Ehlers, Bodil; Bataillon, Thomas
. Depending on the genetics of sex determination, we found pure dioecy, stable subdioecy (trioecy), and situations where inconstant males coexisted with either pure females or pure males. Under selfing and pollen limitation, certain conditions selected for inconstant males which will drive populations......Here, we evaluate the role of pollen limitation and selfing in the maintenance of labile sex expression in subdioecious plant species. We used a literature survey to explore which factors correlated with a significant occurrence of hermaphrodites in dioecious species. We developed models to explore...... the selective maintenance of labile sex expression. The models had similar ecological assumptions but differed in the genetic basis of sex lability. We found that a significant frequency of hermaphrodites was associated with animal pollination, and that hermaphrodites were ‘inconstant' males with perfect...
Full Text Available Sex-ratio bias in seeds of dioecious Rumex species with sex chromosomes is an interesting and still unsettled issue. To resolve gender among seeds of R. acetosa and R. thyrsiflorus (two species with an XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system, this work applied a PCR-based method involving DNA markers located on Y chromosomes. Both species showed female-biased primary sex ratios, with female bias greater in R. acetosa than in R. thyrsiflorus. The observed predominance of female seeds is consistent with the view that the female biased sex ratios in Rumex are conditioned not only postzygotically but also prezygotically.
Jennifer L Anderson
Full Text Available Within vertebrates, major sex determining genes can differ among taxa and even within species. In zebrafish (Danio rerio, neither heteromorphic sex chromosomes nor single sex determination genes of large effect, like Sry in mammals, have yet been identified. Furthermore, environmental factors can influence zebrafish sex determination. Although progress has been made in understanding zebrafish gonad differentiation (e.g. the influence of germ cells on gonad fate, the primary genetic basis of zebrafish sex determination remains poorly understood. To identify genetic loci associated with sex, we analyzed F(2 offspring of reciprocal crosses between Oregon *AB and Nadia (NA wild-type zebrafish stocks. Genome-wide linkage analysis, using more than 5,000 sequence-based polymorphic restriction site associated (RAD-tag markers and population genomic analysis of more than 30,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms in our *ABxNA crosses revealed a sex-associated locus on the end of the long arm of chr-4 for both cross families, and an additional locus in the middle of chr-3 in one cross family. Additional sequencing showed that two SNPs in dmrt1 previously suggested to be functional candidates for sex determination in a cross of ABxIndia wild-type zebrafish, are not associated with sex in our AB fish. Our data show that sex determination in zebrafish is polygenic and that different genes may influence sex determination in different strains or that different genes become more important under different environmental conditions. The association of the end of chr-4 with sex is remarkable because, unique in the karyotype, this chromosome arm shares features with known sex chromosomes: it is highly heterochromatic, repetitive, late replicating, and has reduced recombination. Our results reveal that chr-4 has functional and structural properties expected of a sex chromosome.
Full Text Available Baseado na experiência de um usuário chamado Antônio, pretendo mostrar as ambiguidades de uma comunidade terapêutica destinada a promover a abstinência em dependentes químicos. O objetivo é pensar a inconstância do tratamento e o modo como indivíduos e instituição lidavam com incertezas e dúvidas. Antônio deixou de usar “drogas”, voltou a estudar e começou a trabalhar. E a instituição mantém sua metodologia, reelaborando discursivamente estas inconstâncias. Pretendo contribuir com a literatura sobre instituições totais e lançar luz sobre um universo que tem muito a nos dizer sobre um tipo de tratamento conferido a usuários de “drogas” no país. Based on the experience of a patient called Antônio, Inconsistent treatment in a therapeutic community intends to show the ambiguities within an institutionaimed at guiding drug addicts to abstinence. The objective is to review the inconsistency in the treatment and the way in which individuals and the institution dealt with uncertainties and doubts. Antônio stopped using drugs, returned to school and started working. The institution maintains its methodology, discursively revising these inconsistencies. I discuss total institutions and shed light on a universe that has a lot to tell us about a kind of treatment given to drug users in Brazil.
Full Text Available The paper examines the issue of inconstancy and academic exclusion of the term mentality, which occur despite a long history of its being studied by several scholarly disciplines and a broad usage in various public spheres. Being of the opinion that, in the academic sense, the term mentality is like a sinking river - intermittently present and absent - the authoress reminds us of dominant paradigms of mentality studies, both the ones that use the term and those that rejected it, but nevertheless addressing it from the perspective of contemporary theoretical concepts and under different names. Apart from the academic exclusion, the necessity for developing a more adequate analytical approach lies in the instrumental-associative potentials of mentality-related contents in their political and propagandist usage, as well as in their adaptability to different forms and means of communication. In the opposite case, by avoiding themes and phenomena that are not in academic fashion, we deprive ourselves of the knowledge of the academic community that creates that fashion and the apparent status quo. Similarly, in case of ceasing to question narratives on mentality properties, we deprive ourselves of the knowledge of communities that create such narratives and their interest derived from the placement of such narratives.
DeLong, L.; Plenefisch, J. D.; Klein, R. D.; Meyer, B. J.
In Caenorhabditis elegans, sex determination and dosage compensation are coordinately controlled through a group of genes that respond to the primary sex determination signal. Here we describe a new gene, sdc-3, that also controls these processes. In contrast to previously described genes, the sex determination and dosage compensation activities of sdc-3 are separately mutable, indicating that they function independently. Paradoxically, the sdc-3 null phenotype fails to reveal the role of sdc...
Sheng, Yue; Zhao, Wei; Song, Ying; Li, Zhigang; Luo, Majing; Lei, Quan; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia
A variety of mechanisms are engaged in sex determination in vertebrates. The teleost fish swamp eel undergoes sex reversal naturally and is an ideal model for vertebrate sexual development. However, the importance of proteome-wide scanning for gonad reversal was not previously determined. We report a 2-D electrophoresis analysis of three gonad types of proteomes during sex reversal. MS/MS analysis revealed a group of differentially expressed proteins during ovary to ovotestis to testis transf...
Baker, Joseph M.; Liu, Ning; Cui, Xu; Vrticka, Pascal; Saggar, Manish; Hosseini, S. M. Hadi; Reiss, Allan L.
Researchers from multiple fields have sought to understand how sex moderates human social behavior. While over 50 years of research has revealed differences in cooperation behavior of males and females, the underlying neural correlates of these sex differences have not been explained. A missing and fundamental element of this puzzle is an understanding of how the sex composition of an interacting dyad influences the brain and behavior during cooperation. Using fNIRS-based hyperscanning in 111 same- and mixed-sex dyads, we identified significant behavioral and neural sex-related differences in association with a computer-based cooperation task. Dyads containing at least one male demonstrated significantly higher behavioral performance than female/female dyads. Individual males and females showed significant activation in the right frontopolar and right inferior prefrontal cortices, although this activation was greater in females compared to males. Female/female dyad’s exhibited significant inter-brain coherence within the right temporal cortex, while significant coherence in male/male dyads occurred in the right inferior prefrontal cortex. Significant coherence was not observed in mixed-sex dyads. Finally, for same-sex dyads only, task-related inter-brain coherence was positively correlated with cooperation task performance. Our results highlight multiple important and previously undetected influences of sex on concurrent neural and behavioral signatures of cooperation. PMID:27270754
Li, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Zhang, Xue-Jin; Yuan, Jin-Hong; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Gao, Wu-Jun
Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a highly valuable vegetable crop of commercial and nutritional interest. It is also commonly used to investigate the mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation in plants. However, the sex expression mechanisms in asparagus remain poorly understood. De novo transcriptome sequencing via Illumina paired-end sequencing revealed more than 26 billion bases of high-quality sequence data from male and female asparagus flower buds. A total of 72,626 unigenes with an average length of 979 bp were assembled. In comparative transcriptome analysis, 4876 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the possible sex-determining stage of female and male/supermale flower buds. Of these DEGs, 433, including 285 male/supermale-biased and 149 female-biased genes, were annotated as flower related. Of the male/supermale-biased flower-related genes, 102 were probably involved in anther development. In addition, 43 DEGs implicated in hormone response and biosynthesis putatively associated with sex expression and reproduction were discovered. Moreover, 128 transcription factor (TF)-related genes belonging to various families were found to be differentially expressed, and this finding implied the essential roles of TF in sex determination or differentiation in asparagus. Correlation analysis indicated that miRNA-DEG pairs were also implicated in asparagus sexual development. Our study identified a large number of DEGs involved in the sex expression and reproduction of asparagus, including known genes participating in plant reproduction, plant hormone signaling, TF encoding, and genes with unclear functions. We also found that miRNAs might be involved in the sex differentiation process. Our study could provide a valuable basis for further investigations on the regulatory networks of sex determination and differentiation in asparagus and facilitate further genetic and genomic studies on this dioecious species.
Sheng, Yue; Zhao, Wei; Song, Ying; Li, Zhigang; Luo, Majing; Lei, Quan; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia
A variety of mechanisms are engaged in sex determination in vertebrates. The teleost fish swamp eel undergoes sex reversal naturally and is an ideal model for vertebrate sexual development. However, the importance of proteome-wide scanning for gonad reversal was not previously determined. We report a 2-D electrophoresis analysis of three gonad types of proteomes during sex reversal. MS/MS analysis revealed a group of differentially expressed proteins during ovary to ovotestis to testis transformation. Cbx3 is up-regulated during gonad reversal and is likely to have a role in spermatogenesis. Rab37 is down-regulated during the reversal and is mainly associated with oogenesis. Both Cbx3 and Rab37 are linked up in a protein network. These datasets in gonadal proteomes provide a new resource for further studies in gonadal development.
Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Tennessen, Jacob A; Dalton, Rebecca M; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Koski, Matthew H; Liston, Aaron
Gynodioecy, the coexistence of females and hermaphrodites, occurs in 20% of angiosperm families and often enables transitions between hermaphroditism and dioecy. Clarifying mechanisms of sex determination in gynodioecious species can thus illuminate sexual system evolution. Genetic determination of gynodioecy, however, can be complex and is not fully characterized in any wild species. We used targeted sequence capture to genetically map a novel nuclear contributor to male sterility in a self-pollinated hermaphrodite of Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata from the southern portion of its range. To understand its interaction with another identified locus and possibly additional loci, we performed crosses within and between two populations separated by 2000 km, phenotyped the progeny and sequenced candidate markers at both sex-determining loci. The newly mapped locus contains a high density of pentatricopeptide repeat genes, a class commonly involved in restoration of fertility caused by cytoplasmic male sterility. Examination of all crosses revealed three unlinked epistatically interacting loci that determine sexual phenotype and vary in frequency between populations. Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata represents the first wild gynodioecious species with genomic evidence of both cytoplasmic and nuclear genes in sex determination. We propose a model for the interactions between these loci and new hypotheses for the evolution of sex determining chromosomes in the subdioecious and dioecious Fragaria. Copyright © 2015 Ashman et al.
Vanthournout, Bram; Deswarte, K; Hammad, H
research. Pinpointing the underlying mechanism of sex ratio bias is challenging owing to the multitude of potential sex ratio-biasing factors. In the dwarf spider, Oedothorax gibbosus, infection with the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia results in a female bias. However, pedigree analysis reveals...
Anna M Lomanowska
Full Text Available The human tendency to reveal or cover naked skin reflects a competition between the individual propensity for social interactions related to sexual appeal and interpersonal touch versus climatic, environmental, physical, and cultural constraints. However, due to the ubiquitous nature of these constraints, isolating on a large scale the spontaneous human tendency to reveal naked skin has remained impossible. Using the online 3-dimensional virtual world of Second Life, we examined spontaneous human skin-covering behavior unhindered by real-world climatic, environmental, and physical variables. Analysis of hundreds of avatars revealed that virtual females disclose substantially more naked skin than virtual males. This phenomenon was not related to avatar hypersexualization as evaluated by measurement of sexually dimorphic body proportions. Furthermore, analysis of skin-covering behavior of a population of culturally homogeneous avatars indicated that the propensity of female avatars to reveal naked skin persisted despite explicit cultural norms promoting less revealing attire. These findings have implications for further understanding how sex-specific aspects of skin disclosure influence human social interactions in both virtual and real settings.
Guadalupe, Tulio; Mathias, Samuel R; vanErp, Theo G M; Whelan, Christopher D; Zwiers, Marcel P; Abe, Yoshinari; Abramovic, Lucija; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Arolt, Volker; Artiges, Eric; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Baboyan, Vatche G; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bastin, Mark E; Baune, Bernhard T; Blangero, John; Bokde, Arun L W; Boedhoe, Premika S W; Bose, Anushree; Brem, Silvia; Brodaty, Henry; Bromberg, Uli; Brooks, Samantha; Büchel, Christian; Buitelaar, Jan; Calhoun, Vince D; Cannon, Dara M; Cattrell, Anna; Cheng, Yuqi; Conrod, Patricia J; Conzelmann, Annette; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crivello, Fabrice; Dannlowski, Udo; de Zubicaray, Greig I; de Zwarte, Sonja M C; Deary, Ian J; Desrivières, Sylvane; Doan, Nhat Trung; Donohoe, Gary; Dørum, Erlend S; Ehrlich, Stefan; Espeseth, Thomas; Fernández, Guillén; Flor, Herta; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Frouin, Vincent; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gill, Michael; Suarez, Andrea Gonzalez; Gowland, Penny; Grabe, Hans J; Grotegerd, Dominik; Gruber, Oliver; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Tobias U; Heinz, Andreas; Hibar, Derrek P; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hoogman, Martine; Howells, Fleur M; Hu, Hao; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Huyser, Chaim; Ittermann, Bernd; Jahanshad, Neda; Jönsson, Erik G; Jurk, Sarah; Kahn, Rene S; Kelly, Sinead; Kraemer, Bernd; Kugel, Harald; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lemaitre, Herve; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Lochner, Christine; Luciano, Michelle; Marquand, Andre F; Martin, Nicholas G; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mataix-Cols, David; Mather, Karen; McDonald, Colm; McMahon, Katie L; Medland, Sarah E; Menchón, José M; Morris, Derek W; Mothersill, Omar; Maniega, Susana Munoz; Mwangi, Benson; Nakamae, Takashi; Nakao, Tomohiro; Narayanaswaamy, Janardhanan C; Nees, Frauke; Nordvik, Jan E; Onnink, A Marten H; Opel, Nils; Ophoff, Roel; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Papadopoulos Orfanos, Dimitri; Pauli, Paul; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Reddy, Janardhan Yc; Renteria, Miguel E; Roiz-Santiáñez, Roberto; Roos, Annerine; Royle, Natalie A; Sachdev, Perminder; Sánchez-Juan, Pascual; Schmaal, Lianne; Schumann, Gunter; Shumskaya, Elena; Smolka, Michael N; Soares, Jair C; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Stein, Dan J; Strike, Lachlan T; Toro, Roberto; Turner, Jessica A; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Uhlmann, Anne; Hernández, Maria Valdés; van den Heuvel, Odile A; van der Meer, Dennis; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Veltman, Dick J; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Vetter, Nora C; Vuletic, Daniella; Walitza, Susanne; Walter, Henrik; Walton, Esther; Wang, Zhen; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Robert; Wittfeld, Katharina; Wolfers, Thomas; Wright, Margaret J; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiufeng; Yun, Je-Yeon; Zhao, JingJing; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M; Glahn, David C; Mazoyer, Bernard; Fisher, Simon E; Francks, Clyde
The two hemispheres of the human brain differ functionally and structurally. Despite over a century of research, the extent to which brain asymmetry is influenced by sex, handedness, age, and genetic factors is still controversial. Here we present the largest ever analysis of subcortical brain asymmetries, in a harmonized multi-site study using meta-analysis methods. Volumetric asymmetry of seven subcortical structures was assessed in 15,847 MRI scans from 52 datasets worldwide. There were sex differences in the asymmetry of the globus pallidus and putamen. Heritability estimates, derived from 1170 subjects belonging to 71 extended pedigrees, revealed that additive genetic factors influenced the asymmetry of these two structures and that of the hippocampus and thalamus. Handedness had no detectable effect on subcortical asymmetries, even in this unprecedented sample size, but the asymmetry of the putamen varied with age. Genetic drivers of asymmetry in the hippocampus, thalamus and basal ganglia may affect variability in human cognition, including susceptibility to psychiatric disorders.
Hall, Geoffrey B C; Witelson, Sandra F; Szechtman, Henry; Nahmias, Claude
Two [O(15)] PET studies assessed sex differences regional brain activation in the recognition of emotional stimuli. Study I revealed that the recognition of emotion in visual faces resulted in bilateral frontal activation in women, and unilateral right-sided activation in men. In study II, the complexity of the emotional face task was increased through tje addition of associated auditory emotional stimuli. Men again showed unilateral frontal activation, in this case to the left; whereas women did not show bilateral frontal activation, but showed greater limbic activity. These results suggest that when processing broader cross-modal emotional stimuli, men engage more in associative cognitive strategies while women draw more on primary emotional references.
Willson, R.C.; Hudson, H.
The Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM) of the Solar Maximum Mission satellite measures the radiant power emitted by the sun in the direction of the earth and has worked flawlessly since 1980. The main motivation for ACRIM's use to measure the solar constant is the determination of the extent to which this quantity's variations affect earth weather and climate. Data from the solar minimum of 1986-1987 is eagerly anticipated, with a view to the possible presence of a solar cycle variation in addition to that caused directly by sunspots
Breuer, Rebecca J; Bandyopadhyay, Arpan; O'Brien, Sofie A; Barnes, Aaron M T; Hunter, Ryan C; Hu, Wei-Shou; Dunny, Gary M
In Enterococcus faecalis, sex pheromone-mediated transfer of antibiotic resistance plasmids can occur under unfavorable conditions, for example, when inducing pheromone concentrations are low and inhibiting pheromone concentrations are high. To better understand this paradox, we adapted fluorescence in situ hybridization chain reaction (HCR) methodology for simultaneous quantification of multiple E. faecalis transcripts at the single cell level. We present direct evidence for variability in the minimum period, maximum response level, and duration of response of individual cells to a specific inducing condition. Tracking of induction patterns of single cells temporally using a fluorescent reporter supported HCR findings. It also revealed subpopulations of rapid responders, even under low inducing pheromone concentrations where the overall response of the entire population was slow. The strong, rapid induction of small numbers of cells in cultures exposed to low pheromone concentrations is in agreement with predictions of a stochastic model of the enterococcal pheromone response. The previously documented complex regulatory circuitry controlling the pheromone response likely contributes to stochastic variation in this system. In addition to increasing our basic understanding of the biology of a horizontal gene transfer system regulated by cell-cell signaling, demonstration of the stochastic nature of the pheromone response also impacts any future efforts to develop therapeutic agents targeting the system. Quantitative single cell analysis using HCR also has great potential to elucidate important bacterial regulatory mechanisms not previously amenable to study at the single cell level, and to accelerate the pace of functional genomic studies.
Although most flowering plants are hermaphrodite, separate sexes (dioecy) have evolved repeatedly. The evolution of sex chromosomes from autosomes can often, but not always, accompany this transition. Thus, many have argued that plant genera that contain both hermaphroditic and dioecious members pro...
Vugt, van J.J.F.A.; Hulst, van der R.G.M.; Pruijssers, A.; Verbaarschot, P.G.H.; Stouthamer, R.; Jong, de H.
The parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai with a haplo-diploid sex determination has a B chromosome called the paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome that confers paternal genome loss during early embryogenesis, resulting in male offspring. So far, it is not well known whether the PSR chromosome has
Whitehorn, Penelope R; Cook, Nicola; Blackburn, Charlotte V; Gill, Sophie M; Green, Jade; Shuker, David M
Sex allocation theory has proved to be one the most successful theories in evolutionary ecology. However, its role in more applied aspects of ecology has been limited. Here we show how sex allocation theory helps uncover an otherwise hidden cost of neonicotinoid exposure in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. Female N. vitripennis allocate the sex of their offspring in line with Local Mate Competition (LMC) theory. Neonicotinoids are an economically important class of insecticides, but their deployment remains controversial, with evidence linking them to the decline of beneficial species. We demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge, that neonicotinoids disrupt the crucial reproductive behaviour of facultative sex allocation at sub-lethal, field-relevant doses in N. vitripennis. The quantitative predictions we can make from LMC theory show that females exposed to neonicotinoids are less able to allocate sex optimally and that this failure imposes a significant fitness cost. Our work highlights that understanding the ecological consequences of neonicotinoid deployment requires not just measures of mortality or even fecundity reduction among non-target species, but also measures that capture broader fitness costs, in this case offspring sex allocation. Our work also highlights new avenues for exploring how females obtain information when allocating sex under LMC. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Razumova, Olga V; Alexandrov, Oleg S; Divashuk, Mikhail G; Sukhorada, Tatiana I; Karlov, Gennady I
Hemp (Cannabis sativa L., 2n = 20) is a dioecious plant. Sex expression is controlled by an X-to-autosome balance system consisting of the heteromorphic sex chromosomes XY for males and XX for females. Genetically monoecious hemp offers several agronomic advantages compared to the dioecious cultivars that are widely used in hemp cultivation. The male or female origin of monoecious maternal plants is unknown. Additionally, the sex chromosome composition of monoecious hemp forms remains unknown. In this study, we examine the sex chromosome makeup in monoecious hemp using a cytogenetic approach. Eight monoecious and two dioecious cultivars were used. The DNA of 210 monoecious plants was used for PCR analysis with the male-associated markers MADC2 and SCAR323. All monoecious plants showed female amplification patterns. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with the subtelomeric CS-1 probe to chromosomes plates and karyotyping revealed a lack of Y chromosome and presence of XX sex chromosomes in monoecious cultivars with the chromosome number 2n = 20. There was a high level of intra- and intercultivar karyotype variation detected. The results of this study can be used for further analysis of the genetic basis of sex expression in plants.
Arbeitman Michelle N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding animal development and physiology at a molecular-biological level has been advanced by the ability to determine at high resolution the repertoire of mRNA molecules by whole transcriptome resequencing. This includes the ability to detect and quantify rare abundance transcripts and isoform-specific mRNA variants produced from a gene. The sex hierarchy consists of a pre-mRNA splicing cascade that directs the production of sex-specific transcription factors that specify nearly all sexual dimorphism. We have used deep RNA sequencing to gain insight into how the Drosophila sex hierarchy generates somatic sex differences, by examining gene and transcript isoform expression differences between the sexes in adult head tissues. Results Here we find 1,381 genes that differ in overall expression levels and 1,370 isoform-specific transcripts that differ between males and females. Additionally, we find 512 genes not regulated downstream of transformer that are significantly more highly expressed in males than females. These 512 genes are enriched on the × chromosome and reside adjacent to dosage compensation complex entry sites, which taken together suggests that their residence on the × chromosome might be sufficient to confer male-biased expression. There are no transcription unit structural features, from a set of features, that are robustly significantly different in the genes with significant sex differences in the ratio of isoform-specific transcripts, as compared to random isoform-specific transcripts, suggesting that there is no single molecular mechanism that generates isoform-specific transcript differences between the sexes, even though the sex hierarchy is known to include three pre-mRNA splicing factors. Conclusions We identify thousands of genes that show sex-specific differences in overall gene expression levels, and identify hundreds of additional genes that have differences in the abundance of isoform
Deaner, Robert O; Addona, Vittorio; Mead, Michael P
It is well established that men are more likely than women to engage in direct competition, but it is unclear if this reflects social structural conditions or evolved predispositions. These hypotheses can be addressed by quantifying competitiveness in sports and testing if the sex difference is decreasing over time in the U.S., a society where social roles have converged. Study 1 assessed participation and the occurrence of relatively fast performances by masters runners (40-74 years old) at recent road races and track meets. Fast performances occurred over 20 times more often at track meets than at road races. Women comprised 55% of finishers at roads races but only 15-28% of finishers at track meets. Thus, the sex difference in masters track participation can serve as a measure of the sex difference in competitiveness. Study 2 used data from national championship meets and yearly rankings lists to test whether the sex difference in masters track participation decreased from 1988-2012. The sex difference decreased overall, but there was no evidence of change since the late 1990s. Therefore, the sex difference in the willingness to engage in direct sports competition appears to reflect both social structural conditions and evolved predispositions.
Fernández-Vargas, Marcela; Johnston, Robert E
Vocal signaling is one of many behaviors that animals perform during social interactions. Vocalizations produced by both sexes before mating can communicate sex, identity and condition of the caller. Adult golden hamsters produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) after intersexual contact. To determine whether these vocalizations are sexually dimorphic, we analyzed the vocal repertoire for sex differences in: 1) calling rates, 2) composition (structural complexity, call types and nonlinear phenomena) and 3) acoustic structure. In addition, we examined it for individual variation in the calls. The vocal repertoire was mainly composed of 1-note simple calls and at least half of them presented some degree of deterministic chaos. The prevalence of this nonlinear phenomenon was confirmed by low values of harmonic-to-noise ratio for most calls. We found modest sexual differences between repertoires. Males were more likely than females to produce tonal and less chaotic calls, as well as call types with frequency jumps. Multivariate analysis of the acoustic features of 1-note simple calls revealed significant sex differences in the second axis represented mostly by entropy and bandwidth parameters. Male calls showed lower entropy and inter-quartile bandwidth than female calls. Because the variation of acoustic structure within individuals was higher than among individuals, USV could not be reliably assigned to the correct individual. Interestingly, however, this high variability, augmented by the prevalence of chaos and frequency jumps, could be the result of increased vocal effort. Hamsters motivated to produce high calling rates also produced longer calls of broader bandwidth. Thus, the sex differences found could be the result of different sex preferences but also of a sex difference in calling motivation or condition. We suggest that variable and complex USV may have been selected to increase responsiveness of a potential mate by communicating sexual arousal and
Full Text Available Vocal signaling is one of many behaviors that animals perform during social interactions. Vocalizations produced by both sexes before mating can communicate sex, identity and condition of the caller. Adult golden hamsters produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV after intersexual contact. To determine whether these vocalizations are sexually dimorphic, we analyzed the vocal repertoire for sex differences in: 1 calling rates, 2 composition (structural complexity, call types and nonlinear phenomena and 3 acoustic structure. In addition, we examined it for individual variation in the calls. The vocal repertoire was mainly composed of 1-note simple calls and at least half of them presented some degree of deterministic chaos. The prevalence of this nonlinear phenomenon was confirmed by low values of harmonic-to-noise ratio for most calls. We found modest sexual differences between repertoires. Males were more likely than females to produce tonal and less chaotic calls, as well as call types with frequency jumps. Multivariate analysis of the acoustic features of 1-note simple calls revealed significant sex differences in the second axis represented mostly by entropy and bandwidth parameters. Male calls showed lower entropy and inter-quartile bandwidth than female calls. Because the variation of acoustic structure within individuals was higher than among individuals, USV could not be reliably assigned to the correct individual. Interestingly, however, this high variability, augmented by the prevalence of chaos and frequency jumps, could be the result of increased vocal effort. Hamsters motivated to produce high calling rates also produced longer calls of broader bandwidth. Thus, the sex differences found could be the result of different sex preferences but also of a sex difference in calling motivation or condition. We suggest that variable and complex USV may have been selected to increase responsiveness of a potential mate by communicating sexual
Fawcett, Tim W.; Kuijper, Bram; Weissing, Franz J.; Pen, Ido
Female choice is a powerful selective force, driving the elaboration of conspicuous male ornaments. This process of sexual selection has profound implications for many life-history decisions, including sex allocation. For example, females with attractive partners should produce more sons, because
Guadalupe, Tulio; Mathias, Samuel R.; vanErp, Theo G.M.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Abe, Yoshinari; Abramovic, Lucija; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Arolt, Volker; Artiges, Eric; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Baboyan, Vatche G.; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bastin, Mark E.; Baune, Bernhard T.; Blangero, John; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Boedhoe, Premika S.W.; Bose, Anushree; Brem, Silvia; Brodaty, Henry; Bromberg, Uli; Brooks, Samantha; Büchel, Christian; Buitelaar, Jan; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cattrell, Anna; Cheng, Yuqi; Conrod, Patricia J.; Conzelmann, Annette; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crivello, Fabrice; Dannlowski, Udo; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; de Zwarte, Sonja M.C.; Deary, Ian J.; Desrivières, Sylvane; Doan, Nhat Trung; Donohoe, Gary; Dørum, Erlend S.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Espeseth, Thomas; Fernández, Guillén; Flor, Herta; Fouche, Jean Paul; Frouin, Vincent; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gill, Michael; Suarez, Andrea Gonzalez; Gowland, Penny; Grabe, Hans J.; Grotegerd, Dominik; Gruber, Oliver; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Tobias U.; Heinz, Andreas; Hibar, Derrek P.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hoogman, Martine; Howells, Fleur M.; Hu, Hao; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Huyser, Chaim; Ittermann, Bernd; Jahanshad, Neda; Jönsson, Erik G.; Jurk, Sarah; Kahn, Rene S.; Kelly, Sinead; Kraemer, Bernd; Kugel, Harald; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lemaitre, Herve; Lesch, Klaus Peter; Lochner, Christine; Luciano, Michelle; Marquand, Andre F.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Martinot, Jean Luc; Mataix-Cols, David; Mather, Karen; McDonald, Colm; McMahon, Katie L.; Medland, Sarah E.; Menchón, José M.; Morris, Derek W.; Mothersill, Omar; Maniega, Susana Munoz; Mwangi, Benson; Nakamae, Takashi; Nakao, Tomohiro; Narayanaswaamy, Janardhanan C.; Nees, Frauke; Nordvik, Jan E.; Onnink, A. Marten H.; Opel, Nils; Ophoff, Roel; Paillère Martinot, Marie Laure; Papadopoulos Orfanos, Dimitri; Pauli, Paul; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Reddy, Janardhan Yc; Renteria, Miguel E.; Roiz-Santiáñez, Roberto; Roos, Annerine; Royle, Natalie A.; Sachdev, Perminder; Sánchez-Juan, Pascual; Schmaal, Lianne; Schumann, Gunter; Shumskaya, Elena; Smolka, Michael N.; Soares, Jair C.; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Stein, Dan J.; Strike, Lachlan T.; Toro, Roberto; Turner, Jessica A.; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Uhlmann, Anne; Hernández, Maria Valdés; van den Heuvel, Odile A.; van der Meer, Dennis; van Haren, Neeltje E.M.; Veltman, Dick J.; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Vetter, Nora C.; Vuletic, Daniella; Walitza, Susanne; Walter, Henrik; Walton, Esther; Wang, Zhen; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Robert; Wittfeld, Katharina; Wolfers, Thomas; Wright, Margaret J.; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiufeng; Yun, Je Yeon; Zhao, Jing Jing; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M.; Glahn, David C.; Mazoyer, Bernard; Fisher, Simon E.; Francks, Clyde
The two hemispheres of the human brain differ functionally and structurally. Despite over a century of research, the extent to which brain asymmetry is influenced by sex, handedness, age, and genetic factors is still controversial. Here we present the largest ever analysis of subcortical brain
Nam, Kyong Nyon; Wolfe, Cody M; Fitz, Nicholas F; Letronne, Florent; Castranio, Emilie L; Mounier, Anais; Schug, Jonathan; Lefterov, Iliya; Koldamova, Radosveta
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder that is influenced by genetic and environmental risk factors, such as inheritance of ε4 allele of APOE (APOE4), sex and diet. Here, we examined the effect of high fat diet (HFD) on amyloid pathology and expression profile in brains of AD model mice expressing human APOE isoforms (APP/E3 and APP/E4 mice). APP/E3 and APP/E4 mice were fed HFD or Normal diet for 3months. We found that HFD significantly increased amyloid plaques in male and female APP/E4, but not in APP/E3 mice. To identify differentially expressed genes and gene-networks correlated to diet, APOE isoform and sex, we performed RNA sequencing and applied Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis. We determined that the immune response network with major hubs Tyrobp/DAP12, Csf1r, Tlr2, C1qc and Laptm5 correlated significantly and positively to the phenotype of female APP/E4-HFD mice. Correspondingly, we found that in female APP/E4-HFD mice, microglia coverage around plaques, particularly of larger size, was significantly reduced. This suggests altered containment of the plaque growth and sex-dependent vulnerability in response to diet. The results of our study show concurrent impact of diet, APOE isoform and sex on the brain transcriptome and AD-like phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Naidu, Ashwin; Smythe, Lindsay A.; Thompson, Ron W.; Culver, Melanie
Recent records of mountain lions Puma concolor and concurrent declines in desert bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis mexicana on Kofa National Wildlife Refuge in Arizona, United States, have prompted investigations to estimate the number of mountain lions occurring there. We performed noninvasive genetic analyses and identified species, individuals, and sex from scat samples collected from the Kofa and Castle Dome Mountains. From 105 scats collected, we identified a minimum of 11 individual mountain lions. These individuals consisted of six males, two females and three of unknown sex. Three of the 11 mountain lions were identified multiple times over the study period. These estimates supplement previously recorded information on mountain lions in an area where they were historically considered only transient. We demonstrate that noninvasive genetic techniques, especially when used in conjunction with camera-trap and radiocollaring methods, can provide additional and reliable information to wildlife managers, particularly on secretive species like the mountain lion.
Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is a common neurological disorder and the burden in the world is growing. This study aims to explore the effect of sex and age difference on ischemic stroke using integrated microarray datasets. The results showed a dramatic difference in whole gene expression profiles and influenced pathways between males and females, and also in the old and young individuals. Furthermore, compared with old males, old female patients showed more serious biological function damage. However, females showed less affected pathways than males in young subjects. Functional interaction networks showed these differential expression genes were mostly related to immune and inflammation-related functions. In addition, we found ARG1 and MMP9 were up-regulated in total and all subgroups. Importantly, IL1A, ILAB, IL6 and TNF and other anti-stroke target genes were up-regulated in males. However, these anti-stroke target genes showed low expression in females. This study found huge sex and age differences in ischemic stroke especially the opposite expression of anti-stroke target genes. Future studies are needed to uncover these pathological mechanisms, and to take appropriate pre-prevention, treatment and rehabilitation measures.
Akbari, Omar S; Antoshechkin, Igor; Hay, Bruce A; Ferree, Patrick M
A widespread phenomenon in nature is sex ratio distortion of arthropod populations caused by microbial and genetic parasites. Currently little is known about how these agents alter host developmental processes to favor one sex or the other. The paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome is a nonessential, paternally transmitted centric fragment that segregates in natural populations of the jewel wasp, Nasonia vitripennis. To persist, PSR is thought to modify the hereditary material of the developing sperm, with the result that all nuclear DNA other than the PSR chromosome is destroyed shortly after fertilization. This results in the conversion of a fertilized embryo--normally a female--into a male, thereby insuring transmission of the "selfish" PSR chromosome, and simultaneously leading to wasp populations that are male-biased. To begin to understand this system at the mechanistic level, we carried out transcriptional profiling of testis from WT and PSR-carrying males. We identified a number of transcripts that are differentially expressed between these conditions. We also discovered nine transcripts that are uniquely expressed from the PSR chromosome. Four of these PSR-specific transcripts encode putative proteins, whereas the others have very short open reading frames and no homology to known proteins, suggesting that they are long noncoding RNAs. We propose several different models for how these transcripts could facilitate PSR-dependent effects. Our analyses also revealed 15.71 MB of novel transcribed regions in the N. vitripennis genome, thus increasing the current annotation of total transcribed regions by 53.4%. Finally, we detected expression of multiple meiosis-related genes in the wasp testis, despite the lack of conventional meiosis in the male sex.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Darwin illustrated his sexual selection theory with male and female morphology of diving beetles, but maintained a cooperative view of their interaction. Present theory suggests that instead sexual conflict should be a widespread evolutionary force driving both intersexual coevolutionary arms races and speciation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined Bayesian phylogenetics, complete taxon sampling and a multi-gene approach to test the arms race scenario on a robust diving beetle phylogeny. As predicted, suction cups in males and modified dorsal surfaces in females showed a pronounced coevolutionary pattern. The female dorsal modifications impair the attachment ability of male suction cups, but each antagonistic novelty in females corresponds to counter-differentiation of suction cups in males. CONCLUSIONS: A recently diverged sibling species pair in Japan is possibly one consequence of this arms race and we suggest that future studies on hypoxia might reveal the key to the extraordinary selection for female counter-adaptations in diving beetles.
Full Text Available The severity and prevalence of many diseases are known to differ between the sexes. Organ specific sex-biased gene expression may underpin these and other sexually dimorphic traits. To further our understanding of sex differences in transcriptional regulation, we performed meta-analyses of sex biased gene expression in multiple human tissues. We analysed 22 publicly available human gene expression microarray data sets including over 2500 samples from 15 different tissues and 9 different organs. Briefly, by using an inverse-variance method we determined the effect size difference of gene expression between males and females. We found the greatest sex differences in gene expression in the brain, specifically in the anterior cingulate cortex, (1818 genes, followed by the heart (375 genes, kidney (224 genes, colon (218 genes and thyroid (163 genes. More interestingly, we found different parts of the brain with varying numbers and identity of sex-biased genes, indicating that specific cortical regions may influence sexually dimorphic traits. The majority of sex-biased genes in other tissues such as the bladder, liver, lungs and pancreas were on the sex chromosomes or involved in sex hormone production. On average in each tissue, 32% of autosomal genes that were expressed in a sex-biased fashion contained androgen or estrogen hormone response elements. Interestingly, across all tissues, we found approximately two-thirds of autosomal genes that were sex-biased were not under direct influence of sex hormones. To our knowledge this is the largest analysis of sex-biased gene expression in human tissues to date. We identified many sex-biased genes that were not under the direct influence of sex chromosome genes or sex hormones. These may provide targets for future development of sex-specific treatments for diseases.
Girondot, Marc; Monsinjon, Jonathan; Guillon, Jean-Michel
The sexual phenotype of the gonad is dependent on incubation temperature in many turtles, all crocodilians, and some lepidosaurians. At hatching, identification of sexual phenotype is impossible without sacrificing the neonates. For this reason, a general method to infer sexual phenotype from incubation temperatures is needed. Temperature influences sex determination during a specific period of the embryonic development, starting when the gonad begins to form. At constant incubation temperatures, this thermosensitive period for sex determination (TSP) is located at the middle third of incubation duration (MTID). When temperature fluctuates, the position of the thermosensitive period for sex determination can be shifted from the MTID because embryo growth is affected by temperature. A method is proposed to locate the thermosensitive period for sex determination based on modelling the embryo growth, allowing its precise identification from a natural regime of temperatures. Results from natural nests and simulations show that the approximation of the thermosensitive period for sex determination to the middle third of incubation duration may create a quasi-systematic bias to lower temperatures when computing the average incubation temperature during this period and thus a male-bias for sex ratio estimate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A review of the principle of constancy, as it appeared in Freud's writings, shows that it was inspired by his clinical observations, first with Breuer in the field of cathartic therapy and then through experiences in the early usage of psychoanalysis. The recognition that memories repressed in the unconscious created increasing tension, and that this was relieved with dischargelike phenomena when the unconscious was made conscious, was the basis for his claim to originality in this area. The two principles of "neuronic inertia" Freud expounded in the Project (1895), are found to offer the key to the ambiguous definition of the principle of constancy he was to offer in later years. The "original" principle, which sought the complete discharge of energy (or elimination of stimuli), became the forerunner of the death drive; the "extended" principle achieved balances that were relatively constant, but succumbed in the end to complete discharge. This was the predecessor of the life drives. The relation between the constancy and pleasure-unpleasure principles was maintained for twenty-five years largely on an empirical basis which invoked the concept of psychophysical parallelism between "quantity" and "quality." As the links between the two principles were weakened by clinical experiences attendant upon the growth of ego psychology, a revision of the principle of constancy was suggested, and it was renamed the Nirvana principle. Actually it was shifted from alignment with the "extended" principle of inertia to the original, so that "constancy" was incongruously identified with self-extinction. The former basis for the constancy principle, the extended principle of inertia, became identified with Eros. Only a few commentators seem aware of this radical transformation, which has been overlooked in the Standard Edition of Freud's writings. Physiological biases in the history and conception of the principle of constancy are noted in the Standard Edition. The historical antecedents of the principle of constancy, especially in relation to the teachings and influence of J. F. Herbart (1776-1841), do much to bridge the gap between psychological and neurophysiological aspects of Freud's ideas about constancy and its associated doctrine, psychic determinism. Freud's later teachings about the Nirvana principle and Eros suggest a continuum of "constancies" embodied in the structural and functional development of the mental apparatus as it evolves from primal unity with the environment (e.g., the mother-child unit) and differentiates in patterns that organize the inner and outer worlds in relation to each other.
Andrea D Coviello
Full Text Available Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an additional six studies. We identified twelve genomic regions (SNPs associated with circulating SHBG concentrations. Loci near the identified SNPs included SHBG (rs12150660, 17p13.1, p = 1.8 × 10(-106, PRMT6 (rs17496332, 1p13.3, p = 1.4 × 10(-11, GCKR (rs780093, 2p23.3, p = 2.2 × 10(-16, ZBTB10 (rs440837, 8q21.13, p = 3.4 × 10(-09, JMJD1C (rs7910927, 10q21.3, p = 6.1 × 10(-35, SLCO1B1 (rs4149056, 12p12.1, p = 1.9 × 10(-08, NR2F2 (rs8023580, 15q26.2, p = 8.3 × 10(-12, ZNF652 (rs2411984, 17q21.32, p = 3.5 × 10(-14, TDGF3 (rs1573036, Xq22.3, p = 4.1 × 10(-14, LHCGR (rs10454142, 2p16.3, p = 1.3 × 10(-07, BAIAP2L1 (rs3779195, 7q21.3, p = 2.7 × 10(-08, and UGT2B15 (rs293428, 4q13.2, p = 5.5 × 10(-06. These genes encompass multiple biologic pathways, including hepatic function, lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and T2D, androgen and estrogen receptor function, epigenetic effects, and the biology of sex steroid hormone-responsive cancers including breast and prostate cancer. We found evidence of sex-differentiated genetic influences on SHBG. In a sex-specific GWAS, the loci 4q13.2-UGT2B15 was significant in men only (men p = 2.5 × 10(-08, women p = 0.66, heterogeneity p = 0.003. Additionally, three loci showed strong sex-differentiated effects: 17p13.1-SHBG and Xq22.3-TDGF3 were stronger in men, whereas 8q21.12-ZBTB10 was stronger in women. Conditional analyses identified additional signals at the SHBG gene that together almost double the proportion
Nielsen, Mathias Wullum; Andersen, Jens Peter; Schiebinger, Londa
Gender and sex analysis is increasingly recognized as a key factor in creating better medical research and health care. Using a sample of more than 1.5 million medical research papers, our study examined the potential link between women’s participation in medical science and attention to gender......-related and sex-related factors in disease-specific research. Adjusting for variations across countries, disease topics and medical research areas, we compared the participation of women authors in studies that do and do not involve gender and sex analysis. Overall, our results show a robust positive correlation...... between women’s authorship and the likelihood of a study including gender and sex analysis. These findings corroborate discussions of how women’s participation in medical science links to research outcomes, and show the mutual benefits of promoting both the scientific advancement of women...
Fear, Justin M; Arbeitman, Michelle N; Salomon, Matthew P; Dalton, Justin E; Tower, John; Nuzhdin, Sergey V; McIntyre, Lauren M
The Drosophila sex determination hierarchy is a classic example of a transcriptional regulatory hierarchy, with sex-specific isoforms regulating morphology and behavior. We use a structural equation modeling approach, leveraging natural genetic variation from two studies on Drosophila female head tissues--DSPR collection (596 F1-hybrids from crosses between DSPR sub-populations) and CEGS population (75 F1-hybrids from crosses between DGRP/Winters lines to a reference strain w1118)--to expand understanding of the sex hierarchy gene regulatory network (GRN). This approach is completely generalizable to any natural population, including humans. We expanded the sex hierarchy GRN adding novel links among genes, including a link from fruitless (fru) to Sex-lethal (Sxl) identified in both populations. This link is further supported by the presence of fru binding sites in the Sxl locus. 754 candidate genes were added to the pathway, including the splicing factors male-specific lethal 2 and Rm62 as downstream targets of Sxl which are well-supported links in males. Independent studies of doublesex and transformer mutants support many additions, including evidence for a link between the sex hierarchy and metabolism, via Insulin-like receptor. The genes added in the CEGS population were enriched for genes with sex-biased splicing and components of the spliceosome. A common goal of molecular biologists is to expand understanding about regulatory interactions among genes. Using natural alleles we can not only identify novel relationships, but using supervised approaches can order genes into a regulatory hierarchy. Combining these results with independent large effect mutation studies, allows clear candidates for detailed molecular follow-up to emerge.
Netser, Shai; Haskal, Shani; Magalnik, Hen; Wagner, Shlomo
Deciphering the biological mechanisms underlying social behavior in animal models requires standard behavioral paradigms that can be unbiasedly employed in an observer- and laboratory-independent manner. During the past decade, the three-chamber test has become such a standard paradigm used to evaluate social preference (sociability) and social novelty preference in mice. This test suffers from several caveats, including its reliance on spatial navigation skills and negligence of behavioral dynamics. Here, we present a novel experimental apparatus and an automated analysis system which offer an alternative to the three-chamber test while solving the aforementioned caveats. The custom-made apparatus is simple for production, and the analysis system is publically available as an open-source software, enabling its free use. We used this system to compare the dynamics of social behavior during the social preference and social novelty preference tests between male and female C57BL/6J mice. We found that in both tests, male mice keep their preference towards one of the stimuli for longer periods than females. We then employed our system to define several new parameters of social behavioral dynamics in mice and revealed that social preference behavior is segregated in time into two distinct phases. An early exploration phase, characterized by high rate of transitions between stimuli and short bouts of stimulus investigation, is followed by an interaction phase with low transition rate and prolonged interactions, mainly with the preferred stimulus. Finally, we compared the dynamics of social behavior between C57BL/6J and BTBR male mice, the latter of which are considered as asocial strain serving as a model for autism spectrum disorder. We found that BTBR mice ( n = 8) showed a specific deficit in transition from the exploration phase to the interaction phase in the social preference test, suggesting a reduced tendency towards social interaction. We successfully
Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Mo, Kaiguo; Peragine, Deane E; Monks, D Ashley; Holmes, Melissa M
Naked mole-rats are eusocial mammals, living in large colonies with a single breeding female and 1-3 breeding males. Breeders are socially dominant, and only the breeders exhibit traditional sex differences in circulating gonadal steroid hormones and reproductive behaviors. Non-reproductive subordinates also fail to show sex differences in overall body size, external genital morphology, and non-reproductive behaviors. However, subordinates can transition to breeding status if removed from their colony and housed with an opposite-sex conspecific, suggesting the presence of latent sex differences. Here, we assessed the expression of steroid hormone receptor and aromatase messenger RNA (mRNA) in the brains of males and females as they transitioned in social and reproductive status. We compared in-colony subordinates to opposite-sex subordinate pairs that were removed from their colony for either 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, or until they became breeders (i.e., produced a litter). Diencephalic tissue was collected and mRNA of androgen receptor (Ar), estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1), progesterone receptor (Pgr), and aromatase (Cyp19a1) was measured using qPCR. Testosterone, 17β-estradiol, and progesterone from serum were also measured. As early as 1 week post-removal, males exhibited increased diencephalic Ar mRNA and circulating testosterone, whereas females had increased Cyp19a1 mRNA in the diencephalon. At 1 month post-removal, females exhibited increased 17β-estradiol and progesterone. The largest changes in steroid hormone receptors were observed in breeders. Breeding females had a threefold increase in Cyp19a1 and fivefold increases in Esr1 and Pgr, whereas breeding males had reduced Pgr and increased Ar. These data demonstrate that sex differences in circulating gonadal steroids and hypothalamic gene expression emerge weeks to months after subordinate animals are removed from reproductive suppression in their home colony.
Carrier-Toutant, Frédérike; Guay, Samuel; Beaulieu, Christelle; Léveillé, Édith; Turcotte-Giroux, Alexandre; Papineau, Samaël D; Brisson, Benoit; D'Hondt, Fabien; De Beaumont, Louis
Concussions affect the processing of emotional stimuli. This study aimed to investigate how sex interacts with concussion effects on early event-related brain potentials (ERP) measures (P1, N1) of emotional facial expressions (EFE) processing in asymptomatic, multi-concussion athletes during an EFE identification task. Forty control athletes (20 females and 20 males) and 43 multi-concussed athletes (22 females and 21 males), recruited more than 3 months after their last concussion, were tested. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale, and an Emotional Facial Expression Identification Task. Pictures of male and female faces expressing neutral, angry, and happy emotions were randomly presented and the emotion depicted had to be identified as fast as possible during EEG acquisition. Relative to controls, concussed athletes of both sex exhibited a significant suppression of P1 amplitude recorded from the dominant right hemisphere while performing the emotional face expression identification task. The present study also highlighted a sex-specific suppression of the N1 component amplitude after concussion which affected male athletes. These findings suggest that repeated concussions alter the typical pattern of right-hemisphere response dominance to EFE in early stages of EFE processing and that the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the processing of emotional stimuli are distinctively affected across sex. (JINS, 2018, 24, 1-11).
Bogani, Debora; Siggers, Pam; Brixey, Rachel; Warr, Nick; Beddow, Sarah; Edwards, Jessica; Williams, Debbie; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Koopman, Peter; Flavell, Richard A.; Chi, Hongbo; Ostrer, Harry; Wells, Sara; Cheeseman, Michael; Greenfield, Andy
Sex determination in mammals is controlled by the presence or absence of the Y-linked gene SRY. In the developing male (XY) gonad, sex-determining region of the Y (SRY) protein acts to up-regulate expression of the related gene, SOX9, a transcriptional regulator that in turn initiates a downstream pathway of testis development, whilst also suppressing ovary development. Despite the requirement for a number of transcription factors and secreted signalling molecules in sex determination, intracellular signalling components functioning in this process have not been defined. Here we report a role for the phylogenetically ancient mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway in mouse sex determination. Using a forward genetic screen, we identified the recessive boygirl (byg) mutation. On the C57BL/6J background, embryos homozygous for byg exhibit consistent XY gonadal sex reversal. The byg mutation is an A to T transversion causing a premature stop codon in the gene encoding MAP3K4 (also known as MEKK4), a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase. Analysis of XY byg/byg gonads at 11.5 d post coitum reveals a growth deficit and a failure to support mesonephric cell migration, both early cellular processes normally associated with testis development. Expression analysis of mutant XY gonads at the same stage also reveals a dramatic reduction in Sox9 and, crucially, Sry at the transcript and protein levels. Moreover, we describe experiments showing the presence of activated MKK4, a direct target of MAP3K4, and activated p38 in the coelomic region of the XY gonad at 11.5 d post coitum, establishing a link between MAPK signalling in proliferating gonadal somatic cells and regulation of Sry expression. Finally, we provide evidence that haploinsufficiency for Map3k4 accounts for T-associated sex reversal (Tas). These data demonstrate that MAP3K4-dependent signalling events are required for normal expression of Sry during testis development, and create a novel
Full Text Available Sex determination in mammals is controlled by the presence or absence of the Y-linked gene SRY. In the developing male (XY gonad, sex-determining region of the Y (SRY protein acts to up-regulate expression of the related gene, SOX9, a transcriptional regulator that in turn initiates a downstream pathway of testis development, whilst also suppressing ovary development. Despite the requirement for a number of transcription factors and secreted signalling molecules in sex determination, intracellular signalling components functioning in this process have not been defined. Here we report a role for the phylogenetically ancient mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signalling pathway in mouse sex determination. Using a forward genetic screen, we identified the recessive boygirl (byg mutation. On the C57BL/6J background, embryos homozygous for byg exhibit consistent XY gonadal sex reversal. The byg mutation is an A to T transversion causing a premature stop codon in the gene encoding MAP3K4 (also known as MEKK4, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase. Analysis of XY byg/byg gonads at 11.5 d post coitum reveals a growth deficit and a failure to support mesonephric cell migration, both early cellular processes normally associated with testis development. Expression analysis of mutant XY gonads at the same stage also reveals a dramatic reduction in Sox9 and, crucially, Sry at the transcript and protein levels. Moreover, we describe experiments showing the presence of activated MKK4, a direct target of MAP3K4, and activated p38 in the coelomic region of the XY gonad at 11.5 d post coitum, establishing a link between MAPK signalling in proliferating gonadal somatic cells and regulation of Sry expression. Finally, we provide evidence that haploinsufficiency for Map3k4 accounts for T-associated sex reversal (Tas. These data demonstrate that MAP3K4-dependent signalling events are required for normal expression of Sry during testis development, and
Costello, Cecily M; Creel, Scott R; Kalinowski, Steven T; Vu, Ninh V; Quigley, Howard B
We tested the hypothesis that sex-biased natal dispersal reduces close inbreeding in American black bears, a solitary species that exhibits nearly complete male dispersal and female philopatry. Using microsatellite DNA and spatial data from reproductively mature bears (>or= 4 years old), we examined the spatial genetic structure of two distinct populations in New Mexico from 1993 to 2000. As predicted, relatedness (r) and the frequency of close relationships (parent-offspring or full siblings) decreased with distance among female dyads, but little change was observed among male or opposite-sex dyads. Neighbouring females were more closely related than neighbouring males. The potential for inbreeding was low. Most opposite-sex pairs that lived sufficiently close to facilitate mating were unrelated, and few were close relatives. We found no evidence that bears actively avoided inbreeding in their selection of mates from this nearby pool, as mean r and relationship frequencies did not differ between potential and actual mating pairs (determined by parentage analysis). These basic patterns were apparent in both study areas despite a nearly two-fold difference in density. However, the sex bias in dispersal was less pronounced in the lower-density area, based on proportions of bears with male and female relatives residing nearby. This result suggests that male bears may respond to reduced competition by decreasing their rate or distance of dispersal. Evidence supports the hypothesis that inbreeding avoidance is achieved by means of male-biased dispersal but also indicates that competition (for mates or resources) modifies dispersal patterns.
Bovo, S; Mazzoni, G; Calò, D G; Galimberti, G; Fanelli, F; Mezzullo, M; Schiavo, G; Scotti, E; Manisi, A; Samoré, A B; Bertolini, F; Trevisi, P; Bosi, P; Dall'Olio, S; Pagotto, U; Fontanesi, L
Metabolomics has opened new possibilities to investigate metabolic differences among animals. In this study, we applied a targeted metabolomic approach to deconstruct the pig sex metabolome as defined by castrated males and entire gilts. Plasma from 545 performance-tested Italian Large White pigs (172 castrated males and 373 females) sampled at about 160 kg live weight were analyzed for 186 metabolites using the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ p180 Kit. After filtering, 132 metabolites (20 AA, 11 biogenic amines, 1 hexose, 13 acylcarnitines, 11 sphingomyelins, 67 phosphatidylcholines, and 9 lysophosphatidylcholines) were retained for further analyses. The multivariate approach of the sparse partial least squares discriminant analysis was applied, together with a specifically designed statistical pipeline, that included a permutation test and a 10 cross-fold validation procedure that produced stability and effect size statistics for each metabolite. Using this approach, we identified 85 biomarkers (with metabolites from all analyzed chemical families) that contributed to the differences between the 2 groups of pigs ( metabolic shift in castrated males toward energy storage and lipid production. Similar general patterns were observed for most sphingomyelins, phosphatidylcholines, and lysophosphatidylcholines. Metabolomic pathway analysis and pathway enrichment identified several differences between the 2 sexes. This metabolomic overview opened new clues on the biochemical mechanisms underlying sexual dimorphism that, on one hand, might explain differences in terms of economic traits between castrated male pigs and entire gilts and, on the other hand, could strengthen the pig as a model to define metabolic mechanisms related to fat deposition.
Chen, Chih-Yu; Shi, Wenqiang; Balaton, Bradley P; Matthews, Allison M; Li, Yifeng; Arenillas, David J; Mathelier, Anthony; Itoh, Masayoshi; Kawaji, Hideya; Lassmann, Timo; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Carninci, Piero; Forrest, Alistair R R; Brown, Carolyn J; Wasserman, Wyeth W
Sex differences in susceptibility and progression have been reported in numerous diseases. Female cells have two copies of the X chromosome with X-chromosome inactivation imparting mono-allelic gene silencing for dosage compensation. However, a subset of genes, named escapees, escape silencing and are transcribed bi-allelically resulting in sexual dimorphism. Here we conducted in silico analyses of the sexes using human datasets to gain perspectives into such regulation. We identified transcription start sites of escapees (escTSSs) based on higher transcription levels in female cells using FANTOM5 CAGE data. Significant over-representations of YY1 transcription factor binding motif and ChIP-seq peaks around escTSSs highlighted its positive association with escapees. Furthermore, YY1 occupancy is significantly biased towards the inactive X (Xi) at long non-coding RNA loci that are frequent contacts of Xi-specific superloops. Our study suggests a role for YY1 in transcriptional activity on Xi in general through sequence-specific binding, and its involvement at superloop anchors.
Full Text Available The ‘Reading the Mind in the Eyes’ test (RMET assesses a specific socio-cognitive ability, i.e., the ability to identify mental states from gaze. The development of this ability in a lifespan perspective is of special interest. Whereas former investigations were limited mainly to childhood and adolescence, the focus has been shifted towards aging, and psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases recently. Although the RMET is frequently applied in developmental psychology and clinical settings, stimulus characteristics have never been investigated with respect to potential effects on test performance. Here, we analyzed the RMET stimulus set with a special focus on interrelations between sex, age and emotional valence. Forty-three persons rated age and emotional valence of the RMET picture set. Differences in emotional valence and age ratings between male and female items were analyzed. The linear relation between age and emotional valence was tested over all items, and separately for male and female items. Male items were rated older and more negative than female stimuli. Regarding male RMET items, age predicted emotional valence: older age was associated with negative emotions. Contrary, age and valence were not linearly related in female pictures. All ratings were independent of rater characteristics. Our results demonstrate a strong confound between sex, age, and emotional valence in the RMET. Male items presented a greater variability in age ratings compared to female items. Age and emotional valence were negatively associated among male items, but no significant association was found among female stimuli. As personal attributes impact social information processing, our results may add a new perspective on the interpretation of previous findings on interindividual differences in RMET accuracy, particularly in the field of developmental psychology, and age-associated neuropsychiatric diseases. A revision of the RMET might be afforded to
Kynast, Jana; Schroeter, Matthias L.
The ‘Reading the Mind in the Eyes’ test (RMET) assesses a specific socio-cognitive ability, i.e., the ability to identify mental states from gaze. The development of this ability in a lifespan perspective is of special interest. Whereas former investigations were limited mainly to childhood and adolescence, the focus has been shifted towards aging, and psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases recently. Although the RMET is frequently applied in developmental psychology and clinical settings, stimulus characteristics have never been investigated with respect to potential effects on test performance. Here, we analyzed the RMET stimulus set with a special focus on interrelations between sex, age and emotional valence. Forty-three persons rated age and emotional valence of the RMET picture set. Differences in emotional valence and age ratings between male and female items were analyzed. The linear relation between age and emotional valence was tested over all items, and separately for male and female items. Male items were rated older and more negative than female stimuli. Regarding male RMET items, age predicted emotional valence: older age was associated with negative emotions. Contrary, age and valence were not linearly related in female pictures. All ratings were independent of rater characteristics. Our results demonstrate a strong confound between sex, age, and emotional valence in the RMET. Male items presented a greater variability in age ratings compared to female items. Age and emotional valence were negatively associated among male items, but no significant association was found among female stimuli. As personal attributes impact social information processing, our results may add a new perspective on the interpretation of previous findings on interindividual differences in RMET accuracy, particularly in the field of developmental psychology, and age-associated neuropsychiatric diseases. A revision of the RMET might be afforded to overcome confounds
Kynast, Jana; Schroeter, Matthias L
The 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' test (RMET) assesses a specific socio-cognitive ability, i.e., the ability to identify mental states from gaze. The development of this ability in a lifespan perspective is of special interest. Whereas former investigations were limited mainly to childhood and adolescence, the focus has been shifted towards aging, and psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases recently. Although the RMET is frequently applied in developmental psychology and clinical settings, stimulus characteristics have never been investigated with respect to potential effects on test performance. Here, we analyzed the RMET stimulus set with a special focus on interrelations between sex, age and emotional valence. Forty-three persons rated age and emotional valence of the RMET picture set. Differences in emotional valence and age ratings between male and female items were analyzed. The linear relation between age and emotional valence was tested over all items, and separately for male and female items. Male items were rated older and more negative than female stimuli. Regarding male RMET items, age predicted emotional valence: older age was associated with negative emotions. Contrary, age and valence were not linearly related in female pictures. All ratings were independent of rater characteristics. Our results demonstrate a strong confound between sex, age, and emotional valence in the RMET. Male items presented a greater variability in age ratings compared to female items. Age and emotional valence were negatively associated among male items, but no significant association was found among female stimuli. As personal attributes impact social information processing, our results may add a new perspective on the interpretation of previous findings on interindividual differences in RMET accuracy, particularly in the field of developmental psychology, and age-associated neuropsychiatric diseases. A revision of the RMET might be afforded to overcome confounds
Full Text Available Bone mineral density (aBMD is equivalent to bone mineral content (BMC divided by area. We rechecked the significance of aBMD changes in aging by examining BMC and area separately. Subjects were 1167 community-dwelling Japanese men and women, aged 40–79 years. ABMDs of femoral neck and lumbar spine were assessed by DXA twice, at 6-year intervals. The change rates of BMC and area, as well as aBMD, were calculated and described separately by the age stratum and by sex. In the femoral neck region, aBMDs were significantly decreased in all age strata by an increase in area as well as BMC loss in the same pattern in both sexes. In the lumbar spine region, aBMDs decreased until the age of 60 in women, caused by the significant BMC decrease accompanying the small area change. Very differently in men, aBMDs increased after their 50s due to BMC increase, accompanied by an area increase. Separate analyses of BMC and area change revealed that the significance of aBMD changes in aging was very divergent among sites and between sexes. This may explain in part the dissociation of aBMD change and bone strength, suggesting that we should be more cautious when interpreting the meaning of aBMD change.
Elijah M Songok
Full Text Available To identify novel biomarkers for HIV-1 resistance, including pathways that may be critical in anti-HIV-1 vaccine design, we carried out a gene expression analysis on blood samples obtained from HIV-1 highly exposed seronegatives (HESN from a commercial sex worker cohort in Nairobi and compared their profiles to HIV-1 negative controls. Whole blood samples were collected from 43 HIV-1 resistant sex workers and a similar number of controls. Total RNA was extracted and hybridized to the Affymetrix HUG 133 Plus 2.0 micro arrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara CA. Output data was analysed through ArrayAssist software (Agilent, San Jose CA. More than 2,274 probe sets were differentially expressed in the HESN as compared to the control group (fold change ≥1.3; p value ≤0.0001, FDR <0.05. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the differentially expressed genes readily distinguished HESNs from controls. Pathway analysis through the KEGG signaling database revealed a majority of the impacted pathways (13 of 15, 87% had genes that were significantly down regulated. The most down expressed pathways were glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate, phosphatidyl inositol, natural killer cell cytotoxicity and T-cell receptor signaling. Ribosomal protein synthesis and tight junction genes were up regulated. We infer that the hallmark of HIV-1 resistance is down regulation of genes in key signaling pathways that HIV-1 depends on for infection.
Full Text Available Neuroimaging reveals that infant cries activate parts of the premotor cortical system. To validate this effect in a more direct way, we used event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Here, we investigated the presence and the time course of modulation of motor cortex excitability in young adults who listened to infant cries. Specifically, we recorded motor evoked potentials (MEPs from the biceps brachii (BB and interosseus dorsalis primus (ID1 muscles as produced by TMS delivered from 0 to 250 ms from sound onset in six steps of 50 ms in 10 females and 10 males. We observed an excitatory modulation of MEPs at 100 ms from the onset of the infant cry specific to females and to the ID1 muscle. We regard this modulation as a response to natural cry sounds because it was delayed, attenuated to stimuli increasingly different from natural cry, and was absent in a separate group of females who listened to non-cry stimuli physically matched to natural infant cries. Furthermore, the 100-ms latency of this modulation is not compatible with a voluntary reaction to the stimulus but suggests an automatic, bottom-up audiomotor association. The brains of adult females appear to be tuned to respond to infant cries with automatic motor excitation. This effect may reflect the greater and longstanding burden on females in caregiving infants.
Blanc, Guillaume; Duncan, Garry A.; Agarakova, Irina; Borodovsky, Mark; Gurnon, James; Kuo, Alan; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Pangailinan, Jasmyn; Polle, Juergen; Salamov, Asaf; Terry, Astrid; Yamada, Takashi; Dunigan, David D.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Etten, James L. Van
Chlorella variabilis NC64A, a unicellular photosynthetic green alga (Trebouxiophyceae), is an intracellular photobiont of Paramecium bursaria and a model system for studying virus/algal interactions. We sequenced its 46-Mb nuclear genome, revealing an expansion of protein families that could have participated in adaptation to symbiosis. NC64A exhibits variations in GC content across its genome that correlate with global expression level, average intron size, and codon usage bias. Although Chlorella species have been assumed to be asexual and nonmotile, the NC64A genome encodes all the known meiosis-specific proteins and a subset of proteins found in flagella. We hypothesize that Chlorella might have retained a flagella-derived structure that could be involved in sexual reproduction. Furthermore, a survey of phytohormone pathways in chlorophyte algae identified algal orthologs of Arabidopsis thaliana genes involved in hormone biosynthesis and signaling, suggesting that these functions were established prior to the evolution of land plants. We show that the ability of Chlorella to produce chitinous cell walls likely resulted from the capture of metabolic genes by horizontal gene transfer from algal viruses, prokaryotes, or fungi. Analysis of the NC64A genome substantially advances our understanding of the green lineage evolution, including the genomic interplay with viruses and symbiosis between eukaryotes.
... sex; Sexually transmitted - safe sex; GC - safe sex; Gonorrhea - safe sex; Herpes - safe sex; HIV - safe sex; ... contact. STIs include: Chlamydia Genital herpes Genital warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV HPV Syphilis STIs are also called ...
Shi, Yu; Liu, Wenguang; He, Maoxian
Bivalve mollusks exhibit hermaphroditism and sex reversal/differentiation. Studies generally focus on transcriptional profiling and specific genes related to sex determination and differentiation. Few studies on sex reversal/differentiation have been reported. A combination analysis of gonad proteomics and transcriptomics was conducted on Chlamys nobilis to provide a systematic understanding of sex reversal/differentiation in bivalves. We obtained 4258 unique peptides and 93,731 unigenes with good correlation between messenger RNA and protein levels. Candidate genes in sex reversal/differentiation were found: 15 genes differentially expressed between sexes were identified and 12 had obvious sexual functions. Three novel genes (foxl2, β-catenin, and sry) were expressed highly in intersex individuals and were likely involved in the control of gonadal sex in C. nobilis. High expression of foxl2 or β-catenin may inhibit sry and activate 5-HT receptor and vitellogenin to maintain female development. High expression of sry may inhibit foxl2 and β-catenin and activate dmrt2, fem-1, sfp2, sa6, Amy-1, APCP4, and PLK to maintain male function. High expression of sry, foxl2, and β-catenin in C. nobilis may be involved in promoting and maintaining sex reversal/differentiation. The downstream regulator may not be dimorphic expressed genes, but genes expressed in intersex individuals, males and females. Different expression patterns of sex-related genes and gonadal histological characteristics suggested that C. nobilis may change its sex from male to female. These findings suggest highly conserved sex reversal/differentiation with diverged regulatory pathways during C. nobilis evolution. This study provides valuable genetic resources for understanding sex reversal/differentiation (intersex) mechanisms and pathways underlying bivalve reproductive regulation.
Chan, Philip A.; Hogan, Joseph W.; Huang, Austin; DeLong, Allison; Salemi, Marco; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Kantor, Rami
Background Molecular epidemiologic evaluation of HIV-1 transmission networks can elucidate behavioral components of transmission that can be targets for intervention. Methods We combined phylogenetic and statistical approaches using pol sequences from patients diagnosed 2004-2011 at a large HIV center in Rhode Island, following 75% of the state’s HIV population. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using maximum likelihood and putative transmission clusters were evaluated using latent class analyses (LCA) to determine association of cluster size with underlying demographic/behavioral characteristics. A logistic growth model was used to assess intra-cluster dynamics over time and predict “active” clusters that were more likely to harbor undiagnosed infections. Results Of 1,166 HIV-1 subtype B sequences, 31% were distributed among 114 statistically-supported, monophyletic clusters (range: 2-15 sequences/cluster). Sequences from men who have sex with men (MSM) formed 52% of clusters. LCA demonstrated that sequences from recently diagnosed (2008-2011) MSM with primary HIV infection (PHI) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were more likely to form larger clusters (Odds Ratio 1.62-11.25, ppornographic stores. Four large clusters with 38 sequences (100% male, 89% MSM) had a high-probability of harboring undiagnosed infections and included younger MSM with PHI and STIs. Conclusions In this first large-scale molecular epidemiologic investigation of HIV-1 transmission in New England, sexual networks among recently diagnosed MSM with PHI and concomitant STIs contributed to ongoing transmission. Characterization of transmission dynamics revealed actively growing clusters which may be targets for intervention. PMID:26258569
Full Text Available The issue of ethnicity was set in all censuses of SFRY, as well as in the first censuses in countries that were created after its disintegration. When analyzing the censuses it can be concluded that it is a changeable category. Not only was the manner of forming the question in censuses changing, but also the number of categories of nationality and their order in published census' results. It depended on state policy and the political situation preceding the censuses. Since the answer on the issues of ethnicity is a subjective criterion, and it was written down according to the freely declared statement of the residents, guaranteed by the Constitution. It has often happened that same individuals have declared themselves differently from one census to another, and also some categories of ethnicity have vanished and some others were created. Although in SFRY nations and ethnicities were equal, still indirectly in published results, existence of these two categories was indicated. But, in newly created countries, the manner of forming the question of ethnicity was changed, their number and order were also changed and the notion of 'minority' was again introduced, indicating, beyond doubt, a different status of nationality (except the majority from the one in the former Yugoslavia.
Roca Vilà, Jordi
Als preliminars: The research described in this book was carried out at the Computer Vision Center El reconeixement d'objectes és potser la tasca més important que un sistema autònom, ja sigui biològic o artificial, necessita realitzar. En el context de la visió humana, això s'aconsegueix parcialment a través del reconeixement del color de les superfícies malgrat els canvis en la distribució espectral de la llum, propietat anomenada constància de color. El reconeixement correcte del color ...
Sabino, Marcella; Carmelo, Victor Adriano Okstoft; Mazzoni, Gianluca
the potential of RNA-Sequencing data in order to evaluate the effect of an EO supplementary diet on gene expression in both lamb liver and muscle. Using a treatment and sex interaction model, 13 and 4 differentially expressed genes were identified in liver and muscle respectively. Sex-specific differentially...... on the expression profile of both liver and muscle tissues. We hypothesize that the presence of EOs could have beneficial effects on wellness of male lamb and further analyses are needed to understand the biological mechanisms behind the different effect of EO metabolites based on sex. Using lamb as a model...
Full Text Available The natural sex reversal severely affects the sex ratio and thus decreases the productivity of the rice field eel (Monopterus albus. How to understand and manipulate this process is one of the major issues for the rice field eel stocking. So far the genomics and transcriptomics data available for this species are still scarce. Here we provide a comprehensive study of transcriptomes of brain and gonad tissue in three sex stages (female, intersex and male from the rice field eel to investigate changes in transcriptional level during the sex reversal process.Approximately 195 thousand unigenes were generated and over 44.4 thousand were functionally annotated. Comparative study between stages provided multiple differentially expressed genes in brain and gonad tissue. Overall 4668 genes were found to be of unequal abundance between gonad tissues, far more than that of the brain tissues (59 genes. These genes were enriched in several different signaling pathways. A number of 231 genes were found with different levels in gonad in each stage, with several reproduction-related genes included. A total of 19 candidate genes that could be most related to sex reversal were screened out, part of these genes' expression patterns were validated by RT-qPCR. The expression of spef2, maats1, spag6 and dmc1 were abundant in testis, but was barely detected in females, while the 17β-hsd12, zpsbp3, gal3 and foxn5 were only expressed in ovary.This study investigated the complexity of brain and gonad transcriptomes in three sex stages of the rice field eel. Integrated analysis of different gene expression and changes in signaling pathways, such as PI3K-Akt pathway, provided crucial data for further study of sex transformation mechanisms.
Barreto, Felipe S; Avise, John C
Taxa in which males alone invest in postzygotic care of offspring are often considered good models for investigating the proffered relationships between sexual selection and mating systems. In the pycnogonid sea spider Pycnogonum stearnsi, males carry large egg masses on their bodies for several weeks, so this species is a plausible candidate for sex-role reversal (greater intensity of sexual selection on females than on males). Here, we couple a microsatellite-based assessment of the mating system in a natural population with formal quantitative measures of genetic fitness to investigate the direction of sexual selection in P. stearnsi. Both sexes proved to be highly polygamous and showed similar standardized variances in reproductive and mating successes. Moreover, the fertility (number of progeny) of males and females appeared to be equally and highly dependent on mate access, as shown by similar Bateman gradients for the two sexes. The absence of sex-role reversal in this population of P. stearnsi is probably attributable to the fact that males are not limited by brooding space but have evolved an ability to carry large numbers of progeny. Body length was not a good predictor of male mating or reproductive success, so the aim of future studies should be to determine what traits are the targets of sexual selection in this species.
Zhao, Liang; Ng, Ee Ting; Davidson, Tara-Lynne; Longmuss, Enya; Urschitz, Johann; Elston, Marlee; Moisyadi, Stefan; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter
The mammalian sex-determining factor SRY comprises a conserved high-mobility group (HMG) box DNA-binding domain and poorly conserved regions outside the HMG box. Mouse Sry is unusual in that it includes a C-terminal polyglutamine (polyQ) tract that is absent in nonrodent SRY proteins, and yet, paradoxically, is essential for male sex determination. To dissect the molecular functions of this domain, we generated a series of Sry mutants, and studied their biochemical properties in cell lines and transgenic mouse embryos. Sry protein lacking the polyQ domain was unstable, due to proteasomal degradation. Replacing this domain with irrelevant sequences stabilized the protein but failed to restore Sry’s ability to up-regulate its key target gene SRY-box 9 (Sox9) and its sex-determining function in vivo. These functions were restored only when a VP16 transactivation domain was substituted. We conclude that the polyQ domain has important roles in protein stabilization and transcriptional activation, both of which are essential for male sex determination in mice. Our data disprove the hypothesis that the conserved HMG box domain is the only functional domain of Sry, and highlight an evolutionary paradox whereby mouse Sry has evolved a novel bifunctional module to activate Sox9 directly, whereas SRY proteins in other taxa, including humans, seem to lack this ability, presumably making them dependent on partner proteins(s) to provide this function. PMID:25074915
Zhao, Liang; Ng, Ee Ting; Davidson, Tara-Lynne; Longmuss, Enya; Urschitz, Johann; Elston, Marlee; Moisyadi, Stefan; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter
The mammalian sex-determining factor SRY comprises a conserved high-mobility group (HMG) box DNA-binding domain and poorly conserved regions outside the HMG box. Mouse Sry is unusual in that it includes a C-terminal polyglutamine (polyQ) tract that is absent in nonrodent SRY proteins, and yet, paradoxically, is essential for male sex determination. To dissect the molecular functions of this domain, we generated a series of Sry mutants, and studied their biochemical properties in cell lines and transgenic mouse embryos. Sry protein lacking the polyQ domain was unstable, due to proteasomal degradation. Replacing this domain with irrelevant sequences stabilized the protein but failed to restore Sry's ability to up-regulate its key target gene SRY-box 9 (Sox9) and its sex-determining function in vivo. These functions were restored only when a VP16 transactivation domain was substituted. We conclude that the polyQ domain has important roles in protein stabilization and transcriptional activation, both of which are essential for male sex determination in mice. Our data disprove the hypothesis that the conserved HMG box domain is the only functional domain of Sry, and highlight an evolutionary paradox whereby mouse Sry has evolved a novel bifunctional module to activate Sox9 directly, whereas SRY proteins in other taxa, including humans, seem to lack this ability, presumably making them dependent on partner proteins(s) to provide this function.
Brito, Diana V; Silva, Carlos Gustavo N; Hasselmann, Martin; Viana, Luciana S; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Carvalho-Zilse, Gislene A
In highly eusocial insects, development of reproductive traits are regulated not only by sex determination pathway, but it also depends on caste fate. The molecular basis of both mechanisms in stingless bees and possible interaction with each other is still obscure. Here, we investigate sex determination in Melipona interrupta, focusing on characterization and expression analysis of the feminizer gene (Mi-fem), and its association to a major component of caste determination, the juvenile hormone (JH). We present evidence that Mi-fem mRNA is sex-specifically spliced in which only the female splice variant encodes the full length protein, following the same principle known for other bee species. We quantified Mi-fem expression among developmental stages, sexes and castes. Mi-fem expression varies considerably throughout development, with higher expression levels in embryos. Also, fem levels in pupae and newly emerged adults were significantly higher in queens than workers and males. Finally, we ectopically applied JH in cocoon spinning larvae, which correspond to the time window where queen/worker phenotypes diverge. We observed a significantly increase in Mi-fem expression compared to control groups. Since up to 100% of females turn into queens when treated with JH (while control groups are composed mainly of workers), we propose that fem might act to regulate queens' development. Our findings provide support for the conserved regulatory function of fem in Melipona bees and demonstrate a significant correlation between key elements of sex and caste determination pathways, opening the avenue to further investigate the molecular basis of these complex traits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Atlantic salmon genome is in the process of returning to a diploid state after undergoing a whole genome duplication (WGD event between 25 and100 million years ago. Existing data on the proportion of paralogous sequence variants (PSVs, multisite variants (MSVs and other types of complex sequence variation suggest that the rediplodization phase is far from over. The aims of this study were to construct a high density linkage map for Atlantic salmon, to characterize the extent of rediploidization and to improve our understanding of genetic differences between sexes in this species. Results A linkage map for Atlantic salmon comprising 29 chromosomes and 5650 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs was constructed using genotyping data from 3297 fish belonging to 143 families. Of these, 2696 SNPs were generated from ESTs or other gene associated sequences. Homeologous chromosomal regions were identified through the mapping of duplicated SNPs and through the investigation of syntenic relationships between Atlantic salmon and the reference genome sequence of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus. The sex-specific linkage maps spanned a total of 2402.3 cM in females and 1746.2 cM in males, highlighting a difference in sex specific recombination rate (1.38:1 which is much lower than previously reported in Atlantic salmon. The sexes, however, displayed striking differences in the distribution of recombination sites within linkage groups, with males showing recombination strongly localized to telomeres. Conclusion The map presented here represents a valuable resource for addressing important questions of interest to evolution (the process of re-diploidization, aquaculture and salmonid life history biology and not least as a resource to aid the assembly of the forthcoming Atlantic salmon reference genome sequence.
Barreto, Felipe S.; Avise, John C.
Taxa in which males alone invest in postzygotic care of offspring are often considered good models for investigating the proffered relationships between sexual selection and mating systems. In the pycnogonid sea spider Pycnogonum stearnsi, males carry large egg masses on their bodies for several weeks, so this species is a plausible candidate for sex-role reversal (greater intensity of sexual selection on females than on males). Here, we couple a microsatellite-based assessment of the mating ...
Cao, Lei; Zhang, Li; Zeng, Huawei; Wu, Ryan Ty; Wu, Tung-Lung; Cheng, Wen-Hsing
Background: The hierarchies of tissue selenium distribution and selenotranscriptomes are thought to critically affect healthspan and longevity. Objective: We determined selenium status and selenotranscriptomes in response to long-term dietary selenium deficiency and age in tissues of male and female mice. Methods: Weanling telomerase RNA component knockout C57BL/6 mice were fed a selenium-deficient (0.03 mg Se/kg) Torula yeast-based AIN-93G diet or a diet supplemented with sodium selenate (0.15 mg Se/kg) until age 18 or 24 mo. Plasma, hearts, kidneys, livers, and testes were collected to assay for selenotranscriptomes, selected selenoproteins, and tissue selenium concentrations. Data were analyzed with the use of 2-factor ANOVA (diet × age) in both sexes. Results: Dietary selenium deficiency decreased ( P ≤ 0.05) selenium concentrations (65-72%) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) 3 (82-94%) and selenoprotein P (SELENOP) (17-41%) levels in the plasma of both sexes of mice and mRNA levels (9-68%) of 4, 4, and 12 selenoproteins in the heart, kidney, and liver of males, respectively, and 5, 16, and 14 selenoproteins, respectively, in females. Age increased selenium concentrations and SELENOP levels (27% and 30%, respectively; P ≤ 0.05) in the plasma of males only but decreased (12-46%; P selenium deficiency and age in ≥1 tissue or sex, or both. Dietary selenium deficiency upregulated (40-160%; P ≤ 0.05) iodothyronine deiodinase 2 ( Dio2 ) and selenoprotein N ( Selenon ) in the kidneys of males. Age upregulated (11-44%; P selenium status and selenotranscriptomes because of dietary selenium deficiency and age. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Davenport, A.P.; Evans, P.D.
A radioimmunoassay has been used to measure Met-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity in tissue from male and female locusts, Schistocerca gregaria. The pattern of distribution within the two sexes was similar with about equal amounts present in the suboesophageal and 3 thoracic ganglia and a lower concentration in the cerebral ganglion. Female nervous tissue contained more than twice the amount of Met-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity than did that of males. No consistent immunoreactivity could be detected in the abdominal ganglia or non-neural tissues. The results are discussed in relation to recent evidence that peptides related or identical to enkephalins are present in vertebrates as well as higher organisms. (Auth.)
Sex therapy Overview Sex therapy is a type of psychotherapy — a general term for treating mental health problems by talking with a mental health professional. Through sex therapy, you can address concerns about sexual function, ...
Shevchouk, Olesya T; Ball, Gregory F; Cornil, Charlotte A; Balthazart, Jacques
In songbirds, neurogenesis in the song control nucleus HVC is sensitive to the hormonal and social environment but the dynamics of this process is difficult to assess with a single exogenous marker of new neurons. We simultaneously used three independent markers to investigate HVC neurogenesis in male and female canaries. Males were castrated, implanted with testosterone and housed either alone (M), with a female (M-F) or with another male (M-M) while females were implanted with 17β-estradiol and housed with a male (F-M). All subjects received injections of the two thymidine analogues, BrdU and of EdU, respectively 21 and 10 days before brain collection. Cells containing BrdU or EdU or expressing doublecortin (DCX), which labels newborn neurons, were quantified. Social context and sex differentially affected total BrdU+, EdU+, BrdU+EdU- and DCX+ populations. M-M males had a higher density of BrdU+ cells in the ventricular zone adjacent to HVC and of EdU+ in HVC than M-F males. M birds had a higher ratio of BrdU+EdU- to EdU+ cells than M-F subjects suggesting higher survival of newer neurons in the former group. Total number of HVC DCX+ cells was lower in M-F than in M-M males. Sex differences were also dependent of the type of marker used. Several technical limitations associated with the use of these multiple markers were also identified. These results indicate that proliferation, recruitment and survival of new neurons can be independently affected by environmental conditions and effects can only be fully discerned through the use of multiple neurogenesis markers.
Olesya T Shevchouk
Full Text Available In songbirds, neurogenesis in the song control nucleus HVC is sensitive to the hormonal and social environment but the dynamics of this process is difficult to assess with a single exogenous marker of new neurons. We simultaneously used three independent markers to investigate HVC neurogenesis in male and female canaries. Males were castrated, implanted with testosterone and housed either alone (M, with a female (M-F or with another male (M-M while females were implanted with 17β-estradiol and housed with a male (F-M. All subjects received injections of the two thymidine analogues, BrdU and of EdU, respectively 21 and 10 days before brain collection. Cells containing BrdU or EdU or expressing doublecortin (DCX, which labels newborn neurons, were quantified. Social context and sex differentially affected total BrdU+, EdU+, BrdU+EdU- and DCX+ populations. M-M males had a higher density of BrdU+ cells in the ventricular zone adjacent to HVC and of EdU+ in HVC than M-F males. M birds had a higher ratio of BrdU+EdU- to EdU+ cells than M-F subjects suggesting higher survival of newer neurons in the former group. Total number of HVC DCX+ cells was lower in M-F than in M-M males. Sex differences were also dependent of the type of marker used. Several technical limitations associated with the use of these multiple markers were also identified. These results indicate that proliferation, recruitment and survival of new neurons can be independently affected by environmental conditions and effects can only be fully discerned through the use of multiple neurogenesis markers.
Versteeg, Bart; Bruisten, Sylvia M; van der Ende, Arie; Pannekoek, Yvonne
Chlamydia trachomatis infections remain the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. To gain more insight into the epidemiology and transmission of C. trachomatis, several schemes of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) have been developed. We investigated the clustering of C. trachomatis strains derived from men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexuals using the MLST scheme based on 7 housekeeping genes (MLST-7) adapted for clinical specimens and a high-resolution MLST scheme based on 6 polymorphic genes, including ompA (hr-MLST-6). Specimens from 100 C. trachomatis infected men who have sex with men (MSM) and 100 heterosexual women were randomly selected from previous studies and sequenced. We adapted the MLST-7 scheme to a nested assay to be suitable for direct typing of clinical specimens. All selected specimens were typed using both the adapted MLST-7 scheme and the hr-MLST-6 scheme. Clustering of C. trachomatis strains derived from MSM and heterosexuals was assessed using minimum spanning tree analysis. Sufficient chlamydial DNA was present in 188 of the 200 (94 %) selected samples. Using the adapted MLST-7 scheme, full MLST profiles were obtained for 187 of 188 tested specimens resulting in a high success rate of 99.5 %. Of these 187 specimens, 91 (48.7 %) were from MSM and 96 (51.3 %) from heterosexuals. We detected 21 sequence types (STs) using the adapted MLST-7 and 79 STs using the hr-MLST-6 scheme. Minimum spanning tree analyses was used to examine the clustering of MLST-7 data, which showed no reflection of separate transmission in MSM and heterosexual hosts. Moreover, typing using the hr-MLST-6 scheme identified genetically related clusters within each of clusters that were identified by using the MLST-7 scheme. No distinct transmission of C. trachomatis could be observed in MSM and heterosexuals using the adapted MLST-7 scheme in contrast to using the hr-MLST-6. In addition, we compared clustering of both MLST schemes and
Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating disease caused by blood flukes (digenetic trematodes of the genus Schistosoma. Schistosomes are sexually dimorphic and exhibit dramatic morphological changes during a complex lifecycle which requires subtle gene regulatory mechanisms to fulfil these complex biological processes. In the current study, a 41,982 features custom DNA microarray, which represents the most comprehensive probe coverage for any schistosome transcriptome study, was designed based on public domain and local databases to explore differential gene expression in S. japonicum. We found that approximately 1/10 of the total annotated genes in the S. japonicum genome are differentially expressed between adult males and females. In general, genes associated with the cytoskeleton, and motor and neuronal activities were readily expressed in male adult worms, whereas genes involved in amino acid metabolism, nucleotide biosynthesis, gluconeogenesis, glycosylation, cell cycle processes, DNA synthesis and genome fidelity and stability were enriched in females. Further, miRNAs target sites within these gene sets were predicted, which provides a scenario whereby the miRNAs potentially regulate these sex-biased expressed genes. The study significantly expands the expressional and regulatory characteristics of gender-biased expressed genes in schistosomes with high accuracy. The data provide a better appreciation of the biological and physiological features of male and female schistosome parasites, which may lead to novel vaccine targets and the development of new therapeutic interventions.
Cai, Pengfei; Liu, Shuai; Piao, Xianyu; Hou, Nan; Gobert, Geoffrey N; McManus, Donald P; Chen, Qijun
Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating disease caused by blood flukes (digenetic trematodes) of the genus Schistosoma. Schistosomes are sexually dimorphic and exhibit dramatic morphological changes during a complex lifecycle which requires subtle gene regulatory mechanisms to fulfil these complex biological processes. In the current study, a 41,982 features custom DNA microarray, which represents the most comprehensive probe coverage for any schistosome transcriptome study, was designed based on public domain and local databases to explore differential gene expression in S. japonicum. We found that approximately 1/10 of the total annotated genes in the S. japonicum genome are differentially expressed between adult males and females. In general, genes associated with the cytoskeleton, and motor and neuronal activities were readily expressed in male adult worms, whereas genes involved in amino acid metabolism, nucleotide biosynthesis, gluconeogenesis, glycosylation, cell cycle processes, DNA synthesis and genome fidelity and stability were enriched in females. Further, miRNAs target sites within these gene sets were predicted, which provides a scenario whereby the miRNAs potentially regulate these sex-biased expressed genes. The study significantly expands the expressional and regulatory characteristics of gender-biased expressed genes in schistosomes with high accuracy. The data provide a better appreciation of the biological and physiological features of male and female schistosome parasites, which may lead to novel vaccine targets and the development of new therapeutic interventions.
Full Text Available MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNA that regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. MicroRNAs have been identified in various body fluids under normal conditions and their stability as well as their dysregulation in disease opens up a new field for biomarker study. However, diurnal and day-to-day variation in plasma microRNA levels, and differential regulation between males and females, may affect biomarker stability. A QuantStudio 12K Flex Real-Time PCR System was used to profile plasma microRNA levels using OpenArray in male and female healthy volunteers, in the morning and afternoon, and at four time points over a one month period. Using this system we were able to run four OpenArray plates in a single run, the equivalent of 32 traditional 384-well qPCR plates or 12,000 data points. Up to 754 microRNAs can be identified in a single plasma sample in under two hours. 108 individual microRNAs were identified in at least 80% of all our samples which compares favourably with other reports of microRNA profiles in serum or plasma in healthy adults. Many of these microRNAs, including miR-16-5p, miR-17-5p, miR-19a-3p, miR-24-3p, miR-30c-5p, miR-191-5p, miR-223-3p and miR-451a are highly expressed and consistent with previous studies using other platforms. Overall, microRNA levels were very consistent between individuals, males and females, and time points and we did not detect significant differences in levels of microRNAs. These results suggest the suitability of this platform for microRNA profiling and biomarker discovery and suggest minimal confounding influence of sex or sample timing. However, the platform has not been subjected to rigorous validation which must be demonstrated in future biomarker studies where large differences may exist between disease and control samples.
Wu, Chen; Twort, Victoria G; Crowhurst, Ross N; Newcomb, Richard D; Buckley, Thomas R
accumulation of repetitive regions and intron elongation. MITEs contributed significantly to the growth of C. hookeri genome size yet are surprisingly absent from the T. cristinae genome. Sex-biased genes identified from gonadal tissues, including genes involved in juvenile hormone synthesis, provide interesting candidates for the further study of flexible reproduction in stick insects.
Full Text Available The filarial nematode Brugia malayi is an etiological agent of Lymphatic Filariasis. The capability of B. malayi and other parasitic nematodes to modulate host biology is recognized but the mechanisms by which such manipulation occurs are obscure. An emerging paradigm is the release of parasite-derived extracellular vesicles (EV containing bioactive proteins and small RNA species that allow secretion of parasite effector molecules and their potential trafficking to host tissues. We have previously described EV release from the infectious L3 stage B. malayi and here we profile vesicle release across all intra-mammalian life cycle stages (microfilariae, L3, L4, adult male and female worms. Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis was used to quantify and size EVs revealing discrete vesicle populations and indicating a secretory process that is conserved across the life cycle. Brugia EVs are internalized by murine macrophages with no preference for life stage suggesting a uniform mechanism for effector molecule trafficking. Further, the use of chemical uptake inhibitors suggests all life stage EVs are internalized by phagocytosis. Proteomic profiling of adult male and female EVs using nano-scale LC-MS/MS described quantitative and qualitative differences in the adult EV proteome, helping define the biogenesis of Brugia EVs and revealing sexual dimorphic characteristics in immunomodulatory cargo. Finally, ivermectin was found to rapidly inhibit EV release by all Brugia life stages. Further this drug effect was also observed in the related filarial nematode, the canine heartworm Dirofilaria immitis but not in an ivermectin-unresponsive field isolate of that parasite, highlighting a potential mechanism of action for this drug and suggesting new screening platforms for anti-filarial drug development.
Sex headaches Overview Sex headaches are brought on by sexual activity — especially an orgasm. You may notice a dull ache in your head ... severe headache just before or during orgasm. Most sex headaches are nothing to worry about. But some ...
West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C
Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...
Thomas Laqueur’s influential yet controversial study Making Sex has, in many ways, revolutionized our understanding of sexuality in antiquity. Yet, most of Laqueur’s critics and supporters stressed the one-sex body, while the crux of his argument is the primacy of gender. Moreover, a systematic...
The sex-determining system differs considerably among organisms. Even among insect species, the genetic system for sex-determination is highly diversified. In Drosophila melanogaster, somatic sexual differentiation is regulated by a well characterized genetic hierarchy X : A > Sxl > tra/tra2 > dsx and fru. This cascade ...
Luo, Wen; Lin, Shumao; Li, Guihuan; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan
The sex-linked dwarf (SLD) chicken is an ideal model system for understanding growth hormone (GH)-action and growth hormone receptor (GHR) function because of its recessive mutation in the GHR gene. Skeletal muscle mass is reduced in the SLD chicken with a smaller muscle fiber diameter. Our previous study has presented the mRNA and miRNA expression profiles of the SLD chicken and normal chicken between embryo day 14 and seven weeks of age. However, the molecular mechanism of GHR-deficient induced muscle mass loss is still unclear, and the key molecules and pathways underlying the GHR-deficient induced muscle mass loss also remain to be illustrated. Here, by functional network analysis of the differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs between the SLD and normal chickens, we revealed that let-7b, miR-128 and the MAPK pathway might play key roles in the GHR-deficient induced muscle mass loss, and that the reduced cell division and growth are potential cellular processes during the SLD chicken skeletal muscle development. Additionally, we also found some genes and miRNAs involved in chicken skeletal muscle development, through the MAPK, PI3K-Akt, Wnt and Insulin signaling pathways. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanism underlying muscle mass loss in the SLD chickens, and some regulatory networks that are crucial for chicken skeletal muscle development. PMID:26927061
The Gay and Lesbian Medical Association urges HIV prevention specialists to regard male-to-male oral-genital sex as a low-risk activity and concentrate instead on the danger of unprotected anal intercourse. According to the association, the confusion and mixed messages surrounding oral sex are harming efforts to encourage gay men to make rational choices about truly risky behavior. The recommendations appear in the association's position paper issued March 19, 1996.
It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations.......It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations....
Blackmon, Heath; Ross, Laura; Bachtrog, Doris
Insects harbor a tremendous diversity of sex determining mechanisms both within and between groups. For example, in some orders such as Hymenoptera, all members are haplodiploid, whereas Diptera contain species with homomorphic as well as male and female heterogametic sex chromosome systems or paternal genome elimination. We have established a large database on karyotypes and sex chromosomes in insects, containing information on over 13000 species covering 29 orders of insects. This database constitutes a unique starting point to report phylogenetic patterns on the distribution of sex determination mechanisms, sex chromosomes, and karyotypes among insects and allows us to test general theories on the evolutionary dynamics of karyotypes, sex chromosomes, and sex determination systems in a comparative framework. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that male heterogamety is the ancestral mode of sex determination in insects, and transitions to female heterogamety are extremely rare. Many insect orders harbor species with complex sex chromosomes, and gains and losses of the sex-limited chromosome are frequent in some groups. Haplodiploidy originated several times within insects, and parthenogenesis is rare but evolves frequently. Providing a single source to electronically access data previously distributed among more than 500 articles and books will not only accelerate analyses of the assembled data, but also provide a unique resource to guide research on which taxa are likely to be informative to address specific questions, for example, for genome sequencing projects or large-scale comparative studies. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan
There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research.
Jakubiczka, S.; Schröder, C.; Ullmann, R.; Volleth, M.; Ledig, S.; Gilberg, E.; Kroisel, P.; P. Wieacker, P.
Campomelic dysplasia (MIM 114290) is a severe malformation syndrome frequently accompanied by male-to-female sex reversal. Causative are mutations within the SOX9 gene on 17q24.3 as well as chromosomal aberrations (translocations, inversions or deletions) in the vicinity of SOX9 . Here, we report on a patient with muscular hypotonia, craniofacial dysmorphism, cleft palate, brachydactyly, malformations of thoracic spine, and gonadal dysgenesis with female external genitalia and müllerian duct ...
... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS FAQ020 When Sex Is Painful • How common is painful sex? • What causes pain during sex? • Where is pain during sex felt? • When should ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Sex During Pregnancy ... satisfying and safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during ...
Bianchi, Fernanda T; Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Vidal-Ortiz, Salvador; Gonzales, Felisa A; Betancourt, Fabián; Aguilar, Marcela; Poppen, Paul J
This qualitative study examined sex work among internally displaced male and transgender female sex workers in Bogotá, Colombia. Internal displacement has occurred in Colombia as a result of decades of conflict among armed groups and has created large-scale migration from rural to urban areas. Informed by the polymorphous model of sex work, which posits that contextual conditions shape the experience of sex work, we examined three main research questions. The first dealt with how internal displacement was related to the initiation of sex work; the second concerned the effect of agency on sex worker satisfaction; and the third examined how sex work in this context was related to HIV and other risks. Life history interviews were conducted with 26 displaced individuals who had done sex work: 14 were men who have sex with men and 12 were transgender women (natal males). Findings revealed that many participants began doing sex work in the period immediately after displacement, because of a lack of money, housing, and social support. HIV risk was greater during this time due to limited knowledge of HIV and inexperience negotiating safer sex with clients. Other findings indicated that sex workers who exerted more control and choice in the circumstances of their work reported greater satisfaction. In addition, we found that although many sex workers insisted on condom use with clients, several noted that they would sometimes have unprotected sex for additional money. Specific characteristics affecting the experience of sex work among the transgender women were also discussed.
Kanda, Naho; Ichikawa, Machiko; Ono, Ayaka; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Abe, Jun; Tsuchikane, Yuki; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Sekimoto, Hiroyuki
Heterothallic strains of the Closterium peracerosum-strigosum-littorale (C. psl.) complex have two sexes, mating-type plus (mt + ) and mating-type minus (mt - ). Conjugation between these two sexes is regulated by two sex pheromones, protoplast-release-inducing protein (PR-IP) and PR-IP Inducer, which are produced by mt + and mt - cells, respectively. PR-IP mediates the release of protoplasts from mt - cells during mating. In this study, we examined the mechanism of action of CpRLP1 (receptor-like protein 1), which was previously identified in a cDNA microarray analysis as one of the PR-IP-inducible genes. Using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, we generated CpRLP1 knockout mutants in mt - cells of the C. psl. complex. When the knockout mt - cells were mixed with wild-type mt + cells, conjugation was severely reduced. Many cells released protoplasts without pairing, suggesting a loss of synchronization between the two mating partners. Furthermore, the knockout mutants were hypersensitive to PR-IP. We conclude that CpRLP1 is a negative regulator of PR-IP that regulates the timing of protoplast release in conjugating C. psl. cells. As the first report of successful gene knockout in the class Charophyceae, this study provides a basis for research aimed at understanding the ancestral roles of genes that are indispensable for the development of land plants.
Elzaiat, Maëva; Jouneau, Luc; Thépot, Dominique; Klopp, Christophe; Allais-Bonnet, Aurélie; Cabau, Cédric; André, Marjolaine; Chaffaux, Stéphane; Cribiu, Edmond-Paul; Pailhoux, Eric; Pannetier, Maëlle
FOXL2 loss of function in goats leads to the early transdifferentiation of ovaries into testes, then to the full sex reversal of XX homozygous mutants. By contrast, Foxl2 loss of function in mice induces an arrest of follicle formation after birth, followed by complete female sterility. In order to understand the molecular role of FOXL2 during ovarian differentiation in the goat species, putative FOXL2 target genes were determined at the earliest stage of gonadal sex-specific differentiation by comparing the mRNA profiles of XX gonads expressing the FOXL2 protein or not. Of these 163 deregulated genes, around two-thirds corresponded to testicular genes that were up-regulated when FOXL2 was absent, and only 19 represented female-associated genes, down-regulated in the absence of FOXL2. FOXL2 should therefore be viewed as an antitestis gene rather than as a female-promoting gene. In particular, the key testis-determining gene DMRT1 was found to be up-regulated ahead of SOX9, thus suggesting in goats that SOX9 primary up-regulation may require DMRT1. Overall, our results equated to FOXL2 being an antitestis gene, allowing us to propose an alternative model for the sex-determination process in goats that differs slightly from that demonstrated in mice. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.
R N Srivastava
Full Text Available Sex, though not everything in life, is a profoundly important aspect of human existence. It has evolved to serve more than reproductive functions; relational and recreational functions having taken precedence over procreational. Sex has come to play a much wider socio-psychological function. Human sexuality is complex and multidimensional. It is subject to influence by multitude of factors often grouped as biological (e.g. genes, hormones, psychological (e.g. fear, anxiety, mood and socio-cultural (e.g. sex roles, values- religious/moral/ethical, customs. It is the interaction and interrelationship of these factors from the time of conception, through intrauterine life, infancy, childhood and adolescence, till adulthood (even later in life that determine the sexual development expressed as sexual attitudes and behaviour of the people. Learning, both social and cognitive, plays a significantly important role in such development. Sexual dysfunctions in men and women, result from factors often categorised as physical or organic and psychological; more often a combination may be involved. Experience has shown that in majority of men and women in India having sexual problems, ignorance misconceptions and prevailing myths are invariably responsible in the causation of Ihese problems. Sexual problems in individual man (e.g. erectile failure and woman (e.g. vaginismus cause anxiety, feelings of frustration, lowered self esteem and symptoms of depression. The condition may also affect the spouse; he/she, as a reaction to the problem in the partner, may develop sexual and psychosocial problems including distressed marital relationship. This may also have influence on general couple relationship, effecting adversely the quality of family life. Modern therapeutic endevours have made it possible now to offer effective therapy to most people who seek help for their sexual problems, thus preventing the consequences on couple relationship. However, there is
R N Srivastava
Full Text Available Sex, though not everything in life, is a profoundly important aspect of human existence. It has evolved to serve more than reproductive functions; relational and recreational functions having taken precedence over procreational. Sex has come to play a much wider socio-psychological function.Human sexuality is complex and multidimensional. It is subject to influence by multitude of factors often grouped as biological (e.g. genes, hormones, psychological (e.g. fear, anxiety, mood and socio-cultural (e.g. sex roles, values- religious/moral/ethical, customs. It is the interaction and interrelationship of these factors from the time of conception, through intrauterine life, infancy, childhood and adolescence, till adulthood (even later in life that determine the sexual development expressed as sexual attitudes and behaviour of the people. Learning, both social and cognitive, plays a significantly important role in such development.Sexual dysfunctions in men and women, result from factors often categorised as physical or organic and psychological; more often a combination may be involved. Experience has shown that in majority of men and women in India having sexual problems, ignorance misconceptions and prevailing myths are invariably responsible in the causation of Ihese problems. Sexual problems in individual man (e.g. erectile failure and woman (e.g. vaginismus cause anxiety, feelings of frustration, lowered self esteem and symptoms of depression. The condition may also affect the spouse; he/she, as a reaction to the problem in the partner, may develop sexual and psychosocial problems including distressed marital relationship. This may also have influence on general couple relationship, effecting adversely the quality of family life.Modern therapeutic endevours have made it possible now to offer effective therapy to most people who seek help for their sexual problems, thus preventing the consequences on couple relationship. However, there is also
Key words: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), quantitative sexing, Siberian tiger. INTRODUCTION. Animal molecular sexing .... 43:3-12. Ellegren H (1996). First gene on the avian W chromosome (CHD) provides a tag for universal sexing of non-ratite birds. Proc.
Svendsen, Stine H. Bang
While there is little political opposition towards sex education as such in Norway, recent attempts at reforming the subject reveal underlying heteronormative presumptions that seem resistant to reform. While a focus on homosexuality is included in the national curriculum at all levels of compulsory education, the sexual practices involved in…
Toscano, Sharyl Eve
Adolescent participants in a study aimed at exploring the nature and characteristics of girls' dating relationships revealed the phenomenon of sex parties. These teens defined a "sex party" as an opportunity to engage in sexual contact outside of typical dating relationships. Sexual activity could involve actual intercourse, but usually involved…
To examine the development of sex-role stereotyping in Malaysia, 80 children were tested with the Sex Stereotype Measurement II. Results revealed that stereotyping increases with age, that the male stereotype is more easily recognized than the female, and that boys are more familiar with the male stereotype than are girls. (KH)
Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...
intercourse, about 60% reported having a single sexual partner and 40% reported having multiple ... masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married people and/or .... sex were considered unacceptable by 89 vs.
Sex, the states of being female or male, potentially interacts with all xenobiotic exposures, both inadvertent and deliberate, and influences their toxicokinetics (TK), toxicodynamics, and outcomes. Sex differences occur in behavior, exposure, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics, accounting for female-male differences in responses to environmental chemicals, diet, and pharmaceuticals, including adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Often viewed as an annoying confounder, researchers have studied only one sex, adjusted for sex, or ignored it. Occupational epidemiology, the basis for understanding many toxic effects in humans, usually excluded women. Likewise, Food and Drug Administration rules excluded women of childbearing age from drug studies for many years. Aside from sex-specific organs, sex differences and sex × age interactions occur for a wide range of disease states as well as hormone-influenced conditions and drug distribution. Women have more ADRs than men; the classic sex hormone paradigm (gonadectomy and replacement) reveals significant interaction of sex and TK including absorption, distribution, metabolisms, and elimination. Studies should be designed to detect sex differences, describe the mechanisms, and interpret these in a broad social, clinical, and evolutionary context with phenomena that do not differ. Sex matters, but how much of a difference is needed to matter remains challenging.
This book Understanding Sex for Sale: Meanings and Moralities of Sexual Commerce is dedicated to the exploration of the ways in which sex prostitution, sex work or sex for sale are taken for granted by particularly looking at how the relation between sex and money is interpreted and enacted....... This interdisciplinary book aims to understand how prostitution, sex work or sex for sale are defined, delineated, contested and understood in different places and times. The book offers contributions from a number of scholars who, based on their on their own research, discuss on going theoretical issues and analytical...... challenges Some chapters focuses on how prostitution, sex work or sex for sale have been regulated by the authorities and what understandings this regulation builds on. Other chapters investigate the experiences of the sex workers and sex buyers asking how these actors adjust to or resist the categorisation...
Sapp, Allen D.; Vaughn, Michael S.
Examined programs and strategies for rehabilitation used in adult sex offender treatment programs in state-operated adult correctional institutions. Questionnaires were completed by 73 adult sex offender treatment providers. The results revealed that incarcerated adult sex offenders were receiving comprehensive psychotherapy and behavior…
Knox, David; Zusman, Marty; McNeely, Andrea
Analysis of survey data from 326 undergraduates at a large southeastern university revealed significant differences between men and women in their sexual beliefs. Specifically, men were more likely to think that oral sex is not sex; that cybersex is not cheating, that men can't tell if a woman is faking orgasm and that sex frequency drops in…
Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim
Wojcicki, Janet Maia
This article introduces the concept of ukuphanda, a Zulu verb that is used to describe the sex-for-money exchanges that take place outside of commercial sex work in Soweto and Hammanskraal area, South Africa. In line with the ethnographic literature from others areas of sub-Saharan Africa, it is argued that women who exchange sex for money in taverns do not self-identify as commercial sex workers and experience less stigma from the community. Unlike commercial sex work (as characterized by the commercial sex work in Hillbrow, Johannesburg), which is understood to be associated with short skirts and other revealing attire, sex-for-money exchange in the taverns is viewed as more private, ambiguous and informal. Women who work as informal sex workers, or "-phandela imali" ('try to get money'), are understood to be using sex-for-money exchange to survive financially.
The mother of a 14-year-old mentally retarded boy comments on the viewpoints of Dr. Sol Gordon (a sex education columnist) regarding masturbation, questions on sex, marriage, and the parents' role. (SBH)
Sex er en del af vores sociale praksis og centralt for det, vi hver især er. Men bortset fra pornoindustrien, har vi ikke mange muligheder for at få adgang til billeder af sex. Teater Nordkrafts forestilling Sex in situ vil gøre seksuelle billeder til noget, der kan deles, udveksles og tales om, og...
Harris, Mary B.
A study of the sex role stereotypes held by 538 first-term Australian university students from single-sex and coeducational high schools is presented. Results suggest that coeducational schooling may have some advantages for fostering interactions with the opposite sex. (MSE)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 12. The Secret Sex Lives of Rotifers Sex - sex and Cannibalism. T Ramakrishna Rao. General Article Volume 5 Issue 12 December 2000 pp 41-47. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Fei, Yueh-Han John; Yang, Jing-Tang
A butterfly with broad wings, flapping at a small frequency, flies an erratic trajectory at an inconstant speed. A large variation of speed within a cycle is observed in the forward flight of a butterfly. A self-propulsion model to simulate a butterfly is thus created to investigate the transient translation of the body; the results, which are in accordance with experimental data, show that the shape of the variation of the flight speed is similar to a sinusoidal wave with a maximum (J =0.89 ) at the beginning of the downstroke, and a decrease to a minimum (J =0.17 ) during a transition from downstroke to upstroke; the difference between the extrema of the flight speed is enormous in a flapping cycle. At a high speed, a clapping motion of the butterfly wings decreases the generation of drag. At a small speed, a butterfly is able to capture the induced wakes generated in a downstroke, and effectively generates a thrust at the beginning of an upstroke. The wing motion of a butterfly skillfully interacts with its speed so as to enable an increased speed with the same motion. Considering a butterfly to fly in a constant inflow leads to either an underestimate of its speed or an overestimate of its generated lift, which yields an inaccurate interpretation of the insect's flight. Our results reveal the effect of transient translation on a butterfly in forward flight, which is especially important for an insect with a small flapping frequency.
Fei, Yueh-Han John; Yang, Jing-Tang
A butterfly with broad wings, flapping at a small frequency, flies an erratic trajectory at an inconstant speed. A large variation of speed within a cycle is observed in the forward flight of a butterfly. A self-propulsion model to simulate a butterfly is thus created to investigate the transient translation of the body; the results, which are in accordance with experimental data, show that the shape of the variation of the flight speed is similar to a sinusoidal wave with a maximum (J=0.89) at the beginning of the downstroke, and a decrease to a minimum (J=0.17) during a transition from downstroke to upstroke; the difference between the extrema of the flight speed is enormous in a flapping cycle. At a high speed, a clapping motion of the butterfly wings decreases the generation of drag. At a small speed, a butterfly is able to capture the induced wakes generated in a downstroke, and effectively generates a thrust at the beginning of an upstroke. The wing motion of a butterfly skillfully interacts with its speed so as to enable an increased speed with the same motion. Considering a butterfly to fly in a constant inflow leads to either an underestimate of its speed or an overestimate of its generated lift, which yields an inaccurate interpretation of the insect's flight. Our results reveal the effect of transient translation on a butterfly in forward flight, which is especially important for an insect with a small flapping frequency.
Megan Lowthers; Magdalena Sabat; Elya M. Durisin; Kamala Kempadoo
Historically, academic literature on sex work has documented the changing debates, policies, and cultural discourse surrounding the sex industry, and their impact on the rights of sex workers worldwide. As sex work scholars look to the future of sex workers’ rights, however, we are also in a critical moment of self-reflection on how sex work scholarship engages with sex worker communities, produces knowledge surrounding sex work, and represents the lived experiences of sex workers’ rights, or...
Dyer, Paul S; Kück, Ulrich
Approximately 20% of species in the fungal kingdom are only known to reproduce by asexual means despite the many supposed advantages of sexual reproduction. However, in recent years, sexual cycles have been induced in a series of emblematic "asexual" species. We describe how these discoveries were made, building on observations of evidence for sexual potential or "cryptic sexuality" from population genetic analyses; the presence, distribution, and functionality of mating-type genes; genome analyses revealing the presence of genes linked to sexuality; the functionality of sex-related genes; and formation of sex-related developmental structures. We then describe specific studies that led to the discovery of mating and sex in certain Candida , Aspergillus , Penicillium , and Trichoderma species and discuss the implications of sex including the beneficial exploitation of the sexual cycle. We next consider whether there might be any truly asexual fungal species. We suggest that, although rare, imperfect fungi may genuinely be present in nature and that certain human activities, combined with the genetic flexibility that is a hallmark of the fungal kingdom, might favor the evolution of asexuality under certain conditions. Finally, we argue that fungal species should not be thought of as simply asexual or sexual, but rather as being composed of isolates on a continuum of sexual fertility.
Liu, Mingyue; Kelley, Melissa H.; Herson, Paco S.; Hurn, Patricia D.
Sex steroids are essential for reproduction and development in animals and humans, and sex steroids also play an important role in neuroprotection following brain injury. New data indicate that sex-specific responses to brain injury occur at the cellular and molecular levels. This review summarizes the current understanding of neuroprotection by sex steroids, particularly estrogen, androgen, and progesterone, based on both in vitro and in vivo studies. Better understanding of the role of sex steroids under physiological and pathological conditions will help us to develop novel effective therapeutic strategies for brain injury. PMID:20595940
Major, Andrew T; Smith, Craig A
Sexual differentiation in birds is controlled genetically as in mammals, although the sex chromosomes are different. Males have a ZZ sex chromosome constitution, while females are ZW. Gene(s) on the sex chromosomes must initiate gonadal sex differentiation during embryonic life, inducing paired testes in ZZ individuals and unilateral ovaries in ZW individuals. The traditional view of avian sexual differentiation aligns with that expounded for other vertebrates; upon sexual differentiation, the gonads secrete sex steroid hormones that masculinise or feminise the rest of the body. However, recent studies on naturally occurring or experimentally induced avian sex reversal suggest a significant role for direct genetic factors, in addition to sex hormones, in regulating sexual differentiation of the soma in birds. This review will provide an overview of sex determination in birds and both naturally and experimentally induced sex reversal, with emphasis on the key role of oestrogen. We then consider how recent studies on sex reversal and gynandromorphic birds (half male:half female) are shaping our understanding of sexual differentiation in avians and in vertebrates more broadly. Current evidence shows that sexual differentiation in birds is a mix of direct genetic and hormonal mechanisms. Perturbation of either of these components may lead to sex reversal. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Seidensticker, M.T.; Holt, D.W.; Detienne, J.; Talbot, S.; Gray, K.
We predicted sex of 140 Snowy Owl (Bubo scandiacus) nestlings out of 34 nests at our Barrow, Alaska, study area to develop a technique for sexing these owls in the field. We primarily sexed young, flightless owls (3844 d old) by quantifying plumage markings on the remiges and tail, predicting sex, and collecting blood samples to test our field predictions using molecular sexing techniques. We categorized and quantified three different plumage markings: two types of bars (defined as markings that touch the rachis) and spots (defined as markings that do not touch the rachis). We predicted sex in the field assuming that males had more spots than bars and females more bars than spots on the remiges and rectrices. Molecular data indicated that we correctly sexed 100% of the nestlings. We modeled the data using random forests and classification trees. Both models indicated that the number and type of markings on the secondary feathers were the most important in classifying nestling sex. The statistical models verified our initial qualitative prediction that males have more spots than bars and females more bars than spots on flight feathers P6P10 for both wings and tail feathers T1 and T2. This study provides researchers with an easily replicable and highly accurate method for sexing young Snowy Owls in the field, which should aid further studies of sex-ratios and sex-related variation in behavior and growth of this circumpolar owl species. ?? 2011 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.
Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore
Sex is a mysterious phenomenon, which has puzzled even great sages. Human beings have researched and mastered the biology of sex. But that is not all. Sex needs to be understood from the spiritual perspective too. The vision of Osho is an enlightening experience in this regard. Out of the thousands of lectures, five lectures on sex made Osho most notorious. Born into a Jain family of Madhya Pradesh, Rajneesh, who later wanted himself to be called Osho, is a great master. He has spoken volumes on a wide range of topics ranging from sex to super-consciousness. His contributions in the area of sex are based on the principles of "Tantra" which has its origin from Buddhism. This article focuses on his life and insights on sex, which if understood properly, can be a stepping stone for enlightenment.
Basow, Susan A.; Crawley, Donna M.
Male and female experimenters requested adult shoppers (N=178) to fill out a questionnaire. Refusal data showed shoppers helping other-sex more than same-sex experimenters. Other results showed a significant three-way interaction among helper and helpee sex and sex-typing and situation sex-typing and that helper sex-typing did not have significant…
Andrew J Parker
Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.
Gender is central to sexuality, and vice versa, but there are a number of difficulties with the treatment of gender in sex research. Apparently, it is hard to find a balance between two conflicting needs. First, obviously, it is necessary to make distinctions between women and men, for political as well as research-technical and theoretical reasons. A second requirement, at odds with the first one, is the necessity to understand gender and its relation to sexuality and the body as much more complex than simplistically referring to two sets of individuals. This is all the more necessary when one realizes the possible drawbacks of exaggerating the differences between the sexes (in particular when they are biologically explained), because of stereotyping, stigmatizing, and expectancy confirmatory processes. This essay identifies and discusses 10 difficulties in the treatment of gender in sex research, reflects on their origins, and reviews theory and evidence with the aim to (1) consider the relative strength of gender/sex as an explanatory variable compared to other factors and processes explaining differences between men and women on a number of sexual aspects, (2) inform an understanding of gender and its relation to sexuality as an ongoing, open-ended, multi-determined, situated, interactional process, with the body as a third player, and (3) argue in favor of a nuanced, well-balanced treatment of gender in sex research.
Lyons, Anthony; Smith, Anthony M A; Grierson, Jeffrey W; von Doussa, Henry
Sex on premises venues (SOPVs) where men have sex with men have been implicated in the spread of sexually transmissible infections, but few studies have described men's sexual encounters in SOPVs, particularly the degree to which men from different backgrounds engage in risky sexual practices. Interviewer administered surveys were conducted with 186 Australian men who have sex with men (MSM) within 48 h of visiting an SOPV. They reported their sexual practices, the characteristics of their partners and other circumstances surrounding their sexual encounters. All analyses were based on the number of sexual encounters (n = 430). Oral sex was the most common practice, occurring in 74.9% of encounters, followed by massage, frottage or kissing (53.7%), solo or mutual masturbation (36.3%), and anal sex (32.1%). Multivariate analyses revealed age as a significant factor for having protected anal sex (P = 0.001), insertive anal sex (P = 0.004) and receptive anal sex (P practices were more frequent in encounters among younger men, while masturbation (P = 0.03) was more frequent among older men. When men's sexual partners were affected by alcohol, encounters were less likely to involve unprotected anal intercourse (P = 0.006) and more likely to involve massage, frottage or kissing (P = 0.009). Men disclosed their HIV status in only 7.7% of encounters. With the likelihood of risky sexual practices varying according to background, results from this study should be used to guide interventions aiming to promote safer sex in SOPVs.
This special topic issue of Sexual Development gives an overview of sex reversal in vertebrates, from fishes naturally changing their sex, to rodents escaping the mammalian SRY-determining system. It offers eight up-to-date reviews on specific subjects in sex reversal, considering fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and placental mammals, including humans. The broad scope of represented animals makes this ideal for students and researchers, especially those interested in the...
Van Kerkwijk, C
Many foreigners visit Thailand in search of sex. While long-distance tourism was long enjoyed by members of more privileged social classes, even the lower economical classes of Japan, Malaysia, Europe, America, and Australia can now afford to travel over long distances. This relatively new breed of tourist is more likely to be of lower socioeconomic and educational status and less likely to use condoms when having sex. An estimated 30,000 sex workers are active in Bangkok, of whom 7000/10,000 are females who work specifically in the tourism sector. 1/2-1/3 of the 600 commercial sex establishments in the city are visited by foreigners. Phuket, Pattaya, Koh Samui, and Chiangmai are also well-frequented by sex tourists. Overall, a large, diverse, inexpensive, and accessible commercial sex market exists in Thailand. One may meet sex workers quasi-ubiquitously and be assured to find someone capable of meeting one's sexual needs. With these attributes, Thailand strongly attracts tourists in search of sex. A certain degree of recklessness also prevails among those on vacation. Away from the peers and social mores of their native lands, tourists may engage in sexually activities without criticism. Likewise, Thai sex workers who cater to foreigners, especially females, enjoy more freedom and control in sexual relations than their peers who work among nationals. Neither single nor married women in Thailand are allowed much sexual freedom and are traditionally expected to be obliging docile, and submissive. The greater than normal personal latitude enjoyed by both sex worker and foreigner lead to more negotiation on condom use and overall lower use. As such, Thailand's commercial sex market with foreigners' involvement therein threatens to spread HIV to many other countries throughout the world.
Bangasser, Debra A; Valentino, Rita J
Stress is associated with the onset and severity of several psychiatric disorders that occur more frequently in women than men, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Patients with these disorders present with dysregulation of several stress response systems, including the neuroendocrine response to stress, corticolimbic responses to negatively valenced stimuli, and hyperarousal. Thus, sex differences within their underlying circuitry may explain sex biases in disease prevalence. This review describes clinical studies that identify sex differences within the activity of these circuits, as well as preclinical studies that demonstrate cellular and molecular sex differences in stress responses systems. These studies reveal sex differences from the molecular to the systems level that increase endocrine, emotional, and arousal responses to stress in females. Exploring these sex differences is critical because this research can reveal the neurobiological underpinnings of vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders and guide the development of novel pharmacotherapies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Uller, Tobias; Pen, Ido; Wapstra, Erik; Beukeboom, Leo W.; Komdeur, Jan
Sex determination is a fundamental process governed by diverse mechanisms. Sex ratio selection is commonly implicated in the evolution of sex-determining systems, although formal models are rare. Here, we argue that, although sex ratio selection can induce shifts in sex determination, genomic
Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Shah, Iqbal H; Baldwin, Wendy; Stanton, Bonita
Communication concerning sexual matters between parents and their adolescent children serve as a protective factor and exerts a favourable influence on adolescents' sexual behaviours. As limited data regarding parent-adolescent sex communication are available in China, this study was undertaken with the aim of exploring the patterns and related factors of such communication and its relationship with adolescent sexual behaviour. Community-based data were collected in 2001 in Changchun, China. Unmarried adolescents 15-19 years of age (322 young men and 360 young women) were included in a survey using self-administered questionnaires. Overall, sex communication with parents was relatively infrequent. There was a significant gender difference in the pattern of sex communication, with male adolescents being more likely to talk with fathers and female adolescents with mothers. Logistic regression analysis revealed that gender of adolescents, quality of communication with mothers on general topics, and adolescent's perception of mother being the main source of sex knowledge were predictive of the level of sex communication between mother and her adolescent children. This study reveals that communication regarding sexual matters between parents and adolescents was limited in China. The quality of communication on general topics between parents and their adolescent children is one of the important factors related to sex communication between them. It is essential that Chinese parents are better informed and skilled to be involved, in addition to school and community, in the sex education of their adolescent children. They should be able to communicate appropriately on sex-related issues with them.
Werren, John H.; Beukeboom, Leo W.
Genetic mechanisms of sex determination are unexpectedly diverse and change rapidly during evolution. We review the role of genetic conflict as the driving force behind this diversity and turnover. Genetic conflict occurs when different components of a genetic system are subject to selection in
Most organisms reproduce sexually, but the evolution of sexual reproduction is not yet well understood. Sexual reproduction leads to new variation and adaptations to the environment, but sex is also costly. Some insects reproduce without sex through parthenogenesis or paedogenesis. Almost all sexual
The reasons why people who are normally truthful to their spouses engage in sex away from home are discussed. These reasons can include loneliness, ego building or the opportunity to have homosexual relations. Sex away from home is likely to increase since the number of people traveling is increasing. (Author/CG)
Although single-sex education was once the norm in the U.S., the practice has largely been confined to private schools for more than a century. However, with the introduction of the final version of the U.S. Department of Education's so-called single-sex regulations in 2006, public schools were allowed greater flexibility to offer single-sex…
After briefly discussing the philosophy of sex education and appraising generally the nature of the instructional methods and materials currently in use in the schools, the author provides brief but incisive reviews of a number of films, filmstrips, and other instructional materials dealing with sex. The reviews are continued in the succeeding…
This article summarizes findings from a survey conducted among adolescents in Beijing and Tianjin, China. Findings indicate that 89.3% of sex offenders were adolescents. Many high school students were engaged in premarital sexual relations, but lacked knowledge about sex and contraception. Premarital sex and sexually transmitted diseases are considered a social evil. The central government has direct jurisdiction in Tianjin and its population of 9 million. By 1989 there were 540,000, or 12% of total population, aged 12-16 years. A survey of 3231 junior middle school students aged 11-14 years revealed that 35% of girls did not know why menstruation occurred at a certain age. About 55% of boys did not know about erections. 35% considered an erect penis a part of normal physical development, but over 50% were confused. 30-50% of students who had reached menarche and sexual maturity found it difficult to find knowledgeable people. 50% received information from the mass media. 44% of girls learned from their mothers. 25% of boys and girls aged 11-12 years already had girlfriends and boyfriends. About 30% desired friends of the opposite sex and desired intimacy, love, and dependability among friends. It is argued that the backward notions of sex originated in a once feudal society that considered sex a taboo. Parents, teachers, and school authorities are resistant to introducing sex education; teachers are embarrassed by the subject matter. In Beijing about 4000 students aged 11-14 years were interviewed. These students had limited information on sex-related issues and misconceptions. Attitudes must be changed and teachers must be trained before adolescent health and sex education can be introduced into schools. The government can play a role in promoting programs for adolescents and coordinating the efforts of nongovernmental groups.
Differentiation involves the expression of certain latent cellular characteristics and the repression of others. A new study has revealed how Paramecium uses short RNAs to delete information from the somatic genome of one of its two sexes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reader, S.M.; Laland, K.N.
Analysis of an exhaustive survey of primate behavior collated from the published literature revealed significant variation in rates of innovation among individuals of different sex, age and social rank. We searched approximately 1,000 articles in four primatology journals, together with other
Moore, Donna L.; Bergman, Barbara A.; Knox, Pamela L.
Reviews records of 126 incarcerated offenders who participated in a prison-based sex offender treatment program. Discriminate function analysis reveals that offenders who completed treatment were more often diagnosed with a substance disorder, had a history of nonviolence offenses, and were less often diagnosed as having an antisocial personality…
Argue, Kathryn J; Neckameyer, Wendi S
The stress response in Drosophila melanogaster reveals sex differences in behavior, similar to what has been observed in mammals. However, unlike mammals, the sex determination pathway in Drosophila is well established, making this an ideal system to identify factors involved in the modulation of sex-specific responses to stress. In this study, we show that the Drosophila fat body, which has been shown to be important for energy homeostasis and sex determination, is a dynamic tissue that is altered in response to stress in a sex and time-dependent manner. We manipulated the sex determination pathway in the fat body via targeted expression of transformer and transformer-2 and analyzed these animals for changes in their response to stress. In the majority of cases, manipulation of transformer or transformer-2 was able to change the physiological output in response to starvation and oxidative stress to that of the opposite sex. Our data also uncover the possibility of additional downstream targets for transformer and transformer-2 that are separate from the sex determination pathway and can influence behavioral and physiological responses. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.
Elmes, Jocelyn; Skovdal, Morten; Nhongo, Kundai; Ward, Helen; Campbell, Catherine; Hallett, Timothy B; Nyamukapa, Constance; White, Peter J; Gregson, Simon
Understanding the dynamic nature of sex work is important for explaining the course of HIV epidemics. While health and development interventions targeting sex workers may alter the dynamics of the sex trade in particular localities, little has been done to explore how large-scale social and structural changes, such as economic recessions-outside of the bounds of organizational intervention-may reconfigure social norms and attitudes with regards to sex work. Zimbabwe's economic collapse in 2009, following a period (2000-2009) of economic decline, within a declining HIV epidemic, provides a unique opportunity to study community perceptions of the impact of socio-economic upheaval on the sex trade. We conducted focus group discussions with 122 community members in rural eastern Zimbabwe in January-February 2009. Groups were homogeneous by gender and occupation and included female sex workers, married women, and men who frequented bars. The focus groups elicited discussion around changes (comparing contemporaneous circumstances in 2009 to their memories of circumstances in 2000) in the demand for, and supply of, paid sex, and how sex workers and clients adapted to these changes, and with what implications for their health and well-being. Transcripts were thematically analyzed. The analysis revealed how changing economic conditions, combined with an increased awareness and fear of HIV-changing norms and local attitudes toward sex work-had altered the demand for commercial sex. In response, sex work dispersed from the bars into the wider community, requiring female sex workers to employ different tactics to attract clients. Hyperinflation meant that sex workers had to accept new forms of payment, including sex-on-credit and commodities. Further impacting the demand for commercial sex work was a poverty-driven increase in transactional sex. The economic upheaval in Zimbabwe effectively reorganized the market for sex by reducing previously dominant forms of commercial sex
Full Text Available Understanding the dynamic nature of sex work is important for explaining the course of HIV epidemics. While health and development interventions targeting sex workers may alter the dynamics of the sex trade in particular localities, little has been done to explore how large-scale social and structural changes, such as economic recessions-outside of the bounds of organizational intervention-may reconfigure social norms and attitudes with regards to sex work. Zimbabwe's economic collapse in 2009, following a period (2000-2009 of economic decline, within a declining HIV epidemic, provides a unique opportunity to study community perceptions of the impact of socio-economic upheaval on the sex trade. We conducted focus group discussions with 122 community members in rural eastern Zimbabwe in January-February 2009. Groups were homogeneous by gender and occupation and included female sex workers, married women, and men who frequented bars. The focus groups elicited discussion around changes (comparing contemporaneous circumstances in 2009 to their memories of circumstances in 2000 in the demand for, and supply of, paid sex, and how sex workers and clients adapted to these changes, and with what implications for their health and well-being. Transcripts were thematically analyzed. The analysis revealed how changing economic conditions, combined with an increased awareness and fear of HIV-changing norms and local attitudes toward sex work-had altered the demand for commercial sex. In response, sex work dispersed from the bars into the wider community, requiring female sex workers to employ different tactics to attract clients. Hyperinflation meant that sex workers had to accept new forms of payment, including sex-on-credit and commodities. Further impacting the demand for commercial sex work was a poverty-driven increase in transactional sex. The economic upheaval in Zimbabwe effectively reorganized the market for sex by reducing previously dominant forms
Health care workers and educators may need to improve their skills in discussing sensitive issues in order to elicit and understand what influences people's attitudes toward sex. While the health worker may be bent upon preventing HIV infection, advising on family planning, or teaching youth about sexual relationships, his or her audience may have other priorities. A good counselor/teacher must learn what people's concerns are and discuss sexual health within that context. It can be difficult talking about sex because sex is a private concern and many people are embarrassed discussing it. Even sex partners often find it difficult to talk to each other about sex. Appropriate communication techniques vary depending upon the situation. It depends upon whether one is addressing people on an individual basis or in groups, which people are being addressed, which organization one is representing, and what one's role is. Good communication is a two-way sharing of information. The different stages of life, common beliefs and myths, culture and religion, relationships between men and women, reasons for having sex, and sex practices are discussed.
... For Teens: How to Make Healthy Decisions About Sex Page Content Article Body Before you decide to ... alcohol or use drugs. Are You Ready for Sex? Sex can change your life and relationships. Having ...
... Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family Health Infants and ... Share Print What is dyspareunia? Dyspareunia is painful sex for women. Also, it causes pain during tampon ...
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Frade, A; Vilar, D
The article on sex education in Portugal covers background, the educational system, the clashes of the 1960's over sex education, the Committee for the Study of Sexuality and Education (CSSE), the policies, politics and social movements during the period 1974 - 1984, the discussions in Parliament, the 1988 Reform of the Educational System, the Family Planning Association (FPA) and sex education, and the future role of the FPA. It was not until the institution of the multiparity parliamentary system in 1974 that discussing social and political changes was possible, culminating in 1984 with new legislation on abortion, family planning, and sex education. School reform came in 1987/8 with the Ministry of Education primarily responsible for curricula. The 1960's brought with it the influence of the Catholic Church. Change came in the form of progressivism among Catholics who replaced dogma with dialogue and listening. Sex education was considered as preparation for marriage, but masturbation, contraception, and prostitution were also discussed. In addition, the founder of FPA chaired the CSSE in 1971 and opened up debate on sex issues and drafted a bill to establish co-education in Portuguese schools. The revolution of 1974 brought an end to censorship and brought forth a policy of developing family planning. Changed in the Family Code gave women greater equality. UNFPA supported teacher training in non-sexist education. With human reproduction included in the natural sciences, there was still no school sex education policy and contraception was only sometimes represented in the biology curriculum. The focus of FPA was on contraception and abortion. Finally in the 1980's, the first sex education programs were developed for out-of-school youth. Even though in the 1970's there were leftists groups promoting sex education, it took leftist parliamentary power to get legislation on sex education in the schools adopted. The Ministry of Education however was pressured by the
Malo, Aurelio F; Martinez-Pastor, Felipe; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Garde, Julián; Ballou, Jonathan D; Lacy, Robert C
Sex ratio allocation has important fitness consequences, and theory predicts that parents should adjust offspring sex ratio in cases where the fitness returns of producing male and female offspring vary. The ability of fathers to bias offspring sex ratios has traditionally been dismissed given the expectation of an equal proportion of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm (CBS) in ejaculates due to segregation of sex chromosomes at meiosis. This expectation has been recently refuted. Here we used Peromyscus leucopus to demonstrate that sex ratio is explained by an exclusive effect of the father, and suggest a likely mechanism by which male-driven sex-ratio bias is attained. We identified a male sperm morphological marker that is associated with the mechanism leading to sex ratio bias; differences among males in the sperm nucleus area (a proxy for the sex chromosome that the sperm contains) explain 22% variation in litter sex ratio. We further show the role played by the sperm nucleus area as a mediator in the relationship between individual genetic variation and sex-ratio bias. Fathers with high levels of genetic variation had ejaculates with a higher proportion of sperm with small nuclei area. This, in turn, led to siring a higher proportion of sons (25% increase in sons per 0.1 decrease in the inbreeding coefficient). Our results reveal a plausible mechanism underlying unexplored male-driven sex-ratio biases. We also discuss why this pattern of paternal bias can be adaptive. This research puts to rest the idea that father contribution to sex ratio variation should be disregarded in vertebrates, and will stimulate research on evolutionary constraints to sex ratios-for example, whether fathers and mothers have divergent, coinciding, or neutral sex allocation interests. Finally, these results offer a potential explanation for those intriguing cases in which there are sex ratio biases, such as in humans. © 2017 The Author(s).
Full Text Available Neste texto, procura-se contar a história da exibição do sexo em filmes majoritariamente produzidos nos Estados Unidos no período de quase um século. Ao se perguntar quando, porque e como os Estados Unidos se transformaram de uma cultura que não exibia o sexo em uma que o exibe, a autora insiste no duplo significado do verbo screen (tanto como uma revelação quanto uma dissimulação. Exibir é revelar em uma tela. Mas um segundo e igualmente importante significado, como diz o dicionário é "proteger ou esconder atrás de uma tela". Os filmes tanto revelam como escondem. O artigo analisa a forma como mudanças sociais ocorridas nos Estados Unidos, como, por exemplo, a Revolução sexual dos anos 60 e novas visões a respeito da sexualidade, possibilitaram novas maneiras de representação do sexo no cinema, reorganizando a relação entre o público e o privado. O artigo se pergunta também sobre como nossos corpos e sentidos reagem ao encontro com o sexo na tela, introduzindo a ideia de "saber carnal" (carnal knowledge.In this paper, we try to tell the history of the exhibition of sex in movies mainly produced in the United States in almost a century. Asking when, why and how the United States became - from a culture that did not exhibit sex - into a culture that exhibits it, the author insists in the double sense of the verb to screen (as both a revelation and a dissimulation. To exhibit is to reveal in a screen. But another, and important, sense, as says the dictionary, is "to protect or hide behind a screen". Movies show as well as they reveal. The paper analyzes the way social change in the United States, for example the sexual revolution of the sixties and new views on sexuality allowed new ways of representing sex in the movies, creating a new relation between public and private. The paper also asks how our bodies and senses react to sex in the screen, introducing the idea of "carnal knowledge".
Margaret M. Riordan
Full Text Available Skewed sex ratios can have negative implications for population growth if they do not match a species' life history. A skewed tertiary sex ratio has been detected in a population of Mountain Plover (Charadrius montanus, a grassland shorebird experiencing population declines. To study the cause of the observed male skew, we examined three early life stages between egg and fledgling in eastern Colorado from 2010 to 2012. This allows us to distinguish between egg production and chick survival as an explanation for the observed skew. We examined the primary sex ratio in eggs produced and the secondary sex ratio in hatched chicks to see if the sex ratio bias occurs before hatching. We also determined the sex ratio at fledging to reveal sex-specific mortality of nestlings. The primary sex ratio was 1.01 (± 0.01 males per female. The secondary sex ratio consisted of 1.10 (± 0.02 males per female. The probability of a chick surviving to fledging differed between males (0.55 ± 0.13 and females (0.47 ± 0.15, but the precision of these survival estimates was low. Sex ratios in early life stages of the Mountain Plover do not explain the skewed sex ratio observed in adults in this breeding population.
recirculating the claim that human trafficking is the “third largest” criminal economy after drugs and weapons. Based on ethnographic fieldwork among Nigerian sex worker migrants conducted in Benin City, Nigeria, in 2011 and 2012, this study brings together four otherwise isolated migration economies......This contribution explores the economies interlinked by the migration of Nigerian women sex workers. The literature and politics of sex work migration and human trafficking economies are commonly relegated to the realm that focuses on profits for criminal networks and pimps, in particular...... – facilitation, remittances, deportation, and rescue – and suggests that we have to examine multiple sites and relink these in order to more fully understand the complexity of sex work migration. Drawing upon literature within transnational feminist analysis, critical human trafficking studies, and migration...
PRAKASH KUMAR G
Jan 31, 2008 ... years old (Charnier 1966 reported it in an African agamid lizard), although it was ... people's attention in Susumu Ohno's now famous book on .... If they do enhance male and female fitness, sex chromosomes would then be.
PRAKASH KUMAR G
ZW is reserved for female heterogamety.) The Radder et al study used lab incubation regimes that mimic temperature profiles of cool natural nests, so temperature probably determines sex at least occasionally in nature.
Mc Intyre, Maria Kleivan
ABSTRACT This project explores the phenomenon of North American and Western European women, who travel to the Global South and engage in sexual encounters with the local men. This project has positioned itself as a postcolonial critique, arguing that female sex tourism is a form of neocolonialism. It has also investigated the term romance tourism, where it has found that as a result of essentialist gender stereotyping, the female version of sex tourism has been titled ‘romance tourism’. The p...
The combination of sex and horror may be disquieting to many, but the two are natural (if perhaps gruesome) bedfellows. In fact, sex and horror coincide with such regularity in contemporary horror fiction that the two concepts appear to be at least partially intertwined. The sex–horror relationship is sometimes connotative rather than overt; examples of this relationship range from the seduction overtones of 'Nosferatu' and the juxtaposition of nudity and horror promised by European exploitat...
Liker, András; Freckleton, Robert P; Székely, Tamás
Sex-role reversal represents a formidable challenge for evolutionary biologists, since it is not clear which ecological, life-history or social factors facilitated conventional sex roles (female care and male-male competition for mates) to be reversed (male care and female-female competition). Classic theories suggested ecological or life-history predictors of role reversal, but most studies failed to support these hypotheses. Recent theory however predicts that sex-role reversal should be driven by male-biased adult sex ratio (ASR). Here we test this prediction for the first time using phylogenetic comparative analyses. Consistent with theory, both mating system and parental care are strongly related to ASR in shorebirds: conventional sex roles are exhibited by species with female-biased ASR, whereas sex-role reversal is associated with male-biased ASR. These results suggest that social environment has a strong influence on breeding systems and therefore revealing the causes of ASR variation in wild populations is essential for understanding sex role evolution.
Bridge, J.A.; Sanger, W.G.; Seemayer, T. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)] [and others
Gonadal abnormalities are characteristically seen in patients with sex chromosomal aneuploidy. Morphologically these abnormalities can be variable and are hypothesized to be dependent on the sex chromosomal consititution of the gonad (independent of the chromosomal complement of other tissues, such as peripheral blood lymphocytes). In this study, the gonadal sex chromosome complement was evaluated for potential mosaicism and correlated with the histopathology from 5 patients with known sex chromosomal and/or gonadal disorders. FISH techniques using X and Y chromosome specific probes were performed on nuclei extracted from paraffin embedded tissue. Gonadal tissue obtained from case 1 (a true hemaphroditic newborn) consisted of ovotestes and epididymis (left side) and ovary with fallopian tube (right side). Cytogenetic and FISH studies performed on blood, ovotestes and ovary revealed an XX complement. Cytogenetic analysis of blood from case 2, a 4-year-old with suspected Turner syndrome revealed 45,X/46,X,del(Y)(q11.21). FISH analysis of the resected gonads (histologically = immature testes) confirmed an X/XY mosaic complement. Histologically, the gonadal tissue was testicular. Severe autolysis prohibited successful analysis in the 2 remaining cases. In summary, molecular cytogenetic evaluation of gonadal tissue from individuals with sex chromosomal and/or gonadal disorders did not reveal tissue-specific anomalies which could account for differences observed pathologically.
Herold, E S; Van Kerkwijk, C
Tourists traveling internationally lower their inhibitions and take greater risks than they would typically in their home cultures. Loneliness, boredom, and a sense of freedom contribute to this behavioral change. Some tourists travel internationally in search of sexual gratification. This motivation may be actively conscious or subconscious to the traveler. Billed as romantic with great natural beauty, Thailand, the Philippines, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Kenya are popular destinations of tourists seeking sex. The Netherlands and countries in eastern Europe are also popular. With most initial cases of HIV infection in Europe having histories of international travel, mass tourism is a major factor in the international transmission of AIDS. While abroad, tourists have sex with casual partners, sex workers, and/or other tourists. Far from all tourists, however, carry and consistently use condoms with these partners. One study found female and non white travelers to be less likely than Whites and males to carry condoms. The risk of HIV infection increases in circumstances where condoms are not readily available in the host country and/or are of poor quality. Regarding actual condom use, a study found only 34% of sex tourists from Switzerland to consistently use condoms while abroad. 28% of men in an STD clinic in Melbourne, Australia, reported consistent condom use in sexual relations while traveling in Asia; STDs were identified in 73% of men examined. The few studies of tourists suggest that a significant proportion engage in risky behavior while traveling. HIV prevalence is rapidly increasing in countries known as destinations for sex tourism. High infection rates are especially evident among teenage sex workers in Thailand. Simply documenting the prevalence of risky behavior among sex tourists will not suffice. More research is needed on travelers and AIDS with particular attention upon the motivating factors supporting persistent high-risk behavior.
DeSteno, David; Bartlett, Monica Y; Braverman, Julia; Salovey, Peter
Two studies are presented that challenge the evidentiary basis for the existence of evolved sex differences in jealousy. In opposition to the evolutionary view, Study I demonstrated that a sex difference in jealousy resulting from sexual versus emotional infidelity is observed only when judgments are recorded using a forced-choice response format. On all other measures, no sex differences were found; both men and women reported greater jealousy in response to sexual infidelity. A second study revealed that the sex difference on the forced-choice measure disappeared under conditions of cognitive constraint. These findings suggest that the sex difference used to support the evolutionary view of jealousy (e.g., D. M. Buss, R. Larsen, D. Westen, & J. Semmelroth, 1992; D. M. Buss et al., 1999) likely represents a measurement artifact resulting from a format-induced effortful decision strategy and not an automatic, sex-specific response shaped by evolution.
Abdolsalehi-Najafi, Emon; Beckman, Linda J
Although the experience of sex guilt has been considered among a variety of ethnic groups, the area has not yet been empirically explored among Iranian American women. The present study investigated the relationship between sexual self-schema (i.e., beliefs about the sexual aspects of oneself), acculturation, and sex guilt, and it further examined the association between sex guilt and life satisfaction in Iranian American women. A total of 65 Iranian American women, with a mean age of 31.3 years (SD = 11.7), completed five self-administered questionnaires. Findings indicated a significant inverse correlation between sexual self-schema and sex guilt. More specifically, women who endorsed negative self-views regarding their sexual self reported higher levels sex guilt. Results revealed that acculturation was unrelated to sex guilt, when the effect of being Muslim or non-Muslim was controlled. Women with high sex guilt reported significantly lower levels of life satisfaction. Moreover, analyses for mediation effects supported sex guilt as a partially mediating variable between sexual self-schema and life satisfaction. Levels of sex guilt were higher among Muslim women when compared to women of other religious affiliations. Additionally, Muslim women appeared to be significantly less acculturated to Western ideals than other religious groups. The present findings suggest that mental health professionals who provide services to Iranian American women need to consider the negative effects of sex guilt, particularly among Muslim women.
Gamble, Nathan K; Pruski, Michal
Disorders of sexual differentiation lead to what is often referred to as an intersex state. This state has medical, as well as some legal, recognition. Nevertheless, the question remains whether intersex persons occupy a state in between maleness and femaleness or whether they are truly men or women. To answer this question, another important conundrum needs to be first solved: what defines sex? The answer seems rather simple to most people, yet when morphology does not coincide with haplotypes, and genetics might not correlate with physiology the issue becomes more complex. This paper tackles both issues by establishing where the essence of sex is located and by superimposing that framework onto the issue of the intersex. This is achieved through giving due consideration to the biology of sexual development, as well as through the use of a teleological framework of the meaning of sex. Using a range of examples, the paper establishes that sex cannot be pinpointed to one biological variable but is rather determined by how the totality of one's biology is oriented towards biological reproduction. A brief consideration is also given to the way this situation could be comprehended from a Christian understanding of sex and suffering.
Duncan, Lesley A; Park, Justin H; Faulkner, Jason; Schaller, Mark; Neuberg, Steven L; Kenrick, Douglas T
We tested the hypothesis that, compared with sociosexually restricted individuals, those with an unrestricted approach to mating would selectively allocate visual attention to attractive opposite-sex others. We also tested for sex differences in this effect. Seventy-four participants completed the Sociosexual Orientation Inventory, and performed a computer-based task that assessed the speed with which they detected changes in attractive and unattractive male and female faces. Differences in reaction times served as indicators of selective attention. Results revealed a Sex X Sociosexuality interaction: Compared with sociosexually restricted men, unrestricted men selectively allocated attention to attractive opposite-sex others; no such effect emerged among women. This finding was specific to opposite-sex targets and did not occur in attention to same-sex others. These results contribute to a growing literature on the adaptive allocation of attention in social environments.
Dwyer, Margretta; And Others
Examined Bem Sex Role undifferentiated scores on 93 male sex offenders as compared with 50 male sexually dysfunctional patients. Chi-square analyses revealed significant difference: offenders obtained undifferentiated scores more often than did sexual dysfunctional population. Concluded that Bem Sex Role Inventory is useful in identifying sexual…
Vaughn, Michael S.
Examined adult and juvenile sex offender academic and vocational education programs. Data were collected from 103 sex offender treatment providers. Findings revealed that both adult and juvenile sex offender education programs provided wide variety of service choices in academic and vocational programs. Adult programs averaged slightly more…
Lieberman, Lisa D.; Goldfarb, Eva S.; Kwiatkowski, Samantha; Santos, Paul
First sex marks a significant transition for most adolescents, yet teens often report that it was unplanned. Seventy-four college students participated in exploratory focus groups about their first sex. Although initially asked whether their first sex was spontaneous or planned, many participants revealed evidence of forethought or anticipation,…
Introduction comprises the information on two main forms of same sex families, civic partnership (same sex partnership) and same sex marriage. Countries and various status modalities of legal regulations are mentioned. The main part of the text is dedicated to presentation of the findings of the most recent research on various aspects regarding children of same sex partnerships. It comprises presentations grouped in four main chapters: acceptance of same sex partnerships, acceptance of legal ...
Hansen, Mette; Kjaer, Michael
The risk of overuse and traumatic tendon and ligament injuries differ between women and men. Part of this gender difference in injury risk is probably explained by sex hormonal differences which are specifically distinct during the sexual maturation in the teenage years and during young adulthood....... The effects of the separate sex hormones are not fully elucidated. However, in women, the presence of estrogen in contrast to very low estrogen levels may be beneficial during regular loading of the tissue or during recovering after an injury, as estrogen can enhance tendon collagen synthesis rate. Yet...... has also been linked to a reduced responsiveness to relaxin. The present chapter will focus on sex difference in tendon injury risk, tendon morphology and tendon collagen turnover, but also on the specific effects of estrogen and androgens....
Hausmann, Markus; Schoofs, Daniela; Rosenthal, Harriet E S; Jordan, Kirsten
Biological and social factors have been shown to affect cognitive sex differences. For example, several studies have found that sex hormones have activating effects on sex-sensitive tasks. On the other hand, it has been shown that gender stereotypes can influence the cognitive performance of (gender-) stereotyped individuals. However, few studies have investigated the combined effects of both factors. The present study investigated the interaction between sex hormones and gender stereotypes within a psychobiosocial approach. One hundred and fourteen participants (59 women) performed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tasks, including mental rotation, verbal fluency, and perceptual speed. Saliva samples were taken immediately after cognitive testing. Levels of testosterone (T) were analysed using chemiluminescence immunoassay (LIA). To activate gender stereotypes, a questionnaire was applied to the experimental group that referred to the cognitive tasks used. The control group received an identical questionnaire but with a gender-neutral content. As expected, significant sex differences favouring males and females appeared for mental rotation and verbal fluency tasks, respectively. The results revealed no sex difference in perceptual speed. The male superiority in the Revised Vandenberg and Kuse Mental Rotations Tests (MRT-3D) was mainly driven by the stereotype-active group. No significant sex difference in MRT-3D appeared in the control group. The MRT-3D was also the task in which a strong gender-stereotype favouring males was present for both males and females. Interestingly, T levels of the stereotype-activated group were 60% higher than that of male controls. The results suggest that sex hormones mediate the effects of gender stereotypes on specific cognitive abilities.
Dehlendorff, Christian; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj
between 2003 and 2012 (N=79 617), and the Danish Register of Causes of Death. Information was available on age, sex, marital status, stroke severity, stroke subtype, socioeconomic status, and cardiovascular risk profile. We studied only deaths due to the index stroke, with the assumption that death.......5%) or 1 month (6.9%), respectively. After the age of 60 years, women had more severe strokes than men. Up to ages in the mid-60s, no difference in the risk of death from stroke was seen between the 2 sexes. For people aged >65 years, however, the risk gradually became greater in men than in women...
Lamke, L K
The purpose of the present study was to reexamine the relationship between sex-role orientation and self-esteem in adolescence. One hundred and six senior high school students completed the Rosenberg self-esteem measure (Rosenberg, 1965) and two measures of sex-role orientation, the Bem Sex Role Inventory, Short Form (BSRI; Bem, 1981), and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire Short Form (PAQ; Spence et al., 1975). The relationship between sex-role orientation and self-esteem was found to vary depending on the sex-role measure employed. Results of the BSRI revealed that androgynous individuals had higher levels of self-esteem than masculine, feminine, and undifferentiated adolescents. PAQ results indicated that androgynous individuals had higher levels of self-esteem than feminine and undifferentiated individuals. When the independent contributions of masculinity and femininity were assessed, both BSRI and PAQ masculinity and femininity significantly predicted self-esteem. Analyses also revealed that the effects of sex-role orientation on self-esteem varied by sex across both the BSRI and PAQ. Implications of the present findings for previous work on sex-role development in adolescence are discussed.
The brain has long been known as a dimorphic organ and as a target of sex steroids. It is also a site for their synthesis. Sex steroids in numerous ways can modify cerebral physiology, and along with many processes adult neurogenesis is also modulated by sex steroids. This review will focus on the effects of the main steroids, estrogens, androgens and progestogens, and unveil some aspects of their partly disclosed mechanisms of actions. Gonadal steroids act on different steps of neurogenesis: cell proliferation seems to be increased by estrogens only, while androgens and progestogens favor neuronal renewal by increasing cell survival; differentiation is a common target. Aging is characterized by a cognitive deficiency, paralleled by a decrease in the rate of neuronal renewal and in the levels of circulating gonadal hormones. Therefore, the effects of gonadal hormones on the aging brain are important to consider. The review will also be expanded to related molecules which are agonists to the nuclear receptors. Sex steroids can modify adult neuronal renewal and the extensive knowledge of their actions on neurogenesis is essential, as it can be a leading pathway to therapeutic perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Arnstein, Helene S.
Excerpt from "The Roots of Love" (Helene S. Arnstein, 1975). Book is concerned with feelings that are part of child's developmental stages. Included in excerpt are: genital self-discovery, masturbation, discovery of sex differences, and birth fantasies. Stresses importance of parent's feelings which are communicated to child.
Becker, Jill B
Women exhibit more rapid escalation from casual drug taking to addiction, exhibit a greater withdrawal response with abstinence, and tend to exhibit greater vulnerability than men in terms of treatment outcome. In rodents, short-term estradiol intake in female rats enhances acquisition and escalation of drug taking, motivation for drugs of abuse, and relapse-like behaviors. There is also a sex difference in the dopamine response in the nucleus accumbens. Ovariectomized female rats exhibit a smaller initial dopamine increase after cocaine treatment than castrated males. Estradiol treatment of ovariectomized female rats enhances stimulated dopamine release in the dorsolateral striatum, but not in the nucleus accumbens, resulting in a sex difference in the balance between these two dopaminergic projections. In the situation where drug-taking behavior becomes habitual, dopamine release has been reported to be enhanced in the dorsolateral striatum and attenuated in the nucleus accumbens. The sex difference in the balance between these neural systems is proposed to underlie sex differences in addiction.
Bulte, E.H.; Tu, Q.; List, J.
A vibrant literature has emerged that explores the economic implications of the sex ratio (the ratio of men to women in the population), including changes in fertility rates, educational outcomes, labor supply, and household purchases. Previous empirical efforts, however, have paid less attention to
de Ruyter, D.J.; Spiecker, B.
This article argues that sex education should include sexual ideals. Sexual ideals are divided into sexual ideals in the strict sense and sexual ideals in the broad sense. It is argued that ideals that refer to the context that is deemed to be most ideal for the gratification of sexual ideals in the
The objective of educating people on family planning and sexuality issues has been carried forth by the Family Planning Association of Cyprus (FPAC) since 1971. The promotion of sex education in schools has generated respect for their expertise. Sex education has reached the agenda of the General Assembly of Parliament only to be postponed due to the April 1991 end of term dismissal. A newly elected Parliament are not expected to act immediately. The Ministry of Education Committee on Health Education has been actively counseled since 1974, and most recently in their examination of the possibilities of school sex education and training of high school teachers. The Ministry of Education has authority over primary and secondary education, which is compulsory up to 3 years of secondary education. The approach of FPAC has been to work with parents first in education lectures at various well publicized locations. The agenda was to inform about FPAC, explain the purpose and meaning of sex education, and show the Merry-Go-Round educational film followed by a question and answer session. Eventually, presentations involved children with parent observation. In 1977, authorization from the Ministry of Education gave official approval to FPAC, but not on school premises. FPAC went directly to headmasters and gained support in primary schools to organize sessions on school premises, which successfully involved many primary schools even in the much needed rural areas. Home Economics and Child Care, offered in the 5th and 6th grades was the only vehicle for gaining permission to enter secondary schools. In Larnaca, secondary school headmasters at the 3rd and 6th grade levels permitted invitations which requested parental permission. Lecture topics on human reproduction, sex roles, and disease and contraception were also provided in a follow-up letter. Higher education levels were involved through youth clubs and evening lectures. In 1988, FPAC urged the Director General of the
Seifarth, Joshua E; McGowan, Cheri L; Milne, Kevin J
A sexual dimorphism in human life expectancy has existed in almost every country for as long as records have been kept. Although human life expectancy has increased each year, females still live longer, on average, than males. Undoubtedly, the reasons for the sex gap in life expectancy are multifaceted, and it has been discussed from both sociological and biological perspectives. However, even if biological factors make up only a small percentage of the determinants of the sex difference in this phenomenon, parity in average life expectancy should not be anticipated. The aim of this review is to highlight biological mechanisms that may underlie the sexual dimorphism in life expectancy. Using PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar, as well as cited and citing reference histories of articles through August 2012, English-language articles were identified, read, and synthesized into categories that could account for biological sex differences in human life expectancy. The examination of biological mechanisms accounting for the female-based advantage in human life expectancy has been an active area of inquiry; however, it is still difficult to prove the relative importance of any 1 factor. Nonetheless, biological differences between the sexes do exist and include differences in genetic and physiological factors such as progressive skewing of X chromosome inactivation, telomere attrition, mitochondrial inheritance, hormonal and cellular responses to stress, immune function, and metabolic substrate handling among others. These factors may account for at least a part of the female advantage in human life expectancy. Despite noted gaps in sex equality, higher body fat percentages and lower physical activity levels globally at all ages, a sex-based gap in life expectancy exists in nearly every country for which data exist. There are several biological mechanisms that may contribute to explaining why females live longer than men on average, but the complexity of the
Clasen, Liv; Giedd, Jay N.; Blumenthal, Jonathan; Lerch, Jason P.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Raznahan, Armin
Structural neuroimaging of humans with typical and atypical sex-chromosome complements has established the marked influence of both Yand X-/Y-chromosome dosage on total brain volume (TBV) and identified potential cortical substrates for the psychiatric phenotypes associated with sex-chromosome aneuploidy (SCA). Here, in a cohort of 354 humans with varying karyotypes (XX, XY, XXX, XXY, XYY, XXYY, XXXXY), we investigate sex and SCA effects on subcortical size and shape; focusing on the striatum, pallidum and thalamus. We find large effect-size differences in the volume and shape of all three structures as a function of sex and SCA. We correct for TBV effects with a novel allometric method harnessing normative scaling rules for subcortical size and shape in humans, which we derive here for the first time. We show that all three subcortical volumes scale sublinearly with TBV among healthy humans, mirroring known relationships between subcortical volume and TBV among species. Traditional TBV correction methods assume linear scaling and can therefore invert or exaggerate sex and SCA effects on subcortical anatomy. Allometric analysis restricts sex-differences to: (1) greater pallidal volume (PV) in males, and (2) relative caudate head expansion and ventral striatum contraction in females. Allometric analysis of SCA reveals that supernumerary X- and Y-chromosomes both cause disproportionate reductions in PV, and coordinated deformations of striatopallidal shape. Our study provides a novel understanding of sex and sex-chromosome dosage effects on subcortical organization, using an allometric approach that can be generalized to other basic and clinical structural neuroimaging settings. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sex and sex-chromosome dosage (SCD) are known to modulate human brain size and cortical anatomy, but very little is known regarding their impact on subcortical structures that work with the cortex to subserve a range of behaviors in health and disease. Moreover
Koubová, Martina; Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Rovatsos, Michail; Farkačová, Klára; Altmanová, Marie; Kratochvíl, Lukáš
Among amniote vertebrates, geckos represent a clade with exceptional variability in sex determination; however, only a minority of species of this highly diverse group has been studied in this respect. Here, we describe for the first time a female heterogamety in the genus Paroedura, the group radiated in Madagascar and adjacent islands. We identified homomorphic ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes with a highly heterochromatic W chromosome in Paroedura masobe, Paroedura oviceps, Paroedura karstophila, Paroedura stumpffi, and Paroedura lohatsara. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) revealed that female-specific sequences are greatly amplified in the W chromosome of P. lohatsara and that P. gracilis seems to possess a derived system of multiple sex chromosomes. Contrastingly, neither CGH nor heterochromatin visualization revealed differentiated sex chromosomes in the members of the Paroedura picta-Paroedura bastardi-Paroedura ibityensis clade, which is phylogenetically nested within lineages with a heterochromatic W chromosome. As a sex ratio consistent with genotypic sex determination has been reported in P. picta, it appears that the members of the P. picta-P. bastardi-P. ibityensis clade possess homomorphic, poorly differentiated sex chromosomes and may represent a rare example of evolutionary loss of highly differentiated sex chromosomes. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with a telomeric probe revealed a telomere-typical pattern in all species and an accumulation of telomeric sequences in the centromeric region of autosomes in P. stumpffi and P. bastardi. Our study adds important information for the greater understanding of the variability and evolution of sex determination in geckos and demonstrates how the geckos of the genus Paroedura provide an interesting model for studying the evolution of the sex chromosomes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a recent swell in activity by health research funding organizations and science journal editors to increase uptake of sex and gender considerations in study design, conduct and reporting in order to ensure that research results apply to everyone. However, examination of the implementation research literature reveals that attention to sex and gender has not yet infiltrated research methods in this field. Discussion The rationale for routinely considering sex and gender in implementation research is multifold. Sex and gender are important in decision-making, communication, stakeholder engagement and preferences for the uptake of interventions. Gender roles, gender identity, gender relations, and institutionalized gender influence the way in which an implementation strategy works, for whom, under what circumstances and why. There is emerging evidence that programme theories may operate differently within and across sexes, genders and other intersectional characteristics under various circumstances. Furthermore, without proper study, implementation strategies may inadvertently exploit or ignore, rather than transform thinking about sex and gender-related factors. Techniques are described for measuring and analyzing sex and gender in implementation research using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Summary The present paper describes the application of methods for integrating sex and gender in implementation research. Consistently asking critical questions about sex and gender will likely lead to the discovery of positive outcomes, as well as unintended consequences. The result has potential to strengthen both the practice and science of implementation, improve health outcomes and reduce gender inequities.
Tannenbaum, Cara; Greaves, Lorraine; Graham, Ian D
There has been a recent swell in activity by health research funding organizations and science journal editors to increase uptake of sex and gender considerations in study design, conduct and reporting in order to ensure that research results apply to everyone. However, examination of the implementation research literature reveals that attention to sex and gender has not yet infiltrated research methods in this field. The rationale for routinely considering sex and gender in implementation research is multifold. Sex and gender are important in decision-making, communication, stakeholder engagement and preferences for the uptake of interventions. Gender roles, gender identity, gender relations, and institutionalized gender influence the way in which an implementation strategy works, for whom, under what circumstances and why. There is emerging evidence that programme theories may operate differently within and across sexes, genders and other intersectional characteristics under various circumstances. Furthermore, without proper study, implementation strategies may inadvertently exploit or ignore, rather than transform thinking about sex and gender-related factors. Techniques are described for measuring and analyzing sex and gender in implementation research using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The present paper describes the application of methods for integrating sex and gender in implementation research. Consistently asking critical questions about sex and gender will likely lead to the discovery of positive outcomes, as well as unintended consequences. The result has potential to strengthen both the practice and science of implementation, improve health outcomes and reduce gender inequities.
Foley, Ellen E
Senegal provides a unique example of a sub-Saharan African country with a legal framework for the regulation of commercial sex work. While registering as a legal sex worker affords women access to valuable social and medical resources, sex work is condemned by Senegalese society. Women who engage in sex work occupy a socially marginal status and confront a variety of stigmatising discourses and practices that legitimate their marginality. This paper examines two institutions that provide social and medical services to registered sex workers in Dakar: a medical clinic and a non-governmental organisation. It highlights the discourses about sex work that women encounter within these institutions and in their everyday lives. Women's accounts reveal a variety of strategies for managing stigma, from discretion and deception to asserting self-worth. As registered sex workers negotiate their precarious social position, their strategies both reproduce and challenge stigmatising representations of sex work. Their experiences demonstrate the contradictory outcomes of the Senegalese approach to regulating sex work.
Glanzer, Perry L.
Allowing nonschool organizations to provide sex education in a released-time format would disestablish state-funded sex education and give families a choice in the sex education that would be provided for their children. Released-time programs, as originally conceived and currently practiced, allow students to be released for a period of time…
Sexing has been a challenging task in Nigerian indigenous chickens due to the monomorphism of chicks which makes it impossible to distinguish the male from the female until eight weeks. . Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the sex of Nigerian indigenous chicks using the common auto-sexing methods.
Full Text Available From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on the artificial shuffling or knockout of the sex-determining gene, Sry, have revealed that sex chromosomal effects may be associated with particular types of sex-linked differences such as aggression levels, social interaction, and autoimmune diseases, independently of sex steroid-mediated effects. In addition, studies on naturally occurring, rare phenomena such as gynandromorphic birds and experimentally constructed chimeras in which the composition of sex chromosomes in the brain differs from that in the other parts of the body, indicated that sex chromosomes play certain direct roles in the sex-specific differentiation of the gonads and the brain. In this article, we review the relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes in the determination of brain functions related to sexual behavior and reproductive physiology in mammals and birds.
Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries ... Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. ...
... Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries ... Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. ...
Low sex drive in women Overview Women's sexual desires naturally fluctuate over the years. Highs and lows commonly coincide ... used for mood disorders also can cause low sex drive in women. If your lack of interest ...
... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Send Us Your Feedback ... As Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin TeBG Formal Name Sex Hormone Binding Globulin This article was last reviewed ...
Full Text Available ... Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries Spinal Cord ... a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, ...
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Moseley, Sullivan; Briggs, Wanda P.; Magnus, Virginia
The authors review the literature on the prevalence of sex offenders; multiple treatment modalities; and implications of the use of hypnotic psychotherapy, coupled with cognitive behavioral treatment programs, for treating sex offenders. (Contains 2 tables.)
Andrade, Leonardo F; Riven, Levi; Petry, Nancy M
Numerous studies show that individuals with substance use and gambling problems discount delayed and probabilistic outcomes at different rates than controls. Few studies, however, investigated the association of discounting with antisocial personality disorders (ASPD), and none evaluated whether sex impacts these relationships. Because females with ASPD exhibit different patterns of antisocial behavior than their male counterparts, they may also differ in their decision-making tendencies. This study examined the effects of ASPD and sex on discounting in pathological gamblers. Results revealed effects of ASPD, and an interaction between ASPD and sex, on probability discounting rates. None of these variables, however, were related to delay discounting. Females with ASPD highly preferred probabilistic outcomes, suggesting that female gamblers with ASPD are particularly impulsive when it comes to probabilistic rewards. Greater understanding of sex differences in ASPD might help guide the selection of more effective sex-specific prevention and treatment programs.
Koblinsky, Sally; And Others
Discusses guidelines (developed by the Oregon State University Early Childhood Sex Education Project) for developing teacher-parent cooperation in providing sex education to young children. The guidelines concern how to talk about body differences and body functions; how to deal with masturbation, sex play and obscene language; and how to involve…
Gabdeev, M. M.; Shimanskiy, V. V.; Borisov, N. V.; Tazieva, Z. R.
We present spectroscopic investigations of a cataclysmic variable star, YY Sex. There are some uncertainties in the classification of this object. We calculate Doppler maps for Hβ and HeII λ4686Å and show that there is no sign of disk accretion in YY Sex. Consequently, we conclude that YY Sex is a polar.
MacKenzie, Alison; Hedge, Nicki; Enslin, Penny
Noting public concern about sexual exploitation, abuse and sexualisation, we argue that sex education in the UK needs revision. Choice is a feature of current sex education policy and, acknowledging that choice can be problematic, we defend its place in an approach to sex education premised on informed deliberation, relational autonomy, a…
Cutright, Melitta J.
Sex stereotyping (raising boys and girls to be different because of their sex) begins at birth. The article reviews studies detailing sex stereotyping practices and offers suggestions on what parents can do to avoid them. A list of suggestions for raising children in a nonsexist way is included. (SM)
García-Cabeza, Belén; Sánchez-Bello, Ana
Sex education is principally dealt with as part of the combined subject of Biology and Geology in the Spanish school curriculum. Teachers of this subject are not specifically trained to teach sex education, and thus the contents of their assigned textbooks are the main source of information available to them in this field. The main goal of this study was to determine what information Biology and Geology textbooks provide with regard to sex education and the vision of sexuality they give, but above all to reveal which perspectives of sex education they legitimise and which they silence. We analysed the textbooks in question by interpreting both visual and text representations, as a means of enabling us to investigate the nature of the discourse on sex education. With this aim, we have used a qualitative methodology, based on the content analysis. The main analytical tool was an in-house grid constructed to allow us to analyse the visual and textual representations. Our analysis of the combined Biology and Geology textbooks for Secondary Year 3 revealed that there is a tendency to reproduce models of sex education that take place within a framework of the more traditional discourses. Besides, the results suggested that the most of the sample chosen for this study makes a superficial, incomplete, incorrect or biased approach to sex education.
Lehtonen, Jussi; Jennions, Michael D; Kokko, Hanna
Explaining the evolution of sex is challenging for biologists. A 'twofold cost' compared with asexual reproduction is often quoted. If a cost of this magnitude exists, the benefits of sex must be large for it to have evolved and be maintained. Focusing on benefits can be misleading, as this sidelines important questions about the cost of sex: what is the source of the twofold cost: males, genome dilution or both? Does the cost deviate from twofold? What other factors make sex costly? How should the costs of sex be empirically measured? The total cost of sex and how it varies in different contexts must be known to determine the benefits needed to account for the origin and maintenance of sex. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Scully, Eileen P
This review will outline the multilevel effects of biological sex on HIV acquisition, pathogenesis, treatment response, and prospects for cure. Potential mechanisms will be discussed along with future research directions. HIV acquisition risk is modified by sex hormones and the vaginal microbiome, with the latter acting through both inflammation and local metabolism of pre-exposure prophylaxis drugs. Female sex associates with enhanced risk for non-AIDS morbidities including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, suggesting different inflammatory profiles in men and women. Data from research on HIV cure points to sex differences in viral reservoir dynamics and a direct role for sex hormones in latency maintenance. Biological sex remains an important variable in determining the risk of HIV infection and subsequent viral pathogenesis, and emerging data suggest sex differences relevant to curative interventions. Recruitment of women in HIV clinical research is a pathway to both optimize care for women and to identify novel therapeutics for use in both men and women.
Yoshizawa, Juri; Mimori, Kohei; Yamauchi, Katsusuke; Tsuchida, Koji
Gynandromorphy, or the development of organisms with a combination of male and female morphological features, is common in Hymenoptera. The underlying mechanism is likely associated with the sex-determination system, and studying this phenomenon should lead to a deeper understanding of both embryonic development and sex determination. The reproductive capabilities of gynandromorphs (hereafter, sex mosaics) remain unclear. We studied gynandromorphy in the Malaysian ant Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi, which has sex mosaics of queens (gynandromorphs; mosaic of queens and winged male) and workers (ergatandromorphs; mosaic of worker and wingless ergatoid male). These sex mosaics were classified into seven morphological categories. Most individuals had more male than female body areas. Behavioral observations revealed that sex mosaics behave more in accordance with the “sex” of their brain than that of the reproductive organs (gaster). Relative DNA quantities showed that both female and male regions contained haploid and diploid nuclei, irrespective of their phenotypic appearance, indicating that external appearance did not reflect internal tissues. Nearly one third of the adults were sex mosaics and they were not infected with Wolbachia. Our results suggest that the production of sex mosaics in this species does not pose a substantial cost to colonies and that the underlying causes are therefore not strongly selected against.
Brady, Sonya S; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L
The present study examined whether adolescents' initial consequences of sexual activity differ according to type of sexual activity and gender. Surveys were administered to 618 adolescents recruited from 2 public high schools in the autumn of ninth grade (2002) and at 6-month intervals until the spring of tenth grade (2004). Analyses were limited to the 275 adolescents (44%) who reported engaging in oral sex and/or vaginal sex at any assessment. Participants were 14 years of age at study entry, 56% female, and of diverse socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds. In comparison with adolescents who engaged in oral sex and/or vaginal sex, adolescents who engaged only in oral sex were less likely to report experiencing a pregnancy or sexually transmitted infection, feeling guilty or used, having their relationship become worse, and getting into trouble with their parents as a result of sex. Adolescents who engaged only in oral sex were also less likely to report experiencing pleasure, feeling good about themselves, and having their relationship become better as a result of sex. Boys were more likely than girls to report feeling good about themselves, experiencing popularity, and experiencing a pregnancy or sexually transmitted infection as a result of sex, whereas girls were more likely than boys to report feeling bad about themselves and feeling used. Adolescents experience a range of social and emotional consequences after having sex. Our findings have implications for clinical practice and public health campaigns targeted toward youth.
Sex selection in India and China is fostered by a limiting social structure that disallows women from performing the roles that men perform, and relegates women to a lower status level. Individual parents and individual families benefit concretely from having a son born into the family, while society, and girls and women as a group, are harmed by the widespread practice of sex selection. Sex selection reinforces oppression of women and girls. Sex selection is best addressed by ameliorating the situations of women and girls, increasing their autonomy, and elevating their status in society. One might argue that restricting or prohibiting abortion, prohibiting sex selection, and prohibiting sex determination would eliminate sex selective abortion. But this decreases women's autonomy rather than increases it. Such practices will turn underground. Sex selective infanticide, and slower death by long term neglect, could increase. If abortion is restricted, the burden is placed on women seeking abortions to show that they have a legally acceptable or legitimate reason for a desired abortion, and this seriously limits women's autonomy. Instead of restricting abortion, banning sex selection, and sex determination, it is better to address the practice of sex selection by elevating the status of women and empowering women so that giving birth to a girl is a real and positive option, instead of a detriment to the parents and family as it is currently. But, if a ban on sex selective abortion or a ban on sex determination is indeed instituted, then wider social change promoting women's status in society should be instituted simultaneously.
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Full Text Available Post-error slowing (PES indicates the slower responses after errors than after correct responses. Prior studies mainly focus on how the observation errors influence one own’s performance, there is no study investigating how other’s monitoring influence one own’s performance. Additionally, the issue that whether social context influences the PES effect differently for females and males is still unclear. To address aforementioned issues, we required the participants to interact with a same-sex or opposite-sex partner to complete a color flanker task together (they sat next to each other, Experiment 1. One was the performer (perform the flanker task, and the other was the observer (monitor the error responses of performer. They alternated their roles in two successive blocks. To further verify the role of the interaction context, a control experiment was conducted in the individual context (Experiment 2. The results revealed that (1 larger PES effect was observed in females than in males in the interaction context; (2 the sex difference of PES effect mainly benefited from the opposite-sex interaction; (3 larger PES effect was observed in the interaction context than in the individual context; (4 females’ performances were influenced after an interaction with a same-sex or opposite-sex partner, whereas males’ performances were merely influenced after an interaction with an opposite-sex partner. Taken together, these findings may suggest that (1 interaction context modulates the PES effect differently for females and males; (2 females are more susceptible to social information and hence more effective to adjust the post-error behaviors.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of sex work in India is clandestine due to unfavorable legal environment and discrimination against female sex workers (FSWs. We report data on who these women are and when they get involved with sex work that could assist in increasing the reach of HIV prevention activities for them. Methods Detailed documentation of demography and various aspects of sex work was done through confidential interviews of 6648 FSWs in 13 districts in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The demography of FSWs was compared with that of women in the general population. Results A total of 5010 (75.4%, 1499 (22.5%, and 139 (2.1% street-, home-, and brothel-based FSWs, respectively, participated. Comparison with women of Andhra Pradesh revealed that the proportion of those aged 20–34 years (75.6%, belonging to scheduled caste (35.3% and scheduled tribe (10.5%, illiterate (74.7%, and of those separated/divorced (30.7% was higher among FSWs (p 5 years were more likely to be non-street-based FSWs, illiterate, living in small urban towns, and to have started sex work between 12–15 years of age. The mean age at starting sex work (21.7 years and gap between the first vaginal intercourse and the first sexual intercourse in exchange for money (6.6 years was lower for FSWs in the rural areas as compared with those in large urban areas (23.9 years and 8.8 years, respectively. Conclusion These data highlight that women struggling with illiteracy, lower social status, and less economic opportunities are especially vulnerable to being infected by HIV, as sex work may be one of the few options available to them to earn money. Recommendations for actions are made for long-term impact on reducing the numbers of women being infected by HIV in addition to the current HIV prevention efforts in India.
Dandona, Rakhi; Dandona, Lalit; Kumar, G Anil; Gutierrez, Juan Pablo; McPherson, Sam; Samuels, Fiona; Bertozzi, Stefano M
Background The majority of sex work in India is clandestine due to unfavorable legal environment and discrimination against female sex workers (FSWs). We report data on who these women are and when they get involved with sex work that could assist in increasing the reach of HIV prevention activities for them. Methods Detailed documentation of demography and various aspects of sex work was done through confidential interviews of 6648 FSWs in 13 districts in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The demography of FSWs was compared with that of women in the general population. Results A total of 5010 (75.4%), 1499 (22.5%), and 139 (2.1%) street-, home-, and brothel-based FSWs, respectively, participated. Comparison with women of Andhra Pradesh revealed that the proportion of those aged 20–34 years (75.6%), belonging to scheduled caste (35.3%) and scheduled tribe (10.5%), illiterate (74.7%), and of those separated/divorced (30.7%) was higher among FSWs (p 5 years were more likely to be non-street-based FSWs, illiterate, living in small urban towns, and to have started sex work between 12–15 years of age. The mean age at starting sex work (21.7 years) and gap between the first vaginal intercourse and the first sexual intercourse in exchange for money (6.6 years) was lower for FSWs in the rural areas as compared with those in large urban areas (23.9 years and 8.8 years, respectively). Conclusion These data highlight that women struggling with illiteracy, lower social status, and less economic opportunities are especially vulnerable to being infected by HIV, as sex work may be one of the few options available to them to earn money. Recommendations for actions are made for long-term impact on reducing the numbers of women being infected by HIV in addition to the current HIV prevention efforts in India. PMID:16615869
Salz, Helen K
The gene regulatory networks that control sex determination vary between species. Despite these differences, comparative studies in insects have found that alternative splicing is reiteratively used in evolution to control expression of the key sex-determining genes. Sex determination is best understood in Drosophila where activation of the RNA binding protein-encoding gene Sex-lethal is the central female-determining event. Sex-lethal serves as a genetic switch because once activated it controls its own expression by a positive feedback splicing mechanism. Sex fate choice in is also maintained by self-sustaining positive feedback splicing mechanisms in other dipteran and hymenopteran insects, although different RNA binding protein-encoding genes function as the binary switch. Studies exploring the mechanisms of sex-specific splicing have revealed the extent to which sex determination is integrated with other developmental regulatory networks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence and correlates of inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex among female sex workers (FSWs in Armenia. One hundred and eighteen street-based FSWs between the ages of 20 and 52 completed a questionnaire assessing FSWs’ demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics. A total of 52.5% (n=62 of FSWs reported inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex with clients in the past 3 months. Logistic regression analysis controlling for participants’ age and education revealed that perceiving more barriers toward condom use (AOR = 1.1; P<0.01, reporting more types of abuse (AOR = 2.1; P<0.01, and setting lower fees for service (AOR = 0.9; P=0.02 significantly predicted inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex. HIV-risk-reduction behavioral interventions tailored to FSWs working in Yerevan Armenia should address the factors identified in this study toward the goal of enhancing refusal of unprotected sex and ultimately preventing acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs including HIV.
Pu-xin Gao; Ming Kang; Jing Wang; Qi-gang Ye; Hong-wen Huang
Knowledge of sex ratio and spatial distribution of males and females of dioecious species is both of evolutionary interest and of crucial importance for biological conservation. Eurycorymbus cavaleriei, the only species in the genus Eurycorymbus (Saplndaceae), is a dioecious tree endemic to subtropical montane forest in South China. Sex ratios were investigated in 15 natural populations for the two defined ages (young and old). Spatial distribution of males and females was further studied in six large populations occurring in different habitats (fragmented and continuous). The study revealed a slight trend of malebiased sex ratio in both ages of E. cavaleriei, but sex ratio of most populations (13 out of 15) did not display statistically significant deviation from equality. All of the four significantly male-biased populations in the young class shifted to equality or even female-biased. The Ripley's K analysis of the distribution of males with respect to females suggested that individuals of the opposite sexes were more randomly distributed rather than spatially structured. These results suggest that the male-biased sex ratio in E. cavaleriei may result from the precocity of males and habitat heterogeneity. The sex ratio and the sex spatial distribution pattern are unlikely to constitute a serious threat to the survival of the species.
Begum, Sufia; Hocking, Jane S; Groves, Jan; Fairley, Christopher K; Keogh, Louise A
Despite research suggesting that legal sex work is safe and that emotional risks and social stigma are of greater concern than health risks, much research on sex work has focused on health risks. Given the legalisation of sex work in Victoria, Australia, it is timely to look beyond health. Three focus groups were conducted with a total of 14 female sex workers on their experience of legal sex work, both positive and negative, and the social acceptability of their profession. Thematic analysis was used to identify the key ways that sex workers described sex work. Women saw legal sex work as safer than illegal sex work, but still not socially acceptable. However, they also described six contradictory elements of sex work, which was seen as: financially rewarding and entrapping; empowering and demeaning; increasing some opportunities while reducing others; flexible and demanding; offering both intimacy and competition; and leading to a 'double life'. While legalisation has improved the safety of sex work, stigma and discrimination persist.
Huxley, Virginia H; Kemp, Scott S; Schramm, Christine; Sieveking, Steve; Bingaman, Susan; Yu, Yang; Zaniletti, Isabella; Stockard, Kevin; Wang, Jianjie
Endothelial dysfunction is an early hallmark of multiple disease states that also display sex differences with respect to age of onset, frequency, and severity. Results of in vivo studies of basal and stimulated microvascular barrier function revealed sex differences difficult to ascribe to specific cells or environmental factors. The present study evaluated endothelial cells (EC) isolated from macro- and/or microvessels of reproductively mature rats under the controlled conditions of low-passage culture to test the assumption that EC phenotype would be sex-independent. The primary finding was that EC, regardless of where they are derived, retain a sex-bias in low-passage culture, independent of varying levels of reproductive hormones. Implications of the work include the fallacy of expecting a universal set of mechanisms derived from study of EC from one sex and/or one vascular origin to apply uniformly to all EC under unstimulated conditions no less in the disease state. Vascular endothelial cells (EC) are heterogeneous with respect to phenotype reflecting at least organ of origin, location within the vascular network, and physical forces. Sex, as an independent influence on EC functions in health or etiology, susceptibility, and progression of dysfunction in numerous disease states, has been largely ignored. The current study focussed on EC isolated from aorta (macrovascular) and skeletal muscle vessels (microvascular) of age-matched male and female rats under identical conditions of short term (passage 4) culture. We tested the hypothesis that genomic sex would not influence endothelial growth, wound healing, morphology, lactate production, or messenger RNA and protein expression of key proteins (sex hormone receptors for androgen (AR) and oestrogen (ERα and ERβ); PECAM-1 and VE-CAD mediating barrier function; α v β 3 and N-Cadherin influencing matrix interactions; ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mediating EC/white cell adhesion). The hypothesis was rejected as EC origin
Lee, Soo Chan; Idnurm, Alexander
Although at the level of resolution of genes and molecules most information about mating in fungi is from a single lineage, the Dikarya, many fundamental discoveries about mating in fungi have been made in the earlier branches of the fungi. These are nonmonophyletic groups that were once classified into the chytrids and zygomycetes. Few species in these lineages offer the potential of genetic tractability, thereby hampering the ability to identify the genes that underlie those fundamental insights. Research performed during the past decade has now established the genes required for mating type determination and pheromone synthesis in some species in the phylum Mucoromycota, especially in the order Mucorales. These findings provide striking parallels with the evolution of mating systems in the Dikarya fungi. Other discoveries in the Mucorales provide the first examples of sex-cell type identity being driven directly by a gene that confers mating type, a trait considered more of relevance to animal sex determination but difficult to investigate in animals. Despite these discoveries, there remains much to be gleaned about mating systems from these fungi.
Goikoetxea, Alexander; Todd, Erica V; Gemmell, Neil J
Cortisol is the main glucocorticoid (GC) in fish and the hormone most directly associated with stress. Recent research suggests that this hormone may act as a key factor linking social environmental stimuli and the onset of sex change by initiating a shift in steroidogenesis from estrogens to androgens. For many teleost fish, sex change occurs as a usual part of the life cycle. Changing sex is known to enhance the lifetime reproductive success of these fish and the modifications involved (behavioral, gonadal and morphological) are well studied. However, the exact mechanism behind the transduction of the environmental signals into the molecular cascade that underlies this singular process remains largely unknown. We here synthesize current knowledge regarding the role of cortisol in teleost sex change with a focus on two well-described transformations: temperature-induced masculinization and socially regulated sex change. Three non-mutually exclusive pathways are considered when describing the potential role of cortisol in mediating teleost sex change: cross-talk between GC and androgen pathways, inhibition of aromatase expression and upregulation of amh (the gene encoding anti-Müllerian hormone). We anticipate that understanding the role of cortisol in the initial stages of sex change will further improve our understanding of sex determination and differentiation across vertebrates, and may lead to new tools to control fish sex ratios in aquaculture. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.
The questions leing considered are whether a higher female than male mortality rate exists in Ceylon, India, and Pakistan, and whether this sex differential can account for the observed high male sex ratios. There is a choice between explaining the recorded masculinity of the Indian population by assuming that the subordinate position of women caused their omission from the census or that it caused their unrecorded death in childhood. The 1951 census report of India states that there is a traditional fondness for male issues in most parts of the country and a corresponding dislike for female children. However, a life table for India applied to the 1951 census gave a higher average female age at death 34.7 years as opposed to 33.5 years for male. Other estimates for India and Pakistan for the period 1951-1961 give 37.8 years for life expectancy for males and 36.98 for females. In 1953 the female death rate in Ceylon was over 80% higher than that of the males in the most reproductive ages, 20-29. In 1963 the female excess mortality at the same ages was still 25%, and in the age group 30-34 almost a 1/3 higher. In India the female death rate at ages 15-44 was 38% higher than that of the males in the 1958-1959 survey and as much as 174% higher in the Khanna rural survey, 1956-1960. In Pakistan a Population growth Estimate experiment conducted during 1962-1965 on a national probability sample has shown that in the ages 15-44 the female death rate was 75% higher than that of the males. High maternal mortality was the major reason. In addition, female mortality among young children over age 1 year was 24% higher in 1965 and 1963. There was little difference between the rates of mortality of the 2 sexes at age 45 and above. Recent trends in Ceylon show considerable improvement in maternal mortality which has reduced by 22% the ratio of female to male mortality at age 15-44. Also the ratio at ages 1-9 fell by 8%. to .1 of a year for every calendar year to 1980.
Becker, Jill B; Hu, Ming
Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstinence. In this review, sex differences in drug abuse are discussed for humans and in animal models. The possible neuroendocrine mechanisms mediating these sex differences are discussed.
Neville, Stephen; Adams, Jeffery; Moorley, Calvin; Jackson, Debra
To explore men who have sex with men's views about condom use when having anal intercourse. Internationally, health promotion campaigns use behavioural change strategies to support men who have sex with men to always use condoms when having anal sex with other men. The health promotion message given to this group is consistent and explicitly stated that 'use a condom every time for anal sex regardless of relationship status'. Qualitative analysis of data from a cohort of New Zealand men who have sex with men. A total of 960 useable questionnaires were completed: 571 online and 389 in hard copy. Qualitative data were analysed using a thematic data analytic process. Three themes relating to condom use in men who have sex with men were identified. These are as follows: 'Safer sex is good sex', 'Condom use is good but …' and 'I use condoms sometimes'. The range of responses towards condom use for anal sex in men who have sex with men in our sample reveal this as a complex public health issue, with not all men who have sex with men willing to consistently use condoms. It is important that nurses do not assume that all men who have sex with men are willing to use condoms for anal sex, and should create opportunities for men who have sex with men to raise any concerns about the use of condoms. In this way, nurses can assist in providing information that may help men who have sex with men to make decisions that will minimise risk of contracting infections associated with sexual activity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Amphibians have been widely used to study developmental biology due to the fact that embryo development takes place independently of the maternal organism and that observations and experimental approaches are easy. Some amphibians like Xenopus became model organisms in this field. In the first part of this article, the differentiation of the gonads in amphibians and the mechanisms governing this process are reviewed. In the second part, the state of the art about sex reversal, which can be induced by steroid hormones in general and by temperature in some species, is presented. Also information about pollutants found in the environment that could interfere with the development of the amphibian reproductive apparatus or with their reproductive physiology is given. Such compounds could play a part in the amphibian decline, since in the wild, many amphibians are endangered species. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Glawe, Grit Anja
This thesis will first document on variation in progeny sex ratios among individual female plants of Urtica dioica at our field site in Meijendel (Chapter 2). Next, we show that there is also considerable sex ratio variation among male and female flowering shoots in 26 natural populations studied
Attwood, Feona; Barker, Meg John; Boynton, Petra; Hancock, Justin
The media are widely acknowledged as important in sex and relationship education, but they are usually associated with "bad" effects on young people in contrast to the "good" knowledge represented by more informational and educational formats. In this paper we look at sex advice giving in newspapers, magazines and television in…
Naninck, E.F.G.; Lucassen, P.J.; Bakker, J.
Depression is one of the most common, costly and severe psychopathologies worldwide. Its incidence, however, differs significantly between the sexes, and depression rates in women are twice those of men. Interestingly, this sex difference emerges during adolescence. Although the adolescent period is
Examines fantasies about the opposite sex expressed by 116 children, adolescents, and adults responding to the Drawing from Imagination task of the Silver Drawing Test of Cognition and Emotion. Results indicate that both males and females expressed more negative than positive feelings toward subjects of the opposite sex. Males were more negative.…
Healthy Lifestyle Sexual health Sex education often begins with a child's curiosity about his or her body. Here's how to set the stage for ... Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/sexual-health/in-depth/sex-education/art-20044104 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...
Leary, David; Minichiello, Victor
While the literature on male sex work has increased significantly over the past decade, few studies examine the influence of relational dynamics in the lives of those engaged in male sex work. This qualitative study, conducted with a sample of male street sex workers in Sydney, Australia, explores how relationships color their involvement with sex work. The findings reveal the complexity of their relationships and how their interactions with others shape their engagement in sex work. The data also offer insight into how exit pathways are influenced by money and relationships that occur within this particular male sex work setting. Implications for health policy and intervention are considered.
Ramikie, Teniel Sonya; Ressler, Kerry J
Following sexual maturity, females disproportionately have higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and experience greater symptom severity and chronicity as compared with males. This observation has led many to examine sex differences in PTSD risk factors. Though relatively few, these studies reveal that the root causes of PTSD sex differences are complex, and partly represent interactions between sex-specific nonbiological and biological risk factors, which differentially shape PTSD vulnerability. Moreover, these studies suggest that sex-specific PTSD vulnerability is partly regulated by sex differences in fear systems. Fear, which represents a highly conserved adaptive response to threatening environmental stimuli, becomes pathological in trauma- and stress-based psychiatric syndromes, such as PTSD. Over the last 30 years, considerable progress has been made in understanding normal and pathological molecular and behavioral fear processes in humans and animal models. Thus, fear mechanisms represent a tractable PTSD biomarker in the study of sex differences in fear. In this review, we discuss studies that examine nonbiological and biological sex differences that contribute to normal and pathological fear behaviors in humans and animal models. This, we hope, will shed greater light on the potential mechanisms that contribute to increased PTSD vulnerability in females. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bucardo, Jesus; Semple, Shirley J; Fraga-Vallejo, Miguel; Davila, Wendy; Patterson, Thomas L
Previous research has documented high rates of STDs and increased risk of HIV infection among female sex workers (FSWs) in Mexico; however, little is known about the sexual risk behaviors of this population. The purpose of this study was to explore work history, context of sex work, sexual risk practices, client characteristics, attitudes toward condoms, and potential barriers to condom use in a sample of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Analysis of qualitative data from 25 FSWs revealed that most women entered the sex trade at a young age ( M = 23 years), primarily as a result of financial need. Forty percent were single mothers supporting children. Women worked an average of 6-7 days per week; work shifts ranged from 4 to 13 hr per day. Clients were both Mexican and foreign (mostly American and Asian), and ranged in age from 18 to 80 years. Positive aspects of the job included flexible work hours and good income. Negative aspects of sex work included risks associated with physical assault, diseases, and unwanted pregnancies. Most clients did not want to use a condom and many offered additional money for unprotected sex. FSWs did not like to use condoms because they were perceived as uncomfortable. Most FSWs did not negotiate the use of condoms, had a low knowledge regarding the proper use of condoms, and were reticent to report their own unsafe sex practices. These results suggest the need to develop culturally appropriate safer sex interventions for FSWs in Mexican border cities.
Lardy, Sophie; Allainé, Dominique; Bonenfant, Christophe; Cohas, Aurélie
Sociality should evolve when the fitness benefits of group living outweigh the costs. Theoretical models predict an optimal group size maximizing individual fitness. However, beyond the number of individuals present in a group, the characteristics of these individuals, like their sex, are likely to affect the fitness payoffs of group living. Using 20 years of individually based data on a social mammal, the Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota), we tested for the occurrence of an optimal group size and composition, and for sex-specific effects of group characteristics on fitness. Based on lifetime data of 52 males and 39 females, our findings support the existence of an optimal group size maximizing male fitness and an optimal group composition maximizing fitness of males and females. Additionally, although group characteristics (i.e., size, composition and instability) affecting male and female fitness differed, fitness depended strongly on the number of same-sex subordinates within the social group in the two sexes. By comparing multiple measures of social group characteristics and of fitness in both sexes, we highlighted the sex-specific determinants of fitness in the two sexes and revealed the crucial role of intrasexual competition in shaping social group composition.
Mogil, Jeffrey S; Bailey, Andrea L
It is a clinical reality that women make up the large majority of chronic pain patients, and there is now consensus from laboratory experiments that when differences are seen, women are more sensitive to pain than men. Research in this field has now begun to concentrate on finding explanations for this sex difference. Although sex differences in sociocultural, psychological, and experiential factors likely play important roles, evidence largely from animal studies has revealed surprisingly robust and often qualitative sex differences at low levels of the neuraxis. Although not yet able to affect clinical practice, the continued study of sex differences in pain may have important implications for the development of new analgesic strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rush, Eric T; Schaefer, G Bradley; Sanger, Warren G; Coccia, Peter F
Sex chromosome aneuploidies range in incidence from rather common to exceedingly rare and have a variable phenotype. We report 2 patients with sex chromosome aneuploidies who developed severe aplastic anemia requiring treatment. The first patient had tetrasomy X (48,XXXX) and presented at 9 years of age, and the second patient had trisomy X (47,XXX) and presented at 5 years of age. Although aplastic anemia has been associated with other chromosomal abnormalities, sex chromosome abnormalities have not been traditionally considered a risk factor for this condition. A review of the literature reveals that at least one other patient with a sex chromosome aneuploidy (45,X) has suffered from aplastic anemia and that other autosomal chromosomal anomalies have been described. Despite the uncommon nature of each condition, it is possible that the apparent association is coincidental. A better understanding of the genetic causes of aplastic anemia remains important. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Logie, Carmen H; Wang, Ying; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Jones, Nicolette; Ahmed, Uzma; Levermore, Kandasi; Neil, Ava; Ellis, Tyrone; Bryan, Nicolette; Marshall, Annecka; Newman, Peter A
no sex work involvement. Findings reveal high HIV infection rates among transgender women in Jamaica. Sex work-involved participants experience social and structural drivers of HIV, including violence, stigma, and unemployment. Transgender women involved in transactional sex also experience high rates of incarceration, forced sex and homelessness in comparison with non-sex workers. Taken together, these findings suggest that social ecological factors elevate HIV exposure among sex work-involved transgender women in Jamaica. Findings can inform interventions to advance human rights and HIV prevention and care cascades with transgender women in Jamaica.
Sex differences in the brain are real and clinically important but often grossly distorted in popular discourse. Considering the public's deep fascination with sex difference research and its impact on issues from mental health to education and workplace equity, neuroscientists should pay greater heed to its misappropriation and to studying how gender enculturation shapes neural function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rekart, Michael L
Sex work is an extremely dangerous profession. The use of harm-reduction principles can help to safeguard sex workers' lives in the same way that drug users have benefited from drug-use harm reduction. Sex workers are exposed to serious harms: drug use, disease, violence, discrimination, debt, criminalisation, and exploitation (child prostitution, trafficking for sex work, and exploitation of migrants). Successful and promising harm-reduction strategies are available: education, empowerment, prevention, care, occupational health and safety, decriminalisation of sex workers, and human-rights-based approaches. Successful interventions include peer education, training in condom-negotiating skills, safety tips for street-based sex workers, male and female condoms, the prevention-care synergy, occupational health and safety guidelines for brothels, self-help organisations, and community-based child protection networks. Straightforward and achievable steps are available to improve the day-to-day lives of sex workers while they continue to work. Conceptualising and debating sex-work harm reduction as a new paradigm can hasten this process.
François, P; Turut, P; Soltysik, C; Hache, J C
About 13 observations of sexe linked juvenile retinoschisis, the authors describe the ophthalmoscopic, fluorographic and functional aspects of the disease whose caracteristics are:--its sexe linked recessive heredity; --its clinical characterestics associating: a microcystic macular degeneration, peripheral retinal lesions, vitreous body alterations, --an electroretinogram of the negative type.
Tolor, Alexander; Brannigan, Gary G.
This rebuttal of the criticisms made by Evans and Sperekas points to the fact that sex differences have been found by the authors on locus of control scales, that the purported sex-biased items in the Future Events Test are not necessarily outside the response repetoire of women, and the criticism of including female relevant items cannot be…
Kay, Noy S.; Jones, Megan R.; Jantaraweragul, Sudgasame
The purposes of this study were to examine the current situation pertaining to the teaching of sex education and identify barriers to teaching sex education among Thai health education teachers. A survey questionnaire was administered to 193 health education teachers who participated in this study. The questionnaire was comprised of three parts:…
Full Text Available ... arrow How should people deal with spasticity during sex? play_arrow What about positions and foreplay after a spinal cord injury? play_arrow What about orgasms and sensation during sex after a spinal cord injury? play_arrow What ...
How should common schools in a liberal pluralist society approach sex education in the face of deep disagreement about sexual morality? Should they eschew sex education altogether? Should they narrow its focus to facts about biology, reproduction, and disease prevention? Should they, in addition to providing a broad palette of information about…
Pesce, Diego; Lehman, Niles; Visser, de Arjan
The origin and evolution of sex, and the associated role of recombination, present a major problem in biology. Sex typically involves recombination of closely related DNA or RNA sequences,which is fundamentally a randomprocess that creates but also breaks up beneficial allele combinations.
The purpose of this document is to present statistics which show clearly that poverty is a women's issue. The position of poor women relative to the total population living below the Federal poverty line is demonstrated. Income levels are analyzed to reveal the percentages of women whose annual income is below $5,000. The relationship of income…
Full Text Available Transsexualism, or gender incongruence, presents a state in which a person's assigned sex at birth conflicts with their psychological gender. It is classified in International Classification of Diseases as F64. Treating these persons require multidisciplinary approach, including psychiatrist, endocrinologist, gynecologist, urologist, plastic and reconstructive surgeon. Genital reconstruction is the final step in transition, and can be performed when all other conditions required by World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH are accomplished. Female to male sex reassignment surgery Several surgical procedures can be done in female to male transsexuals, including mastectomy, removal of female genitalia, metoidioplasty, scrotoplasty with implantation of testicular implants, as well as total phalloplasty. The current operative technique of metoidioplasty comprise the following steps: vaginal removal, the release of the ventral chordee and clitoral ligaments, straightening and lengthening of the clitoris, urethroplasty by combining buccal mucosa graft and genital flaps and scrotoplasty with insertion of testicle prostheses. The goal is to perform all these procedures in one stage, and that makes our team famous worldwide. Metoidioplasty results in excellent cosmetic outcome with completely preserved sensitivity and sexual arousal, enables voiding while standing, but without ability to penetrate due to small size of the neophallus. Considering these advantages, including low complication rate, patients often choose this option. For those who require bigger phallus which enables implantation of penile prosthesis, several surgical techniques have been reported using either available local vascularized tissue or microvascular tissue transfer. However, none of them satisfy all the goals of modern penile construction, i.e. reproducibility, tactile and erogenous sensation, a competent neourethra with a meatus at the top of the neophallus
Mank, J E; Avise, J C
Sex determination, due to the obvious association with reproduction and Darwinian fitness, has been traditionally assumed to be a relatively conserved trait. However, research on teleost fishes has shown that this need not be the case, as these animals display a remarkable diversity in the ways that they determine sex. These different mechanisms, which include constitutive genetic mechanisms on sex chromosomes, polygenic constitutive mechanisms, environmental influences, hermaphroditism, and unisexuality have each originated numerous independent times in the teleosts. The evolutionary lability of sex determination, and the corresponding rapid rate of turn-over among different modes, makes the teleost clade an excellent model with which to test theories regarding the evolution of sex determining adaptations. Much of the plasticity in sex determination likely results from the dynamic teleost genome, and recent advances in fish genetics and genomics have revealed the role of gene and genome duplication in fostering emergence and turn-over of sex determining mechanisms. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Responding to the ethical and performative call of Judith Butler not to propagate the sex- and gender-related violence of the imbedded discourse that we study, this article inquires into the discursive strategies of Jewish scripture by analysing how it orchestrates certain norms of sex and gender...... and make them serve the overall aim of securing cultural survival. Following this, it traces reflections on persons of ambiguous or indeterminate sex from rabbinic to modern Judaism so as to inquire into the rabbinic dependency on scripture when non-conforming individuals challenge its bipolar sex...... Jews and non-Jews are able to influence their own representations of sex and gender and thus liberate themselves from the normativity implied by scriptural discourse....
Men have higher blood pressure than women through much of life regardless of race and ethnicity. This is a robust and highly conserved sex difference that it is also observed across species including dogs, rats, mice and chickens and it is found in induced, genetic and transgenic animal models of hypertension. Not only do the differences between the ovarian and testicular hormonal milieu contribute to this sexual dimorphism in blood pressure, the sex chromosomes also play a role in and of themselves. This review primarily focuses on epidemiological studies of blood pressure in men and women and experimental models of hypertension in both sexes. Gaps in current knowledge regarding what underlie male-female differences in blood pressure control are discussed. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying sex differences in hypertension may lead to the development of anti-hypertensives tailored to one's sex and ultimately to improved therapeutic strategies for treating this disease and preventing its devastating consequences. PMID:22417477
Kotikalapudi Rosaiah; Patel Rajesh Kumar; Medidi Hemanth; Sugali Nagaraju Naik
Position of autosome and sex chromosomes in metaphase spreads is grate concerned of Cytogeneticians worldwide to understand cell biology. A few isolated studies have been conducted for the distribution of chromosomes in metaphase spread. Our studies reveal that most sex chromosomes (XY) remain on periphery and semi-periphery, 84.16% for X and 86.97% for Y respectively, in round metaphase spreads. The application of sex chromosome position in metaphase sprea...
Gender inequality in all areas of life remains a global problem despite efforts over the past twenty years in particular to address the situation. In physical activity and sport the inequality between women and men is particularly pronounced in almost all countries, although it differs in degree. Two of the main reasons why inequality between women and men physical activity and sport is more extreme than in many other areas of social life are the result of the close association between the attributes required for sport and those associated with traditional concepts of stereotypical, hegemonic masculinity, and a lack of understanding of the difference between sex and gender. In sport and physical activity physical differences between men and women have been confused with socially constructed differences i.e. physical differences have been confused with gender differences, and this confusion has been used to justify women's lesser and limited participation at all levels. To achieve equality between women and men in physical activity and sport it will be essential that gender is identified and understood as a socially constructed and fluid concept which is a product of the relations between women and men. The fact that women bear children or are generally less physically powerful than men is not sufficient to justify why it is not considered appropriate for women to participate in certain forms of physical activity or why their participation is less valued than the participation of men. An understanding of gender and of the construction of gender relations is an important pre-requisite to addressing the inequality between women and men in physical activity and sport and in developing policies and programs which include, and are of equal benefit to both sexes. While more research on the benefits of participation in physical activity is needed, there is currently sufficient information available to identify the health related and social value of participation to both
In the last decade, a number of studies have reported sex differences in selective attention, but a unified explanation for these effects is still missing. This study aims to better understand these differences and put them in an evolutionary psychological context. 418 adult participants performed a computer-based Simon task, in which they responded to the direction of a left or right pointing arrow appearing left or right from a fixation point. Women were more strongly influenced by task-irrelevant spatial information than men (i.e., the Simon effect was larger in women, Cohen's d = 0.39). Further, the analysis of sex differences in behavioral adjustment to errors revealed that women slow down more than men following mistakes (d = 0.53). Based on the combined results of previous studies and the current data, it is proposed that sex differences in selective attention are caused by underlying sex differences in core abilities, such as spatial or verbal cognition.
Full Text Available Introduction comprises the information on two main forms of same sex families, civic partnership (same sex partnership and same sex marriage. Countries and various status modalities of legal regulations are mentioned. The main part of the text is dedicated to presentation of the findings of the most recent research on various aspects regarding children of same sex partnerships. It comprises presentations grouped in four main chapters: acceptance of same sex partnerships, acceptance of legal recognition of the same sex partnerships, family plans of homosexual teenagers, and raising children within and by the same sex partners. Also the real life cases mirroring legal changes through their life destinies are presented, such is e.g. the Irish way to legalization of the same sex partnerships. In addition, a love story of two women crowned by giving birth of their four children is mentioned. Reasons against and negative reactions the author puts under the title Homophobia. In the Concluding remarks, the author presents the most recent examples of legal changes happened in Norway, Ecuador, and in the American states of California and Connecticut. It was also stated that in European countries of low birth rate, the same sex families are inevitably identified as one of demographically valuable source of creating and raising children, which is worthy to be supported, rather than being hindered without reason and discriminated. Although different than a model of heterosexual family, same sex partnerships neither are harrowing to traditional family values, nor reflex of any kind of promiscuous, antisocial behavior, avoidance of parenthood, and negation of family. Quite opposite, these families are an outcome of endeavors of homosexuals not to be deprived of family, parenthood and all of other values of stabile, monogamous, emotional/sexual socially accepted and legally recognized and regulated conventional family. .
Zhang, Yuan; Yan, Xing-hong; Aruga, Yusho
Pyropia haitanensis has a biphasic life cycle with macroscopic gametophytic blade (n) and microscopic filamentous conchocelis (2n) phase. Its gametophytic blades have long been believed to be mainly dioecious. However, when crossing the red mutant (R, ♀) with the wild type (W, ♂), the parental colors were segregated in F1 blades, of which 96.1% were linearly sectored with 2-4 color sectors. When color sectors were excised from the color-sectored blades and cultured singly, 99.7% of the color sectors appeared to be unisexual with an equal sex ratio. Although the sex of color sector did not genetically link with its color, the boundaries of both sex and color sectors coincided precisely. About 87.9% of the examined color-sectored blades were monoecious and the percentage increased with the number of color sectors of a blade. The gametophytic blades from each conchocelis strain produced by parthenogenesis of the excised color sectors were unisexual and unicolor, showing the same sex and color as their original sectors. These results indicate that most of the sexually reproduced Py. haitanensis blades are monoecious, and their sex is controlled by segregation of a pair of alleles during meiosis of conchospore, forming a sex-sectored tetrad. During the subsequent development of blades, one or two lower cell(s) of the tetrad contribute mainly to rhizoid formation, and rarely show their sexual phenotype, leading to reduced frequency of full sex phenotype of the meiotic blades. Moreover, the aberrant segregations of sex genes or color genes in a few of F1 blades were probably due to gene conversions, but there was no sex transfer in Py. haitanensis.
Gardner, L; Anderson, T; Place, A R; Dixon, B; Elizur, A
Sequential hermaphroditism is a common reproductive strategy in many teleosts. Steroid production is known to mediate both the natural and induced sex change, yet beyond this the physiology directing this process has received little attention. Cytochrome P450 aromatase is a key enzyme in the hormonal pathway catalysing the conversion of sex steroids, androgens to oestrogens, and thus is highly relevant to the process of sex change. This study reports the isolation of cDNA sequences for aromatase isoforms CYP19A1 and CYP19A2 from teleost species representing three forms of sexual hermaphroditism: Lates calcarifer (protandry), Cromileptes altivelis (protogyny), and Gobiodon histrio (bi-directional). Deduced amino acid analysis of these isoforms with other reported isoforms from gonochoristic (single sex) teleosts revealed 56-95% identity within the same isoform while only 48-65% identity between isoforms irrespective of species and sexual strategy. Phylogenetic analysis supported this result separating sequences into isoform exclusive clades in spite of species apparent evolutionary distance. Furthermore, this study isolates 5' flanking regions of all above genes and describes putative cis-acting elements therein. Elements identified include steroidogenic factor 1 binding site (SF-1), oestrogen response element (ERE), progesterone response element (PRE), androgen response element (ARE), glucocorticoid response elements (GRE), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha/retinoid X receptor alpha heterodimer responsive element (PPARalpha/RXRalpha), nuclear factor kappabeta (NF-kappabeta), SOX 5, SOX 9, and Wilms tumor suppressor (WTI). A hypothetical in vivo model was constructed for both isoforms highlighting potential roles of these putative cis-acting elements with reference to normal function and sexual hermaphroditism.
Dion, Karen K.
Two studies investigated the influence of a child's physical attractiveness and sex as potential elicitors of differential adult punitiveness. Assessed were the reactions of 40 women and 44 men. Results reveal differences in men's and women's reactions and suggest differences in their orientation towards children's task behavior. (Author/SDH)
van den Berg, C.J.W.; Beijersbergen, K.A.; Nieuwbeerta, P.; Dirkzwager, A.J.E.
Empirical literature has revealed that social isolation can affect the rehabilitation of sex offenders after serving their sentence. This process of social isolation can already start during incarceration due to strained relationships with fellow prisoners and correctional staff. The current study
Young, Lindsay E; Michaels, Stuart; Jonas, Adam; Khanna, Aditya S; Skaathun, Britt; Morgan, Ethan; Schneider, John A
HIV prevention programs often focus on the physical social venues where men who have sex with men (MSM) frequent as sites where sex behaviors are assumed to be practiced and risk is conferred. But, how exactly these behaviors influence venue patronage is not well understood. In this study, we present a two-mode network analysis that determines the extent that three types of sex behaviors-condomless sex, sex-drug use, and group sex-influence the patronage of different types of social venues among a population sample of young Black MSM (YBMSM) (N = 623). A network analytic technique called exponential random graph modeling was used in a proof of concept analysis to verify how each sex behavior increases the likelihood of a venue patronage tie when estimated as either: (1) an attribute of an individual only and/or (2) a shared attribute between an individual and his peers. Findings reveal that sex behaviors, when modeled only as attributes possessed by focal individuals, were no more or less likely to affect choices to visit social venues. However, when the sex behaviors of peers were also taken into consideration, we learn that individuals were statistically more likely in all three behavioral conditions to go places that attracted other MSM who practiced the same behaviors. This demonstrates that social venues can function as intermediary contexts in which relationships can form between individuals that have greater risk potential given the venues attraction to people who share the same risk tendencies. As such, structuring interventions around these settings can be an effective way to capture the attention of YBMSM and engage them in HIV prevention.
ZIJLSTRA, M; DAAN, S; BRUINENBERGRINSMA, J
1. Analysis of the sexes of 2260 nestlings in 735 marsh harrier broods revealed an overall excess [sex ratio (SR) = 54.8%] of males, and a significant increase in the proportion of males with progressive laying date (d = day of the year): In [SR/(1-SR)] = -1.286 + 0.013 d. 2. We argue that it is
Cooper, Pamela J.
A review of research on sex role differentiation in classroom interaction reveals that women are marginalized from education by its content and by the classroom interactional processes. Sex-role stereotyping exists in curriculum materials at all educational levels, with textbooks more likely to portray boys in active roles and girls in passive…
Katsuma, Susumu; Kawamoto, Munetaka; Kiuchi, Takashi
The W chromosome of the silkworm Bombyx mori has been known to determine femaleness for more than 80 years. However, the feminizing gene has not been molecularly identified, because the B. mori W chromosome is almost fully occupied by a large number of transposable elements. The W chromosome-derived feminizing factor of B. mori was recently shown to be a female-specific PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA). piRNAs are small RNAs that potentially repress invading "non-self" elements (e.g., transposons and virus-like elements) by associating with PIWI proteins. Our results revealed that female-specific piRNA precursors, which we named Fem, are transcribed from the sex-determining region of the W chromosome at the early embryonic stage and are processed into a single mature piRNA (Fem piRNA). Fem piRNA forms a complex with Siwi (silkworm Piwi), which cleaves a protein-coding mRNA transcribed from the Z chromosome. RNA interference of this Z-linked gene, which we named Masc, revealed that this gene encodes a protein required for masculinization and dosage compensation. Fem and Masc both participate in the ping-pong cycle of the piRNA amplification loop by associating with the 2 B. mori PIWI proteins Siwi and BmAgo3 (silkworm Ago3), respectively, indicating that the piRNA-mediated interaction between the 2 sex chromosomes is the primary signal for the B. mori sex determination cascade. Fem is a non-transposable repetitive sequence on the W chromosome, whereas Masc is a single-copy protein-coding gene. It is of great interest how the piRNA system recognizes "self "Masc mRNA as "non-self" RNA.
... Topic En español Talk to Your Kids about Sex Browse Sections The Basics Overview Bodies and Puberty ... healthy expectations for their relationships. Talk about opposite-sex and same-sex relationships. When you talk about ...
Coelho, Marco A; Bakkeren, Guus; Sun, Sheng; Hood, Michael E; Giraud, Tatiana
Fungi of the Basidiomycota, representing major pathogen lineages and mushroom-forming species, exhibit diverse means to achieve sexual reproduction, with particularly varied mechanisms to determine compatibilities of haploid mating partners. For species that require mating between distinct genotypes, discrimination is usually based on both the reciprocal exchange of diffusible mating pheromones, rather than sexes, and the interactions of homeodomain protein signals after cell fusion. Both compatibility factors must be heterozygous in the product of mating, and genetic linkage relationships of the mating pheromone/receptor and homeodomain genes largely determine the complex patterns of mating-type variation. Independent segregation of the two compatibility factors can create four haploid mating genotypes from meiosis, referred to as tetrapolarity. This condition is thought to be ancestral to the basidiomycetes. Alternatively, cosegregation by linkage of the two mating factors, or in some cases the absence of the pheromone-based discrimination, yields only two mating types from meiosis, referred to as bipolarity. Several species are now known to have large and highly rearranged chromosomal regions linked to mating-type genes. At the population level, polymorphism of the mating-type genes is an exceptional aspect of some basidiomycete fungi, where selection under outcrossing for rare, intercompatible allelic variants is thought to be responsible for numbers of mating types that may reach several thousand. Advances in genome sequencing and assembly are yielding new insights by comparative approaches among and within basidiomycete species, with the promise to resolve the evolutionary origins and dynamics of mating compatibility genetics in this major eukaryotic lineage.
Holmegard, Haya N; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Whether endogenous sex hormones are associated with ischemic stroke (IS) is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of endogenous sex hormones are associated with risk of IS in the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Adult men (n...... = 4615) and women (n = 4724) with measurements of endogenous sex hormones during the 1981-1983 examination of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark, were followed for up to 29 years for incident IS, with no loss to follow-up. Mediation analyses assessed whether risk of IS was mediated through...
Strasburger, Victor C
In the absence of effective sex education in the United States, the media have arguably become the leading sex educator for children and teenagers. Considerable research now exists that attests to the ability of the media to influence adolescents' attitudes and beliefs about sex and sexuality. In addition, new research has found a significant link between exposure to sexual content in the media and earlier onset of sexual intercourse. Although there is little research on the behavioral effects of "new" media, they are discussed as well. Suggestions for clinicians, parents, the federal government, and the entertainment industry are provided.
Mandlis, Lane R
By probing the processes of exclusion of transsexuals from the political sphere, this article offers contributions to social and political theory through an examination of the processes of exclusion from the category "human." This article considers how the erasure of investment in their own embodied sex constructs a platform from which to blame others for sex/gender variance, as well as to justify that blaming. Bringing together Giorgio Agamben, Georges Bataille, Judith Butler, and Nikolas Rose with transphobia, medicalization in psychiatry, law, and ethopolitics, this article questions whose investment in sexed embodiment counts and why that investment might be seen as "crazy."
Fattore, Liana; Fratta, Walter
In humans as in animals, males and females are dissimilar in their genetic and hormonally driven behaviour; they process information differently, perceive experience and emotions in different ways, display diverse attitudes, language and social skills, and show sex-related differences in the brain anatomy and organization. Drug addiction is a widespread relapsing illness that affects both men and women. Sex-dependent differences have been frequently observed in the biological and behavioural effects of substances of abuse, including cannabis. Beside sex differences observed in the cannabinoid-induced effects related to cannabis abuse and dependence, cannabinoids have been shown to exert sex-dependent effects also in other physiological and behavioural aspects, such as food intake and energy balance (more evident in males), or anxiety and depression (more evident in females). Research has just begun to identify factors which could provide a neurobiological basis for gender-based differences in cannabinoid effects, among which, gonadal hormones seem to play a crucial role. Yet, cannabinoid pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic may also be important, as sex differences in cannabinoid effects might be due, at least in part, to differences in muscle mass and fat tissue distribution between males and females. Here, we will review both clinical and laboratory-based research evidence revealing important sex-related differences in cannabinoid effects, and put forward some suggestions for future studies to fill the gap in our knowledge of gender-specific bias in cannabinoid pharmacology.
Full Text Available Introduction: Recognition of sex is an important aspect of identification of an individual. Apart from pelvis, skull exhibits highest sexual dimorphism in the human body- Lateral cephalograms are an invaluable tool in identification of sex as they reveal architectural and morphological details of the skull on a single radiograph- The equipment required for lateral cephalometry is readily available and the technique is cost-effective, easy to perform, offers quick results, reproducible and can be implemented in any special training for the forensic examiner. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of lateral cephalograms and the nine cephalometric variables in the identification of sex and also to derive a discriminant function equation for identification of sex. Materials and methods: A total of 100 lateral cephalograms were taken of 50 male and 50 female subjects aged between 25 and 54 years belonging to South Indian population. The nine derived cephabmetnc parameters were used to arrive at a discriminant function equation which was further assessed for its reliability among the study subjects. Results: Among nine cephalometric parameters used, seven were reliable in the identification of sex. The derived discriminant function equation accurately identified 88% of the male study subjects as males and 84% of the female subjects as females. Conclusion: The lateral cephalograms and the nine cephalometric variables employed in the study are simple and reliable tools of sexual discrimination. The derived discriminant functional equation can be used to accurately identify sex of an individual belonging to South Indian population
Full Text Available The central and peripheral nervous system are important targets of sex steroids. Sex steroids affect the brain development and differentiation, and influence neuronal functions. Recent evidence emphasizes a striking sex-linked difference in brain damage after experimental stroke, as well as the efficacy of hormones in treating cerebral stroke injury. Several different models of cerebral ischemia have been utilized for hormone neuroprotection studies, including transient or permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, transient global ischemia, and transient forebrain ischemia. Extensive experimental studies have shown that female sex steroids such as progesterone and 176-estradiol exert neuroprotective effects in the experimental models of stroke, although deleterious effects have also been reported. Also, a significance of numerous factors, including gender and age of experimental animals, localization of brain lesion, duration of ischemia and precise dose of steroids has been pointed out. There are multiple potential mechanisms that might be invoked to explain the beneficial effects of female sex steroids in brain injury, involving neuroprotection, anti-inflammatory properties, effects on vasculature and altered transcriptional regulation. A several clinical trials on the effects of sex hormones to traumatic brain injury have been performed, suggesting that hormone therapy may represent a new therapeutic tool to combat certain diseases, such as traumatic brain injury. Further basic science studies and randomized clinical trials are necessary to reveal a potential application of these molecules as a new therapeutic strategy.
Understanding the evolutionary advantage of sexual reproduction remains one of the most fundamental questions in evolutionary biology. Most of the current hypotheses rely on the fact that sex increases genetic variation, thereby enhancing the efficiency of natural selection; an important body of theoretical work has defined the conditions under which sex can be favoured through this effect. Over the last decade, experimental evolution in model organisms has provided evidence that sex indeed allows faster rates of adaptation. A new study on facultatively sexual rotifers shows that increased rates of sex can be favoured during adaptation to new environmental conditions and explores the cause of this effect. The results provide support for the idea that the benefits of increasing genetic variation may compensate for the short-term costs of sexual reproduction.
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Becker, Jill B; McClellan, Michele L; Reed, Beth Glover
This review discusses alcohol and other forms of drug addiction as both a sociocultural and biological phenomenon. Sex differences and gender are not solely determined by biology, nor are they entirely sociocultural. The interactions among biological, environmental, sociocultural, and developmental influences result in phenotypes that may be more masculine or more feminine. These gender-related sex differences in the brain can influence the responses to drugs of abuse, progressive changes in the brain after exposure to drugs of abuse and whether addiction results from drug-taking experiences. In addition, the basic laboratory evidence for sex differences is discussed within the context of four types of sex/gender differences. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Kolář, František; Ošťádal, Bohuslav
Roč. 207, č. 4 (2013), s. 584-587 ISSN 1748-1708 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : heart * vascular * risk factors * sex Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 4.251, year: 2013
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Redžić Saduša F.
Full Text Available The author's depth interviews with students of the University of Nis checked for the possibility of receptivity to sexual stereotypes and conditioning of sexual/gender socialization by sexual group affiliation. Examined the experiences and attitudes of students of both sexes regarding early gender socialization and it's characteristically stereotypes, stereotypes about dressing, instrumentalization of sexuality, the influence of parents/environment on the formation of sexual morality, own the gender socialization in the family, twin rules for the socialization of children of different gender and sex/gender roles in marriage. Belonging to the sex group has no effect on susceptibility to sexual stereotypes regarding early gender socialization and dressing. Difference may be seen in the effort to comment on and evaluate the wear behavior of girls more than a young man dressing, which may be an indicator for further research had sexual dimorphism in terms of dressing and nudity. It seems that the experience of respondents of both sexes are dependent primarily from the general family atmosphere (closeness, openness to communicate with each other, the absence of the traditional gender division of roles in the family/emotional distance from the parent of the opposite sex or of both parents, the rigidity, the strict division of gender roles in the family. In the first case, where both parents are involved in the upbringing of the child, relationships are intimate with both, and vice versa. Therefore, we can conclude about the lack of connection between the sex of the child and separated upbringing (traditional: the mother confides sexual education of women, a father of male child in the first case, and a link to another should only check to prove it. Sex does not condition susceptibility to stereotypes about education and gender roles. Traditionally, transitional and modern attitudes are equally represented in subjects of both sexes.
Becker, Jill B.; Hu, Ming
Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstin...
Becker, Jill B.; McClellan, Michele L.; Reed, Beth Glover
This review discusses alcohol/other drug addiction as both a sociocultural and biological phenomenon. Sex differences and gender are not solely determined by biology, nor are they entirely sociocultural. The interactions among biological, environmental, sociocultural and developmental influences result in phenotypes that may be more masculine or more feminine. These gender-related sex differences in the brain can influence the responses to drugs of abuse, progressive changes in the brain afte...
Aubenque, M; Damiani, P
Using information available at the end of 1979, the authors present and analyze data on expectation of life at birth in 119 countries. Differences between developing and developed countries, trends over time, sex differentials, and limits on life expectancy are examined. The analysis reveals limits of approximately 73 years for men and 80 for women in the most developed countries. In France, which displays excessive male mortality, expectation of life increases more slowly for men. The authors attribute these sex differentials both to biological factors and to behavioral factors and ways of life.
Van Tuan, Ta
The study explores the meanings of sex among migrant coal miners in Vietnam and identifies contextual factors influencing engagement in unsafe sexual practices. Findings reveal that sex carries a number of social meanings in the lives of migrant miners: sex is relaxation and reward for their risk and hard work; access to sex is an incentive for miners to continue working in the mine; sex strengthens identity and social networks; sex helps miners to affirm manhood, group membership and masculinity; and sex workers are confidants with whom they can share their problems. Facing accidents at work on a daily basis, miners are less inclined to worry about the long-term risks of HIV infection. In addition, being excluded from access to relevant information, miners feel distant from HIV infection. Findings suggest that interventions on sexual behaviour and practices should be sensitive to the concepts of risk and meanings of sex among migrant groups such as coal miners.
Michod, Richard E; Bernstein, Harris; Nedelcu, Aurora M
Explaining the adaptive value of sex is one of the great outstanding problems in biology. The challenge comes from the difficulty in identifying the benefits provided by sex, which must outweigh the substantial costs of sex. Here, we consider the adaptive value of sex in viruses, bacteria and fungi, and particularly the information available on the adaptive role of sex in pathogenic microorganisms. Our general theme is that the varied aspects of sex in pathogens illustrate the varied issues surrounding the evolution of sex generally. These include, the benefits of sex (in the short- and long-term), as well as the costs of sex (both to the host and to the pathogen). For the benefits of sex (that is, its adaptive value), we consider three hypotheses: (i) sex provides for effective and efficient recombinational repair of DNA damages, (ii) sex provides DNA for food, and (iii) sex produces variation and reduces genetic associations among alleles under selection. Although the evolution of sex in microbial pathogens illustrates these general issues, our paper is not a general review of theories for the evolution of sex in all organisms. Rather, we focus on the adaptive value of sex in microbial pathogens and conclude that in terms of short-term benefits, the DNA repair hypothesis has the most support and is the most generally applicable hypothesis in this group. In particular, recombinational repair of DNA damages may substantially benefit pathogens when challenged by the oxidative defenses of the host. However, in the long-term, sex may help get rid of mutations, increase the rate of adaptation of the population, and, in pathogens, may infrequently create new infective strains. An additional general issue about sex illustrated by pathogens is that some of the most interesting consequences of sex are not necessarily the reasons for which sex evolved. For example, antibiotic resistance may be transferred by bacterial sex, but this transfer is probably not the reason sex
Chokrungvaranont, Prayuth; Tiewtranon, Preecha
Many years ago Thai society considered transsexualism (Gender identity disorder or Gender dysphoria) which is commonly known as Kathoey (a word originally used to denote hermaphrodites), Sao Prapet Song or Tut (as in 'Tootsie') were low class citizens, dirty dressing and had to hide in a dark corner selling their services as prostitutes. This made us unwilling to do sex reassignment surgery for this group of people because the idea of eradicating normal sexual organs for the purpose that was not accepted by the society. Consequently the authors have experience in cases where these people wandered seeking doctors who had no competency nor enough experience to do the surgery. The authors could not inhibit the desire of these people who usually suffer from gender identity disorder from strongly wishing to change their genital sex to the sex they want. The outcome of the surgery was not satisfactory for the patients. There were complications and sequelae which caused the authors to correct them later which might be more difficult than doing the original surgery. In addition there were more studies about the etiology and affect of the disorder on these people that changed the social point of view. The women who wanted to be a him and men who would like to be a her should be considered as patients who need to be cured to set the harmony about their genetic sex and the desire to be the opposite sex and also to be regarded by others as a member of that other sex. The treatments of transsexualism usually begin with conventional psychiatric and endocrinological treatment to adjust the mind to the body. For those who failed conservative treatment in adjusting the mind to the body then sex reassignment surgery will be the only way to transform their body to their mind and give the best result in properly selected patients. Preecha Tiewtranon, the pioneer in sex reassignment surgery in Thailand, did his transsexualism case in 1975 together with Dr. Prakob Thongpeaw. Sex
Grgurevic, Neza; Majdic, Gregor
Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of brain function, many questions remain unanswered. The ultimate goal of studying the brain is to understand the connection between brain structure and function and behavioural outcomes. Since sex differences in brain morphology were first observed, subsequent studies suggest different functional organization of the male and female brains in humans. Sex and gender have been identified as being a significant factor in understanding human physiology, health and disease, and the biological differences between the sexes is not limited to the gonads and secondary sexual characteristics, but also affects the structure and, more crucially, the function of the brain and other organs. Significant variability in brain structures between individuals, in addition to between the sexes, is factor that complicates the study of sex differences in the brain. In this review, we explore the current understanding of sex differences in the brain, mostly focusing on preclinical animal studies. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.
This study, inspired by Block's (1973) work, was designed to enable one to examine how ego development and socialization experience interact in relation to sex role identity. Sex role identity was measured via the Bem Sex Role Inventory, and socialization practices were measured via the Block Child-Rearing Practices Report. Both measures were scaled so as to yield scores on agency, communion, and androgyny. Ego development was assessed via Loevinger's Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development. The sample consisted of 120 young adult men and women, married and single. Analyses revealed that the predictive power of the variables differed by sex. Ego development was predictive of sex role identity in men but not women, whereas socialization practices were predictive of sex role identity in women but not men. The results were seen as supporting Chodorow's (1974) position regarding the differing socialization experiences of men and women.
Heilskov-Hansen, Thomas; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Thomsen, Jane Frølund
OBJECTIVES: Sex differences in occupational biomechanical exposures may be part of the explanation why musculoskeletal complaints and disorders tend to be more common among women than among men. We aimed to determine possible sex differences in task distribution and task-specific postures...... correction were used to evaluate sex differences. RESULTS: Statistically significant (psex differences were revealed in task proportions, but the proportions differed by less than 4%. For task exposures, no statistically significant sex differences were found. CONCLUSIONS: Only minor sex differences...... and movements of the upper extremities among Danish house painters, and to establish sex-specific task exposure matrices. METHODS: To obtain task distributions, we sent out a questionnaire to all members of the Painters' Union in Denmark (N = 9364), of whom 53% responded. Respondents reported their task...
Herman, Jeff; Andelloux, Megan
While virtually all sex education books for teenagers focus on sexual health, Jo Langford's "The Sex EDcyclopedia" offers comprehensive and empowering information specifically for teen males about their sexuality and how it may be positively experienced. This review examines the strengths of "The Sex EDcyclopedia" as a sex education resource and…
Argento, Elena; Taylor, Matthew; Jollimore, Jody; Taylor, Chrissy; Jennex, James; Krusi, Andrea; Shannon, Kate
Men sex workers in Vancouver have largely transitioned from street to online solicitation coinciding with losing "Boystown," the main outdoor sex work stroll for men. This article explores strategies and barriers to increase safety among men and trans sex workers and clients of men in Vancouver, Canada. Qualitative interviews were conducted (2012-2013) with 61 self-identifed men who currently buy and/or sell sex in a community-based research project known as CHAPS (Community Health Assessment of Men Who Purchase and Sell Sex). Drawing on a socioecological framework, thematic analysis of interview transcripts was conducted utilizing ATLAS.ti 7 software among men (39 workers; 8 buyers). Narratives indicate that gentrification and urban planning led to social isolation and loss of social support networks among men in the sex industry. Concurrently, the restructuring of sex work to online increased workers' safety and control. Narratives reveal how the Internet can provide greater opportunities to negotiate terms of sex work and enhanced screening using webcams, reducing risks of violence, stigma, and police harassment for both workers and clients compared with the street. This study highlights how losing Boystown led to a loss of community and solidarity: key protective measures for sex workers. Online solicitation increased workers' capacity to screen prospective clients and prevent violence. Recent legal reforms in Canada to further criminalize sex work raise significant concern for human rights and health of individuals in the sex industry, and point to the critical need to include voices of men and trans sex workers and buyers in policy discussions. © The Author(s) 2016.
McCarthy, Bill; Benoit, Cecilia; Jansson, Mikael
Explanations of adult involvement in sex work typically adopt one of two approaches. One perspective highlights a variety of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, including physical and sexual abuse, family instability, poverty, associations with "pimps" and other exploiters, homelessness, and drug use. An alternative account recognizes that some of these factors may be involved, but underscores the contribution of more immediate circumstances, such as current economic needs, human capital, and employment opportunities. Prior research offers a limited assessment of these contrasting claims: most studies have focused exclusively on people working in the sex industry and they have not assessed the independent effects of life course variables central to these two perspectives. We add to this literature with an analysis that drew on insights from life course and life-span development theories and considered the contributions of factors from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Our comparative approach examined predictors of employment in sex work relative to two other low-income service or care work occupations: food and beverage serving and barbering and hairstyling. Using data from a study of almost 600 workers from two cities, one in Canada and the other in the United States, we found that both immediate circumstances and negative experiences from early life are related to current sex work involvement: childhood poverty, abuse, and family instability were independently associated with adult sex work, as were limited education and employment experience, adult drug use, and marital status.
Dickens, B M; Serour, G I; Cook, R J; Qiu, R-Z
This paper contrasts ethical approaches to sex selection in countries where discrimination against women is pervasive, resulting in selection against girl children, and in countries where there is less general discrimination and couples do not prefer children of either sex. National sex ratio imbalances where discrimination against women is common have resulted in laws and policies, such as in India and China, to deter and prevent sex selection. Birth ratios of children can be affected by techniques of prenatal sex determination and abortion, preconception sex selection and discarding disfavored embryos, and prefertilization sperm sorting, when disfavored sperm remain unused. Incentives for son preference are reviewed, and laws and policies to prevent sex selection are explained. The elimination of social, economic and other discrimination against women is urged to redress sex selection against girl children. Where there is no general selection against girl children, sex selection can be allowed to assist families that want children of both sexes.
Cornelisse, M M; Bennett, Patrick; Christiansen, M
Human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is encoded by a normal and a variant allele. The resulting SHBG phenotypes (the homozygous normal SHBG, the heterozygous SHBG and the homozygous variant SHBG phenotype) can be distinguished by their electrophoretic patterns. We developed a novel detection....... This method of detection was used to determine the distribution of SHBG phenotypes in healthy controls of both sexes and in five different pathological conditions characterized by changes in the SHBG level or endocrine disturbances (malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms, hirsutism, liver cirrhosis...... on the experimental values. Differences in SHBG phenotypes do not appear to have any clinical significance and no sex difference was found in the SHBG phenotype distribution....
Plevkova, J; Buday, T; Kavalcikova-Bogdanova, N; Ioan, I; Demoulin-Alexikova, S
Majority of patients visiting cough clinics are postmenopausal women, who are affected by intractable cough for years. Why the cough reflex becomes exaggerated in women is not known. Basic research excludes females from the studies contributing to the sex bias which may be responsible for lack of understanding of "hypersensitive" cough in women. Biological and behavioural differences between women and men are the factors affecting cough physiology. Gender also shapes the patterns of behaviour and determines the character of environmental exposures which differs between sexes. The article offers an insight into the physiology of the cough, differences in the maturation of it and biological, social and behavioural factors contributing to the sex differences in cough. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
van Wijk, Anton Ph.; Vreugdenhil, Coby; van Horn, Joan; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.
There is some debate about whether or not sex offenders are similar to non-sex offenders with regard to family background (parental characteristics), personality, and psychopathology. The central aim of this study focused on the comparison of juvenile sex offenders and non-sex offenders. The sample consisted of incarcerated juvenile male sex (n =…
Lau, Charles Q.
This study contributes to the emerging demographic literature on same-sex couples by comparing the level and correlates of union stability among 4 types of couples: (a) male same-sex cohabitation, (b) female same-sex cohabitation, (c) different-sex cohabitation, and (d) different-sex marriage. The author analyzed data from 2 British birth cohort…
Full Text Available Snapchat offers a distinctive feature from other social networks in that its users control the visibility of the contents they share with others by defining how long these contents may be available. Snapchat is changing the way men and women perceive online information privacy and content management. This paper aims to illustrate the relevance of social representation theory to evaluate perceived privacy in Snapchat users, with a sample of 268 young adults residing in Bogotá. A survey method was employed for data collection purposes. The results reveal that Snapchat users are concerned about their networks’ privacy, with no significant sex differences, although men's perception of Snapchat privacy is safer than that of women. Finally, a discussion is presented as to the limitations and implications of these results for further studies.
Full Text Available Reproduction in sexually dimorphic animals relies on successful gamete production, executed by the germline and aided by somatic support cells. Somatic sex identity in Drosophila is instructed by sex-specific isoforms of the DMRT1 ortholog Doublesex (Dsx. Female-specific expression of Sex-lethal (Sxl causes alternative splicing of transformer (tra to the female isoform traF. In turn, TraF alternatively splices dsx to the female isoform dsxF. Loss of the transcriptional repressor Chinmo in male somatic stem cells (CySCs of the testis causes them to "feminize", resembling female somatic stem cells in the ovary. This somatic sex transformation causes a collapse of germline differentiation and male infertility. We demonstrate this feminization occurs by transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of traF. We find that chinmo-deficient CySCs upregulate tra mRNA as well as transcripts encoding tra-splice factors Virilizer (Vir and Female lethal (2d (Fl(2d. traF splicing in chinmo-deficient CySCs leads to the production of DsxF at the expense of the male isoform DsxM, and both TraF and DsxF are required for CySC sex transformation. Surprisingly, CySC feminization upon loss of chinmo does not require Sxl but does require Vir and Fl(2d. Consistent with this, we show that both Vir and Fl(2d are required for tra alternative splicing in the female somatic gonad. Our work reveals the need for transcriptional regulation of tra in adult male stem cells and highlights a previously unobserved Sxl-independent mechanism of traF production in vivo. In sum, transcriptional control of the sex determination hierarchy by Chinmo is critical for sex maintenance in sexually dimorphic tissues and is vital in the preservation of fertility.
Grmai, Lydia; Hudry, Bruno; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene; Bach, Erika A
Reproduction in sexually dimorphic animals relies on successful gamete production, executed by the germline and aided by somatic support cells. Somatic sex identity in Drosophila is instructed by sex-specific isoforms of the DMRT1 ortholog Doublesex (Dsx). Female-specific expression of Sex-lethal (Sxl) causes alternative splicing of transformer (tra) to the female isoform traF. In turn, TraF alternatively splices dsx to the female isoform dsxF. Loss of the transcriptional repressor Chinmo in male somatic stem cells (CySCs) of the testis causes them to "feminize", resembling female somatic stem cells in the ovary. This somatic sex transformation causes a collapse of germline differentiation and male infertility. We demonstrate this feminization occurs by transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of traF. We find that chinmo-deficient CySCs upregulate tra mRNA as well as transcripts encoding tra-splice factors Virilizer (Vir) and Female lethal (2)d (Fl(2)d). traF splicing in chinmo-deficient CySCs leads to the production of DsxF at the expense of the male isoform DsxM, and both TraF and DsxF are required for CySC sex transformation. Surprisingly, CySC feminization upon loss of chinmo does not require Sxl but does require Vir and Fl(2)d. Consistent with this, we show that both Vir and Fl(2)d are required for tra alternative splicing in the female somatic gonad. Our work reveals the need for transcriptional regulation of tra in adult male stem cells and highlights a previously unobserved Sxl-independent mechanism of traF production in vivo. In sum, transcriptional control of the sex determination hierarchy by Chinmo is critical for sex maintenance in sexually dimorphic tissues and is vital in the preservation of fertility.
Whether you are someone new to the field of sex education, trying to start a library or resource center on adolescent sexual health, or an old pro, this guide should give you a basic orientation to what's available to support your work. These resources are important to advancing positive attitudes toward adolescent sexual health and the author…
... might miss the best opportunities. Instead, think of sex education as an ongoing conversation. Here are some ideas to help you get started — and keep the discussion going. Seize the moment. When a TV program or music video raises issues about responsible sexual behavior, use it ...
Tybur, J.M.; Bryan, A.D.; Lieberman, D.L.; Caldwell Hooper, A.E.; Merriman, L.A.
Across two studies, we test for sex differences in the factor structure, factor loadings, concurrent validity, and means of the Three Domain Disgust Scale. In Study 1, we find that the Three Domain Disgust Scale has indistinguishable factor structure and factor loadings for men and women. In Study
politikfelt prostitution. Undersøgelsen trækker på poststrukturalistisk feministisk teori og er baseret på interviews med kvindelige thailandske migranter, der sælger sex, og socialarbejdere samt deltagende observationer og diverse dokumenter. Afhandlingen falder i to dele. Den første del er rammen for de...... fire artikler, som består af en introduktion, en teoretisk ramme, metodeovervejelser og konklusion samt et overordnet forskningsspørgsmål: Hvordan destabiliserer og reproducerer kvindelige thailandske migranter, der sælger sex i Danmark, det danske prostitutionspolitikfelts kategorier ’sexarbejde’ og...
Westberg, Lars; Eriksson, Elias
Sex steroids readily pass the blood-brain barrier, and receptors for them are abundant in brain areas important for the regulation of emotions, cognition and behaviour. Animal experiments have revealed both important early effects of these hormones on brain development and their ongoing influence on brain morphology and neurotransmission in the adult organism. The important effects of sex steroids on human behaviour are illustrated by, for example, the effect of reduced levels of these hormones on sexual drive and conditions such as premenstrual dysphoric disorder, perimenopausal dysphoria, postpartum depression, postpartum psychosis, dysphoria induced by oral contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and anabolic steroid-induced aggression. The fact that men and women (as groups) differ with respect to the prevalence of several psychiatric disorders, certain aspects of cognitive function and certain personality traits may possibly also reflect an influence of sex steroids on human behaviour. The heritability of most behavioural traits, including personality, cognitive abilities and susceptibility to psychiatric illness, is considerable, but as yet, only few genes of definite importance in this context have been identified. Given the important role of sex steroids for brain function, it is unfortunate that relatively few studies so far have addressed the possible influence of sex steroid-related genes on interindividual differences with respect to personality, cognition and susceptibility to psychiatric disorders. To facilitate further research in this area, this review provides information on several such genes and summarizes what is currently known with respect to their possible influence on brain function.
Verona, Edelyn; Murphy, Brett; Javdani, Shabnam
Recent work has emphasized the role of violent victimization, along with risky contexts like sex exchange, in pathways to problems of externalizing and substance use in women. Nonetheless, few studies have empirically tested gender differences involving the roles of adversity factors (e.g., childhood violent maltreatment, sex exchange) in drug use patterns. The present study tested a model of gender differences in relationships between childhood physical and sexual abuse, sex exchange, and two indicators of drug use: engagement and symptoms of disorder. We recruited an ethnically-diverse sample of 304 (130 women) adults with recent histories of violence and/or drug use, who completed a substance use diagnostic interview, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and a sex exchange questionnaire. First, structural equation modeling revealed that childhood sexual and physical abuse were related to increased drug engagement in women and men, respectively, above the influence of early childhood contextual variables (e.g., neighborhood, family) and age. Second, sexual abuse was related to sex exchange, which in turn was related to drug use symptoms in women but not men. These data provide empirical support for distinct trauma-related pathways to drug use problems in men and women, which has implications for gendered explanations and prevention approaches.
South, Scott J.; Trent, Katherine; Bose, Sunita
Although substantial research has explored the causes of India’s excessively masculine population sex ratio, few studies have examined the consequences of this surplus of males. We merge individual-level data from the 2004–2005 India Human Development Survey with data from the 2001 India population census to examine the association between the district-level male-to-female sex ratio at ages 15 to 39 and self-reports of victimization by theft, breaking and entering, and assault. Multilevel logistic regression analyses reveal positive and statistically significant albeit substantively modest effects of the district-level sex ratio on all three victimization risks. We also find that higher male-to-female sex ratios are associated with the perception that young unmarried women in the local community are frequently harassed. Household-level indicators of family structure, socioeconomic status, and caste, as well as areal indicators of women’s empowerment and collective efficacy, also emerge as significant predictors of self-reported criminal victimization and the perceived harassment of young women. The implications of these findings for India’s growing sex ratio imbalance are discussed. PMID:24682921
Matziou, V; Perdikaris, P; Petsios, K; Gymnopoulou, E; Galanis, P; Brokalaki, H
Human sexuality is a complex part of life and is considered a multidimensional phenomenon. Therefore there is an increased need for adequate and comprehensive sex education, especially for teenagers and young adults. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the level of students' sexual knowledge, as well as to identify their sources of information regarding sexual life and reproduction. A cross-sectional study using a designed self-report questionnaire was performed. The study population consisted of 936 students who were attending 10 high schools and four medical schools in Attica. Data were collected after obtaining permission from the Pedagogic Institute of the Greek Ministry of Education. The main sources of students' sexual information about reproduction were friends (29.1%) and parents (24.0%), whereas school was reported by 14.3% of them. The preferred sources of information, according to students' perceptions, were sex education specialists (65.6%), followed by school (39.1%), parents (32.2%) and friends (27.7%). The importance of school, peer and parent support upon adolescents' sexual life was revealed by the results of the study. Students' knowledge level on sex topics is not satisfactory and therefore there is a need for sex education specialists and special courses regarding sex education in Greek schools.
South, Scott J; Trent, Katherine; Bose, Sunita
Although substantial research has explored the causes of India's excessively masculine population sex ratio, few studies have examined the consequences of this surplus of males. We merge individual-level data from the 2004-2005 India Human Development Survey with data from the 2001 India population census to examine the association between the district-level male-to-female sex ratio at ages 15 to 39 and self-reports of victimization by theft, breaking and entering, and assault. Multilevel logistic regression analyses reveal positive and statistically significant albeit substantively modest effects of the district-level sex ratio on all three victimization risks. We also find that higher male-to-female sex ratios are associated with the perception that young unmarried women in the local community are frequently harassed. Household-level indicators of family structure, socioeconomic status, and caste, as well as areal indicators of women's empowerment and collective efficacy, also emerge as significant predictors of self-reported criminal victimization and the perceived harassment of young women. The implications of these findings for India's growing sex ratio imbalance are discussed.
Rakov, Helena; Engels, Kathrin; Hönes, Georg Sebastian; Strucksberg, Karl-Heinz; Moeller, Lars Christian; Köhrle, Josef; Zwanziger, Denise; Führer, Dagmar
Thyroid dysfunction is more common in the female population, however, the impact of sex on disease characteristics has rarely been addressed. Using a murine model, we asked whether sex has an influence on phenotypes, thyroid hormone status, and thyroid hormone tissue response in hyper- and hypothyroidism. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism were induced in 5-month-old female and male wildtype C57BL/6N mice, by LoI/MMI/ClO4 (-) or T4 i.p. treatment over 7 weeks, and control animals underwent sham treatment (N = 8 animals/sex/treatment). Animals were investigated for impact of sex on body weight, food and water intake, body temperature, heart rate, behaviour (locomotor activity, motor coordination, and strength), liver function, serum thyroid hormone status, and cellular TH effects on gene expression in brown adipose tissue, heart, and liver. Male and female mice showed significant differences in behavioural, functional, metabolic, biochemical, and molecular traits of hyper- and hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism resulted in increased locomotor activity in female mice but decreased muscle strength and motor coordination preferably in male animals. Hypothyroidism led to increased water intake in male but not female mice and significantly higher serum cholesterol in male mice. Natural sex differences in body temperature, body weight gain, food and water intake were preserved under hyperthyroid conditions. In contrast, natural sex differences in heart rate disappeared with TH excess and deprivation. The variations of hyper- or hypothyroid traits of male and female mice were not explained by classical T3/T4 serum state. TH serum concentrations were significantly increased in female mice under hyperthyroidism, but no sex differences were found under eu- or hypothyroid conditions. Interestingly, analysis of expression of TH target genes and TH transporters revealed little sex dependency in heart, while sex differences in target genes were present in liver and brown adipose tissue
Morgan-thomas, R; Overs, C
Most sex work research examines the impact of HIV on prostitutes and on society and involves testing prostitutes for HIV antibodies, but it does not examine the role of others in the sex industry. Sex industry workers include female prostitutes, transvestites, transsexuals, and male prostitutes, bar and brothel owners, taxi drivers, sex workers' partners, and sex business managers. Since sex workers provide sexual services to clients, they are in a perfect position to teach them about sexual health. Society must recognize that we cannot wish the sex industry away and that we need an effective health promotion strategy now. Some successful relevant AIDS education campaigns provide us some guidelines on how to develop campaigns. Any campaign targeting the sex industry should also target the public. Sex workers should participate in developing health messages and educational activities. They should also participate in the project. Any campaign must deal with major obstacles to safer sexual practices of which sex workers are aware and be consulted. Common obstacles are client demand for unprotected sex and irregular and inadequate supply of inexpensive condoms. A health promotion strategy cannot be effective, however, if sex workers do not have access to social support and health care services. Health promotion workers should also encourage local authorities to end discrimination of sex workers so they can freely obtain needed services. In some countries, sex workers operate fantasy workshops providing peers with ideas to sell sex services which reduce the risk of HIV transmission. Other campaigns distribute safer sex messages on small cards, cigarette lighters, key rings, condom packages, and T shirts. Training of sex workers other than prostitutes to reinforce safer sex messages to clients is also effective, e.g., taxi drivers can say they will take a client to a woman who uses condoms rather than to a clean girl. Street theater and puppets have also successfully
Di Meo, G P; Perucatti, A; Di Palo, R; Iannuzzi, A; Ciotola, F; Peretti, V; Neglia, G; Campanile, G; Zicarelli, L; Iannuzzi, L
Thirteen male river buffaloes, 119 females with reproductive problems (which had reached reproductive age but had failed to become pregnant in the presence of bulls) and two male co-twins underwent both clinical and cytogenetic investigation. Clinical analyses performed by veterinary practitioners revealed normal body conformation and external genitalia for most females. However, some subjects showed some slight male traits such as large base horn circumference, prominent withers and tight pelvis. Rectal palpation revealed damage to internal sex adducts varying between atrophy of Mullerian ducts to complete lack of internal sex adducts (with closed vagina). All bulls had normal karyotypes at high resolution banding, while 25 animals (23 females and 2 male co-twins) (20.7%) with reproductive problems were found to carry the following sex chromosome abnormalities: X monosomy (2 females); X trisomy (1 female); sex reversal syndrome (2 females); and free-martinism (18 females and 2 males). All female carriers were sterile. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Neuhaus, Andres H; Opgen-Rhein, Carolin; Urbanek, Carsten; Gross, Melanie; Hahn, Eric; Ta, Thi Minh Tam; Koehler, Simone; Dettling, Michael
Functional neuroimaging studies have increasingly aimed at approximating neural substrates of human cognitive sex differences elicited by visuospatial challenge. It has been suggested that females and males use different behaviorally relevant neurocognitive strategies. In females, greater right prefrontal cortex activation has been found in several studies. The spatiotemporal dynamics of neural events associated with these sex differences is still unclear. We studied 22 female and 22 male participants matched for age, education, and nicotine with 29-channel-electroencephalogram recorded under a visual selective attention paradigm, the Attention Network Test. Visual event-related potentials (ERP) were topographically analyzed and neuroelectric sources were estimated. In absence of behavioral differences, ERP analysis revealed a novel frontal-occipital second peak of visual N100 that was significantly increased in females relative to males. Further, in females exclusively, a corresponding central ERP component at around 220 ms was found; here, a strong correlation between stimulus salience and sex difference of the central ERP component amplitude was observed. Subsequent source analysis revealed increased cortical current densities in right rostral prefrontal (BA 10) and occipital cortex (BA 19) in female subjects. This is the first study to report on a tripartite association between sex differences in ERPs, visual stimulus salience, and right prefrontal cortex activation during attentional processing. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
In this special issue, the topic of sex difference in the field of anesthesiology is featured. Eight subtopics are discussed including 1) sex differences in cardiovascular medicine, 2) perioperative cardiovascular management, 3) sex differences in the respiratory functions of the upper airway, 4) sex differences in the anesthetic management, 5) sex differences in pain, 6) sex differences in laboratory medicine, 7) sex differences in pharmacokinetics of anesthetics, and 8) postoperative nausea and vomiting. Although recent clinical and experimental studies have shown the existence of sex and/or gender differences in many fields of medicine, our knowledge of sex differences in anesthesiology is apparently insufficient. I believe that anesthesiologists should pay more attention to this topic to improve our daily practice of anesthesia.
Gallo, Maria F; Steiner, Markus J; Hobbs, Marcia M; Weaver, Mark A; Hoke, Theresa Hatzell; Van Damme, Kathleen; Jamieson, Denise J; Macaluso, Maurizio
Research on the determinants of condom use and condom non-use generally has relied on self-reported data with questionable validity. We identified predictors of recent, unprotected sex among 331 female sex workers in Madagascar using two outcome measures: self-reports of unprotected sex within the past 48 h and detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biological marker of recent semen exposure. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that self-reported unprotected sex was associated with three factors: younger age, having a sipa (emotional partner) in the prior seven days, and no current use of hormonal contraception. The sole factor related to having PSA detected was prevalent chlamydial infection (adjusted odds ratio, 4.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-10.1). Differences in predictors identified suggest that determinants of unprotected sex, based on self-reported behaviors, might not correlate well with risk of semen exposure. Caution must be taken when interpreting self-reported sexual behavior measures or when adjusting for them in analyses evaluating interventions for the prevention of HIV/STIs.
Patel, Rupa R; Luke, Douglas A; Proctor, Enola K; Powderly, William G; Chan, Philip A; Mayer, Kenneth H; Harrison, Laura C; Dhand, Amar
The aim of this study was to identify sex venue-based networks among men who have sex with men (MSM) to inform HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) dissemination efforts. Using a cross-sectional design, we interviewed MSM about the venues where their recent sexual partners were found. Venues were organized into network matrices grouped by condom use and race. We examined network structure, central venues, and network subgroups. Among 49 participants, the median age was 27 years, 49% were Black and 86% reported condomless anal sex (ncAS). Analysis revealed a map of 54 virtual and physical venues with an overlap in the ncAS and with condom anal sex (cAS) venues. In the ncAS network, virtual and physical locations were more interconnected. The ncAS venues reported by Blacks were more diffusely organized than those reported by Whites. The network structures of sex venues for at-risk MSM differed by race. Network information can enhance HIV prevention dissemination efforts among subpopulations, including PrEP implementation.
Jenkins, L M; Kendall, A D; Kassel, M T; Patrón, V G; Gowins, J R; Dion, C; Shankman, S A; Weisenbach, S L; Maki, P; Langenecker, S A
Sex differences in emotion processing may play a role in women's increased risk for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). However, studies of sex differences in brain mechanisms involved in emotion processing in MDD (or interactions of sex and diagnosis) are sparse. We conducted an event-related fMRI study examining the interactive and distinct effects of sex and MDD on neural activity during a facial emotion perception task. To minimize effects of current affective state and cumulative disease burden, we studied participants with remitted MDD (rMDD) who were early in the course of the illness. In total, 88 individuals aged 18-23 participated, including 48 with rMDD (32 female) and 40 healthy controls (HC; 25 female). fMRI revealed an interaction between sex and diagnosis for sad and neutral facial expressions in the superior frontal gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus. Results also revealed an interaction of sex with diagnosis in the amygdala. Data was from two sites, which might increase variability, but it also increases power to examine sex by diagnosis interactions. This study demonstrates the importance of taking sex differences into account when examining potential trait (or scar) mechanisms that could be useful in identifying individuals at-risk for MDD as well as for evaluating potential therapeutic innovations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Perrot, M; Bénony, H; Chahraoui, K; Juif, C
A review of the literature reveals a consensus on the high prevalence of personality disorders among sexual offenders. Studies show that there is no unique personality profile for sex offenders. In France, little research has been conducted on this population with standardized assessment tools. The objective of the present study is to identify the distribution of personality disorders among sexual offenders using a new French questionnaire, i.e. the TD12. In view of the literature, we postulate that this tool will identify the diversity of personality disorders observed by various authors, but with a higher proportion of cluster B disorders. This study was conducted among 56 men, including 28 sex offenders aged from 21 to 70 years old, and a control group of 28 men without psychiatric disorders. The sex offenders in this study are men convicted or charged with sex offenses of various kinds: exhibitionism, the recording, distribution and possession of pornography depicting minors, aggravated corruption of a minor, sexual assault of a minor, or rape of a minor. They were examined using an inventory of dysfunctional trends recently developed by Rolland and Pichot with the aim of assessing dysfunctional personality styles. The TD-12 questionnaire is composed of 140 items describing thoughts, feelings and behaviors. It is based on the diagnostic criteria of Axis II of DSM IV-TR and consists of twelve scales that match the personality disorders described in this diagnostic manual (ten officially recognized disorders and two additional disorders). From a categorical viewpoint, results indicate rigid dysfunctional trends with regard to avoidant personality disorder in sex offenders compared to the control group (Chi(2)=9.16; P=0.005). However, there were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the number of rigid dysfunctional trends. Potentially controllable dysfunctional personality trends are identified for the dependent personality (Chi(2
Kearney, Paul; Pivec, Maja
Sex and violence in video games is a social issue that confronts us all, especially as many commercial games are now being introduced for game-based learning in schools, and as such this paper polls teenage players about the rules their parents and teachers may or may not have, and surveys the gaming community, ie, game developers to parents, to…
Leung, S F
Population control is one of the primary policies applied against poverty in many low income countries. The widespread prevalence of son preference in some countries such as China and India, however, works against any reduction of fertility. This is so because parents often continue to have children until they obtain the number of sons which they desire. The bias against girls has also led to higher abortion and mortality rates of female children. It is frequently argued that if sex selection methods are made available to parents so that they can control the gender of their children, population growth would be lowered and women's welfare improved. The author investigates both theoretically and numerically the impact of sex selection on fertility. A static quantity-quality model of fertility is used to compare fertility choices when parents cannot choose the gender of children versus a situation in which parents can choose gender. Empirical data are drawn from the 1976 Malaysian Family Life Survey. Analysis found that whether sex selection reduces fertility depends upon the second and third derivatives of the utility function and the child expenditure function. A numerical dynamic analysis is also presented. The simulation shows, using empirical dynamic models of fertility and the Monte Carlo integration technique, that sex selection on the firstborn child among the Chinese in Malaysia could reduce fertility by about 3%.
Olsen, Nancy J.; Willemsen, Eleanor W.
Explores a methodology for studying sex prejudice in children. First-, third-, and fifth-grade students were asked to rate the performance of an eight-year-old child identified as a girl for half of the subjects and as a boy for the remaining half. (BD)
Evers, Irving C.
The topic of this speech covers the 1972 amendments to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the subsequent court cases dealing with sex discrimination. The cases discussed cover maternity leaves for tenured as well as untenured teachers and other public employees. The issues basic to these cases involve mandatory maternity leaves at…
Nature's oracle: the life and work of W. D. Hamilton. Ullica Segerstrale .... Stemming partly from his study of sex ratios, Hamilton later began moving on to .... any scientific biography, has to strike a balance between sci- ence and the personal ...
Full Text Available ... oral medications for erectile dysfunction? play_arrow What do people do with a catheter during sex? play_arrow How ... after a spinal cord injury? play_arrow How do women deal with menstruation after a spinal cord ...
Martín-Brufau, Ramón; Corbalán, Javier
The association between creativity and psychopathology has, for decades, been a focus of heated debate fuelled by contradictory findings. Nevertheless, the findings suggest complex associations between creativity and psychopathology. Other studies have investigated the association between creativity and sex, with inconsistent results. The aim of…
Lessells, C.M.; Mateman, A.C.; Visser, J.
The sex of Great Tit Parus major nestlings was determined using PCR RAPDs. Because this technique requires minute amounts of DNA, chicks could be sampled soon (0-2d) after hatching, before any nestling mortality occurred. The proportion of males among 752 chicks hatching in 102 broods (98.9% of
Marec, František; Sahara, K.; Traut, W.
Roč. 44, č. 1 (2001), s. 131 ISSN 0003-3995. [European Cytogenetics Conference /3./. 07.07.2001-10.07.2001, Paris] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Telomere * sex chromosomes * chromosome fragments Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology
California Univ., Los Angeles. Univ. Extension.
The conference on sex discrimination in employment practices was held at the University of California at Los Angeles in cooperation with the Women's Bureau of the Department of Labor. Speeches included: (1) "New Legislation--New Action" by Rosalind K. Loring and William Foster, (2) "Compliance Policies and Procedures for Business and Industry" by…
Heimpel, George E.; de Boer, Jetske G.
The dominant and ancestral mode of sex determination in the Hymenoptera is arrhenotokous parthenogenesis, in which diploid females develop from fertilized eggs and haploid males develop from unfertilized eggs. We discuss recent progress in the understanding of the genetic and cytoplasmic mechanisms
Adele Nunziante Cesaro
Full Text Available The contemporary scenario features many and unusual versions of the sexual mercenary exchange, articulating new dynamics of desire. Prostitution remains a “question” which interrogates the gender and the difference between the sexes. According to a Freudian perspective, the authors present some reflection on the forms of sexuality today.
McMillan, Karen; Worth, Heather; Rawstorne, Patrick
This article considers the terms prostitution, sex work, transactional sex, and survival sex, the logic of their deployment and utility to research concerned with people who are paid for sex, and HIV. The various names for paid sex in HIV research are invested in strategically differentiated positionings of people who receive payment and emphasize varying degrees of choice. The terminologies that seek to distinguish a range of economically motivated paid sex practices from sex work are characterized by an emphasis on the local and the particular, efforts to evade the stigma attached to the labels sex worker and prostitute, and an analytic prioritizing of culture. This works to bestow cultural legitimacy on some locally specific forms of paid sex and positions those practices as artifacts of culture rather than economy. This article contends that, in HIV research in particular, it is necessary to be cognizant of ways the deployment of alternative paid sex categories relocates and reinscribes stigma elsewhere. While local identity categories may be appropriate for program implementation, a global category is necessary for planning and funding purposes and offers a purview beyond that of isolated local phenomena. We argue that "sex work" is the most useful global term for use in research into economically motivated paid sex and HIV, primarily because it positions paid sex as a matter of labor, not culture or morality.
Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea
BACKGROUND: Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex mar...
Soc?as, M. Eugenia; Shoveller, Jean; Bean, Chili; Nguyen, Paul; Montaner, Julio; Shannon, Kate
Background Access to health care is a crucial determinant of health. Yet, even within settings that purport to provide universal health coverage (UHC), sex workers? experiences reveal systematic, institutionally ingrained barriers to appropriate quality health care. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence and correlates of institutional barriers to care among sex workers in a setting with UHC. Methods Data was drawn from an ongoing community-based, prospective cohort of women sex worke...
Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard
One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...
Davies, Nicholas G; Ross, Laura; Gardner, Andy
Across arthropod societies, sib-rearing (e.g. nursing or nest defence) may be provided by females, by males or by both sexes. According to Hamilton's 'haplodiploidy hypothesis', this diversity reflects the relatedness consequences of diploid vs. haplodiploid inheritance. However, an alternative 'preadaptation hypothesis' instead emphasises an interplay of ecology and the co-option of ancestral, sexually dimorphic traits for sib-rearing. The preadaptation hypothesis has recently received empirical support, but remains to be formalised. Here, we mathematically model the coevolution of sex-specific helping and sex allocation, contrasting these hypotheses. We find that ploidy per se has little effect. Rather, the ecology of sex shapes patterns of helping: sex-specific preadaptation strongly influences who helps; a freely adjustable sex ratio magnifies sex biases and promotes helping; and sib-mating, promiscuity, and reproductive autonomy also modulate the sex and abundance of helpers. An empirical survey reveals that patterns of sex-specific helping in arthropod taxa are consistent with the preadaptation hypothesis. © 2016 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Reczek, Corinne; Spiker, Russell; Liu, Hui; Crosnoe, Robert
The children of different-sex married couples appear to be advantaged on a range of outcomes relative to the children of different-sex cohabiting couples. Despite the legalization of same-sex marriage in the United States, whether and how this general pattern extends to the children of same-sex married and cohabiting couples is unknown. This study examines this question with nationally representative data from the 2004-2013 pooled National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Results reveal that children in cohabiting households have poorer health outcomes than children in married households regardless of the sex composition of their parents. Children in same-sex and different-sex married households are relatively similar to each other on health outcomes, as are children in same-sex and different-sex cohabiting households. These patterns are not fully explained by socioeconomic differences among the four different types of families. This evidence can inform general debates about family structure and child health as well as policy interventions aiming to reduce child health disparities.
Ghorpade, Prabhakar B; Gupta, Praveen K; Prakash, Vibhu; Cuthbert, Richard J; Kulkarni, Mandar; Prakash, Nikita; Das, Asit; Sharma, Anil K; Saini, Mohini
During the last two decades populations of three resident species of Gyps vulture have declined dramatically and are now threatened with extinction in South Asia. Sex identification of vultures is of key importance for the purpose of conservation breeding as it is desirable to have an equal sex ratio in these monogamous species which are housed together in large colony aviaries. Because vultures are monomorphic, with no differences in external morphology or plumage colour between the sexes, other methods are required for sex identification. Molecular methods for sex identification in birds rely on allelic length or nucleotide sequence discrimination of the chromohelicase-DNA binding (CHD) gene located on male and female chromosomes ZZ and ZW, respectively. We characterized the partial sequences of CHD alleles from Gyps indicus, Gyps bengalensis, Gyps himalayensis and Aegypius monachus and analysed the applicability of five molecular methods of sex identification of 46 individual vultures including 26 known-sex G. bengalensis and G. indicus. The results revealed that W-specific PCR in combination with ZW-common PCR is a quick, accurate and simple method, and is ideal for sex identification of vultures. The method is also suitable to augment ecological studies for identifying sex of these endangered birds during necropsy examinations especially when gonads are not apparent, possibly due to regression during non-breeding seasons.
Brown, Jane D.; Keller, Sarah; Stern, Susannah
The traditional media (television, radio, movies, magazines) and new, digital media (the Internet, Social Networking Sites such as Facebook and Myspace, and cell phones) have become important sex educators for adolescents. Adolescents in the United States spend six to seven hours a day with some form of media, often using more than one kind…
Danon, Limor Meoded; Krämer, Anike
Parents of intersex children are perceived in many studies as hopeless, highly dependent on the medical system, and as gate keepers of normative gendered bodies. In this article, we challenge these perceptions and argue that parents of intersex children are problematically positioned between their children's needs for care and well-being and the socialmedical forces that aim to "normalize" them. Their in-between position leads them to establish different parental strategies within and outside of traditional sex/gender norms. We focus on three intertwined parental strategy frameworks: bodily dialogue, sex/gender framing, and concealing/revealing practices, and describe how, in each of these strategic frameworks, the parents maneuver, act in accordance with or against, react to, and challenge the medical system, social interactions, and the sex/gender paradigm. This is a comparative study based on narrative interviews with 22 parents of intersex children in Germany and Israel.
... with any comments or concerns. February 17, 2011 Sex and prevention concerns for positive people Facebook Twitter ... partner, and vice versa. The reality of safer sex You put yourself at risk for infections through ...
instances of curious sex ratios exemplify an important principle: the fitness ..... markable transition - the whole means of sex determination has changed. No longer ... to the cytoplasmic symbiont is self-evident; the symbionts simply increase the.
Juhasz, Anne McCreary
In this article, selected research findings are presented on sex role learning, sex role stereotyping, in general and in the school setting, the effect of such stereotyping on the student, and some suggestions for the teacher. (Author/JA)
Rovatsos, M.; Vukič, J.; Altmanová, M.; Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Moravec, J.; Kratochvíl, L.
Roč. 25, č. 13 (2016), s. 3120-3126 ISSN 0962-1083 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : lizards * molecular sex ing * reptiles * sex chromosomes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 6.086, year: 2016
Lindekleiv, Haakon M; Valen-Sendstad, Kristian; Morgan, Michael K
. The female preponderance is usually explained by systemic factors (hormonal influences and intrinsic wall weakness); however, the uneven sex distribution of intracranial aneurysms suggests a possible physiologic factor-a local sex difference in the intracranial arteries....
Mar 1, 2000 ... In medico-legal cases where sophisticated methods of sex determination is lacking, these ... scientific methods(3). Using the visual method ... between the sexes and the values of the right and left femoral head diameters.
Lesley J. Rogers
Full Text Available A recent upsurge in unitary biological explanations for gender differences in behavior (i.e. that they are “hard-wired” in the genetic code, put forward not only in books written for a general audience but also in scientific papers, makes it important to examine the fallacies of these ideas. Such genetic and hormonal explanations of human behavior, formulated with little consideration of the influences of experience, and often without taking experience into account at all, are part of a new wave of genetic explanations for a broad range of human behavior, as explained in the paper. These ideas are far from new; moreover, they are pseudoscientific and are used for political influence under the guise of science. They are a conservative social force that maintains social and educational inequalities between women and men. This paper explains that causal explanations of differences between the sexes are of two completely different types: unitary (genetic determinist versus interactive explanations. The false reasoning used to support genetic determinist explanations of sex differences in behavior is discussed. To illustrate what biology really tells us about gender differentiation, the paper discusses the interactive roles of genetic, hormonal and environmental influences on the development of gender differences. These interactions are illustrated using two model biological systems (e.g. the intertwined influences of genes, sex hormones and experience on the development of sex differences in behavior in rats, and sex differences in neuronal connections in chickens. There is plenty of scientific evidence to show the complex interactive, and ever changing, influences of experience and genes that take place as an organism develops and throughout its life. Malleability of brain and behavior can be shown clearly using animal models, and the processes involved apply also to the development of brain and behavior in humans. We diminish our understanding
Ives, Stephen J; McDaniel, John; Witman, Melissa A H; Richardson, Russell S
Previous studies have determined that premenopausal women exhibit an attenuated metaboreflex; however, little is known about sex specificity of the mechanoreflex. Thus, we sought to determine if sex differences exist in the central and peripheral hemodynamic responses to passive limb movement. Second-by-second measurements of heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output (CO), mean arterial pressure, and femoral artery blood flow (FBF) were recorded during 3 min of supine passive knee extension in 24 young healthy subjects (12 women and 12 men). Normalization of CO and stroke volume to body surface area, expressed as cardiac index and stroke index, eliminated differences in baseline central hemodynamics, whereas, peripherally, basal FBF and femoral vascular conductance were similar between the sexes. In response to passive limb movement, women displayed significantly attenuated peak central hemodynamic responses compared with men (heart rate: 9.0 ± 1 vs. 14.8 ± 2% change, stroke index: 4.5 ± 0.6 vs. 7.8 ± 1.2% change, cardiac index: 9.6 ± 1 vs. 17.2 ± 2% change, all P movement induced similar increases in peak FBF (167 ± 32 vs. 193 ± 17% change) and femoral vascular conductance (172 ± 31 vs. 203 ± 16% change) in both sexes (women vs. men, respectively). Additionally, there was a significant positive relationship between individual peak FBF and peak CO response to passive movement in men but not in women. Thus, although both sexes exhibited similar movement-induced hyperemia and peripheral vasodilatory function, the central hemodynamic response was blunted in women, implying an attenuated mechanoreflex. Therefore, this study reveals that, as already recognized with the metaboreflex, there is likely a sex-specific attenuation of the mechanoreflex in women.
Lawrence L. Wu
Full Text Available Background: In a heavily cited paper, Finer (2007 asserted that by age 30, 82Š of US women born 1939-1948 engaged in premarital sex, increasing to 94Š for those born 1969-1978. Using the same data, our age 30 estimates are 55Š and 87Š for women born 1939-1948 and 1969-1978. Our analyses thus document strikingly different levels and trends. Methods: We replicate Finer's single-decrement Kaplan-Meier estimates of premarital sex using Cycles 3-6 of the National Survey of Family Growth, the same data as analyzed by him. We then contrast such single-decrement estimates for both premarital sex and ﬁrst marriage with estimates of the simple percentages in three states: an origin state in which women begin life as never-married virgins and two destination states for ﬁrst sex and for ﬁrst marriage, depending on which occurs ﬁrst. These analyses provide an empirical illustration of the fact that single-decrement estimates cannot be interpreted as simple percentages for demographic processes involving multiple decrements. Results: Our cohort estimates document increases in the percent of US women who had premarital sex by age 25, rising from 53Š to 75Š, 83Š, and 87Š for those born 1939-1948, 1949-1958, 1959-1968, and 1969-1978, respectively. Contribution: Our cohort analyses reveal sharp increases in premarital sex for US women born between 1939 and 1968, with increases most rapid for those born in the 1940s and 1950s. Our ﬁndings also reemphasize a standard lesson from formal demography - that single-decrement life table estimates cannot be interpreted as simple percentages for a multiple-decrement demographic process.
In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. In this paper the work carried out at Berkeley from the spring of 1942 to the summer of 1945 is described briefly. The aqueous chemistry of plutonium is quite remarkable. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were based on aqueous solutions, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states, while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element are reported
Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik
This work presents a method for designing facial interfaces for sociable android robots with respect to the fundamental rules of human affect expression. Extending the work of Paul Ekman towards a robotic direction, we follow the judgment-based approach for evaluating facial expressions to test...... findings are based on the results derived from a number of judgments, and suggest that before programming the facial expressions of a Geminoid, the Original should pass through the proposed procedure. According to our recommendations, the facial expressions of an android should be tested by judges, even...... in which case an android robot like the Geminoid|DK –a duplicate of an Original person- reveals emotions convincingly; when following an empirical perspective, or when following a theoretical one. The methodology includes the processes of acquiring the empirical data, and gathering feedback on them. Our...
James A Fraser
Full Text Available Sexual identity is governed by sex chromosomes in plants and animals, and by mating type (MAT loci in fungi. Comparative analysis of the MAT locus from a species cluster of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus revealed sequential evolutionary events that fashioned this large, highly unusual region. We hypothesize that MAT evolved via four main steps, beginning with acquisition of genes into two unlinked sex-determining regions, forming independent gene clusters that then fused via chromosomal translocation. A transitional tripolar intermediate state then converted to a bipolar system via gene conversion or recombination between the linked and unlinked sex-determining regions. MAT was subsequently subjected to intra- and interallelic gene conversion and inversions that suppress recombination. These events resemble those that shaped mammalian sex chromosomes, illustrating convergent evolution in sex-determining structures in the animal and fungal kingdoms.
van der Toorn, Jojanneke; Jost, John T; Packer, Dominic J; Noorbaloochi, Sharareh; Van Bavel, Jay J
Arguments opposing same-sex marriage are often made on religious grounds. In five studies conducted in the United States and Canada (combined N = 1,673), we observed that religious opposition to same-sex marriage was explained, at least in part, by conservative ideology and linked to sexual prejudice. In Studies 1 and 2, we discovered that the relationship between religiosity and opposition to same-sex marriage was mediated by explicit sexual prejudice. In Study 3, we saw that the mediating effect of sexual prejudice was linked to political conservatism. Finally, in Studies 4a and 4b we examined the ideological underpinnings of religious opposition to same-sex marriage in more detail by taking into account two distinct aspects of conservative ideology. Results revealed that resistance to change was more important than opposition to equality in explaining religious opposition to same-sex marriage.
Arnocky, Steven; Carré, Justin M; Bird, Brian M; Moreau, Benjamin J P; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Ortiz, Triana; Marley, Nicole
Previous research has linked the facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR) to a host of psychological and behavioral characteristics, primarily in men. In two studies, we examined novel links between FWHR and sex drive. In Study 1, a sample of 145 undergraduate students revealed that FWHR positively predicted sex drive. There were no significant FWHR × sex interactions, suggesting that FWHR is linked to sexuality among both men and women. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings in a sample of 314 students collected from a different Canadian city, which again demonstrated links between the FWHR and sex drive (also in both men and women), as well as sociosexuality and intended infidelity (men only). Internal meta-analytic results confirm the link between FWHR and sex drive among both men and women. These results suggest that FWHR may be an important morphological index of human sexuality.
Aksglaede, Lise; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Juul, Anders
Growth is a highly complex process regulated by the interaction between sex steroids and the GH IGF-axis. However, other factors such as sex chromosome-related genes play independent roles.......Growth is a highly complex process regulated by the interaction between sex steroids and the GH IGF-axis. However, other factors such as sex chromosome-related genes play independent roles....
Public discourses around ‘migrant sex workers’ are often more confident about what migrant sex workers signify morally (i.e. vulnerability, criminality) but are less clear about who the ‘migrant’ is. This thesis interrogates the implications of the ‘migrant sex worker’ category based on semi-structured interviews with 65 immigrant, migrant and racialised women in sex work and two support staff in Melbourne, Australia and Vancouver, Canada during 2013–2014. Specifically, I employ an intersecti...
Talley, Heather; Cho, Janice; Strassberg, Donald S.; Rullo, Jordan E.
An inaccurate definition of what constitutes sex can negatively impact the sexual health and wellbeing of patients. This study aimed to determine which behaviors medical students consider to be sex. Survey questions about various sexual behaviors were administered to medical students. All participants agreed that penile-vaginal penetration is sex.…
Replies to Paul V. Crosbie's criticisms. Argues that: reports of teenage sexuality and pregnancy are exaggerated; sex education programs encourage acceptance of every form of sexual expression; parents cannot always control their children's participation in sex education; and teachers are not equipped to teach sex education in a neutral fashion.…
In recent decades, premarital sex, extramarital sex, and homosexuality have become increasingly visible in China, leading scholars to claim that a national "sex revolution" is under way. However, China's internal sociocultural diversity calls this nation-level generalization into question. How do sex ideologies vary across China's distinct provinces? To what extent are interprovince variations in sex ideologies associated with distinct macrolevel social factors in China? In this research, data from the 2010 China General Social Survey and the 2011 Chinese Statistics Yearbook were analyzed using multilevel models to test four contending theories of interprovince differences in sex ideologies in China: modernization, Westernization, deindustrialization, and the "rice theory." The modernization theory was unsupported by the results, as socioeconomic development is not significantly associated with sex ideologies. Higher levels of deindustrialization and Westernization were associated with less traditional sex ideologies, but the strength of association varied across the domains of premarital sex, extramarital sex, and homosexuality. The rice theory was consistently supported, as the distinction between rice and wheat agriculture explained up to 30% of the province-level variance in sex ideologies. The findings underline the roles of both long-standing geographic differences and recent social changes in shaping China's ideational landscape of sex.
Wittig, Michele Andrisin
Research involving adolescent identification with and development of sex roles is reviewed in the areas of cognitive skills and personality traits, theories of sex role development, and minority group adolescent sex role development. Emerging issues and educational implications in these areas are discussed. (CJ)
VanFossen, Beth Ensiminger
Data on sex-role values of a sample of college women are examined to ascertain the effect of family structure, social class, and religion on sex-role values, and to support a structural theory of sex-role socialization. (Author)
Despite the enthusiasm and the absence of definitive research on the pros and cons of single-sex classes, a 2011 article in Science, titled "The Pseudoscience of Single-Sex Schooling," by a new organization called American Council for CoEducational Schooling (ACCES) came out with the astonishing conclusion that single-sex education is…
Hughes, Teresa A.
Traditionally, single-sex education has been provided in the form of private schooling. Title IX regulations have loosened as a result of the No Child Left Behind Legislation; therefore, public school districts now have the legal right to create single-sex classes or single-sex schools if they deem it to be in the best interest of their students.…
Stebbins, Charles; And Others
Validates the "College Self-Expression Scale." Shows that females are significantly more assertive, and that in one of the criterion situations each sex was significantly more assertive toward members of the same sex than members of the opposite sex. (RL)
If a woman wants to become pregnant, how can she reduce her risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections? When a young man is growing up and worried about his future, how can you expect him to be concerned about HIV? Many HIV prevention projects focus on HIV and other sexually transmitted infections without considering people's broader reproductive and sexual health concerns. HIV prevention depends on people being able to make choices about their sexual behavior. This means understanding how their bodies work, knowing what choices are available to them, and having the confidence and skills to discuss and make changes in their sexual and reproductive lives. HIV educators, family planning workers, youth counselors, and others need to be able to respond to a range of questions and concerns in a sensitive and supportive way. This special, double issue of AIDS Action provides basic facts about the reproductive system, fertility, sexually transmitted infections and contraception, and looks at the links between HIV, sex, and reproduction. Talking about sex can be difficult. Sex is a private matter and people often feel embarrassed talking about it. This issue also contains tips for communication and activities to find out what people know already and help them learn. You may find that not everything in this issue is necessary for the people you are working with. This is a 'pick and mix' issue for you to pick out what is useful, adapting it if you wish. full text
Full Text Available The age at which you can start or be sexually active - a very interesting question, which concerned not only parents, but also psychologists. Usually, you can not answer the question of when and to whom to start having sex. However, there are certain statistics that the average age of sexual debut in adolescents - is 15 years for girls and 14 for boys. Now we are talking about European society, about what is happening in Ukraine, particularly in mountainous areas. The fact that the willingness in principle to sexual intercourse is associated with physiological aspects. There is a notion in sexology - sexual constitution. There are several factors play a role, of course, one of which is constitutional, but not always, psychological maturity and sexual constitution, rather, because of the need for sexual constitution in holding intercourse can match. That is, some teens may be physiologically ready for sexual intercourse at 12-13 years, but the question arises: Are they psychologically? And probably we can not give a definite answer to this question, because curiosity taboo in society, which in the majority rejects teen sex, pushing them into early sexual relations. Nevertheless, probably still age readiness and psychological and physiological - is 18-19 years if we are talking about teen sex.
Hypersexual Disorder has been proposed as a new psychiatric disorder for DSM-V, characterized by an increased frequency and intensity of sexually motivated fantasies, arousal, urges, and enacted behavior in association with an impulsivity component. Excessive appetitive and consummatory behaviors, including hypersexuality, can become a non-chemical addiction. Sexual addiction afflicts people having paraphilic or nonparaphilic behaviors associated with progressive risk-taking sexual behaviors, escalation or progression of sexual behaviors (tolerance), loss of control and significant adverse psychosocial consequences, such as unplanned pregnancy, pair-bond dysfunction, marital separation, financial problems and sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. The most common behaviors involved in sexual addiction are fantasy sex, compulsive masturbation, pornography, cybersex, voyeuristic sex, anonymous sex and multiple sexual partners. These behaviors are intended to reduce anxiety and other dysphoric affects (e.g., shame and depression). Axis I psychiatric diagnosis, especially mood disorders, psychoactive substance abuse disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, are common comorbid disorders with sexual addiction. There are significant gaps in the current scientific knowledge base regarding the clinical course, development risk factors and family history and data on women with sexual addiction are lacking.
The sexual domain is unified only by the phenomenal quality of the occurrence of the desires, activities, and pleasures it includes. There is no conceptual restriction on the range of intentional objects those desires, activities, and pleasures can take. Neither is there good conceptual reason to privilege any class of them as paradigmatic. Since the quality unifying the sexual is not morally significant, the morality of sexuality is no different from morality in general. The view that partic...
Jeffries, William L
Machismo prescribes that homosexual encounters among Latino men are conducted along highly gendered lines: men tend to be anally insertive or receptive over the lifecourse, but not both. Some have argued that Latino men have more lifecourse homosexual behaviors in comparison to other racial/ethnic groups. This is often due to the perception that Latin America has quasi-institutionalized homosexuality, which sharply contrasts it with the United States. Although scholars suggest that sex role preferences and greater likelihoods for homosexual behaviors exist among Latino men in the United States, limited empirical data validate these claims. Latino/non-Latino differences in male homosexual behaviors and sex role preferences were analyzed by using the 2002 cycle of the National Survey of Family Growth, a nationally representative, probability sample of 4,928 men. Findings revealed that non-Mexican Latino, but not Mexican, men had increased likelihoods of ever having anal sex than non-Latino Whites and oral sex than non-Latino Blacks. These relationships remained after controlling for age, education, and foreign birth. Latino men preferred insertive or receptive sex in comparison to non-Latino Blacks and Whites, but this difference disappeared after education was controlled. In full and reduced models, Mexican men tended to be orifice-specific (oral or anal), while non-Mexican Latinos were more oriented to both oral and anal sex. Controlling for other factors, all Latinos were more likely than non-Latino Blacks and Whites to refuse to answer male homosexual behavior questions. The implications of race/ethnicity are discussed for homosexual behavior patterns among U.S. men.
Michael, Marc; King, Lawrence; Guo, Liang; McKee, Martin; Richardson, Erica; Stuckler, David
Official data on sex ratios at birth suggest a rise in sex-selective abortions in some post-Soviet states following the introduction of ultrasonography. However, questions remain about the validity of official data in these nations as well as whether the high sex ratios at birth are a statistical artifact. Trends in sex ratios at birth from 1985 to 2009 for 12 post-Soviet states were examined using vital registration data. For the three countries that had had a Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) in 2005-2010 (Armenia, Azerbaijan and Moldova), survey data were used to calculate sex ratios at birth according to birth order, and vital registration data for 2010 were used to estimate the number of "missing" female births (if any). Official data revealed elevated sex ratios at birth in Armenia (117), Azerbaijan (116) and Georgia (121), but not in other post-Soviet states. According to DHS data, sex ratios were high in Armenia and Azerbaijan for first births (138 and 113, respectively); if the first child was a girl, the sex ratio in Armenia was even higher for the second birth (154). Overall, the number of girls born in these countries in 2010 was 10% lower than expected, consistent with 1,972 sex-selective abortions in Armenia and 8,381 in Azerbaijan. Sex ratios did not vary by birth order in Moldova. Sex-selective abortion appears to be common in Azerbaijan and Armenia. Family planning and legal interventions are needed to address this issue.
Closson, Elizabeth F; Colby, Donn J; Nguyen, Thi; Cohen, Samuel S; Biello, Katie; Mimiaga, Matthew J
In Vietnam, there is an emerging HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). Male sex workers engage in high-risk sexual behaviours that make them particularly vulnerable to HIV infection. In 2010, 23 MSM in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) who recently received payment for sex with another man completed in-depth qualitative interviews exploring motivations for sex work, patterns of sex work disclosure and experiences of social stigma. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and translated into English and analysed using a qualitative descriptive approach. Low wages, unstable employment and family remittances were motivating factors for MSM in HCMC to sell sex. Participants described experiences of enacted and felt social stigma related to their involvement in sex work. In response, they utilised stigma management techniques aimed at concealment of involvement in sex work. Such strategies restricted sexual communication with non-paying sex partners and potentially limited their ability to seek social support from family and friends. Departing from decontextualized depictions of sex work disclosure, our findings describe how decisions to reveal involvement in sex work are shaped by social and structural factors such as social stigma, techniques to minimise exposure to stigma, economic imperatives and familial responsibilities.
Michler, Stephanie P. M.; Nicolaus, Marion; van der Velde, Marco; Radersma, Reinder; Ubels, Richard; Both, Christiaan; Komdeur, Jan; Tinbergen, Joost M.
The expected fitness gain for offspring of a given sex may depend on local population sex ratio and density. Knowing the influence of such social factors on brood sex ratios may contribute considerably to the understanding of sex allocation in higher vertebrates. For 3 consecutive years, we
Barth, Robert J.; Kinder, Bill N.
Investigates sex differences in same-sex friendships of 312 undergraduate students in terms of the intersection and social penetration model of relationship development, and Bem's theory of sex role orientation. Finds significant sex-related differences in depth, duration, and involvement. (FMW)
Stubbs, Margaret L.
This paper presents an explanation of practitioners' reactions to sex equitable sex education. Several constraints can prohibit practitioners from engaging in sex equitable sex education: (1) lack of community support; (2) lack of expertise in human sexuality education; (3) vagueness of school committee views; and (4) lack of answers to logistical…
Carroll, Marilyn E.; Smethells, John R.
The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, are discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontro...
Vandenbergh, J G; Huggett, C L
Sex ratio alterations related to environmental factors occur in several mammals, but no mechanism has been identified to explain the adjustment. Intrauterine position (IUP) may provide the context in which such alterations occur. Previous studies on house mice and gerbils reveal that the position of a fetus in the uterus in relation to the sex of its neighbors influences its later anatomy, physiology, and behavior. The anogenital distance (AGD) of females located between two males (2M) is lon...
Very little is known about Filipino adolescents. Professional opinion varies enormously as to what is to be considered normal and abnormal. 1 aspect of adolescence which is agreed upon is that it is a period of great change. What brings on puberty is a controversial topic. Nutrition and genetic inheritance have been found to affect the age at which menstruation begins. Environment plays a large role in emotional and social growth. Filipino sex education is rather haphazard. A study of over 5000 adolescents in 1972-73 showed that sexual information was gained principally from pornographic literature, movies, television and friends. Boys also watched strip-tease acts and went to houses of prostitution. 2/3 of males and 3/4 of females had had crushes, while over 1/2 of both sexes had "gone steady" by age 16. Boys fell in love more often and less seriously than did girls. Girls generally have more adjustment problems in adolescence than do boys. Among Filipino adolescents, dating is the top ranking sex-related problem. Both sexes are concerned with what is the proper behavior in dating. Dating is an erotic as well as a social experience for Filipino adolescents. Premarital sexual activity is now receiving more tolerance. Urban males are less concerned with the virginity of their brides, but adults are still intolerant. Perhaps the present generation of adolescents is the harbinger of a new sexual morality. Fertility rates for 15-19 year olds have been declining since the 1960s. However, among adolescents with problems, pregnancy ranks high. Homosexuals are more visible in the Philippines now, as they are being more tolerated. Adolescent fertility is the last great challenge in the family planning field. Problems are unwillingness of counselors to participate in studies and a paucity of basic research. 3 studies are now being conducted in the Metro Manila area. Peer counseling and multiservice centers which provide relative anonymity are 2 approaches which shoul d be
Megan M. Wickens
Full Text Available Alterations in glutamate, the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, are implicated in several psychiatric diseases. Many of these psychiatric diseases display epidemiological sex differences, with either males or females exhibiting different symptoms or disease prevalence. However, little work has considered the interaction of disrupted glutamatergic transmission and sex on disease states. This review describes the clinical and preclinical evidence for these sex differences with a focus on two conditions that are more prevalent in women: Alzheimer's disease and major depressive disorder, and three conditions that are more prevalent in men: schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. These studies reveal sex differences at multiple levels in the glutamate system including metabolic markers, receptor levels, genetic interactions, and therapeutic responses to glutamatergic drugs. Our survey of the current literature revealed a considerable need for more evaluations of sex differences in future studies examining the role of the glutamate system in psychiatric disease. Gaining a more thorough understanding of how sex differences in the glutamate system contribute to psychiatric disease could provide novel avenues for the development of sex-specific pharmacotherapies.
Bofah, Emmanuel Adu-Tutu; Hannula, Markku S.
In this study, we investigated students’ views on themselves as learners of mathematics as a function of school-by-sex (N = 2034, MAge = 18.49, SDAge = 1.25; 12th-grade; 58.2% girls). Using latent variable Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), the measurement and structural equivalence as well as the equality of latent means of scores across single-sex and coed schools were tested. Findings regarding the latent mean differences revealed that girls in single-sex schools had significantly higher ...
Ruytjens, Liesbet; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Holstege, Gert; Wit, Hero P.; Albers, Frans W.J.; Willemsen, Antoon T.M.
We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a baseline (no auditory stimulation). We found a sex difference in activation of the left and right PAC when comparing music to noise. The PAC was more activated by music than by noise in both men and women. But this difference between the two stimuli was significantly higher in men than in women. To investigate whether this difference could be attributed to either music or noise, we compared both stimuli with the baseline and revealed that noise gave a significantly higher activation in the female PAC than in the male PAC. Moreover, the male group showed a deactivation in the right prefrontal cortex when comparing noise to the baseline, which was not present in the female group. Interestingly, the auditory and prefrontal regions are anatomically and functionally linked and the prefrontal cortex is known to be engaged in auditory tasks that involve sustained or selective auditory attention. Thus we hypothesize that differences in attention result in a different deactivation of the right prefrontal cortex, which in turn modulates the activation of the PAC and thus explains the sex differences found in the activation of the PAC. Our results suggest that sex is an important factor in auditory brain studies. (orig.)
Ackerman, Joshua M; Maner, Jon K; Carpenter, Stephanie M
When faced with risky decisions, people typically choose to diversify their choices by allocating resources across a variety of options and thus avoid putting "all their eggs in one basket." The current research revealed that this tendency is reversed when people face an important cue to mating-related risk: skew in the operational sex ratio, or the ratio of men to women in the local environment. Counter to the typical strategy of choice diversification, findings from four studies demonstrated that the presence of romantically unfavorable sex ratios (those featuring more same-sex than opposite-sex individuals) led heterosexual people to diversify financial resources less and instead concentrate investment in high-risk/high-return options when making lottery, stock-pool, retirement-account, and research-funding decisions. These studies shed light on a key process by which people manage risks to mating success implied by unfavorable interpersonal environments. These choice patterns have important implications for mating behavior as well as other everyday forms of decision making. © The Author(s) 2016.
This study analysed sex ratios at birth (defined as the number of male births per 100 female births) using data on children ever-born from three censuses conducted in Ethiopia in 1984, 1994 and 2007. The results showed very high values by any standard, with an average of 108.4 for a sample of some 8.2 million births, with somewhat lower values in urban areas. Analysis of socioeconomic correlates revealed that the sex ratio varied very much by household wealth, from about 110 for very poor women to about 102 for wealthier women. The high value of the sex ratio at birth in Ethiopia could be explained by poverty, used as a proxy for poor nutritional status. In multivariate analysis, the effects of living in urban areas and of maternal education were less important than household wealth. Among the many ethno-linguistic groups, the Nilotic family had higher sex ratios than other groups. The results were confirmed using data from DHS surveys conducted in the country, and by the analysis of children still living at time of census.
Ruytjens, Liesbet [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department Otorhinolaryngology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Georgiadis, Janniko R. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Groningen (Netherlands); Holstege, Gert [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Uroneurology, Groningen (Netherlands); Wit, Hero P. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Groningen (Netherlands); Albers, Frans W.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department Otorhinolaryngology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Willemsen, Antoon T.M. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands)
We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a baseline (no auditory stimulation). We found a sex difference in activation of the left and right PAC when comparing music to noise. The PAC was more activated by music than by noise in both men and women. But this difference between the two stimuli was significantly higher in men than in women. To investigate whether this difference could be attributed to either music or noise, we compared both stimuli with the baseline and revealed that noise gave a significantly higher activation in the female PAC than in the male PAC. Moreover, the male group showed a deactivation in the right prefrontal cortex when comparing noise to the baseline, which was not present in the female group. Interestingly, the auditory and prefrontal regions are anatomically and functionally linked and the prefrontal cortex is known to be engaged in auditory tasks that involve sustained or selective auditory attention. Thus we hypothesize that differences in attention result in a different deactivation of the right prefrontal cortex, which in turn modulates the activation of the PAC and thus explains the sex differences found in the activation of the PAC. Our results suggest that sex is an important factor in auditory brain studies. (orig.)
Full Text Available Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women. Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in gene regulation are thought to be crucial for the adaptation of organisms to their environment. Transcriptome analyses can be used to identify candidate genes for ecological adaptation, but can be complicated by variation in gene expression between tissues, sexes, or individuals. Here we use high-throughput RNA sequencing of a single Drosophila melanogaster tissue to detect brain-specific differences in gene expression between the sexes and between two populations, one from the ancestral species range in sub-Saharan Africa and one from the recently colonized species range in Europe. Results Relatively few genes (Cyp6g1 and CHKov1. Conclusions Analysis of the brain transcriptome revealed many genes differing in expression between populations that were not detected in previous studies using whole flies. There was little evidence for sex-specific regulatory adaptation in the brain, as most expression differences between populations were observed in both males and females. The enrichment of genes with sexually dimorphic expression on the X chromosome is consistent with dosage compensation mechanisms affecting sex-biased expression in somatic tissues.
Charles P. Madenjian
Full Text Available Patterns in relative differences in contaminant concentrations between the sexes across many species of fish may reveal clues for important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes, and may also be useful in developing fish consumption advisories and efficient designs for programs meant to monitor contaminant levels in fish. We determined skin-off fillet and whole-fish total mercury (Hg concentrations of 28 adult female and 26 adult male bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus from Squaw Lake, Oakland County, Michigan (MI, USA. Bioenergetics modeling was used to quantify the effect of growth dilution on the difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. On average, skin-off fillet and whole-fish Hg concentrations were 25.4% higher and 26.6% higher, respectively, in females compared with males. Thus, the relative difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes for skin-off fillets was nearly identical to that for whole fish. However, mean skin-off fillet Hg concentration (363 ng/g was 2.3 times greater than mean whole-fish Hg concentration (155 ng/g. Males grew substantially faster than females, and bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for females having 14.4% higher Hg concentrations than males. Our findings should be useful in revising fish consumption advisories.
Filkowski, Megan M; Olsen, Rachel M; Duda, Bryant; Wanger, Timothy J; Sabatinelli, Dean
Behavioral and physiological sex differences in emotional reactivity are well documented, yet comparatively few neural differences have been identified. Here we apply quantitative activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis across functional brain imaging studies that each reported clusters of activity differentiating men and women as they participated in emotion-evoking tasks in the visual modality. This approach requires the experimental paradigm to be balanced across the sexes, and thus may provide greater clarity than previous efforts. Results across 56 emotion-eliciting studies (n=1907) reveal distinct activation in the medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, frontal pole, and mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus in men relative to women. Women show distinct activation in bilateral amygdala, hippocampus, and regions of the dorsal midbrain including the periaqueductal gray/superior colliculus and locus coeruleus. While some clusters are consistent with prevailing perspectives on the foundations of sex differences in emotional reactivity, thalamic and brainstem regions have not previously been highlighted as sexually divergent. These data strongly support the need to include sex as a factor in functional brain imaging studies of emotion, and to extend our investigative focus beyond the cortex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cross, Catharine P
Sex differences in same-sex direct aggression and sociosexuality are among the most robust in the literature. The present article evaluated the hypothesis that both can be explained by a sex difference in the willingness to take impulsive risks. Self-report data were gathered from 3,775 respondents (1,514 female) on same-sex aggression, sociosexuality, and risky impulsivity. Risky impulsivity was higher for men than for women (d = .34) and path analysis showed it to be a common cause of same-sex aggression and sociosexuality for both sexes. However, it did not completely mediate the sex differences in same-sex aggression and sociosexuality. The results suggest that same-sex aggression and sociosexual behavior share a common psychological mechanism, but that fully explaining sex differences in aggression requires a more sensitive assay of impulsive risk and a consideration of dyadic processes.
Catharine P. Cross
Full Text Available Sex differences in same-sex direct aggression and sociosexuality are among the most robust in the literature. The present article evaluated the hypothesis that both can be explained by a sex difference in the willingness to take impulsive risks. Self-report data were gathered from 3,775 respondents (1,514 female on same-sex aggression, sociosexuality, and risky impulsivity. Risky impulsivity was higher for men than for women (d = .34 and path analysis showed it to be a common cause of same-sex aggression and sociosexuality for both sexes. However, it did not completely mediate the sex differences in same-sex aggression and sociosexuality. The results suggest that same-sex aggression and sociosexual behavior share a common psychological mechanism, but that fully explaining sex differences in aggression requires a more sensitive assay of impulsive risk and a consideration of dyadic processes.
Laing, Mary; Cook, Ian
Sex work is often constructed as an urban "problem". As a result, sex workers, clients and the spaces in which people buy or sell sex are frequently the subject of intervention from those governing cities. This paper considers the ways in which problems and solutions are framed in the wider governance of sex work in cities in the global north. It draws on a range of academic literature to show how the urban governance of sex work takes relational and territorial forms. Governance is relationa...
Mao, J; Tang, W; Liu, C; Wong, NS; Tang, S; Wei, C; Tucker, JD
Sex tourism among men who have sex with men (MSM) may exacerbate transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sex tourism is defined as purchasing sex with gifts or money outside of one's hometown. Our objective was to characterize the frequency, socio-demographic characteristics, and sexual risk behaviors among Chinese MSM sex tourists. An online, cross-sectional survey for high-risk MSM throughout China was conducted in November 2015 covering sociodemographic charac...
Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea
Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers-including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages.
Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea
Background Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. Methods and Findings Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. Conclusion A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers–including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages. PMID:23776536
Gerashchenkov, G A; Rozhnova, N A
The most significant theories of the appearance and maintenance of sex are presented. However, in the overwhelming majority of existing theories, the problem of sex, which is the central problem of evolutionary biology, is considered primarily through the prism of reproductive features of living organisms, whereas the issue of molecular driving forces of sexual reproduction id restricted to the possible role of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in the appearance of sexual reproduction. The structural and functional significance of MGEs in the genomic organization of plants is illustrated. It is shown that MGEs could act as important molecular drivers of sex evolution in plants. The involvement of MGEs in the formation of sex chromosomes and possible participation in seeds-without-sex reproduction (apomixis) is discussed. Thus, the hypothesis on the active MGE participation in sex evolution is in good agreement with the modern views on pathways and directions of sex evolution in plants.
Schousboe, Karoline; Willemsen, Gonneke; Kyvik, Kirsten O
pairs (including opposite sex pairs) aged 20-29 and 30-39 from eight different twin registries participating in the GenomEUtwin project. Quantitative genetic analyses were conducted and sex differences were explored. Variation in BMI was greater for women than for men, and in both sexes was primarily...... explained by additive genetic variance in all countries. Sex differences in the variance components were consistently significant. Results from analyses of opposite sex pairs also showed evidence of sex-specific genetic effects suggesting there may be some differences between men and women in the genetic...... factors that influence variation in BMI. These results encourage the continued search for genes of importance to the body composition and the development of obesity. Furthermore, they suggest that strategies to identify predisposing genes may benefit from taking into account potential sex specific effects....
Full Text Available The ideological construct of gender typically positions women below men, and “others” certain types of women even more, especially those distinguished from idealised femininity by aspects of their sexuality. This paper explores the representation of sex work and sex workers in the South African media in 2009 and 2010, a time during which there was an increase in news coverage of sex work during the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Analysis of the two data sets revealed that sex work is still often perceived as immoral and dangerous, and that sex workers – overwhelmingly represented as women – are criminalised for their actions while client agency is largely obscured, which is in line with previous studies of South African newspapers. However, a strong liberal representation of sex workers was also found in one data set, which advocates the decriminalisation of sex work in the context of human rights. The use of the term “sex work” and its derivatives, rather than “prostitution”, was found to index this progressive stance.
Walum, Hasse; Larsson, Henrik; Westberg, Lars; Lichtenstein, Paul; Magnusson, Patrik K E
According to the theory of evolved sex differences in jealousy, the challenge for women to ensure paternal investment increased their jealousy response to emotional infidelity, whereas paternal uncertainty exerted selective pressures that shaped men to become more distressed by sexual infidelity. Several studies have investigated whether the effect of these sexually dimorphic selection pressures can be detected in contemporary human populations, with conflicting results. To date, no genetically informed studies of sex differences in jealousy have been conducted. We used data from the Screening Across the Lifespan of Twins Younger (SALTY) sample, containing information concerning self-rated jealousy from 3,197 complete twin pairs collected by the Swedish Twin Registry. Intra-class correlations and structural equation models were used to assess the genetic influence on jealousy and to investigate sex differences at genetic level. We saw a highly significant sex effect on the relationship between infidelity types, indicating that men, relative to women, reported greater jealousy in response to sexual infidelity than in response to emotional infidelity. The twin models revealed significant heritabilities for both sexual (32%) and emotional (26%) jealousy. The heritabilities were of a similar magnitude in both sexes, and no qualitative sex differences could be detected. We show for the first time that variance in jealousy is to some extent explained by genetic factors. Even though our results from the mean value analyses are in line with the theory of evolved sex differences in jealousy, we could not identify any sex differences on a genetic level.
Vandenbergh, J G; Huggett, C L
Sex ratio alterations related to environmental factors occur in several mammals, but no mechanism has been identified to explain the adjustment. Intrauterine position (IUP) may provide the context in which such alterations occur. Previous studies on house mice and gerbils reveal that the position of a fetus in the uterus in relation to the sex of its neighbors influences its later anatomy, physiology, and behavior. The anogenital distance (AGD) of females located between two males (2M) is longer than that of females not between two males (OM). We have found that the IUP, as determined by cesarean section and by an index of the AGD, correlates with the sex ratio of the litters produced by female mice. The sex ratio of the first litter born to 2M females was 58% males, for 1M females was 51% males and for OM females was 42% males. The effect on sex ratio continues into the second litter. The number of pups produced by mothers of different IUPs in her first two litters did not differ, suggesting that the sex ratio adjustment occurs prior to parturition. These results provide a basis for the natural variability observed in sex ratios of litter-bearing mammals and suggest that one or more intrauterine mechanisms may be responsible for environmentally related sex ratio alterations.
Schmid, Michael; Steinlein, Claus
A detailed cytogenetic study on the leaf litter frog Eleutherodactylus johnstonei from 14 different Caribbean islands and the mainlands of Venezuela and Guyana revealed the existence of multimorphic XY♂/XX♀ sex chromosomes 14. Their male sex determination and development depends either on the presence of 2 telocentric chromosomes 14 (XtYt), or on 1 submetacentric chromosome 14 (Xsm) plus 1 telocentric chromosome 14 (Yt), or on the presence of 2 submetacentric chromosomes 14 (XsmYsm). The female sex determination and development requires either the presence of 2 telocentric chromosomes 14 (XtXt) or 2 submetacentric chromosomes 14 (XsmXsm). In all individuals analyzed, the sex chromosomes 14 carry a prominent nucleolus organizer region in their long arms. An explanation is given for the origin of the (XtYt)♂, (XsmYt)♂, (XsmYsm)♂, (XtXt)♀, and (XsmXsm)♀ in the different populations of E. johnstonei. Furthermore, the present study gives detailed data on the chromosome banding patterns, in situ hybridization experiments, and the genome size of E. johnstonei. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Hedrick, Philip W; Gadau, Jürgen; Page, Robert E
Genetic factors can affect the probability of extinction either by increasing the effect of detrimental variants or by decreasing the potential for future adaptive responses. In a recent paper, Zayed and Packer demonstrate that low variation at a specific locus, the complementary sex determination (csd) locus in Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps), can result in a sharply increased probability of extinction. Their findings illustrate situations in which there is a feedback process between decreased genetic variation at the csd locus owing to genetic drift and decreased population growth, resulting in an extreme type of extinction vortex for these ecologically important organisms.
Lumby, M E
This content analysis of 1,111 paid ads in the Advocate identifies 17 self-descriptive categories in the "Personals" (PER) and "Models, Masseurs, and Escorts" (MME) sections of the "Trader Dick" supplement. Advertisers place primary emphases on sex and masculinity. Among MME, youthfulness, handsomeness, and sexiness are important, promoting versatility in place of specificity when mentioning sexual acts. PER advertisers, however, indicate concerns about age, race, and finding lovers. They also detail specific sexual interests and reject a variety of unacceptable behaviors.
In the majority of neuropsychiatric conditions, marked gender-based differences have been found in the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and therapy of disease. Emerging data suggest that gender differences exist also in the epidemiology, and pathophysiology of epilepsy. The present review summarizes the current information regarding gender and epilepsy. These differences are regarded from the perspective of innate sex differences in cerebral morphology, structural and functional connections, and assuming that these differences may render men and women differently vulnerable to epileptogenicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Goff, David H.; And Others
Examines the relationship between both the sex-role and the sex of viewers and viewer perception of the sex-role depicted by five female characters in prime-time television programs. Perception of character sex-role was significantly related to subject sex-role, yet unrelated to subject sex or gender. (MER)
Wells, Brooke E; Golub, Sarit A; Parsons, Jeffrey T
Research demonstrates a consistent association between substance use and sexual risk, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM). The present study builds upon two existing theories (Cognitive Escape Theory and Expectancy Theory) to examine the synergistic role of sexual conflict (surrounding unsafe sex) and expectancies in sexual behavior among 135 MSM. Two conflicts were examined: (1) The conflict between motivation to practice safer sex and temptation for unprotected sex; and (2) The conflict between motivation to practice safer sex and perceived benefits of unprotected sex. Factorial ANOVAs (2 × 2; high versus low expectancies and conflict versus no conflict) revealed a significant interaction between conflict and expectancies-individuals who reported high levels of conflict were more sensitive to the effect of expectancies than were those experiencing low levels of sexual conflict. Results demonstrate the synergistic effects of conflict and expectancies and highlight the importance of integrating existing theories to more fully consider the intrapsychic operation and experience of sexual conflicts.
Lee, Jieha; Rough, Kathryn; Strathdee, Steffanie A.
We examined the prevalence of three domains of sexual behaviors among young Asian-American women: sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors. We also investigated the impact of gender power control on these domains. Among sexually experienced women, 51% reported using condoms during their most recent sex act, 63% reported inconsistent condom use, and 18% reported ever having forced sex. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women’s perceived lower relationship power control was not associated with vaginal sex or safer sex practices, but it was powerfully associated with forced sex and all three potential HIV risk behaviors. This study demonstrates that control within young Asian-American women’s intimate relationships exerts different associations depending on the type of sexual behavior. The application of the Theory of Gender and Power should be employed with prudence when designing HIV interventions for this population. PMID:21259042
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Lee, Jieha; Rough, Kathryn; Strathdee, Steffanie A
We examined the prevalence of three domains of sexual behaviors among young Asian-American women: sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors. We also investigated the impact of gender power control on these domains. Among sexually experienced women, 51% reported using condoms during their most recent sex act, 63% reported inconsistent condom use, and 18% reported ever having forced sex. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women's perceived lower relationship power control was not associated with vaginal sex or safer sex practices, but it was powerfully associated with forced sex and all three potential HIV risk behaviors. This study demonstrates that control within young Asian-American women's intimate relationships exerts different associations depending on the type of sexual behavior. The application of the Theory of Gender and Power should be employed with prudence when designing HIV interventions for this population.
Full Text Available Caveolin-1 (CAV1 is a conserved group of structural membrane proteins that form special cholesterol and sphingolipid-rich compartments, especially in adipocytes. Recently, it has been reported that CAV1 is an important target protein in sex hormone-dependent regulation of various metabolic pathways, particularly in cancer and diabetes. To clarify distinct roles of CAV1 in sex-dependent obesity development, we investigated the effects of high fat diet (HFD and sex steroid hormones on CAV1 expression in adipose tissues of male and female rats. Results of animal experiments revealed that estrogen (17-β-estradiol, E2 and androgen (dihydrotestosterone, DHT had opposite effects on body weight gain as well as on the regulation of CAV1, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 in adipose tissues. Furthermore, sex hormone receptors and aromatase were differentially expressed in a sex-dependent manner in response to E2 and DHT treatments. In vivo data were confirmed using 3T3-L1 and HIB1B cell lines, where Cav1 knock down stimulated lipogenesis but suppressed sex hormone receptor signaling proteins. Most importantly, co-immunoprecipitation enabled the identification of previously unrecognized CAV1-interacting mitochondrial or lipid oxidative pathway proteins in adipose tissues. Taken together, current data showed that CAV1 may play important preventive role in the development of obesity, with more prominent effects in females, and proved to be an important target protein for the hormonal regulation of adipose tissue metabolism by manipulating sex hormone receptors and mitochondrial oxidative pathways. Therefore, we can report, for the first time, the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of sex steroid hormones in the sex-dimorphic regulation of CAV1.
Reid, Joan A
Emerging research suggests that sex traffickers/pimps control the majority of trafficked girls in the United States. The youthfulness of these victims and their lack of psychosocial maturity severely diminish their ability to detect exploitative motives or withstand manipulation of traffickers. A review of 43 cases of sexually exploited girls involving non-relative traffickers and 10 semi-structured interviews with social service providers revealed numerous scripts and schemes used by sex traffickers to entrap and entangle victims including boyfriend/lover scripts, ruses involving debt bondage, friendship or faux-family scripts, threats of forced abortion or to take away children, and coerced co-offending. These findings inform potential prevention efforts and highlight the need for multi-systemic, victim-centered approaches to intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.
Hong, Yan; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Lin, Xiuyun; Zhou, Yuejiao; Liu, Wei
Despite the recognized importance of HIV testing in prevention, care and treatment, HIV testing remains low in China. Millions of female sex workers (FSW) play a critical role in China's escalating HIV epidemic. Limited data are available regarding HIV testing behavior among this at-risk population. This study, based on a cross-sectional survey of 1,022 FSW recruited from communities in Southwest China, attempted to address the literature gap. Our data revealed that 48% of FSW ever took HIV testing; older age, less education, working in higher-income commercial sex venues and better HIV knowledge were associated with HIV testing. Those who never took HIV testing were more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors including inconsistent condom use with clients and stable partners. A number of psychological and structural barriers to testing were also reported. We call for culturally appropriate interventions to reduce HIV risks and promote HIV testing for vulnerable FSW in China.
MacPhail, Catherine; Scott, John; Minichiello, Victor
Technological change, particularly the growth of the Internet and smart phones, has increased the visibility of male escorts, expanded their client base and diversified the range of venues in which male sex work can take place. Specifically, the Internet has relocated some forms of male sex work away from the street and thereby increased market reach, visibility and access and the scope of sex work advertising. Using the online profiles of 257 male sex workers drawn from six of the largest websites advertising male sexual services in Australia, the role of the Internet in facilitating the normalisation of male sex work is discussed. Specifically we examine how engagement with the sex industry has been reconstituted in term of better informed consumer-seller decisions for both clients and sex workers. Rather than being seen as a 'deviant' activity, understood in terms of pathology or criminal activity, male sex work is increasingly presented as an everyday commodity in the market place. In this context, the management of risks associated with sex work has shifted from formalised social control to more informal practices conducted among online communities of clients and sex workers. We discuss the implications for health, legal and welfare responses within an empowerment paradigm.
Turner, Paul E.
Sex (genetic exchange) is a nearly universal phenomenon in biological populations. But this is surprising given the costs associated with sex. For example, sex tends to break apart co-adapted genes, and sex causes a female to inefficiently contribute only half the genes to her offspring. Why then did sex evolve? One famous model poses that sex evolved to combat Muller's ratchet, the mutational load that accrues when harmful mutations drift to high frequencies in populations of small size. In contrast, the Fisher-Muller Hypothesis predicts that sex evolved to promote genetic variation that speeds adaptation in novel environments. Sexual mechanisms occur in viruses, which feature high rates of deleterious mutation and frequent exposure to novel or changing environments. Thus, confirmation of one or both hypotheses would shed light on the selective advantages of virus sex. Experimental evolution has been used to test these classic models in the RNA bacteriophage φ6, a virus that experiences sex via reassortment of its chromosomal segments. Empirical data suggest that sex might have originated in φ6 to assist in purging deleterious mutations from the genome. However, results do not support the idea that sex evolved because it provides beneficial variation in novel environments. Rather, experiments show that too much sex can be bad for φ6 promiscuity allows selfish viruses to evolve and spread their inferior genes to subsequent generations. Here I discuss various explanations for the evolution of segmentation in RNA viruses, and the added cost of sex when large numbers of viruses co-infect the same cell.
Olsen, Ingar; Tribble, Gena D; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Wang, Bing-Yan
Genes are transferred between bacteria in dental plaque by transduction, conjugation, and transformation. Membrane vesicles can also provide a mechanism for horizontal gene transfer. DNA transfer is considered bacterial sex, but the transfer is not parallel to processes that we associate with sex in higher organisms. Several examples of bacterial gene transfer in the oral cavity are given in this review. How frequently this occurs in dental plaque is not clear, but evidence suggests that it affects a number of the major genera present. It has been estimated that new sequences in genomes established through horizontal gene transfer can constitute up to 30% of bacterial genomes. Gene transfer can be both inter- and intrageneric, and it can also affect transient organisms. The transferred DNA can be integrated or recombined in the recipient's chromosome or remain as an extrachromosomal inheritable element. This can make dental plaque a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. The ability to transfer DNA is important for bacteria, making them better adapted to the harsh environment of the human mouth, and promoting their survival, virulence, and pathogenicity.
Full Text Available Genes are transferred between bacteria in dental plaque by transduction, conjugation, and transformation. Membrane vesicles can also provide a mechanism for horizontal gene transfer. DNA transfer is considered bacterial sex, but the transfer is not parallel to processes that we associate with sex in higher organisms. Several examples of bacterial gene transfer in the oral cavity are given in this review. How frequently this occurs in dental plaque is not clear, but evidence suggests that it affects a number of the major genera present. It has been estimated that new sequences in genomes established through horizontal gene transfer can constitute up to 30% of bacterial genomes. Gene transfer can be both inter- and intrageneric, and it can also affect transient organisms. The transferred DNA can be integrated or recombined in the recipient's chromosome or remain as an extrachromosomal inheritable element. This can make dental plaque a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. The ability to transfer DNA is important for bacteria, making them better adapted to the harsh environment of the human mouth, and promoting their survival, virulence, and pathogenicity.
Fattore, Liana; Melis, Miriam; Fadda, Paola; Fratta, Walter
Gender-dependent differences in the rate of initiation and frequency of misuse of addicting drugs have been widely described. Yet, men and women also differ in their propensity to become addicted to other rewarding stimuli (e.g., sex, food) or activities (e.g., gambling, exercising). The goal of the present review is to summarize current evidence for gender differences not only in drug addiction, but also in other forms of addictive behaviours. Thus, we first reviewed studies showing gender-dependent differences in drug addiction, food addiction, compulsive sexual activity, pathological gambling, Internet addiction and physical exercise addiction. Potential risk factors and underlying brain mechanisms are also examined, with particular emphasis given to the role of sex hormones in modulating addictive behaviours. Investigations on factors allowing the pursuit of non-drug rewards to become pathological in men and women are crucial for designing gender-appropriate treatments of both substance and non-substance addictions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Orsted, Michael; Malmendal, Anders; Munoz, Joaquin
Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and how this impacts the magnitude of sexual dimorphism. Experimental stressors that we exposed flies to during development were heat stress, poor nutrition, high acidity, high levels of ammonia and ethanol. Emerged male and female flies from the different...
Biological sex and sex hormones are known to affect functional cerebral asymmetries (FCAs). Men are generally more lateralized than women. The effect size of this sex difference is small but robust. Some of the inconsistencies in the literature may be explained by sex-related hormonal differences. Most studies focusing on neuromodulatory properties of sex hormones on FCAs have investigated women during the menstrual cycle. Although contradictions exist, these studies have typically shown that levels of estradiol and/or progesterone correlate with the degree of FCAs, suggesting that sex differences in FCAs partially depend on hormonal state and day of testing. The results indicate that FCAs are not fixed but are hormone dependent, and as such they can dynamically change within relatively short periods throughout life. Many issues raised in this Mini-Review refer not only to FCAs but also to other aspects of functional brain organization, such as functional connectivity within and between the cerebral hemispheres. Our understanding of sex differences in brain and behavior as well as their clinical relevance will improve significantly if more studies routinely take sex and sex hormones into account. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in
van den Boom, Wijnand; Davidovich, Udi; Heuker, José; Lambers, Femke; Prins, Maria; Sandfort, Theo; Stolte, Ineke G.
Group sex has been suggested as a potential high-risk setting for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men who have sex with men (MSM). We investigated whether group sex is associated with lower condom use during anal sex and higher proportions of STIs compared with dyadic sex
Babb, Florence E
Helen Safa has been a leading program builder and pioneer in research that examines the complex intersections of gender, race, class, and nation in Latin America and the Caribbean. Her comparative research culminated in her influential book, The Myth of the Male Breadwinner: Women and Industrialization in the Caribbean (1995), which examined gender, family, and employment across three Caribbean societies. Over several decades Safa has inspired scholarship throughout the Caribbean and the Americas and her work is exemplary of engaged anthropology in the region. Here I present work I conducted in Cuba that was guided, like my work in Peru, Nicaragua, and southern Mexico by the writings of Safa and others who saw the critical need to bring gender into meaningful discussion in the field of Latin American and Caribbean studies. In what follows, drawn from my broader research on tourism in four nations, I explore and reflect on the contemporary dynamics of sex and romance tourism in Cuba. I suggest that the allure of this domain of tourism may be enhanced by Cuba's global political identity, and that Cuban women participating in commodified and intimate exchanges reveal an ability to get along in a market economy that generally excludes them.
Editors' note: From its first issue in 1900 through to the present day, AJN has unparalleled archives detailing nurses' work and lives over more than a century. These articles not only chronicle nursing's growth as a profession within the context of the events of the day, but they also reveal prevailing societal attitudes about women, health care, and human rights. Today's nursing school curricula rarely include nursing's history, but it's a history worth knowing. To this end, From the AJN Archives highlights articles selected to fit today's topics and times.This month we reprint a brief "Professional Practice" note from the June 1969 issue about what was described as the first family planning conference for nurse educators. Speakers emphasized the need to make this subject a routine part of nursing school curricula (despite debates over the nurse's role in family planning), "so that nurses can counsel out of wisdom and not from piety or ignorance." Speakers included James Lieberman, MD, who years later coauthored with his daughter a teen sex guide, and Alan Guttmacher, MD, then president of Planned Parenthood, whose Center for Family Planning Program Development within that organization was later renamed the Guttmacher Institute in his honor.Nurses today are deeply involved in sexual and reproductive health care. In this issue, public health specialist Diane Santa Maria and colleagues offer ways to advance sexual and reproductive health care for adolescents by devising more friendly, youth-oriented clinical settings.
Bale, Tracy L; Epperson, C Neill
Sex differences in stress responses can be found at all stages of life and are related to both the organizational and activational effects of gonadal hormones and to genes on the sex chromosomes. As stress dysregulation is the most common feature across neuropsychiatric diseases, sex differences in how these pathways develop and mature may predict sex-specific periods of vulnerability to disruption and increased disease risk or resilience across the lifespan. The aging brain is also at risk to the effects of stress, where the rapid decline of gonadal hormones in women combined with cellular aging processes promote sex biases in stress dysregulation. In this Review, we discuss potential underlying mechanisms driving sex differences in stress responses and their relevance to disease. Although stress is involved in a much broader range of diseases than neuropsychiatric ones, we highlight here this area and its examples across the lifespan. PMID:26404716
Bale, Tracy L; Epperson, C Neill
Sex differences in stress responses can be found at all stages of life and are related to both the organizational and activational effects of gonadal hormones and to genes on the sex chromosomes. As stress dysregulation is the most common feature across neuropsychiatric diseases, sex differences in how these pathways develop and mature may predict sex-specific periods of vulnerability to disruption and increased disease risk or resilience across the lifespan. The aging brain is also at risk to the effects of stress, where the rapid decline of gonadal hormones in women combined with cellular aging processes promote sex biases in stress dysregulation. In this Review, we discuss potential underlying mechanisms driving sex differences in stress responses and their relevance to disease. Although stress is involved in a much broader range of diseases than neuropsychiatric ones, we highlight here this area and its examples across the lifespan.
Elmes, Jocelyn; Skovdal, Morten; Nhongo, Kundai
a unique opportunity to study community perceptions of the impact of socio-economic upheaval on the sex trade. We conducted focus group discussions with 122 community members in rural eastern Zimbabwe in January-February 2009. Groups were homogeneous by gender and occupation and included female sex workers......Understanding the dynamic nature of sex work is important for explaining the course of HIV epidemics. While health and development interventions targeting sex workers may alter the dynamics of the sex trade in particular localities, little has been done to explore how large-scale social...... and structural changes, such as economic recessions–outside of the bounds of organizational intervention–may reconfigure social norms and attitudes with regards to sex work. Zimbabwe’s economic collapse in 2009, following a period (2000–2009) of economic decline, within a declining HIV epidemic, provides...
Fejer, René; Hartvigsen, Jan; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm
Experimental studies have suggested biological factors as a possible explanation for gender disparities in perception of pain. Recently, heritability of liability to neck pain (NP) has been found to be statistically significantly larger in women compared to men. However, no studies have been...... conducted to determine whether the sex differences in heritability of NP are due to sex-specific genetic factors. Data on lifetime prevalence of NP from a population-based cross-sectional survey of 33,794 Danish twins were collected and age-stratified univariate biometrical modeling using sex......-limitation models was performed based on 10,605 dizygotic (DZ) twins of opposite sex to estimate the qualitative sex differences. In a full sex-limitation model the genetic component in females were higher than in males, but the genetic and the shared environmental correlations were equal to what is normally...
Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Berger, Christian
The present study examined to what extent selection and influence processes for physical aggression and prosociality in friendship networks differed between sex-specific contexts (i.e., all-male, all-female, and mixed-sex classrooms), while controlling for perceived popularity. Whereas selection processes reflect how behaviors shape friendships, influence processes reveal the reversed pattern by indicating how friends affect individual behaviors. Data were derived from a longitudinal sample of early adolescents from Chile. Four all-male classrooms ( n = 150 male adolescents), four all-female classrooms ( n = 190 female adolescents), and eight mixed-sex classrooms ( n = 272 students) were followed one year from grades 5 to 6 ( M age = 13). Analyses were conducted by means of stochastic-actor-based modeling as implemented in RSIENA. Although it was expected that selection and influence effects for physical aggression and prosociality would vary by context, these effects showed remarkably similar trends across all-male, all-female, and mixed-sex classrooms, with physical aggression reducing and with prosociality increasing the number of nominations received as best friend in all-male and particularly all-female classrooms. Further, perceived popularity increased the number of friendship nominations received in all contexts. Influence processes were only found for perceived popularity, but not for physical aggression and prosociality in any of the three contexts. Together, these findings highlight the importance of both behaviors for friendship selection independent of sex-specific contexts, attenuating the implications of these gendered behaviors for peer relations.
Full Text Available Le tourisme dit « sexuel » est aujourd’hui décrié comme une forme de tourisme international immoral, un dysfonctionnement grave de la mondialisation appelant une réaction politique contre « l’exploitation sexuelle » dont seraient victimes des millions de femmes et d’enfants. Pourtant, derrière l’apparente évidence du « tourisme sexuel » comme expression de sens commun, rares sont les enquêtes qui explicitent la réalité concrète des échanges prostitutionnels. En adoptant une démarche ethnographique, l’article décrit le fonctionnement de Patpong, un quartier rouge de Bangkok dédié à une clientèle internationale. Par la description des offres disponibles, des revenus générés, des codes et des pratiques, la complexité de l’espace réapparaît. Il s’agit de donner à voir la réalité des échanges pour interroger l’articulation entre commerce et sexualité. L’analyse ethnographique du tourisme sexuel permet ainsi de souligner la diversité des pratiques et de rappeler que les formes les plus visibles — et les plus commentées — d’échanges prostitutionnels éclipsent trop souvent une pluralité d’expériences qui participe pourtant au succès de ces ruelles mondialement connues. So-called sex tourism is condemned as an immoral form of international tourism, a serious failure of globalization requiring political action against the “sexual exploitation” suffered by millions of women and children. Yet behind the common and seemingly evident understanding of “sexual tourism,” few studies have focused on the actual reality of such relations. Based on an ethnographic study, this article presents the structure of Patpong, a red-light district of Bangkok dedicated to international tourism. First, the article aims to briefly present the historical development of Patpong. This peculiar space is intrinsically linked to sex tourism, as these world-renowned streets expanded since the mid-60s to
Cremin, I; Mushati, P; Hallett, T; Mupambireyi, Z; Nyamukapa, C; Garnett, G P; Gregson, S
To identify reporting biases and to determine the influence of inconsistent reporting on observed trends in the timing of age at first sex and age at marriage. Longitudinal data from three rounds of a population-based cohort in eastern Zimbabwe were analysed. Reports of age at first sex and age at marriage from 6837 individuals attending multiple rounds were classified according to consistency. Survival analysis was used to identify trends in the timing of first sex and marriage. In this population, women initiate sex and enter marriage at younger ages than men but spend much less time between first sex and marriage. Among those surveyed between 1998 and 2005, median ages at first sex and first marriage were 18.5 years and 21.4 years for men and 18.2 years and 18.5 years, respectively, for women aged 15-54 years. High levels of reports of both age at first sex and age at marriage among those attending multiple surveys were found to be unreliable. Excluding reports identified as unreliable from these analyses did not alter the observed trends in either age at first sex or age at marriage. Tracing birth cohorts as they aged revealed reporting biases, particularly among the youngest cohorts. Comparisons by birth cohorts, which span a period of >40 years, indicate that median age at first sex has remained constant over time for women but has declined gradually for men. Although many reports of age at first sex and age at marriage were found to be unreliable, inclusion of such reports did not result in artificial generation or suppression of trends.
Madison T Ortega
Full Text Available Sexual differentiation across taxa may be due to genetic sex determination (GSD and/or temperature sex determination (TSD. In many mammals, males are heterogametic (XY; whereas females are homogametic (XX. In most birds, the opposite is the case with females being heterogametic (ZW and males the homogametic sex (ZZ. Many reptile species lack sex chromosomes, and instead, sexual differentiation is influenced by temperature with specific temperatures promoting males or females varying across species possessing this form of sexual differentiation, although TSD has recently been shown to override GSD in Australian central beaded dragons (Pogona vitticeps. There has been speculation that Australian Brush-turkeys (Alectura lathami exhibit TSD alone and/or in combination with GSD. Thus, we sought to determine if this species possesses sex chromosomes. Blood was collected from one sexually mature female and two sexually mature males residing at Sylvan Heights Bird Park (SHBP and shipped for karyotype analysis. Karyotype analysis revealed that contrary to speculation, Australian Brush-turkeys possess the classic avian ZW/ZZ sex chromosomes. It remains a possibility that a biased primary sex ratio of Australian Brush-turkeys might be influenced by maternal condition prior to ovulation that result in her laying predominantly Z- or W-bearing eggs and/or sex-biased mortality due to higher sensitivity of one sex in environmental conditions. A better understanding of how maternal and extrinsic factors might differentially modulate ovulation of Z- or W-bearing eggs and hatching of developing chicks possessing ZW or ZZ sex chromosomes could be essential in conservation strategies used to save endangered members of Megapodiidae.
In his article "Gender in Winterson's Sexing the Cherry" Paul Kintzele examines the ways in which Jeanette Winterson's 1989 novel explores and critiques aspects of gender and sexuality. While acknowledging the importance of the performance theory of gender that derives from the work of Judith Butler, Kintzele contends that such an approach must be complemented with a psychoanalytic approach that insists on a particular distinction between sex and gender. Although some scholars map the sex/gen...
Mao, Jessica; Tang, Weiming; Liu, Chuncheng; Wong, Ngai Sze; Tang, Songyuan; Wei, Chongyi; Tucker, Joseph D
Sex tourism among men who have sex with men (MSM) may exacerbate transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sex tourism is defined as purchasing sex with gifts or money outside of one's hometown. Our objective was to characterize the frequency, socio-demographic characteristics, and sexual risk behaviors among Chinese MSM sex tourists. An online, cross-sectional survey for high-risk MSM throughout China was conducted in November 2015 covering sociodemographic characteristics, sexual risk behaviors, and sex tourism. Univariate and multivariable logistic regressions were performed to identify correlates of sex tourism. The mean MSM HIV prevalence of sex tourism journey origins and destinations were compared. Of 1189 MSM who completed the survey, 62 (5%) men identified as sex tourists; among these sex tourists, twenty (32%) traveled primarily to purchase sex and the remainder purchased sex while traveling for another purpose. There was minimal socio-demographic and behavioral difference between the two groups. In multivariable analyses, adjusting for age and income, sex tourism was correlated with high-risk sexual behaviors, higher income (aOR 4.44, 95%CI 1.77-11.18) and living with HIV (aOR 2.79, 95%CI 1.03-7.55). Sex tourism was more often from locations with lower to higher MSM HIV prevalence (mean = 4.47, SD = 2.01 versus mean = 6.86, SD = 5.24). MSM sex tourists were more likely to have risky sexual behaviors and travel to locations with a higher HIV prevalence. MSM sex tourists may be part of core groups that are disproportionately responsible for MSM HIV transmission. Enhanced surveillance and interventions tailored to MSM sex tourists should be considered.
Manning, Wendy D; Brown, Susan L; Stykes, J Bart
Relationship stability is a key indicator of well-being, but most U.S.-based research has been limited to different-sex couples. The 2008 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) provides an untapped data resource to analyze relationship stability of same-sex cohabiting, different-sex cohabiting, and different-sex married couples (n = 5,701). The advantages of the SIPP data include the recent, nationally representative, and longitudinal data collection; a large sample of same-sex cohabitors; respondent and partner socioeconomic characteristics; and identification of a state-level indicator of a policy stating that marriage is between one man and one woman (i.e., DOMA). We tested competing hypotheses about the stability of same-sex versus different-sex cohabiting couples that were guided by incomplete institutionalization, minority stress, relationship investments, and couple homogamy perspectives (predicting that same-sex couples would be less stable) as well as economic resources (predicting that same-sex couples would be more stable). In fact, neither expectation was supported: results indicated that same-sex cohabiting couples typically experience levels of stability that are similar to those of different-sex cohabiting couples. We also found evidence of contextual effects: living in a state with a constitutional ban against same-sex marriage was significantly associated with higher levels of instability for same- and different-sex cohabiting couples. The level of stability in both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting couples is not on par with that of different-sex married couples. The findings contribute to a growing literature on health and well-being of same-sex couples and provide a broader understanding of family life.
Full Text Available Sex role orientation, i.e. a person’s masculinity or femininity, influences cognitive and emotional performance, like biological sex. While it is now widely accepted that sex differences are modulated by the hormonal status of female participants (menstrual cycle, hormonal contraceptive use, the question, whether hormonal status and sex hormones also modulate participants sex role orientation has hardly been addressed previously. The present study assessed sex role orientation and hormonal status as well as sex hormone levels in three samples of participants from two different cultures (Northern American, Middle European. Menstrual cycle phase did not affect participant’s masculinity or femininity, but had a significant impact on reference group. While women in their follicular phase (low levels of female sex hormones determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to men, women in their luteal phase (high levels of female sex hormones determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to women. Hormonal contraceptive users rated themselves as significantly more feminine and less masculine than naturally cycling women. Furthermore, the impact of biological sex on the factorial structure of sex role orientation as well as the relationship of estrogen to masculinity/femininity was modulated by culture. We conclude that culture and sex hormones interactively affect sex role orientation and hormonal status of participants should be controlled for when assessing masculinity and/or femininity.
Bauer, Irmgard L
Love, sex and the female traveller: romance tourism or female sex tourism? The phenomenon of women travelling in search of relationships with local men in developing countries has been studied for the last 20 years. However, it appears little known in travel medicine. Relevant literature was found through PubMed, Science Direct, ProQuest and Google Scholar. The reference lists of selected articles identified further sources. Historical records of women travellers to far-away countries abound. Then, as now, women not only searched for the erotic 'other' but made romance and sex the purpose of their trip. Today, increasing numbers of women travel to destinations in developing countries where sex with local men is the main attraction. This pastime raises concerns not only for the women themselves but for the local men involved as well as their sex partners and the local communities. Although more research is necessary, comparing the criteria that describe men travelling for sex and relationships and women travelling for sex and relationships appears to suggest that there is very little difference between the two, regardless of what the pursuit is called. Women looking for sex with local men are sex tourists, too. Recognition of this fact needs to influence the pre and post travel care of female travellers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aotearoa (New Zealand) is the only country in the world to have decriminalized sex work. The Prostitution Reform Act (PRA henceforth) was enacted in 2003 with the aim to safeguard the human rights of sex workers, and create a framework that is conducive to public health. Skeptics of this policy argue that the law reform was targeting indoor workers while the livelihood of street-based sex workers did not see significant improvements (Justice Acts, 2014). It is known that Māori sex workers are...
Seidel, G E
The technology in current use for sexing sperm represents remarkable feats of engineering. These flow cytometer/cell sorters can make over 30 000 consecutive evaluations of individual sperm each second for each nozzle and sort the sperm into three containers: X-sperm, Y-sperm and unsexable plus dead sperm. Even at these speeds it is not economical to package sperm at standard numbers per inseminate. However, with excellent management, pregnancy rates in cattle with 2 million sexed sperm per insemination dose are about 80% of those with conventional semen at normal sperm doses. This lowered fertility, in part due to damage to sperm during sorting, plus the extra cost of sexed semen limits the applications that are economically feasible. Even so, on the order of 2 million doses of bovine semen are sexed annually in the United States. The main application is for dairy heifers to have heifer calves, either for herd expansion or for sale as replacements, often for eventual export. Breeders of purebred cattle often use sexed semen for specific matings; thawing and then sexing frozen semen and immediately using the few resulting sexed sperm for in vitro fertilization is done with increasing frequency. Beef cattle producers are starting to use sexed semen to produce crossbred female replacements. Proprietary improvements in sperm sexing procedures, implemented in 2013, are claimed to improve fertility between 4 and 6 percentage points, or about 10%.
Forsgren, Elisabet; Amundsen, Trond; Borg, Asa A; Bjelvenmark, Jens
Sex roles are typically thought of as being fixed for a given species. In most animals males compete for females, whereas the females are more reluctant to mate. Therefore sexual selection usually acts most strongly on males. This is explained by males having a higher potential reproductive rate than females, leading to more males being sexually active (a male-biased operational sex ratio). However, what determines sex roles and the strength of sexual selection is a controversial and much debated question. In this large-scale field study, we show a striking temporal plasticity in the mating competition of a fish (two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens). Over the short breeding season fierce male-male competition and intensive courtship behaviour in males were replaced by female-female competition and actively courting females. Hence, sex role reversal occurred rapidly. This is the first time that a shift in sex roles has been shown in a vertebrate. The shift might be explained by a large decline in male abundance, strongly skewing the sex ratio towards females. Notably, the sex role reversal did not occur at an equal operational sex ratio, contrary to established sex role theory.
Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Johnson, Jennifer; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D
For women involved in sex trading, both alcohol problems and passage through the criminal justice system are highly prevalent. This study is the first to conduct a focused examination of factors associated with sex trading among hazardously drinking, pretrial, jailed women. Cocaine use, social support for alcohol abstinence, and more days incarcerated in the 90 days leading up to the index incarceration were significantly associated with sex trading involvement among alcoholic women. Helping incarcerated alcoholic women reduce cocaine use and improve sober support networks during and following an incarceration may minimize sex trading after release.
Browne, Tamara Kayali
Non-medical sex selection is premised on the notion that the sexes are not interchangeable. Studies of individuals who undergo sex selection for non-medical reasons, or who have a preference for a son or daughter, show that they assume their child will conform to the stereotypical roles and norms associated with their sex. However, the evidence currently available has not succeeded in showing that the gender traits and inclinations sought are caused by a "male brain" or a "female brain". Therefore, as far as we know, there is no biological reason why parents cannot have the kind of parenting experience they seek with a child of any sex. Yet gender essentialism, a set of unfounded assumptions about the sexes which pervade society and underpin sexism, prevents parents from realising this freedom. In other words, unfounded assumptions about gender constrain not only a child's autonomy, but also the parent's. To date, reproductive autonomy in relation to sex selection has predominantly been regarded merely as the freedom to choose the sex of one's child. This paper points to at least two interpretations of reproductive autonomy and argues that sex selection, by being premised on gender essentialism and/or the social pressure on parents to ensure their children conform to gender norms, undermines reproductive autonomy on both accounts.
Albright, Erin; D'Adamo, Kate
In order to decrease human trafficking, health care workers should support the full decriminalization of prostitution. Similar to trafficking in other forms of labor, preventing trafficking in the sex trade requires addressing the different forms of marginalization that create vulnerable communities. By removing punitive laws that prevent reporting of exploitation and abuse, decriminalization allows sex workers to work more safely, thereby reducing marginalization and vulnerability. Decriminalization can also help destigmatize sex work and help resist political, social, and cultural marginalization of sex workers. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
Rovatsos, Michail; Vukić, Jasna; Lymberakis, Petros; Kratochvíl, Lukáš
Amniote vertebrates possess various mechanisms of sex determination, but their variability is not equally distributed. The large evolutionary stability of sex chromosomes in viviparous mammals and birds was believed to be connected with their endothermy. However, some ectotherm lineages seem to be comparably conserved in sex determination, but previously there was a lack of molecular evidence to confirm this. Here, we document a stability of sex chromosomes in advanced snakes based on the testing of Z-specificity of genes using quantitative PCR (qPCR) across 37 snake species (our qPCR technique is suitable for molecular sexing in potentially all advanced snakes). We discovered that at least part of sex chromosomes is homologous across all families of caenophidian snakes (Acrochordidae, Xenodermatidae, Pareatidae, Viperidae, Homalopsidae, Colubridae, Elapidae and Lamprophiidae). The emergence of differentiated sex chromosomes can be dated back to about 60 Ma and preceded the extensive diversification of advanced snakes, the group with more than 3000 species. The Z-specific genes of caenophidian snakes are (pseudo)autosomal in the members of the snake families Pythonidae, Xenopeltidae, Boidae, Erycidae and Sanziniidae, as well as in outgroups with differentiated sex chromosomes such as monitor lizards, iguanas and chameleons. Along with iguanas, advanced snakes are therefore another example of ectothermic amniotes with a long-term stability of sex chromosomes comparable with endotherms. © 2015 The Author(s).
Cain, Calli M; Anderson, Amy L
Traditional gender roles, sex scripts, and the way female sex offenders are portrayed in the media may lead to misconceptions about who can commit sexual offenses. Sexual crimes by women may go unnoticed or unreported if there is a general lack of awareness that females commit these crimes. Data from the 2012 Nebraska Annual Social Indicators Survey were used to determine whether the public perceives women as capable sex offenders and the perceived causes of female sex offending. The traditional focus on male sex offenders by researchers, media, and politicians, in addition to gender stereotypes, introduces the possibility of group differences (e.g., between men and women) in perceptions of female sex offenders. Consequently, two secondary analyses were conducted that tested for group differences in both the public's perception of whether females can commit sex offenses and the explanations selected for why females sexually offend. The findings suggest that the public does perceive women as capable sex offenders, although there were group differences in the causal attributions for female sex offending.
Karam, P Andrew
Four billion years ago, sea-level UV exposure was more than 400 times as intense as today, the dose from solar cosmic rays was five times present levels, and galactic cosmic rays accounted for only about 10% their current contribution to sea-level radiation doses. Exposure to cosmic radiation accounts for about 10% of natural background radiation exposure today and includes dose from galactic cosmic rays and solar charged particles. There is little exposure to ionizing wavelengths of UV due to absorption by ozone. The sun has evolved significantly over its life; in the past there were higher levels of particulate radiation and lower UV emissions from the sun, and a stronger solar wind reduced radiation dose in the inner solar system from galactic cosmic rays. Finally, since the early atmosphere contained little to no oxygen, surface levels of UV radiation were far higher in the past.
Hadzic, Maja; Khajehei, Marjan
In this paper, we discuss sexual relationships among teenagers, the related issues, and suggest addressing the issues through effective education programs for both teenagers and their parents. We also discuss the main issues resulting from initiation of sexual relationship during adolescence such as unwanted pregnancy, maternal mortality, abortion, sexually transmitted diseases and damaged mental health. In addition, we highlight the lack of adequate sex education in teenagers and emphasize on the negative influence of TV programs and the harmful effects of dysfunctional families. Moreover, this article proposes equipping teenagers with knowledge that will help them understand not only physical but also emotional, social, and mental dynamics of sexual relationships. We believe that this approach would intervene much earlier in their life, help teenagers make healthy decision and minimize negative consequences of their personal choices.
Kautz, Donald D; Van Horn, Elizabeth R
The sequelae of a stroke can negatively affect sex and intimacy for survivors and their partners. This clinical article offers practical evidence-based recommendations for nurses to use in advising couples who may be experiencing sexual problems due to decreased desire, erectile dysfunction, vaginal dryness, paraparesis, pain, spasticity, fatigue, aphasia, concrete thinking, emotional lability, shame, embarrassment, fear, depression, or neurogenic bladder. Recent research and clinical articles show that intimacy and sexual concerns are often ignored by the rehabilitation team, yet research shows that couples want information to assist them to maintain their sexual relationships. Using the PLISSIT model to address sexual concerns, nurses can facilitate discussions to aid couples toward improved sexual function and quality of life.
Full Text Available Purpose. Female runners typically suffer more from chronic running injuries than age-matched males, although the exact biome-chanical mechanisms behind the increased susceptibility of female runners are unknown. This study aimed to compare sex differences in tibiocalcaneal kinematics during the stance phase of running. Methods. Twenty male and twenty female participants ran at 4.0 m · s–1. Tibiocalcaneal kinematics were measured using an eight-camera motion analysis system and compared using independent samples t tests. Results. Peak eversion and tibial internal rotation angles were shown to be significantly greater in female runners. Conclusions. based on these observations, it was determined that female runners may be at increased risk from chronic injury development in relation to excessive tibiocalcaneal motions in the coronal and transverse planes.
Joel, Daphna; Berman, Zohar; Tavor, Ido; Wexler, Nadav; Gaber, Olga; Stein, Yaniv; Shefi, Nisan; Pool, Jared; Urchs, Sebastian; Margulies, Daniel S.; Liem, Franziskus; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jäncke, Lutz; Assaf, Yaniv
Whereas a categorical difference in the genitals has always been acknowledged, the question of how far these categories extend into human biology is still not resolved. Documented sex/gender differences in the brain are often taken as support of a sexually dimorphic view of human brains (“female brain” or “male brain”). However, such a distinction would be possible only if sex/gender differences in brain features were highly dimorphic (i.e., little overlap between the forms of these features in males and females) and internally consistent (i.e., a brain has only “male” or only “female” features). Here, analysis of MRIs of more than 1,400 human brains from four datasets reveals extensive overlap between the distributions of females and males for all gray matter, white matter, and connections assessed. Moreover, analyses of internal consistency reveal that brains with features that are consistently at one end of the “maleness-femaleness” continuum are rare. Rather, most brains are comprised of unique “mosaics” of features, some more common in females compared with males, some more common in males compared with females, and some common in both females and males. Our findings are robust across sample, age, type of MRI, and method of analysis. These findings are corroborated by a similar analysis of personality traits, attitudes, interests, and behaviors of more than 5,500 individuals, which reveals that internal consistency is extremely rare. Our study demonstrates that, although there are sex/gender differences in the brain, human brains do not belong to one of two distinct categories: male brain/female brain. PMID:26621705
Small, Chanley M.
Presents a set of criteria for constructing a fair and realistic understanding of sex. Recognizes the impact that science can have on social policies and values and recommends that the definitions of sex and gender be carefully crafted. (DDR)
Dambrot, Faye H.; And Others
Investigates the viewer perceptions of female and male television characters as a result of viewer sex and sex role orientation, based on the responses of 677 young adults to the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ). Viewer gender had an impact on the rating of female characters. (FMW)
ARRINDELL, WA; KOLK, AM; PICKERSGILL, MJ; HAGEMAN, WJJM
Given meta-analytic findings showing females to be generally more fearful than males on multi-dimensional self-report measures of fear, an empirical attempt was made to examine whether this outcome could be explained by psychological factors such as sex role orientation and masculine sex role
Watanabe, Kisaki; Shimizu, Nobuhiro
Although the nymphs of Corythucha marmorata form clusters on the undersides of host plant leaves, as frequently observed for Hemiptera, the adults are scattered in the vicinity of the nymph population. By investigating the biological activities of volatile secretions from the adult, we found that the secretions activated male mounting behaviour. A chemical analysis revealed that borneol was a common component of the secretions from both sexes. The absolute configuration of the natural product was the (+)-enantiomer of borneol and the optical isomer was undetectable. Although (+)-borneol showed significant sex pheromone activity against males, the antipode (-)-borneol also induced sex pheromone activity, albeit only slightly. Males may not have a strict identification mechanism based on stereochemistry. To verify the origin of this sex pheromone, we analysed the components of the essential oil of the leaves of Solidago canadensis L. (Compositae: Asteraceae), a host plant; bornyl acetate was detected to be a major component. The plant-produced bornyl acetate had different stereochemistry from the sex pheromone. The results suggested that the adults do not utilise the secondary metabolites of plants but biosynthesise this sex pheromone themselves. This is the first report on sex pheromone identification in Tingidae.
Bangasser, Debra A; Wiersielis, Kimberly R
Rates of post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and major depression are higher in women than in men. Another shared feature of these disorders is that dysregulation of the stress neuropeptide, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), is thought to contribute to their pathophysiology. Therefore, sex differences in responses to CRF could contribute to this sex bias in disease prevalence. Here, we review emerging data from non-human animal models that reveal extensive sex differences in CRF functions ranging from its presynaptic regulation to its postsynaptic efficacy. Specifically, detailed are sex differences in the regulation of CRF-containing neurons and the amount of CRF that they produce. We also describe sex differences in CRF receptor expression, distribution, trafficking, and signaling. Finally, we highlight sex differences in the processes that mitigate the effects of CRF. In most cases, the identified sex differences can lead to increased stress sensitivity in females. Thus, the relevance of these differences for the increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders in women compared to men is also discussed.
Bangasser, Debra A; Wiersielis, Kimberly R; Khantsis, Sabina
Women are more likely than men to suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. In addition to their sex bias, these disorders share stress as an etiological factor and hyperarousal as a symptom. Thus, sex differences in brain arousal systems and their regulation by stress could help explain increased vulnerability to these disorders in women. Here we review preclinical studies that have identified sex differences in the locus coeruleus (LC)-norepinephrine (NE) arousal system. First, we detail how structural sex differences in the LC can bias females towards increased arousal in response to emotional events. Second, we highlight studies demonstrating that estrogen can increase NE in LC target regions by enhancing the capacity for NE synthesis, while reducing NE degradation, potentially increasing arousal in females. Third, we review data revealing how sex differences in the stress receptor, corticotropin releasing factor 1 (CRF1), can increase LC neuronal sensitivity to CRF in females compared to males. This effect could translate into hyperarousal in women under conditions of CRF hypersecretion that occur in PTSD and depression. The implications of these sex differences for the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders are discussed. Moreover, the value of using information regarding biological sex differences to aid in the development of novel pharmacotherapies to better treat men and women with PTSD and depression is also highlighted. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Noradrenergic System. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Haraldsen, I R; Opjordsmoen, S; Egeland, T; Finset, A
We explored whether the cognitive performance of gender identity disorder patients (GID) was comparable to that of their biological sex or skewed towards that of their gender identity. We tested four potentially sex-sensitive cognitive factors (rotation, visualization, perception, and verbalization) as well as two neutral factors (logic and arithmetic) in GID patients from Norway (GID-N, n = 33) or the USA (GID-US, n = 19) and in a control group (C, n = 29). The testing was undertaken prior to cross sex hormone treatment. Four-way ANOVA was applied in the final analysis of the cognitive performance and its dependency on different predictors (age, biological sex, education, group). In both GID groups as well as in the control group (C) males excelled in visualization and rotation, also when controlling for potential confounders (biological sex, group, age and education). No female advantage was detected. Furthermore, no interaction between biological sex and group assignment was revealed in the samples. In this study the cognitive pattern of GID patients is consistent with that of their biological sex and not that of their gender identity.
Manning, Elizabeth; Bungay, Vicky
A widespread rule of sex work is that payment occurs before service provision. Drawing on a subset of data collected as part of an ethnographic study conducted in metro Vancouver, Canada, this paper explores the temporal and gendered connections between payment and financial violence in a semi-criminalised indoor sex industry. A detailed examination of the timing of payment with 51 independent indoor sex workers reveals the gendered nature of the violence and its direct connection to anti-violence strategies indoor sex workers employ. We found that women (including transgender women) (n = 26) and men (n = 25) use payment schedules to minimise potential violence, but in divergent ways. Sex workers adhere to, negotiate and reject the golden rule of payment in advance based on different experiences of gendered violence. Through a gendered relational analysis, we show the contextual relationship between men and women as they negotiate payment schedules in their sex work interactions. These findings offer insight into the significance that the timing of payment has in sex workers' anti-violence practices.
Sergey N. Matveevsky
Full Text Available Here we focus on the XY1Y2 condition in male common shrew Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, applying electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry for a comprehensive analysis of structure, synapsis and behaviour of the sex trivalent in pachytene spermatocytes. The pachytene sex trivalent consists of three distinct parts: short and long synaptic SC fragments (between the X and Y1 and between the X and Y2, respectively and a long asynaptic region of the X in-between. Chromatin inactivation was revealed in the XY1 synaptic region, the asynaptic region of the X and a very small asynaptic part of the Y2. This inactive part of the sex trivalent, that we named the ‘head’, forms a typical sex body and is located at the periphery of the meiotic nucleus at mid pachytene. The second part or ‘tail’, a long region of synapsis between the X and Y2 chromosomes, is directed from the periphery into the nucleus. Based on the distribution patterns of four proteins involved in chromatin inactivation, we propose a model of meiotic silencing in shrew sex chromosomes. Thus, we conclude that pachytene sex chromosomes are structurally and functionally two different chromatin domains with specific nuclear topology: the peripheral inactivated ‘true’ sex chromosome regions (part of the X and the Y1 and more centrally located transcriptionally active autosomal segments (part of the X and the Y2.
Michelle N. Arbeitman
Full Text Available Sex differences in gene expression have been widely studied in Drosophila melanogaster. Sex differences vary across strains, but many molecular studies focus on only a single strain, or on genes that show sexually dimorphic expression in many strains. How extensive variability is and whether this variability occurs among genes regulated by sex determination hierarchy terminal transcription factors is unknown. To address these questions, we examine differences in sexually dimorphic gene expression between two strains in Drosophila adult head tissues. We also examine gene expression in doublesex (dsx mutant strains to determine which sex-differentially expressed genes are regulated by DSX, and the mode by which DSX regulates expression. We find substantial variation in sex-differential expression. The sets of genes with sexually dimorphic expression in each strain show little overlap. The prevalence of different DSX regulatory modes also varies between the two strains. Neither the patterns of DSX DNA occupancy, nor mode of DSX regulation explain why some genes show consistent sex-differential expression across strains. We find that the genes identified as regulated by DSX in this study are enriched with known sites of DSX DNA occupancy. Finally, we find that sex-differentially expressed genes and genes regulated by DSX are highly enriched on the fourth chromosome. These results provide insights into a more complete pool of potential DSX targets, as well as revealing the molecular flexibility of DSX regulation.
Pérez-Jiménez, David; Santiago-Rivas, Marimer; Serrano-García, Irma
Self-efficacy has been defined as one of the factors that may facilitate or impede safer sex. Studies reveal that peoples in steady relationships practice safer sex less often that those in casual relationships. We conducted a study with 447 sexually active heterosexual adults. A self-administered questionnaire was designed to study the sexual behavior, the male condom use and the practice of mutual masturbation, and the self-efficacy toward these practices. Results show that most men are sexually active and that there is a low frequency of male condom use and the practice of mutual masturbation as safer sex. The majority of those who use the male condom are engage in casual relationships. However, participants have high levels of self-efficacy toward these practices. Although self-efficacy is one of the factors that influence in deciding to practice safer sex, it is not sufficient to reach this goal.
Schecter, Ellen; Tracy, Allison J; Page, Konjit V; Luong, Gloria
This study is a part of an exploratory study of 50 married and unmarried same-sex couples in Massachusetts conducted by the Wellesley Centers for Women following legalization of same-sex marriage in Massachusetts in 2004. This article examines whether and how legalization of same-sex marriage impacted same-sex partners' commitment to one another, presentation to others as a couple, and treatment as a couple by others. Roughly one-quarter of the couples studied chose not to mark their commitment with ceremonies of any kind, while nearly three-fourths of the couples had either commitment (non-legal) ceremonies, legal weddings, or both. While decisions to legally marry largely were based on gaining legal protections, unforeseen impacts on self and relationships with family, friends, and the larger society revealed multiple layers of meaning. Implications of the study for public policy and social change are discussed.
Sun, Tao; Warrington, Nicole M; Rubin, Joshua B
It is often reported that brain tumors occur more frequently in males, and that males suffer a worse outcome from brain tumors than females. If correct, these observations suggest that sex plays a fundamental role in brain tumor biology. The following review of the literature regarding primary and metastatic brain tumors, reveals that brain tumors do occur more frequently in males compared to females regardless of age, tumor histology, or region of the world. Sexually dimorphic mechanisms that might control tumor cell biology, as well as immune and brain microenvironmental responses to cancer, are explored as the basis for this sex disparity. Elucidating the mechanisms by which sex chromosomes and sex hormones impact on brain tumorigenesis and progression will advance our understanding of basic cancer biology and is likely to be essential for optimizing the care of brain tumor patients.
Full Text Available Abstract It is often reported that brain tumors occur more frequently in males, and that males suffer a worse outcome from brain tumors than females. If correct, these observations suggest that sex plays a fundamental role in brain tumor biology. The following review of the literature regarding primary and metastatic brain tumors, reveals that brain tumors do occur more frequently in males compared to females regardless of age, tumor histology, or region of the world. Sexually dimorphic mechanisms that might control tumor cell biology, as well as immune and brain microenvironmental responses to cancer, are explored as the basis for this sex disparity. Elucidating the mechanisms by which sex chromosomes and sex hormones impact on brain tumorigenesis and progression will advance our understanding of basic cancer biology and is likely to be essential for optimizing the care of brain tumor patients.
Hulthén, K.; Chapman, B.B.; Nilsson, P.A.
the probability of survival within the size range tagged (119–280 m ), nor were there differences in timing of migration the following season between individuals sexed and tagged in spring and individuals tagged in autumn (i.e. outside the reproductive period). Also, a similar per cent of R. rutilus sexed...... and tagged in spring and tagged in autumn migrated the following season (34·5 and 34·7%). Moreover, long-term recapture data revealed no significant differences in body condition between R. rutilus individuals sexed and tagged in spring, individuals tagged in autumn and unmanipulated individuals....... The observed sex ratio of recaptured fish did not differ from the expected values of equal recapture rates between males and females. Hence, there is no observable evidence for an adverse effect of tagging close to the reproductive period and therefore this method is suitable for studying intersexual...
Kilpatrick, L A; Zald, D H; Pardo, J V; Cahill, L F
Recent neuroimaging studies have established a sex-related hemispheric lateralization of amygdala involvement in memory for emotionally arousing material. Here, we examine the possibility that sex-related differences in amygdala involvement in memory for emotional material develop from differential patterns of amygdala functional connectivity evident in the resting brain. Seed voxel partial least square analyses of regional cerebral blood flow data revealed significant sex-related differences in amygdala functional connectivity during resting conditions. The right amygdala was associated with greater functional connectivity in men than in women. In contrast, the left amygdala was associated with greater functional connectivity in women than in men. Furthermore, the regions displaying stronger functional connectivity with the right amygdala in males (sensorimotor cortex, striatum, pulvinar) differed from those displaying stronger functional connectivity with the left amygdala in females (subgenual cortex, hypothalamus). These differences in functional connectivity at rest may link to sex-related differences in medical and psychiatric disorders.
Alldred, P; David, ME
GET REAL ABOUT SEX: The Politics and Practice of Sex Education explores how cultural ideas about gender, sexuality and parenthood play out in the sex and relationship education classroom. It presents new material from a detailed study and analyses the struggle to raise the status of sex and relationship education against academic and market-driven priorities. It locates the dynamics of the classroom within those of the school and asks: What do the different parties in teaching and learning -...
Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Wimonsate, Wipas; Varangrat, Anchalee; Phanuphak, Praphan; Jommaroeng, Rapeepun; Mock, Philip A.; Tappero, Jordan W.; van Griensven, Frits
Although forced sex is a correlate of HIV infection, its prevalence and associated risks are not well described among men who have sex with men (MSM) in developing-country settings. Between March and October 2005, we assessed the prevalence of forced sex and correlates among populations of MSM (this includes general MSM, male sex workers, and male-to-female transgender persons) in Thailand using a community-based sample. Participants were enrolled from venues around Bangkok, Chiangmai, and Ph...
Jordan M Ramsey
Full Text Available Sex is an important factor in the prevalence, incidence, progression, and response to treatment of many medical conditions, including autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric conditions. Identification of molecular differences between typical males and females can provide a valuable basis for exploring conditions differentially affected by sex.Using multiplexed immunoassays, we analyzed 174 serum molecules in 9 independent cohorts of typical individuals, comprising 196 males and 196 females. Sex differences in analyte levels were quantified using a meta-analysis approach and put into biological context using k-means to generate clusters of analytes with distinct biological functions. Natural sex differences were established in these analyte groups and these were applied to illustrate sexually dimorphic analyte expression in a cohort of 22 males and 22 females with Asperger syndrome. Reproducible sex differences were found in the levels of 77 analytes in serum of typical controls, and these comprised clusters of molecules enriched with distinct biological functions. Analytes involved in fatty acid oxidation/hormone regulation, immune cell growth and activation, and cell death were found at higher levels in females, and analytes involved in immune cell chemotaxis and other indistinct functions were higher in males. Comparison of these naturally occurring sex differences against a cohort of people with Asperger syndrome indicated that a cluster of analytes that had functions related to fatty acid oxidation/hormone regulation was associated with sex and the occurrence of this condition.Sex-specific molecular differences were detected in serum of typical controls and these were reproducible across independent cohorts. This study extends current knowledge of sex differences in biological functions involved in metabolism and immune function. Deviations from typical sex differences were found in a cluster of molecules in Asperger syndrome
Shaily B Surti
Full Text Available Background: Outbreak of syphilis, i.e., 16 cases of rapid plasma reagin (RPR reactive cases of syphilis was reported in Community Based Organization (CBO Sahyog of Surat, India, from April to August 2014. The aim of the study was to find risk factors and take immediate actions to prevent spread. Materials and Methods: Outbreak investigation of 16 Female Sex Workers of CBO Sahyog in Surat who were found Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR and Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Assay (TPHA positive from April to August 2014; was carried out. Clinico-epidemiological and laboratory-based evidence for different sexually transmitted infections (STIs conducted at Government Medical College, New Civil Hospital, Surat. Root cause analysis (RCA of index case was carried out. Results: Desk review for the past 3 years data of STI revealed total STI cases as 88 (2011, 95 (2012, and 130 (2013, of which 4, 2, and 2 found RPR reactive, respectively. Data from April to August 2014 revealed 16 RPR reactive cases and confirmed by TPHA. On examination, one had ulcerative cervical lesion, rest did not have any symptoms of syphilis. Eleven had vaginal/cervical discharge, 11 had lower abdominal pain. A total of 11 had unprotected sex, 7 encountered condom tear in the past 6 months, and 5 reported sexual violence. Seven had sexual activity under influence of alcohol. Laboratory investigation revealed two as HIV-positive. RPR reactivity reported highest (9 out of 16 from same area of hotspot. RCA of probable index case revealed factors responsible as violence and nonuse of condoms. Conclusions: Outbreak investigation revealed one probable index case. All 16 treated with injection Penidure. Violence or condom tear is responsible for the spread. Crisis management team should be strengthened.
Kuijper, Bram; Pen, Ido
Theory suggests that genetic conflicts drive turnovers between sex-determining mechanisms, yet these studies only apply to cases where sex allocation is independent of environment or condition. Here, we model parent-offspring conflict in the presence of condition-dependent sex allocation, where the
Kozielska, M.A.; Pen, I.R.; Beukeboom, L.W.; Weissing, F.J.
Sex determining (SD) mechanisms are highly variable between different taxonomic groups and appear to change relatively quickly during evolution. Sex ratio selection could be a dominant force causing such changes. We investigate theoretically the effect of sex ratio selection on the dynamics of a
Due to the recent changes in federal regulations about gender equity in education in the USA, some policy makers have resurrected single-sex public education. Because single-sex schooling ignores the complexity of sex, gender, and sexuality, it sets up a "separate but equal" system that is anything but. Discounting the ways in which gender is…
Studied three different criteria of within-sex, gender-related individual differences taken from three studies. Data showed that items displaying large sex differences tended also to correlate most strongly with independent gender-related criteria within the sexes. Discusses assessment implications for gender-related and other group-related…
van de Beek, C.; Cohen-Bendahan, C.; Berenbaum, S.
There is now good evidence that human sex-typed behavior is influenced by sex hormones that are present during prenatal development, confirming studies in other mammalian species. Most of the evidence comes from clinical populations, in which prenatal hormone exposure is atypical for a person's sex,
Kuijper, Bram; Pen, Ido
Theory suggests that genetic conflicts drive turnovers between sex-determining mechanisms, yet these studies only apply to cases where sex allocation is independent of environment or condition. Here, we model parent-offspring conflict in the presence of condition-dependent sex allocation, where the
Etaugh, Claire; Duits, Terri L.
Toddlers (41 girls and 35 boys) between 18 and 37 months of age were given four gender discrimination tasks each consisting of 6 pairs of color drawings. Three of the tasks employed color drawings of preschool girls and boys holding either a sex-typical toy, a sex-atypical toy, or no toy. The fourth employed pictures of sex-typical masculine and…
Monson, Candice M.; Jones, Lisa M.; Rivers, P. Clayton; Blum, Steven B.
Examines relationships between general and sex-specific alcohol expectancies and drinking before offending with child sex offenders. Results show that sex-specific expectancies were the best predictor of the proportion of times the offenders reported drinking before offending. Highlights the importance of assessing expectancies related to…
Link, Jenny C; Chen, Xuqi; Prien, Christopher; Borja, Mark S; Hammerson, Bradley; Oda, Michael N; Arnold, Arthur P; Reue, Karen
The molecular mechanisms underlying sex differences in dyslipidemia are poorly understood. We aimed to distinguish genetic and hormonal regulators of sex differences in plasma lipid levels. We assessed the role of gonadal hormones and sex chromosome complement on lipid levels using the four core genotypes mouse model (XX females, XX males, XY females, and XY males). In gonadally intact mice fed a chow diet, lipid levels were influenced by both male-female gonadal sex and XX-XY chromosome complement. Gonadectomy of adult mice revealed that the male-female differences are dependent on acute effects of gonadal hormones. In both intact and gonadectomized animals, XX mice had higher HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels than XY mice, regardless of male-female sex. Feeding a cholesterol-enriched diet produced distinct patterns of sex differences in lipid levels compared with a chow diet, revealing the interaction of gonadal and chromosomal sex with diet. Notably, under all dietary and gonadal conditions, HDL-C levels were higher in mice with 2 X chromosomes compared with mice with an X and Y chromosome. By generating mice with XX, XY, and XXY chromosome complements, we determined that the presence of 2 X chromosomes, and not the absence of the Y chromosome, influences HDL-C concentration. We demonstrate that having 2 X chromosomes versus an X and Y chromosome complement drives sex differences in HDL-C. It is conceivable that increased expression of genes escaping X-inactivation in XX mice regulates downstream processes to establish sexual dimorphism in plasma lipid levels. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Soo Chan Lee
Full Text Available Microsporidia are obligate intracellular, eukaryotic pathogens that infect a wide range of animals from nematodes to humans, and in some cases, protists. The preponderance of evidence as to the origin of the microsporidia reveals a close relationship with the fungi, either within the kingdom or as a sister group to it. Recent phylogenetic studies and gene order analysis suggest that microsporidia share a particularly close evolutionary relationship with the zygomycetes.Here we expanded this analysis and also examined a putative sex-locus for variability between microsporidian populations. Whole genome inspection reveals a unique syntenic gene pair (RPS9-RPL21 present in the vast majority of fungi and the microsporidians but not in other eukaryotic lineages. Two other unique gene fusions (glutamyl-prolyl tRNA synthetase and ubiquitin-ribosomal subunit S30 that are present in metazoans, choanoflagellates, and filasterean opisthokonts are unfused in the fungi and microsporidians. One locus previously found to be conserved in many microsporidian genomes is similar to the sex locus of zygomycetes in gene order and architecture. Both sex-related and sex loci harbor TPT, HMG, and RNA helicase genes forming a syntenic gene cluster. We sequenced and analyzed the sex-related locus in 11 different Encephalitozoon cuniculi isolates and the sibling species E. intestinalis (3 isolates and E. hellem (1 isolate. There was no evidence for an idiomorphic sex-related locus in this Encephalitozoon species sample. According to sequence-based phylogenetic analyses, the TPT and RNA helicase genes flanking the HMG genes are paralogous rather than orthologous between zygomycetes and microsporidians.The unique genomic hallmarks between microsporidia and fungi are independent of sequence based phylogenetic comparisons and further contribute to define the borders of the fungal kingdom and support the classification of microsporidia as unusual derived fungi. And the sex/sex
Shors, Tracey J; Millon, Emma M; Chang, Han Yan M; Olson, Ryan L; Alderman, Brandon L
It is generally accepted that women tend to ruminate more than men do and these thought patterns are often associated with depressive symptoms (Nolen-Hoeksema et al., ). Based on these findings, we considered whether the relationship between rumination and depression is stronger in women than in men and if so, whether this might explain the higher prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in women and finally, whether the association can be disrupted through a mind/body intervention. Adult men and women, most of whom were clinically depressed, participated in an intervention known as MAP Training, which combines "mental" training with silent meditation and "physical" training with aerobic exercise (Shors et al., ). After eight weeks of training, both men and women reported significantly fewer symptoms of depression and fewer ruminative thoughts (Alderman et al., ). Statistical correlations between depressive symptoms and ruminative thoughts were strong and significant (rho > 0.50; p depressive symptoms relate to "reflective" ruminations, which involve analyses of past events, feelings, and behaviors. This is also the only relationship that dissipated after the intervention. In general, these analyses suggest that the strength of the relationship between depressive symptoms and rumination does not necessarily explain sex differences in depression; but because the relationship is strong, targeting rumination through intervention can reduce the incidence of MDD, which is more prevalent among women. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Women have been reported to perform better with hand rather than arm movements (Sanders and Walsh, 2007 and with visual stimuli in near rather than far space (Sanders, Sinclair and Walsh, 2007. Men performed better with the arm and in far space. These reciprocal patterns of sex differences appear as Muscle*Sex and Space*Sex interactions. We investigated these claims using target cancellation tasks in which task difficulty was manipulated by varying target size or the number of distracters. In Study 1 we did not find the Muscle*Sex or the Space*Sex interaction. We argue that ballistic movement was too simple to reveal the Muscle*Sex interaction. However, a trend for the Space*Sex interaction suggested task difficulty was set too high. Study 2 introduced easier levels of difficulty and the overall Space*Sex interaction narrowly failed to reach significance (p = 0.051. In Study 3 the Space*Sex interaction was significant (p = 0.001. A review of the present, and four previously published, studies indicates that task selection is critical if the Space*Sex interaction and its associated reciprocal within-sex differences are to be demonstrated without the obscuring effects of Space and Difficulty. These sex differences are compatible with predictions from the hunter-gatherer hypothesis. Implications for two-visual-system-models are considered.
Nawaz, Ahmad; Toor, A H
We analysed quantum version of the game battle of sexes using a general initial quantum state. For a particular choice of initial entangled quantum state it is shown that the classical dilemma of the battle of sexes can be resolved and a unique solution of the game can be obtained
Gorelick, Root; Heng, Henry H Q
For over a century, the paradigm has been that sex invariably increases genetic variation, despite many renowned biologists asserting that sex decreases most genetic variation. Sex is usually perceived as the source of additive genetic variance that drives eukaryotic evolution vis-à-vis adaptation and Fisher's fundamental theorem. However, evidence for sex decreasing genetic variation appears in ecology, paleontology, population genetics, and cancer biology. The common thread among many of these disciplines is that sex acts like a coarse filter, weeding out major changes, such as chromosomal rearrangements (that are almost always deleterious), but letting minor variation, such as changes at the nucleotide or gene level (that are often neutral), flow through the sexual sieve. Sex acts as a constraint on genomic and epigenetic variation, thereby limiting adaptive evolution. The diverse reasons for sex reducing genetic variation (especially at the genome level) and slowing down evolution may provide a sufficient benefit to offset the famed costs of sex. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Oomman, Nandini; Ganatra, Bela R
In strongly patriarchal societies, where the cultural and economic value of sons is at a premium, son preference manifests itself in many ways, ranging from differential allocation of household resources, medical care and neglect of girl children to female infanticide. With the increasing availability of ultrasound in the mid-1980s sex determination followed by sex-selective abortion began to become widespread as well. The following paper introduces this Roundtable and discusses the following questions: Is sex selection a part of women's right to free choice and control over their reproduction? What is the role of the medical profession? Are all manifestations of sex selection equally unethical? Are there solutions? Do the solutions themselves pose new ethical dilemmas? Following this paper, four respondents put different points of view on sex selection as a gender-based preference for a pregnancy; progress in getting the Supreme Court of India to implement a 1994 law regulating the use of antenatal diagnostic technology; why sex selection should be available as a form of reproductive choice; and why sex selection may be empowering for women and justify their actions in the short run, given the demands on them. All agree that only improved status for women and girls will reduce the demand for sex selection.
Unger, Rhoda Kesler
Present psychological terminology facilitates biologically determinist models of sex differences, making it less likely that environmental sources of such differences will be explored. The term "gender," rather than "sex," should be used for those characteristics socioculturally considered appropriate to males and females.…
E.M. Rodenburg (Eline)
textabstractIn the early sixties, a prominent professor in Clinical Pharmacology at the University College in London, D.R. Laurence, stated: “There are no clinically important sex differences in drug action, except, of course, to sex steroid hormones, but the subject is poorly documented. Women
Barrett, Carol J.
Previous writers have presumed that widowhood is more stressful for one sex or the other. Hypotheses derived from demographic considerations and sex role developmental theory compared the needs and resources of 147 widows and 42 widowers, relative to 190 married persons. All subjects were non-institutionalized urban residents aged 62 or over. The…
The U.S. Department of Education's office for civil rights has proposed amending the regulations governing Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972--which prohibits sex discrimination in programs that receive federal money--to allow more flexibility in offering single-sex schools or classes. This article discusses the rapid growth of…
Canino, Glorisa J.; And Others
Examined sex differences in rates of depressive disorders and depressive symptomatology, as measured by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, for an island-wide probability sample of Puerto Rico. Found depression significantly more prevalent among women than men. Discusses risk factors from a sex-role and cultural perspective. (Author/KS)
Quantz, Richard A.
Holds that male/female differences in such behavior characteristics as aggression, cooperation/competition, compliance, and anxiety are not innate, but rather are social strategies available to both sexes and utilized whenever reasonable. Suggests that the sex equity problems in education can be solved by eliminating differential treatment of boys…
Beukeboom, Leo W.
A recent study in the lepidopteran Ostrinia scapulalis shows that endosymbionts can actively manipulate the sex determination mechanism of their host. Wolbachia bacteria alter the sex-specific splicing of the doublesex master switch gene. In ZZ males of this female heterogametic system, the female
de Vienne, Damien M.; Giraud, Tatiana; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri
Sex predominates in eukaryotes, despite its short-term disadvantage when compared to asexuality. Myriad models have suggested that short-term advantages of sex may be sufficient to counterbalance its twofold costs. However, despite decades of experimental work seeking such evidence, no evolutionary mechanism has yet achieved broad recognition as explanation for the maintenance of sex. We explore here, through lineage-selection models, the conditions favouring the maintenance of sex. In the first model, we allowed the rate of transition to asexuality to evolve, to determine whether lineage selection favoured species with the strongest constraints preventing the loss of sex. In the second model, we simulated more explicitly the mechanisms underlying the higher extinction rates of asexual lineages than of their sexual counterparts. We linked extinction rates to the ecological and/or genetic features of lineages, thereby providing a formalisation of the only figure included in Darwin's “The origin of species”. Our results reinforce the view that the long-term advantages of sex and lineage selection may provide the most satisfactory explanations for the maintenance of sex in eukaryotes, which is still poorly recognized, and provide figures and a simulation website for training and educational purposes. Short-term benefits may play a role, but it is also essential to take into account the selection of lineages for a thorough understanding of the maintenance of sex. PMID:23825582
Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.
Solodnikov, V. V.; Chkanikova, A. M.
In Russia, sociologists do not have reliable statistical data as to the number of same-sex unions and the number of children being brought up in these families, and non-Russian studies on the topic are flawed and misleading. Russians are said to be antagonistic to the idea of children being raised in same-sex households. People are concerned over…
Reiss, Michael J.
Explores the strengths and weaknesses of the five main philosophical positions currently found in school sex education. Argues that valid sex education promotes rational sexual autonomy, requires pupils to consider the needs and wishes of others, and occurs within a moral framework. Suggests teachers adopt a supportive but neutral position. (MJP)
Roberts, Ron; Sanders, Teela; Myers, Ellie; Smith, Debbie
Increasing evidence points to student involvement in the sex industry. The current study comprised a cross-sectional sample of 315 undergraduates at a London university. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, data were gathered on students' financial and employment circumstances and their views on participation in sex work. Results suggested…
Coitus and cunnilingus during pregnancy are generally safe; whereas orogenital sex involving vaginal air insufflations can be very dangerous, causing even the death of the women. We carried out a search of case reports and reviews concerning air embolism during pregnancy due to orogenital sex. Physicians ...
Whitten, Amanda; Sethna, Christabelle
Contemporary sexual health curricula in Canada include information about sexual diversity and queer identities, but what remains missing is any explicit discussion of anti-racist sex education. Although there exists federal and provincial support for multiculturalism and anti-racism in schools, contemporary Canadian sex education omits crucial…
Erkut, Sumru; Grossman, Jennifer M.; Frye, Alice A.; Ceder, Ineke; Charmaraman, Linda; Tracy, Allison J.
In this study, we examine whether a nine-lesson sex education intervention, "Get Real: Comprehensive Sex Education That Works," implemented in sixth grade, can reduce the number of adolescents who might otherwise become "early starters" of sexual activity (defined as heterosexual intercourse) by seventh grade. Participants were…
Mosher, Donald L.
The Gestalt experiment is applicable to sex therapy. Familiarity with modes and methods of experimenting permits the therapist's creativity to emerge. Applications of sexual metaphors and sex dysfunction as a nightmare are presented, using methods drawn from Gestalt dream work. The use of Gestalt experiments are illustrated in a client-therapist…
Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.
This report takes a comprehensive look at the connections between alcohol, drug use, and sex. Two national data sets on more than 34,000 teenagers and two sets on arrested and incarcerated sex offenders were analyzed. A review of the literature, interviews with experts, and an examination of programs aimed at prevention of abuse were included in…
Snodgrass, Sara E.
Two studies, in late 1988 and early 1990, examined sex-role stereotypes held by northeastern liberal arts college students (N=719) and southern state university college students (N=145). The first study used the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) and compared ratings of men and women with the traditional sex-roles represented by the PAQ in…
Beller, Andrea H.
This study found that occupational sex segregation began to diminish during the 1970s, in conjunction with enforcement of the equal employment opportunity laws against sex discrimination in employment. The success of these laws suggests that discrimination was originally a determinant of occupational segregation. (Author/SK)
Reinhold, Klaus; Engqvist, Leif
Sex differences in the mean trait expression are well documented, not only for traits that are directly associated with reproduction. Less is known about how the variability of traits differs between males and females. In species with sex chromosomes and dosage compensation, the heterogametic sex is expected to show larger trait variability ("sex-chromosome hypothesis"), yet this central prediction, based on fundamental genetic principles, has never been evaluated in detail. Here we show that in species with heterogametic males, male variability in body size is significantly larger than in females, whereas the opposite can be shown for species with heterogametic females. These results support the prediction of the sex-chromosome hypothesis that individuals of the heterogametic sex should be more variable. We argue that the pattern demonstrated here for sex-specific body size variability is likely to apply to any trait and needs to be considered when testing predictions about sex-specific variability and sexual selection. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
... español Preguntas y respuestas sobre sexo Answering their kids' questions about sex is a responsibility that many parents dread. Otherwise ... avoided. Parents can help foster healthy feelings about sex if they answer kids' questions in an age-appropriate way. When do ...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. Curious Sex Ratios and Cytoplasmic Genes Microbes Can Distort the Sex Ratio of Populations. Stephen J Freeland Laurence D Hurst. General Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 68-78 ...
An investigation of sex roles among married and cohabitating couples showed: (1) that male career success, male career precedence, the decision to marry, and conventional allocation of household tasks are all concomitant and (2) that marriage crystallizes sex roles and behaviorally solidifies male career precedence, facilitating the husband's…
Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Giedd, Jay N.
Adolescence is a time of increased divergence between males and females in physical characteristics, behavior, and risk for psychopathology. Here we will review data regarding sex differences in brain structure and function during this period of the lifespan. The most consistent sex difference in brain morphometry is the 9-12% larger brain size…