Le Naour, S.; Romera, I.; Siemko, A.; Steckert, J.; Tock, J. Ph; Todesco, E.; Willering, G.; Wollmann, D.

    2016-01-05

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) contains eight main dipole circuits, each of them with 154 dipole magnets powered in series. These 15-m-long magnets are wound from Nb-Ti superconducting Rutherford cables, and have active quench detection triggering heaters to quickly force the transition of the coil to the normal conducting state in case of a quench, and hence reduce the hot spot temperature. During the reception tests in 2002-2007, all these magnets have been trained up to at least 12 kA, corresponding to a beam energy of 7.1 TeV. After installation in the accelerator, the circuits have been operated at reduced currents of up to 6.8 kA, from 2010 to 2013, corresponding to a beam energy of 4 TeV. After the first long shutdown of 2013-2014, the LHC runs at 6.5 TeV, requiring a dipole magnet current of 11.0 kA. A significant number of training quenches were needed to bring the 1232 magnets up to this current. In this paper, the circuit behavior in case of a quench is presented, as well as the quench training as compared to the initial training during the reception tests of the individual magnets.

  11. Main photoautotrophic components of biofilms in natural draft cooling towers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Tomáš; Čapek, Petr; Böhmová, Petra

    2016-05-01

    While photoautotrophic organisms are an important component of biofilms that live in certain regions of natural draft cooling towers, little is known about these communities. We therefore examined 18 towers at nine sites to identify the general patterns of community assembly in three distinct tower parts, and we examined how community structures differ depending on geography. We also compared the newly acquired data with previously published data. The bottom sections of draft cooling towers are mainly settled by large filamentous algae, primarily Cladophora glomerata. The central portions of towers host a small amount of planktic algae biomass originating in the cooling water. The upper fourths of towers are colonized by biofilms primarily dominated by cyanobacteria, e.g., members of the genera Gloeocapsa and Scytonema. A total of 41 taxa of phototrophic microorganisms were identified. Species composition of the upper fourth of all towers was significantly affected by cardinal position. There was different species composition at positions facing north compared to positions facing south. West- and east-facing positions were transitory and highly similar to each other in terms of species composition. Biofilms contribute to the degradation of paint coatings inside towers.

  12. Cardiovascular Health and Arterial Stiffness: The Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Robbins, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Ideal cardiovascular health is a recently defined construct by the American Heart Association (AHA) to promote cardiovascular disease reduction. Arterial stiffness is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The extent to which the presence of multiple prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors is associated with arterial stiffness is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the AHA construct of cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. The AHA health metrics, comprising of four health behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and diet) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were evaluated among 505 participants in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Outcome measures were carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure measured at 4 to 5-year follow-up. Better cardiovascular health, comprising both health factors and behaviors, was associated with lower arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. Those with at least five health metrics at ideal levels had significantly lower PWV (9.8 m/s) than those with two or less ideal health metrics (11.7 m/s) (P<0.001). This finding remained with the addition of demographic and PWV-related variables (P=0.004). PMID:24384629

  13. Main considerations for modelling a station blackout scenario with trace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, Andrea; Turégano, Jara; Lorduy, María; Gallardo, Sergio; Verdú, Gumersindo, E-mail: anquevi@upv.es, E-mail: jaturna@upv.es, E-mail: maloral@upv.es, E-mail: sergalbe@iqn.upv.es, E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es [Instituto Universitario de Seguridad Industrial, Radiofísica y Medioambiental (ISIRYM), Universitat Politècnica de València (Spain)

    2017-07-01

    In the nuclear safety field, the thermal hydraulic phenomena that take place during an accident in a nuclear power plant is of special importance. One of the most studied accidents is the Station BlackOut (SBO). The aim of the present work is the analysis of the PKL integral test facility nodalization using the thermal-hydraulic code TRACE5 to reproduce a SBO accidental scenario. The PKL facility reproduces the main components of the primary and secondary systems of its reference nuclear power plant (Philippsburg II). The results obtained with different nodalization have been compared: 3D vessel vs 1D vessel, Steam Generator (SG) modelling using PIPE or TEE components and pressurizer modelling with PIPE or PRIZER components. Both vessel nodalization (1D vessel and 3D vessel) reproduce the physical phenomena of the experiment. However, there are significant discrepancies between them. The appropriate modelling of the SG is also relevant in the results. Regarding the other nodalization (PIPE or TEE components for SG and PIPE or PRIZER components for pressurizer), do not produce relevant differences in the results. (author)

  14. Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals widespread full phosphorylation site occupancy during mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Martin Lee; Brunak, Søren; Olsen, JV

    2010-01-01

    and phosphorylation sites were grouped according to their cell cycle kinetics and compared to publicly available messenger RNA microarray data. Most detected phosphorylation sites and more than 20% of all quantified proteins showed substantial regulation, mainly in mitotic cells. Kinase-motif analysis revealed global...

  15. Regularities of socially significant functions formation in pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrebniak N.P.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article focused on the results of carried out research of the functional state of the pupils’ organism in a process of edu­cational activity. It has been shown that formative influence of activity is manifested on the different levels of develop­ment of socially important functions: the actual developmental zone (priority development of indicators, which have the main significance in the activity and the proximal developmental zone (tendency of activation of the key functions.

  16. The Significance of Loyalty on Consumer Credit Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Aditya Galih Prihartono; Ujang Sumarwan; Noer Azam Achsani; Kirbrandoko

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze and test the effect of customer loyalty on consumer credit profitability. Loyalty Index Score was developed to determine the level of customers’ loyalty level through 4 main variables; Longevity, Depth, Breadth and Referrals. The effect of Loyalty Index Score on profitability was further tested by path analysis to find out the significance direct relationship between loyalty and profitablity and the indirect relationship between the two variable th...

  17. Assessment of the nuclear installation's safety significant events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidican, D.

    2005-01-01

    This document tries to establish, based on the available documentation, the main steps in development of Assessment of the Events in Nuclear Installations. It takes into account: selection of the safety significant occurrences, establishing the direct cause and contributors as well as the root cause and contributors. Also, the document presents the necessary corrective actions and generic lessons to be learned from the event. The document is based especially on IAEA - ASSET guidelines and DOE root cause analysis Guidance. (author)

  18. A Survey of Electronic Serials Managers Reveals Diversity in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Costello

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Branscome, B. A. (2013. Management of electronic serials in academic libraries: The results of an online survey. Serials Review, 39(4, 216-226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.serrev.2013.10.004 Abstract Objective – To examine industry standards for the management of electronic serials and measure the adoption of electronic serials over print. Design – Survey questionnaire. Setting – Email lists aimed at academic librarians working in serials management. Subjects – 195 self-selected subscribers to serials email lists. Methods – The author created a 20 question survey that consisted primarily of closed-ended questions pertaining to the collection demographics, staff, budget, and tools of serials management groups in academic libraries. The survey was conducted via Survey Monkey and examined using the analytical features of the tool. Participants remained anonymous and the survey questions did not ask them to reveal identifiable information about their libraries. Main Results – Collection demographics questions revealed that 78% of surveyed librarians estimated that print-only collections represented 40% or fewer of their serials holdings. The author observed diversity in the factors that influence print to digital transitions in academic libraries. However 71.5% of participants indicated that publisher technology support like IP authentication was required before adopting digital subscriptions. A lack of standardization also marked serials workflows, department responsibilities, and department titles. The author did not find a correlation between serials budget and the enrollment size of the institution. Participants reported that they used tools from popular serials management vendors like Serials Solutions, Innovative Interfaces, EBSCO, and Ex Libris, but most indicated that they used more than one tool for serials management. Participants specified 52 unique serials management products used in their libraries. Conclusion

  19. Main - RPSD | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ... as rice. Data file File name: rpsd_main_sjis.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/rpsd/LATEST/r.../ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/rpsd/LATEST/rpsd_main_utf8.zip File size: 120 KB Simple search URL http://togo...nse Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Main - RPSD | LSDB Archive ...

  20. Methodology, theoretical framework and scholarly significance: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology, theoretical framework and scholarly significance: An overview ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... Keywords: Legal Research, Methodology, Theory, Pedagogy, Legal Training, Scholarship ...

  1. Impact significance determination-Pushing the boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, David P.

    2007-01-01

    Impact significance determination practice tends to be highly variable. Too often insufficient consideration is given to good practice insights. Also, impact significance determinations are frequently narrowly defined addressing, for example, only individual, negative impacts, focusing on bio-physical impacts, and not seeking to integrate either the Precautionary Principle or sustainability. This article seeks to extend the boundaries of impact significance determination practice by providing an overview of good general impact significance practices, together with stakeholder roles and potential methods for addressing significance determination challenges. Relevant thresholds, criteria, contextual considerations and support methods are also highlighted. The analysis is then extended to address how impact significance determination practices change for positive as compared with negative impacts, for cumulative as compared with individual impacts, for socio-economic as compared with bio-physical impacts, when the Precautionary Principle is integrated into the process, and when sustainability contributions drive the EIA process and related impact significance determinations. These refinements can assist EIA practitioners in ensuring that the scope and nature of impact significance determinations reflect the broadened scope of emerging EIA requirements and practices. Suggestions are included for further refining and testing of the proposed changes to impact significance determination practice

  2. Regionally Significant Ecological Areas - MLCCS derived 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  3. Central Region Regionally Ecological Significant Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  4. High Precision Current Control for the LHC Main Power Converters

    CERN Document Server

    Thiesen, H; Hudson, G; King, Q; Montabonnet, V; Nisbet, D; Page, S

    2010-01-01

    Since restarting at the end of 2009, the LHC has reached a new energy record in March 2010 with the two 3.5 TeV beams. To achieve the performance required for the good functioning of the accelerator, the currents in the main circuits (Main Bends and Main Quadrupoles) must be controlled with a higher precision than ever previously requested for a particle accelerator at CERN: a few parts per million (ppm) of nominal current. This paper describes the different challenges that were overcome to achieve the required precision for the current control of the main circuits. Precision tests performed during the hardware commissioning of the LHC illustrate this paper.

  5. Training of professional interpreters in Cuba: Its main historic backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Oliveros-Domínguez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation of interpreters in Cuba has as its main goal to train a professional who is able to mediate among Spanish speakers and not-Spanish speakers in our historic situation. This research article aims to analyze the main backgrounds of interpretation teaching at Universidad de Oriente, taking into account its dynamics and the didactic treatment of the cognitive factors involved in the interpretation process. This enables to deepen into the main characteristics of the process, through a study of short-term memory training and the didactic devices used for its improvement; and establish three main stages in the evolution.

  6. [Surgical angioplasty of the left main coronary artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranes, Mile; Velinović, Milos; Kocica, Mladen; Mikić, Aleksandar; Velimirović, Dusan; Djukić, Petar

    2010-01-01

    The conventional treatment for isolated stenosis of the left main coronary artery is bypass surgery (myocardial revascularization). However, the process of atherosclerosis is not arrested by myocardial revascularization and it will lead to the occlusion of the left main coronary artery. Revascularization will establish retrograde perfusion for 50-70% of the myocardium of the left ventricle. Direct surgical angioplasty of the left main coronary artery enables normal physiological perfusion of the whole myocardium and better myocardial function. The aim of our study is to point out a new surgical approach of treating left main coronary artery stenosis. Between October 2002 and October 2003, direct surgical angioplasty of the main left coronary artery was performed on three patients with isolated stenosis of the left main coronary artery using the anterior approach and the pericardium as a patch. The procedure was performed under total endotracheal anaesthesia and standard cardiopulmonary circulation, moderate hypothermia, anterograde St. Tomas cardioplegia and local cooling. Patients were followed clinically, echocardiographically and by load-tests. All three patients were without complications. In postoperative follow-up (54-68 months) neither angina pectoris nor electrocardiographically registered ischaemic changes were found. Load-tests performed every six months on all three patients were negative. Surgical angioplasty of isolated stenosis of the left main coronary artery is a preferred method for treating this type of coronary disease. Contraindications for this type of treatment are stenosis of the left main coronary artery with bifurcation and advanced calcification of the left main coronary artery.

  7. SUPERVISION OF CREDIT INSTITUTIONS SIGNIFICANT RISKS TO FINANCIAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIAN-ION MEDAR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial stability of Romanian banking system is determined by the constant supervision of credit institutions significant risks. Accession of Romania to Union Banking requires the signing of a linked protocol between the central bank and European Central Bank regarding prudential supervision to ensure financial stability. This means that from the next year, the central bank will impose a new supervision of credit institutions in our country. And especially to those credit institutions that do not fall under European supervisors, according to the procedures of the ECB. Through this study we propose to specify the main elements of management of significant risks to ensure financial stability.

  8. The Investigation of the Patent Resources of Main Provincial Academies of Sciences and Its Management

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng Jing

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose/significance] The provincial academy of sciences is an important part of national-wide scientific academies and regional innovation system. Promoting the transformation of the intellectual property is an important work for provincial academy of sciences. Nobody has ever revealed the status of the intellectual property resources and its management strategy of the provincial academy of sciences. [Method/process] With the methods of bibliometrics and investigations, this paper revealed ...

  9. Health risk assessment of China’s main air pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Sun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the rapid development of China’s economy, air pollution has attracted public concern because of its harmful effects on health. Methods The source apportioning of air pollution, the spatial distribution characteristics, and the relationship between atmospheric contamination, and the risk of exposure were explored. The in situ daily concentrations of the principal air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3 were obtained from 188 main cities with many continuous air-monitoring stations across China (2014 and 2015. Results The results indicate positive correlations between PM2.5 and SO2 (R 2 = 0.395/0.404, P  0.05 for both 2014 and 2015. Additionally, a significant relationship between SO2, NO2, and CO was discovered using regression analysis (P < 0.0001, indicating that the origin of air pollutants is likely to be vehicle exhaust, coal consumption, and biomass open-burning. For the spatial pattern of air pollutants, we found that the highest concentration of SO2, NO2, and CO were mainly distributed in north China (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei regions, Shandong, Shanxi and Henan provinces, part of Xinjiang and central Inner Mongolia (2014 and 2015. Conclusions The highest concentration and risk of PM2.5 was observed in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei economic belts, and Shandong, Henan, Shanxi, Hubei and Anhui provinces. Nevertheless, the highest concentration of O3 was irregularly distributed in most areas of China. A high-risk distribution of PM10, SO2 and NO2 was also observed in these regions, with the high risk of PM10 and NO2 observed in the Hebei and Shandong province, and high-risk of PM10 in Urumchi. The high-risk of NO2 distributed in Beijing-Yangtze River Delta region-Pearl River Delta region-central. Although atmospheric contamination slightly improved in 2015 compared to 2014, humanity faces the challenge of reducing the environmental and public health effects of air pollution by altering the present

  10. Sensitivity to the Main Allergens in Children with Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.D. Kuznietsova

    2015-11-01

    Objective of the research — to study hypersensitivity to the main allergens in children with allergic diseases based on the results of skin allergy testing, as well as to analyze the structure of diseases. Materials and methods. We have examined 228 children using skin prick testing, the estimation of results was conducted 25–40 minutes after performing the test. Associations between the results of skin prick test with various allergens were studied using cross-correlation analysis in the package of applied statistics Statistics 6.0. Results. 85.5 % of children were sensitized to the pollen allergens, domestic — 54 %, food — 21 %, fungal allergens — 35 %. Among pollen plants, there prevails sensitization to ambrosia — 47.8 %, sunflower — 49.5 %, cyclachaena — 38.5 %; among domestic allergens — to the tick species D.рteronyssinus and D.farinae — 24 %, cat hair — 19.7 %, among fungal — to Alternaria (23 %. Most often hyperergic reaction (papule diameter ≥ 8 mm was observed to cyclachaena (44 %, sunflower (46 %, ambrosia (50 %, cat hair (42 %, D.farinae (39 %. We have established significant (р < 0.05 correlations of mainly middle strength between positive prick-tests in pairs: ambrosia — cyclachaena (r = +0.43, ambrosia — sunflower (r = +0.43, acarus D.рteronyssinus — D.farinae (r = +0.66, mixture «birch, alder, oak, hazel» — ryegrass (r = +0.53, beef meat — egg yolk (r = +0.42, pork meat — chicken meat (r = +0.35, milk (r = +0.36, wool of sheep — pork (r = +0.36. Conclusion. Predominance of sensitization to pollen allergens represents the epidemiological situation in the South region of Ukraine. The presence of correlations between the different types of allergens indicates the cross reactions between them. In case of multiple positive results of skin allergen tests, the study using molecular allergy diagnostic method is recommended to establish genuine or cross allergy.

  11. Healthy way of life - the main condition of teenager's deviant behaviour prevention (historical aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budagjans G.N.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article is examined the scientific approaches to the notions healthy way of life, deviant, groups of social risk, difficulty to be brought up, delinquency. The main components and elements of healthy way of life are revealed (rational work-rest cycle, healthy eating, physical activity, personal hygiene, absence of bad habits. The paramount importance of the arrangement of extracurricular and out-of-school work for healthy way of life formation for deviant teenagers is underlined.

  12. The thresholds for statistical and clinical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian; Winkel, Per

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thresholds for statistical significance are insufficiently demonstrated by 95% confidence intervals or P-values when assessing results from randomised clinical trials. First, a P-value only shows the probability of getting a result assuming that the null hypothesis is true and does...... not reflect the probability of getting a result assuming an alternative hypothesis to the null hypothesis is true. Second, a confidence interval or a P-value showing significance may be caused by multiplicity. Third, statistical significance does not necessarily result in clinical significance. Therefore...... of the probability that a given trial result is compatible with a 'null' effect (corresponding to the P-value) divided by the probability that the trial result is compatible with the intervention effect hypothesised in the sample size calculation; (3) adjust the confidence intervals and the statistical significance...

  13. What if there were no significance tests?

    CERN Document Server

    Harlow, Lisa L; Steiger, James H

    2013-01-01

    This book is the result of a spirited debate stimulated by a recent meeting of the Society of Multivariate Experimental Psychology. Although the viewpoints span a range of perspectives, the overriding theme that emerges states that significance testing may still be useful if supplemented with some or all of the following -- Bayesian logic, caution, confidence intervals, effect sizes and power, other goodness of approximation measures, replication and meta-analysis, sound reasoning, and theory appraisal and corroboration. The book is organized into five general areas. The first presents an overview of significance testing issues that sythesizes the highlights of the remainder of the book. The next discusses the debate in which significance testing should be rejected or retained. The third outlines various methods that may supplement current significance testing procedures. The fourth discusses Bayesian approaches and methods and the use of confidence intervals versus significance tests. The last presents the p...

  14. The Significance of Effective Leadership in Organisations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽闻

    2017-01-01

    This essay will study leadership by critically analysing several key theories; it will begin with the concept of leadership to facility an understanding of the subject. Initially, the description of leadership in organisations will be explored to present the development of leadership, and simultaneously identify the purpose of effective leadership. Subse-quently, the demand for good leaders in current business environment will be discussed in order to identify the importance of effective lead-ership. Finally, an empirical case will be discussed to reveal how well the key theories help leaders to address various issues in organisations.

  15. Transparency masters for mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1980-01-01

    Transparency Masters for Mathematics Revealed focuses on master diagrams that can be used for transparencies for an overhead projector or duplicator masters for worksheets. The book offers information on a compilation of master diagrams prepared by John R. Stafford, Jr., audiovisual supervisor at the University of Missouri at Kansas City. Some of the transparencies are designed to be shown horizontally. The initial three masters are number lines and grids that can be used in a mathematics course, while the others are adaptations of text figures which are slightly altered in some instances. The

  16. Fish mucus metabolome reveals fish life-history traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverter, M.; Sasal, P.; Banaigs, B.; Lecchini, D.; Lecellier, G.; Tapissier-Bontemps, N.

    2017-06-01

    Fish mucus has important biological and ecological roles such as defense against fish pathogens and chemical mediation among several species. A non-targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomic approach was developed to study gill mucus of eight butterflyfish species in Moorea (French Polynesia), and the influence of several fish traits (geographic site and reef habitat, species taxonomy, phylogeny, diet and parasitism levels) on the metabolic variability was investigated. A biphasic extraction yielding two fractions (polar and apolar) was used. Fish diet (obligate corallivorous, facultative corallivorous or omnivorous) arose as the main driver of the metabolic differences in the gill mucus in both fractions, accounting for 23% of the observed metabolic variability in the apolar fraction and 13% in the polar fraction. A partial least squares discriminant analysis allowed us to identify the metabolites (variable important in projection, VIP) driving the differences between fish with different diets (obligate corallivores, facultative corallivores and omnivorous). Using accurate mass data and fragmentation data, we identified some of these VIP as glycerophosphocholines, ceramides and fatty acids. Level of monogenean gill parasites was the second most important factor shaping the gill mucus metabolome, and it explained 10% of the metabolic variability in the polar fraction and 5% in the apolar fraction. A multiple regression tree revealed that the metabolic variability due to parasitism in the polar fraction was mainly due to differences between non-parasitized and parasitized fish. Phylogeny and butterflyfish species were factors contributing significantly to the metabolic variability of the apolar fraction (10 and 3%, respectively) but had a less pronounced effect in the polar fraction. Finally, geographic site and reef habitat of butterflyfish species did not influence the gill mucus metabolome of butterflyfishes.

  17. Main-, minor- and trace elements distribution in human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoeger, N.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Jokubonis, C.; Pepponi, G.; Roschger, P.; Bohic, S.; Osterode, W.

    2004-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is known to induce adverse health effects in humans. In fact, cognitive deficits are repeatedly described with Pb exposure, but little is known about the distribution of lead in brain. Measurements of the distribution of Pb in human brain and to study if Pb is associated with the distribution of other chemical elements such as zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) is of great interest and could reveal some hints about the metabolism of Pb in brain. To determine the local distribution of lead (Pb) and other trace elements x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) measurements have been performed, using a microbeam setup and highest flux synchrotron radiation. Experiments have been carried out at ID-22, ESRF, Grenoble, France. The installed microprobe setup provides a monochromatic beam (17 keV) from an undulator station focused by Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray optics to a spot size of 5 μm x 3μm. Brain slices (20 μm thickness, imbedded in paraffin and mounted on Kapton foils) from areas of the frontal cortex, thalamus and hippocampus have been investigated. Generally no significant increase in fluorescence intensities could be detected in one of the investigated brain compartments. However Pb and other (trace) elements (e.g. S, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br) could be detected in all samples and showed strong inhomogeneities across the analyzed areas. While S, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br could be clearly assigned to the investigated brain structures (vessels, etc.) Pb showed a very different behavior. In some cases (e.g. plexus choroidei) Pb was located at the walls of the vessel, whereas with other structures (e.g. blood vessel) this correlation was not found. Moreover, the detected Pb in different brain areas was individually correlated with various elements. The local distribution of the detected elements in various brain structures will be discussed in this work. (author)

  18. Nuclear energy significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprda, V.

    2006-01-01

    This article is devoted to nuclear energy, to its acceptability, compatibility and sustainability. Nuclear energy is non-dispensable part of energy sources with vast innovation potential. The safety of nuclear energy, radioactive waste deposition, and prevention of risk from misuse of nuclear material have to be very seriously adjudged and solved. Nuclear energy is one of the ways how to decrease the contamination of atmosphere with carbon dioxide and it solves partially also the problem of global increase of temperature and climate changes. Given are the main factors responsible for the renaissance of nuclear energy. (author)

  19. PRISMA/DB: A Parallel Main-Memory Relational DBMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apers, Peter M.G.; Flokstra, Jan; van den Berg, Carel A.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Wilschut, A.N.; Kersten, Martin L.; van den Berg, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    PRISMA/DB, a full-fledged parallel, main memory relational database management system (DBMS) is described. PRISMA/DB's high performance is obtained by the use of parallelism for query processing and main memory storage of the entire database. A flexible architecture for experimenting with

  20. Main - KOME | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...ntents List of datasets Data file File name: kome_main.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/kome...ase Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Main - KOME | LSDB Archive ...